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Moving Up to Parking A Tesla Executive Moves to the Parking Industry

An exciting, new revenue stream is at hand:

Introducing AIMS MobilePay. Today’s drivers demand pay-to-park transactions via their smart phones. We listened: By adding AIMS MobilePay (or AMP Park, for short) to our growing suite of reliable and proven, AIMS Parking Management solutions! Compatible with iOS and Android smart phones – or accessed via a desktop – AMP Park lets your customer: Identify available parking spaces in your AIMS Parking Management service area Streamline payments: No need to exit the vehicle, transact with cash, or interact with a parking meter, kiosk, or parking attendant Access their account to set parking session reminders, review transaction history, manage payment methods, and more! Like all AIMS solutions, AMP Park benefits your organization, too! Increased revenue, since mobile payment convenience encourages paid parking Better and more efficient use of your parking-space inventory Improved revenues relative to 3rd party mobile-pay apps To learn more about the advantages of AIMS MobilePay – and how easy it is to migrate your paid-parking system to AIMS – schedule a free, 1-hour demo for your team today at

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Moving Up to Parking

Former Tesla, Coca-Cola executive talks about his jump to the parking and mobility industry and what he sees ahead.


Parking Smarter

The future—and present—of municipal smart parking are looking digital. By Grant Samms


The Future of Fleets

Fleets of self-driving vehicles are about to become the norm. What does that mean for the parking and mobility industry? By Jesse Garcia


Mobility, Management, Movement

IPMI’s Year in Review


Partnering Up

The mutual benefit of public-private partnerships in today’s chaotic mobility space. By Khristian Gutierrez


/ EDITOR’S NOTE DEPARTMENTS 4 ENTRANCE Stacking Successes By David Onorato, CAPP

6 FIVE THINGS Five Things to Read in 2020 8 THE BUSINESS OF PARKING What You Need to Know About SEO By Bill Smith, APR

10 MOBILITY & TECH Bridging the Gap: How Parking Operators and Auto Brands Can Work Together


when I was a kid, and flying cars made a lot of appearances in our crayoned drawings of what the world was going to look like by then. I bet I’m not the only one who stayed up past midnight on New Year’s that year, waiting to see if the lights would go out and systems would crash because of the fabled Y2K bug. And now, 20 years after that, things change so fast we have to scan the headlines every day just to keep up.

By Steve Hernandez

12 ON THE FRONTLINE Everyone’s Entitled to My Opinion By Cindy Campbell

14 THE GREEN STANDARD Five Best Strategies to Maximize a Community’s Parking Capacity By David Taxman, PE

16 PARKING & MOBILITY SPOTLIGHT A Guide to IPMI Sustainability Resources By Rachel Yoka, CAPP, LEED AP BD+C, WELL AP

19 ASK THE EXPERTS 42 IPMI IN ACTION Have a Great Thought? Share It! By Kim Fernandez

43 IN SHORT 46 STATE & REGIONAL SPOTLIGHT Building on its History

My car tells me roads might be icy when I start it up on cold winter mornings. It also tells me when I’m too close to a lane line, when another vehicle is in my blind spot, if a tire is low on pressure (down to which tire and its PSI reading), and even when the car in front of mine starts moving after sitting at a red light (even before the twitchy D.C. driver behind me can lean on the horn). It’s pretty darn smart. But I’m betting it’ll feel outdated in record time compared with when that happened with my previous vehicles. Maybe we’ll really fly soon. This was predicted to be the year we’d see cars driving themselves down the street, and it might just happen. Who knows? Our authors this month look into the future of driving, parking, and how people and things will get around—and not decades from now but very soon. Some of their predictions would have sounded ridiculous just 10 years ago, but I nodded in agreement reading them as we went to design. Things have changed that fast. The new year feels like a great time to contemplate change, including the changes that will directly affect our industry and the way we all do our jobs. Staying up to date may feel overwhelming, but it’s never been easier to get our hands on information. IPMI’s online Resource Library and the Forum are great places to start—look up information and ask questions to make the most of other people’s knowledge and research. Of course, I’m partial to this magazine as a terrific source as well. Happy New Year. May it be filled with success and happiness. As always, I’d love to hear from you—my email address is below. Until next month…

By Casey Jones, CAPP




Stacking Successes


Shawn Conrad, CAE EDITOR




Bonnie Watts, CEM


By David Onorato, CAPP

T WAS MY PLEASURE TO HOST my first official IPMI event, the

Leadership Summit, in my hometown of Pittsburgh, Pa., last October. The event was a huge success from beginning to end. Major General Pete Talleri, USMC, spoke on his unique perspective of leadership through the prism of his time in the Marines.



BonoTom Studio COPY EDITOR

Melanie Padgett Powers For advertising information, contact Bonnie Watts at or 571.699.3011.

Parking & Mobility (ISSN 0896-2324 & USPS 001436) is published monthly by the International Parking & Mobility Institute. 1330 Braddock Place, Suite 350 Alexandria, VA 22314 Phone: 571.699.3011 Fax: 703.566.2267 Email: Website: Postmaster note: Send address label changes promptly to: Parking & Mobility 1330 Braddock Place, Suite 350 Alexandria, VA 22314 Interactive electronic version of Parking & Mobility for members and subscribers only at parking-mobility. org/magazine. Periodical postage paid at Alexandria, Va., and additional mailing offices. Copyright © International Parking & Mobility Institute, 2020. Statements of fact and opinion expressed in articles contained if Parking & Mobility are the sole responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent an official expression of policy or opinion on the part of officers or the members of IPMI. Manuscripts, correspondence, articles, product releases, and all contributed materials are welcomed by Parking & Mobility; however, publication is subject to editing, if deemed necessary to conform to standards of publication. The subscription rate is included in IPMI annual dues. Subscription rate for non-members of IPMI is $120 per year (U.S. currency) in the U.S., Canada, and Mexico. All other countries, $150. Back issues, $10. Parking & Mobility is printed on 10 percent recycled paper and on paper from trees grown specifically for that purpose.

The variety of education sessions took us on a deep dive into industry specific topics, engaging members to share knowledge with their peers. The summit closed out on an enjoyable note with a wonderful social event where attendees had the opportunity to step away and enjoy each other’s company. The events at the Leadership Summit built upon the foundations of activities and networking opportunities offered at this year’s annual IPMI Conference & Expo. By “stacking successes,” IPMI set an example for long-term success that’s applicable to both our personal and professional lives. At the Public Parking Authority of Pittsburgh (PPAP) we established our foundation through the use of technology in our meter operations. PPAP was the first U.S. city to fully install pay-by-plate technology more than eight years ago in 2012. The original install was to replace our antiquated single-space meters and enhance the end user’s experience. The leap into technology was a resounding success! PPAP used this as a catalyst, add-


ing license-plate recognition readers to enhance enforcement and a phone app to provide mobile payment convenience. PPAP continues to look forward. Currently, our vision is for a significant upgrade to our multi-space meters to color touchscreens to improve user friendliness at the meter. Stacking successes is the goal we should strive for in our personal and professional lives. A strong foundation will enable you to reach your established milestones and goals. I will leave you with one last thought that was driven home to me from a respected basketball coach. He would say, “During the off-season you can improve upon your skills or sit idle and regress.” In other words, success is one achievement, but excellence is a habit. ◆ DAVID ONORATO, CAPP, is executive director of the Public Parking Authority of Pittsburgh and chair of IPMI’s Board of Directors. He can be reached at donorato@pittsburghparking. com.


For subscription changes, contact Tina Altman,

Things to Read in 2020 J.P. Morgan releases its “what’s next” list of recommended experiences and books at the end of every year. The company’s client advisers submitted more than 3,000 contenders at the end of 2019, and a team of experts narrowed it down to five experiences and seven books. Five of those books are especially relevant to parking and mobility professionals; to see the rest of the list, visit


“THE INTELLIGENCE TRAP: WHY SMART PEOPLE MAKE DUMB MISTAKES,” by David Robson. Think you’re the first person to trip up? Hardly. Robson explores the big mistakes of great minds that include Albert Einstein, Thomas Edison, and even NASA and explores how we can avoid similar gaffes.


“WHAT IT TAKES: LESSONS IN THE PURSUIT OF EXCELLENCE,” by Stephen A. Schwarzman. Feast your brain on the lessons and stories of success from Schwarzman, founder and CEO of investment firm Blackstone. Risk-taking and the pursuit of excellence take centerstage in this inspiring tome about making an impact on the world (yes, you).



“MAKE, THINK, IMAGINE: ENGINEERING THE FUTURE OF CIVILIZATION,” by John Browne. Change—especially fast change—is good, Browne writes. It’ll help us move toward a brighter future, one that will lift more people than ever and allow them to enjoy prosperity and freedom. The big theme is that change is good and the desire for it can help overcome large challenges. “BREAKING GROUND: ARCHITECTURE BY WOMEN,” by Jane Hall. This impressive volume celebrates the architectural achievements of women and how they’ve changed cities for the better, even when most of us had no idea who was behind them. Hall shows off the talent and designs of these pioneering women.

“HOP, SKIP, GO: HOW THE MOBILITY REVOLUTION IS TRANSFORMING OUR LIVES,” by John Rossant and Stephen Baker. Transportation, the authors say, has always focused on three things: time, space, and money. And these things will continue to play pivotal roles in mobility and how we embrace new ways of getting around. Looking at the companies playing big parts in the revolution, the authors explore how changes will affect cities, societies, the environment, and individuals.





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What You Need to Know About SEO By Bill Smith, APR



means for your organization? When it comes to getting the most out of your website, SEO is the name of the game. SEO is the practice of increasing the quantity and quality of traffic to your website through organic search engine results—in other words, getting the right people to your site and as many of those right people as possible without paying for ads. catch the eye of Waze, Google Maps, and other search engines. Those markers are keywords designed to correspond with what your customers are looking for. “So, if you own a garage near Faneuil Hall in Boston, you need your keywords to reflect the location and parker amenities that your customers are looking for,” Tennant says. “For garages trying to maximize long-term parking deals, this SEO can be particularly useful. In large cities, buyers are constantly searching for safe and affordable places to park their vehicles long term.”

Online Search

Using Keywords

“Take, for instance, a parking garage,” Tennant says. “When drivers are cruising through town looking for a parking space, you want your garage to pop up first when they are searching via Google, Waze, or Google Maps.” Owners and operators may assume their facility will show up at the top of the list if a driver is close by. But Tennant says that’s not necessarily the case. You need to let the search engines know about your facility, and you need to make sure you have the right markers to

The same goes for business-to-business SEO. If you’re a parking technology company, for instance, you want your website to show up at the top of searches parking owners may conduct for your particular type of technology. So, when you are creating content for your site you need to focus on working those keywords into your content or onto your URL. For instance, if you sell parking guidance technology, your keywords may include terms such as “customer convenience,” “effective parking management,” or “maximize occupancy.”


I spoke with Nate Tennant, founder of Kirk Communications, about SEO and what parking organizations can do to make their websites more effective. “SEO is about how high up in the search you wind up organically,” Tennant says. “An effective SEO strategy will drive more of the people you want to reach directly to your site.” Tennant says SEO strategy is essential to any parking organization that relies on its website to reach key audiences. And it’s equally important for retail and business-to-business marketing.


