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School Energy Inspectors

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Student Guide

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ELEMENTARY

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What is Energy?

Energy helps us do things. It gives us light. It warms our bodies and homes. It bakes cakes and keeps milk cold. It runs our TVs and our cars. It makes us grow and move and think. Energy is the power to change things. It is the ability to do work.

Energy is Light Light is a form of energy we use all the time. We use it so we can see. We get most of our light from the sun. Working during the day saves money because sunlight is free. At night, we must make our own light. Usually, we use electricity to make light. Flashlights use electricity, too. This electricity comes from batteries.

Energy is Heat We use energy to make heat. The food we eat keeps our bodies warm. Sometimes, when we run or work hard, we get really hot. In the winter, our jackets and blankets hold in our body heat. We use the energy stored in plants and other things to make heat. We burn wood and natural gas to cook food and warm our houses. Factories burn fuel to make the products they sell. Power plants burn coal and natural gas to make electricity.

Energy Makes Things Grow All living things need energy to grow. Plants use light from the sun to grow. Plants change the energy from the sun into sugar and store it in their roots and leaves. This is called photosynthesis. Animals can’t change light energy into sugars. Animals, including people, eat plants and use the energy stored in them to grow. Animals can store the energy from plants in their bodies. 2

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Energy Makes Things Move It takes energy to make things move. Cars and motorcycles run on the energy stored in gasoline. Many toys run on the energy stored in batteries. Sail boats are pushed by the energy in the wind. After a long day, do you ever feel too tired to move? You’ve run out of energy. You need to eat some food to refuel.

Energy Runs Machines It takes energy to run our TVs, computers, and video games— energy in the form of electricity. We use electricity many times every day. It gives us light and heat, it makes things move, and it runs our toys, electronics, and microwaves. Imagine what your life would be like without electricity. We make electricity by burning coal, oil, gas, and even trash. We make it from the energy that holds atoms together. We make it with energy from the sun, the wind, and falling water. Sometimes, we use heat from inside the Earth to make electricity.

Energy Doesn’t Disappear There is the same amount of energy today as there was when the world began. When we use energy, we don’t use it up completely; we change it into other forms of energy. When we burn wood, we change its energy into heat and light. When we drive a car, we change the energy in the gasoline into heat and motion. There will always be the same amount of energy in the world, but more and more of it will be changed into heat. Most of that heat will go into the air. It will still be there, but it will be hard to use.

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Photo courtesy of BP

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Forms of Energy

Scientists classify energy as more than just light, heat sound, motion, growth, and technology. They classify energy into different forms based on how they change or do work. There are many forms of energy, but they can all be put into two categories: potential and kinetic.

Potential Energy Potential energy is stored energy. There are several forms of potential energy. Chemical energy is energy stored between the bonds of atoms and molecules. It is the energy that holds these particles together. Biomass, petroleum, natural gas, propane, and the foods we eat are examples of stored chemical energy. Plants turn light into chemical energy through photosynthesis. Elastic energy is energy stored in compressed or stretched objects. Compressed springs and stretched rubber bands are examples of elastic energy. Nuclear energy is energy stored in the nucleus of an atom. It is the energy that holds the nucleus together. The energy can be released when the nuclei are pushed together or split apart. The sun uses nuclear energy to produce light. Nuclear power plants create electricity with nuclei. Gravitational potential energy is the energy of place or position. A rock resting at the top of a hill contains gravitational potential energy because of its position. Hydropower, such as water in a reservoir behind a dam, is an example of gravitational potential energy.

Kinetic Energy Kinetic energy is energy in motion; it is the motion of waves, electrons, atoms, molecules, substances, and objects. Electrical energy is the movement of electrons. Everything is made of tiny particles called atoms. Atoms are made of even smaller particles called electrons, protons, and neutrons. When electrons move through a wire we have electricity. Lightning is another example of electrical energy. 4

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Radiant energy is electromagnetic energy that travels in an up and down motion. These waves are called transverse waves. Radiant energy includes light, x-rays, radio waves. Sunlight is an example of radiant energy. Thermal energy, or heat, is the internal energy in a substance. Thermal energy is the vibration and movement of the atoms and molecules within a substance. A hot drink has more thermal energy than a cold drink. Motion energy is the movement of an object from one place to another. A moving windmill is an example of motion energy. Sound energy is when energy moves in waves that move side to side. These waves are called longitudinal waves. Sound is created when a force causes the object to vibrate. The energy is moved through the object longways in a longitudinal wave. A siren is an example of sound energy.

Forms of Energy KINETIC

POTENTIAL Chemical Energy

Electrical Energy Radiant Energy

Elastic Energy

Thermal Energy

Nuclear Energy

Motion Energy Gravitational Potential Energy

Sound Energy

Energy Transformations

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Chemical

Motion

Chemical

Motion

Radiant

Chemical

Electrical

Thermal

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U.S. Consumption of Energy by Source, 2017

89%

Nonrenewable Sources Renewable Sources 0%

12%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

90%

100%

PERCENTAGE OF UNITED STATES ENERGY USE

Nonrenewable Energy Sources and Percentage of Total Energy Consumption *Propane consumption is included in petroleum and natural gas figures.

PETROLEUM 37% Uses: transportation, manufacturing - Includes Propane

NATURAL GAS 29% Uses: heating, manufacturing, electricity - Includes Propane

COAL

Uses: electricity, manufacturing

14%

URANIUM

Uses: electricity

9%

PROPANE

Uses: heating, manufacturing

Renewable Energy Sources and Percentage of Total Energy Consumption

BIOMASS

5%

Uses: heating, electricity, transportation

HYDROPOWER 2% Uses: electricity

WIND

Uses: electricity

2%

SOLAR

<1%

Uses: heating, electricity

GEOTHERMAL <1% Uses: heating, electricity

Data: Energy Information Administration *Total does not equal 100% due to independent rounding.

Energy Sources In the United States we use ten energy sources to do work. We put these sources into two categories: nonrenewable and renewable. The nonrenewable energy sources we use are petroleum, coal, natural gas, propane, and uranium. These sources are found in the Earth. It takes a very long time for the Earth to produce these sources. Once we use them, we canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t use them again or get them back quickly. We use nonrenewable energy sources to move our cars, heat our homes, and make electricity. Renewable energy sources can be used over and over again. It does not take very long to replenish the supply of these resources, so we will never run out. Renewable energy sources are biomass, hydropower, solar energy, wind energy, and geothermal energy. Day after day, the sun shines, the wind blows, and the rivers flow. We use renewable energy sources mainly to make electricity. Nonrenewable sources are relatively inexpensive and we can use them 24 hours a day. Some renewable sources like solar and wind are free to use, because no one owns the sun or the wind. The machines and parts needed to turn these sources into energy we can use can be expensive, however. Every source of energy has advantages and disadvantages to using it. 6

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Saving Energy The United States uses a lot of energy— over two million dollars’ worth of energy per minute, 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. All of us use energy every day—for getting from one place to another, cooking, heating and cooling rooms, making products, lighting, heating water, and entertainment. We use a lot of energy to make our lives comfortable, productive, and enjoyable. Most of that energy is from nonrenewable energy sources. It is important that we use our energy resources wisely.

When you leave a room, remember to turn the lights off.

Conservation Your parents may tell you to conserve energy. “Turn off the lights,” they say. Energy conservation is about saving energy. Energy conservation involves all the behaviors that we use to control our energy use. Use only what you need. Don’t turn on two lights if you only need one. Remember to turn off the lights when you leave a room. Turn off

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the TV and video games, too. Unplug devices you aren’t using. On a sunny day, read by a window. Keep the refrigerator door closed. Know what you want before you open the door. If you’re pouring a drink, don’t leave the door open. It takes a lot of energy to cool things. If the air conditioner is on, keep doors and windows closed. If you can, just use a fan and wear light clothes instead of using the air conditioner. Walk or ride your bike wherever you can. When you take a bath, use only the water you need.

Efficiency Energy efficiency is saving energy with specialized machines or equipment to complete a task. It might be a washing machine, a light bulb, or your family’s vehicle, but they are all some kind of device that does work for us. If we say we are being more energy efficient, we are using devices that use less energy to perform the work. For example, a heavy duty pickup truck and a small sedan will both carry two people to work. However, the small sedan will use less fuel to do so, so it is more efficient. A new, ENERGY STAR® refrigerator will use less energy than an old refrigerator. Upgrading old light bulbs to more efficient bulbs like CFLs or LEDs will save energy while still brightening the room. Even the most efficient machines need people acting in conserving ways to make them of any use. An LED light is the most efficient lighting type available, but if the lights are left on all day every day, they’re still using more energy than they should. The owners of that LED light need to turn it off and exhibit good energy conservation.

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How We Use Energy We use energy in many different areas of our lives. When we use energy at home, this is called residential energy use. When we use energy in office buildings, hospitals, stores, restaurants, and schools, we call this commercial energy use. We also use energy to create products and manufacture goods. This is called industrial energy use. When we use energy to move people or things from place to place, this is called transportation energy use. Every different type of energy use also requires electricity. We use energy sources to generate electricity. In the U.S. most of our energy is used to create electricity, move people, and make our goods.

Energy Uses

Commercial Residential

Transportation Industrial

U.S. Energy Consumption by Sector, 2017 RESIDENTIAL 6%

TRANSPORTATION

29%

Top Residential Sources:

Natural Gas Biomass  Petroleum 

Top Transportation Sources:

Petroleum  Biomass  Natural Gas

INDUSTRIAL 23% Top Industrial Sources:

Natural Gas  Petroleum  Propane 

ELECTRIC POWER 38% COMMERCIAL 4% Top Commercial Sources:

Natural Gas Petroleum  Propane 

Top Electric Power Sources:

Natural Gas Coal  Uranium  

Cooling 10.8%

The residential, commercial, and industrial sectors use electricity. This graph depicts their energy source consumption outside of electricity. Data: Energy Information Administration *Total does not equal 100% due to independent rounding.

