The Municipal May 2021

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The Premier Magazine For America’s Municipalities

May 2021


INSIDE: Fleet electrification takes center stage Pierre builds unique water treatment facility

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Using eminent domain wisely REPLACE IT! AT-IN-3002 Approx.



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May 2021 | VOL. 12 No. 2 |


Shutterstock photos

17 Focus on Building & Construction Focus on Building & 34 Focus on Building & 26 18 Construction: Eminent domain: Construction: A ‘complex’ Last resort option to further public projects

22 Focus on Building &

Construction: Pierre votes yes to water rate increase in exchange for park-based water treatment facility

situation: Johnsonville, S.C., opens new municipal complex

44 Streets, Highways & Bridges: Cities show pride in local residents through downtown banners

46 Municipal Management: Municipalities showing mercy with amnesty programs

Focus on Building & 44 26 Construction: Bay City’s airport 50 Parks & Environmental Congratulations Senior Class of 2020

is key to furthering tourismbased economy

Congratulations Senior Class of 2020

30 Focus on Building & Congratulations Senior Class of 2020



Construction: Kalamazoo County’s new animal shelter better serves pets and community

Services: City uses splash pads to introduce children to nature

54 Fleet Service &

Management: From the highest levels, Anacortes prioritizes alternative energy

58 Public Works: Building bright futures in public works


The Premier Magazine For America’s Municipalities

ON THE COVER XL Fleet has been one of the leading and longesttenured pioneers in the fleet electrification space, providing hybrid and plug-in hybrid solutions for municipal and commercial vehicles in North America for over 10 years and over 150 million customer miles driven. Learn about some of the solutions it offers on page 10.

May 2021


INSIDE: Fleet electrification takes center stage Pierre builds unique water treatment facility


Using eminent domain wisely


Meet our Staff publisher RON BAUMGARTNER

editor-in-chief DEB PATTERSON

8 Editor’s Note: Ripples of pandemic felt 10 From the Cover: Charging Ahead: Fleet Electrification Takes Center Stage

12 Unique Claims to Fame: editor SARAH WRIGHT

publication manager CHRIS SMITH

senior account executive REES WOODCOCK

graphic designer MARY LESTER

business manager CARRIE GORALCZYK

USS Lexington Museum, Corpus Christi, Texas

14 City Seals: Huron, S.D. 16 Memorial Day Tribute 40 City Profile: With Old West charm, Deadwood draws people in

60 Conference Calendar 61 Product Spotlights 64 National Public Works Week 66 News & Notes 68 Guest Column: How municipalities are changing the pothole patching game

director of marketing STEVE MEADOWS

70 Top 10: Best cities for locavores 73 Advertiser Index

mail manager KHOEUN KHOEUTH

WWW.THEMUNICIPAL.COM PO Box 188 • 206 S. Main St., Milford, IN 46542 866-580-1138/Fax 800–886–3796 Editorial Ext. 2307; Advertising Ext. 2505, 2408


The Municipal does not knowingly accept false or misleading advertising or editorial content, nor does The Municipal or its staff assume responsibility should such advertising or editorial content appear in any publication. The Municipal reserves the right to determine the suitability of all materials submitted for publication and to edit all submitted materials for clarity and space. The Municipal has not independently tested any services or products advertised herein and has verified no claims made by its advertisers regarding those services or products. The Municipal makes no warranties or representations and assumes no liability for any claims regarding those services or products or claims made by advertisers regarding such products or services. Readers are advised to consult with the advertiser regarding any such claims and regarding the suitability of an advertiser’s products. No reproduction of The Municipal is allowed without express written permission. Copyright © 2021.



Editor’s Note

Ripples of pandemic felt

Sarah Wright | Editor


he pandemic ground many aspects of life to a halt; however, construction work, whether public or private, never showed any signs of stopping in many cities across the nation. Still, COVID-19 has unleashed other headaches, including material price increases and shipment delays. These hindrances, funnily enough, served as one Easter topic for my family, with a contractor relative noting how the prices of materials had skyrocketed in some cases, especially metal roofing; ironically, asphalt shingles were down in price, at least locally. As a result of materials’ increasing costs, some municipalities are finding their project budgets shredded. For example, Maryville, Mo., is experiencing a $3.5 million gap for its South Main Improvement Project. Northwest Missourian news editor Kendrick Calfee wrote in a March 30, 2021, article, “The three construction companies in consideration are bidding higher than expected because materials like concrete, asphalt and piping cost 20% to 30% higher following the COVID-19 pandemic. Nationwide, similar projects were put on hold last year, and locally, many projects had been moved from summer 2020 construction dates to spring 2021.” Several options are under consideration by Maryville to carry the project forward, such as seeking additional funding either in house or through relief funds, rebidding the project or adjusting the project’s scope. Likely many municipalities will be taking similar approaches as they navigate funding projects that have exceeded their original budgets or catch up on infrastructure projects on the docket. For instance,


Jacksonville, Fla., is examining an increase and extension of a local gas tax to pay for a $930 million list of transportation projects. In the quest for better water, the city of Pierre, S.D., went to the taxpayer to see if the city should spend more than $37 million to construct a new water treatment facility, and 73% said yes to it and an increase in their water bills. Unlike traditional water treatment facilities that feature above-ground pools of water, the treatment process will be occurring underground at Pierre’s facility once complete. Additionally, it will be designed to blend in with the aesthetics of Steamboat Park, where it will be housed. Writer Dani Messick shares more about this unique project in this issue. The Municipal will highlight other building and construction topics, too, including the use of eminent domain; Bay City, Mich.’s, improvements to its James Clements Airport as it adapts to a tourism-based economy; Johnsonville, S.C.’s, newly completed municipal complex; and the state-of-the-art Kalamazoo County Animal Services and Enforcement building in Michigan. If your municipality is undertaking a project you are proud of, never hesitate to share it with The Municipal. We love to hear from you and see what you and your departments are undertaking — or even what your neighboring cities are doing. I cannot count the times while interviewing an official from one city they will state, “You know what? You really need to talk with ‘x’ city. They are doing this incredible project,” and then they rattle off all these details. It shows a great appreciation for what peers are doing. As we enter prime building and construction months, we wish you all good luck with your projects. As always, stay well.


From The Cover

Charging Ahead: Fleet Electrification Takes Center Stage By SARAH WRIGHT | The Municipal

Municipal fleet managers have been on the front lines of the electric vehicle revolution since the first modern passenger EVs began sharing our roads in the mid-1990s. While the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment and subsequent emissions regulations on automotive manufacturers inspired a new wave of EV development at the time, those products were largely either concept cars or compact, lightweight passenger vehicles with extremely limited range and performance capabilities. Despite this, the quest for regulatory-driven sustainability had begun in earnest, and municipal fleet managers took an active part in exploring their continued development. While those early EVs could never match the substantial operational or performance demands of the fleet industry, municipal fleet managers were nevertheless some of the earliest target customers for these reduced and zero emission vehicles. The reason was very similar to what drives much of that demand today — the desire (and the mandates) of town, city and state governments to operate more sustainably. Investing in sustainability Nearly 30 years later, some would argue the fleet industry is not that much farther along on its quest to electrify today than it was back then – particularly when compared to how quickly other emerging technologies of the time, such as the internet, have come in that same amount of time. That said, most experts agree the transition has accelerated considerably in recent years, thanks to a wide range of factors, including: • A significant increase in EV and clean vehicle incentives at the state — and soon, likely federal — levels. • Slowly but steadily declining EV component costs, including for batteries and related technologies. • Increasing commitments by most major OEMs to electrify more of their vehicles. • An influx of new electric vehicle OEMs building a range of firstgeneration EV products. • Massive investment in EV-related technologies, with dozens of companies in the space that have gone or plan to go public this year, raising more than $17 billion in investor funding to date. Many roads to fleet electrification All of these factors are contributing to a scenario where fleets are in better position than ever before to prioritize electrification as part of their vehicle portfolio. That said, there are still quite a few challenges 10   THE MUNICIPAL | MAY 2021

fleets need to overcome when considering all-electric vehicle options in particular. Some of those well-documented hurdles include: • Limited charging infrastructure, both within facilities and in the field. • High capital cost of battery electric fleet vehicles, often making them difficult to afford or scale without incentives. • Lack of currently available EV options that meet the range of purpose-built applications needed for municipal fleets. Clearly, there are many variables impacting the decision to electrify and no “one size fits all” model that works for all fleets, vehicles or applications. There are, however, a range of electrification choices available that can help municipal fleets accelerate their transition to EVs while helping them make immediate and measurable progress toward both near-term and long-term sustainability goals and mandates. It’s important to understand the full landscape of electrification options available when deciding on the best fits for your fleet, so we’ll outline some of those technologies below. Hybrid electric Hybrid electric propulsion is currently the most heavily deployed electrification solution for the fleet industry. These vehicles run on a combination of gas and electric power, so they continue to leverage the internal combustion engine throughout the drive cycle while regularly replenishing their electric power through regenerative braking. This makes them a versatile fit for a wide range of applications, because concerns such as range anxiety and lack of charging infrastructure are eliminated. As a result, they tend to be outstanding options for fleets with little to no access to charging or with variable drive cycles. With smaller batteries and generally fewer individual components, these systems also tend to be the least costly option within the range of electrification solutions, yet they deliver an immediate improvement on fuel economy and sustainability metrics. The hybrid electric drive systems pioneered by XL Fleet, for example, can improve mpg by up to

XL Fleet’s plug-in hybrid system can provide up to a 50% mpg improvement and reduce emissions by one-third. (Photo provided)

those provided by XL Fleet are designed to provide a consistent electric boost during acceleration throughout the drive cycle, rather than taking over the full propulsion of the vehicle. During a typical daily fleet shift, this process actually improves the overall sustainability value provided by the system because it is continuously being supplemented by the electric boost during the least efficient portions of the trip. XL Fleet’s hybrid systems can be installed on a wide range of Class 2-6 vehicles. (Photo provided)

25% and reduce carbon dioxide emissions by up to 20% for drive cycles with frequent stopping and starting that are extremely common among municipal fleet vehicles. Plug-in hybrid electric Plug-in hybrid vehicles also leverage the internal combustion engine and regenerative braking, but their power is supplemented through an external electricity source that plugs into the vehicle. They feature a larger battery than hybrids and can deliver a more significant improvement on fuel economy and carbon dioxide emissions reduction as a result. XL Fleet’s plug-in hybrid system, which was named one of TIME magazine’s Best Inventions of 2019, can improve mpg by up to 50% while reducing emissions by one-third. In some cases, usually in passenger vehicles, plug-in hybrids can run for a period of time on all-electric range and then revert back to the internal combustion engine. These system configurations can vary, but

Battery electric Battery electric vehicles are typically described as all-electric, zero emissions vehicles. These are the technologies that have tended to dominate the media’s coverage over the past year, because they represent a full departure from the carbon-producing internal combustion engine that is now the leading cause of greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. While they provide the ultimate in sustainability value, they are also the least available option of the three, particularly within the fleet industry. Their large battery packs can drive up purchase costs substantially, and as a result, many fleets are only able to purchase them today through incentives. That said, it is a category that is driving a tremendous amount of excitement and investment today and is one of the most compelling technologies being developed to support the future of transportation. The future is now Thankfully, there are more electrification options available today for fleets than ever before, and that will continue to be the case for years to come. XL Fleet has been one of

the leading and longest-tenured pioneers in the fleet electrification space, providing hybrid and plug-in hybrid solutions for municipal and commercial vehicles in North America for over 10 years and over 150 million customer miles driven. The company’s hybrid and plug-in hybrid systems are providing cleaner, greener transportation for over 200 municipal and commercial fleets throughout North America across a wide range of vehicles and applications. XL Fleet systems are currently installed on thousands of Class 2-6 vans, pickups, shuttle buses, delivery trucks and specialty vehicles from GM, Ford and Isuzu. XL Fleet has several all-electric projects in the works, including one announced in February of this year with Curbtender to jointly develop all-electric, plug-in hybrid and hybrid electric refuse truck models across a range of Class 3-8 waste management vehicle options. The company also recently launched its XL Grid division to deliver charging infrastructure, energy storage and power solutions, rounding out a comprehensive suite of electrification solutions for a wide range of current and future customers. No matter where your fleet may be in its electrification readiness, there are a wider array of options available to meet your needs today than ever before. By talking to your technology provider about where you are on that scale, you’ll increase your chances of success. And that will help accelerate the adoption of cleaner, greener vehicles for all types of fleets in years to come.  For more information, visit MAY 2021 | THE MUNICIPAL  11


Unique Claims To Fame

USS Lexington Museum

Corpus Christi, Texas By RAY BALOGH | The Municipal

(Photos provided by the USS Lexington Museum)

She was pronounced dead at least four times, but she was a fighter and became a decorated war hero when she was barely a year old.