If you’re a parking technology company, for instance, you want your website to show up at the top of searches parking owners may conduct for your particular type of technology. So, when you are creating content for your site you need to focus on working those keywords into your content or onto your URL.

Likewise, a PARCS provider may focus on terms such as “improve the customer experience,” “improved security,” or “increased profitability.”


Content, Content, Content Content isn’t just about keywords, though. You want your site to be interesting and useful to ensure that people stay there once they’ve found it. The position where you show up on the search page is based on two considerations: how many people visit and how long they stay. If you can get eyeballs onto your site and keep them there, your site will rise to the top of the search page. Of course, content is just part of the story. When you’re developing an SEO program it’s advisable to have your plan designed and implemented by an experienced SEO professional. The various search engines have specific collars that they scan, and an SEO specialist will be able to submit notifications through

the various channels that the search engines have established to stay up to date. “An effective strategy requires precise structure, coding, and back-links, Tennant says. “These elements should be handled by a professional.” Finally, Tennant suggests that your SEO strategy should work hand-in-hand with the other elements of your marketing program. He says that your public relations, social media, e-marketing, and other marketing programs should be designed to get people to your site. “That will drive ‘bluebirds’—people who are looking specifically for what you are selling,” Tennant says. ◆ BILL SMITH, APR, is principal of SmithPhillips Strategic Communications and contributing editor of Parking & Mobility. He can be reached at bsmith@smith-phillips. com or 603.491.4280.



Bridging the Gap: How Parking Operators and Auto Brands Can Work Together By Steve Hernandez



ports, private operators, etc.) and auto manufacturers, in terms of understanding how current and future connected cars will interact with today’s parking infrastructure. While there are a number of factors that contribute to this chasm, one of the more important factors affecting the parking industry is the deployment timeline for in-vehicle connected services as they relate to parking. Based on stated production programs, the proportion of connected cars in North America currently stands at 50 percent, with only a small percentage of vehicles featuring parking-related content embedded within the vehicle. However, the number of connected vehicles hitting the roadway is projected to grow significantly year-over-year over the next five years. By the end of 2024, the connected vehicle market penetration will approach 95 percent of all passenger vehicles sold, with embedded parking content expected to exceed 50 percent.

driver’s behalf. More than half (54 percent) of respondents said they would like their car’s navigation system to automatically guide them to locations where parking is likely to be available and close to their destination. A similar number (51 percent) said they would like their navigation system to make personalized parking recommendations. This is no surprise considering there is a long tail of criteria other than price or distance that have high importance for individual drivers, including height restrictions, availability of parking for the disabled, and electric-vehicle (EV) charging.


Maximizing Opportunity

Despite the anticipated growth of connected vehicles, it is understandably challenging for parking operators to prepare for a new type of driving and parking experience that is still being developed by the multinational, multi-billion-dollar automotive manufacturers. One thing for certain, however, is that manufacturers are investing millions of dollars in connected services, and parking is a key feature the auto manufacturers seek to leverage to improve driver engagement and experience. As these services come online, it is important for the parking industry to understand what can be done today within your operations to support a connected car’s ability to search for, navigate to, and pay for parking. Our company recently conducted research on driver future wants and needs as they relate to parking and the level of decision-making the car can do on the

With so much anticipated control being handed over to the car, it is essential that parking operators develop a plan to maximize the opportunity to support connected vehicles and their drivers. This can be achieved in three ways: Democratizing data. Consumers require reliable and accurate information, including details around location, pricing, facilities that have EV charging points, likely availability, and more. The car manufacturers are already integrating with other companies to make this data available to drivers in the car. By taking the necessary steps to digitize your static and dynamic location data, you will be well-positioned to share your content to millions of drivers using embedded navigation systems, mobile applications, and parking-location data aggregators.



By the end of 2024, the connected vehicle market penetration will approach 95 percent of all passenger vehicles sold, with embedded parking content expected to exceed 50 percent.

Multi-credential support. With the parking industry being unlikely to standardize, it is safe to assume that the automotive companies are looking at several different ways for vehicles and drivers to actuate a gate. This can include supporting embedded vehicle credentials such as license plates, Bluetooth technologies, and radio-frequency identification. Other credentials may be embedded within the automotive manufacturer’s mobile companion application (such as MercedesMe); these credentials include quick response and barcode support as well as Bluetooth. As we look ahead, if a parking location requires the use of gate arms to control access, operators need to consider the greatest flexibility to interact with the connected vehicle network and ensure a frictionless parking experience. Open transactions: Automotive manufacturers want to provide drivers with a ubiquitous transaction experience, through a single parking application within the vehicle ecosystem. These manufacturers do not

More than half (54 percent) of respondents said they would like their car’s navigation system to automatically guide them to locations where parking is likely to be available and close to their destination.

have the desire or bandwidth to manage integrations with dozens of payment service providers on a global or regional scale. As parking and mobility professionals, we need to be conscious of the fact that a multi-billion dollar industry intends to alter the way drivers search for, navigate to, and pay for parking. This will inevitably change the way we manage our operations as well as how we select technologies that will ensure the best experience possible. Those parking operators who maintain an open mind as to how connected vehicles will influence parking behavior and prepare accordingly will be best positioned to drive customers to their properties. ◆ STEVE HERNANDEZ is vice president of parking, North America, with Parkopedia. He can be reached at



Everyone’s Entitled to My Opinion By Cindy Campbell


T’S BEEN MY OBSERVATION that today’s social media feeds are rife with disrespect-

ful and over-the-top, rude commentary. There is a subset of the posting public that feels every day is open season to blast others who don’t share their particular view on a topic. When it comes to opinions, the line sometimes blurs between fact and personal viewpoint.

It can feel intimidating to speak up, especially if your perspective differs from that of your supervisor or the popular point of view.

This intolerant behavior among humans isn’t exclusively an online phenomenon. At work, we encounter outspoken, disrespectful individuals throughout our day—and it’s not always angry customers. Like most of us, you may have experienced this with someone who is supposed to be on your side: a co-worker, subordinate, or supervisor. Regardless of where you’ve encountered it, a consistent lack of civility within a team can be exhausting. While we cannot control the thoughts and outrageous opinions of others, we’re able to control our reaction to these opinionated, emotional outbursts.

Differing Perspectives Think about your current team of co-workers. Everyone grew up in different situations, so understandably their perspectives, beliefs, styles, and approach 12 PARKING & MOBILITY / JANUARY 2020 / PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG

to problem-solving may differ dramatically from yours. Admit it: Do you ever daydream about how awesome it would be if everyone on your team could just see things from one common perspective? Wouldn’t that be ideal? While we may believe that everyone sharing the same viewpoint on an issue would be a good thing, it may not always be as helpful as it sounds. Diversity of opinion within a team gives us the benefit of adaptability. It allows us the ability to offer a wider variety of perspectives and options when we’re problem-solving, and in parking and mobility, we’re always problem-solving. As an example, there may be a group discussion where you have valuable input that needs to be considered. It can feel intimidating to speak up, especially if your perspective differs from that of your supervisor or the popular point of view. This is exactly the time in which your differing perspective should be shared and considered. In concept, every member of the team has something to share from their unique perspective; are we delivering our message in a way that allows others to hear us? Wanting our message to be heard and genuinely considered by others requires us to share our thoughts in a positive way. If our tone is negative or perceived as disrespectful of others, no one will hear us no matter how brilliant our message might be.

As a team, we become more adaptable when we can open our minds to the opinions of others. Individually, when we can fixate less on our own opinions and more on the perspectives and experiences of others, we have the potential of becoming a more productive team. Promoting opinion diversity doesn’t imply blind agreement with every idea introduced within the team. We can (and should) disagree respectfully while recognizing the line between voicing a different perspective and outspoken hostility. There is no requirement that we change our opinion based on the views of another, but learning how to listen to each other without immediately passing judgment—or worse, projecting intolerance—is essential to our success, both personally and collectively. There is almost always something to be learned by actively listening to differing perspectives.

Choose Your Attitude While sometimes challenging, our differences benefit us as a team and as individuals. The reality is that while we cannot change the behavior of others, we each have the ability to decide how we allow their bad attitudes to affect us. As you interact with others, try to keep in mind that facts can be subjective. It may not feel like it, but so often, the hostility and disrespect we encounter from others has nothing at all to do with us. The trick is remembering to choose an attitude and response that appropriately and professionally represents you. How much weight and authority we give others is a choice. ◆ CINDY CAMPBELL is IPMI’s senior training and development specialist. She is available for onsite training and professional development and can be reached at

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Five Best Strategies to Maximize a Community’s Parking Capacity By David Taxman, PE



100 square feet? How about a bedroom? A recent study showed that there are around 1.6 million parking spaces in both Seattle, Wash., and Des Moines, Iowa, which equates to five spaces per household in Seattle and 19.4 spaces per household in Des Moines. The amount of space required for parking adds up, causing sprawl and traffic and not helping the housing affordability crisis in cities. It is environmentally and financially sustainable to try to maximize parking capacity. There are five great strategies a community or institution can implement to get the most out of its parking resources by spreading demand evenly across the system, promoting alternative modes of transportation, eliminating the perception of a lack of parking, and maximizing pri-

There are five great strategies a community or institution can implement to get the most out of their parking resources by spreading demand evenly across the system, promoting alternative modes of transportation, eliminating the perception of a lack of parking, and maximizing private parking capacity.


vate parking capacity. These strategies are: 1. Shared parking agreements. 2. Transportation demand management (TDM) strategies. 3. Paid parking. 4. Limit reserved parking areas. 5. Parking availability system.


Shared Parking Agreements

Shared parking agreements can be the most effective strategy to unlock underutilized private parking assets. A shared parking agreement can be between two private entities or between a municipality and a private entity. Many times, people look at the factors that make a shared parking agreement difficult to negotiate, such as who is responsible for insurance, indemnification, maintenance/operation, enforcement/security, etc. However, all these issues can typically be negotiated if there is enough incentive for both parties. To support the sharing of parking between two private entities a community should allow shared parking agreements in its zoning code to receive a parking variance. Communities can also help facilitate these agreements by providing sample shared parking agreements and information regarding potential complementary businesses with surplus parking.


TDM Strategies

TDM strategies help promote alternative modes of transportation and reduce parking demand. They include both infrastructure improvements and policy changes. Pedestrian improvements (lighting, sidewalks, landscaping, etc.), downtown transit/trolley circulators, on-demand transportation, and the implementation of bike-share or e-scooter services promote a park-once mentality. There are a variety of TDM strategies that can be applied by large employers, including parking cash-out, transit subsidies, car-share programs, and improved pedestrian/bicycling infrastructure. As an incentive, a community should offer parking variances to employers or developers that implement TDM strategies.


Paid Parking

Paid parking is the best strategy to help spread demand more evenly across the system and push people to park in the appropriate and less utilized areas. It is the best way to adjust people’s parking habits, whether parking in private parking versus public parking or using less utilized areas. As most people in the parking industry know, demand-based pricing can be implemented to incentivize people to park off-street or in less convenient locations.