Residential and commercial buildings use energy in similar ways. Both use energy for heating, air conditioning, water heating, lighting, and powering appliances and machines. Schools use more energy than homes, and often use more energy in other areas than you might use in a house because of all of the students inside and the work they do while they are in school. 8

U.S. School Energy Consumption Space Heating 35.6%

Ventilation 8.1% Water Heating 8.1% Lighting 9.3% Cooking 1.8%

Other 10.0%

Refrigeration 4.8%

Computing 9.3%

Office Equipment 2.5% Data: EIA Commercial Building Energy Survey

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A Word About Water It is important to think about water when we think about energy use. We need energy to purify or treat our water for safe drinking and use. We also need water to generate electricity. When water is removed from a river or reservoir, it must be pumped to the water treatment plant. Pumps are used to pull and move the water to the treatment facility, and each pump uses energy to run. At the treatment facility, pumps and other machinery are used to filter and clean the water so it is safe to drink. When water leaves the treatment facility, it is pushed to your home or school under pressure. Pumps run to keep the water pressure elevated so you can always take a shower or wash your hands when you’d like. As we use water, we have water softeners that further condition the water, filters that remove unpleasant tastes and odors from the water, heaters that heat the water, and pumps that move it in and out of the machines that use it. All of these devices use energy, too. Finally, after you’ve finished a water-related task, it has to go somewhere. The drain in your school does not empty into a big hole in the ground. In most areas, water is sent through Water Use in Schools sewer pipes to a wastewater treatment facility, where pumps and other machinery clean and filter it before releasing it back into the natural environment. If you reduce the amount of water you use, you will also be reducing the amount of energy you use, saving your school money on the water bill and reducing your energy needs. Here are some great ways you can reduce the amount of water you use: ƒƒ Don’t let the water run in the restroom or classroom. If you need hot water, consider heating it in a hot pot or on a hot plate instead of allowing the water to run for several minutes. ƒƒ Inform a teacher or other staff member if a faucet or drinking fountain does not turn off properly. ƒƒ Stomp or scrape your boots or shoes before entering the school to avoid extra cleaning of the floors. ©2019

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The Energy I Used Today

Circle the things you used or did in the left column. When you have completed the list, your teacher will show you how many Energy Bucks each activity or device uses. Write those numbers in the right column, then add them together to find your Total Energy Bucks Used.

What device woke me up this morning?

ENERGY BUCKS

Alarm Clock or Radio ________________

What devices were used to make my breakfast? Microwave ________________ Stove/Oven ________________ Toaster Oven/Toaster

________________

Refrigerator ________________

What devices did I use as I got ready for school this morning? Air Conditioning/Heating

________________

Radio/CD Player/MP3 Player/iPod

________________

Gaming System

________________

TV/DVD Player

________________

Shower/Bath ________________ Hair Dryer

________________

Curling Iron/Curlers/Flat Iron

________________

Telephone/Cell Phone

________________

Computer ________________ iPad/Tablet ________________

What rooms had lights turned on this morning? Bedroom ________________ Bathroom ________________ Kitchen ________________ Family Room

________________

Other ________________

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How did I get to school today?

ENERGY BUCKS

Walk ________________ Bicycle ________________ School Bus

________________

Carpool ________________ Family Vehicle

________________

What devices did I use after school yesterday? Air Conditioning/Heating

________________

Travel in Vehicle

________________

Lights ________________ Computer ________________ iPad/Tablet ________________ Gaming System

________________

Radio/CD Player/MP3 Player/iPod

________________

TV/DVD Player

________________

Telephone/Cell phone

________________

Snack Preparation ________________

What devices were used at home last night? Air Conditioning/Heating

________________

Microwave ________________ Stove/Oven ________________ Toaster Oven/Toaster

________________

Refrigerator ________________ Grill ________________ Lights ________________ TV/DVD Player

________________

Gaming System

________________

Shower/Bath ________________ Hair Dryer

________________

Telephone/Cell Phone

________________

Computer ________________ iPad/Tablet ________________ Radio/CD Player/MP3 Player/iPod ________________

Total Energy Bucks Used

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Forms of Energy

Energy can be stored. Stored energy is called potential energy. Gravitational Potential Energy

Elastic Energy

the energy of place or position

the energy stored in compressed or stretched objects

Chemical Energy

POTENTIAL ENERGY

the energy stored in the bonds between molecules

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Nuclear Energy

the energy stored in the nucleus of an atom - the energy that holds the nucleus together

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POTENTIAL ENERGY ©2019

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Forms of Energy

Energy can be in motion. Motion energy is called kinetic energy.

ner gy

Radiant Energy

the

tric

gy ner nd E Sou f nt o eme h mov roug the rgy th e in a ene bstanc l wave a su itudina long

KINETIC ENERGY

mov elec ement tron of s

of e t i en on r t o em rom the M v o t f no m ec o a e j th ob e t an plac on

al E

En

T su the her or bs in m m mov tanc tern al E n ol e e a ec m s - l e erg ul en th ne es t e rg y in of a vib y su to ra in bs m tio ta s a n nc n es d

Elec

gy r e

electromagnetic energy that travels in transverse waves

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KINETIC ENERGY

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Energy Source Matching

Write the number of the energy source on the line next to its definition.

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1. Petroleum (oil)

________

2. Wind

________

3. Biomass

________

4. Uranium

________

5. Propane

________

6. Solar

________

7. Geothermal

________

8. Hydropower

________

9. Coal

________

10. Natural Gas

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Black rock burned to make electricity. Energy from heat inside the Earth. Energy from flowing water. Energy from wood, waste, and garbage. Energy from moving air. Energy from splitting atoms. Portable fossil fuel gas often used in grills. Fossil fuel for cars, trucks, and jets. Fossil fuel gas moved by pipeline. Energy in rays from the sun. School Energy Inspectors

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Renewable or Nonrenewable

Cut out the symbols for the energy sources and glue them in the correct box.

RENEWABLE

NONRENEWABLE

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Petroleum

Solar

Wind

Coal

Propane

Biomass

Hydropower

Natural Gas

Geothermal

Uranium

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LESSON 1

e 1

2

Forms and Sources of Energy

Using the information from the Forms of Energy charts, and the graphic below, determine how energy is stored or delivered in each of the sources of energy. Remember, if the source of energy must be burned, the energy is stored as chemical energy.

NONRENEWABLE

RENEWABLE

Petroleum _______________________

Biomass _______________________

Coal _______________________

Hydropower _______________________

Natural Gas

_______________________

Wind _______________________

Uranium _______________________

Solar _______________________

Propane _______________________

Geothermal _______________________

Look at the U.S. Energy Consumption by Source graphic below and calculate the percentage of the nation’s energy use that each form of energy provides. What percentage of the nation’s energy is provided by each form of energy? Chemical _____ Nuclear _____ Motion_____ Radiant _____ Thermal _____ What percentage of the nation’s energy is provided by nonrenewables? ______ by renewables? ______

U.S. Energy Consumption by Source, 2017 NONRENEWABLE

RENEWABLE

PETROLEUM

37%

BIOMASS

5%

NATURAL GAS

29%

HYDROPOWER

3%

COAL

14%

WIND

2%

9%

SOLAR

1%

Uses: transportation, manufacturing - includes propane

Uses: heating, manufacturing, electricity - includes propane Uses: electricity, manufacturing

URANIUM

Uses: electricity

PROPANE

Uses: heating, manufacturing

*Propane consumption is included in petroleum and natural gas totals.

Uses: heating, electricity, transportation Uses: electricity

Uses: electricity

Uses: heating, electricity

GEOTHERMAL

< 1%

Uses: heating, electricity

**Total does not add up to 100% due to independent rounding. Data: Energy Information Administration

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TODAY IN ENERGY CARDS

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Today in Energy 1

Today in Energy 1

Wake Up Early Walk or Ride Bike to School

Sleep Late Get a Ride to School

Today in Energy 2

Today in Energy 2

Eat Cereal for Breakfast

Eat Eggs and Toast for Breakfast

Today in Energy 3

Today in Energy 3

Open the Blinds in the Classroom on A Sunny Day

Turn on All the Lights and Open the Classroom Blinds

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TODAY IN ENERGY CARDS

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Today in Energy 4

Today in Energy 4

Wash Your Hands with Soap and Water

Let the Water Run to Wash Your Hands with Hot Water and Soap

Today in Energy 5

Today in Energy 5

Eat a Cold Sandwich or Salad for Lunch

Eat Spaghetti for Lunch

Today in Energy 6

Today in Energy 6

Play Outdoors for Recess

Stay Inside to Play Computer and Video Games During Recess

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TODAY IN ENERGY CARDS

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Today in Energy 7

Today in Energy 7

Read a Book

Watch a Movie

Today in Energy 8

Today in Energy 8

Walk Home From School

Get a Ride Home From School

Today in Energy 9

Today in Energy 9

Eat a Granola Bar for Snack

Microwave Mac and Cheese for Snack

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LESSON 1

e

Today in Energy Chart

Write the choices you made on the correct side of the chart. USES LESS ENERGY

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USES MORE ENERGY

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LESSON 1

e CONSERVATION

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Efficiency vs. Conservation

EFFICIENCY

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LESSON 2

Understanding Thermal Energy (Heat) We use heat, called thermal energy, every day. We can’t see heat, but we can feel it. Our bodies make heat and our stoves and lights do, too. We heat our houses, our food, and our water. Sometimes there is too much heat and we move it. Refrigerators take heat away from the food inside. Air conditioners take heat from inside the house and move it outside. Swimming pools take heat from our bodies.

Heat Is the Motion of Molecules What is heat? Scientists say it is the kinetic energy in a substance. Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. Heat is the motion of the molecules in a substance, not the motion of the substance itself. Everything is made of atoms. Atoms bond together to form molecules. Molcules are the building blocks of substances. Water is a substance. Have you ever heard water called H-20 (H2O)? That means a molecule of water has two hydrogen (H) atoms and one oxygen (O) atom. Even though we can’t see them, the molecules in substances are never still. They are always moving. That motion is the kinetic energy called heat.

Heat Seeks Balance Everything in nature seeks balance. Heat seeks balance, too. Heat flows from hotter places to colder places and from hotter substances to colder substances. What happens if you pour hot water into a cold tub? The molecules of hot water have more energy. They are fast moving. They crash into the colder molecules and give them some of their energy. The molecules of hot water slow down. The molecules of cold water move more quickly. The cold water gets warmer. The hot water gets cooler. Soon all the water is the same temperature. All the water molecules are moving at the same speed. The heat in the water is in balance.

Heat Energy Moves Heat energy is always on the move. It moves to seek balance. Heat can move in many ways. When a hot object touches a cold object, some of the heat energy flows to the cold object. This is called conduction. Conduction is the way heat energy moves in solids. 24

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LESSON 2

When we cook food in a pan on an electric stove, we use conduction. The heating element on the stove is hot. The pan is cold. Some of the heat from the heating element flows to the pan. The heat from the pan flows to the food inside. The heat moves by conduction.

