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science & technology

arts & culture

Refresh wins


Incumbents Turnbull and Pierce to serve second term with new team

Are labour unions beneficial to society?

Pine fresh

Aboriginal music Cool runnings Manitoba Music offers its Aboriginal Music Mentors Program

The many challenges and rewards of winter training

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Coniferous trees play role in mitigating effects of climate change


Cosmos on Campus: Neil deGrasse Tyson lecture March 13 Vo l 1 0 0 路 N o 2 5 路 m a r c h 1 2 , 2 0 1 4 路 w w w.t h e m a n i to b a n .co m



VOL. 100 NO. 25 March 12, 2014

Editor-in-Chief Bryce Hoye / 474.8293

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design associate Aichelle Sayuno


graphics associate Bram Keast



News Caleigh MacDonald News Kevin Linklater Science Elizabeth Drewnik arts & culture Anastasia Chipelski arts & culture Lukas Thiessen Sports Mike Still Assistant copy editor Angela England

Volunteer Contributors

Will Gibson, Scott Ford, Caroline Norman, Keegan Steele, Gloria Joe, Don Deitch, Jodie Layne, Jennifer Keith, Ian T.D. Thomson


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A “volunteer staff” member is defined as a person who has had three volunteer articles, photographs, or pieces of art of reasonable length and/or substance published in three different issues of the current publishing year of the Manitoban. Any individual who qualifies must be voted in by a majority vote at a Manitoban staff meeting. Elected representatives and non-students may be excluded from holding votes as volunteer staff members in accordance with the Manitoban Constitution. The Manitoban is the official student newspaper of the University of Manitoba. It is published monthly during the summer and each week of regular classes during the academic year by the Manitoban Newspaper Publications Corporation. The Manitoban is an independent and democratic student organization, open to participation from all students. It exists to serve its readers as students and citizens. The newspaper’s primary mandate is to report fairly and objectively on issues and events of importance and interest to the students of the University of Manitoba, to provide an open forum for the free expression and exchange of opinions and ideas, and to stimulate meaningful debate on issues that affect or would otherwise be of interest to the student body and/or society in general. The Manitoban serves as a training ground for students interested in any aspect of journalism. Students and other interested parties are invited to contribute to any section of the newspaper. Please contact the appropriate editor for submission guidelines. The Manitoban reserves the right to edit all submissions and will not publish any material deemed by its editorial board to be discriminatory, racist, sexist, homophobic or libellous. Opinions expressed in letters and articles are solely those of the authors. Editorials in the Manitoban are signed and represent the opinions of the writer(s), not necessarily those of the Manitoban staff, Editorial Board, or the publisher. All contents are ©2014 and may not be reprinted without the express written permission of the Editor-in-Chief. Yearly subscriptions to the Manitoban are available for $40.

Senior News Editor: Quinn Richert News Editor: Katy MacKinnon Contact: / 474.6770



Refresh wins UMSU General Election in landslide Incumbents Turnbull and Pierce win second term with new team Kevin Linklater, staff


reliminary results from the 2014 UMSU General Election indicate a decisive victory for the Refresh slate. The vote counts were released by chief returning officer Jacqueline

Keena on Saturday morning, and show all five UMSU executive positions being won by candidates from Refresh. Fusion slate candidates came in second in all contests, getting less

than half the vote per cent), who won a three-way race “We felt we ran a good campaign, count when com- against Victoria Watkins with 1,451 and even though it wasn’t the result we pared to candi- votes (28 per cent) and Clyford Sinclair were hoping for, I’m really thankful for dates from Refresh. with 367 votes (seven per cent). all the hard work our candidates and The UMatter slate Christian Pierce beat Dana all our volunteers and supporters put came in a dis- Hatherly to win the office of vice- in,” Wreggitt told the Manitoban. tant third in the president external with 3,523 votes (68 Pierce and Turnbull are returning two positions for per cent) compared to Hatherly’s 1,655 to posts they held last year, improving which they fielded (32 per cent). on their electoral wins in 2013. candidates. Refresh’s Daria Lukie won by “We knew how much work would T he presi- the same margin, beating Fusion’s be required coming into it, but I think dency was won Rongzhao Li, 3,538 votes (68 per cent) we were well-prepared. Obviously by incumbent Al to 1,657 (32 per cent). I’m really happy with the mandate Turnbull with 3,375 In addition to voting for the five we have now, and we’re really excited votes (65 per cent), UMSU executive positions, students to keep moving forward for next year,” beating out Charly voted for three community represen- Turnbull told the Manitoban. Wreggitt and Kyra tatives: women’s, students with disAccording to preliminary estimates Wilson with 1,486 abilities, and LGBTTQ*. from Keena, voter turnout was around (29 per cent) and Reanna Blair won women’s rep 5,450 ballots, or 21 per cent of eligible 293 votes (six per with 802 votes (64 per cent), Matthew students, which is a step down from cent), respectively. Riesmeyer took disabilities rep with last year’s record-setting 23.7 per cent. Refresh’s 145 votes (60 per cent), and Steven The lower turnout is attributable to Rebecca Kunzman took vice-president Anderson took LGBTTQ* rep with a smaller-than-usual Thursday showadvocacy with 3,579 votes (69 per cent), 174 votes in an uncontested race. ing (around 1,500 ballots this year) and beating Fusion’s Monica Igweagu While Wreggitt was ultimately a dismal 640 ballots cast on Friday. with 1,595 votes (31 per cent). disappointed by the outcome of the photo by beibei lu Vice-president internal was taken election, she was pleased with the by Jeremiah Kopp with 3,330 votes (65 campaign Fusion ran.

Business booming for Degrees and the Hub Campus restaurants report record-high financial returns Caleigh MacDonald, staff


usiness is flourishing at the “Rez Night” which offers two-dollar economical way.” University of Manitoba cam- drafts, and keeps the pub at maxiFor Turnbull and the current pus restaurants. mum capacity from 11 p.m. to 1 a.m. executive, the success of the camAccording to recent financial every week. pus businesses means more than reports, the monthly profits of “[Rez Night] is a very successful just the financial advantage of havDegrees and the Hub are higher night,” said Turnbull at the Feb. 10 ing strong university organizations. now than at any other time in U of UMSU Council meeting. “The last The Refresh platform emphasized M history. couple of weeks have been phenom- promoting school spirit and a posi“[We’re] comparing the numbers enal. We’ve actually had to turn tive student experience – something from last year over the entire fiscal people away, it’s been so busy.” that Turnbull said is helped by the year,” said newly re-elected UMSU Rez Night gives priority entrance success of businesses like Degrees president Al Turnbull. “In compari- to key-carrying students living in and the Hub. son to last year, it is just unbeliev- university residences and has fur“‘School spirit’ and ‘student able.” He said the difference was a ther attracted both alumni and non- experience’ are really ambigusteep $30,000. students alike. ous terms, but often they act as That’s significant for these busiMeanwhile, down the hallway at a euphemism for partying – and nesses, which Turnbull said lost Degrees, Turnbull said the financial that’s not the case,” said Turnbull. about $430,000 last year. reports are showing the restaurant He said Refresh wants students to “This year we think we’ll be pretty to be in the midst of what is its best enjoy being on campus, and not close to breaking even.” year ever. think of the U of M as a “sub-par” Jack Jonasson, manager of the “They are pushing through so university. Hub, credits the newfound success many plates every day, it’s incred“We don’t want people to say to the hard work put in to revamp- ible. We are trying to work it out so ‘I just go here.’ And that includes ing the restaurant. that we can expedite service a little everything, and that does include “I think that when the place better, but overall things are going the bar. People go to the bar here opened, there were a few missteps very well.” and it’s great.” that were made, so when I came You will not, however, find any Furthermore, the more successin, my goal was to meet with the real sense of rivalry between these ful the businesses are financially, student groups and give them an two restaurants despite their prox- the more money there is for student idea of what it [was] that I wanted imity, said Jonasson. services, he said. to do,” he said. “I think we really complement “I know we can continue to Jonasson said his vision was each other. Degrees is more of a make the Hub an extremely sucto develop a “more inviting, and sit-down restaurant; they do a lot cessful business so that we can take friendly a place as possible.” He said of take-out, too. We’re trying to the surplus and give it back to the he feels the effort has paid off. go for more of a pub or bar kind members,” said Turnbull. The meetings with student groups of feel, where people kind of just photo by beibei lu helped spark successful events – come and have some awesome pub most notably the Wednesday night food and drinks, and do it in an



VOL. 100 NO. 25 March 12, 2014

Israeli Apartheid Week still highly contentious at U of M Despite banned student group, Israeli Apartheid Week events to go ahead at U of M Kevin Linklater, staff


ext week is Israeli Apartheid UMSU bylaw 2009, which states that Week (IAW) in Winnipeg, with “UMSU does not condone behaviour numerous events being held through- that is likely to undermine the dignity, out the week, including a few sched- self-esteem or productivity of any of its uled to take place at the University of members or employees and prohibits any Manitoba. form of discrimination or harassment Thao Lam, UMSU vice-president of whether it occurs on UMSU property student services, says that IAW events or in conjunction with UMSU-related have not been given official UMSU activities.” space on the university. Students Against Israeli Apartheid “The issue is because they don’t have has reapplied for student group status, status from UMSU, a lot of places won’t but the rules surrounding reapproval approve them to have events in their of a previously banned student group space, including all UMSU spaces,” are unclear. said Lam. “Right now their status is pending, Last year, the U of M became the because our policies aren’t updated and first university in Canada to ban the there’s nothing in place to deal with student group Students Against Israeli a situation like this [ . . . ] the policy Apartheid (SAIA). Similar student and bylaws committee is looking at groups exist on many other Canadian UMSU policy 2009, and they’ve done university campuses. some work on the policy, but it hasn’t The group was banned under come forward to council for approval

yet,” said Lam. Liz Carlyle is the co-chair of the group Winnipeg Coalition Against Israeli Apartheid (WCAIA), and says IAW events will go on, and that there are no problems between the group and the university administration. “The university is not putting up any roadblocks to our events. They’ve never denied us space bookings, and we hope people from UMSU will come out and attend events, and see what this is really about,” she said. Josh Morry, a law student at the U of M, brought forward the resolution to have the SAIA group banned last year. He argued that by using strong language, notably the word “apartheid,” SAIA was creating an unsafe and hostile environment towards students who support Israel.