­ emand-based pricing spreads vehicles more evenly D across the system to try and achieve that infamous 85 percent occupied sweet spot. Having a greater on-street parking rate than off-street parking helps reduce traffic from people cruising around looking for that last on-street space.


Limit Reserved Parking Areas

There are a variety of parking policies and services a community can implement to maximize the capacity of its public parking system, but probably the most effective strategy is limiting reserved parking areas and allowing shared parking of municipally owned parking facilities. Downtowns typically have a wealth of municipally owned parking that is only available to employees. Unlocking the parking capacity of municipally owned (i.e., city, county, etc.) parking facilities can be a great benefit to communities. If municipally owned parking is reserved during business hours, it should be made available to the public during evenings and weekends.


Parking Availability System

To determine the maximum oversell factor for parking permits it potentially requires the implementation of a parking counting system to effectively track utilization. A real-time parking counting and guidance system, parking availability mobile app, and good wayfinding signage can also help eliminate the perception of a lack of parking, which is half the time the problem. Obviously, each community is unique, and this list of strategies to maximize parking capacity needs to be properly tailored. However, this list is a great place to start in assessing if your community is taking full advantage of its parking resources. If we want communities to be more environmentally friendly and financially sustainable, it is essential that we identify and implement strategies to maximize the capacity of our parking systems. ◆ DAVID TAXMAN, PE, is a parking and traffic engineer project manager at KimleyHorn and a member of IPMI’s Sustainability Committee. He can be reached at david.



A Guide to IPMI Sustainability Resources By Rachel Yoka, CAPP, LEED AP BD+C, WELL AP



portation, and mobility industry, as in the rest of the world. IPMI has been a leader in our community, providing both thought leadership, regular content, and signature resources to both educate and advance our industry. Here are some of the key resources available that dive into these topics.

IPMI’s Sustainability Framework This cornerstone document identifies several goals that are organized into three primary categories: Knowledge and Research; Programs and Operations; and Planning, Design, and Construction. Search “framework” in the Resource Library of to download the latest. Key Takeaways: IPMI develops both resources and content in line with our framework on the following principles:


■  Gather

data, conduct research, and document case studies to create a body of knowledge about best practices in parking, transportation, and mobility. ■  Identify innovative technologies that support sustainability goals. ■  Increase education, awareness, and information-sharing to disseminate the gained knowledge widely throughout the profession. ■  Prioritize transportation demand management (TDM), access, and mobility management programs that decrease single-occupancy–vehicle trips and vehicle miles traveled. ■  Decrease reliance on fossil fuels by increasing

­ nergy efficiency, using alternative fuels, or generate ing renewable energy as part of daily operations. ■  Protect water quality by reducing potable water use, using biodegradable cleaning products, and implementing stormwater control practices. ■  Promote practices in planning, design, and construction of parking facilities that reduce the longterm environmental effects of land-use decisions. ■  Encourage alternative energy sources and ­energy-saving technology, reduce reliance on fossil fuels, and accommodate alternative-fuel vehicles. ■  Make informed decisions based on long-term environmental effects related to material and technology selection, including effective natural resource management and waste reduction.

A Guide to Parking A Guide to Parking, available on, provides information on the current state of the industry, providing professionals and students with an overview of major areas of the parking, transportation, and mobility industry, punctuated by brief program examples. More than 30 subject matter experts and many of our dedicated volunteers contributed chapters on their specific area of expertise for a comprehensive volume, which includes chapters on both sustainability and TDM. Key Takeaway: This textbook serves as an essential resource for industry professionals, defining key concepts as well as the baseline to establishing more sustainable operations.

Sustainable Parking Design & Management Sustainable Parking Design & Management: A Practitioner’s Handbook, also available on, is the parking industry’s first reference book on sustainability. The parking industry has a tremendous role to play in sustainability, and this handbook will guide parking professionals in their green initiatives. Key Takeaway: This essential reference tackles sustainability as it relates to our industry specifically, addressing key operational concerns. Sustainability isn’t just related to our buildings; it addresses every stage of operations from planning through execution.

Magazine Dedicated to Sustainability Topics and Green Standard Columns Check out our magazine online—it dives into relevant topics that include: ■  Annual case studies that feature highlighting progressive projects, programs, and operations. ■  Greening the environment through LEED and Parksmart. ■  Columns on Vision Zero and bike-share. ■  An autonomous future. ■  Planning for the short term. ■  Spotlight on the U.S. Green Building Council’s (USGBC’s) Greenbuild and IPMI’s strategic partnership. ■  Global green infrastructure and our industry’s role. Parking & Mobility magazine features the monthly Green Standard column devoted to sharing best practices, new programs, and innovative tech that impacts sustainable planning, design, and operations. These columns showcase issues and trends, including: ■  Planning for sustainability gains. ■  First- and last-mile options. ■  Micro-mobility. ■  Lighting and ventilation technology. ■  Optimizing assets for long-term sustainability. Key Takeaway: Stay in touch with trends and tech affecting the industry every month—share the issue digitally with your entire team.

Additional Highlighted Resources: At-a-Glance Series Green vs. Greenwashed: A Reference for the Parking Industry and Fundamentals of Transportation Demand Management offer a convenient snapshot on these topics for industry professionals. Annual Earth Day Blog Series Our IPMI Sustainability Committee and contributing bloggers share these topics with the industry both as a feature for Earth Day as well as on a regular basis. Recent topics include: ■  Opening Up a Whole New Frontier: Storytelling for Sustainability. ■  Preparing for a Connected, Autonomous Future. PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG / JANUARY 2020 / PARKING & MOBILITY 17

■  University

Offers Free Bike Valet Parking, Lights, on Game Days. ■  A Great Way to Parksmart. ■  Going Green? Swap the Lights. Parksmart Parksmart is the world’s only certification system designed to advance sustainable mobility through smarter parking structure design and operation. IPMI maintains a critical education and strategic partnership with the USGBC to foster and advance the certification program, as well as LEED.

Professional Development Parksmart Advisor Training Parksmart Advisors lead clients through the certification process for sustainable parking structures. The Parksmart program is offered by the USGBC/GBCI alongside the suite of LEED and other sustainability rating systems. IPMI is the USGBC Education Partner, providing the education required to earn this valuable certificate. Parksmart Advisor training is offered as an instructor-led online class: ■  January 2020: Jan. 14, Jan. 16, Jan 21, and Jan 23; 2–3:30 p.m. E.T. ■  April 2020: April 21, April 23, April 28, and April 30; 11 a.m.–12:30 p.m. E.T. ■  August 2020; Aug. 4, Aug 6, Aug 11, and Aug 13; 3–4:30 p.m. E.T. ■  October 2020; Oct. 13, Oct. 15, Oct 20, and Oct. 22; 11 a.m–12:30 p.m. E.T.

APO Sustainability Online Courses IPMI offers a number of wide-ranging online courses to educate industry professionals. These are offered in different formats and offer both CAPP and GBCI credits: ■  Environmental Sustainability, Wellness, Third Party Certifications and Parking (1 hour) ■  Greening Communities Through Parking (1 hour) ■  Parking and Sustainability; Innovations and Case Studies (1 hour) ■  Parksmart: An Introduction to Certifying Parking Structures (1.5 hours) ■  Parksmart Sustainability Solution Series 1: Parking Pricing, Recycling, and More (1 hour) ■  Parksmart Sustainability Solution Series 2: Sus18 PARKING & MOBILITY / JANUARY 2020 / PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG

tainable Purchasing through Cleaning Procedures (1 hour) ■  Sustainable Mobility Is Changing the Parking Industry (1 hour) ■  Sustainability in Parking and Transportation (2 hours) ■  Transportation Demand Management: Parking Strategies (1 hour) Webinar Offerings IPMI webinars provide parking, mobility, and transportation-specific education and training to large numbers of registrants and attendees right at their desktop. On-demand webinars in relevant topics include: ■  Adaptive Reuse—The Next Generation of Parking Facilities ■  Connected Vehicles: Understanding the Revolution ■  Introduction to Parksmart ■  Potential Impacts of City-level Parking Cash-out and Transit Benefit Ordinances ■  Micro-mobility - Campus Cruzin’: Everything You Need to Know to Operate a Successful Scooter and University Partnership ■  Multimodal Operations: How to Cater Excellent Customer Experience on a Multi-building Property by Maximizing Shuttle Routes ■  Shared Mobility and Technologies’ Effects on Parking Design and Curbside Management

Create Long-term Takeaway Value for Your Organization IPMI’s investment in each of these strategic initiatives, trainings, and resources can benefit your organization—but only if you take some first, or next, steps. Here are some ways to get started: 1. Download the framework and see how your organization fits with these strategies and principles. 2. Select two to three key resources and distribute them to your team and colleagues for recommended reading (or training). 3. Let us know how we can support your sustainability efforts—contact me to share additional ideas for future topics and resources to help you and your team. ◆ RACHEL YOKA, CAPP, LEED AP BD+C, WELL AP, is IPMI’s vice president of program development. She can be reached at yoka@



EXPERTS If you could make a New Year’s resolution for five-years-ago-you, what would it be?

Kelsey Owens Director of Municipal Sales Passport Five years ago, I was just starting my career in parking and looking back, it’s been a wild ride! I would go back and make my New Year’s resolution to network, network, network. The parking community is such a tight-knit group that’d I’d go back in time and make as many connections as possible!

Debbie Hoffmann, CAPP

Casey Jones, CAPP

Barbara Chance, PhD

Thomas Hohenacker

Director, Transportation Services Texas A&M University

Senior Parking & Mobility Planner DESMAN

President and CEO CHANCE Management Advisors, Inc.

CEO Cleverciti

At every opportunity with planners, developers and parking professionals, initiate dialogue about the importance of integrating multimodal solutions into projects to offset congestion and parking demand. If you build it, they will come!

New Year’s Resolution 2015: This year I’ll start writing a new book entitled, “Performance Management for Parking and Transportation Organizations: Using Metrics to Drive Program Improvement.”

One resolution isn’t enough! I would resolve to be a better listener, a more patient person, and to find something fun in every day.

I would advise myself to focus on working with cities and getting them to recognize the importance of adopting smart parking as soon as possible. It is crucial for cities to reduce traffic and emissions while improving service and revenue; all of these goals are achievable by replacing luck with data in the search for parking.

/ HAVE A QUESTION? Send it to and watch this space for answers from the experts.

The opinions and thoughts expressed by the contributors do not necessarily reflect the opinions and viewpoints of the International Parking & Mobility Institute or official policies of IPMI.


Moving Up



Former Tesla, Coca-Cola executive talks about his jump to the parking and mobility industry and what he sees ahead.