Heat Moves by Conduction in Solids How does the heat move? Let’s think about it. All solids are made of molecules. The molecules in solids vibrate. The more energy they have, the faster they vibrate. In a hot object, the molecules vibrate fast. The molecules in a cold object vibrate more slowly. Let’s touch a hot object to a cold object. The fast-moving molecules in the hot object push against the slow-moving molecules in the cold object. The fast molecules give up some energy to the slower moving molecules. The vibration of the fast molecules slows down. The molecules in the cold object gain some energy from the hot object. They vibrate faster. The cold object gets warmer. The hot object gets cooler. The energy in the molecules is seeking balance. When the energy is in balance, all the molecules vibrate at the same speed. Look at the picture at the bottom of this page. The flame adds heat to the tripod. The tripod gets very hot because it is metal. The metal rod touches the tripod. The molecules in the tripod vibrate against the molecules in the end of the rod. The molecules in that end of the rod vibrate faster. Now one end of the rod has more energy than the other end. What happens? The hotter molecules transfer some of their energy to the cooler molecules. The molecules in the rod conduct the heat from the hotter end to the cooler end. The heat moves from the tripod to the end of the rod touching it, then through the rod.

Conduction in Solids HEAT METAL ROD

HEAT SOURCE

METAL TRIPOD

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LESSON 2

The energy flows from molecule to molecule as they vibrate against each other. Heat is moving by conduction.

Good Conductor

Conductors and Insulators In some materials, heat flows easily from molecule to molecule. These materials are called conductors. They conduct—or move— heat energy well. Look back at the picture with the metal rod and the tripod. You would not hold the metal rod with your bare hand. You would get burned! The metal would conduct the heat to your hand. Metals are good conductors of heat. If you touched a wooden pencil to the tripod, would it conduct heat as well as the metal rod? No—wood is not a good conductor of heat. Materials that don’t conduct heat well are called insulators.

Good Insulator

Conductors and Insulators

The molecules in good conductors are close together. There is very little space between them. When they vibrate, they push against the molecules near them. The energy flows between them easily. The molecules in insulators are not so close together. It is harder for energy to flow from one molecule to another in insulators. Look at the objects to the right. The pot, the spoon, and the fork are made of metal. The pot and the fork have plastic handles. The dish is made of glass. The oven mitt is made of cotton fabric.

conductors. The metal part of the pan moves heat to the food inside to cook the food. The plastic handle protects our hands. The cotton glove protects our hands, too.

Which materials are the insulators? The insulators are the materials that don’t move heat. They protect us from heat. Our experience tells us that wood, plastic, and cotton are all good insulators. Metals are good

What about glass? It is not as good of a conductor or insulator as the other materials. It is used to conduct heat in pots and pans, and can also be used to insulate. It used to be used on power and telephone lines as an insulator.

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LESSON 2

We use insulation in our homes to help stop the movement of thermal energy in our homes. When we spend money to heat or cool the air inside, we want to keep it in. Insulation helps slow down the movement of thermal energy, so it seeks balance more slowly, and keeps us more comfortable longer. Heat moves in more than one way than conduction. How else can thermal energy move?

Convection in Liquids COOLER WATER

HOTTER WATER

Movement of Heat in Fluids Fluids are liquids and gases. Heat also moves in fluids. Heat doesn’t move by conduction. In fluids, the molecules are too far apart to conduct energy as they vibrate. The molecules in fluids are free to move and spin. As they move, they bounce against each other. The molecules with more energy give up some energy. The molecules with less energy gain some. Heat energy in liquids and gases moves in currents by convection. If we heat water on a stove, the water molecules begin to move and flow faster. The molecules near the flame have more energy. They push against each other and move farther apart.

Convection in Gases

WARM AIR HEATER

COOL AIR

Heat also moves by convection in gases. Air is The water at the top of the pan is cooler. Its the gas you know best. You may have noticed molecules don’t have as much energy. They that the top floor of a building is warmer are closer together than the molecules of hot than the basement. The air near the ceiling is warmer than the air near the floor. water. They are denser. The cooler, denser molecules flow down. The warmer, less dense molecules rise up. They form currents of flowing molecules. During this motion, the hotter molecules transfer energy to the cooler molecules. This transfer of heat through the motion of currents is called convection.

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The molecules of gases are like molecules in liquids. The more energy they have, the farther apart they are. In a room, the cooler, denser air flows down. The warmer, lighter air rises. A current of flowing air is formed. The warmer molecules give up energy as they bounce against cooler molecules. They give up some energy, become cooler, and flow down again. The heat is transferred by convection. 27


LESSON 2

Energy Moves by Radiation

Heat and Temperature

Most of the Earth’s energy comes from the sun. Every day, the sun gives off a lot of energy. However, it doesn’t start out traveling to us as thermal energy (heat). It comes from the sun in rays or waves called radiant energy. Heat must move from molecule to molecule and there are no molecules in space. Solar energy travels in rays or waves until it hits the Earth. Once the radiant energy hits the Earth, it hits molecules in the air, ocean, on land, and on living things. The molecules turn this energy into heat that we can feel.

Heat and temperature are different things. Two cups of boiling water would have twice as much heat as one cup of boiling water, but the water would be at the same temperature. A giant iceberg would have more heat energy than a cup of boiling water, even though its temperature is lower. It would have more heat energy because it is so big.

Heat is the total amount of kinetic energy in a substance. Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the molecules The same thing happens with a fireplace or in a substance. Temperature is also described a campfire. When you light a fire the radiant as a measure of the hotness or coldness of a energy from the fire will spread out, or radiate, substance. to the molecules in the air close by. You can feel the heat from the fire when standing a few feet away because the molecules radiate the heat out. The area closest to the fire will stay the warmest until the fire goes out. Once Heating and cooling systems are used in that happens, the thermal energy continues buildings to help keep the temperature to radiate out and back until the room or the comfortable. These systems use more energy than any other systems in schools, offices, area has reached an even temperature. and homes. Natural gas and electricity are usually used to heat, and electricity is used to cool. Using these systems wisely can reduce Campfire environmental concerns, like releasing carbon dioxide. You can save energy and money too, by having proper insulation to seal cracks around doors and windows, taking care of the heater and air conditioner regularly, changing the filters, and practicing energy-saving behaviors.

Heating and Cooling Systems

AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM

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LESSON 2

We Can Measure Temperature with a Thermostat We use thermometers to measure temperature. In schools, homes, and offices, these devices are called thermostats. They help measure the temperature of a room and communicate with the heater or air conditioner to turn it on when needed. Programmable thermostats automatically control the temperature of buildings for time of day and can save energy and money. During heating seasons, for example, they lower the temperature of a building when no one is using it. When people are active in the building, the thermostat automatically raises the temperature.

Insulation is like a blanket for buildings, but air can still leak in or out through small cracks. Sometimes, many small leaks can add up to the same amount of energy loss as leaving a door wide open. One of the easiest energy-saving measures is to caulk, seal, and weather-strip cracks and openings to the outside. These tools and actions are called weatherization. Homeowners can typically save up to $200 a year in heating and cooling costs by air sealing their homes and adding insulation. Larger buildings, like schools and offices, can save even more by following the same steps. INSULATION

PROGRAMMABLE THERMOSTAT

Image courtesy of Owens Corning

Insulation and Weatherization

Door and Windows

Air leaking in and out of a building wastes energy. Insulation slows down the movement of thermal energy (heat) and keeps the inside air separated from the outside air. Building owners can reduce heating and cooling costs by buying proper insulation. Some insulation materials work better than others in certain climates. Building owners should pick the right insulation for their weather and building design.

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Some air leaks happen around and through the doors and windows. Doors should seal tightly and have door sweeps at the bottom to prevent air leaks. Insulated storm doors help stop leaking air. School entryways with two sets of doors are built to keep cold air from blasting inside during the winter and outside during the summer. Both sets of doors should always be kept closed.

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Most buildings have more windows than doors. The best windows shut tightly and are made of two or more pieces of glass. Caulk or seal any cracks around the windows and make sure they seal tightly. If you have older windows, you can install shutters or sheets of clear plastic to create added air barriers. Insulated blinds also help to prevent air flow and are often good when you want to sleep in! During heating seasons, open them on sunny days and close them at night. During cooling seasons, close them during the day to keep out the sun. DOOR WITH A WORN OUT DOOR SWEEP

When cold air from outdoors is heated, it feels very dry and makes the occupants of the building uncomfortable with stuffy noses, chapped lips, and dry skin. Air that is too dry can cause health problems when our sinuses are too dry. When there is too much moisture in a room, especially a room like a classroom where paper and books are found, it can create a problem. As you know, paper is made from wood. Fungi, like mold and mildew, grow in warm, moist, dark places. When moisture can build up on a surface, mold and mildew grow. As the molds get bigger, they release spores, which are carried in the air to other surfaces where they can grow more mold. These spores can be harmful to breathe in. The right amount of moisture in the air in a room will help it keep the temperature from dropping or rising too much, which can reduce the number of times a heating or air conditioning system has to run. Humidity levels should be kept between 30% and 60%. Using a dehumidifier in the summer and a humidifier in the winter can help keep the appropriate humidity levels.

Moisture & Ventilation Moisture is a term used to describe water as a liquid and a gas. Like heat and air, it is important to have the right amount of moisture in a building. Most moisture inside is water vapor, or in our air molecules. The amount of water vapor in the air is important to our health and comfort.

Bringing in air from outside can create humidity problems in our air. However, we need to bring in fresh air to help our systems run and our schools and homes to stay healthy. Imagine if you never brought fresh air inside your school. What a stinky place it might be! Ventilation systems bring in fresh air. Schools need this fresh air to run the heating and cooling systems properly and help keep humidity under control in warm climates.

Humidity tells us how much water vapor is in the air. It is measured with a tool called a hygrometer. Air acts like a sponge and absorbs water during evaporation. Warmer air will hold more water vapor. Colder air does not hold as much water vapor. 30

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Water Heating You don’t think too much about the hot water you need at school, but it is definitely needed. At home you probably have a water heater that is fueled by natural gas or electricity. When you turn the hot water on in the kitchen or bathroom, you might have to let the water run a bit before it’s warm.

The temperature of the water at school is important. At home, you probably have your hot water heater set at 120-140 °F, and rarely any higher because of the danger of a serious burn injury. This is true for the hot water at school except in the kitchen. Cafeteria workers must wash all dishes and serving equipment in water that is at least 160 °F. But at this temperature, you can burn your skin.

In a school, having water heater would mean you might need to let the water run for a very long time before water could reach faucets far away from the heater. Most schools have more than one large water heater, and the hot water is constantly moving through the school with a pump, so hot water can get to the sinks quickly.

This is why many schools have more than one water heater. They can have one for the cafeteria and the other for the rest of the school. The cafeteria water is kept very hot while the rest of the school is kept at a safer temperature that is much lower.