“SAIA calls that vision of Zionism—a between Judaism and Zionism, and that Jewish state for the Jewish people— when Zionism is criticized, Jews as a racist. They say that Zionism by defi- whole can feel threatened. nition creates an apartheid state, and “There are non-Jewish Zionists, and that kind of language puts students at there are Jews who aren’t Zionists. But risk. It invokes hatred against a certain when you make that connection, when group of people.” you call a Jewish state for the Jewish Carlyle said that the purpose of IAW people racist, you put Jews at risk, and events is to draw critical attention to I think it would only be a matter of time the actions of the Israeli military in the before we saw a serious incident here.” occupied territories and the human Carlyle responded that IAW goes rights abuses that happen there, and to lengths to educate people about the pointed to the many Jewish voices that issues, in understanding what Zionism take part in the events. is, and that it is separate from Judaism. “WCAIA has never set out to attack “Our criticism has nothing to do with anyone’s ethnicity or religion. We the Jewish religion or ethnicity. Anyone are a political organization. We are who feels that IAW is an attack on any drawing attention to the abuses that religious or ethnic group should come Palestinians suffer under Israeli military to our events, and see that it is really not occupation.” about that and it is a safe space.” Morry pointed out that most peo- Israeli Apartheid Week ple do not understand the difference runs from Mar. 17-23.

Admin speaks on firing of the director of the Aboriginal Student Centre University responds to calls from staff and students for answers regarding controversial decision Kevin Linklater, staff


ast Friday afternoon, a meeting and thereafter,” said Hughes. was held at Migizii Agamik, where Storm was highly regarded and the University of Manitoba admin- well-liked by many faculty and staff, istration addressed the departure of and her departure over Reading Week Kali Storm, the long-time director came as a shock. of the Aboriginal Student Centre, to Students and staff were unable to concerned students and faculty. find answers in the following weeks as Brendan Hughes, executive direc- to the reasons for her leaving the unitor of student engagement and acting versity, and pressed the administration director of the Aboriginal Student to respond. The administration finally Centre; Deborah Young, executive obliged last Friday, but answers were lead for indigenous achievement; not forthcoming. and Susan Gottheil, vice-provost of Student and UMatter slate member students, spoke to about 50 students Clyford Sinclair questioned Hughes and staff in an emotionally-charged as to why Storm was let go. exchange. Hughes responded that he was “It is a difficult time. And I’m not unable to comment because it was a going to have anything that’s going to “personal matter.” make it better today, but what I’m tryNumerous people asked Hughes if ing to do is come here and talk about a dispute over the nature of compenhow we can move forward tomorrow sating elders on campus was a reason

for Storm’s departure. Hughes denied cial. To pay them in money is not capacities,” he said. this was the case. appropriate; it’s culturally insensitive. Carl Stone, an advisor at the “I don’t think that’s the issue; it’s the In some different communities across Aboriginal Student Centre, ended off relationship, it’s the way we’re relating Canada, some elders will actually take the session with an emotional appeal, with them. We’ve been working to money for their services. But a lot of calling for recognition of all voices strengthen and formalize our rela- them are strictly traditional, and will to be heard and considered when it tionship with the elders here. We are only accept things like tobacco or comes to how the university handles trying to approach that relationship blankets or other traditional things,” its relationships with Aboriginal stuin a respectful and responsible way for said student Krista Emmahlee. dents and staff. both the elders and the university.” Chanse Kornik, co-president of “The university has to know that Some staff and students at the the U of M Aboriginal Students when these sorts of decisions are made meeting speculated that the university Association, voiced concerns that without consultation, and without administration has been seeking to academic freedom could be curtailed consideration, it hurts us. We don’t put elders on a salary payment struc- if the university were to put the elders feel like we are being treated with ture. Many elders currently receive an on salary. respect when someone so important honorarium for their services, which Hughes responded that this would is removed so unceremoniously like includes payment in goods such as not be the case. this.” tobacco, in addition to cash payment. “Part of the relationship that we are The Manitoban was unable to reach “I know for a fact that elders would trying to build would be to have those Storm for comment. rather have their services paid for in cultural and spiritual freedoms, for tobacco or things that are non-finan- them to be able to continue in these

Senior News Editor: Quinn Richert News Editor: Katy MacKinnon Contact: / 474.6770

Victories and challenges in Colombia’s health model U of M prof on the ‘success story’ of indigenous care Caleigh MacDonald, Staff


n Mar. 7, Javier Mignone, It is also focused on building a associate professor in the computer information database to University of Manitoba faculty of provide better care – a topic of great human ecology’s department of interest to Mignone. family social sciences, gave a presen“There’s a lot of young people tation at the U of M titled “Health interested in these things,” he said. care organizations in Colombia: an “Young people could learn [statisindigenous success story within a tics] and so this is my main interest, system in crisis.” Mignone special- seeing if we could get a bit more izes in intercultural, community, funding to develop this kind of and Aboriginal health in addition to thing.” researching the social determinants Mignone acknowledged, howof health and family well-being, ever, the difficulty in getting the The lecture was part of the funding for such initiatives, citing Arthur V. Mauro centre for peace donors being uncomfortable with and justice’s Brown Bag Lecture the idea of giving money to a small, Series, which has been regularly local organization over a large, featuring speakers on a range of internationally-known one. domestically and internationally“I think donors tend to shy away, geared political topics since 2006. and I think that it’s because they The lecture began with an don’t have as much control over introduction to the story of the [community-based initiatives],” he Colombian health-care system and said. “While of course we can collabothe Wayuu indigenous tribes of La Guajira and northwest Venezuela. rate, and have technical exchanges, They make up around 80 different [in the end] it’s run through them ethnic groups and approximately and not through us.” Mignone also acknowledged 144,000 (or 20 per cent) of the indigthe challenges faced by many of the enous population of Colombia. In Colombia, the health-care EPS organizations, some of which system is effectively controlled by are very unpopular with locals. the Empresas Promotoras de Salud Colombia lacks political stability, (EPS), six of which are non-profit and is recurrently the site of conflict and specific to the indigenous between entities like militias, para(EPSI) community. These organi- militaries, guerrilla fighters, and the zations are, in essence, insurance legitimately recognized government military. There are also internal discompanies. As a whole, Colombia’s is often agreements between various EPSs, considered to be a system in crisis, which can hinder progress. Colombia is, furthermore, a site with frequent protests brought on by a lack of adequate care, non- of major exploitation by foreign universal coverage, regular accusa- mining corporations, entities that tions of corruption, a lack of proper frequently take over large sections of accountability within the compa- land, driving out the population and nies themselves, and a burden of mining the area for gold and other resources. Canada is a significant high debt. However, within the damaged contributor to the practice, which system, some have managed to suc- creates political tension over what is ceed, and one such organization is seen as the exploitation of ancestral Anas Wayuu EPSI, an organiza- lands, and particularly damages the tion that services the indigenous indigenous peoples. “[The indigenous peoples of peoples of La Guajira, and in 2012 was rated the best EPS in all of Colombia] face tremendous obstaColombia. Its secret is community- cles,” said Mignone. based programs organized by local “But that is where the strength of the organization has mattered politicians. Anas Wayuu EPSI promotes so much [ . . . ] if it weren’t for the traditional medicine and the devel- strength of the organization, I think opment of intercultural childbirth that they would have been long programs with traditional Wayuu since run over.” The next Mauro Brown Bag midwives, as well as local community health programs. Furthermore, Lecture, which will take place March it has a partnership with the 21, is called “Canadian Wilderness in Universidad de Antioquia as part n’Daki Menan,” and will be presented of a prevention and research initia- by Jocelyn Thorpe. tive for HIV/AIDS.