ESLA IS ALMOST ALWAYS NEAR THE TOP OF LISTS OF INNOVATIVE, disruptive companies. How could it not be? Known for its long-range, electric vehicles and increasing strides on autonomy, the company is an undisputed leader in the

innovative-mobility space. So when Neil Golson, head of Tesla’s energy marketing sales and sales operations, North America, announced plans to join FlashParking, which is working to advance parking garages into full-fledged mobility hubs, it raised a few eyebrows—why would you leave Tesla to work in parking? Golson says there are simple answers to that question, and he sat down with Parking & Mobility to talk about it. Some highlights:

friends who had worked for Tesla and Coke about how the scooter companies, and I hate to phrase it this way, but how they were making the problem worse. I started talking to them about the hypothesis that parking assets could be a solution to those problems and their eyes lit up. We completely agreed that this is how it all could work; we could all link together through these networks for folks to solve the same problems. I see it through a consumer marketing What attracted you to work in lens—shaping consumer behavior I’m working to change the parking industry? and building a system that’s easily consumer behavior and I think what attracted me to this adaptable and gives them a single build an infrastructure was first meeting FlashParking’s solution that solves their day and chairman, Dan Sharplin. As we minimizes congestion. that will bring everything were being introduced and getting It’s largely about the infratogether, which is what to know each other and he started structure. A lot of my focus at TesI’ve always done. describing the problems the comla was how people charge their vepany is solving, I felt like I kind of hicles. You build a super charging get parking. It’s not something on the surface that was network and when people are charging at home, you run that exciting to me, but as we got into the challenges off of solar so we’re not building problems. A mobility and these ideas that cities are getting more and more hub offers a space and a very similar way to think about congested as mobility types continue to change not just that challenge. It’s the experience of building a complex from combustion to electric, which I was familiar with, infrastructure and a new platform in the same way that but also transportation network companies like Uber I did for Tesla, and the consumer behavior and consumand Lyft and scooter companies and last-mile logistics er adoption the same way I did for Coca-Cola. and these autonomous rovers and other things coming to the mobility space, the traditional parking garage Do you see this as a career change? that is perfectly located in the middle of the urban core It’s a job change but I don’t feel like it was a career has the opportunity to include all of that for consumchange. I don’t feel like I’m in the parking business ers. They can provide congestion relief and solve comeven in this role. Parking is part of the mobility infraplexities coming to people who are trying to absorb all structure and my role is tasked to build more than that. the services and manage their day and their commutes. I’m working to change consumer behavior and build I could see how those parking assets could be mobility an infrastructure that will bring everything together, hub solutions for all those things. That’s really what which is what I’ve always done. I was doing brand marstarted to attract me. keting for Coke at a time when social media and the Think about all of the opportunities—zoom out Internet were coming of age. Problem-solving for me and think about that parking app that goes beyond just then was how to build a communications infrastrucparking. That gets really exciting. I started talking with ture and harness natural trends in consumer behavior PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG / JANUARY 2020 / PARKING & MOBILITY 21

Mobility hubs, in my mind, are keys to the smart city.

to insert the brand and our product into those decisions and into their moments. At Coke, I was following consumer trends and my role was labeled as marketing, but I spent so much time figuring out the supply chain to connect 37 countries and drive adoption and get pricing right. That’s what I define as marketing—making sure we as a brand and the products are meeting consumers and managing the trends that are around them in their own space and with their own adoption of technology. If you do that successfully, consumers will adapt your technology into their lifestyle. At Tesla, it was about how our technology adapted to their lives. Tesla was first seen as an in-town car but people never thought of that car as something to use to drive from Austin to Houston. That was my challenge: How do we guide this infrastructure and teach people to use it until they’re comfortable that the Tesla electric vehicle can be the summer road-trip car? That was the transition I led and was tasked with. How do we get ahead of consumer trends and build that infrastructure? Parking is certainly a space I need to learn and it’s fascinating. I’ve been here 60 days and my email inbox is full. People are saying they have not only parking


customers but mobility companies coming to them, and they’re coming to me saying they know EVs are happening but how do they do it? How many do they need? What does this look like? And how does this all get organized in a way that it’s integrated into their operation and it’s not just an add-on? That’s the other thing that’s interesting: in the conversations I’m having they’re not looking to add charging because they want it as part of a problem solution. They believe it’s critical to parking in the future. I feel like I joined a mobility technology company. That’s an exciting thing. The mobility hub of the future is starting today. There are so many integrations and thoughts about mobility hubs, and it all starts with the parking validation, which is very established in the industry. If you zoom out and think about what a parking validation is, you start to question how it can be connected to a retail point of sale system so that how much you spend at your target business affects how much of a discount you get on parking while you’re there. Think about how people navigate to go into a Brooklyn Nets game. There will be a mobility structure that navigates them to the best parking depending how they define that term. The mobility hub

has to adapt to what a consumer is looking for to offer When you get to a world of more EVs on the road a customize solution for different needs, so you adverthan combustion engines, and certainly when those tise it not just based on price but on the amenities it’s are autonomous vehicles, they’ll need a place to go offering. If a customer says he doesn’t want to spend and they’re not all going to drive out of the city and go $50 on parking to go to a Nets game, the system says, home. An autonomous ride-share wants to position “Great, we recommend you park in this garage that has itself as close as possible to where the next ride is going scooters that can be pre-reserved and can be checked to happen and an urban garage gives them a place to do in or docked at the venue.” So your mobility hub offers that and plug in and charge, make sure the tire pressure your last-mile transportation and you park farther is adjusted the right way, make sure it’s clean—all the out but spend less money because you’re willing to do things human drivers do today. Think about where that. Then you have the consumer who doesn’t mind they’re going to get those things done. There is a cost paying more but needs to charge his car, or found a to all those cars stopping and staging on the street. And garage that has charging but it’s full. So you have a sys- those are all going to shift into parking assets tem that can get you into another garage and get you There’s a bit of an artificial bubble in the lack of use exactly what you need within an of parking assets you hear about ecosystem of amenities. today because all of these things A lot of this is about A lot of this is about underare underpriced. Cities are wakunderstanding what standing what amenities a coning up. Scooters are being limited sumer needs and what amenities and things are coming together so amenities a consumer a city needs. You don’t need needs and what amenities parking assets will be high capacscooters in Detroit in February ity with vehicles we’re not seeing a city needs. You don’t but you certainly want them all today. Cars today have the capacity need scooters in Detroit in year in San Diego. The same is to refuel and just drive around at no true for EV adoption. For a moFebruary but you certainly incremental cost. That’s going to bility hub in California, having end very quickly. want them all year in charging is a requirement. In You may not be in your vehicle San Diego. Birmingham, Ala., you probably when it goes into and out of the need to start thinking about it garage, but you’re certainly paying but you don’t need to incorporate it today. You’re maxattention to what’s happening while it’s sitting there. imizing your value with your amenities and your price You’re teeing up services like charging, car washing, and and an infrastructure that offers what your market is the human is still designing the day. There’s also a hulooking for. man on the other end who is running the mobility hub. I Mobility hubs, in my mind, are keys to the smart don’t see how that’s a series of robots. You’ve got the Amcity. You have to think about offering a variety of ameazon truck showing up to load up packages into drones nities but also being connected to a larger smart city to and rovers, and someone needs to make sure that works. get congestion off the road. The parking operator is crucial to the future and we’re seeing it today. He or she make sure it all happens in the There’s a lot of talk about adaptive reuse and right way and tracks it all and brings a level of consumer whether you build a parking garage now that can be insight that determines how we maximize what conchanged into something else, or you build a garage sumers are looking for and what we need to invest in. that will be torn down and replaced with something When your car, whether you’re in it or not, gets to else. Do you have a sense of that yet? work that day, an entire system will be sensing to turn I strongly believe that in none of our lifetimes are we on the air conditioning in your office, tell the coffee going to see less of a need for parking. It’s an intervendor downstairs to have your order ready when you esting moment because Uber and Lyft have unpriced walk in the door. All of that starts in the parking garage. their cost to society. They are able to essentially use It remains your first and last touchpoint. Parking opthe street as a parking lot at no cost, and they’re doing erators need to understand how all that works for all it at least 40 percent of the time when they don’t have the humans involved. Their role might look different passengers or they’re on their way to get passengers. but all those moving pieces can’t be automated as this These are existing outside of the parking environment continues to evolve. Parking professionals have to be and regulations allow them to get on the road and on the front side of all these trends making sure they all keep circling. work and listening to people. ◆ PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG / JANUARY 2020 / PARKING & MOBILITY 23


Smarter The future—and present— of municipal smart parking are looking digital. By Grant Samms



HE MUNICIPAL SMART-PARKING MARKET continues to see deployment of both existing technology and disruptive new applications. Although sensor and hardware deployments have continued, primarily in North America and Europe, their rate of installation has slowed. Other forms of hardware (such as cameras for vehicle and license-plate recognition [LPR] and connected meters) are also more common as prices decrease, vehicle ownership increases, and the benefits of smart parking clarify. In developing areas of Latin America, Asia-Pacific, and the Middle East and Africa, smart parking technology is nascent but seeing increased and cost-conscious forms of deployment. The availability of software-based solutions has shifted the landscape of the municipal smartparking market. Fueled by the development of predictive analytics, machine learning, and artificial intelligence (AI), parking analytics are now being provided with surprisingly little physical infrastructure. In some cases, hardware need not even apply.

The Nature of Sensors Is Changing The greatest change in the smart parking landscape is the transition away from large deployments of infrastructure toward ­software-dominated systems. There used to be a consensus that the municipal on-street parking picture would involve lots and lots of little hockey-puck–looking sensors. But from the current perspective, with advanced computer vision cameras, predictive analytics, and the rise of curbside management, this envisioned street embedded with hundreds of little magnetospheres seems unlikely to become commonplace.


In particular, computer vision-aided cameras are becoming a more popular method of smart parking both on- and off-street. Camera detection systems enable the management of parking inventory with far less hardware than other sensor networks. These systems are currently most prominent in parking lots where cameras can be mounted with a high overhead position. For example, Verizon, through its Smart Communities program, has been testing edge-computing-­ enabled camera-based smart parking systems in the U.S. A handful of startups, including Visionful based in San Diego, Calif., are also developing robust computer vision management systems for parking lots. On-street parallel parking is also benefiting from camera-based systems, though their use is complicated by the difficulties of positioning cameras to monitor a sufficient number of spaces. Camera detection for LPR is also seeing increased use for billing, enforcement, security, and customer convenience. Some parking garages in the U.S. and Europe use cameras to allow fricA major enabling factor tionless entry and exit, calculating time of stay based on computer viin this transition away sion reading of a car’s plate numfrom infrastructure- ber and billing electronically. LPR heavy deployments is is being explored as a security the rise of sophisticated measure in Latin America, where vehicle theft is a growing concern. software systems. By using LPR and paired photogThese include the use raphy of drivers, there is hope that of predictive analytics, incidents of theft can be reduced. Similarly, municipal authorities deep learning, AI, across the developing world are and blockchain. using cameras mounted to patrol vehicles to automate parking enforcement through LPR. Governments in the Middle East and Asia-Pacific are making use of these vehicles, which can automate the parking enforcement process with relatively low overhead cost.