Water Heater for the Home

Tankless Water Heater for the School

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Exploring Temperature Most of a school’s energy is used to control the temperature of the air in the buildings. Students and teachers work better when they are comfortable—not too hot or too cold. What is a comfortable temperature? It depends on what you’re doing. You can be comfortable in very cool weather with just a shirt and shorts if you’re playing soccer. The people sitting in the stands might need a jacket. It depends on the season, too. A day that feels cool in the summer might feel very warm in the middle of winter. 1. Heat flows from hotter objects to cooler objects. Heat flows until everything is in balance. That means the objects in your classroom are at the same temperature. Touch objects made of the materials listed below and circle how they feel. Do they feel hotter than the air, colder than the air, or the same? Metal hotter Glass hotter Plastic hotter Wood hotter Fabric hotter

colder colder colder colder colder

the same the same the same the same the same

2. Using a thermometer, record the temperature of the things listed in Fahrenheit (F) and Celsius (C) scales. Human Body Classroom Air Outside Air Ice Water Warm Water

98.6 OF 37 OC ________ OF ________ OC ________ OF ________ OC ________ OF ________ OC ________ OF ________ OC

3. Fill a container with water the same temperature as the air in the classroom. Use the thermometer to find the temperature. How does it feel compared to the air?

Air Water

________ OF ________ OC ________ OF ________ OC

too warm too warm

too cool too cool

just right just right

4. Do you usually like the air to be hotter or colder than your body? Why? 5. When might you want water to be colder than your body? 6. When might you want the water to be the same temperature or warmer than your body? 32

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Thermal Energy Foldable Make a graphic organizer to help you remember the difference between conduction, convection, and radiation. Tape, glue, or staple this organizer in your science notebook. 1. Holding your blank piece of paper up and down, fold the short edge down to the long edge, as shown. Cut off the bottom edge to leave behind a perfect square.

Cut Away

2. Fold the other corners together and open the square out, so you have a large folded “X” on the paper.

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3. Fold the corners to the center of the square, making a smaller square with triangle-shaped flaps.

4. On the outside of one flap, write “Moving Thermal Energy”. Lift the flap, and beneath it, write the way thermal energy is moved, either from low temperature to high temperature, or from high temperature to low temperature (there is only one right answer!). On the outside of the other three flaps, write “Conduction,” “Convection,” and “Radiation.” Underneath the flaps, define each method of thermal energy transfer using words or pictures, and provide an example of each.

Moving Thermal Energy

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Insulation Station ? Question 

NOTE

How does the material a cup is made of affect the transfer or movement of heat?

When the procedure calls for: ice water, use water <7°C or <45°F room temperature water, use water between 20-22°C or 68-72°F hot water, use water just under boiling (the teacher should handle the container for hot water)

 Hypothesis Read the procedure and record your hypothesis in your science notebook using an "If... then... because..." format.

 Materials ƒƒ ƒƒ ƒƒ ƒƒ ƒƒ ƒƒ ƒƒ ƒƒ ƒƒ

4 Cups of different materials, but similar size 4 Digital thermometers 4 Rubber bands Plastic wrap Stopwatch or clock with second hand Ice water Room temperature water Hot water Beaker or graduated cylinder

Procedure 1. Create the table below in your science notebook three times-once for the ice water, once for the room temperature water, and once for the hot water. Fill in the blanks in the chart for the material each cup is made of. 2. Using a rubber band, attach a thermometer to the outside of each cup. 3. Fill each cup with the same amount of ice water, using your beaker or graduated cylinder. 4. Cover each cup with plastic wrap. 5. In 30 second intervals, record the temperature of each cup for a total of three minutes. 6. Calculate the change in temperature (ΔT) for each type of cup. 7. Repeat steps 3-6 with room temperature water and hot water.

 Observations and Data Material ______cup ______cup ______cup ______cup

0 sec

30 sec

60 sec

90 sec

120 sec

150 sec

180 sec

∆ T (OC)

Use the data from the table to create a graph in your science notebook.

 Conclusion 1. Which material had the greatest change in temperature? Is it a good insulator? 2. Which cup would be the best for hot chocolate? Which would keep a drink cold the longest? Use data to support your answers. 3. What variables might have affected the results of your experiment? ©2019

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Insulation Assessment Circle the materials that will make the best insulators for a drink. Remember, good insulators will trap the heat in, and keep the cold out.

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Dodging Drafts  ? Question How can you tell if the windows in your home or school seal tightly?

Hypothesis In your science notebook, write a hypothesis stating how well you think the windows and doors in your home or school are sealed against air leaks.

Materials ƒƒ 1 Pencil ƒƒ 1 Strip of Tissue Paper, 1” x 12” ƒƒ Tape

Procedure 1. Use a small piece of tape to attach the tissue paper to the pencil as shown. 2. Turn off anything that might cause an air current in the room, such as a fan or the heating system. Turning the heat off for a few minutes should not cause the room or building to get cold. 3. Stand in front of the window you are observing and record your data. Touch the glass, the frame, and the wall around the window. 4. Hold the pencil so it is parallel to the floor. Allow the tissue paper to hang loosely from the pencil. Place the pencil in front of the lower edge of the closed window. Observe if the tissue moves. Record your observations. 5. Repeat the test around the other edges of the window, and around all the other windows and doors, until you have tested all the doors and windows of the room you are in. 6. Move to another room based on your teacher’s suggestion. Copy the data section below, and continue testing. 7. Answer the conclusion questions when you’re finished collecting data.

 Data Room you are testing: __________________________________________________________ Window you are testing: ___________________________________ Can you see more than one layer of glass in the window? Is the window latched closed?

Yes

How many layers?

2

1

Yes

No

No 3

What is the window frame made of? ______________________________________________________ Can you see any gaps around the window that should be filled with caulking or weatherstripping? _______________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________

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How do the window glass and area around the window feel to the touch? ___________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ Results of tissue paper test: ___________________________________________________________________________

ď&#x192;š Conclusion 1. Do you think the windows conduct thermal energy too easily or are they well insulated? Use the data you recorded to help answer the questions. __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Are the windows well sealed? What evidence that you collected supports your answer? __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. How warm or cool did the walls feel compared to the windows when you touched them? __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. What could you do to your school windows or doors to stop thermal energy movement? __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________

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LESSON 3

Understanding Electrical Energy Electricity is a mysterious force. We can’t see it like we see the sun. We can’t hold it like we hold coal. We know when it is working, but it is hard to know exactly what it is. Before we can understand electricity, we need to learn about atoms.

Atom

Atoms Everything is made of atoms—every star, every tree, every animal. Even people are made of atoms. The air and water are, too. Atoms are the building blocks of the universe. They are very, very tiny particles. Millions of atoms would fit on the head of a pin.

PROTON NUCLEUS

NEUTRON

ELECTRON

Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons An atom looks like the sun with the planets spinning around it. The center is called the nucleus. It is made of tiny protons and neutrons. Electrons move around the nucleus in energy levels, or shells, far from the nucleus. When an atom is in balance, it has the same number of protons and electrons. It can have a different number of neutrons. Electrons stay in their shells because a special force holds them there. Protons and electrons are attracted to each other. Protons have a positive charge (+) and electrons have a negative charge (–). Opposite charges attract each other.

Electricity is Moving Electrons The electrons near the nucleus are held tight to the atom. Sometimes, the ones farthest away are not. We can push some of these electrons out of their energy levels. We can move them. Moving electrons are called electricity.

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LESSON 3

Magnets are Special

Bar Magnet

In most objects, all the atoms are in balance. Half of the electrons spin in one direction; half spin in the other direction. They are spaced randomly in the object. Magnets are different. In magnets, the atoms are arranged so that the electrons are not in balance. The electrons donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t spin in a balanced way. Instead, the electrons line up. This creates a force of energy called a magnetic field around a magnet. We call one end of the magnet the north (N) pole and the other end the south (S) pole. The force of the magnetic field flows from the north pole to the south pole. Have you ever held two magnets close to each other? They donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t act like most objects. If you try to push the two north poles together, they repel each other. If you try to push the two south poles together, they repel each other.

Like Poles Like poles of magnets (N-N or S-S) repel each other.

Opposite Poles Opposite poles of magnets (N-S) attract each other.

Turn one magnet around and the north and the south poles attract. The magnets stick to each other with a strong force. Just like protons and electrons, opposites attract.

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Turbine Generator

We can use magnets to make electricity. A magnetic field can pull and push electrons to make them move. Some metals, like copper, have electrons that are loosely held. They are easily pushed from their shells.

TURBINE SPINS SHAFT Spinning Coil of Wire

MAGNET

Magnetism and electricity are related. Magnets can create electricity and electricity can produce magnetic fields. Every time a magnetic field changes, an electric field is created. Every time an electric field changes, a magnetic field is created. Magnetism and electricity are always linked together; you canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t have one without the other. This is called electromagnetism.

TURBINE

MAGNET

Magnets Can Make Electricity

LESSON 3

North Pole

South Pole DIRECTION OF ELECTRIC CURRENT

Power Plants Use Magnets

TO TRANSMISSION LINES

Power plants use huge magnets to make, or generate, electricity. In a generator, a big coil of copper wire spins inside the magnets. As it spins, the magnetic fields push and pull electrons in the wire.

TURBINE ROOM AT SAFE HARBOR

The electrons in the copper wire flow into power lines. These moving electrons are the electricity that powers our houses. Power plants use giant wheels, called turbines, to spin the coils of wire in the generators. It takes a lot of energy to spin turbines. Power plants use many fuels to get that energy.

Photo of Safe Harbor Water Power Corporation on the Lower Susquehanna River in Pennsylvania. Š2019

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LESSON 3

Electricity Travels Through Wires The spinning turbines make electricity. It flows into power lines. The electrons flow through the power lines to our houses. They flow through the wires in our houses and back to the power plant. Then they start their journey again.

Transporting Electricity Power Plant

Transmission Lines

Power Tower Distribution Lines

Transformer

Electric Poles

Transformers

Home

There are many different types of power lines. The power plant makes electricity. The electricity flows through transmission lines held up by power towers. The transmission lines carry large amounts of electricity to electric poles in cities and towns. Distribution lines carry small amounts of electricity from the electric poles to houses and businesses. Transformers make sure the electricity is in the proper units (voltage) for us to safely use.

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LESSON 3

Electricity Travels in Loops

Electric Circuits FLOW OF ELECTRONS

Electricity travels in closed loops, or circuits (from the word circle). It must have a complete path from the power plant through the wires and back. If a circuit is open, the electricity can’t flow. When we flip on a light switch, we close a circuit. The electricity flows through the light and back into the wire. When we flip the switch off, we open the circuit. No electricity flows to the light. It flows straight through the switch.

We Use Electricity Every Day Electricity does a lot of work for us. We use it many times each day. It lights our homes, warms and cools our rooms, and helps us keep them clean. It runs our TVs, DVD players, video games, computers, and fax machines. It cooks our food and washes the dishes. It can power our lawn mowers and leaf blowers. It can even run our cars. We use a lot of electricity every year.