Editor in Chief: Bryce Hoye Contact: / 474.6770

Letter to the Editor


L e T t e r t o t h e Ed i t o r Send your letters to or drop them off at 105 University Centre

Re: The death of student activism As the dust settles from the recent UMSU election, it is apparent that it was not an election based on the serious issues that face students and challenge the quality of their education. Rather, it brought to the surface nothing more than trivial issues that overshadowed the purpose of our university student union, blocking the way for any meaningful discourse. In the rare instances that these issues were brought up, most of the candidates spewed out platitudes they hoped would get them elected, or re-elected in the case of a few. Those who were brave enough to challenge the status quo did so conservatively, likely for fear of political backlash that any notions of activism may cause. When Chris Hedges wrote of the failure of formal political institutions and unions, this is what he spoke of – candidates unable to mention the idea of activism for fear of political repercussions. Campus spirit remains the primary focus for the newly initiated to university life, a remnant of what high school politics was all about. It is clear that UMSU has failed in communicating its purpose on campus – to advocate against student debt and restore funding to our education, to fight for affordable transportation, and address concerns around academic issues. The main concerns brought forward by students on social media surrounded issues such as how many parties would be held, or what pop star would be playing at Frosh Week. Meanwhile, across Canada, universities are trying to distance themselves from Frosh Week for its promotion of rape culture – an issue that should be at the forefront of discussions. Many University of Manitoba students had no clue why some of the female candidates took offence when someone anonymously ranked them in the order he or she wanted to have sex with them on the Facebook page UManitoba Confessions 2.0. One candidate even liked the post, only un-liking it after some negative publicity. But, as has been the case over the last year, serious issues such as this have taken a backseat to the promotion of Bison Sports and parties in the name of campus spirit. Little thought has been given to promoting the music department (they put on an opera every year), the theatre department (the Black Hole Theatre has several shows a year), or the fine arts department. Only Bison Pride seems to matter. There’s nothing wrong with supporting our student athletes, but I question if we are starting down the same path as campuses in the U.S., where sports are given dangerous precedence over creativity, ideas, and even morality. Those who wish to endeavour in such pursuits are marginalized, not just academically, but socially and politically. And while I would like to believe that there is a large segment of students on campus that think there are bigger issues to address, the elec-

tion results show this is not the case. Sadly, student activism is not on the decline – it is dead. There are 29,000 students at the U of M according to, making us one of the largest interest groups in the city; when combined with the other universities and colleges we become one of the largest interest groups in the province. Yet despite this presence, we seem to have little political clout at any level of government, or with the university administration. The apparent failure of unions at the U of M and U of W to obtain an agreement on the U-Pass that addresses the needs of transit commuters and those who wish to opt out reveals how little our interests are taken seriously, and brings into question if they are doing everything within their power to get the desired outcome. Rallies and protests filled with people making noise does in fact have an amazing impact – just ask the people in Egypt, Ukraine, Venezuela, South Africa, and the United States. Approximately 5,400 students voted in this election. Imagine the power we could have at negotiations if those students showed up outside Winnipeg City Hall, holding signs and singing songs while our executive negotiates on our behalf. A rally that big can’t be ignored or easily silenced. In UMSU council, prior to the election, the spectre of across-the-board 5 per cent budget cuts to faculties was brought up; as of yet, no information confirming or denying this has been provided by the administration. The lack of transparency on this issue is problematic as such cuts may result in increased class sizes or classes being cut altogether. Meanwhile the university has been ramping up its efforts, telling us we’re innovators and trailblazers. While the majority of the student body fusses over trivial issues, students shove themselves into desks that are too small for adults, in classrooms that are rarely cleaned. Earlier this year the university was brought to the edge of a standstill as the administration and our professors disagreed on academic freedoms. The University of Manitoba Faculty Association prepared to go on strike to defend what they believed in: providing us with a quality education through their ability to do research unhindered by the profit motives of a university continually relying on corporate funding. UMSU remained silent, unwilling to stir the status quo of our submission to the whims of the administration, whose interests are clearly not in line with ours. The university brands us as mavericks, but it’s hard to believe we can live up to such a title when we are expected to fall in line and accept the status quo. Real mavericks reject the status quo and fight against it by putting themselves on the line for what they believe in. The last time I checked, our right to party was never in jeopardy. Unions forge solidarity amongst their members and fight for what

members need. In Sweden, student unions have a prominent presence politically that gives them clout with their administration as well as with affiliated decision-making bodies. In Sussex, students routinely engage in protests and occupancy of administration buildings to make their concerns heard. Noise makes things happen. Silence does not. The status quo remains because it goes unchallenged, because for some reason the

people in our leadership think that the face of adversity, then we need to stand administration, the province, and the up against the union, and let them City are immune to protest. know that we want action to be taken, I challenge the re-elected UMSU not silence. executives to end their silence on real student issues; to challenge the status Paul Bell is a student in the global quo; to challenge the idea that we’re political economy program, as well nothing more than hedonistic indi- as a member of the Global Political viduals, incapable of anything beyond Economy Students’ Association and finding our next pleasure fix. the Association for Student Activism If UMSU refuses to acknowledge Through Research. these issues, remaining silent in the

Science & Technology Editor: Tom Ingram Contact: / 474.6529

Science & technology


One step closer in the fight against chronic pain New research shows insight into pain sensitivity Elizabeth Drewnik, staff


ew research sheds light on passed down genetically, the way chronic pain, a major con- the genes are turned on or off is cern in public health. About 20 influenced by the environment. per cent of the worldwide popuThe results of the pain sensitivlation is affected by acute and ity study were measured via DNA chronic pain. methylation status. Changing the Chronic pain depends on many levels of DNA methylation (by different factors such as biology, adding or removing chemical sigpsychology, and the environment, natures called methyl groups) is a but the molecular mechanisms at method the genome uses to turn the basis of it are not completely genes on or off at specific times understood. A new study pub- in order to make protein. Where lished in Nature Communications there is a lot of methylation, genes suggests a potential solution for will be turned off, and where there chronic pain. The work done is little or no methylation, genes could also have an application for will be turned on. other complex diseases, such as Levels of methylation can also schizophrenia and diabetes. be influenced by environmental An international research factors. group led by Jordana T. Bell of Jeffrey Marcus, associate the department of twin research professor at the University of and genetics Manitoba in the epidemiology at department of Chronic pain King’s College biological sciLondon discovences, shared depends on ered that a gene his expert many factors already known opinion on the to have a role implications of such as biology, in pain sensithis research. psychology, and tivity (TRPA1) Marcus told a lso has an the Manitoban the environment, important role that the results in sensitivity to of this study are but the molecular heat. The gene “worth exploring mechanisms at is found to be for pharmaceuactive in pain tical applicathe basis of it are receptors (a tions related to not completely type of nerve treating chronic cell) as well as pain.” understood some skin cells. He said the The study study “reprelooked at 25 pairs of identical sents a very creative use of pairs twins and 25 pairs of unrelated of monozygotic [identical] twin participants, and compared their volunteers to help find new gene tolerance for heat. Heat sensitivity targets for easing the suffering of is an environmentally influenced patients who experience chronic trait, as twin pairs exhibit differ- pain.” ences in their tolerance to pain Marcus also said that having at high temperatures. However, “knowledge of biological mechathere was a greater correlation of nisms can assist in developing heat tolerance in twin pairs than pharmaceutical and other treatin pairs of unrelated people, mean- ment options for patients with a ing that there is a genetic factor particular condition by targeting involved in pain sensitivity. the specific proteins responsible What this means is that pain for causing the disease.” sensitivity has an epigenetic The researchers hope that basis. Epigenetics is the field of future epigenetic studies will study that looks at how genetics provide significant insight into works beyond just focusing on other complex diseases by using the genetic code. Even though the results discovered in this study the genes for pain tolerance are on chronic pain.

VOL. 100 NO. 25 March 12, 2014

Science & Technology


illustration by SCOTT FORD

Smells like tree spirit Researchers find the missing step to cooling effect in boreal forests ian T. D. Thomson, volunteer staff


Dream Big

Photo by Don Deitch

Space experts come to U of M for a week of events Tom Ingram, staff


ampus has been bustling this week with lectures, demonstrations, and exhibitions. We are in the midst of Dream Big, a series of events that brings together major figures in space and space exploration as well as local experts from the University of Manitoba and the University of Winnipeg for a week of events. Guests include Canadian Space Agency (CSA) president Walter Natynczyk, Mars One crew candidate Zac Trolley, former CSA president Guy Bujold, and, most notably, the headline speaker and Knight Distinguished Visitor Neil deGrasse Tyson, giving his first-ever lecture at a Canadian university. Local speakers include Igor Telichev, assistant professor of engineering at the U of M; Chris Rutkowski, Winnipeg science writer and UFO sightings expert; Andrew Frey, assistant professor of physics at the U of W; and U of M postdoctoral fellow Harsha Kumar. Proceedings were kicked off on Monday with a talk by Telichev on orbital debris and a demonstration of a “vomit comet” by Dario Schor of Magellan Aerospace. Tuesday

featured a talk by Rutkowski, a History in New York, will give a historian of reported UFO sight- free public lecture at the Investors ings, and a lecture on string theory Group Athletic Centre. The lecby Frey. ture begins at 4 p.m., with doors There are still several events opening at 3 (rush seating). For to come. Wednesday at noon, students at the Bannatyne campus, Harsha Kumar will give a talk the lecture will be live-streamed in titled “Tracing Our Origins Theatre B. Through Cosmic Explosions” in Tyson is in demand as a pubthe Graduate Students’ Association lic speaker, and securing him as a Lounge at 217 University Centre. guest is a major coup for the uniAt 4 p.m., Trolley, one of Canada’s versity. “Believe it or not, there is second-round candidates for the over a year of planning involved crew of Mars One, will give a talk in bringing Neil deGrasse Tyson at the same location. to campus and maybe hundreds of At 6 p.m., the Engineering emails,” said student life coordinaAtrium will host the Canadian tor David Grad. He added that “it Space Society Fair, with displays by was absolutely worth it.” the University of Manitoba Space “Dr. Tyson has a rare ability to Applications and Technology spark the imagination of audiences Society, the Canadian Forces and he is a great advocate for sciSchool of Aerospace Studies, the ence, research, and innovation.” Royal Astronomical Society of Throughout the week, the Canada, and more. After that, Gallery of Student Art in University there will be a panel discussion and Centre will display colourized Q&A on careers in space featuring images taken by astronomy stuGuy Bujold and the CSA’s director dents and a timeline of advances general of space science and tech- in space exploration. nology, Éric Laliberté. Finally, keep an eye out for the The big event is Thursday: Neil next issue of the Manitoban, where deGrasse Tyson, the eminent we will bring you detailed coverastrophysicist and director of age of the events with photos and the Hayden Planetarium at the interviews. American Museum of Natural