ABOVE: The USS Lexington Museum’s flight deck is the home of one of the original F-14 Tomcats used to film the movie “Top Gun.” If you look closely, you can see Maverick and Goose painted under the canopy. TOP: The USS Lexington Museum docked in Corpus Christi Bay.


Finally retired in 1991, she now rests in well-deserved quiet repose in Corpus Christi, Texas, hosting about 350,000 visitors a year. Welcome to the USS Lexington Museum, which offers a plethora of tours and adventures aboard the world’s oldest and largest Essex Class aircraft carrier in the world. The museum’s website,, summarizes the ship’s stellar resume: “Commissioned in 1943, she set more records than any other Essex Class carrier in the history of naval aviation. After training maneuvers and a shakedown cruise, Lexington joined the Fifth Fleet at Pearl Harbor. “During World War II, the carrier participated in nearly every major operation in the Pacific Theater and spent a total of 21 months in combat. Her planes destroyed 372 enemy aircraft in the air and 475 more on the ground. She sank or destroyed 300,000 tons of enemy cargo and damaged an additional 600,000. The ship’s guns shot down 15 planes and assisted in downing five more.” Having endured deadly torpedo and kamikaze strikes, her repeated resurrections from a purported watery grave earned her the appellation, “The Blue Ghost,” bestowed upon her by propagandist Tokyo Rose.

The ship’s original CPO lounge now serves as a meeting place for Girl Scouts, Boy Scouts and other church and school youth groups.

Her tireless wartime labors merited 11 battle stars and earned her crew the Presidential Unit Citation, an award for “extraordinary heroism in action against an armed enemy.” The U.S. Navy signed ownership of the vessel to Corpus Christi on June 8, 1992. She was permanently docked in harbor nine days later and the museum opened to the public in October of that year. The attraction was designated a National Historic Landmark in 2003. The ship is an awe-inducing marvel of wartime engineering. Her flight deck spans three football fields and she sports 16 levels, including five tiers in the conning tower. The four steam turbines produce 150,000 horsepower to turn four 16-foot propellers, allowing her to sail at more than 30 knots, or 35 mph, nonstop for 4,131 miles. During her career, USS Lexington logged 209,000 miles, the equivalent of eight trips around the equator. The ship carried a crew of 1,550 and boarded 3,000 fighters during World War II. The crew’s quarters boast more sleeping space than the world’s largest hotel, and Lexington’s generators can produce enough electricity to power a city of 150,000 residents. Run by an independent nonprofit organization, the museum receives no government funding at any level. The Lexington is open from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. seven days a week except Thanksgiving and Christmas and features the following attractions: Flight deck and hangar deck Both decks are wheelchair accessible and allow a close look at 20 aircraft, anti-aircraft guns and landing gear. Other features include the navigation bridge, ship’s plank and arresting gear.

Youth groups come from across the Southwest to sleep overnight aboard USS Lexington. Ultimate escape rooms Lexington is the world’s only ship museum with escape rooms. Visitors can participate in two scenarios: • Beat the Blast, a 60-minute adventure where participants must locate a nuclear bomb planted somewhere on the ship and defuse it to save the world. • Face Your Fears, an intense adventure that takes participants “on a terrifying path into the depths of” the haunted ship’s more than 4,000 compartments to find a group of missing ghost hunters. 3D mega theater The 193-seat stadium theater hosts a three-story screen with “thundering digital sound.” The system includes the world’s brightest cinema projector, which produces twice the illumination of standard xenon projectors. Pearl Harbor exhibit The film montage in this multimedia exhibit recounts the story of the attack on Pearl Harbor. A scale graphic map displays “models of the ships docked in position just as they were on the day of that fateful attack.” The 8,000-watt sound system literally shakes the walkway beneath visitors’ feet as a 1941 model radio blares President Franklin Roosevelt’s famous address, “A Date Which Will Live in Infamy.”

A visiting Scout from the Indian Nations Council tries his hand at landing an aircraft.

Scale model collection More than 120 volunteer craftworkers from 16 states and five countries invested four years in creating the more than 440 models of warbirds, warships and other pieces on display. Flight simulator Learn what it takes to be an F-18 pilot, virtually launching from the flight deck, hitting enemy targets and returning safely, all under constantly changing circumstances. Virtual battle stations Visitors can navigate their own fleet of warships or pilot a warbird in an interactive gaming experience. Camp LEX Available to youth groups and Scout troops, visitors can stay overnight aboard the USS Lexington for a one-night or two-night program. The regimen includes reveille, morning colors, chow, taps, an educational film, self-guided tours, scavenger hunt, patriotic flag ceremony and ghost stories. The two-day camp includes several badge workshops and a volunteer service project. The USS Lexington Museum is located at 2914 N. Shoreline Blvd., Corpus Christi, Texas. For admission prices and other information, visit or call (361) 8884873 or (800) LADY LEX (523-9539).  MAY 2021 | THE MUNICIPAL  13


City Seals

Huron, S.D. Huron, S.D., could be the setting for a story called “A Tale of Two Seals.” The city of 13,408 has two city seals: the original from 1883 used on official documents and an unofficial altered version whose authorship and date of creation are unknown. The original seal was described in the Oct. 2, 1883, edition of the Huron Dakota Leader, the community’s daily newspaper: “It represents on the right a surveyor with a tripod; near him a man driving a stake into the ground; on his left are two antelopes watching the surveyors. The landscape is a prairie gently rising to the west, the whole surrounded with the words, ‘City of Huron, Dakota. Corporate Seal. 1883.’” “City hall uses an official seal stamp that has two male surveyors and that is what is painted in a mural downtown,” said Jennifer Littlefield, reference librarian at the Huron Public Library. At some point the seal was changed. A woman in settler’s garb replaced the surveyor’s assistant. She is scything a field of wheat, having already harvested a couple sheaves, which stand off to the left of the image. The surveyor’s attire was modernized and his hat was removed, and a pheasant appears to his right. Trees were added to the background and the words were changed to “City of Huron Corporate Seal.” The antelope remain in their original posture on the updated seal, reflective of the staking of the town plat, as described in the inaugural issue of the Beadle County Settler on May 5, 1880: “As the party surrounded the spot two antelopes came speeding up from the south on the line of the street, seemingly failing to notice the unusual scene before them until about twenty rods from the group, where they halted and gazed curiously ahead.” Littleton noted when she requested a graphic of the city seal, several city offices, the historical museum and the local chamber of commerce sent her the newer version. “No one seems to know why the city seal is different or when the change might have occurred,” she said. The settlement started with a population of 164 in 1880 and boomed, thanks in large part to the Chicago and Northwester Railway, more than 18-fold, to 3,038 residents, in its first decade. Further growth pumped the number to 10,945 by 1920 and its peak population of 14,299 in 1970. Huron vied to become the state capital until that designation was awarded to Pierre in 1904. Huron is home to the World’s Largest Pheasant. The 28-foot, 22-ton steel and fiberglass figure commemorates the local legend of a ringneck rooster so large its footprints formed river valleys and its gleaming feathers were mistaken as a rainbow when it flew across the prairie sky. For more information, visit

14   THE MUNICIPAL  |  MAY 2021

End Terminals We offer a full line of tangent, flared and median guardrail end terminals tested to and eligible for reimbursement under established federal crash test standards. The SoftStop® System tangent terminal is tested to MASH 2016 criteria.


Memorial Day Tribute

Our debt to the heroic men and valiant women in the service of our country can never be repaid. They have earned our undying gratitude. America will never forget their sacrifices. ­ —  Harry S. Truman

The Municipal joins all who remember and honor the men and women who have fallen while serving in the armed forces of the United States of America. 16   THE MUNICIPAL  |  MAY 2021

Focus on: Building & Construction

Focus on: BUILDING &


8.8 million gallons Once complete, Pierre, S.D.’s, new water treatment facility will allow for a maximum capacity of 8.8 million gallons per day for the next 40 years. Located within one of the city’s parks, the water treatment facility will blend into its surroundings.

Learn more about this unique facility on page 22.

7,236 square foot Johnsonville, S.C., has constructed a new municipal complex of this size, designed to meet the city’s needs for the next several decades. City officials hope the complex will spark revitalization efforts downtown. Find out how this city project aims to spur the development of new businesses on page 34.


About this many people visit Bay City, Mich.’s, James Clements Airport annually. The city is improving the airport to further its growing tourismbased economy.

Read more about this airport on page 26.

$4.8 million Kalamazoo County Animal Services and Enforcement’s new facility cost about this much to construct. Completed in November 2019, the facility has streamlined operations and created a more pleasant environment for humans and pets alike. Learn more about this state-of-the-art facility on page 30.

$3.9 million In Henderson and Henderson County, Ky., the city and county codes offices issued building permits authorizing nearly $3.9 million of improvements in March. Source: new-construction-projects-totaled-3-9-m-henderson-county-last-month/4846869001/#

$3.5 million Maryville, Mo., faces a $3.5 million gap for its South Main Improvement Project after bids came in higher than expected. The three bidding construction companies are bidding higher because materials like concrete, asphalt and piping are costing 20% to 30% higher following the COVID-19 pandemic. Source:


M Focus on: Building & Construction

Eminent domain: Last resort option to further public projects By AMANDA DEMSTER | The Municipal

Municipal construction projects are a necessary part of any city’s growth and development, whether new roads and sidewalks or sewer lines and other necessary improvements. However, there are times when projects require the acquisition of private property. Typically, a governing entity would assess the property and acquire it at fair market value, but when the owner is not willing to let it go easily, the government has the option to initiate eminent domain. Eminent domain is not a popular topic among the public. Many see it as an unfair seizing of a person’s property or home. Because of this, municipalities opting to use it must deal not only with an unwilling landowner but with public opinion, as well. When to use eminent domain “There are a number of purposes for which municipalities may use eminent domain, including for the installation of critical infrastructure,” Eric Shytle, who serves as general counsel for the Municipal Association of South Carolina, said. He listed water, sewer, drainage, electric and natural gas lines, roads, sidewalks and public facilities. Blighted areas and properties that pose a safety hazard also come under condemnation authority, he added. How to proceed According to Shytle, the best use of eminent domain is as a last resort. Shytle outlined South Carolina’s requirements on the subject. “All eminent domain actions … must comply with the South Carolina Eminent Domain Procedure Act,” he said. “This act provides a uniform procedure for eminent domain actions in the state.” 18   THE MUNICIPAL  |  MAY 2021

The act, he went on to say, requires a government to obtain an appraisal on the property in question, determine just compensation and provide the appraisal to the landowner. From there, the two negotiate a price for the property. “Only if the negotiation is unsuccessful may the government commence the formal eminent domain action,” Shytle said. “In the notice that starts the formal action, the government must certify that it tried but failed to negotiate just compensation with the landowner.” When this occurs, the landowner has the right to obtain their own appraisal, on which they may base their own asking price. “If the government agrees to pay the amount specified in the landowner’s appraisal, the action is concluded,” Shytle said. “But if the government does not agree to the landowner’s appraisal, the action proceeds to a jury trial.” What happens next During an eminent domain case, Shytle said the jury takes into account both assessments, as well as information from experts in the field like surveyors, planners, engineers and others. “Ultimately, the value determined by the jury will be the definitive just compensation for the parcel, subject to ordinary appeal rights to the higher courts,” Shytle said. At the start, the governing body has the choice to pay the amount of its appraisal right away or wait until the jury makes its final decision pertaining to just compensation.