WIRES

+

LOAD ENERGY SOURCE

CLOSED SWITCH

A closed circuit is a complete path allowing electricity to flow from the energy source to the load. FLOW OF ELECTRONS

WIRES

+

LOAD ENERGY SOURCE

OPEN SWITCH

An open circuit has a break in the path. There is no flow of electricity because the electrons cannot complete the circuit.

Residential Electricity Use 1,500 billion kWh (kilowatt-hours) 1,200

1,407 billion kWh

900 600 300 0

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

2010

2020

Data: Energy Information Administration

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LESSON 3

Watt’s That? We use electricity to perform many tasks. We use units called watts, kilowatts, and kilowatthours to measure the electricity that we use.

Learn the ABCs Appliances are Big Consumers

Appliances, machines, and electronic devices use over 18 percent of a school’s energy. Any appliance that is designed to change temperature uses a lot of energy. These devices can include items like a refrigerator, washer, water heater, dryer, dishwasher, water fountain, or even vending machine. There are many more smaller devices and machines that are plugged in in every classroom. When you add all of these up, it can be a lot! You can A kilowatt-hour (kWh) measures the amount help save energy at school by: of electricity used in one hour. We pay the ƒƒ Turning off appliances and machines when electric utility company for our electricity by you aren’t using them; the kilowatt-hour. They will send us a bill for our monthly use. Most homes pay about 13 ƒƒ Keeping the doors closed as much as possible on refrigerators and freezers— cents per kilowatt-hour, and most schools pay know what you want before you open the about 11 cents. You can look up how many doors; kilowatt-hours you use and how much you pay on your bill. ƒƒ Being aware that many machines use energy even when turned off—save energy by unplugging them; A watt is how much electric power an appliance uses. Every appliance requires a different number of watts to work correctly. We measure smaller devices like hair dryers, coffee pots, and phone chargers in watts. A kilowatt is 1,000 watts. It is used to measure larger amounts of electricity for appliances like refrigerators, air conditioning systems, and solar panels on your roof.

ƒƒ Inspecting and dusting air vents to remove dust; and ƒƒ Replacing seals on refrigerators and freezers if they do not seal tightly. When the school or your family members shop for a new appliance or electronic device, they should think of more than just the purchase price. They should also think about how much it will cost to run the device, because they will pay their bills to use it each month for the next 10 to 20 years. An energy efficient appliance will usually cost more to purchase, but it will save money in energy costs each month. An energy efficient model is almost always a better deal in the long run. 44

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LESSON 3

Environmental Impacts

Avoid Sticker Shock School leaders or folks at home will want to look for two labels when they buy a new appliance or machine. The first way to save money is by looking for the ENERGY STAR® label. This label guarantees that the product saves energy. ENERGY STAR® appliances and electronics use special technologies that use less energy and water than standard models. A list of energy efficient appliances can be found on the ENERGY STAR® website at www.energystar.gov.

Another way to determine which appliance is more energy efficient is to look at their EnergyGuide labels. The government requires most appliances to display bright yellow and black EnergyGuide labels in the store. These labels do not tell which appliance is the most efficient, but they will show how much energy it can use in a year and how much it costs to operate it. When shopping, it is helpful to compare these yellow labels to help determine which machine is the best for you.

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Generating, transporting, and using all this electricity to power our lives makes a big impact on our environment. Most of our electricity is generated using nonrenewable sources like coal, natural gas, and uranium. Locating, removing, transporting, and using those sources requires energy, too. When coal and natural gas are burned to make electricity, carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere. When too much of it builds up in the atmosphere, it leads to climate change. The atmosphere around the Earth works just like a blanket on your bed by trapping heat and holding it in. Water vapor, carbon dioxide, and other gases are called greenhouse gases because they absorb thermal energy (heat). This is called the greenhouse effect, and it’s what keeps us from freezing to death when we are too far away from the sun. But just like too much candy, too much of the greenhouse effect is not a good thing. Burning fossil fuels and releasing too much carbon dioxide is causing the atmosphere and also the oceans to get warmer than they should be. Every time we turn on the lights, or run an electric appliance, we are responsible for releasing more carbon dioxidede into the atmosphere. There are some things we really must use, like medical equipment to keep us healthy and refrigerators to make sure our food is safe to eat. But there are plenty of other choices we can make about our energy use each day that can impact the environment in a good way. Open a window instead of running the air conditioner. Read a book instead of watching TV. Eat cold pizza for a snack instead of using the microwave. Once you start thinking about the choices you can make, you will be surprised at how much you can do. 45


LESSON 3

Electrical Safety Electricity is amazing. It gives us heat and light, and runs appliances—our TVs, computers, refrigerators, hair dryers, gaming systems, and washers. Electricity can also be dangerous. It can cause fires and injuries, even death.

Here are some rules for using electricity safely: ƒƒDon’t insert anything into an outlet except a plug. ƒƒDon’t pull on the cord to unplug an appliance, hold the plug and pull. ƒƒDry your hands before you plug in or unplug a cord. ƒƒIf a plug is broken or a cord is cut or worn, don’t use it. ƒƒDon’t plug too many cords into one outlet. ƒƒTurn off a light or unplug it before changing a light bulb. ƒƒNever touch the inside of an appliance while it’s plugged in. ƒƒKeep appliances away from water. Don’t use a hair dryer if there’s water in the sink nearby. ƒƒIf there’s a big storm, turn off the TV and computer. ƒƒDon’t touch any power lines outside. ƒƒSome power lines are buried underground. If you are digging and find a wire, don’t touch it. ƒƒDon’t fly a kite or climb a tree near a power line.

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LESSON 3

Life Without Electricity We rely on electricity every day. Electricity provides us with the energy to do many things. We have appliances and machines that change electrical energy into other forms of energy, and then they do work for us. 1. What would life be like if the power was turned off and there was no electricity? Would you be able to survive? Why or why not?

2. List 10 electronic items that you think would be difficult to live without.

3. Look at your list above. Which five items do you think you need to survive? Explain and give reasons for each item.

4. Describe how your life would be different without electricity.

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LESSON 3

Transporting Electricity

3

4

5

6 7

Explain what each of the components numbered below does to get electricity from the generator to the consumer.

1 2

1. Power plant: _______________________________________________________________________________________________

2. Step-up transformer: _______________________________________________________________________________________

3. Transmission line: __________________________________________________________________________________________

4. Power tower: ______________________________________________________________________________________________

5. Step-down transformer: _____________________________________________________________________________________

6. Distribution line: ___________________________________________________________________________________________

7. Neighborhood transformer: _________________________________________________________________________________

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LESSON 3

Kill A Watt® Meter The Kill A Watt® meter allows users to measure and monitor the power consumption of any standard electrical device. You can obtain instantaneous readings of voltage (volts), current (amps), line frequency (Hz), and electric power being used (watts). You can also obtain the actual amount of power consumed in kilowatt-hours (kWh) by any electrical device over a period of time from one minute to 9,999 hours. A kilowatt is 1,000 watts.

Operating Instructions 1. Plug the Kill A Watt® meter into any standard grounded outlet or extension cord. 2. Plug the electrical device or appliance to be tested into the AC Power Outlet Receptacle of the Kill A Watt® meter. 3. The LCD displays all meter readings. The unit will begin to accumulate data and powered duration time as soon as the power is applied. 4. Press the Volt button to display the voltage (volts) reading. 5. Press the Amp button to display the current (amps) reading. 6. The Watt and VA button is a toggle function key. Press the button once to display the Watt reading; press the button again to display the VA (volts x amps) reading. The Watt reading, not the VA reading, is the value used to calculate kWh consumption. 7. The Hz and PF button is a toggle function key. Press the button once to display the Frequency (Hz) reading; press the button again to display the Power Factor (PF) reading. 8. The KWH and Hour button is a toggle function key. Press the button once to display the cumulative energy consumption. Press the button again to display the cumulative time elapsed since power was applied.

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LESSON 3

Measuring Electricity Use ? Question  Which appliances and machines in your schools use the most energy?

 Hypothesis

 Materials ƒƒ Pluggable appliances and devices ƒƒ Kill A Watt® meter

Procedure Calculate how much it costs to operate the machines in your classroom that you looked at before. You need to know the wattage, the cost of electricity, and the number of hours a week each machine is used. the number of hours per week the item is used. Enter it onto the chart. Multiply by 40 to get 1 Estimate hours per year of use. We are using 40 weeks for schools, because school buildings aren’t used every week of the year. Using the copier as an example, if it is used for ten hours each week, we can find the yearly use like this:

Yearly use = 10 hours/week x 40 weeks/year = 400 hours/year Unplug the device safely. Plug the Kill A Watt® meter into the outlet. Plug the device into the front of the Kill A Watt® meter. Press the “Watts” button on the front of the meter and record the watts the devices uses in the chart. *NOTE: Do not unplug a device at school without making sure it’s allowable to do so. Some devices like copiers require long start-up times, and you know what happens if a computer is unplugged before work is saved.

2

is measured in kilowatt-hours. You will need to change watts to kilowatts. One kilowatt is equal 3 Electricity to 1,000 watts. Divide the watts by 1,000 to get kilowatts. Write this number in the chart. Using the copier as an example, divide like this:

kW = W/1,000

4

kW = 1,265/1,000 = 1.265 Remember, we pay for electricity by kilowatt-hours. One kilowatt-hour costs the school about 11 cents. To find the yearly cost, we multiply the hours per year by kilowatts. Then multiply this by the cost of a kilowatt-hour ($0.11). We can figure out how much it costs to run the copier for a year by using this formula: Yearly cost = Hours used per year x Kilowatts x Cost of electricity (kWh) Yearly cost = 400 hours/year x 1.265 kW x $0.11 kWh Yearly cost = 400 x 1.265 x 0.11 = $55.66

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LESSON 3

©2019

MACHINE OR APPLIANCE

HOURS PER WEEK

HOURS PER YEAR

WATTS (W)

KILOWATTS (kW)

RATE ($/kWh)

ANNUAL COST

Copier

10

400 hours

1,265 W

1.265 kW

$0.11

$55.66

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LESSON 4

Understanding Lighting A very short time ago, we used a lot of energy in the form of electricity to make light to be able to see. Thirty percent of the electricity schools used was for lighting, and homes used about 14 percent of their electricity consumption for lighting. But, ten years ago, many homes, schools, and other commercial buildings used a lot of incandescent lighting. These types of bulbs were perfected by Thomas Edison in 1879 and didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t change much for the next 125 or more years! Incandescent bulbs have always been very inefficient. They use about 90 percent of the electricity they use to make heat. This heat makes a wire inside the bulb glow to make light. Only 10 percent of the electricity the bulb uses turns into light! In 2007, the U.S. passed a law called The Energy Independence and Security Act. This law changed the efficiency of light bulbs we used most often. This law says that bulbs now must be 30 percent more efficient than the original, inefficient incandescent bulbs. The government hoped that these rules would give the people the same amount of light but with less energy use. Most incandescent light bulbs were taken off store shelves and can no longer be purchased. The lighting efficiency laws led to major energy savings for schools and homes. Newer, efficient lighting now totals only 17 percent of the electricity used in schools.