n international team of researchers recently found a missing link in one of the mysteries surrounding climate change. Published in the journal Nature, the study is able to fully explain why chemical compounds such as the sweet-smelling vapours from pine trees are able to buffer some of the effects of global warming in boreal forests. Prominent forests smells, such as the scent emitted by coniferous trees in the forest, seem like nothing more than a pleasant byproduct of the natural environment. However, this potent scent, which is made up of volatile organic compounds, combines with oxygen particles to form a type of aerosol. Aerosols are defined as fine particles that can be found within the air. While major sources of aerosols include smoke, dust, and industrial pollutants, aerosols formed by the pine tree scent are able to create a cooling effect for the forest by creating clouds that both scatter the sun’s rays and reflect them back up into space. Researchers studied the pine scent compound by extracting it from the air in forests in Finland. Finland is the most forest-abundant country in Europe, with 74.2 per cent of its land covered by forests. Its forests are also some of the most

extensively studied in Europe. The particles from the Finnish trees were tested in an air chamber located at the Institute for Energy and Climate Research in Jülich, Germany. Although it was known that the aerosol particles could provide a cooling effect, little was known about the mechanism by which many aerosols actually worked. Using the advanced technology in the laboratory in Jülich, researchers were able to discover an extra step in the aerosol’s formation. By studying how the oxidation of a-pinene (pine scent) proceeds, the international group of researchers discovered the presence of lowvolatility vapours in the air. These low-volatility vapours are the missing link in the transformation of a-pinene to aerosol compounds. The vapours stick to the small a-pinene particles and help them grow to a size where they can become aerosols. Although the cooling effect created by these aerosols is an important revelation for its role in climate change, researchers are careful not to overestimate this mechanism as a solution to global warming. In fact, if the forests and the trees become too stressed from global warming, they may not release the vapours at all.



Comment Editor: Katerina Tefft Contact: / 474.6529



Katerina Tefft, staff


ree-market capitalism, as economist Karl Polanyi famously writes in The Great Transformation, is a “stark utopia” that “could not exist for any length of time without annihilating the human and natural substance of society; it would have physically destroyed man and turned his surrounding into a wilderness.” It is out of this threat of the impending wilderness of free-market capitalism that the union emerges, out of the simple desire of workers to survive in an economic system that inherently pushes their wages down further and further, and deprives them of bodily and material security. And while a truly free capitalist system thankfully remains a mere utopian ideal and not a reality, the rise of neoliberalism has pushed the global economy steadily in that direction in recent decades. Yet, despite the protection they afford, unions are often scapegoated by workers who seem not to realize that much of what they take for granted in the workplace—weekends, breaks, sick leave, the eight-hour workday, overtime pay, minimum wage, workers’ compensation, workplace safety standards, collective bargaining rights, wrongful termination protection, whistleblower protection, health benefits, pensions, parental leave, the right to strike, and equal pay—was not voluntarily or benevolently given. We as a society take these rights and comforts for granted without remembering that they are all hard-won by unions and the labour movement. We forget about the working conditions in countries such as Bangladesh where unions are met with hostility or banned outright by the government – or even the conditions for workers of anti-union corporations like Walmart that operate within our own borders. We forget that if we didn’t have our unions fighting for our rights and livelihoods, we could lose them. We’re already careening in that direction; recent studies show a strong correlation between the decline of unions and the decline of the middle class, and growing income inequality in Canada and the United States.

Foster Lyle, staff

However, unions are not ends unto themselves. Many trade unionists could do with taking a long, hard look inwards and asking if they have become complacent in normalizing and sustaining capitalism, and if they have forgotten the greater cause of the universal workers’ struggle in favour of their own immediate gain. Reactionary trade unions are not ideal, and, ultimately, a better world for workers will never be achieved by simply trying to survive in the current system. We must expand our aims beyond that and look toward the future. But what unions do provide is a stepping stone toward that better world and toward worker ownership by creating class consciousness, worker co-operation and solidarity, and conditions in which workers can have their basic needs met in order to ensure survival in the immediate present. And unions remain a thorn in the side of the capitalists, as they fetter their ability to exploit workers and maximize profits unchecked. Marxist theorist Anton Pannekoek says it best: “The struggle for better working conditions is of immediate necessity [ . . . ] At first the workers, powerless by the constraint of hunger, have to submit in silence. Then resistance bursts forth, in the only possible form, in the refusal to work, in the strike. In the strike for the first time the workers discover their strength, in the strike arises their fighting power. From the strike springs up the association of all the workers of the factory, of the branch, of the country. Out of the strike sprouts the solidarity, the feeling of fraternity with the comrades in work, of unity with the entire class: the first dawn of what some day will be the lifespending sun of the new society. The mutual help [ . . . ] soon takes the lasting form of the trade union.” We must never take our rights for granted, nor become complacent and forget what must be our end goal: a new society for workers by workers. The trade union has true revolutionary potential if we only harness it.


ake any finance course and you will hear that a free market is an efficient market. A free market is one where the market decides what it needs, causing others to provide products and services to cater to these needs. Looking at the labour market is fundamentally the same. Employers supply a package to an employee, which is called compensation, and in return the employer is entitled to the labour of the employee. These packages include both financial compensation—such as a salary, health benefits, and other perks—as well as nonfinancial benefits such as good management, an enjoyable company culture, and satisfaction. In the open market, things flow nicely. Employers who offer good benefits, fair salaries, and an array of non-financial benefits get a larger number of applicants, and in turn employ the most qualified individuals. Employers who opt to offer subpar compensation get fewer applicants and resort to hiring less-qualified individuals. A union fundamentally throws a wrench into this beautiful, well-oiled machine. Unions bring together employees who want more than what the company, industry, or market is offering for their labour. By doing this, the entire open-market concept is ruined, as now employers are forced to compensate more than the market is actually demanding for their labour. These employers could of course return to the open market and try to find labour, but since there is a union in the market and employees know they can get better compensation, they will hold out knowing the employer will eventually have to pay this. As an employee, this sounds amazing! Getting paid more while providing the same labour? Who wouldn’t want that deal? The issue is that this break in the open market affects more than just the individual. Firstly, businesses generally despise

unions because they hurt their bottom line. When a firm is unionized, net income can fall by between three and nine per cent through a combination of increased wages and increased bureaucracy. It is not uncommon for firms to be forced to make this up by other means, often by reducing nonfinancial compensation to some degree. Small businesses also struggle to stay afoot post-unionization, because their already thin margins cannot handle the increased wages and inefficiencies unions bring. Unions don’t just hurt business, though; they hurt people, too. When businesses begin to feel the pressure of a reduced bottom line, the first things they do is increase consumer prices, making products and services more expensive for you and me. In the short-term, this hurts our wallets, making it harder for the average consumer to get by and forcing them to make each dollar go further. Long-term, increased prices lead to inflation, which hurts not only our wallets, but our economy. This, paired with struggling businesses, can be disastrous if not corrected over time. The ironic thing about unions is they are not tied to increased worker satisfaction or happiness, but instead actually decrease the job satisfaction the average worker realizes. This dissatisfaction can be tied to many different factors, but two play a major role. First, unionized workers are less likely to trust their workplace because they have reduced interaction with and therefore distance from their employer. By being less trusting, employees shift towards being on their guard, which reduces satisfaction. Secondly, lower-level employees feel the strain of the hierarchy that unions undoubtedly create. Higher-level employees are compensated more, regardless of effort or ability, while lower-level employees may in fact work harder. This inequality in the workplace breeds conflict and ultimately unhappiness.

