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Global Leadership Study Reveals Digital, Gender, Generational and Skills Shifts

PRSA International Conference Philadelphia, PA (October 28, 2013) October 25, 2013

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Presenters §  Bruce Berger, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, University of Alabama §  Keith Burton, Partner, Brunswick Group §  Gary McCormick, APR & Fellow PRSA, HGTV §  Prof. Maria Russell, APR & Fellow PRSA, Syracuse University

October 25, 2013

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Agenda §  Betsy Plank and leadership (Gary) §  Study overview and demographics (Bruce) §  The top 10 issues (Gary) §  Generational variations (Keith) §  Development of future leaders (Maria) §  Gender perspectives (Maria & Gary) §  Leadership model and index (Bruce) §  Discussion (Keith)

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The Plank Center For Leadership in PR u 

Created in 2005 by UA Trustees

u 

Named for Betsy Plank (1924-2010)

u 

Led by national board of 24 execs & educators

u 

Mission carried out through: Awards programs and scholarships Video interviews with leaders Webinars for educators, students Platform online magazine Educator summer fellowships Annual mentorship banquet & awards Leadership research

Mission: Help develop and recognize excellent PR leaders and role models in practice and the classroom, and bridge the gap between education and practice.

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Why is leadership important? Because leaders… u Make important decisions u Shape organizational culture u Affect communication climate u Represent the “face” of the organization u Influence employee attitudes and perceptions

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Employee perceptions & leadership

Formal Media 15%

Leadership 55%

Job/Work Processes 30%

Jim Shaffer, 2001

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Global Study of Leadership in Public Relations and Communication Management

Study Overview and Demographics October 25, 2013

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The big picture u 

What are the key issues in the field?

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How are they managed?

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How do they affect leadership roles and practices?

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How can we better develop future leaders?

u 

What can we learn from culturally diverse professionals?

Note: We researched answers to these questions with 1) an online survey of practitioners and 2) depth interviews with 137 leaders. October 25, 2013

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Scope of the Global Study November 2011 – July 2012

8

9

23

Large Economies

Languages

Countries

28 Researchers

4,484 Participants

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Participants by Global Regions

488 Asia Chinese-speaking countries, India, S. Korea

1% Other

672 Latin America Brazil, Chile, Mexico

827 U.S. 2,477 Europe German-speaking countries, Latvia/Estonia, Russia, Spain, U.K. October 25, 2013

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Basic Demographics (4,484) Gender

48.3%

51.7% Note: The gender mix varied greatly among countries, ranging from +70% female in Brazil, Russia and Latvia/Estonia, to 43-48% female in Germany, U.K. and U.S.

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Basic Demographics Age > 55 years

46-55 years

36-45 years

< 36 years 0%

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5%

10%

15%

20%

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25%

30%

35%

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Basic Demographics Education

Major Study Area Humanities PR, Corp/Strategic Comm Journalism Business Comm/Media Studies Social Sciences Advertising, Marketing Others

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16.5% 16.4% 12.1% 12.0% 11.0% 9.1% 5.6% 17.3% The Plank Center

50% MA/MS

30% BA/BS

9% Ph.D.

7% Other

4% High School 13


Basic Demographics Type Organization

Public company

20% 21%

Private/state run

24%

Nonprofit Agency

23%

Self-employed, other

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12%

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Basic Demographics Years experience & work unit size Years Experience

< 11 years 35.3%

11-20 years

> 20 years

39.5%

25.1%

Work Unit Size (number of professionals)

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<5

5-15

37.8%

35.8%

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16-25 > 25 8.6%

17.7%

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Basic Demographics Reporting Level

Top Leaders

Level 1

39.7%

34.4%

Levels 2-5 25.9% October 25, 2013

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Integrated Model Of excellent leadership in PR Model Self attributes Self-dynamics Organizational Structure and Culture

Shared vision Team Collaboration Ethical Orientation Relationship Building

Excellent Leadership in PR

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Strategic DecisionMaking Capability

Internal Relations External Relations

Communication Knowledge MGT

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Global Study of Leadership in Public Relations and Communication Management

The Top 10 Issues in the Field

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10 Big Issues in the Field (1-7 scale) The Top 3

Speed and volume of information flow

5.88 Dealing with crises

5.76 5.75

Digital revolution, rise of SM

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10 Big Issues in the Field 1.  Speed and volume of information flow (5.88) 2.  Dealing with crises (5.76) 3.  Digital revolution, rise of SM (5.75)

5.49 5.49 5.34 5.25 October 25, 2013

Employee engagement

Measurement of communication effectiveness

Demands for transparency

Finding, retaining top talent

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10 Big Issues in the Field 1.  2.  3.  4.  5.  6.  7. 