Bulb Types There are several light bulb options that meet the new efficiency standards. Energy-saving incandescent, or halogen, bulbs are different than original incandescent bulbs because they have a capsule around the glowing wire that is filled with a gas called halogen. This gas allows the bulbs to last three times longer and use 25 percent less energy. Compact fluorescent light bulbs (CFLs) provide the same amount of light as incandescent bulbs, but use up to 75 percent less energy and last ten times longer. CFLs produce very little heat. CFLs have a small amount of mercury inside and should always be recycled rather than thrown away. Many retailers recycle CFLs for free. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are the most popular light bulb today. These bulbs are the same types of bulbs you see in exit signs, clocks on your DVD player, and the on/off light on your remote. This technology can also be used to light your whole house. Lower prices and appbased technologies are causing LEDs to replace CFLs and incandescents. LEDs are one of the most energy-efficient lighting choices available today. LEDs use 75 percent less energy than traditional incandescents, and can last 25,000 hours. LEDs are similar in cost to other bulbs and use even less energy than CFLs.

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LESSON 4

Lights in School

INCANDESCENT BULB

Lighting is a big part of a school’s energy use. Think of the number of classrooms in your building. Each classroom or space must be lit. Because schools need to light larger spaces, they often use different shaped bulbs than the ones you use at home. Schools most often use fluorescent lights in a long tube shape.

HALOGEN BULB

CFL BULB

LED BULB

LEDs offer better light quality than incandescent bulbs and halogens, last 25 times as long, and use even less energy than CFLs. LEDs now have a wide array of uses because technology has improved and costs have decreased. CFL use has greatly decreased as LED prices have come down to the similar price as other bulbs.

A fluorescent lamp is a glass tube. The inside of the tube is coated with a powder that can glow when it absorbs energy, much like stickers you put on the ceiling to glow at night time. The glass tubes are filled with gases. At the ends of the tubes, are the wires called electrodes. When the tube is connected to the electricity in the light fixture, the electrodes heat up. This heat causes the vapors in the tube to get excited and radiate their energy into the powder coating. Once the powder coating absorbs energy it glows to make light. Schools often use multiple sets of fluorescent tubes in one classroom. These tubes can be different sizes. The smaller bulbs use less energy to create the same amount of light. Fluorescent Tube Lamp Mercury and inert gases

No matter how efficient a school’s light bulbs are, there are always ways to save more energy on lighting in the school. ƒƒ Shut off lighting when you leave the room; ƒƒ Use natural light by opening curtains or blinds when you can;

Phosphor coating Base with bi-pin plug In fluorescent tubes, a very small amount of mercury mixes with inert gases to conduct the electric current. This allows the phosphor coating on the glass tube to emit light.

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ƒƒ If the room has more than one light switch, try using only the number of lights needed for the people in the space; and ƒƒ Switch to more efficient fluorescent or LED lighting when possible.

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LESSON 4

Light Meter Operating Instructions 1. Insert the battery into the battery compartment in the back of the meter. 2. Slide the ON/OFF Switch to the ON position. 3. Slide the Range Switch to the B position. 4. On the back of the meter, pull out the meterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s tilt stand and place the meter on a flat surface in the area you plan to measure. 5. Hold the Light Sensor so that the white lens faces the light source to be measured or place the Light Sensor on a flat surface facing the direction of the light source. 6. Read the measurement on the LCD Display. 7. If the reading is less than 200 fc, slide the Range Switch to the A position and measure again.

LCD Display

ON/OFF Switch Range Switch

Light Sensor

Light Output or Luminous Flux A lumen (lm) is a measure of the light output (or luminous flux) of a light source (bulb or tube). Light sources are labeled with output ratings in lumens. A T12 40-watt fluorescent tube light, for example, may have a rating of 3050 lumens.

Light Level or Illuminance A foot-candle (fc) is a measure of the quantity of light (illuminance) that actually reaches the workplane on which the light meter is placed. Foot-candles are workplane lumens per square foot. The light meter can measure the quantity of light from 0 to 1000 fc.

Brightness or Luminance Another measure of light is its brightness or luminance. Brightness is a measure of the light that is reflected from a surface in a particular direction. Brightness is measured in footlamberts (fL).

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LESSON 4

Recommended Light Levels Below is a list of recommended illumination levels for school locations in foot-candles. These illumination levels align with the recommendations from the Illumination Engineering Society of North America. AREA

FOOT-CANDLES

Classrooms (Reading and Writing)

50

Classrooms (Drafting)

75

Computer Labs (Keyboarding)

30

Computer Labs (Reading Print Materials)

50

Computer Labs (Monitors)

3

Labs-General

50

Labs-Demonstrations

100

Auditorium (Seated Activities)

10

Auditorium (Reading Activities)

50

Kitchens

50

Dining Areas

30

Hallways

20-30

Stairwells

15

Gymnasiums (Exercising and Recreation)

30

Gymnasiums (Basketball Games)

75

Locker Rooms

10

Libraries and Media Centers (Study Areas)

50

Libraries and Media Centers (Other Areas)

30

Shops (Rough Work)

30

Shops (Medium Work)

50

Shops (Fine Work)

75

Offices (Reading Tasks)

50

Offices (Non-Reading Tasks)

30

Teacher Workrooms

30

Conference Rooms

30

Washrooms (Grooming Areas)

30

Washrooms (Lavatories)

15

Maintenance Rooms

30

Building Exteriors and Parking Lots

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Cost of bulbs for 25,000 hours of light

=

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Total kWh consumption

Price of electricity per kWh

Cost of Electricity

=

x

=

Cost of electricity

Life cycle cost

+

=

Cost of bulbs

LIFE CYCLE COST

Wattage

x

Total Hours

COST OF ELECTRICITY

Price per bulb

x

How many bulbs do you need to get 25,000 hours?

Life of bulb (how long it will light)

COST OF BULB

All bulbs provide about 850 lumens of light.

INCANDESCENT BULB

$0.129

60 watts = 0.060 kW

25,000 hours

INCANDESCENT BULB

HALOGEN

$0.129

43 watts = 0.043 kW

25,000 hours

HALOGEN

$1.50

3,000 hours

1,000 hours

$0.50

HALOGEN

INCANDESCENT BULB

COMPACT FLUORESCENT (CFL)

$0.129

13 watts = 0.013 kW

25,000 hours

COMPACT FLUORESCENT (CFL)

$1.50

10,000 hours

COMPACT FLUORESCENT (CFL)

How much does it cost to create 25,000 hours of light from each bulb?

Facts of Light

LIGHT EMITTING DIODE (LED)

$0.129

12 watts = 0.012 kW

25,000 hours

LIGHT EMITTING DIODE (LED)

$1.33

25,000 hours

LIGHT EMITTING DIODE (LED)

LESSON 4

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LESSON 4

Facts of Light Comparing Light Bulbs $200

Cost

$150

$100

$50

$0

BULB COST

LIFE CYCLE COST

Incandescent

Bulb Cost Electricity Cost Life Cycle Cost

BULB COST

LIFE CYCLE COST

Halogen

BULB COST

LIFE CYCLE COST BULB COST

LIFE CYCLE COST

CFL

LED

Incandescent

Halogen Incandescent

CFL

LED

$12.50

$12.45

$3.75

$1.33

NOTE: Bulb cost reflects the number of bulbs needed to produce 25,000 hours of light, which is the lifespan of one LED bulb. To produce the same amount of light, it would take 25 incandescent bulbs and 2.5 CFL bulbs.

Answer the following questions in your science notebook. 1. Draw the Comparing Light Bulbs graph in your science notebook. Use the data provided to create a bar graph. 2. Looking at the graph and the data table, what conclusions can you draw about the cost of each type of bulb? 3. If you were going to change all of the light bulbs in your home, which bulbs would you use and why? ©2019

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LESSON 4

Facts of Light Summary Use the Facts of Light data to show the life cycle cost of each bulb when used for 25,000 hours.

INCANDESCENT

COST OF INCANDESCENT BULBS

COST OF ELECTRICITY

INCANDESCENT LIFE CYCLE COST

HALOGEN

COST OF HALOGEN BULBS

COST OF ELECTRICITY

COST OF CFL BULBS

COST OF ELECTRICITY

HALOGEN LIFE CYCLE COST

CFL

CFL LIFE CYCLE COST

LED

COST OF LED BULBS

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COST OF ELECTRICITY ©2019

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LED LIFE CYCLE COST

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LESSON 5

OFF

Energy Systems Working Together

We have now investigated how we use energy in school. We have learned about heating and cooling, moisture, water heating, insulation, electrical devices, and lighting. If you have all of these items in place, does that mean your building is energy wise? Not always. Each of the systems we investigated works on its own to keep you happy, safe, and comfortable in your school or at home. But, all of these systems really work together. If one item isn’t working correctly, it can make another work harder than it needs to. If you have very efficient cooling and heating, but very old lighting that makes too much heat, your heating or cooling system might be working harder than needed. The heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system (HVAC) in your school is another good example. If your school has a boiler system for the whole school, it probably uses natural gas or fuel oil to heat water and pump it around the building to keep people warm. Some boiler systems boil the water to make steam to heat the building. Some boilers heat the water to almost boiling and use hot water and not steam. No matter what, your school’s heating system needs pumps to send the hot water or steam out into the school. These pumps use electricity to pump the warmth around the building. If the power goes out, the pumps will not be able to distribute water or steam and the building will get cold. What would the school do?

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LESSON 5

Most schools have two systems that could each heat the building. They do this so that there is always a back-up. But, also, if the outdoor weather is extremely cold, the maintenance staff can turn on the second system to help the first system not work as hard. The two work together! If the windows and doors in the building leak air, the heating system must work extra hard. Your school might be using more energy, or even two systems, when it could use less! During hot weather, instead of heating the building, a cooling system is used. Instead of circulating warm water to heat the rooms, a cooling system uses refrigeration to cool air, then blows the cool air into rooms. The cooling system and its fans use a lot of electricity. Heating and cooling is even more challenging because of another part of the building that we haven’t yet explored – the people! The bodies in the building are always creating thermal energy. The school has to work hard to adjust the temperature as students move around in it all day. A room might feel very chilly when it is empty, but it’s best to adjust the temperature of the room when it is fuller. Otherwise, the room will be too hot to be comfortable. Even YOU are an important part of your school’s energy system! There are many other systems that work together in other ways in your school, but the most important part of those systems is the people who use them. People are the brains behind energy consumption and they are the part of the system that will have the most impact on how much energy they use. The behavior and decisions you make can make a big difference in your school’s total energy use.