VOL. 100 NO. 25 March 12, 2014



Monetary policy, debt, and unions Unions could solve some key problems for Canada’s economy Kevin Linklater, staff

illustration by aichelle sayuno


ollowing the global financial the global financial crisis. The governRelying so heavily on the availabilcrisis of 2008-09, the Canadian ment responded with fiscal stimulus, ity of cheap credit has also produced economy was held up as a model and the BoC slashed interest rates to problems of its own: record levels of in the Organisation for Economic historic lows in order to stimulate the consumer debt and an overheated housCo-operation and Development economy. ing market. (OECD). Canada escaped the worst The fiscal stimulus has long since With easy access to credit, of the crisis; the banks were strong and gone, as the government moved to Canadians are living beyond their the housing market continued to grow tackle budget deficits, but those low means. A recent study by TransUnion, in strides. interest rates remain, as growth remains a credit rating agency, found that nonFour years on, however, the overall weak. mortgage debt is predicted to increase performance of the economy leaves Interest rates are at historic lows to an all-time high of $28,853 per avermuch to be desired. GDP growth and have remained so for years. The age Canadian, up four per cent from remains anemic; unemployment availability of cheap credit has failed to 2013 levels and up over 40 per cent from remains a problem in many parts of adequately spur economic growth and 2007 levels. the country. Interest rates are at historic unemployment is still too high. The housing market is also an area of lows, yet the Bank of Canada (BoC) Furthermore, inflation has consis- growing concern. The government has is more worried about deflation than tently been underperforming, register- been wary of the possibility that a housinflation. Current policy is not satis- ing at the lower end of the desired range. ing bubble is forming in the real estate factorily addressing Canada’s economic There is very little room for the BoC market and has taken several steps over shortcomings. to further lower rates, and thus very the years to tighten borrowing requireBeing a small, open economy, little room to address these deflation- ments for mortgages. Canada eventually felt the effects of ary concerns. Despite the stop-gap measures

introduced by the government to slow borrowing and cool the housing market, mortgage debt has continued to rise, along with non-mortgage debt – such as lines of credit and credit card debt. Canadians are now carrying record levels of debt. Canada is now dependent on cheap credit to grow the economy, and any rise in interest rates risks choking off growth. This means that there is no room to raise interest rates to check the rise of indebtedness of Canadian households. The danger is that if and when these historically unique credit conditions change, the positive growth seen in housing and consumer spending will quickly vanish. This is not a good position to be in. Policy makers need to be putting in place the conditions for continued strong growth in housing and consumption, without the crutch of cheap credit to sustain them. So how would this change come about? What I propose is higher wage growth. This would stimulate economic growth and have an inflationary effect, something that is desirable at this time. Higher wage growth would have the same stimulative effect as low interest rates, but without the problem of rising indebtedness. Additionally, stronger wage gains would allow room for the BoC to raise interest rates to address the growing debt issue without strangling

consumption and growth. So, how do we achieve stronger wage growth? I see two possibilities: another round of fiscal stimulus that tightens up the labour market and thus drives up wages, or encouraging the unionization of workplaces, which would increase wages. There are downsides to each of these options; although Canada’s debt-toGDP ratio is relatively low and there is room to enact fiscal stimulus, the government is currently in a deficit, and a new round of fiscal stimulus may not be politically possible. On the union side, this could scare away capital and discourage hiring if businesses see militant unions rattling their sabres. However, there are good reasons to believe the pro-union scenario would not backfire for the following reason: though Canadian businesses are sitting on record profits, they are not hiring because they see insufficient demand for their products. Higher wages would increase demand from consumers and send a positive signal to businesses to hire more workers. The problems facing the economy are not being adequately addressed by current policies, and are having unintended consequences in the form of rising indebtedness. Strong wage growth would go a long way toward addressing these problems, and higher rates of unionization are a way to achieve it.

Arts & Culture Editor: Kara Passey Contact: / 474.6529

Arts & Culture


From women’s day to every day

International Women’s Day highlights need for support, accessibility, and solidarity year-round Anastasia Chipelski, staff


any events held in the name “We are the experts of our bodies hostile times for anyone that believes of International Women’s Day and [of] what our communities need,” in equality.” (IWD) spilled beyond the bounds of said Lesperance. In the eyes of the panelists, IWD Mar. 8 and into a weeklong series, or The panelists acknowledged the is not a one-off event; women’s day is at least weekend-long string of gather- struggles that had been faced by older every day. ings. Beyond the common thread of activists who lived through the era of Women’s Day, topics taken up across unsafe back-door abortions. Conversation, celthe city varied as much as the organiz“We have the privilege of not hav- ebration, and inspiraing groups themselves. ing lived in that time,” said NYSHN tion from the street Women’s voices were brought to executive director Jessica Danforth. The broad theme of the IWD the forefront throughout the city – And yet she spoke to the pressing need march held on Mar. 8 was to highlight through speeches, panels, documen- for support in everyday life, calling on gains achieved by womens’ movements, taries, performances, and more. As the audience to stop and support some- while simultaneously raising awareness not all women are speaking from the body else. of the work that has yet to be done. In same experience, depending on which Danforth and Lesperance also the same vein as the march organizers, voices you heard, different perspectives highlighted the necessity of access to Sharon Blady (Minister of Healthy on IWD could be found. services and spaces that are culturally Living and Seniors) defined her view of safe, meaning that “we have the right IWD as “A day of celebration of what Young indigenous femito talk about our culture, our spiritual- we’ve accomplished, and a call to battle nists call for support ity, and our own communities when we for what we have yet to accomplish.” The Native Youth Sexual Health talk about our bodies.” Beginning with remarks from Network (NYSHN), in partnership This was echoed by Aboriginal speakers at Portage Place, the march with Ka Ni Kanichihk, presented midwifery student Melissa Brown, drew approximately 200 people, and the Manitoban premiere of the film who related her own experience of only was led by an indigenous drumming Young Lakota on the evening of Mar. seeing Aboriginal faces on the walls of circle riding on the back of a pickup 7. The documentary followed young the hospital, and not in her care provid- truck. It drew representatives from reproductive justice activists in South ers. She emphasized the need for more Amnesty International, CUPE, and Dakota as they became involved in Aboriginal health-care workers so that the Manitoba Federation of Labour, tribal politics and developed their “people can see themselves there.” to name a few. voices. Panelists discussed how the Reflecting on the film and subseAs the column of marchers film related to their own experiences quent discussion, Niki Ashton (MP coalesced into a crowd outside Union of indigenous youth leadership follow- for Churchill) recognized the need for Centre, a member of the police escort ing the screening. similar opportunities for connection. wove through the crowd and requested Alexa Lesperance, a youth facili“We need to come together, we that marchers abandon the street in tator for the NYSHN, spoke to the need to reconnect, we need to con- favour of the sidewalk. “We’ve got the importance of having young indig- tinue the conversation because [ . . . ] Jets game in 20 minutes,” she said – a enous women telling their stories and the conversation about how to take poignant reminder of the limited space breaking down stereotypes. She coun- things away from us or keep us back allowed to this public display. tered the myth that young indigenous is definitely not just taking place, but With the melody of “Solidarity women need “saving,” while what they it’s being acted upon,” said Ashton. “I Forever” still hovering in the air, really need is support. work at the federal level, and it’s pretty marchers filed inside to enjoy snacks

and more speakers. and there’s a language that’s really The organizing committee for driven by academics.” the march was an intergenerational She hopes that IWD marches can affair, with younger students pitch- offer a way in to ideas that may not ing in alongside older labour activists. be found elsewhere, and encourages They chose to conclude the event by others who haven’t been to marches or highlighting younger women’s voices rallies before to try it out: “You don’t who “bring something that we [ . . . ] have to have the perfect language and won’t hear in mainstream media, and you don’t have to have anything, you that is essential and being talked about just show up.” in feminist spaces,” said co-organizer For some, the act of marching in Claudyne Chevrier. itself is an important marker of visibilRaven Hart-Bellecourt spoke of ity, “because [a march] is a traditional empowering other women and young form of radical action, a symbol of girls for leadership, as she does by past feminist action that is maintained bringing her young daughters along today,” said Lissie Rappaport. “I think with her to meetings and marches. as more feminist work becomes paid [ . . Hart-Bellecourt named the univer- . ] it remains feminist, but it is inhibited sity as “an uncomfortable space to be in by funders, by visions and missions of to stand and talk and speak [her] truth.” organizations, and it disappears from This sentiment was echoed by Bilan the street.” Arte, who recounted her frustration And while the march is somewhat with hearing racist comments made “mainstream” because it is run by a small by professors. group of volunteers, it is more open to Hart-Bellecourt and Arte also change than in other urban centres spoke of the strength they find in each where IWD may be more established. other, through finding support in an “It’s opening up a space and a moment environment that can be otherwise where people can stop and think about hostile. Although they may “walk [ . . . ] a lot of things that are happenin different shoes and have different ing in their life and [ask], ‘maybe it’s roles to play” in their friendship, they because of gender?’” celebrate their differences and support Within this space of conversation each other as allies. and new ideas, there is hope for new Chevrier reinforced the importance understanding across differences, for of having these conversations, and to mutual support, and for collaboration have them be accessible. “One of the toward greater change. As the IWD things that I like about International rally drew to a close, Arte invoked a Women’s Day is that it’s very broad and quote from Audre Lorde: “I am not mainstream,” said Chevrier. “Activist free while any woman is unfree, even and radical spaces can be spaces that when her shackles are very different are terrifying, because there’s a code from my own.”