The Software Is Coming A major enabling factor in this transition away from infrastructure-heavy deployments is the rise of sophisticated software systems. These include the use of predictive analytics, deep learning, AI, and blockchain. Even in those smart parking systems that rely on installed magnetic or radar sensors, predictive analytics are being used to reduce the amount of necessary hardware. For instance, the San Mateo, Calif.-based Streetline provides machine-learning–enabled, real-time 26 PARKING & MOBILITY / JANUARY 2020 / PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG

parking availability data. This service leverages some in-ground sensors along with cameras and anonymized smartphone data generated by users of Streetline’s Parker app to predict availability. Other predictive systems are aiming to eliminate the need for municipally deployed sensors by crowdsourcing parking data. Streetline is beginning to deploy a version of its parking availability service that only uses smartphone motion and location data along with predictive analytics to relay parking availability. German engineering firm Bosch is working with major vehicle manufacturers on a smart parking system that requires no installed sensors. Through Bosch’s partnerships, connected vehicle data (which is communicated back to manufacturers) are combined with Bosch’s street mapping to communicate parking availability to drivers of that vehicle make. The system is being deployed in some major European and U.S. cities through major auto manufacturers. A number of startups have set their eyes on transforming the parking and mobility space through other innovative uses of software. The Polish startup NaviParking has been developing a technology-­ agnostic AI platform that can standardize parking availability data. This system enables some interesting transactions, such as the possibility of renting parking spaces typically not available to the public. Meanwhile, the Dutch startup Parksen developed the PARQ token, a blockchain-based cryptocurrency. The digital currency can be used to pay parking fees but can also be generated and used in several other ways. Drivers can generate the currency by feeding data into the PARQ app, which guides customers to available parking. Parking operators, along with accepting the token, can also pay for parking hardware and services from venders that will accept it.

Curbside Management and Smart Parking The changing nature of hardware requirements and the rise of software systems are reactions to several drivers in the smart-parking market space. Chiefly, the overhead cost of numerous sensors may be too large a burden for municipal authorities to consider. But the nature of smart parking is also shifting. More cities are reexamining their parking statutes and are looking into more flexible ways to use curb space. Curbside management, or the non-static use of curb space according to time and event, challenges the assumption that delineated, on-street parking will continue to be

commonplace. If delineated spaces are abolished to make room for flexible management, then installing one piece of hardware per space is no longer an effective way to manage on-street inventory. Cameras, on the other hand, can excel at monitoring both delineated spaces and curbside management programs. Because computer vision algorithms can be remotely adjusted, amended, and upgraded, camera systems driven by robust software solutions provide municipalities much greater flexibility as they change the nature of the curb use. Seattle, Wash., is currently exploring these possibilities. Officials have redefined curb space in their strategic planning. No longer will the city prioritize parking and other static uses for their curbs. Instead, Seattle will have flex zones that prioritize various uses at various times depending on the surrounding land use.

and the Middle East as a way to enforce parking regulations in the face of greater vehicle volume. Another example is underway in Penang, Malaysia, where the Penang Island City Council has set the goal of communicating the occupancy status of all 36,000 municipal parking lots to drivers in real time. Typically an enclosed area between the buildings of a block, each lot may hold 10–30 motor vehicles. The City Council’s plan is to install two-way magnetic sensors at the entrance to each lot to communicate occupancy in real time. As opposed to the conventional method of placing a sensor in each delineated space, which (in this case) could total more than a half a million sensors, the City of Penang will transition to a smart parking model for a fraction of the traditional cost.

Smart Parking in the Developing World

Smart parking has a positive future, even with the shifts that are occurring. Navigant Research forecasts that the municipal smart-parking market, which represented $81 million in 2019, will likely total $535 million in 2028 (a compound annual growth rate of 23.3 percent). This growth is expected to be driven primarily in the software facets of the smart-parking market place. While some growth is forecast for the hardware and services facets of the market, the rise of sophisticated machine learning and AI systems—along with advanced methods of data collection—are anticipated to lead the development of smart parking growth for the near to mid future. ◆

While the previously listed trends and use cases represent a shift in the smart parking and smart city landscapes, they are predominantly occurring in the more developed economies of North America and Europe. In developing regions, unique, but nonetheless interesting, trends are emerging in smart parking. Municipalities in the Asia-Pacific region have displayed unique applications of smart parking technology to overcome regional challenges. With large, dense urban areas and a population that is quickly becoming affluent enough to own personal motor vehicles, cities in Asia-Pacific are looking for ways to effectively enforce parking regulation among a much larger volume of drivers than in North America and Europe. It is also common for these authorities to have smaller budgets with which to deploy sensors and cameras. In response, many programs make innovative use of a smaller amount of hardware to lower deployment costs. The use of LPR cameras mounted on patrol cars and handheld LPR units are gaining popularity across Asia-Pacific

Market Forecasts

GRANT SAMMS is a research analyst contributing to Navigant Research’s Energy Cloud and Urban Innovations research services. He can be reached at grant.samms@

Navigant Research’s Smart Parking Systems report (available for purchase) analyzes the evolution of smart parking technology and the smart parking systems market, with a particular focus on on-street parking. The study analyzes drivers for the transformation in parking, including financial, environmental, and economic factors, and assesses approaches to parking in different regions. Global market forecasts of smart parking systems hardware, software, and services extend through 2028.


Future of Fleets


Fleets of self-driving vehicles are about to become the norm. What does that mean for the parking and mobility industry?

By Jesse Garcia



E’LL GIVE YOU A HINT: THEY’RE DRIVERLESS. With the autonomous revolution already underway, we’re looking at how self-driving vehicles will change the fundamentals of the entire transportation industry. When it comes to the future of fleets, we’re revving up for both the challenges and the benefits that will come from automation.


The New Normal Ever since the turn of the 21st century, we’ve been bracing ourselves for change when it comes to our experience with cars—an experience that’s been, for the most part, mechanically consistent since the first automobile hit the market. In the past 10 years, we’ve seen significant disruption in the transportation industry with the rise of new mobility services that are challenging the way we think about getting from place to place. Let’s look at how our experience with cars is shifting in regard to two major axes of change: from exclusive-use to shared-use and from driver-driven to autonomous. ■  Exclusive-use, driver-driven. Currently, 88 percent of Americans own cars. This is the second highest percentage in the world after Italy. Cars have become such a significant part of our economy that people are actually used to owning them despite the financial burdens that come from car ownership, including insurance, parking, maintenance, and repair costs. When we say “exclusive-use,” we mean these owners use their cars for their own needs—whether for their daily commute to work, their next grocery store run, or their annual family road trip. And in all of these instances, the owner is also the driver operating the vehicle. The owner drives, parks, and maintains the vehicle entirely on his own watch and dime. However, with today’s generation prioritizing affordability, convenience, and instant access, consumer sentiment is changing around whether or not car ownership is actually worth it. ■  Shared-use, driver-driven. We’ve seen shared-use models come to life through ride-hailing services such as Uber and Lyft and car-sharing services such as car2go and Turo. In both cases, there’s still a driver operating the vehicle, but the use of the vehicle is shared rather than exclusive. With Uber and Lyft, car owners operate as drivers for passengers looking for rides on-demand. By allowing their personal cars to be the means by which they can offer the service, these drivers are allowing their vehicles to become part of a shared-use network. With car2go, customers can grab any nearby car from the company’s fleet of available vehicles for on-the-go rental. With Turo, independent car owners can actually list their vehicles for other people to rent. These car owners make their vehicles accessible to a larger, shared network. But instead of acting as the driver, they’re letting the customer take the wheel. ■  Exclusive-use, autonomous. Here’s your privately owned, exclusive-use autonomous car conveniently 30 PARKING & MOBILITY / JANUARY 2020 / PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG

parked in your driveway. The difference between this car and the car in your driveway right now? You’re not the driver anymore—you’re the passenger. While this may seem like the dream, we need to face a reality. Although today’s experimental vehicles are modified versions of ordinary cars, the autonomous vehicles of the future won’t need steering wheels or pedals. These vehicles will come in all shapes and sizes, and the most efficient design may prove to be pods capable of carrying eight people. Rather than work everywhere, these pods will initially operate within well-mapped and geographically limited urban areas. To that point: Will the autonomous vehicles of the future really ever be exclusive-use? We’re not sure, but if anyone can make it happen, we’re looking at Tesla. ■  Shared-use, autonomous. For a combination of technological and economic reasons, the first self-driving vehicle you ride in will be shared, not owned. When shared-use vehicles become fully autonomous, transportation-as-a-service will be in full force. Look at Google’s Waymo, “the world’s most experienced driver.” While the service is currently only available in Phoenix, Ariz., Google has big plans for expansion into more cities. Right now, it’s still in the testing phase, but car ownership as we know it will soon completely pivot into a shared-use, autonomous network involving big players. Some of the 52 different companies that have been approved by the California Department of Motor Vehicles to test autonomous vehicles on the road include Apple, Waymo, Tesla, Ford, Honda, BMW, Nissan, Intel, and Uber. This is the future autonomous fleet. This is the new normal.

The Autonomous Fleet Fleets are groups of vehicles owned or leased by a business, government agency, or other organization. When we think about today’s fleets, we think about service companies, sales representatives, retail deliveries, and municipal employees. These fleet drivers navigate busy cities among the hustle and bustle of people, cars, and traffic as they weave between multiple appointment destinations a day, having to find and pay for city parking at each stop. However, with autonomous technology on the rise, we’re thinking about how today’s fleets will be affected. What happens when we eliminate the need for the driver? As cars did in the 20th century, autonomous fleets will redefine retail and reshape cities, as well as introduce a convenient new form of shared-use mobility to consumers.

These vehicles will come in all shapes and sizes, and the most efficient design may prove to be pods capable of carrying eight people. Rather than work everywhere, these pods will initially operate within well-mapped and geographically limited urban areas.

Who will own the autonomous fleets of the future? Just as we’ve seen Uber and Lyft take over nearly every major city’s ride-hailing market, we expect private operators to enter the autonomous fleet space aggressively to claim their stake. There is no doubt that the cost of acquiring a fleet of autonomous vehicles will be much higher than that of traditional vehicles. Autonomous vehicles require a significant amount of computing ability and sensing equipment, making the upfront investment a hurdle for fleet operators to consider. While autonomous fleets will likely be owned privately by big technology players like those mentioned earlier (i.e., Apple, Waymo, Tesla, etc.), they will be required to cooperate with municipalities, the public sector, and each other. When we eliminate the driver from the equation, how will fleet operations be managed? While the initial cost of converting a fleet to autonomous technology will be high, the costs of operating that fleet will be lower. Autonomous fleets will be tailor-designed, electric, self-parking, and optimized for total cost per mile. If all (or a percentage) of the cars on the road are autonomous and operated by different private companies, there will need to be a centralized database that knows where all of these cars are at a given point in time to ensure efficiency for cities and safety for passengers. Aggregated data will play a major role here. Whether these vehicles are in motion or parked and waiting to

be dispatched to their next passenger, they will need to communicate with one another. Progressive companies in the transportation space are planning to purchase fleets of autonomous vehicles in the coming years. Without traditional drivers to cover the maintenance costs, it will become the responsibility of the company to maintain the vehicles. Maintenance will involve new highly skilled technical work to successfully care for the reams of software on board. In addition, we expect these autonomous fleets to be electric, and that will require all parking infrastructure to support charging. To fully enable autonomous fleets, operators will need to invest significantly into the necessary infrastructure that will allow these vehicles to seamlessly acquire a charge and get serviced. As we prepare for disruption, there is much more to the autonomous fleets of the future than simply removing the need for a driver. Much of their impact is a consequence of the fact that they will be shared, not owned. The demand for synchronization between operators will only heighten as we get closer to a fully shared-use economy. ◆ JESSE GARCIA is director, strategy and corporate development, for ParkMobile. He can be reached at


2019 Year in

Review M


our industry saw a tremendous amount of evolution in 2019, and the International Parking & Mobility Institute (IPMI) was a leading force. Thanks to the dedication and involvement of our members, IPMI focused on growth and looked ahead to ensure a seat at the table long into the future, no matter what changes are ahead (and there will be many). It was a banner year for connecting with colleagues and resources, and the future is very bright. Join us for a look back at the year’s highlights.