Houses prepare to be torn down after eminent domain was used to purchase them for a new construction project. ( The first choice, he said, is to take immediate possession of the as if they are being bullied “off their land.” These can prove difficult property. This, however, comes with the risk that the jury will establish to explain. In most situations, Shytle said the government will accept the landa higher value for the property than the initial appraisal. The second choice is to await the final decision. This leaves it open owner’s appraisal, meaning the case will not progress as far as a jury for the governing body to forego condemnation if the jury establishes trial. However, in situations where multiple properties are needed, an amount higher than the appraisal. such as when building a road, there may be what Shytle referred to as At any time during the proceedings, the government and the land- “holdout” parcels, meaning the landowner has decided to demand a owner have the option to settle. very high price for the property. “In general, then, the eminent domain process in South Carolina is “Because the taxpayers of the city ultimately pay for the acquisition, highly protective of landowners’ rights and is designed to encourage paying the holdout price would cause those taxpayers as a whole to negotiated settlements,” Shytle said. fund a windfall to the holdout landowners,” Shytle said.  A last resort Given property owners’ rights, Shytle said, eminent domain is typically only used as a last resort in South Carolina. “Rather than risk a potentially unlimited liability to pay just compensation as determined by a jury, the government will almost always prefer to avoid the condemnation altogether or to reach a negotiated settlement,” he said. Most of the time, he added, only the most vital projects end up in what he termed, “formally contested proceedings.” However, according to Shytle, if an agreement simply cannot be reached, the city should still look for ways to avoid condemning the property. “In many cases, the project can be redesigned to avoid having to acquire the disputed parcel,” he said. “Perhaps the lines can be shifted or the site of the project can be moved.” When opposition arises Human nature dictates that people will often rally toward a cause if they believe a situation is unjust. When it comes to government acquisition of private property, members of the public may feel compelled to take a landowner’s side, often spurred on by news media reports. In other cases, a landowner may be reluctant to give up property that has belonged to his or her family for generations or may feel

On the Web The Municipal Research and Services Center in Washington State provides information about eminent domain on its website, sharing its state’s regulations, which require a governing body to prove that the use for the property is truly public, that it benefits the public’s best interest and just compensation is provided. As noted on the website, Washington’s state constitution expresses, “Private property shall not be taken for private use, except for private ways of necessity, and for drains, flumes or ditches on or across the lands of others for agricultural, domestic, or sanitary purposes.” MRSC’s website lists a number of court decisions in which governing entities in the state of Washington resorted to using eminent domain. Additionally, it shares a number of ordinances, statutes, constitutional provisions and other resources pertaining to eminent domain. These can be found at Legal/General-Government/Eminent-Domain.aspx.

MAY 2021  |  THE MUNICIPAL  19

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M Focus on: Building & Construction

Pierre, S.D.’s, new water treatment facility won’t be like other facilities since it uses ultrafiltration, negating the need for big water tanks. In fact, most of its construction will be underground. (Rendering provided)

Pierre votes yes to water rate increase in exchange for parkbased water treatment facility By DANI MESSICK | The Municipal

The people of Pierre, S.D., voted for an increase on their water bill. The increase of nearly 40% was a stipulation of a project to build a new water treatment facility — to be uniquely situated in a municipal riverside park — for the city of about 14,000. “We knew the community was interested in pursuing this opportunity, and it was really interesting to see the numbers come in and have 73% of people say, ‘Yes, we want different water and we’re willing to

22   THE MUNICIPAL  |  MAY 2021

pay for it.’ That’s huge,” said Brooke Bohnenkamp, city of Pierre communications manager. The idea came about in 2015 after a community survey indicated the need for better water in the city. The city has run its water from 13 wells using underground aquifers since it was founded.

The new water treatment facility will be located within Steamboat Park and as such will match its aesthetics. (Rendering provided)

It chose to use a construction manager at risk agreement, contract“Even though it’s good drinking water, it’s not the best quality because it has a high iron and manganese content,” said Brad Palmer, ing PKG Contracting Inc. alongside Scull Construction Services for an city of Pierre utilities director. estimated cost of roughly $33 million. After the survey was complete, a water study was performed that Construction began in August 2020 for the building, which will be reiterated the need so the city hit the pavement in an effort to not only mostly underground thanks to use of ultrafiltration technology. figure out how to fund the project but to ensure community support. “With ultrafiltration, you’re basically running the water through “I think we have a very accessible commission,” Bohnenkamp said. these filters so you don’t need the big tanks where the water flows “We’re a relatively small community. Our mayor is a hometown boy; through sand and the sand removes the impurities,” said Palmer. with the exception of college, he’s been here his whole life and he “With that, you’re able to have a much smaller building, and with a knows a lot of people in the community and he’s very approachable. smaller building, you’re having less cost in construction so you can If you call city hall, it’s likely you can talk to the mayor directly if that’s take that money and put it into other things like taking our small what you want to do. I think that the fact that we have that kind of rela- building and making it look good.” Because the facility will pull water directly from the Missouri River, tionship with the community is really beneficial in situations like this.” The city held three public meetings explaining its ideas and laying it has to be built near the river, and in Pierre, the areas along the river out the facts before putting it to a vote for its roughly 14,000 residents. are mostly all parkland. “Before we started this project, we did lots of public outreach “It’s not going to be your typical concrete construction building,” explaining what this would look like and what it would cost, and we Palmer explained. “It’s got park-friendly colors, earth tones, a rock were very upfront from the beginning when we started discussing this facade, low profile — we’re hoping they’re going to look at it and say, opportunity that there would absolutely be a cost to everybody who ‘Wow, that is not what we expected.’” This is important because a main concern for citizens was the locais on our utilities,” Bohnenkamp said. Still, the city wanted to increase as little as possible, so it brought its tion in the park, and the city didn’t want to create an eye sore either. “It doesn’t look like an industrial building and you shouldn’t at all proposal to the Central Plains Water Development District for funding. The commission agreed to put $100,000 toward engineering and visualize what you’d normally see when you see a wastewater treatinspection fees. ment plant or something where you see a bunch of open water in In 2018, Pierre began a complex undertaking to design a nature- containers,” Bohnenkamp said. “This is a self-contained facility that themed water treatment facility that would match the aesthetic of the isn’t actually that big above ground.”  Steamboat Park, which is located on the bank of the Missouri River. MAY 2021  |  THE MUNICIPAL  23

continued from page 23 Using the Missouri River, too, creates its own host of complications. Workers will have to bore underground into the river and float a 24-inch pipe out, sink it and pull it back through the bored hole to hook it to the intake structure of the facility. In February, divers and boats took to the water to begin that portion of the project. Palmer said even though they don’t expect to be finished until 2022, the project is ahead of schedule and over 20% has been completed. The city of Pierre pumps and treats up to 5.5 million gallons of water each day and the new facility will allow for a maximum capacity of 8.8 million gallons per day for the next 40 years. “I think the younger generation wants better water, and they’re willing to pay for it,” Palmer said. “They’re just ready for better water.” The rate increase will amount to about $1 per day for the average residential customer. The city has also prepared for its well technicians, who test the water from the 13 drinking wells, to be retrained as


The facility will allow for a maximum capacity of 8.8 million gallons per day for the next 40 years. (Rendering provided)

plant operators. Palmer said city officials are not expecting any layoffs due to the improved technology. In addition to the new water treatment facility, the state is also constructing a new bridge across the Missouri River. The new

bridge will have a plaza under it along the banks in Pierre. The city is adding public restrooms, a walking path, vegetation and possibly even a splash pad to benefit the park itself.

M Focus on: Building & Construction

Bay City’s airport is key to furthering tourism-based economy ABOVE: Bay City, Mich., has seen its economy shift from industry to tourism, and the city is working to bolster that economy. (BwPfotography/

By JANET PATTERSON | The Municipal

Keeping a city alive and well when the economy makes a major shift requires generous touches of both creativity and courage. So, when Bay City, Mich., began the shift from an industrial economy to a tourismbased economy, city officials recognized one key element was improving the airport. In fact, the James Clements Airport has played an important role in the region since the Bay City Chamber of Commerce 26   THE MUNICIPAL  |  MAY 2021

determined in 1926 that the community needed an airport. By 1928, the first hangar had been constructed and two years later, the Neo-Georgian style administration building was complete. Local business leaders were instrumental in funding the airport’s construction, which

was named for the son of Bay City industrialist William Clements, who donated land and $10,000 to the project. Clements’ son, Ensign James Renville Clements, was a World War I sea plane pilot with the U.S. Naval Reserve Force when he succumbed to influenza in 1918 while serving in France. The airport’s rich history includes a period in the 1930s when Land-O-Lakes

Airline offered passenger flights between Bay City, Detroit and St. Ignace, Mich. In the 1930s, the airport was also used for training airmen from nearby Selfridge Air Force Base, now Selfridge Air National Guard Base, to fly simulated attack runs over the region’s industrial areas. With the coming of World War II, the airport became a training base for the Civilian Pilot Training Program that provided the U.S. military a pool of potential military pilots. In 2020, when longtime airport manager Doug Dodge retired after 32 years, Jeff Koons took the reins, moving into the third-floor apartment in the administration building, upholding a long-standing tradition of the manager living at the airport. According to a 2020 Michigan Department of Transportation Office of Aeronautics study, the airport’s economic impact was estimated at nearly $5 million locally and more than $5 million statewide, with about 20,000 people visiting the airport annually. Under Koons’ management and the help of Bay City administration, the airport is being prepared to grow those numbers. The city has invested in improvements to the administration building’s heating and cooling systems, its roof and lighting while also adding high speed fiber-optic internet. As a class B general aviation airport, traffic includes private aircraft as well as corporate planes, some of which are housed in hangars at the airport. Koons said expanding and resurfacing the runways will hopefully attract larger corporate jets, which will bring more travelers and business to the area. “Besides Bay City, Frankenmuth is just about 15 minutes from here,” he said, referring to the Michigan city that has a reputation for all things Christmas. “This is pretty much a 24/7 job,” he said, noting his days include making sure the lights on the runways are in good working order, that there is plenty of fuel for visiting aircraft, that the hangar is clean and the taxiways are clear. During the Michigan winter, Koons clears snow from the two intersecting runways and four taxiways, and in the summer, he cuts lots of grass on the 260-acre property. He also makes sure visitors have a fresh cup of coffee. “I’m often up until 4 or 5 in the morning, so before I get a few hours of sleep, I put on a pot of coffee so pilots have a fresh cup when they get here.” The coffee the Navy veteran serves is Black Rifle Coffee, a veteran-owned company that supports military veterans, law enforcement officers and first responders. Originally from Michigan, Koons and his wife heard about the food in Bay City before they arrived from California. “The food here in Bay City is amazing. It’s a diverse culture with German, Polish, Italian and all kinds of other ethnic foods available. And they all are really great.” The Bay City food and festival scene has contributed to the economy’s transition from industrial to tourism for the city of 33,000. Originally known as “Lower Saginaw,” Bay City was established in 1837 and incorporated as a city in 1865. Benefitting from the deeper waters where the Saginaw River flows into Lake Huron, Bay City became a busy industrial community with a robust lumbering, milling and shipbuilding economy. The Defoe Shipbuilding Company, which closed in 1975, built destroyer escorts, guided missile destroyers and patrol craft for the U.S. Navy. The area, which was once populated by the Chippewa nation, is claiming a 21st century space in the historical tourism

Improving James Clements Airport has been one of Bay City’s projects to support tourism. Through the expansion and resurfacing of its runways, it is hoped larger corporate jets, which will bring more travelers and business to the area, will be attracted. Pictured is an aerial shot of the airport. (Photo provided)

A historic site marker tells the story of the James Clements Airport, which was built after the local chamber recognized the economic benefits one could bring in 1926. The airport was dedicated to Bay City men killed during World War I and was named after Ensign James R. Clements, an aviator during the war who died of influenza in France; his father, William L. Clements, made a substantial donation toward the facility. (Photo provided)

MAY 2021  |  THE MUNICIPAL  27

continued from page 27

business with its Antique Toy and Firehouse Museum, the 19th century Saginaw River Rear Range Light and the Bay County Historical Society and Museum, which houses galleries devoted to the area’s maritime history and its early settlers and a theater that shows documentaries about the Bay City area history and notable citizens. Couple that with plenty of antique stores and visitors can spend a day stepping into Bay City history. Bay City has also made a mark in the ecotourism business with the Tobico Marsh wildlife refuge, which sits on the Great Midwestern Migratory Flyway, and the Quanicassee Wildlife Area, along with lakeside and riverfront beaches and parks. Its lively restaurant scene complements an equally robust calendar of festivals that include Rockin’ the River, a festival of powerboat races and country music concerts traditionally held in early July; the Hop Riot Beer Fest in August; and the River of Time Living History Encampment, a timeline of the area’s history from the First Nations to the American Revolution and the Civil War through the Vietnam War. The encampment draws about 1,000 reenactors in late September to entertain the 60,000 visitors with presentations, food, crafts and music spanning Bay City’s history. The city also hosts tall ships from around the country for the Tall Ships Challenge, and Ballads and Brews, a celebration of maritime music in July.