Students Exploring School Energy Systems

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LESSON 5

OFF

Energy at School

The early settlers wanted their children to know how to read and write. They wanted them to understand math. At first, the children were taught at home by their parents. Many times, there were only a few books in the house. The children learned to read using their parentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; books. Some people hired tutors to live in their homes. The tutor taught all the children in the house. Sometimes, cousins would travel a long way to study with the tutor. They would stay at the house for months at a time to learn. As more settlers arrived, towns were built. The people built schoolhouses and hired teachers so that their children could go to school. Usually, the schools were just one room. One teacher taught all the students from first grade through high school. Students shared desks as well as books. There was no paper to write on; the students wrote on pieces of slate. In cold weather, a stove in the middle of the room provided the only heat. The best seats were near the stove. The biggest boys carried in wood to keep the fire going. Snow would blow in through the windows and cracks in the walls. Even with the stove going, sometimes the children had to keep their coats and mittens on all day.

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Early settlers used wood stoves like this to stay warm and cook their food.

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LESSON 5

There was no kitchen or indoor sink. The only light came in through the windows. The bathroom was an outhouse behind the school building. There was no kitchen. Students brought their lunches from home. There were no school buses, of course. Students walked or rode horses to school. Sometimes, they lived several miles from the school. Today, schools are very different. They have many rooms and many teachers. They have heat to keep students warm in winter. Many have air conditioning to keep students cool in warm weather. They have lights and bathrooms and kitchens. They have running water for washing hands, drinking, flushing toilets, and washing dishes. Todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s schools have computers, tablets, projectors, copiers, televisions, clocks, intercoms, DVD players, CD players, gaming systems, and many other machines. They help students learn. Schools today use a lot of energy to provide a good place for students to learn. This energy costs a lot of money. You can save energy at school like you do at home.

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LESSON 5

OFF

A Tale of Two Schools

Read about Grace Hopper Elementary School and Shirley Jackson Elementary School. As you read about each school highlight or underline energy use examples, and things that are different at each school. You will use this information to help create an action plan for one of the schools. Grace Hopper Elementary School Hopper Elementary is a K-5 school in the Northeast U.S., where winters are cold and summers are warm. The school was recently renovated. Students had been used to a school that was built over fifty years ago, with old lights that flickered, drafty windows and doors, and never any hot water. Now, Hopper has brand new lighting, light switches, thermostats, and a heating, cooling, and ventilation system with efficient, programmable thermostats. The walls were given additional insulation, and windows were replaced with high-efficiency, triple-pane windows with weather stripping. The old, fluorescent light fixtures have been replaced with smaller LED lights that direct the light directly on the work surface. The students like the light better because it’s not as bright, and some corners of the classroom can be a little darker for computer or tablet use, or even sneaking in a nap. All of the lights are controlled by motion-detecting light switches, which automatically turn the lights off in a room that has been empty after 20 minutes, but allow students and staff to immediately turn the lights off, too. The students and staff work together to turn off lights when leaving a room empty and adjust the temperature a little bit at the end of each school day – cooler in winter and warmer in summer – to help save energy and give the heating and cooling system a break when the building is empty. They shut down computers and monitors every day at the end of the day and unplug unnecessary appliances – even the snack vending machines in the cafeteria! Teachers and staff only have coffee makers and refrigerators in the office and the teacher’s lounge. The science teachers have a minifridge for lab materials when they need it. On top of these actions, the maintenance staff can look any time to see what systems are operating and what the temperature is in any room. There is even a smart phone app that can be used from anywhere to check what’s operating in the building! The building manager has set the heating system to come on October 1 and turn off April 1. The temperature is set higher during the school day and cooler at 4:00 pm and on weekends, when nobody is there. The air conditioner turns on April 1, turns off October 1, and is set in a similar fashion as the heating system, to use less energy in the evenings and on the weekend.

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LESSON 5

The students and the building manager have an energy team that monitors the school throughout the day. If they find a classroom has forgotten to turn off the projector or unplug the hotplate from lab, they will fix it and leave the classroom a note on their bulletin board. They also leave positive notes for classrooms who have improved or do good work. The school has monthly rewards when they hit energy targets. Shirley Jackson Elementary School Jackson Elementary school is a brand new school in a similar area of the Northeast U.S. The school is state-of-the art, with the most energy efficient lighting and light sensors, computer-controlled heating and cooling, and super fancy, efficient windows. The principal at Shirley Jackson was recently talking to the principal at Grace Hopper. They were comparing notes about the features of their school, when it was discovered that Shirley Jackson’s utility bills are higher than the bills for Grace Hopper. The principal was shocked. How could this be if their school was built brand new, with even more efficient technologies than those of Hopper? The principal set out to figure it out. She formed an energy team and appointed an energy manager, just like Hopper Elementary. They were to report back to the principal’s office with their findings. Hopefully they could fix this problem…and soon! First the team walked the building in the evening, right after everyone had left. Walking into room after room, the lights would pop on because of the light sensors. They noticed the lights were on in many rooms that were empty, and the light sensors hadn’t yet turned them off. In some rooms, the blinds were open, and all the lights were on, with no one in the room! They also noticed a few classrooms, including the computer lab, had computers and monitors left on. The laptop cart was plugged in, but all the laptops were fully charged. Many of the teachers had coffee pots and personal refrigerators. The team moved on to the rest of the building. They observed the water heaters, gym, cafeteria equipment, athletic equipment, offices, and the library. The team noticed that the hot water temperature was 150°F in all of the bathroom sinks and the kitchen. The sinks in the girls’ bathroom were dripping water. The water fountain by the gym was always running. With the help of the energy manager, the team looked at the heating/cooling system controls and their utility bills. They noticed that it looked like the system was running 365 days a year, even though the school was empty over the recent holiday break. The air conditioning was still running in the building at 5 PM – no one is usually in the building that late.

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LESSON 6

OFF

Surveying and Auditing Energy Use

Before moving on, let’s stop and reflect on everything you have learned. In Lesson 1 you learned about where we get energy, who uses it, and how we use it in school. Lessons 2, 3, and 4 focused on thermal energy (heat), electricity, and lighting. Lesson 5 discussed how all the energy systems and people in a building work together to influence energy use. Now you’re ready to take the next step and conduct a student energy audit. Energy professionals take days to complete an audit. Your audit will not be that detailed but will still be very helpful to your school and your classmates. Each audit team will be assigned a work area to monitor. You and your audit team of 3 or 4 students will look at that area, make some notes, take some data, and make some recommendations.

Work Area Your teacher will assign a room or group of rooms for you to audit. Make observations at the times your teacher directs. You may audit the space twice - when the class is empty, and when it is full of students who are working. However, that is up to the teacher whose classroom you are auditing. If you enter a room that is in use, remember to be as quiet as you can, quickly take your measurements, and follow your teacher’s auditing rules. Some classrooms will have similar data to other audit groups. There are some spaces, such as computer labs, science labs, gymnasiums, and the library, that use energy differently from a regular classroom. Make sure to take careful notes and record somewhat different data in those rooms.

Auditing Tools There are several important auditing tools that you will use. The two most important tools are tools you have with you all the time, even at home. You are using one of those tools right now, as you read – your eyes. The other important tool is your ears. Many observations are seeing what is happening in a room and listening for things that are running. You will see more and hear best if you are quiet and not talking to your audit teammates. The other auditing tools that you will use are a thermometer, hygrometer, light meter, and maybe a Kill A Watt® meter. Make sure you know how to use each of these tools. Take good care of them because other audit teams may have to use them, too.

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LESSON 6

Making Notes There is much more to an audit than temperature, and whether the lights are on or off. You need to know what is turned on and running. Is that device supposed to be on and running at this time? You need to know if there are many windows or few, and how well they keep outside air outside. Make sure to take notes the same way in each space you visit. If you cannot explain to a team member why you think something is important, then it probably is not necessary. Note unusual or different items such as fish or reptile tanks, fans, lamps, and other devices that are not part of each space or classroom, and anything else being used in the area. Do not note things that are not plugged in and running. Use the Kill A Watt® meter to determine how much electricity devices like projectors and DVD players are using – even if they are off but plugged in! Don’t forget things like vending machines and drinking fountains. If the cooling unit of a drinking fountain is not running properly, the water will come out warm. These are good notes to make.

Recording Data Try to take measurements the same way each time. Don’t carry the thermometer by the probe; otherwise, it is only measuring how well your hands warm the thermometer, not the temperature of the room. The same is true about the hygrometer. Be careful not to get the hygrometer wet. When measuring light levels, place the sensor on the desktop or table top and don’t lean over it. Lean back and read the meter. It might be helpful to have one person hold the sensor in place while you read the meter. If you are measuring light in a room without tables, like the gym or hallway, hold the sensor at waist or chest height in front of you, and make sure you are not casting a shadow on it. You may need to record several temperatures or light levels in different parts of one room and then record the average. Make sure not to take your light meter outside or too close to bright light.

Making Recommendations After you have taken measurements and made notes in your work area, it’s time to evaluate the data you have collected and make some suggestions that will save energy. Keep in mind there are some things that cannot change, like leaving lights on in the hallways or using computers during the day. It is not practical for teachers to turn copy machines off after using them because they require a lengthy amount of time to start up again. As you look at your data, think of things that can be done right away to save energy, and which things might need to be put off for the future.

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LESSON 6

OFF

School Audit Form

Date: _________Time: _________Outdoor Temperature: _________ Describe the Weather: _________________________________________ Is the heat on?

Yes

Is the air conditioning on?

No

Yes

No

Name of room: ___________________________ Who is in the room? Empty

One person

A few people

Many people

Number of Windows: __________________________ Indoor Temperature :__________________________ Humidity: _____________________ Is There a Thermostat?

Yes

No

Are there vents leading outside?

Yes

No

Can we open or close the vents?

Yes

No

Are the Windows Open?

All

Some

None

Hot Water Temperature: _______________________ Are the Faucets Dripping?

All

Some

None

Types of Lighting: ___________________________________ Light Meter Reading: _________________________________ This is:

Too bright

Just right

Can we adjust the lights? Are the Lights On?

All

Are the Blinds Closed?

Yes Some

All

Are the Doors Tightly Closed? ©2019

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Too dim No None

Some Yes

None No

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67


LESSON 6

List the electrical machines that are turned on.

Who is using the machines that are turned on?

Other Comments:

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LESSON 6

OFF

Energy at School

Answer the questions below after you audit your school. 1. What kind of energy is used to heat the school?