U of M celebrates International Women’s Day Events challenge myths, empower women Katy MacKinnon, staff


f you were able to tear your eyes women are supposed to look like,” away from the election hoopla says Sabzwari. The positive feedlast week, you may have noticed back the centre received incited a the breast, chest, and torso casts in plan for future casting. the Gallery of Student Art. Along In what was seemingly timed with a sports talk and a sailboat perfectly with election week, “Make race, the University of Manitoba Your Own Damn Sandwich Day” hosted events throughout the week was held to challenge a mentalto celebrate the United Nations’ ity that currently exists in society 39th annual International Women’s regarding traditional gender roles. Day (IWD). The Sexua lit y Education The Womyn’s Centre facilitated Resource Centre visited campus to multiple events with an underly- speak about sex positivity. Prior to ing theme of empowerment. The the event, students had a chance Empower exhibit at the Gallery to submit anonymous questions to of Student Art showcased casts have them answered in a safe space. of breasts and chests of all shapes, The Sexuality Education Resource sizes, and colours. Hira Sabzwari, Centre will be returning to campus co-ordinator of the Womyn’s this week for another event. Centre, says many casting particiThe Womyn’s Centre will conpants used superheroes as inspira- tinue programming throughout the tion when decorating their casts. week, including a pleasure-positive “We wanted to go against that feminist porn event. Sabzwari hopes entire ideal that’s often found in to sustain programming throughout the media, or in comic books, or in the month of March, and thinks any sort of mass media about what “there should be important and sig-

nificant programming throughout the year.” Women in sport Last Thursday evening, the U of M held its 12th annual dinner to celebrate IWD. Sarah Teetzel, assistant professor in the faculty of kinesiology and recreation management, spoke about gender inequalities in present-day athletics. Teetzel says that the glass ceiling—women’s underrepresentation in higher corporate positions—still exists in the current generation of athletes in sport. “The International Olympic Committee (IOC) set a goal of having 20 per cent [female] members to be in place by the year 2000—they set this in the early 90s—and in fact it went down during that time. It’s currently at 18 per cent.” To promote change, Teetzel encourages women’s participation on boards “so that the IOC can’t use the excuse of not having

enough qualified women [for higher positions].” Addressing this issue is important due to a common perception that the second wave of feminism achieved gender equality in the workplace. There is still much work to be done, says Teetzel. Women in engineering On Saturday afternoon, the EITC atrium bustled with hardworking females in grades eight and nine during an event by WISE KidNetic Energy, a non-profit organization that reaches out to youth promoting careers in engineering and science. Program administrator Nusraat Masood says the underrepresentation of females in engineering is often due to lack of exposure. Youth may not have the chance to interact with engineers, so the event was an opportunity to provide that exposure. The U of M’s current female

enrolment in engineering courses sits at 19 per cent – a number Masood says is the norm countrywide. The participants partnered with female engineers to try their hand at different challenges. In one challenge, they were given supplies to build a sailboat and were timed to see which team could move the sailboat across a kiddie pool the fastest. Since the young women will soon be selecting high school courses—some of which are prerequisites for engineering—Masood wants to ensure they keep their options open. “It might not be for everyone – not everyone likes engineering work or science work. We understand that. But we really want to make sure that young women are aware of options so they can make the best decisions that are good for them and their families in the future,” says Masood.

Arts & Culture Editor: Kara Passey Contact: / 474.6529

Arts & Culture


Open to openness Jodie Layne, volunteer staff


his week’s column is based on a question from a reader and will be answered in two parts! Check back next week for the followup.

new framework, it’s important any—sex acts or intimate moments to go slow and ensure that you’re are only to remain between you two mindfully setting parameters so and what they can share. Can you have sex with people that you’re both feeling safe and secure – both with your new sexual that you both know? Should they partners and in your relationship only be strangers? Are you going Dear Jodie, My husband and I just agreed to together. to talk to each other about your There are so many ways to encounters or are you going to an open relationship and I’m such a newbie. How do I let people know I’m do open/non-monogamous/ remain more or less in the dark? married without it being awkward, polyamourous relationships, and What do you need personally to and where is a safe place (online or you don’t have to do anything that feel loved and desired? Are you otherwise) to find people who might doesn’t sit right with you. You going on dates or just having sex be interested in a sex-only relation- determine the way your own rela- with your new partners? What will ship? What are good things to consider tionship goes and what feels right you do if one of you starts having when it comes to my safety? I’ve never for you and your husband. A great feelings for someone you’re sleepslept with someone I haven’t been in a guide and a resource that helps ing with? What health concerns relationship [with]! you explore all different kinds of do you have? non-monogamous relationship It’s a ton of stuff to think about, Dear reader, structures is Opening Up by Tristan but getting out as many guidelines There are so many things to Taormino. Reading it over alone and ideas as possible before you consider when making a change will lead you through a lot of self- start actually sleeping with other in relationship structure, especially exploration and self-discovery that people—as well as committing to when you’re moving from the most will make you ready to negotiate honest and open discussion about normative to a stigmatized and the terms of your relationship with things you haven’t thought about as often misunderstood relationship your husband. they come up—will help you to do You’re probably going to want whatever possible to avoid hurt and structure that doesn’t offer many visible, healthy models or examples to think of things like how often ensure pleasure and fun times! you’ll feel comfortable sleeping in popular culture. While I’m certain you’re both with other people/your partner You can confidentially subfeeling excited about the new pos- having sex with other people. You mit a question or topic to sibilities that await you within this might need to negotiate which—if

Curtain call for the Cyrk ‘Influx of love’ moves proprietor to sell venue Anastasia Chipelski, staff


fter Mar. 14, Winnipeg will location, and of changing times. the venue. see one more live music venue The Cyrk is located in a house, “The connection between pershutting its doors. The Cyrk, also and that house is being sold. formers and the audience was known as “Winnipeg’s most notoDrek Daa’s experience as a always so intimate, and the lightrious art house,” is a small, inti- performer led him to open the ing and amazing sound system mate venue in West Broadway. venue in 2006. has hypnotized me, and I assume “I have performed as a spoken others, on numerous occasions.” word poet for a few years in venHis decision to sell the house— ues all across this continent, usu- venue included—was inspired by “When I bought a ally cafe places. When I bought an “influx of love” into his life; house I thought, a house I thought, ‘why not have he is moving out to live with “a one like that in my living room?’” wonderful woman.” He hopes ‘why not have [a says Daa. “Except mine will have that the house will be bought by cafe] like that in an amazing setup and great sound someone with similar aspirations system.” for the space. my living room?’” The venue has hosted many – Drek Daa notable local acts: most recently The Cyrk’s final show will be held Romi Mayes and Jason Nowicki, on Friday, Mar. 14, when they as well as Keri Latimer, Scott will host the nine-piece Dirty Unlike other recent venue clo- Nolan, Twilight Hotel, and local Catfish Brass Band. Doors are at 8 sures, this one is not due to any blues legend Big Dave McLean. p.m., music at 9 p.m. Cover is $10 scandal, tragedy, or controversy Daa recalls many fond memo- and will all go to the artists. See – it is simply a byproduct of its ries of these “magical shows” in for more details.


Arts & Culture

Arts & Culture Editor: Kara Passey Contact: / 474.6529

Masculindians University of Manitoba Press publishes on indigenous culture and masculinity Jennifer Keith, volunteer staff


n Mar. 6, University of archical and patriarchical gender A non-indigenous family who did it is very difficult to get them out of you can learn from making a fire [ Manitoba Press launched the systems have been imposed [ . . . ] not tell him of his indigenous roots your head.” . . . ] from becoming a firekeeper,” book Masculindians: Conversations [Indigenous peoples] need to invig- adopted James Tyman. At school he He further explained that it is said Sinclair. about Indigenous Manhood at orate [their own] gender systems.” encountered racism as other chil- assumed that sports logos and other “If men saw fatherhood as a role McNally Robinson. Editor Sam McKegney also engaged in dren teased him about his heritage. embodiments of indigenous stereo- to be celebrated and honoured, it McKegney, who is also an associ- conversation with some of the As an adult, Tyman adopted the types are “harmless or even hon- would be a huge step for us as a ate professor of English and cul- book’s contributors. There to dis- stereotypical behaviours he had our indigenous people, but when people.” tural studies at Queen’s University, cuss regaining the gender balance been teased about as a child. you see stories like James Tyman, Mercredi echoed the importance compiled conversations with lead- in indigenous communities, and In Tyman’s experience, we see you see that they have a very, very of traditions, and demonstrated ing indigenous artists, critics, activ- rethinking indigenous idenpowerfully negative effect how the dispossession and destrucists, and elders who discussed how tities and masculinity, were: [on] people’s lives.” tion of lands is contributing to the “If men saw fatherhood to build “masculine self-worth and Niigaanwewidam James Sinclair spoke at length colonization of indigenous gender how to foster balanced and empow- Sinclair (Anishinaabe – St. about the importance of systems: as a role to be celebrated ered gender relations.” Peter’s/ Little Peguis), assisrevitalizing indigenous con“In Grand Rapids, when the and honoured, it would At the launch, McKegney tant professor in the departceptions of fatherhood. He river was still alive there was about argued that the manipulation of ment of native studies at explained that embedded five miles of white water. When a be a huge step for us as a indigenous gender systems is inte- the University of Manitoba; in ceremonial existence are child was born, a man would take people” – Niigaanwewidam gral and central to the coloniza- Warren Cariou (Métis – teachings about healthy rela- his newborn and they would ride tion of indigenous peoples, and the Meadow Lake), associate tionships. Participating in the river together, just the father James Sinclair nation-building project of Canada. professor in the department ceremony provides indigenous and the baby, and the mother would Disrupting gender balance, he of English at the U of M; and men an opportunity to relearn walk back. And all that time we explained, makes communities Duncan Mercredi, a Cree-Métis that indigenous men are constantly indigenous gender systems. never let the baby go, in all the years more vulnerable to dispossession, poet and storyteller from Grand confronted with stereotypes and “Everything you need to know we never lost a baby and that was a removal, and erasure. Rapids, a community that has been thus they are learned. Cariou about being a man and a father— tradition that died when the river Undoing this damage—or impacted by hydro development. argued “stereotypes are so perni- the humility, the respect, the hon- died, and of course things changed decolonizing—McKegney argued, Cariou spoke about the autobi- cious and so insidious; they are our, the truth, the love, all of those after that.” requires “recognizing that hier- ography of James Tyman, Inside Out. adopted into a person’s identity and things called the seven teachings—