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James Clements Airport’s administration building is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and was designed by local Bay City architect Joseph C. Goddeyne. (Photo provided)

Koons also envisions having special events at the airport like barbecues, fly-in breakfasts and food truck events. He said he is surveying pilots about what they would like to have available while visiting the airport and hopes to add a food concession in the administration building.

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M Focus on: Building & Construction

Kalamazoo County’s new animal shelter better serves pets and community By THOMAS O’BRIEN | The Municipal

During a job interview 21 years ago, then job applicant Stephen J. Lawrence was asked a typical interview question: Where did he see himself in five years? His answer: As director of Animal Services and Enforcement, overseeing an upgraded facility for animals in the care of Kalamazoo County, Mich. It only took Mr. Lawrence one year to become the director; however, the new Animal Services and Enforcement facility took much longer to be realized. The nearly 20-year process entailed several site visits at other animal shelters in Michigan and elsewhere to evaluate design; attendance at conferences of animal control professionals to share ideas on the ways to improve animal care; and even a brief 30   THE MUNICIPAL  |  MAY 2021

attempt to partner with the private sector’s Kalamazoo Humane Society to build a shared facility. The $4.8 million Kalamazoo County Animal Services and Enforcement building, completed in November 2019, has incorporated an efficient layout and robust infrastructure to enhance its operations. An intercom system, in which precise needs can be communicated to all staff throughout the building in real time, has replaced an outdated doorbell system. A dual counter system in the lobby allows

LEFT: Completed in November 2019, the new Kalamazoo County Animal Services and Enforcement building offers an efficient layout and robust infrastructure to enhance its operations. With plenty of space, the facility allowed operations to continue uninterrupted during the COVID19 pandemic. (Photo provided) RIGHT: An updated ventilation system creates negative pressure in the animal hold areas to recycle air eight times an hour, in order to mitigate the transmission of airborne illnesses. (Photo provided)

ABOVE: The new kennels allow for easy feeding and watering, preventing escapes while still allowing for needed love. (Photo provided)

staff to easily shift between counters when service workloads at the respective counters change. Hard floor surfaces have replaced carpet to foster easy cleanup after animals, reducing the possibility of transferring illness and providing a more pleasant environment for humans, whether working there or just visiting. Dog and cat cages can be temporarily subdivided by guillotine doors to enable caretakers to clean one side without interference from the animal. A clinical sink is a one-stop, safe and sanitary place for disposing of animal solid waste. An enormous wash bay can accommodate the largest of dogs while an industrial-grade dishwasher quickly cleans food and water bowls. A commercial-grade laundry machine and dryer professionally clean towels, bedding and soft toys. Outside, two large enclosed pens provide space for dogs to be exercised by shelter volunteers. In the rear of the structure, a large backup power generator is on call in the event of a power outage.

Upon entering the new facility, located at 1316 Lamont Ave. in the city of Kalamazoo, one immediately experiences a comforting amount of natural light, spacious and uncluttered halls and lobby, and a welcome absence of pet-generated odor. At 16,000-plus square feet, the new building has more than doubled the size of the old structure. Numerous well-positioned windows allow abundant light to enter the rooms on the perimeter where animals — cats and dogs — are housed. An updated ventilation system creates negative pressure in the animal hold areas to recycle air eight times an hour, in order to mitigate the transmission of airborne illnesses that can plague cats and dogs held in close quarters. Mood music is piped into the U-shaped cat adoption room to de-stress feline occupants, well known for sensitivity to their environment. There are plans for future enhancements to the facility, such as adding a section of fence to enclose a very large field out back where dogs up for adoption could interact with potential owners in  MAY 2021  |  THE MUNICIPAL  31

continued from page 31

a wide-open but contained environment. That field is large enough it could potentially accommodate an agility course for dogs. Utility infrastructure has been installed underground to a location on the site where a potential shelter could be built — depending on the availability of future funding — that would house large animals, such as goats, horses and cows, in an emergency. The new Animal Services and Enforcement building was completed just as the coronavirus emerged in the United States, which posed a stiff challenge to local agencies throughout the country in continuing the provision of services to citizens. The new building layout enabled the Kalamazoo County Animal Services and Enforcement staff to keep the facility open in order to continue providing services to the community, something which may not have been possible in the rabbit warren of the old structure. People were simply sitting too close together in the old building to safely work while a highly transmissible virus was literally in the air. The lengthy process to commit to building the new animal shelter benefitted Kalamazoo County in terms of getting the right design for the well-being of animals. According to Lawrence, “This is the best shelter in Michigan in terms of layout,” and when operations return to normal, he expects several other agencies that need to upgrade their animal care facilities to visit the county’s new building to see how Kalamazoo County upgraded its care of animals and improved service to the public.


Dog and cat cages can be temporarily subdivided by guillotine doors to enable caretakers to clean one side without interference from the animal. (Photo provided)

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“ C T EC H M a n u fa c t u r i n g h a s p rov e n t h e i r p rofe s s i o n a l i s m , s h ow e d t h e i r i n c re d i b l e attention to detail with an outstanding s u p e r i o r q u a l i t y p ro d u c t . I w a n t t o s ay t h a t C T EC H M a n u fa c t u r i n g i s v e r y s u p p o r t i v e of Law E nfo rc e m e n t a n d d o e s a n exc e l l e n t j o b p ro d u c i n g a n exc e p t i o n a l p ro r duct. I am pleased with the re l a t i o n s h i p t h a t w e h av e b u i l t .” -S h e r i ff M a r k P o d o l l G re e n La ke C o u n t y, G re e n La ke , W I


M Focus on: Building & Construction

Johnsonville, S.C., realized a new municipal complex in 2021. The new structure will serve its present and future needs for decades. (Photo provided)

A ‘complex’ situation: Johnsonville, S.C., opens new municipal complex By JULIE YOUNG | The Municipal

City halls are structures that play a variety of roles in a community. In addition to serving as the headquarters for local government officials, it is the place where bills are paid, plans are laid and decisions are made. While they may be ornate or more modest, a city hall is a municipal hub, requiring a building that can grow and change with the times. When Johnsonville, S.C., needed a larger edifice for community affairs, it found a location that would create interest in the city’s downtown area and spur the development of new businesses. 34   THE MUNICIPAL  |  MAY 2021

A new plan According to David R. Mace, downtown development director for the city of Johnsonville, the previous city hall was built in the 1950s, was a mere 2,500 square feet and had run out of office space. The city council chambers were so small and could not accommodate more than 30 visitors per meeting. “There was no room for growth,” he said. “City hall was also situated on a fairly small

An open house was held Feb. 23, 2021, for the new municipal complex. (Photo provided)

Johnsonville City Administrator Jim Smith gets to work in his new office. (Photo provided)

parcel, which also included a parking lot, so there was very little room for growth.” The city leaders agreed it would not be feasible to renovate the existing building, and they made plans to construct a new municipal complex in the heart of Johnsonville’s downtown district at 117 E. Broadway St. The new city hall project was an opportunity to revitalize the area while giving Johnsonville the municipal complex it needed. Downtown Johnsonville took a hit in the early 2000s when the U.S. Postal Service closed the main post office branch on Broadway Street and opened a new facility on Highway 41/51, the main highway running through town. A few years later, Florence County built a new library on the same highway and closed the downtown branch. “This resulted in a significant decrease in downtown foot and vehicle traffic,” Mace said. “Many businesses closed or relocated leaving a lot The new municipal complex holds a larger city council chamber/ of empty storefronts.” The site for Johnsonville’s new city hall was a 1-acre parcel that was municipal courtroom that can accommodate more people. (Photo purchased years ago and was home to a vacant grocery store at the provided) back of the property with a parking lot out front. City leaders saw the space was in a desirable location and initially considered converting the grocery store, but because the nearly 50-year-old building had some structural issues, the city decided to raze the structure and build a new complex on the site. “Not only would it be able to accommodate large council meetings, it also could be used for other community meetings,” Mace said. “(In addition) a new municipal complex would bring more attention and traffic to Broadway Street and downtown.” Putting plans into action Johnsonville leaders put together a $2.2 million construction budget, which would be financed through a 20-year loan at a 2.5% interest rate, and requested proposals from design firms that were interested in creating the new facility. They chose Johnson, Laschober & Associates from Augusta, Ga., which worked with city hall staff to evaluate both their current and future needs, including the larger city council chamber/municipal courtroom and a conference room that

The new city hall will be a 50-year building and was designed with both current and future needs in mind. (Photo provided)

MAY 2021  |  THE MUNICIPAL  35

continued from page 35

could serve as a jury deliberation room. It is believed that the new city hall will be a 50-year building, serving the current and future needs of Johnsonville residents for several decades to come. “We now have a training room that can be converted to an emergency operations center, and we have additional offices for water and wastewater treatment staff as well as a separate office for our mayor,” Mace said. The groundbreaking for the 7,236-square-foot building was held in November 2019, but construction did not officially begin until January 2020. Naturally, the COVID-19 pandemic presented some challenges in securing building materials, scheduling contractors and other minor issues delayed the project, but they were able to hold a public open house on Feb. 23, 2021. “The overall public reaction has been positive,” Mace said. “You always have a few who are opposed to change and any project that might use public funds, but most citizens are able to see the big picture and realize that this is an investment in Johnsonville’s future.” Mace said it is too early to measure the impact the new Johnsonville municipal complex will have on increasing interest and development. However, two properties directly across the street from the complex, which were previously vacant, have been rented since construction began.

Renovating and renewing city hall Johnsonville is not the only community in South Carolina to recently rehabilitate, rebuild or revitalize their civic structures. In 2019, Lowrys renovated a vacant building in the center of town into a town hall thanks in part to a $20,000 Hometown Economic Development Grant from the South Carolina Municipal Association. The original building was constructed as a community health center in 1949 before becoming a private medical practice in the mid-80s. Today, it not only allows the mayor to conduct the business of the town but also enables community members to meet, host gatherings and bring the citizenry together in a variety of ways. That same year, the town of Rowesville opened its new town hall in a building designed to look like a Victorian-era train depot. The building hearkens back to 1876, when the town was incorporated, and doubles as a museum complete with a 1919 parlor stove, luggage cart and hand-cranked telephone.

“Another property in the same block, which has been vacant for several years, has been sold since the municipal complex opened,” he said. “The new owners plan to open a restaurant there.”