From the Board of Directors We at IPMI are proud of the accomplishments and achievements of 2019— a year when we launched new programs, revamped some existing ones, and fully embraced our role in a growing, evolving industry. We issued the Call for Volunteers this past summer, and our members responded in force. Thank you to the hundreds who are serving on a committee, task Enjoy this look back and visit for more information about anything included in this Year in Review. We’re looking forward to a terrific 2020! —David Onorato, CAPP Chair, IPMI Board of Directors Executive Director, Pittsburgh Parking Authority



force, or working group to advance our mission and industry.

Resources, Resources, Resources! IPMI’S NEW INSIDERS’ GUIDE TO PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT highlights the many resources and formats for professional development. Be sure to check out our YouTube channel for a year’s worth of micro-learning—watch and share videos on professional development and the skills you need to succeed. While you are there, check out the wildly popular IPMI version of “Carpool Karaoke!”


THE ALLIANCE FOR PARKING DATA STANDARDS released Version 2.0 of the documents for public review mid-2019. Be on the lookout for the final release of the global standard, designed to spur innovation in our industry and streamline data-sharing across platforms around the globe.

August 201 9


itu the ility Inst Guide to rking & Mob Insider’s nal Pa io Internat







MAKING THE MOST of your membership? Industry members can be sure they are thanks to the new Insider’s Guide to IPMI, which outlines member benefits and the value of being part of the world’s largest association for parking and mobility professionals.


THE IPMI-LED Accessible Parking Coalition (APC) published a 24-page guide of ideas, case studies, and inspiration for parking and mobility professionals to make accessible parking more accessible. Resources continue to grow on the APC website:


OUT OF DANGER A new IPMI partnership teaches frontline parking professionals to deescalate conflict and defend themselves if necessary.

IPMI OFFERS PUBLICATIONS to launch community relations programs related to teen driver parking education, heatstroke prevention, senior parking safety, and suicide deterrence. Visit to download all of them.

75,600 minutes

IPMI BECAME a strategic partner of The Parking Podcast, spent reading released twice a Parking & Mobility month on multiple IPMI LAUNCHED A NEW online this year platforms. Our social Career Center in media channels were very December, offering free busy—follow us @IPMINow job and resume postings everywhere. And the all-new Parking for all members. Post your & Mobility magazine was introduced job at today to rave reviews in June. and find your next rock star!


Making Connections IPMI’S 2019 CONFERENCE & EXPO in Anaheim, Calif., brought together thousands of parking, transportation, and mobility professionals for four jam-packed days of networking and professional development! IPMI hosted our Transportation Camp, offering participants the chance to lead a mission-critical discussion about the revolution in mobility. The Expo floor was bursting at the seams with leading-edge products, technologies, and suppliers, as usual, with a new Start-Up Pavilion featuring innovators and entrepreneurs.

OFFERING INSIGHT into various aspects of leadership, this year’s sold-out Leadership Summit, held October 3–4 in Pittsburgh, Pa., provided industry leaders with a unique opportunity for education, networking, and professional development. Sessions incorporated an engaging and collaborative environment, encouraging discussion and follow-up conversation inside and outside the classroom. Look for registration details for the 2020 Leadership Summit, Oct. 8–9 in Raleigh, N.C., soon.

IPMI launched new online learning courses in 2019: • Fundamentals of Parking & Mobility. • Parksmart Sustainability Solution Series 2. • Sustainable Purchasing through Cleaning Procedures (article/quiz). • Sustainable Mobility Is Changing the Parking Industry, with article/quiz.

• Environmental Sustainability. • Wellness. •T  hird Party Certifications and Parking.


IPMI IS ACCREDITED by the International Association for Continuing Education and Training (IACET). IPMI complies with the ANSI/IACET Standard, which is recognized internationally as a standard of excellence in instructional practices. As a result of this accreditation, IPMI is accredited to issue the IACET CEU.


CEU credit hours available via IPMI.


Professional Development and Learning

IN NOVEMBER, IPMI convened leaders from cities around the country to dive into the unique and myriad challenges cities face to manage the curb, launch new tech, and create smart cities. NYCDOT led the inaugural event as our host city, and IPMI partnered with C2SMART of the New York University School of Engineering. Attendees will release a report, offering insights and takeaways in 2020, so stay tuned!

IN OCTOBER, industry professionals came together for IPMI’s first Midwest Regional Parking & Mobility Conference in Omaha, Neb. The conference brought together parking, transportation, and mobility professionals for two days of education sessions, networking, and professional development opportunities. Stay tuned for 2020 event dates and registration.

EVERYTHING REALLY IS BIGGER IN TEXAS— including the 2020 IPMI Conference & Expo! Visit the new Smart Cities Pavilion featuring some of the most progressive mobility programs in the world. Register for the IPMI Mobility Workshop, where you take center stage, or sign up for professional development courses: the UVA Leadership Course or Mission Critical: Essential Management Strategies & Skills. The opening event promises to give you the taste and flair of San Antonio—as well as a terrific high-energy opportunity to network. Earlybird registration closes February 10! #IPMI2020 Visit IPMI. for details and to save your place.

1,400+ posts


to Forum by IPMI members.

In addition to a robust offering of online courses and training, IPMI’s team of trainers fanned out to train industry professionals in up-close and personal, face-to-face training sessions and classes. And training happened anywhere with particular growth in South America.

115 hours of online education offered in 2019.

IPMI MEMBERS networked like never before all year long on Forum, the association’s online community for members. Thousands of posts, conversations, and shared resources led to serious networking and connectionmaking. Join in at forum.

99+ hours

of education offered at the 2019 IPMI Conference & Expo.


Credentials and Certifications IPMI LAUNCHED a new CAPP Exam and new suggested study resources, CAPP exam crosswalk, CAPP Candidate Handbook, CAPP Resource Guide, and new online practice exam! Visit Tag a colleague who should be a CAPP, or sign up to take your career to the next level.

ACCREDITED PARKING ORGANIZATIONS (APO) abound! IPMI celebrated new APOs at the 2019 IPMI Conference & Expo. Apply to be an APO—the deadline for recognition at Conference closes February 1, 2020. Visit parking-mobility. org/apo. Interested in becoming an APO Site Reviewer? IPMI launched an online instructor-led blended learning course for this. See the calendar at for 2020 course dates. Pursuing APO for your organization? The deadline for submissions is February 1, 2020, to celebrate your accomplishment at the 2020 IPMI Conference & Expo.

IPMI Awards & Recognition IPMI launched revamped and rebranded programs for Awards of Excellence, Professional Recognition, and Marketing. We added new categories, expanded existing ones, and created more opportunities to share your best people, projects, and programs. Celebrate our winners at the Conference, and plan ahead for the 2020 awards programs.

Parternship and Involvment



a lot in 2019, and none of it would have been possible without the involvement and dedication of hundreds of volunteers and active members. For your insight, your time, and your willingness to work to advance this profession and this association, thank you. It’s our honor and privilege to work with you.


IPMI CONTINUES TO GROW and build relationships with strategic partners in our industry. This year, we partnered with the Smart Cities Expo World Congress to share events in both Barcelona, Spain, and the first smart cites event in Atlanta, Ga. Representatives shared and gained insights at these highly visible conferences in mobility. We continue to foster our relationship with the United States Green Building Council, the Green Building Certification Institute, and Parksmart, participating in Greenbuild this past November and connecting with major players in the high-performing green building movement. IPMI shared key insights with the Global Parking Association Leaders at the European Parking Association conference in Malaga, Spain, this fall. Be on the lookout for more strategic partnerships with transportation research organizations in 2020 designed to share up-and-coming research in parking, transportation, and mobility.




2020 May 31- June 3

#IPMI2O2O Register for the largest event in parking, transportation, and mobility:




The mutual benefit of public-private partnerships in today’s chaotic mobility space. By Khristian Gutierrez



the public sector, made of innovative municipal leaders who are responsible for running efficient and effective operations for their cities, and the private sector, which produces innovative companies that can build technology to help cities adapt and transform to meet the evolving needs of their stakeholders. In this truly symbiotic relationship, the two groups need each other to succeed. The public sector is responsible for protecting the public interest and keeping cities running smoothly, but often doesn’t have time or resources to pursue transformational ideas. That’s where the private sector comes in; companies with dedicated product, marketing, and engineering teams can quickly develop, test, and implement new technology to help cities move faster and run better. Best Practices for Mobility Leaders As public transportation and mobility leaders think about how to adopt new technologies and create successful partnerships with the private sector, there are three key things to keep in mind:

transportation, data, and mobility experiences. Cities have many different options to solve the problems they face and should look to select a set of partners that can provide a product or service that not only meets today’s needs but is also set up for future innovation.

Creating an open and collaborative ecosystem. The phrase “a rising tide lifts all boats” is apt when it comes to public-private partnerships in which everyone reaps the benefits when one person or organization succeeds. The first step for municipal leaders is to create a culture of collaboration and partnership so that working with external partners is seen as an extension of the team focused on achieving a shared vision. To create an open ecosystem, leaders should seek out innovative companies and engage in a dialogue about how a partnership could unfold. This could include a formal procurement process and long-term contract or could be accomplished through a pilot program, depending on the city’s immediate needs. There are many tech companies developing new and strategic ways to manage

Implementing new regulations. There have been more changes in the mobility space in the past decade than in the 50 years prior, leading to new challenges for cities to simultaneously support and adopt new modes of mobility while protecting the interest of their citizens. When ride-hailing services came to cities, there was little collaboration between the ride-hailing companies and municipal leaders, which caused chaos and some difficult political battles until both parties were able to arrive at a mutually beneficial conclusion. A similar issue arose with the introduction of electric scooters, where cities did not have the proper regulations in place to support a new mode. To prepare for future innovation in the industry, city leaders should consider a regulatory framework and digital


governance systems that can be applied to any new mobility mode that arises. This way, no matter what ideas the private sector develops, cities will have a way to test and deploy technology and systems with very little friction or overhead required to manage such programs. Cities should be in the driver’s seat of their platforms’ operations with a clear view of the road ahead. Managing data. One hurdle for cities is figuring out how to manage and understand data from a variety of sources. A city may have separate systems for parking meters, pay stations, mobile parking apps, physical permits, digital permits, off-street parking, and parking enforcement. The data for each system is often stored separately, resulting in fragmented data sets that are hard to combine and impossible to use for decision-making. To optimize the parking ecosystem, cities need to manage data centrally. Currently, this is a manual process that requires time and resources from city employees to get all of the information into a digestible and understandable form. One alternative that is emerging is a centralized mobility platform that can house the data from all of the systems with a single piece of software. A mobility management platform can store the rules, rates, and regulations for the curbside so that any driver who wants to access the curb will have access to the information, regardless of how he chooses to pay. This enables centralized management of data for greater efficiency. With an integrated approach, city leaders can free up valuable resources and start to


look at larger community challenges, such as decreasing congestion, that require collaboration across the transportation landscape.