Arts & Culture Editor: Kara Passey Contact: / 474.6529

VOL. 100 NO. 25 March 12, 2014

photo Provided by Alan Greyeyes

‘Winnipeg is the unofficial hub of the Aboriginal music community in Canada’ Manitoba Music offers its Aboriginal Music Mentors Program Lukas Thiessen, staff


n May 2013 Statistics Canada released the first data from the 2011 National Household Survey, which replaced the former long-form census. Significant facts about the population of young Aboriginal people in Winnipeg and the province were revealed in the report “Aboriginal Peoples in Canada: First Nations People, Métis and Inuit.” The report indicated that Winnipeg is the city with the highest population percentage of both First Nations and Métis, at 3.6 per cent and 6.75 per cent, respectively, of the city’s total population. Half of Manitoba’s Aboriginal

population is under 21 years of age, unlike the non-Aboriginal population, half of which is under 41. The median age of Manitoba’s

Aboriginal population is 20 to 21 years, respectively – half that of the non-Aboriginal population. Additionally, almost one in five children

under the age of 14 in Manitoba are First Nations, at 18.4 per cent of all children in the province. Manitoba Music is one of many local organizations responding to this growing community. Aboriginal Music Program manager Alan Greyeyes has been part of the organization for nearly nine years. “Manitoba Music is the only music industry association in Canada with resources dedicated to Aboriginal people,” says Greyeyes. “Winnipeg is the unofficial hub of the Aboriginal music community in Canada.” Winnipeg is home to the largest Aboriginal radio network in Canada, NCI FM, which also operates Streetz FM and the Aboriginal Peoples Television Network (APTN). “With one of the country’s biggest Aboriginal communities, there’s a sizable audience for concerts featuring Aboriginal artists,” says Greyeyes. “Our corporate community is really supportive of Aboriginal community events, which often feature concerts. Plus, the Aboriginal Peoples Choice Music Awards, Aboriginal Music Week, APTN’s Aboriginal Day Live, and Manitoba Music’s Aboriginal Music Program are here.” There are also a variety of service providers for young Aboriginal people in Winnipeg, including Ma Mawi Wi Chi Itata Centre Inc. (Ma Mawi), Ndinawemaaganag Endaawaad Inc. (Ndinawe), and Ka Ni Kanichihk Inc. Greyeyes explains that these service providers and Manitoba Music are working in tandem to provide the Aboriginal Music Mentors Program (AMP Mentors). “This year we have partnerships with Ma

Mawi and Ndinawe,” says Greyeyes. “They provide the venues and rally the youth for us. We’re also working on partnerships for presentations with the Spence Neighbourhood Association and Ka Ni Kanichihk.” “The main goal of the AMP Mentors program is to encourage Aboriginal youth to pursue careers in the music industry,” says Greyeyes. “This is important because music is like any other industry in Manitoba; we need young people to fill the positions being vacated by retiring baby boomers. The main gaps that I think exist right now are in artist management and music production.” AMP Mentors was launched in 2011. “Up until that point, I was doing all the outreach,” says Greyeyes. “The mentors program reached more young folks and is probably a heck of a lot more interesting than my presentations, since the artists aren’t as nerdy as I am.” During the program, two mentors are available each week for free, hour-long consultations and presentations. Topics include creative and business-oriented issues, career advice, instrument lessons, songwriting feedback, beat-making tutorials, and feedback on media releases and artist bios. In-person bookings are available primarily in Winnipeg and the surrounding area. Mentor Rhonda Head will be available for consultations and group presentations in Opaskwayak Cree Nation and the surrounding area. Greyeyes has advice for young people who want to be involved in the industry: “The thing that I always hear at music conferences and workshops is that the music is what matters the most. Great music will always rise to the top of the pile. So I think that the most important thing a young musician can do is to find out what they love and do it every day.” Space is still available for AMP Mentors. Organizers will also try to accommodate individual consultation requests. Please contact Alan Greyeyes by email at, or by phone at 204-975-0284. Mentors available: March 10 to 14: Billy Joe Green and Calvin Nepinak March 17 to 21: Rhonda Head and Tim Hill March 24 to 28: Patti Lamoureux and Kim Wheeler March 31 to April 4: Billy Joe Green and Calvin Nepinak April 7 to 11: Rhonda Head and Tim Hill

Arts & Culture


Graphics Editor: Bradly Wohlgemuth Contact: / 474.6775




Sports Editor: Marc Lagace Contact: / 474.6529

Women’s Hockey Fundamentals


Hockey sessions at Canlan Ice Sports help women brush up on skills Carlyn Schellenberg, staff


anlan Ice Sports’ co-ed adult hockey program was “bursting at the seams” when some of the women expressed the desire to have their own program. Thus began Women’s Hockey Fundamentals ������������������ (WHF)������������� , hockey sessions catered to women. “It was really just kind of supply and demand; they sort of came to us,” said Tyler Stewart, programs manager at Canlan Ice Sports. “It started off as a beginners’ program, but the same group of ladies kept coming out to it, that we couldn’t really call it a ‘beginner program’ anymore, because some of them are actually playing in the Women’s Adult Safe Hockey League [ASHL] now, which is our adult recreational league here. So we changed it to Women’s Hockey Fundamentals to make it [friendlier] for people with experience and beginners.” The program was started last year, teaching hockey basics and helping women with their skating skills. Women’s Hockey Fundamentals is for those who’ve skated before but perhaps have never tried hockey, or those who’ve

photo by beibei lu

played before and “want to knock the ice, catering the lessons and techniques rust off.” “towards the skill level for that particular Women can join the program as session.” long as they are at least 16 years old, and The program runs complementary to some participants are as old as 50. Sean the ASHL, and many of the women in Fisher, programs coordinator at Canlan, WHF are either already in the ASHL, said the majority of the students are or planning to join. Since January 2013, aged between 35 and 45. when the program started, the number Each practice consists of 20 min- of teams in the women’s division of the utes of skating drills, 20-30 minutes of ASHL has significantly increased. puck and team skills (stick handling, According to Stewart, 22-24 women shooting, two-on-ones, etc.), and the attend each session. “We started with last 10-20 minutes are devoted to a a clique of, say, 24 women the very first scrimmage. session we had, and then from there, Fisher instructs the program on the you keep about half of them every ses-

sion,” he said. “We really have a following of about 12-15 of these ladies [ . . . ] so with that being said you get about 10 or 12 newbies session over session. And then they might take a session off and then rejoin us.” Liz Croome uses Women’s Hockey Fundamentals as an exercise program, and “thought chasing a puck would be a fun way to learn how to skate better.” Croome started the program with some experience as a ringette goalie, and is now in her third session and interested in joining a hockey league with some of the other women in the program. Since

she started, Croome has improved her puck handling, and even “noticed that [her] balance is better in day-to-day life.” Women’s Hockey Fundamentals is one result of the demand for women’s hockey programs. “The women’s game is the area of hockey that’s growing the most. I coach women’s high school and midget hockey here in town, and it’s the area where we see the most new participants coming in,” said Fisher. “We find that almost half of our participants would have kids that are playing the game, and this is a way for them to kind of maybe connect with their kids and what they’re doing.” This session of Women’s Hockey Fundamentals runs Tuesdays from 6:30-7:30 p.m. at Canlan Ice Sports (1871 Ellice Ave) until Mar. 25. Those interested in joining can contact Tyler Stewart (204-784-8888 ext. 223 or The next session runs Apr. 8-June 17. Go to for more information.



Sports Editor: Marc Lagace Contact: / 474.6529

The new evolution of Bombers football Key additions and subtractions made by Winnipeg in free agency frenzy Mike Still, staff

illustration by bram keast


fter an abysmal 3-15 record in 2013, centre in 2013, with four different playthe Winnipeg Blue Bombers need ers seeing action. After unsuccessfully all the help they can get. The rebuild- attempting to corral Zach Collaros and ing process began when the team fired Henry Burris, Winnipeg settled for former general manager Joe Mack, and pending free agent Drew Willy from following the season’s end, promoted Saskatchewan. assistant GM Kyle Walters. To say that Concerns have been raised about Walters has his work cut out for him Willy’s lack of CFL experience. He was would be an understatement. a backup for the Roughriders, amassing Entering the off-season, the a 2-2 record over two seasons. But the Bombers had 23 potential free agents potential is there, as the 27-year-old on their roster, and glaring holes to fill brings an enormous amount of athat virtually every position. Solidifying leticism and flashes of brilliance. His the roster would be a challenge, espe- first CFL victory came in 2012, against cially for a rookie GM. Winnipeg, as Willy went 17-of-23 for One of the team’s biggest �������� require- 188 yards, including a rushing and passments is at the quarterback position. ing touchdown. Winnipeg had no consistency behind Having a proven veteran on the