Speed and volume of information flow (5.88) Dealing with crises (5.76) Digital revolution, rise of SM (5.75) Employee engagement (5.49) Measurement of communication effectiveness (5.49) Demands for transparency (5.34) Finding, retaining top talent (5.25)

5.10 4.83 4.47 October 25, 2013

Corporate social responsibility Communicating in diverse cultures

Image of PR profession

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The Most Important Issue

23.1%

Speed and volume of information flow

n= 1,029

15.3%

Digital revolution

n= 684

12.2%

Measurement of communication

n= 547

11.9%

Dealing with crises

n= 532

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The Most Important Issue Transparency

8.4% n= 375

Employee engagement

7.9% n= 354

Finding, retaining top talent

7.5% n= 337

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The Most Important Issue Corporate social responsibility

6.1% n= 274

Diverse cultures

5.3% n= 239

Professional image

2.5% n= 112

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Some Demographics of Issues By Country/Region

Finding Talent China, India and Russia ranked this as most important #1 or #2 issue.

Measurement

Brazil, Chile, India, Mexico, South Korea and UK ranked this as most important #1 or #2 issue.

Transparency Brazil, Chile and South Korea rated it highest; Germany, Russia and UK the lowest.

CSR

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India, Spain, UK and US gave it the lowest ratings; Latin American countries rated it highest.

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The digital revolution transforms practice and leaders worldwide, but itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s not the only big issue.

Theme October 25, 2013

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Global Study of Leadership in Public Relations and Communication Management

Generational Variations October 25, 2013

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Workplaces today are multigenerational

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This means differing values, characteristics Veterans

Boomers

Gen X

Millennials

patriotic dependable conformist respectful rigid work ethic conservative

workaholic idealistic competitive loyal materialistic values titles self-fulfillment

self-reliant adaptable cynical distrusting resourceful entrepreneurial tech-savvy

entitled optimistic impatient team oriented work-life balance multitasking close to parents

Ron Alsop, The Trophy Kids Grow Up, 2008

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Our study confirms some differences < 36 age group in the global study: §  Rated speed of info flow and digital revolution lower than older age groups §  Rated measurement and PR image significantly higher than other age groups. §  Gave highest ratings to 3 leadership dimensions: --communication skills/knowledge --vision for communication --supportive organizational culture and structure

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Our study confirms some differences < 36 age group in the global study: §  Gave significantly higher ratings than other age groups to 9 of 12 development approaches, especially: --require accreditation --improve measurement skills --associations work together to improve leadership --manage stress.

§  Expressed most optimism about future of PR. §  Gave significantly lower scores to preference for working for a male boss.

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But the biggest headline is

leadership and culture for communication Three survey statements reflect factors in a culture for communication: •  The highest ranking PR professional in my organization is an excellent leader. •  My organization encourages and practices 2-way communication. •  The CEO or top executive in my organization understands the value of PR.

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Overall results are disappointing… Modest ratings of leaders and culture: Ø  The highest ranking PR professional in my organization is an excellent leader.

4.66

Ø  My organization encourages and practices

4.67

two-way communication. Ø  The CEO or top executive in my organization understands the value of PR.

5.16

Note: Participants were asked to what extent they agreed with each statement. 1 = very little extent, 7 = a great extent.

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Younger, lower-level practitioners were most critical Hierarchy

PR leader performance

2-way comm.

CEO values PR

PR leaders

5.32

5.05

5.41

1-level below leader

4.28

4.48

5.11

2-5 levels below leader

4.14

4.35

4.86

Note: Participants were asked to what extent they agreed with each statement. 1 = very little extent, 7 = a great extent. All differences were significant: p<.01. October 25, 2013

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The future of PR is all about me, me, me! Anonymous Millennial

Theme October 25, 2013

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Global Study of Leadership in Public Relations and Communication Management

Developing Future Leadersâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;12 Approaches October 25, 2013

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3

people skills were rated most important (1-7 scale)

1. Strengthen change management skills and capabilities 2. Improve the listening skills of professionals 3. Enhance conflict management skills

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5.67

5.51

5.51

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other approaches were important: 4. Develop better measures to document value

5.34

5. Strengthen the business component of education 6. Increase cultural understanding and sensitivity 7. Enhance skills to cope with stress

5.10

5.06

8. Enhance the emotional intelligence of professionals

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5.26

5.05

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4

other approaches were much less important:

9. Impose tough penalties on ethical violators

4.51

10. Urge associations to work together to develop leaders 11. Develop a global education curriculum

4.24

12. Require professional accreditation or licensing

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4.37

3.90

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Factor analysis yielded two factors Factor 1:

Self-Development Approaches •  •  •  •  •  • 

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Improve listening skills Enhance emotional intelligence Enhance conflict management skills Increase cultural understanding, sensitivity Strengthen change management skills Enhance skills to cope with stress

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Factor analysis yielded two factors Factor 2:

Systemic Development Approaches •  •  •  •  •  • 

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Require accreditation, licensing Develop a global education curriculum Penalize ethical violators Develop better measures Strengthen business education Urge associations to work together to develop leaders

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Preparing leaders for the future means focusing on 1. Software or soft skills of people •  Increase reflection and self insights •  Improve interpersonal skills for conflict, change management •  Create greater awareness of others, cultures

2. Hardware or professional and educational structures •  Improve measurement skills and standards •  Bring ethical codes to life •  Increase knowledge of business, global environment

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Soft skills and selfinsights are the Gold Standard for future leaders.