Case Study One effective way for cities to work with tech companies is through a pilot program, which enables innovation quickly in a controlled environment. Through a pilot, the public sector can benefit from new technology, often before it is available to the public, and gets to be a part of co-creating a solution with the private company. Earlier this year, the cities of Charlotte, N.C.; Detroit, Mich.; and Omaha, Neb., came together with several partners for a six-month pilot program to test a new way to manage micro-mobility. As scooters hit the streets in 2018 and 2019, cities faced a challenge with how to regulate and manage the new mode of transportation. Many cities turned to a permit model, similar to taxi medallions, in an attempt to control the number of scooters on the street and collect revenue from the scooter companies with a flat permit fee. As part of the partnership, our company proposed a way to control scooter fleet size and distribution by charging for time parked at the curb. To test this, we partnered with three cities and scooter companies for a pilot program. Ken Smith, CAPP, Omaha’s city parking manager, said, “The introduction of electric scooters brings new opportunities for how people can get around, and we want to ensure that this new form of mobility is managed in the most effective way.” At the outset of the program, each city determined the goals it wanted to achieve:

■  Detroit, a known leader in mobility management,

chose to participate in the pilot to ensure scooter operators distribute their fleets in designated opportunity zones. ■  Omaha introduced scooters in May 2019 and had a very simple goal: ensuring scooters are parked safely and are available for citizens to use. ■  Charlotte wanted to develop new policies for scooter companies to promote the use of scooters as a first/ last-mile solution and create more equitable access to transportation. A short-term pilot program is a public-private partnership at its best, as municipalities and tech companies have the chance to work together to co-create a solution. Working together for six months, the cities developed pricing zones throughout their cities and engaged in conversation and collaboration with the scooter companies. The City of Charlotte even created new regulations to adopt the pricing model moving forward. While the results of the pilot are still being analyzed, all parties benefited from an open and collaborative environment, allowing innovation to happen quicker than if any one group acted alone.

The Benefits Public-private partnerships can take many forms and can have many outcomes, but in the end, they can generate positive consequences for city leaders, private companies, and citizens. The pace of innovation shows no signs of slowing down, and to embrace change everyone needs to work together for the best results.

Private companies should keep doing what you do best: developing, creating, dreaming, and strategizing. Rely on your talented employees to bring new ideas and create things you never thought were possible. Be open to feedback and make sure you are developing products and services that will help make people’s lives better. Find municipal partners who believe in your vision and can give you the feedback you need to make improvements and the opportunity to test your product in a real-life environment. For the public sector, you know your citizens best, so continue to operate with the best interests of the public front and center. Think three steps ahead and start building the foundation for tomorrow with new regulations and relationships with smart technology companies. Figure out how you can leverage technology to better serve your citizens and continue to make your city a great place to live. Together, the public and private sectors can shape the future of mobility and define what a smart city can be. While cities and companies may have slightly different goals and ways to go about achieving them, they can collaborate and focus on their areas of strength. And most importantly, cities can thrive and grow and citizens can positively benefit from the partnership. ◆ KHRISTIAN GUTIERREZ is chief revenue officer at Passport. He can be reached at



Have a Great Thought? Share It! By Kim Fernandez


HOPE YOU’RE FAMILIAR WITH IPMI’S BLOG , which appears at every day

and in your daily Forum email each morning. Dozens of industry professionals contribute posts to the blog, and we welcome post submissions from all our members—including you!

Writer’s Guidelines for the IPMI Blog 1. Writing for the IPMI Blog is a member benefit. Want to write but haven’t joined yet? We can help! Visit 2. We strongly suggest reading our blog before submitting. Access it at or in your daily members-only Forum email. 3. Submitted blog posts should provide useful howto information; share new technologies and their applications; offer analysis of news, trends, and events; discuss relevant issues to the parking and mobility industry; and be of interest to IPMI members. Blog posts may not promote or sell a company, product, or service.

Writing for the blog is easy and helps share your thoughts and ideas with the rest of the growing parking and mobility industry. Posts are sharable across social media platforms, broadening your reach well throughout your own network and IPMI’s. In the past year, we’ve featured posts on everything from shared mobility to license-plate recognition to staff development and human resources issues, to almost anything that touches the industry and its members (up to and including stepping away from email every so often). Remember, if your company is an IPMI member, you’re an IPMI member and eligible to submit to the blog and take advantage of all our other member benefits. I hope you’ll send us ideas or complete posts—see how in the writer’s guidelines included on this page. Please get in touch with questions, and I look forward to seeing your contributions. KIM FERNANDEZ is IPMI’s director of publications and editor of Parking & Mobility. She can be reached at fernandez@parking-mobility. org.


4. Blog posts are short—200 to 300 words. Can’t say it in that space? Consider breaking up longer ideas into a series of posts, or submitting as a magazine article that can be summarized or introduced on the blog with a link to the published piece. 5. Have a perfect photo for your post? Please ensure you hold the copyright to it or permission to use it and submit it in .jpg format with your written piece. We usually match blog posts with art on our end so no pressure on you to find art. 6. All posts and their elements are subject to editorial review; it is the author’s responsibility to ensure all information is accurate and that proper credit is given when due. We edit all submissions for style, format, space, and readability. 7. We only publish original pieces. Please do not submit a post that is under consideration, has been accepted, or has been published elsewhere. 8. All posts are voluntary submissions. There is no payment for publication. 9. Don’t forget to send us your bio! Name, title, and company. 10. Please submit all blog posts to Feel free to reach out with questions, too! We look forward to hearing from you.



Highlights from the IPMI Blog

The Future is Here. Almost. By David M. Feehan It came much faster than I anticipated–the future, I mean. Two events told me that the future of mobility is closer than I realized, because my wife and I experienced it. My wife works for a federal agency here in the Washington, D.C., area. A couple of weeks ago, her staff had an off-site meeting and one of her colleagues offered to drive. As they were standing near the surface parking lot adjacent to the building, her colleague summoned his Tesla from the lot, and driverless, it emerged alongside the curb to pick them up. She was, quite frankly, stunned. Then last week, while doing some consulting work in the Twin Cities, I received a call from my brother. His son just acquired a new Tesla. Would I like to try driving it? Of course, I jumped at the chance. Along with two of my nephews, Sean, the owner of the Tesla, gave us a brief orientation to the controls and off we went. “My Lord,” I thought, “This feels like it’s rocket propelled.” I’ve driven fast cars before, but this was unlike anything I had ever driven. Then the real “future” experience hit me. I shifted into self-driving mode, and we were navigating down a dark country road with me in the driver’s seat, and with my hands and feet off the controls. The car was literally driving itself. You can read all you want about autonomous vehicles, but until you’ve actually driven one, especially at night on a winding road with no streetlights, you simply cannot fully imagine this experience.

I have written articles about AVs and when we can expect to be driving them. I have suggested that fully autonomous vehicles could be decades away. I was wrong. Tesla will be selling them within a year. You can buy a Tesla that is about 90 percent self-driving right now. At first, it’s scary. But I quickly got used to it and I could imagine all of the ways this incredible device could make my travel easier. Suddenly, traffic-clogged

commutes wouldn’t be so bad. I would read the morning news and emails on my iPad, or catch a few extra Zs. On a long road trip, I could relax and just enjoy the scenery or engage in conversation with my traveling companions. I wouldn’t have to worry about getting a speeding ticket. The car would automatically obey the speed limit. When I arrived at my destination, the car would find a parking spot and park itself. The future is here, or almost. And I think I like it. DAVID M. FEEHAN is president of Civitas

Consultants, LLC.

Ready for more? Read IPMI’s blog every business day in your daily Forum Ready for more? Read IPMI’s blog digest every business your daily digest email (10 a.m. Eastern) or at email (10day a.m.inEastern) orForum at Have something to say? Send post submissions to editor Kim Fernandez at Have something to say? Send submissions to editor Kim Fernandez at


As Boise Goes, So Goes the West? By Casey Jones, CAPP I would not normally suggest that Idaho or its capital city, Boise, are bellwethers for the rest of the country for nearly anything. That’s not to say I’m not proud of my community but we Idahoans are humble people typically and keeping what’s great and avantgarde about our community to ourselves has, until recently, been an effective population control strategy. If you pay any attention to national migration patterns, you are aware that the West has emerged as an attractive and popular destination for people looking for a high quality of life and access to the region’s abundant natural resources. The U.S. Census Bureau recently identified Idaho and Nevada as the fastest growing states in the U.S., and Boise and adjoining cities that comprise the Treasure Valley (population 220,000 and 710,000 respectively) have appeared on several recent fastestgrowing lists. There is ample reason to believe the growth will continue in the foreseeable future. To plan for such growth, our metropolitan planning organization recently initiated a survey and the results provide some interesting transportation findings that might be applicable to other western communities and second-tier cities across the

country. Only 32 percent of respondents said they would be “likely” or “very likely” to use autonomous vehicles or personal rideable technology (e.g., e-scooters) in the future, while 52 percent said they would be “unlikely” or “very unlikely” to use them. More than 84 percent of respondents said it was “likely” or “very likely” that they would drive alone while 38 percent said they would be “very unlikely” or “unlikely” to use alternatives to driving even if they were convenient and available. How applicable Boise’s attitudes and preferences are to other communities in the west is difficult to say but the inhabitants of cities like ours may be less inclined to embrace autonomous vehicles in the future and may continue to prefer personal vehicles to alternatives to driving. What’s clear is that our industry’s response will go a long way in effectively managing anticipated population growth and preserving the quality of life for which Boise and many mid-sized western cities are known. CASEY JONES, CAPP, is senior parking & mobility planner

with DESMAN.

The Great Balancing Act By John Mason, CAPP, PMP, QIR Whether we travel for work or just go back and forth from the office to home, we need balance. For me it’s a suitcase and a plane just about every week. I like life on the road but it will wear on you. Sometimes I get a little homesick. Sometimes I’m sick of being home.

I try my best to make sure I’m home for life’s special events, such as birthdays, games, and important activities. It becomes a juggling act at times. You have to pack in a week’s worth of errands and chores before you leave again. You really have to be focused on things long before they come. Keeping your calendar up to date is crucial. Traveling keeps things separate for me. When I’m just back and forth from the office, I still have to balance. I need to leave work at the door and not bring it inside the house. If I don’t, the result becomes working at home all night and losing precious time with my family. Sometimes you just lose track of time at the office and before you know it, it’s 6 or 7 o’clock. You wonder where has the day gone, and did I miss anything? We have to separate it where we can. JOHN MASON, CAPP, PMP, QIR, is project manager with HUB

Parking Technology.