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City Profile

With Old West charm, Deadwood draws people in

By LAUREN CAGGIANO | The Municipal

Deadwood, S.D., reimagined by the popular HBO series, is more than an Old West town. It’s also known for historic renovation, tourism and natural beauty. Kevin Kuchenbecker serves as the city’s historic preservation officer. He said by its nature the job comes with its share of interesting projects. “We became a national historic landmark on July 4, 1961,” he said. “Even before the Historic Preservation Act of 1966, we were considered a National Historic Landmark. And then 1966, with the passage of that act, all national landmarks were automatically put on the National Register. So, we have a National Register District and National Historic Landmark District, both with the same boundaries.” Preservation is at the forefront of the city’s planning today, but that wasn’t always the case. According to Kuchenbecker, it wasn’t until 1988 that officials started to intentionally build a robust preservation commission that reviewed exterior alterations. That 40   THE MUNICIPAL | MAY 2021

ABOVE: Deadwood, S.D., a city of about 12,000, welcomes approximately 2.5 million visitors annually. The tourism season typically starts in April and goes through the summer months. (Photo by Mary Lester)

work was in preparation for the legalization of gaming there, only behind Atlantic City and the state of Nevada. Now the city is realizing the fruits of those labors. “Per the state’s constitutional amendment, net funding from gaming goes to historic preservation,” he said. “So, we’re fortunate that we get gaming revenues to implement our preservation plan.” To understand the size and scope of the funding, Kuchenbecker said taxation and the gaming device fees generated over $16 million annually. “The state gets about $9 (million) of that and we get about $7 million,” he said. According to Kuchenbecker, the revenue mainly comes from tourists, some from around the region and others who hail from countries around the globe. The municipality of about 12,000

Deadwood became a national historic landmark on July 4, 1961, but didn’t intentionally build a robust preservation commission until 1988. This focus on preservation has made downtown Deadwood a tourist destination. Pictured is the Fairmont Hotel, the former 1895 Victorian Brothel, Bar & Gaming Hall, which now offers ghost and paranormal tours, integrated with historical perspectives relating to its violent and colorful past. (Photo by Mary Lester) Jeramy Russell, the city’s planning and zoning administrator, holds an artifact from Deadwood, S.D.’s, past. The city has a long history that has been preserved for visitors to enjoy. (Photo provided)

welcomes approximately 2.5 million visitors annually. The tourism season typically starts in April and goes through the summer months. That activity helps Kuchenbecker’s department fulfill its mission. “Within the downtown, we have several historic buildings with upper floors being rehabilitated,” he said. “In any given year, we probably have anywhere between two and 300 projects under the purview of the Historic Preservation Commission.” With one foot in the past and another in the future, Kuchenbecker said they’re looking to take their efforts to the next level. In his words, “we have a branding, development and marketing plan that we’ve been working out of that includes wayfinding banners, interpretive panels, etc.” Deadwood also has living history reenactments on Main Street and a stagecoach that runs seven days a week during the summer. Last year, the city opened up a new public gathering space called Outlaw Square. This summer it’s gearing up for a concert series. Kuchenbecker said Deadwood also has an impressive lineup of events. “We have Monday movie nights throughout the summer,” he said. “We have free outdoor movies Tuesday night. Wednesday night is concerts, and those are local and regional bands. Thursday is family fun night, which is sponsored by our museums.” Speaking of museums, tourists can learn about Deadwood’s rich — and often sordid — history at one of the town’s venues. “We have four or five facilities that are run by Deadwood History Inc., which is our preservation partner,” he said. “For example, we

have the Adams Museum, the Days of ’76 Museum, the Historic Adams House and the Homestake Adams Research and Cultural Center. And then last year, we opened a brothel museum and tour.” The town also benefits from events like Wild Bill Days, Cool Deadwood Nights and the Sturgis Motorcycle Rally — the largest of its kind in the world. And despite COVID-19, they’ve managed to bring in impressive numbers, according to Jeramy Russell, the city’s planning and zoning administrator. “We’ve had some record numbers in the last year,” he said. “If you go downtown, today in March, it’s almost like a summer day. There’s so much fun going on. We just came off St. Patrick’s Day weekend, which was the weekend before St. Patrick’s Day. All weeklong, Deadwood was busy.” That activity is encouraging, especially when many cities nationwide have lost revenue due to the pandemic. “Gaming revenues are up over last year,” Kuchenbecker said. “So, if you look at the gaming revenues in January of 2019, compared to January 2018, they went up 12%. When you look at January 2020 compared to January 2021, we’re up over 13%. So that’s a 25% increase just in the month of January, which is our slow time over previous years.” But it’s not just tourists who are driving growth. According to Russell, the area is growing in population, too. He attributes it to the way the governor handled the pandemic. Also, there’s been a move away from cities in general. You also can’t discount the power of a sense of place on a spiritual level. “If you’ve ever been out here before, there’s just something about the Black Hills,” he said. “Even if you’ve visited once, or you grew up here, but left for a while … there’s something about here that draws you back.”  MAY 2021 | THE MUNICIPAL  41

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Streets, Highways & Bridges

Cities show pride in local residents through downtown banners By NICHOLETTE CARLSON | The Municipal

Congratulations Senior Class of 2020

Congratulations Senior Class of 2020

Celebrating high school seniors on banners has been a growing trend nationwide, especially in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. (, illustration by Mary Lester)

Congratulations Senior Class of 2020



A rising trend is celebrating a city and its residents through banners. Many of these banners line the streets along main thoroughfares and can include artwork or honor local veterans and students. Erwin, Tenn. When traveling to a conference near Pittsburgh, Pa., Jamie Rice drove through a town that had banners honoring veterans on display and she decided to utilize the idea for veterans back home in Erwin. It took several months of advertising, gathering information and triple checking the information, but the city reached its goal of getting the banners up in time for the annual Memorial Day parade. Erwin makes a day out of honoring its local veterans with a breakfast, parade and then lunch on Memorial Day. Local veterans are able to ride on a float in the parade. Last year banners of some of The veteran banners these veterans lined the streets during will hang in downtown the parade. Erwin, Tenn., from The banners serve as an extra honor for Memorial Day to the local veterans. In downtown Erwin, there Fourth of July. They will hang for two years. are 18 poles. Utilizing each side of the banner allows for 36 different images to Afterward, the banners be represented. Family members are able will be given to the to sponsor a side of the banner for $50. family that sponsored They then send in the photo they would them. (Photo provided like included on the banner along with by the city of Erwin, the name of the veteran, military branch Tenn.) and era served. The banners are displayed for six weeks from Memorial Day through the Fourth of July and switched out after two years. After the two years are complete, the banners will be given to the family members who sponsored them. New banners will be displayed in 2022. Rice is currently taking calls to sponsor banners for next year. Rice did mention some of the poles and, therefore, banners were blocked by trees. This issue is something she and the city will be taking into consideration for this year and the upcoming set of banners next year. While they have not decided on a particular solution, simple tree trimming may be a possibility. Davis, Okla. As a way to honor the 2020 graduating class, the city of Davis teamed up with the school corporation to celebrate their high school seniors. Andy Holland, city manager, stated, “The idea originated with the school administration asking for help to decorate Main Street with some sort of recognition for the graduating class. Discussion led to the idea of hanging banners of senior photos.” There were 59 graduates in the 2020 senior class, and their photographs were hung on banners from 30 downtown street lights. “Due to the limited school budget, the city of Davis funded the banners

To honor their veterans, the city of Erwin, Tenn., created banners with veterans’ names and photos. Pictured is Wayne Clark today staring up at his banner. Each banner was sponsored by a family. (Photo provided by the city of Erwin, Tenn.)

with approximately $3,000 out of the Christmas decoration budget,” Holland explained. However, the local vendor Pro-Vinyl Solutions, which created the banners, received a number of orders from other towns. These orders reduced the final cost to Davis for its senior class banners. The final cost was cut in half, totaling $1,500. After putting up the banners, both the city and the school received phone calls of praise for the banner project, not only locally but from as far away as Virginia and New York. Holland emphasized these banners were a way to help brighten the students’ spirits after such a difficult year and unknown graduation plans, as well as to let each student know the whole city was proud of them.



Municipal Management

Municipalities showing mercy with amnesty programs By DENISE FEDOROW | The Municipal

Some municipalities are finding that showing a little mercy to their residents via amnesty programs is paying off for them. Cities like Reading, Pa., and Green, Ohio, enacted amnesty programs on real estate taxes, and Richmond, Va., was considering it. Winter Spring, Fla., enacted an amnesty program for code compliance liens this year, which has been quite successful. Professor Justin Ross, associate professor of public finance in the School of Public and Environmental Affairs at Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind., wrote a paper on the topic in 2012, titled “Local Government Property Tax Amnesty Programs — Structures and Themes,” where he found a number of local governments with amnesty programs had grown in the decade prior to 2012.


Ross wrote, “While use of tax amnesty programs have been commonplace for decades among subnational governments in the United States, historically these offers have not been extended to delinquent real property taxes.” In that decade from 2002-2012, 29 property tax amnesties had been offered in seven states. However, Ross said, “Property tax amnesty is so rare” he could think of only two counties in the state of Indiana where there may have been a local property tax amnesty program. “At the local government level, most amnesty programs are related to library fines — very small items,” he said.

Professor Justin Ross, associate professor of public finance at the School of Public and Environmental Affairs with Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind., has studied and written papers on local governments’ amnesty programs. (Photo provided)

The reason for that, he surmised, is “a bit of tension” about whether local governments are allowed to offer such programs. He said some can, but they need state approval. One of the themes he discovered was when a local government offered property tax amnesty, it was generally done on a caseby-case basis and when it was hindering economic development. He mentioned a case in Detroit where a property was being offered for sale for a mere $10, but the amount of delinquent property tax that needed to be paid first made it too expensive. “That would be a good case for amnesty,” Ross said. He said overall “property taxes have a high rate of compliance so there’s generally only a handful of cases.” His paper notes most tax amnesty programs usually offer waivers from any criminal charges as well as forgiveness of penalties and interest. He also summarized five points of using real property tax amnesty as a fiscal management tool. Those points are: 1.) Improving property tax compliance — By offering amnesty, it gives people an option to get the delinquent tax paid. Putting liens on a property and seizing a property can get expensive and complicated. 2.) As a substitute to hosting tax auctions — It’s been said that it’s not worth it unless there’s a million dollars in tax liens.

ABOVE & BELOW: The downtown area of Winter Haven, Fla., is shown. Winter Haven is located in central Florida between Tampa and Orlando and has a population of 47,000. (Photos provided)

3.) Advance economic development — A city can’t sell a property while tax is owed on it. 4.) Improving compliance on other revenue instruments — Another strategy of a handful of amnesty programs was bundling the real property tax amnesty with more difficult to collect revenue sources. 5.) Increases revenue collections — Amnesty generally is faster than having a property go into foreclosure.

Ross said a disadvantage of tax amnesty programs is noncompliance. “If people know there’s a tax amnesty program, some may take advantage of that,” he said, especially at the state level. He is aware of an advisor telling someone before they paid their taxes to check if there was an amnesty program, and in another paper, Ross wrote some businesses were using tax amnesty “as short-term business loans.”


continued from page 47

Ross also cautioned if they let properties go multiple years without collecting, “it’s much more complicated.” “Some tax lawyer said if it goes multiple years, it’s almost impossible,” he said. He explained since there are several lien holders on property taxes — schools, county, state, libraries, etc. — it becomes muddled as to who has priority. To avoid that, local government should consider using the threat of seizure in the first year, and depending on the size of the bill, it would make its money back. Winter Haven Code Compliance Amnesty Winter Haven, Fla., enacted an amnesty program for code compliance in January and has had great success with it. Winter Haven is located in central Florida between Orlando and Tampa. It has a population of 47,000. Winter Haven also has 55 lakes with 24 of them connected by canals, making it the Chain of Lakes City. Tanya Ayers, city of Winter Haven code compliance supervisor, said she’s been wanting to enact an amnesty program for a number of years, “but with the pandemic and people struggling financially, we were able to come up with a program that allows people to resolve their code compliance liens at the least amount and without the inconvenience of attending a hearing.” The city enacted the program from January to June of this year. She said there were 274 cases on that lien list with a total balance owed of $12,381,756, and the goal was to get that reduced by a million dollars. To date in mid-March, 40 of the 274 have paid — 30 through the amnesty program and 10 through other means. “When people call us because they got the notice of the amnesty program, we work the numbers, and for a few of them, another way works better for them,” she said. The amnesty program reduces the lien by 5% of the total or $1,000, whichever is less, they pay a $50 application fee and all city costs, including the cost for processing the case, mailing costs and inspections. She said if the amount owed is smaller, the city has a different program that might be best. If the amount is too large, residents can approach the special magistrate to reduce the amount. “Our goal was to reduce the liens by a million dollars, and by close of business on March 22, the liens were reduced by $1,091,860. It’s definitely been a success, and we have more applications coming in.” Ayers explained the amnesty program is for code compliance issues that have gone to the special magistrate and have been assessed fines. She mentioned one example of $94,000 in liens owed. The amount depends on how much the person is fined on a daily basis and how much the daily fine for noncompliance is. The $94,000 is a case from 2017. She pointed out these are not special assessment liens like mowing tall grass where the city can correct it and charge the property owner; these are code violations the city doesn’t have the ability to correct like large amounts of junk on the property or roof repairs, for example. To be eligible for the amnesty program, the property owner must first come into compliance and then submit an application. “We’ve had such a positive response to this program from our citizens. They’re so grateful to have the opportunity to reduce their fines and glad they don’t have to come in for hearing. It’s been a great program,” she said.