roster would certainly help the young ing centre Justin Sorensen, a British have a single receiver register over 1,000 pivot’s confidence. With Kevin Glenn Columbia native who took his talents yards in 2013, and with the retirement recently demanding a trade from to Edmonton. of Terrence Edwards, Moore should Ottawa, he could be the guy to help Centre Chris Kowalczuk is set to immediately step up as Willy’s number offer advice for Willy. The results have replace Sorensen, and will hopefully one target. shown in Calgary, where Glenn was be able to fill his big shoes. There are The Bomber’s secondary saw the an effective mentor and leader to both some other pieces already in place for losses of veterans Jovon Johnson and Drew Tate and Bo Levi Mitchell, who Winnipeg, as guard Steve Morley— Brandon Stewart. In response, the have developed into well-rounded another non-import—was one of the Bombers went out and made two key players. first players to re-sign. Keeping the free agent signings, the versatile playWhile addressing the quarterback team’s 2010 rookie of the year Andre maker Korey Banks from the BC Lions, position was vital for Winnipeg, the Douglas should also be a priority. He and local talent Donovan Alexander offensive line is an area still in need of is an athletic marvel, despite battling from the Edmonton Eskimos. repair. Winnipeg’s four quarterbacks injuries the past two years. The linebacker position saw the bighad a combined total of 3,922 yards Running back Will Ford emerged gest loss, as 2013 East Division all-star passing last season. That is less than as one of the lone bright spots on the Henoc Muamba left to pursue the NFL. individual numbers produced by Henry team last season, finishing it with 1,682 Winnipeg failed to sign Canadian Shea Burris (4,925), Mike Reilly (4,207), and all-purpose yards. Walters was able to Emry, who packed his bags for Toronto Darian Durant (4,154). The lack of suc- restructure Ford’s contract moving for- instead. The player that makes the most cess through the air can be attributed to ward, which is fantastic news for the sense to fill Muamba’s shoes is former the Bombers’ patchwork offensive line, team. Look for the diverse playmaker Argo Robert McCune. McCune will which struggled to stay healthy all year, to have a breakout season, with former be familiar with head coach Mike and was forced to shift players around starting RB Chad Simpson likely out O’Shea, who was the special teams from tackle to guard throughout the the door. coach for four seasons with Toronto, season. Arguably Winnipeg’s biggest free from 2010-2013. Winnipeg lost out when they failed agent pickup came at the wide receiver With four months as acting GM to acquire veteran non-import Josh position, with the signing of Nick now under his belt, and free agency in Bourke from Montreal. His experi- Moore. Coming off a season where he full swing, it is already apparent that ence and reliability would have been a finished third in the CFL in receiv- Walters has taken immediate strides in key asset, not to mention the fact that ing, with 1,105 yards, the former British the right direction to help improve this he is a ratio breaker as a Canadian. The Columbia Lion adds immediate play- team. The only question now is seeing if Bombers also failed to re-sign start- making ability. The Bombers didn’t that will translate onto the field.

Running with the herd Training in the winter Mike Still, staff


’ve been running all year long for the past four years – no matter the temperature nor season. In that time I have completed 11 half marathons,

as well as two full marathons. I love conquering the elements and the ����������������������������������� satisfaction ���������������������� of ������������������� knowing I���������� ����������� just fin���� ished��������������������������������� a run in -40 C weather. I’m par-

ticularly proud of one specific race—the Hypothermic Half Marathon—which takes place in late February, usually amidst blizzard-like conditions. Another aspect of my running history involves coaching. I have led four separate 10-kilometre clinics, and am currently co-coaching the Manitoba full marathon clinic for 2014. Each of those programs has gone on through the winter, requiring a diverse knowledge of all aspects of cold-weather running. The first thing to consider when deciding to train outdoors is layering, and making sure you’re wearing the proper clothing. The general guideline for any season�������������������� —������������������� but especially winter—is to dress for about 10-15 degrees warmer than the actual temperature. This is because you will begin to warm up after �������������������������� around�������������������� 15 minutes of exercise, and if you are wearing too much, you risk overheating and becoming uncomfortable. Layering is especially important in relation to sweating. A general guideline when running outdoors in the winter is to wear three layers on the upper body. Polyester is the best option for material. Unlike cotton, polyester doesn’t keep sweat locked in. The first layer is called a “base layer” and should be tight against your skin. This layer will wick away sweat, also preventing uncomfortable friction. The second layer is called a “mid layer,”

illustration by caroline norman

and is usually thermal. Mid layers are with extra treads on the outsoles for typically either a half or quarter zip better traction. top. This item is primarily responsible Because everyone has a different for keeping you warm and comfortable tolerance level for the cold, individthroughout your run. ual training programs will vary. A The final layer is called the “shell,” healthy distance is anywhere between and should be a wind- and water- five-kilometres for introductory runresistant jacket. These jackets are ners, all the way to 20-kilometres for designed for heavy, wet snow and will marathon runners. If you are planning also block the wind. It’s important that on doing a half or full marathon, it is your shell be water-resistant as opposed also a good idea to add some degree to waterproof, since waterproof items of hill training – which increases core don’t breathe very well. strength. Garbage Hill at Wellington The lower body follows the same and Empress is usually well-kept and guideline as the upper, with wind- and safe to train on all season long. water-resistant pants typically being the Regardless as to how far you best option. The weight of the pants choose to run in the winter, I can should also increase, depending on guarantee you will have fun with it. the temperature you’re planning on Training all season long challenges running in. your body on a whole different In terms of shoes, it’s essentially up level, but also increases your lower to your personal preference. I tend to body strength and stamina going recommend a Gore-Tex running shoe, forward. designed to block out the wind and protect your feet from the cold. You can also buy trail-specific running shoes,

VOL. 100 NO. 25 March 12, 2014

Brawlers, scientific marvels, and high flyers Premier Championship Wrestling offers a fantastic live show Lukas Thiessen, staff


r emier Cha mpionsh ip Wrestling (PCW) was founded by a triumvirate of Winnipeggers including current owner Andrew Shallcross, Mike Davidson, formerly of Top Rope Championship Wrestling (TRCW), and businessman John Nguyen. Today, the Winnipeg promotion has become an international leader in highquality entertainment. Commencement of Cool, PCW’s debut show, took place Mar. 3, 2002 at Investors Group Athletic Centre at the University of Manitoba. Playing on their slogan at the time, “The Industry of Cool,” the event featured three World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) legends. The stars were Eduardo Gory “Eddie” Guerrero Llanes, who went on to become WWE champion in 2004; Roy Wayne Farris, “The Honkytonk Man,” who is the record-holder for the longest uninterrupted reign at the World Wrestling Federation (precursor to WWE) Intercontinental Championship; and Ed Leslie, known as Brutus “The Barber” Beefcake. The event set the record for attendance at a local wrestling event with 1,700 fans. Today, with regular shows at Doubles Fun Club, PCW consistently attracts between 150-200 fans, with 200-400 people for special events. “Winnipeg is an industry leader in Canada,” said Shallcross. In 2001, he was working at Palladium Nightclub (now closed) on Pembina Highway, where local outfit TRCW began putting on weekly shows. Shallcross became good friends with Davidson who was the booker—the producer for wrestling events—for TRCW. Davidson wanted to start his own promotion, and Shallcross was interested in creating the best live show possible. The two became partners and secured backing from Nguyen. Nguyen and Davidson left in 2002 and 2003 respectively, while Shallcross continues to work hard to offer amazing wrestling experiences in the city. “Winnipeg has always boasted a very strong independent wrestling scene,” said Shallcross. “At any given time, there could be two to five promotions running regular shows in Winnipeg with varying degrees of talent and success with PCW being the leader in longevity and talent.” “PCW prides itself on being a very athletic, realistic, and theatrical professional wrestling promotion,” said Shallcross. “Watching

our wrestlers perform will leave no doubt in the audience’s mind that these are highly trained professionals. We feature wrestlers of all shapes, sizes, and styles, from brawlers to scientific marvels to high flyers.” “Overall we boast a fast-paced, athletic style with dramatic storytelling,” said Shallcross. “Our stylistic identity is really led by our top superstar Kenny Omega.” Omega, the stage name of Tyson Smith, is to wrestling and Winnipeg heroes what Neil Young is to music. Omega started out as a ring announcer for community club shows when he was 15. He was inspired by the athleticism of Robert Alex Szatkowski, known as Rob Van Dam. “I hoped to become the same type of wrestler in my own way,” said Omega. “I’ve developed my own unique move set and rely a lot on my athletic ability in the ring.” Today, Omega wrestles primarily out of Japan, although he has also been involved with a number of other organizations, including WWE, and is still connected with PCW. “Our shows do attract a wide demographic, including young and old, male and female,” said Shallcross. “Our audience is well-known to be a vocal and fun crowd. Loud chants are commonplace and many fans express themselves by dancing to the entrance music and loudly expressing their like or dislike for the wrestlers.” “I’ve met many people who were WWE fans but wouldn’t bother going to a local promotion because they didn’t think it would be of sufficient quality,” said Shallcross. “When I convince them to attend, they are blown away by how good our talent actually is and by the experience of seeing a fast-paced athletic live show. I’ve seen fans who had soured on WWE but, once exposed to our product, became hooked on the live performances.” Check out PCW’s 12th anniversary event on Mar. 15 at 9 p.m. at Doubles Fun Club (20 Alpine Ave.). The event features Kenny Omega and former World Heavyweight Champion Steve Corino. More information can be found on Facebook (PCW Wrestling) and Twitter (@PCWlegacy). PCW is offering special prices for university students! Anyone with university student ID saves $5 off the $15 ticket. There are no limits, so buy extra for non-students!



12 March 2014