2. What kind of energy is used to cool the school?

3. What kind of energy is used to cook the food?

4. What kind of energy is used to heat the water?

5. What kind of energy is used to run the lights and machines?

6. List one thing (behavior or device) that could change.

7. List one thing (behavior or device) that you observed using energy properly.

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LESSON 6

OFF

Building Buddy Energy Plan

There are lots of ways to save energy at school. Here are some things that we can do to be Building Buddies and save energy at school.

Classrooms 1. 2. 3. 4.

Library 1. 2. 3. 4.

Auditorium 1. 2. 3. 4.

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LESSON 6

Office 1. 2. 3. 4.

Gymnasium 1. 2. 3. 4.

Other 1. 2. 3. 4.

Building Buddies Saving energy is not hard—you just need to make it a habit. Be a Building Buddy!

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a

b

c

Glossary

appliance

a piece of equipment, powered by electricity to make tasks easier; examples of common appliances are refrigerators, clothes washers and dishwashers, stoves, ovens and microwave ovens, toasters, radios, and televisions

atom

a tiny unit of matter made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons

attract

to draw closer or stick to

b

battery

a device that stores chemical energy that can later be transformed into electrical energy

c

chemical energy

the energy stored in chemical bonds of substances

circuit(s)

a conductor or a system of conductors through which electric current flows

climate

when the atmosphere allows light to pass through but traps the energy as heat

commercial

a term used to describe users of energy who buy and sell goods; businesses, schools, hotels, restaurants, etc.

a

compact fluorescent light bulb (CFL)

d e

72

a light bulb made of specially coated glass and filled with a gas that glows when electricty passes through it

conduction

transferring energy from one place to another by touching

conductor

a material that transfers energy through it well, often metal

convection

transfer of energy through a liquid or a gas

distribution line

power lines that carry electricity at a safer voltage to consumers

electric charge

can be either positive or negative; electric charge determines how atoms act around other atoms and produces electromagnetic fields

electric poles

tall poles that hold power lines above the ground

electricity

electrons in motion

electromagnetism

having to do with magnetism produced by an electric current

electron

the tiny, energetic pieces of atoms with a negative electric charge

energy

the ability to do work, produce change, or move an object

energy conservation

changing a behavior or action when using energy; riding a bike rather than driving a car

energy efficiency

doing the same task but using less energy with a special tool or appliance

Š2019

The NEED Project

School Energy Inspectors

www.NEED.org


g

h

i

k

l

EnergyGuide

a label describing an appliance’s energy use and comparing it to the other models

energy level

area where electrons can be found outside an atom’s nucleus

ENERGY STAR®

a program that tests and certifies products based on efficiency features; labels help consumers save money

gasoline

a fuel made from petroleum that runs many vehicles

gravitational potential energy

energy of position or place

generator

a device that turns motion from wind, water, or steam into electrical energy; generators are made of coils of wire and magnets that spin

greenhouse effect greenhouse gas

when the atmosphere traps heat from the sun, because of special gases; the atmosphere acts like a greenhouse gases that trap in heat; carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor are major examples

halogen light bulb

a bulb that uses a heated filament and a special tube of gas to create light

humidity

the amount of water vapor in the air

hygrometer

a tool used to measure humidity

incandescent light bulb

a bulb using a heated filament to produce light; the filament is surrounded by a gas and creates more heat than light

industrial

a term used to describe users of energy who create or produce goods; factories, power plants, mills, etc.

insulation

a material or substance used to prevent the movement of thermal energy

insulator

a material that does not transfer energy well

kilowatt

a unit of electric power or energy consumption (use); a kilowatt equals 1,000 watts

kilowatt-hour

a measure of electricity; measured as 1 kilowatt (1,000 watts) of power over one hour

kinetic energy

the energy of motion

light emitting diode (LED) a bulb or device that produces light from energized particles called photons light bulb longitudinal

m

n

waves that move in a horizontal fashion, in the same direction as the force acting on them

magnet

any piece of iron, steel, etc., that has the property of attracting iron or steel

magnetic field

the area of force surrounding a magnet

molecule

two or more atoms bonded to each other that act like one atom

motion energy

change in position, movement; a form of energy

negative charge

see electric charge

©2019

The NEED Project

School Energy Inspectors

www.NEED.org

73


p

r

neutron

neutrally charged particle within the nucleus of an atom

nonrenewable

fuels that cannot be easily made or replenished; we can use up nonrenewable fuels; oil, natural gas, propane, uranium, and coal are nonrenewable fuels

north (N) Pole

the end of a magnet where the magnetic field starts flowing from

nuclear energy

energy stored in the nucleus of an atom that is released by the joining or splitting of the nuclei

nucleus

the core of the atom that holds protons and neutrons

photosynthesis

when plants make food (sugar) using the energy in sunlight

potential energy

energy that is stored, not in motion

positive charge

see electric charge

power lines

cables or wires that carry electricity from place to place

power plant

a place where electricity is created

power tower

a tower that supports or holds transmission lines that carry high voltage electricity

pressure

when a force is applied to a certain area

proton

positively charged particle within the nucleus of an atom

radiant energy

energy that travels in waves or rays, such as light

renewable

fuels that can be easily made or replenished; we can never use up renewable fuels; types of renewable fuels are hydropower (water), solar, wind, geothermal, and biomass

residential

to push away from a term used to describe users of energy in places where people stay or live; homes, apartments, condominiums, etc.

sound energy

energy that travels in longitudinal waves

south (S) pole

the end of a magnet where the magnetic field moves from the north pole

temperature

a measurement of how much the molecules of a substance are in motion

thermal energy

energy within a substance, caused by friction or movement of the atoms and particles (heat)

thermostat transportation

a device that adjusts the amount of heating and cooling in a space a term used to describe users of energy that move goods, people, or services; buses, trains, pipelines, cars, etc.

transverse wave

a wave that moves in a different direction than the force applied

turbine

a device with blades, which are turned by water, wind, or steam

transformer

a device that controls the voltage of the electricity on power lines

repel

s t

74

Š2019

The NEED Project

School Energy Inspectors

www.NEED.org


v

w

transmission line

power lines that move larger amounts of power at a high voltage, usually over long distances

ventilation

a system that brings fresh air into a space and allows stale air to exit

voltage

power lines that move larger amounts of power at a high voltage, usually over long distances

watt

unit of power used for electricity measurements; rate at which work is done

weatherization

materials used to protect an item from the weather; insulation, sealer, antifreeze, etc.

Students Exploring a School Boiler Room

Š2019

The NEED Project

School Energy Inspectors

www.NEED.org

75


National Sponsors and Partners 2019 Exelon Women’s Leadership Summit Association of Desk and Derrick Clubs Foundation Alaska Electric Light & Power Company American Electric Power Foundation American Fuel & Petrochemical Manufacturers Apex Clean Energy Armstrong Energy Corporation Association for Learning Environments Robert L. Bayless, Producer, LLC Baltimore Gas & Electric BG Group/Shell BP America Inc. Blue Grass Energy Bob Moran Charitable Giving Fund Boys and Girls Club of Carson (CA) Buckeye Supplies Cape Light Compact–Massachusetts Central Alabama Electric Cooperative Citgo CLEAResult Clover Park School District Clovis Unified School District Colonial Pipeline Columbia Gas of Massachusetts ComEd ConocoPhillips Constellation Cuesta College Cumberland Valley Electric David Petroleum Corporation David Sorenson Desk and Derrick of Roswell, NM Desert Research Institute Direct Energy Dominion Energy, Inc. Dominion Energy Foundation DonorsChoose Duke Energy Duke Energy Foundation East Kentucky Power EduCon Educational Consulting Edward David E.M.G. Oil Properties Energy Trust of Oregon Ergodic Resources, LLC Escambia County Public School Foundation Eversource Exelon Exelon Foundation Exelon Generation First Roswell Company Foundation for Environmental Education FPL The Franklin Institute George Mason University – Environmental Science and Policy Gerald Harrington, Geologist Government of Thailand–Energy Ministry Grayson RECC ©2019 The NEED Project

Green Power EMC Greenwired, Inc. Guilford County Schools–North Carolina Gulf Power Harvard Petroleum Hawaii Energy Houston LULAC National Education Service Centers Illinois Clean Energy Community Foundation Illinois International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers Renewable Energy Fund Illinois Institute of Technology Independent Petroleum Association of New Mexico Jackson Energy James Madison University Kansas Corporation Commission Kentucky Office of Energy Policy Kentucky Environmental Education Council Kentucky Power–An AEP Company Kentucky Utilities Company League of United Latin American Citizens – National Educational Service Centers Leidos Linn County Rural Electric Cooperative Llano Land and Exploration Louisiana State University – Agricultural Center Louisville Gas and Electric Company Midwest Wind and Solar Minneapolis Public Schools Mississippi Development Authority–Energy Division Mississippi Gulf Coast Community Foundation National Fuel National Grid National Hydropower Association National Ocean Industries Association National Renewable Energy Laboratory NC Green Power Nebraskans for Solar New Mexico Oil Corporation New Mexico Landman’s Association NextEra Energy Resources NEXTracker Nicor Gas Nisource Charitable Foundation Noble Energy North Carolina Department of Environmental Quality North Shore Gas Offshore Technology Conference Ohio Energy Project Oklahoma Gas and Electric Energy Corporation Oxnard Union High School District Pacific Gas and Electric Company PECO Pecos Valley Energy Committee People’s Electric Cooperative Peoples Gas Pepco Performance Services, Inc. Petroleum Equipment and Services Association Permian Basin Petroleum Museum

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Phillips 66 Pioneer Electric Cooperative PNM PowerSouth Energy Cooperative Providence Public Schools Quarto Publishing Group Prince George’s County (MD) R.R. Hinkle Co Read & Stevens, Inc. Renewable Energy Alaska Project Resource Central Rhoades Energy Rhode Island Office of Energy Resources Rhode Island Energy Efficiency and Resource Management Council Robert Armstrong Roswell Geological Society Salal Foundation/Salal Credit Union Salt River Project Salt River Rural Electric Cooperative Sam Houston State University Schlumberger C.T. Seaver Trust Secure Futures, LLC Seneca Resources Shell Shell Carson Shell Chemical Shell Deer Park Shell Eco-Marathon Sigora Solar Singapore Ministry of Education Society of Petroleum Engineers Sports Dimensions South Kentucky RECC South Orange County Community College District SunTribe Solar Sustainable Business Ventures Corp Tesla Tri-State Generation and Transmission TXU Energy United Way of Greater Philadelphia and Southern New Jersey University of Kentucky University of Maine University of North Carolina University of Rhode Island University of Tennessee University of Texas Permian Basin University of Wisconsin – Platteville U.S. Department of Energy U.S. Department of Energy–Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy U.S. Department of Energy–Wind for Schools U.S. Energy Information Administration United States Virgin Islands Energy Office Volusia County Schools Western Massachusetts Electric Company Eversource

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