This lake is one of the 55 lakes in Winter Haven. The city is known as the Chain of Lakes City. (Photo provided)

“People get overwhelmed,” she said, adding if the amount owed is $20,000, they think what’s the point? “This way they can see where they can get it down to next to nothing. Plus it gives us the opportunity to talk to our people and give them ideas of how to get into compliance.” COVID was the driving force to enacting the program as well as trying to resolve liens in the easiest way for residents while encouraging compliance. Ayers has been with the city for 22 years, and she said this is the first time it has ever done anything like this. She didn’t see any disadvantages to the temporary program. “The hard part was getting the data together to do mass mailings to let the people know about the program. Beyond that, there were no negative administrative side effects. It’s gone very smoothly.” White Haven will probably reexamine the program in five years to see if there’s a need to do it at that time. “At the very least sending the letters allowed us to talk to people about their options to maintain compliance. As government officials, we should keep those lines of communication open,” she said. “It’s been a real positive thing. I hope other municipalities decide to try it and reach out to us,” she said. Ross said his best advice is to not “be put in a position where you need an amnesty program, but don’t let it go multiple years. The best cases to use it are when it prevents the transfer of property.” Ayers said she’d definitely recommend cities use an amnesty program where they can but advises, “Try to make the process as easy as possible for the citizens — that’s the key. If it’s cumbersome or the liens are too high for the average resident, you’re not going to get it. Make it as easy as possible.” Showing a little forgiveness where it’s prudent to do so may be a winning solution for all parties.

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Parks & Environmental Services

City uses splash pads to introduce children to nature

Because Little Rock’s splash pad boulders were harvested from northern Arkansas, there was no design for how they would fit together. (Photo provided) 50   THE MUNICIPAL | MAY 2021

Adventurous children work their way up the boulder walls. The hope is children will take their experiences at the splash pads and develop a desire to explore nature. (Photo provided) By DANI MESSICK | The Municipal

For the city of Little Rock, Ark., nature is a high priority when it comes to children’s growth. A book written by Richard Louv in 2005, called “The Last Child in the Woods: Saving Our Children From Nature-Deficit Disorder,” has impacted city officials’ decisions when it comes to children’s play throughout Little Rock. “If kids are not presented with nature or don’t play with nature or don’t have that experience, when those kids grow up, who is going to be saving our forests or creating that experience for the next generation?” the city’s Park Design Manager Leland Couch asked. According to Couch, City Director Dean Kumpuris has always placed a big focus on the city’s Riverfront Park. It boasts a custom-design sculpture garden, toddler playground and the city’s first natural splash pad, which was constructed in 2006. “(Kumpuris) wanted to be able to create an urban experience where children could go and play with water and natural materials, not just your big bright metal playgrounds.” A natural state, Arkansas is known for its forests, creeks and rivers. “To bring a little bit of that into the urban environment for kids to play with was something we thought was special,” Couch continued. The first natural splash pad, Peabody Playground — located in Riverfront Park — features a variety of natural architecture to envelope the playground throughout. Large native boulders were harvested from northern Arkansas to create the majority of the design-build project. “We’d have say 100 boulders delivered and we’d say, ‘You need to stack them and make a wall.’ (The construction workers would) joke and say

that the boulders weren’t numbered. There wasn’t a puzzle or a design for how these boulders went together.” Ultimately, Couch ended up moving into an office at the park and working there for several months to assist with the design process of the walls. “This is not your typical playground system,” he said. The design-build project cost roughly $800,000, according to Couch, due to the use of contracted labor, which is substantially more than a typical playground. Couch added, “It would be hard to compare this to the cost of a normal playground.” Still, it was so well received that the city decided to add another at War Memorial Park. The natural splash pads feature lots of landscaping, open terrain, tunnels, slides and even swings. “I always feel like there is a need for a big dramatic slide or a swing set or a climber (in) each of these; we’ve incorporated those pieces,” Couch said. “At War Memorial we have slides, but the slides are buried in boulders, so you don’t see them but you still have that experience.” Unlike Peabody Playground, War Memorial Park’s splash pad was created by staff of the parks department. It cost roughly $400,000. “You can’t just pick War Memorial playground out of a catalog and say, ‘This is what I want.’ It was custom fitted to the site and the design. We had great staff that helped us develop it. That’s not to say that it can’t be done.”  MAY 2021 | THE MUNICIPAL  51

continued from page 51

Being a certified playground inspector, Couch knew there were some risks involved with creating the unique splash pads. “We put in your typical safety standards, but the guidelines don’t have anything in there saying, ‘If you stack this many boulders, you need this much fall height,’ but we took the idea from the playground components and made it fit to what we were designing.” Couch said he felt like the rewards of the structure outweighed the risks, though. The city kept a book of public comments that officials used to modify the parks in the early years. To keep the playground safe, some things just couldn’t be natural, the ground material, for example. They chose to use poured-in-place rubber. “We realized that using a loose material such as mulch or pea gravel wasn’t going to be the best material in this case and the rubber has done really well,” he explained. Despite the fact that Little Rock boasts these two unique splash pad environments, Couch admitted he’s excited for the introduction of a traditional splash pad to the community. “I’m excited to see the comparison. It’ll be like, ‘What kind of splash pad do people want to go to today?’” The new splash pad was funded 10 years ago after a survey of the community indicated a need for improvements to one community park. They broke ground in February. The projects haven’t been without their fair share of concerns. One scenario the city did decide to change was the flow rate of the water. As it turns out, the kids don’t notice. “These are running city water that you could drink. Little Rock is blessed with a very good source of water so we don’t have the concerns some other parts of the country might have in terms of cost of water.” The water for the splash pads is run through city water and then drained into a nearby wetland to ultimately drain out to a river or creek after sitting. “Because we did that, we are not paying sewer rates on the water, we are not paying for chemicals, we’re not having to pull the water because it’s all gravity fed, and we don’t have to have a lifeguard go out and test the water to make sure it’s up to clean standards for kids to play in because it’s always fresh and clean.” Couch said. “Kids could actually stick their head in and drink it; I mean, I wouldn’t tell them to but they could.” Couch hopes the splash pads will offer the opportunity to experience nature to kids who might not normally be able to.

Little Rock aimed to connect local children with nature when designing its one-of-a-kind splash pads, which brought in boulders from northern Arkansas. Pictured is the War Memorial Park splash pad. (Photo provided)

Poured-in-place rubber was used for the ground material for safety reasons. As a fun feature, children can also enjoy slides at War Memorial Park. (Photo provided)

“Hopefully, kids will go down and experience this and have fun playing in what we’ve created here and say, ‘I want to experience more of this,’ and they’ll go out and experience it for real in nature.”

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Fleet Service & Management

From the highest levels, Anacortes prioritizes alternative energy

By SARAH WRIGHT | The Municipal

From Mayor Laurie Gere and the city council to individual city departments, an emphasis on reducing Anacortes, Wash.’s, carbon footprint has been championed by all. Anacortes Public Works has strived to do its part by pursuing alternative fuel sources and energy-saving measures like switching its water plant to LED lights. “We’re always looking to reduce our carbon footprint,” Nicole Tesch, Anacortes Public Works administrative manager, said, adding city council members are very proactive and leading the charge in this pursuit. Leadership is also given by Director of Public Works Fred Buckenmeyer, who selects a theme for his department each year. 2020 was to “get it done,” which encouraged staff members to find solutions to challenges. “This year,” Tesch said, “Fred is challenging staff to make a difference.” This has included added customer service following a challenging year thanks to the pandemic, which might have limited 54   THE MUNICIPAL | MAY 2021

residents’ interactions. “We’re encouraged to make a difference for our residents and on our overall footprint. We’ve been challenged, and we’ve accepted that challenge.” The fleet division continually has its eyes open for ways to slash its carbon footprint. “The fleet division is responsible for 400 pieces of equipment.” Tesch noted these include, fire trucks, cars and more. “Nine and half to 10 years is the average life span of these pieces. We’re taking good care of them and being good stewards of the equipment and our on-site fuel system.” Included among those 400 pieces of equipment are 20 alternative fuel vehicles,

ABOVE: Anacortes, Wash.’s, fleet division has embraced a citywide mission to reduce the carbon footprint by adopting alternative fuel vehicles. Pictured are some of its alternative fuel rigs, which use electricity or propane. (Photo provided)

which have displaced approximately 7,500 gallons of gasoline within a 12-month time span. Propane is one alternative fuel that has been welcomed into the fleet since around 2015 as it was emerging in popularity. Between gas savings — propane is less costly than gas or diesel — and a small grant, the city has saved about $20,000 by adopting the alternative fuel. It has also reduced its carbon footprint. Because Anacortes uses dual-fuel, a combination of gas and propane, vehicles’ ranges are improved as well. “Propane was a logical choice based on cost, ease of conversion and availability of fuel,” Wil Ludemann, operations manager for Anacortes Public Works, said, noting it has worked well for the city’s light-duty and

higher turnover vehicles since it is easier to bring in more propane-fueled vehicles at a time. “The infrastructure is a lot smaller than natural gas.” Anacortes has its own fueling facility with a state contract for propane. Since the local school district has integrated propane buses into its fleet, it has also benefited from the infrastructure being in place. However, one particular challenge with propane has been the lack of vendors. Ludemann noted the local community college works between the city and one vendor for propane vehicles, and the fleet division does a lot of its own propane conversions. Driving this vendor dearth is the trend of original equipment manufacturers taking more control of the vehicles they manufacture, increasing the difficulty of reprogramming vehicle computers for alternative fuels. “The industry is turning away from all fuels that are not electric,” Ludemann added. For this reason, using dual-fueled vehicles is often beneficial. “There are some drivers who love (propane) and some who didn’t,” Ludemann said, noting propane acts a bit different from traditional gasoline. “Most people were on board.” Another benefit, according to Ludemann, is, “There are a lot of rebates and grants, and we took advantage of that.” Anacortes has always maintained an eye for opportunities, with Russ Pittis, resource conservation manager, pointing to the city’s efforts to construct the infrastructure required by electric vehicles. “When the DOC (Department of Commerce) offered its grant, that is when we started to pursue it.” In June 2020, Anacortes applied for the DOC Electrification of Transportation grant, asking for $28,804.55. This figure would enable the installation of three dual ChargePoint EV chargers — two at city hall and one at the library. “We are redeveloping the city hall parking complex, doing some repairs and low-impact developments like rain gardens and permeable pavement — really upgrading the parking complex,” Buckenmeyer said, adding the EV chargers fit with that improvement project while also fueling the city’s two fully electric vehicles and one plug-in vehicle. Pittis added, “They are also for public use and for tourists to use.”