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Building on its History


By Casey Jones, CAPP


originated as a nonprofit organization in 2005 and was then called the Northwest Parking Association (NWPA). It was founded by a group of professionals who saw value in a regional organization designed to provide parking and transportation colleagues a forum to discuss common challenges, share information, and keep abreast of best practices. Founding members include Steve Cordon and Jared Everett (both from Boise State University), Judith Gray (Kittelson & Associates), Michael Jacobs (City of Vancouver, Wash.), Ruth Lane (both from the City of Portland, Ore.), Kevin Kinney (Anchorage Parking Authority), John Shaheen (Washington State University), Rand Stramm (University of Oregon), Angela Timmen (Oregon Health & Science University), and me; I’d transitioned to the University of Colorado at Boulder and served as the first board president.

NWPA held its inaugural conference in Vancouver, Wash., in 2006. By the Boise, Idaho, conference in 2019, it had grown to well over 225 attendees from its nine member states (Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Utah, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, Alaska, and Hawaii) and beyond. From its humble beginnings, the association has matured under steady leadership, a clear vision and a steadfast commitment to the “PIPTA Way”.

The PIPTA Way The organization has always seen itself as different and unique. This springs largely from being the new kid on the block of state and regional parking (SRA) and transportation associations. PIPTA wasn’t tied to any traditions and sought to find its unique niche among its peers from the get-go. PIPTA also fully embraces its geographic pioneer roots by constantly challenging the status quo and embracing innovation and change. For example, PIPTA was the first state and regional association to embrace transportation demand management programming and content at its annual conference. In 2010, PIPTA partnered with the Association for Commuter Transportation’s Rocky Mountain Chapter to co-host a joint conference in Boulder, Colo. But even before 2010, the organization’s leaders understood that the industry was changing and so too must the organization. Just two years into its existence, NWPA changed its name to add transportation and other SRAs have slowly but surely followed suit. Since these early days, PIPTA has ensured that the session content at annual meetings provides a balance between parking, transportation, and mobility, and continues to foster mutually beneficial relationships aimed 46 PARKING & MOBILITY / JANUARY 2020 / PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG


Laura Lierz, CAPP REEF Parking VICE CHAIR


Cindy Patton City & County of Denver TREASURER

Michelle Rhoads Central Oregon Intergovernmental Council PAST CHAIR

John Meek Republic Parking Northwest BOARD MEMBERS

at meeting the organization’s mission of providing for the growth and development of people and organizations involved in parking and transportation in the membership states with a vision to be a recognized leader in advancing solutions that optimize access and mobility in the communities it serves. PIPTA fully embraces a work hard, play hard approach and doesn’t take itself too seriously. Each annual conference includes a themed costume contest. In Boise in 2019, for example, the theme “Frontier” brought out cowboys and trappers and the winning entry from the “Final Frontier” included Trekkies dressed as Spock, Sulu, and Captain James T. Kirk. Previous years have featured superheroes, musicians/rappers, Grunge, and hippies. But perhaps the most unusual entertainment was offered in Portland in 2018 where Moshow the Cat Rapper per-

formed a set featuring his Parking Kitty App song that was used in a video to promote Portland’s parking app.

What’s New PIPTA has recently rebranded and now features a new logo and website. PIPTA is also working to offer more mid-year networking events and will follow a joint PIPTA/SWPTA event in Denver with a spring event in Montana. The future is bright for the organization and PIPTA will return to Eugene in 2020 for its annual conference and expo (July 22-24). Future conferences will include Denver (2021), Salt Lake (2022), and Seattle (2023). ◆ CASEY JONES, CAPP, is senior parking and mobility planner with DESMAN. He can be reached at cjones@desman. com.

Sean Mackin Conduent Travis Hargitt City of Eugene Aaron Fodge Colorado State University Mike Estey City of Seattle Melissa Yates, CAPP City of Boulder Brett Dodson Oregon Health & Science University Kristen Locke ParkMobile, LLC Linsey Hartke Boise State University CHIEF TECHNOLOGY OFFICER

Sara Beacraft OBEC Consulting Engineers


/ Passport Named 2019 Software Company of the Year at NC Tech Awards PASSPORT WAS NAMED THE Software Company of the Year at the 2019 NC Tech Awards. The NC Tech Awards is North Carolina’s only statewide technology awards program that recognizes technology companies for achievement and is presented by the North Caroline Technology Association (NCTECH). “We are tremendously honored to be recognized. This is an incredible achievement, and it would not be possible without the hard work of the talented Passport team and the support of our clients,” says Bob Youakim, Passport CEO. “Every day I get to work alongside more than 300 intelligent and driven people with a diverse set of talents across engineering, sales, product, client success, operations, marketing, and more. It is the team that has helped Passport reach its goals, and they inspire me to work toward the next achievement." Other nominees for the NC Tech Awards Software category included AvidXchange, Dude Solutions, insightsoftware, and Pendo. Youakim was also a nominee for the NC Tech Award’s Tech Executive of the Year. “It is an honor to be named among the many game-chang-

ing tech companies in North Carolina who are creating jobs and bringing new talent and innovation to our state,” Youakim says. “I’d like to thank NCTECH for this recognition and for their great work to advance the growth of tech companies in North Carolina.” This award is one of many received by Passport in 2019. The company was recognized for its continued growth with top spots on the Inc. 5000 and Deloitte Technology Fast 500 lists. Passport was also named a top workplace in Charlotte for the fifth consecutive year.

Verra Mobility Partners with Arrive Verra Mobility (NASDAQ: VRRM), announced a partnership with Arrive to deliver a user-friendly and more comprehensive mobility solution that conveniently combines tolling and parking into a single intelligent platform for drivers. “As a company, we pride ourselves on our ability to simplify the growing and increasingly complex mobility ecosystem by creating an all-in-one platform that allows our customers to

travel smarter,” says David Roberts, president and CEO of Verra Mobility. “With this collaboration, we saw an opportunity to enhance our powerful tolling capabilities with Arrive’s parking prowess.” The partnership will enable Verra Mobility to infuse all of Arrive’s valuable parking data into a single mobility platform and deliver services through Peasy, Verra Mobility’s pay-as-you-go web and mobile tolling app. This app


will now allow users to not only pay for tolls effortlessly, but also to find, book, and pay for parking spaces the same way—cash-free and without headaches. “Drivers and commuters should not have to download several apps to get around cities,” says Dan Roarty, president and COO of Arrive. “We are excited to work with Verra Mobility to integrate our platforms together in their Peasy app and provide customers a greater value.”

Sylvia Park Shopping Centre Expands Partnership with Parking Sense PARKING SENSE ANNOUNCED an expanded partnership with Auckland’s Sylvia Park, the largest shopping and mixed-use center in New Zealand. One of Parking Sense’s first customers, Sylvia Park has implemented Parking Sense’s infrared parking guidance technology in all of its parking buildings to date. The company now intends to add the technology to another 3,000 parking spaces as two major sites are constructed in early 2020 to complete the area. Sylvia Park was built in 2005 with sustainability among its eight guiding principles. In addition to efficiently helping people find available parking since the technology was first installed in 2015, Sylvia Park has found use of the Parking Sense guidance technology to reduce circulation time and congestion and reduce related vehicle emissions. Kiwi Property, operators of Sylvia Park, is one of the biggest property owners in the Southern Hemisphere. The company’s sustainability efforts, of which deployment of Parking Sense technology is part, have resulted in a reduction in energy consumption by 4,800,000 kWh, enough to supply 598 typical homes for a year. In addition, the company has reduced its carbon footprint by 47 percent and continues to be a leader in this space. “We’re pleased to be expanding our partnership with Sylvia Park and to help them meet their goal of reducing resource consumption and their carbon footprint,” says Jake Bezzant, Parking Sense CEO. “Our intention has always been to add value to parking operators. As evidenced by the success of our partnership with Sylvia Park, there's a significant upside to those using our technology.”

ParkVia Secures Memmingen Airport Renewal PARKVIA AGREED TO A NEW CONTRACT with longstanding German client Allgäu Airport Memmingen. Following the airport’s review of its partner network, ParkVia was successfully retained by Memmingen following yet another term of impressive booking growth. Drivers parking at Allgäu Airport Memmingen will benefit from a range of onsite options when reserving through ParkVia’s intuitive booking portal. As well as exposure across ParkVia’s internationally renowned B2C platform, Memmingen Airport’s parking products also benefit from additional streams of marketing through its airline partnerships, notably Ryanair, Wizz Air, and SunExpress. Speaking about the successful six-year collaboration, Valentina Moise, commercial director at ParkVia, says, “It’s important that our airport partners feel we strengthen the services they offer and add real value to their customers’ travel experiences, which is why we’re thrilled Memmingen has chosen to continue our collaboration. There’s a clear synergy between our shared brand values, and we are keen to explore opportunities that will strengthen the partnership in the upcoming contract term.” The airport, which welcomes 1.5 million passengers each year, has plans to expand its runway, as well as more planned developments to its main terminal buildings in the next two years.


/ Zurich Airport Selects IDeaS to Enhance Parking Revenue Performance IDeaS REVENUE SOLUTIONS will implement its Car Park Revenue Management System (CPRMS) at Zurich Airport (ZRH). A popular business hub, Zurich Airport boasted more than 31 million passengers in 2018 and is Switzerland’s largest international airport. ZRH’s partnership with IDeaS will apply analytics to automate optimized pricing decisions and enhance revenue performance across the airport’s 15,000 public parking spaces: ■  Intelligent automation. IDeaS CPRMS will transform the commercial team at ZRH from using a complex manual pricing approach to an automated and more dynamic pricing environment, delivering revenue-enhancing decisions directly to the ADVAM AltitudeReservation platform. ■  Powered by revenue science. The IDeaS solution will

drive more profitable parking business performance by using predictive analytics to produce data-driven pricing decisions. ■  A focus on strategy. IDeaS CPRMS will enable ZRH to elevate its revenue management strategy, automating optimized tactical decisions and enabling the commercial team to better capitalize on profitable opportunities. Ronny Grau, parking and mobility director, Zurich Airport, says, “While overall commercial performance at Zurich Airport has been good, IDeaS CPRMS will help us to grow our pre-booked parking business faster. As we begin the next phase of our revenue management journey, we are confident that investing in more sophisticated technology will drive better revenues by forecasting and optimizing demand across our car parks in a way we never could before.”



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2020 JANUARY 14


JULY 22-24

Online Parksmart Advisor Course Begins

New York State Parking & Transportation Association 2020 Annual Spring Event

Pacific Intermountain Parking & Transportation Association 2020 Conference & Expo

Utilizing Technology: A How-to Guide on Converting to a Virtual and Electronic Parking Environment

APRIL 15-16


Southwest Parking & Transportation Association Mid-year Training

Palm Springs, Calif.

Online Parksmart Advisor Course Begins


IPMI Webinar


Pace University

Supporting Mobility in an Open Environment


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SEPTEMBER 27-30 Campus Parking and Transportation Association Conference College Station, Texas


MAY 31 - JUNE 3, 2020


Mid South Parking & Transportation Association Spring Conference and Trade Show

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2020 IPMI Leadership Summit

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New York State Parking & Transportation Association Professional Development Summer Retreat

Online Parksmart Advisor Course Begins

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Profile for International Parking & Mobility Institute

Parking & Mobility, January 2020  

Parking & Mobility magazine, published by the International Parking & Mobility Institute.

Parking & Mobility, January 2020  

Parking & Mobility magazine, published by the International Parking & Mobility Institute.