Theme October 25, 2013

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Global Study of Leadership in Public Relations and Communication Management

Gender Perspectives on Leadership October 25, 2013

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Men and women alike… §  Women and men are equally capable leaders (F=6.47, M=6.53 on a 7.0 scale*)

§  I prefer to work for a male boss (F=5.09, M=5.41)

§  I’m positive about the future of PR (F=5.17, M=5.15)

§  I learn more about leadership from role models & mentors than from education or training (F=5.14, M=5.12) *The scale captured the extent to which participants agreed with the statements, where “1” equals “strongly disagree” with, and “7” equals “strongly agree” with.

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Men and women alike… §  Ranked the top 10 issues in more or less the same order §  Gave high ratings to all 7 leadership dimensions and ordered them more or less the same: Highest 2: strategic decision making, comm. knowledge mgmt. Lowest 2: ethical orientation, organizational culture

§  Emphasized the need for soft skills in the future; ranked the 12 approaches in similar order §  Gave similar ratings to issue strategies and tactics

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But profiles are different… Women in the study •  •  •  •  • 

Men in the study

Younger (70% < 45) Less experience (44% < 11 yrs ) Lower levels (33% top leaders) Small teams (60%--5 or fewer) Work for nonprofits, private companies •  Major in public relations (20%), humanities •  60-80% of participants in Brazil, China, Chile, Latvia, Russia

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•  •  •  •  • 

Older (70% > 45) More experience (26% < 11 yrs) Higher levels (45% top leaders) Larger teams (60%--25 or more) Work for agencies, public companies •  Major in business, social sciences, natural sciences •  50-55% of participants in India, South Korea, Germany, UK, US

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And perceptions differ… Professional women in the study §  Rated all 10 issues higher than men—8 significantly higher. (Esp. PR image, measurement and transparency)

§  Rated all 12 development approaches significantly higher. (Esp. emotional IQ, conflict mgmt., listening and stress mgmt.) §  Rated all 7 dimensions of leadership significantly higher. (Esp. vision, ethical orientation and org culture & structure)

§  Rated their interpersonal communication skills significantly lower than men rated them.

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And perceptions differ… Professional men in the study §  Considered themselves to be leaders significantly more often. §  Expressed desire to be a leader significantly more often. §  Preferred to work for a male boss significantly more often. §  Rated the performance of the senior communication leader significantly higher than women. §  Rated CEO’s understanding of value of PR significantly higher. §  Rated the presence of 2-way communication in their organizations significantly higher.

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What’s going on? Are these female-male variations due to: §  Different socialization experiences? §  Different requirements for women vs. men to ascend to communication leadership positions? §  Different visions for the practice of leadership in PR? §  Expectations of women (and men?) that women must “do more” to become leaders, e.g., get more education or training? §  The roles and responsibilities of leadership seem different to women because their journey is more difficult?

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Men and women: Same destination, different journey.

Theme October 25, 2013

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Global Study of Leadership in Public Relations and Communication Management

Leadership Model and Index October 25, 2013

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Integrated Model Of excellent leadership in PR Model Developed and tested this conceptual model: Self attributes Self-dynamics Organizational Structure and Culture

Shared vision Team Collaboration Ethical Orientation Relationship Building

Excellent Leadership in PR

October 25, 2013

Strategic DecisionMaking Capability

Internal Relations External Relations

Communication Knowledge MGT

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Leadership and a Culture for Communication Our organizational statements reflect factors in a culture for communication: •  The highest ranking PR professional in my organization is an excellent leader •  My organization encourages and practices 2-way communication •  The CEO or top executive in my organization understands the value of PR

We summed the mean scores for these statements for each country/region.

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Country/Region

Number

Mean

S.D.

India

129

16.37

3.58

Mexico

172

15.22

4.75

Chinese-speaking countries

131

14.86

4.23

United States

707

14.76

4.50

Latvia/Estonia

125

14.71

3.91

German-speaking countries

1569

14.69

4.03

Spain

186

14.46

4.87

United Kingdom

124

14.32

4.09

Chile

135

13.81

4.43

Russia

194

13.64

4.58

South Korea

204

13.41

2.06

Brazil

255

13.02

4.59

Total: October 25, 2013

3,944

14.50

4.25

Number

Mean

S.D.

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Summated Leadership Index*

*The reliability test (Cronbachâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s alpha) was .66, just below the criterion of .70. Dropping the third statement raised the alpha to .70. We kept it in. The ANOVA test showed a significant F-value: 8.09

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Digital drives, but the transformation enfolds a set of deep changes.

Theme October 25, 2013

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Leaders and our future â&#x20AC;&#x153;The single biggest way to impact an organization is to focus on leadership development. There is almost no limit to the potential of an organization that recruits good people, raises them up as leaders and continually develops them.â&#x20AC;? John C. Maxwell, 2001

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The Sensemakers: Leaders in Public Relations

A global study of leadership in public relations and communication management

Edited by Bruce K. Berger and Juan Meng Spring 2014, Routledge

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The Plank Center For Leadership in Public Relations http://plankcenter.ua.edu/

Thank You

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Global Leadership Study  

The Global Leadership Study reveals digital, gender, generational and skill shifts. Presented at the PRSA International Conference in Phila...

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