This infographic shows the participants taking part in Puget Sound Energy’s Green Direct project, including Anacortes in phase one. Through the project, participants will be purchasing 100% renewable electricity. (Graphic provided)

Anacortes’ regional water treatment plant was a driving force for entering into an agreement with Puget Sound Energy in 2016 to purchase green energy from the Skookumchuck Wind Facility for 20 years. The agreement started in November 2020 after the wind facility went online. (Photo provided)

Two other chargers are also available in the downtown corridor. Tesch shared the pandemic had shown how EV chargers could benefit all within that corridor. “With curbside pickup, while being patient, (a driver) can pop in a charger while they wait.” The grant for the new EV chargers was approved in December 2020. Anacortes was one of 37 applicants and one of the 14 selected to receive funds. The grant is a 1:1 ratio, requiring the city to have matching funds. These came from the lodging tax approved by the city council. The library’s

matching funds came from the Anacortes Public Library Foundation. “It’s (the EV charger installation) still a work in progress,” Pittis said. “By early summer if not midsummer, they will all be installed.” As more emphasis is placed on electric vehicles nationwide, Anacortes is laying the groundwork for greener electricity. The city signed an agreement with Puget Sound Energy in 2016, stating it would purchase green power from the Skookumchuck Wind Facility — about a five-hour drive  MAY 2021 | THE MUNICIPAL  55

continued from page 55

from Anacortes — after its construction for the city’s 77 meters over 20 years. The facility came online in November 2020, starting the city’s 20-year commitment to purchase 100% green power. This move goes beyond fleet. “The reason why the city wanted to use green energy is we have a regional water plant. It stemmed from a desire to cut that carbon footprint,” Buckenmeyer said, noting the facility serves about 60,000 customers not only in Anacortes but in neighboring communities. Anacortes and its public works department aren’t about to rest on their laurels. “We will continue to look at new options for powering our fleet,” Ludemann said of its fleet division. “Electric seems to be the ticket.” Hydrogen is on the radar, too, though Ludemann stated it isn’t feasible yet cost- or availability-wise. Electric has its own downside as its viability for heavier equipment isn’t there yet; however, he noted, “Charging technology will change,” but until then, the industry still needs to “fill the niche for a good work truck.” While embracing new fuels and technology, Anacortes’ strategy has still applied a healthy amount of caution to avoid stumbling blocks that often go with new technology. “When you get the big manufacturers adopting it, that is when to buy,” Ludemann said, highlighting the trend of the industry embracing electric. “Ford and Chevy have both committed to being out of the internal combustion engine in 10 years.”

Russ Pittis, resource conservation manager, shares information about the city’s solar arrays with two young residents. The solar arrays are located at the public library, public safety building and city hall. (Photo provided)




Public Works

Building bright futures in public works By AMANDA DEMSTER | The Municipal

Finding qualified employees for any job can be difficult, and public works is no exception.

Instruction is hands-on at the Public Works Academy, and many students find a niche in public works that specifically interests them. (Photo provided)


With this in mind, Grand Rapids Community College in Grand Rapids, Mich., has teamed up with municipalities and other entities in the surrounding area to create Public Works Academy, an entry-level training program that prepares future employees for the world of public works employment. Public Works Academy is not limited to a specific age group, meaning participants do not have to be traditional college age. “We have people ages 18 to 55 participating,” GRCC Executive Director of Workforce Training Julie Parks said. “So, it’s open to any age: people looking for new careers, leaving jail, looking to start a career.” The program, which began in 2019, covers entry-level training in areas like roads, green infrastructure, parks and recreation, wastewater, stormwater and anything else falling under the umbrella of public works. Examples of skills include operating equipment like snowplows and lifts, flagger training, tree trimming, safety, maintenance and a list of others. Students learn from professionals, gaining firsthand experience out in the field. “Along with our faculty members who have done the job before, they’re getting that mentorship,” Parks said. “They see the traffic center, the command control center for when there’s an emergency, things they never knew existed. They get to fill potholes — they get it all.” Initially, Public Works Academy offered 96 hours of training, but that has since increased to 139 hours, offered two ways. Students can choose to take classes three full days a week or six hours a week in the evenings. This ensures the program is open to all who are interested, including those who work and cannot get away to take a daytime class. According to Parks, courses are offered twice a year: once in the springtime ahead of the major hiring season and once in the fall as winter snowplowing season approaches. “We want to make sure there are always opportunities for jobs at the end of the program,” she said. “We don’t want them to finish the program and not do anything.” Partnerships with surrounding municipalities and other entities ensure trainees have access to real-life, hands-on learning. These include municipal partners like the Grand Rapids and Grand Haven public works departments, the Michigan Department of Transportation and area county road commissions, plus a number of businesses and nonprofit organizations. “Those partners come in, help with recruitment, get students ready, lend equipment to use — it’s really a true partnership,” Parks said.

In Michigan, Grand Rapids Community College’s Public Works Academy continued in-person instruction throughout the COVID19 pandemic, using social distancing and personal protective equipment. The continuation of in-person classes was important to the college’s partners since public works professionals have to keep city services operational. (Photo provided) Public Works Academy students come from all walks of life and can For example, she said the college does not own a snowplow, so they be any age. Grand Rapids Community College has people from 18 to borrow one from Kent County. The road department might send a 55 participating in the academy so far. (Photo provided) certified flagger for training in that area. Training for Public Works Academy is generalized; however, As of March 2021, 53 people had completed Public Works Academy, throughout the course of the class, many students find a niche that specifically interests them. Because of this, Grand Rapids Community and 50 had taken jobs in the public works sector. While this mainly College is developing Public Works II, a follow-up program that will includes students in the Grand Rapids area, Parks noted the college is be more specialized. not opposed to making the Public Works Academy curriculum availParks described Public Works II as being closer to an apprentice- able in other areas. “If there is a community college in the area, if there are other municiship than a class. “Most of the people who go into Public Works Academy have zero palities that wanted to do this, we will give them our curriculum,” she experience, no skills,” she said. “And now they know, ‘I want to be in said. Currently, similar courses are being taught in parts of Florida and a the fleet area, I want to work with the arborist, the wastewater treatment plant.’ The dream is to go on and develop apprenticeships to few other states. Due to the nature of the training, there are no online keep developing the workforce and giving people skills they need in formats available. During the COVID-19 shutdowns, classes continued advance.” in person, with social distancing and personal protective equipment It does not stop there, however. A common belief is that, in order to requirements. “Our partners don’t think we should do it online,” Parks said. “They enjoy a successful career, students need to earn a traditional, four-year college degree, then go on to work in an office. However, Parks said, thought it was important because public works people have to work, public works provides a well-paying career with many benefits. Reten- no matter what. City services have to happen.” Parks encourages municipalities and community colleges throughtion is high, she added, due to the continuing need for well-trained out the country to consider programs like Public Works Academy. employees. In light of this, another goal is to reach out to younger students and “I think that every municipality, no matter how small, can work their parents, educating them on what a public works career has to together to build their future workforce,” Parks said. “I don’t think offer. people realize how important these jobs are and how needed they are.” “We’re working now on summer camps for middle schoolers so they According to Parks, feedback from employers has been positive. can learn about public works,” Parks said. “We have to start younger so “They really like that they’re able to diversify their workforce,” they can understand their career options.” she said. Another goal of Public Works Academy is to ensure there is a wellAdditional information about GRCC’s Public Works Academy is trained, up-and-coming workforce to take over once employees have available at  retired. MAY 2021 | THE MUNICIPAL  59


Conference Calendar EDITOR’S NOTE: In light of the COVID-19 pandemic, readers are encouraged to verify their conference’s status. The Municipal has updated entries’ statuses with information available as of press time; however, as the situation is still fluid, plans may change rapidly.

M AY May 1-2 Wisconsin Professional Police Association 88th Annual Convention Kalahari Resort and Convention Center, Wisconsin Dells, Wis. May 2-4 New York State Conference of Mayors Annual Meeting and Training School (Rescheduled: June 9-11) The Sagamore in Bolton Landing, Bolton Landing, N.Y. May 2-5 AL/MS Water Joint Annual Conference (Rescheduled: Aug. 1-4) Arthur Outlaw Convention Center, Mobile, Ala. May 2-5 AWW & WEA Conference (Rescheduled: Oct. 10-13) Arlington Resort Hotel & Spa, Hot Springs, Ark. May 3-6 Advanced Clean Transportation Expo (Rescheduled: Aug. 30-Sept. 2) Long Beach Convention Center, Long Beach, Calif. May 3-6 Maryland Rural Water Association’s 30th Annual Conference (Rescheduled: May 2-5, 2022) Clarion Resort Hotel, Ocean City, Md.

May 19-21 Montana Rural May 5-8 Association of Fire Water Systems 41st Annual Districts of the State of New Technical Conference & York Annual Meeting and Exhibition Conference The Heritage Inn, Great Falls, Turning Stone Resort & Casino, Mont. Verona, N.Y. meeting_and_conference.php May 21-23 Washington State Fire Fighters’ Association May 10-12 North Carolina 98th Annual Conference & Fire Association of Chiefs of Police School Conference Wenatchee Convention Center, Harrah’s Cherokee Casino Wenatchee, Wash. Resort & Conference Center, Cherokee, N.C. May 24-25 Association for Pennsylvania Municipal May 10-13 North Carolina Management Rural Water Association Virtual 44th Annual Conference & conference Benton Convention Center, Winston-Salem, N.C. May 25-27 Idaho Rural Water Association Spring Conference Riverside Hotel, Boise, Idaho May 11-14 Oregon Association Chiefs of Police 2021 Annual Conference The Riverhouse on the JUNE Deschutes, Bend, Ore. June 8-9 and 15-16 EUFMC 2021 Virtual May 12-15 Alabama League of Municipalities Annual June 7-9 New York Water Convention Environment Association Von Braun Convention Center, Spring Technical Conference & Huntsville, Ala. Exhibition (Rescheduled: June 15-17) AnnualConvention.aspx Virtual May 17-20 New York Rural Water Association Annual June 7-13 Fire-Rescue South Technical Training Workshop Carolina & Exhibition (Cancelled) Columbia Metropolitan Turning Stone Resort and Convention Center, Columbia, S.C. Conference Center, Verona, N.Y.

JUNE June 8-10 World of Concrete Las Vegas Convention Center, Las Vegas, Nev. June 9-11 Indiana Volunteer Firefighters Association Convention The Derby Hotel Louisville North, Clarksville, Ind. June 10-13 Oregon Volunteer Firefighters Association Douglas County Fairgrounds, Roseburg, Ore. registration/ June 10-13 Texas City Management Association Annual Conference Kalahari Resorts & Conventions, Round Rock, Texas June 10-13 Montana State Volunteer Firefighters Association 2021 Volunteers Convention Shelby, Mont. www. montanavolunteerfirefighters. com June 14-17 ACE 2021 Virtual June 14-17 SWANA S.O.A.R. (Rescheduled: March 21-24, 2022) Kansas City, Mo.

To list your upcoming conference or seminar in The Municipal at no charge, call (800) 733-4111, ext. 2307, or email the information to 60   THE MUNICIPAL | MAY 2021

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Public Works


National Public Works Week:

May 16-22 APWA encourages public works professionals and their communities to come together American Public Works Association announced “Stronger Together” as the theme for the 2021 National Public Works Week poster. This year’s exciting poster challenges its members and their citizens to think about the role public works plays in creating a great place to live during National Public Works Week, May 16-22. By working together, the impact citizens and public works professionals can have on their communities is magnified and results in the ability to accomplish goals once thought unattainable. Public works helps maintain a community’s strength by working together to provide an infrastructure of services in transportation; water, wastewater and stormwater treatment; public buildings and spaces; parks and grounds; emergency management and first response; solid waste; and right-of-way management. Public works provides togetherness needed for collaboration with all the stakeholders in capital projects, infrastructure solutions and quality of life services. About the artist Kirsten Ulve is a New York City-based illustrator and designer who blends crisp conceptual design, bold color and a sense of fun. Her specialties include fashion and lifestyle illustration, caricature, conceptual illustration, toy and game design, character development and animation styling. Clients include The New Yorker, Glamour, Target, Entertainment Weekly, Hasbro, The Guardian, The New York Observer, Los Angeles Magazine and Volvo. She has also exhibited her work in New York City, Chicago, Los Angeles and Tokyo. Ulve lives in Manhattan with her husband and two black kitties, Romulus and Remus.


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News & Notes Six in seven U.S. adults support local environmental protection efforts ASHBURN, VA. — Six in seven U.S. adults are in strong support of local environmental protection efforts typically led by park and recreation professionals and their agencies, according to a newly released National Recreation and Park Association poll. The top three community-based environmental conservation initiatives supported by people of all ages include: •W ildlife conservation. •E nvironmental education. •N ature Resource management. Other park and recreation sponsored conservation-based activities people generally support include: •A lleviating climate change impacts. •N urturing pollinator habitats. •M anaging land for flood mitigation. “This Earth Month, we celebrate park and recreation professionals and volunteers who promote and support these important conservation initiatives in communities everywhere,” said Kevin Roth, NRPA’s vice president of research, evaluation and technology. “We encourage everyone to think about how they can help support conservation efforts locally, whether it’s through a community-based volunteer program or a nature-based at-home family-friendly activity.” NRPA is proud to support park and recreation professionals nationwide in their efforts to build a strong and healthy planet. A statement issued by NRPA — available at about-national-recreation-and-park-association/press-room/climate-statement-for-the-national-recreation-and-park-association/ —highlights the organization’s strong commitment to helping park and recreation professionals everywhere prepare their communities to adapt to a changing climate through a variety of resources prepared specifically for this cause.

Three new members elected to Generation Next Board of Governors FARMINGTON HILLS, MICH. — NTEA’s Generation Next recently elected three new members to its board of governors: Derek Hill of Fallsway Equipment Co., Akron, Ohio; Anne T. Sutton, MBA of Curry Supply Co., Martinsburg, Pa.; and Sean Woodman of Muncie Power Products, Muncie, Ind. Serving as officers on the 2021–2022 Board of Governors are: Chair William Ballas of A.R.M. — A TruckCorp LLC Co., Canton, Ohio; Vice Chair Aaron Clevenger of Muncie Power Products, Muncie, Ind.; and treasurer Ashley Pace of Truck Bodies & Equipment International Inc., Hoover, Ala. Continuing their terms as governors at-large are: Brian Guillerault of Hews Co. LLC, South Portland, Maine; and RJ Oster of ProTech Industries, LaVergne, Tenn. NTEA’s Generation Next gives new industry professionals support in developing skills and building peer relationships in the work truck industry. Benefits of joining include personal, business and professional development; new contacts from the commercial vehicle community;

enhanced industry knowledge; and leadership resources and insights. Membership is free to employees of NTEA member companies who are new to the work truck industry — less than 10 years of services. Find additional details at “Generation Next represents the association’s ongoing commitment to developing and mentoring leadership in our industry,” said Steve Carey, president and CEO. “This group is a testament to NTEA’s efforts in helping member companies recruit, train and increase the productivity of their workforce.” Learn more about NTEA’s workforce development tools at

AMCS launches first platform release for 2021, unveiling its smart transportation solution LIMERICK, IRELAND — The world’s leading supplier of integrated software and vehicle technology for the waste and recycling sector has launched the first major release of the AMCS Platform in 2021. AMCS Platform 8.5 incorporates significant developments in its transport logistics and materials processing functionality, ensuring users are able to rapidly react to changes in customer demands and helping them to stay ahead of market developments. The flagship innovation in this latest release is the new AMCS TMS — Transport Management System. TMS provides highly automated and integrated functionality capable of managing every aspect of waste collection logistics, including route planning, scheduling, live tracking and a mobile driver application. This will deliver enhanced productivity through improved resource optimization, operational visibility and service levels. Other highlights include: 1. Enhanced scale and materials management capabilities through the digitization of inventory, grading and production workflows, enhancing operational efficiency and visibility. 2. A new Business Intelligence Dashboard feature which includes an intuitive and interactive dashboard to manage the account receivable’s function. 3. Enhancements in customer self-service, increased mobile workforce productivity, expanded API’s and secure integrated payments. “AMCS Platform provides waste, recycling and resource management companies with an integrated end-to-end platform to achieve greater levels of automation, digitalization and insight on a robust SaaS foundation across their enterprise,” commented Elaine Treacy, global product director at AMCS. “With new transport management and enhanced materials management solutions, AMCS Platform 8.5 delivers added functionality in areas that allow our customers to drive revenue growth, margin expansion, operational efficiency, service levels and sustainability whilst also reducing their costs. “Business agility is increasingly important, with organizations needing to generate business insights across their enterprise — Platform 8.5 is designed to do just this,” Treacy explained. “For instance, it offers a new intelligent and interactive dashboard to assist customers in managing their accounts receivable function. This, in turn, helps them make informed and rapid decisions to accelerate the order to cash cycle.”

News releases regarding personnel changes, other non-product-related company changes, association news and awards are printed as space allows. Priority will be given to advertisers and affiliates. Releases not printed in the magazine can be found online at Call (800) 733–4111, ext. 2307, or email 66   THE MUNICIPAL  |  MAY 2021


Guest Column

How municipalities are changing the pothole patching game Michael Blake | Guest columnist Director of Marketing, KM International


very spring municipal agencies across the country are faced with a long-standing problem: potholes. Year after year, potholes and road conditions make front page news and are a constant nuisance for drivers who must deal with the potholes and municipalities that must fill them. The typical process of filling potholes is known as the “throw and go” method, but as the country’s infrastructure continues to deteriorate and municipal budgets remain stagnant, municipalities are looking for new and innovative solutions to the pothole dilemma. When it comes to pothole patching, municipalities are facing an uphill battle with a few key factors causing major roadblocks. Issue 1: The process Municipalities adopted the throw and go pothole filling method many years ago. In


a nutshell this process includes municipal workers driving around filling problematic potholes out of the back of a dump truck or pickup truck. The material, often cold patch material, is thrown in the pothole and lightly compacted with the back of a shovel or not compacted at all. With the current state of the country’s infrastructure, the throw and go method is now nothing more than a temporary repair at best. Another major flaw with the throw and go method is the material selection, which brings us to the next issue: asphalt material selection. Issue 2: Asphalt material In most cases, especially during the colder months when the asphalt plants are closed, municipalities rely on expensive cold patch material for pothole patching. Cold patch is widely considered a temporary fix until municipalilies can revisit the pothole and make a permanent repair with hotmix asphalt during the spring or summer. This temporary fix is not only cost prohibitive, but it takes double the time and labor to repair the same pothole multiple times.

Even when hotmix asphalt is available, municipalities are mostly patching out of dump trucks or pickup trucks and the hotmix asphalt is cold before they can even make it to the job site. Asphalt plants drop hotmix at 350 F, and that temperature immediately starts decreasing as soon as you leave the plant, so depending on drive time, the asphalt could 250 F or below before even you even start patching. This drop in temperature results in a drastic decrease in the structural integrity and longevity of the asphalt material and in turn a drastic decrease in the reliability of the repairs being made. The solution While most municipalities consider the throw and go method the standard when it comes to pothole patching, there is a much more effective, efficient and cost conducive method that will offer municipalities longterm solutions to their pothole problems. In recent years, municipal entities have invested in the right equipment and more importantly started a fundamental shift to deviate away from the status quo when it comes to pothole

LEFT: Pothole repair remains a constant thorn for municipalities across the U.S., but with careful planning and the right equipment, repairs will last longer, keeping citizens happier. (Photo provided) RIGHT: An asphalt hotbox will keep hotmix between 325 F to 350 F for a full day of pothole patching. Because the heat is maintain, patches have greater longevity. (Photo provided)

patching, breaking it into three convenient, easy and, most importantly, effective steps. Step 1: Preparation A successful pothole repair starts with the preparation. Crew members should remove any loose dirt or debris from the pothole, and if there is moisture in the hole, it should be dried out via a hand torch or similar tool. Taking one step further, a layer of tack should be applied to the pothole prior to filling with the material. Step 2: Patching This step is where quality material will either make or break your repair. Hotmix asphalt is always recommended and more importantly hotmix applied at the correct temperature. Most municipalities transport hotmix asphalt in a dump truck, but as soon as you leave the asphalt plant, it cools from 350 F to 250 F in less than an hour and even faster after that. Most of the times, municipalities are buying 4 or 5 tons just to keep 1 or 2 tons warm for patching throughout the day. Machines such as asphalt hotbox reclaimers maintain asphalt temps for up to three days, ensuring the asphalt remains at 325 F to 350 F for a full day of pothole patching. Machines such as asphalt hotboxes are usually reclaimer type units as well, meaning a user can bulk store cold virgin asphalt and reheat/reclaim that material overnight, so you are never without asphalt hotmix. This will also reduce or eliminate your dependency on subpar and expensive cold patch material. The importance of a quality hotmix that is maintained at the right temperature is it allows for a much denser compaction rate, which brings us to our third and final step. Step 3: Compaction Compaction is the final step of the pothole filling process. Compaction is an absolute

Hotboxes can be used to bulk store cold virgin asphalt, which can then be reheated or reclaimed overnight. (Photo provided)

must when pothole patching; the proper compaction rate combined with a quality asphalt material will ensure great compaction rates and aid the asphalt, patch greatly reducing the likelihood you will have make repeat repairs to that pothole. And when we talk about compaction, this is not tamping the asphalt with the back of your shovel or driving over it with a truck tire; this is using a plate compactor or roller to achieve the highest compaction rate possible. It is vital to understand each of these steps are complementary of each other, and

in order to truly achieve long-term pothole repairs, they must be done in this order. As simple as this process may seem, it is overlooked or ignored by many municipalities across the U.S., but with the right knowledge, equipment and understanding, this process can offer you and, more importantly, your citizens long-term solutions to potholes and other asphalt defects. Michael Blake is the director of marketing for KM International, located in North Branch, Mich. He has held this position since 2016.  MAY 2021 | THE MUNICIPAL  69

TOP 10

Best cities for locavores You might be wondering what a locavore is. Well, they are people who prefer to mainly eat foods sourced from their local region, and as notes, interest in locally sourced foods has only grown during the pandemic. “But not all U.S. regions are equally locavore-friendly,” the website notes. “So how do you know which cities have the farmers markets, urban gardening plots, and farm-to-table eateries to meet your local eating needs?” LawnStarter ranked the 150 biggest U.S. cities to determine this, comparing them across 14 key metrics, “from the availability of butcher shops and farm-to-table restaurants to the prevalence of community-supported agriculture.” Here are the top 10 cities, according to LawnStarter.

1. Santa Rosa, Calif. 2. Ontario, Calif. 3. Salem, Ore. 4. Vancouver, Wash. 5. Worcester, Mass. 6. Anaheim, Calif. 7. Yonkers, N.Y. 8. Jersey City, N.J. 9. Fort Lauderdale, Fla. 10. Hialeah, Fla. 70   THE MUNICIPAL  |  MAY 2021




Advertiser Index A


Air Netix LLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

Land Pride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

All Access Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

LTA Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

Alumitank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 American Shoring Incorporated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Andy Mohr Ford . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

M Mel Northy Company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Midwest Sandbags LLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61


Midwest Tractor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

BendPak Incorporated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

Monroe Truck Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

Blackburn Manufacturing Company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Bonnell Industries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Britespan Building Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 38 Buyers Products Company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75


N National Construction Rentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

O Olsson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

Calhoun Super Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32


CBI Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

Post Guard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20, 38

Central Life Sciences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

Precision Concrete Cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

Chapin International International . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56


CleanFix North America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 CTech Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Clearspan Fabric Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Curbtender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

E Ebac Industrial Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Elan City Incorporated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

F Fluid Control Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

Rapid View LLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BACK

S Sellick Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Strongwell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

T The Cone Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Trinity Highway Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

U Uline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37


Unique Paving Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Greystone Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

Utility Truck Equipment Incorporated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62



Henderson Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

Versalift East, LLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24



ICOM America Incorporated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

WWETT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63



KM International . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

XL Fleet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cover, 10-11

This index is provided courtesy of the publisher, who assumes no liability for errors or omissions. MAY 2021 | THE MUNICIPAL  73







For Class 8 Trucks

To use as a dump body, just cover the conveyor chain or augers with stainless steel cover plate


Shown with optional pre-wet system LS11 2x160 Gal., LS12 120 gal., and CHS 6383061 30 gal.