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F³.kn.]n. t\-Xm-hv ]p-g-¡Â- hm-kp-tZ-h³- A-´-cn-¨p ap-l-½-Zv am-ÌÀ

I-®³

Ip-ª-¼p

Ip-ª-n-¸m-¯p

B-km-Zv

in-h-Zm-k³

aq-k

tZ-h-Zm-kv Kp-cp-¡Ä

X-®\ - m-´p-Ic - : sh-SpØq¿ km-aq-ln-I{]-h¿Ø-I\ - pw Zo¿-LI - m-ew a-l√ - v sk-{I-´d - n-bp-am-bncp-∂ I-cp-hm-Øv ap-lΩ - Zv am-ÿ (80). `m-cy: ]mØp-Ω. a-°ƒ: A-–p-∏ (Pn-Zp), jw-kp-±o≥, k°-dn-ø, A-–p¬ \mk¿, ap-jv-Xm-Jv, dw-e, km-_n-d, kp-ss_-Z, Ppssa-e, lw-ko-\. a-cp-a°ƒ: sam-bvX - q-´n, sam-bvXp-Æn, l-ao-Zv, ap-lΩ - Z- v _-jo-¿ (hn.]n.F.Fw.bp.]n, kvI - qƒ ]pØq¿), k-AZ- v (Pn-±),ko\-Øv, dw-e, j-do-\, kp\n-X (]n.Sn.Fw.F-®v.Fkv.F-kv.Xm-sg-t°m-Sv), ]¿-km-\.

I-cn-sh-≈q¿: ]-ø∂ - q¿ K-h. t_m-bvk - v sslkvI - q-fn-se dn-´. Po-h\ - °m-c≥ Hm-W° - p-∂nse ]m-Sm-t®-cn I-Æ≥ (83). I-cn-sh-≈q¿ K-h. ssl-kvI - qƒ, Im-k¿tIm-Uv _p-°v Un-t∏m F-∂n-hn-Sß - f - n-epw tPm-ensN-bvX - n-´p-≠v. `m-cy: bp ]n hn Pm-\In. a-°ƒ: ]-h\ - ≥ (Kƒ-^v), t{]-ae - X - (A[ym-]n-I, A-∂q¿ bp.]n kvI - ƒ), Ko-X (A-[ym-]n-I, cm-as - X-cp bp.]n. kvI - qƒ ]p-Xn-bsX-cp), {io-P (A-[ym]n-I, K-h. l-b¿ - s - k°≥-Ud - n kvI - qƒ, N-{μKn-cn). a-cp-a° - ƒ: \m-cmb-W≥ (sI¬ G-P≥ko-kv, ]-ø∂ - q¿), Zn-t\i≥ (Kƒ-^v), a-[p-kq-Z\≥ (sk-{I-´d - n, I-S∂ - ∏-≈n, ]m-W∏ - p-g k¿ho-k k-lI - c - W - _m¶v), do-\ (C-cn-Wm-hv). k-tlm-Zc - ß - ƒ: tKm]m-e≥, X-ºm-bn, _me≥, Zm-tam-Zc - ≥.

]-ø-∂q¿: B-Zy-Im-e I-Ωyq-Wn-Ãpw sNØpsXm-gn-em-fn bq-\nb≥ (kn.sF.Sn.bp) t\-Xm-hp-am-bn-cp-∂ A∂q¿ X-e-b-t∂-cn ]p-ame-°m-hn-\-Sp-Ø N-°-ctb≥ Ip-™-ºp (88). `m-cy: a-μy-Øv k-tcm-Pn\n. a-°ƒ: K-tW-i≥, kp-tc-i≥ (C-cp-h-cpw Zp-_-bv), c-kn-X. a-cp-a°ƒ: jo-e, _n≥-j, ]fl-\m-`≥. k-tlm-Z-c߃: ]-tc-X-cm-b Ip©n-cn, ]m-dp.

]p-Xn-b-ßm-Sn: ssl-kvIq-fn-\p k-ao-]w Ip™n-∏m-Øp (60). `¿Øm-hv: sI kn Ip-™l-Ω-Zv. a-°ƒ: a-l-aq-Zv, iw-kp±o≥, Ip-™m-bn-i, a≥kq¿, ssd-lm-\-Øv, apkv-X-^, A-iv-d-^v.

ap-g-∏n-e-ßm-Sv: ]-tc-X\m-b C-ºn-®n Kp-cp-°fp-sS a-I≥ Ip-fw-_km¿ I-S-hv tdm-Un-se jm-an¬ B-km-Zv (58). B-{‘-bn-se tlm-´¬hym-]m-cn-bm-bn-cp-∂p. `m-cy: lm-Pn-d. a-°ƒ: jm-\n-Zv (B{‘), j-l¿-_m≥, kdo-\. a-cp-a-°ƒ: apssk-_v (Zp-_-bv), k^, ]-tc-X-\m-b \nkm¿. k-tlm-Z-c-߃: _m-_p, C-Iv-_m¬, ap^n-kp-±o≥, a-lv-dq-^v, km-dp.

am-ln: a-ßm-s´ Iqtem-Øv Xm-sg-Ip-\nbn¬ ]n Fw in-h-Zmk≥ (70). dn-´. an-en-´-dn D-tZym-K-ÿ-\m-Wv. `mcy: sN-dn-b-Øv hn-P-be-£v-an. a-°ƒ: cm-tKjv, Po-th-jv (Zp-_-bv), Po-\-‰v. a-cp-a-I≥: c-ho{μ≥. k-tlm-Z-c-߃: c-ho-{μ≥, t{]-a, hn-Pbn, {]-Im-i≥ (Zp-_bv), ]-tc-X-bm-b \n¿-ae.

Xr-°c - n-∏q¿: Im-tcm-fw tdm-Un¬ Xm-ak - n-°p-∂ hƒ-h° - m-Sv sI Fw aq-k (63). ap-kvenw eo-Kn- s - ‚ ]g-bI - m-e {]-h¿-ØI - \ - pw ssI-t°m-´p-IS- h - v ]qt°m-b X-߃ kva - m-cI shm-t°-j\ - ¬ l-b¿ sk-°≥-Ud - n kvI - qƒ dn´. Po-h\ - ° - m-c\ - p-am-bn-cp∂p. apw-ss_¬, sIm¬-°Ø F-∂n-hn-Sß - f - n¬ hym-]mcn-bpw \yq-kv G-P‚p-ambn-cp-∂p. `m-cy: B-bn-i. a°ƒ: ap-jvX - m-Jv A-la - Z- v (Zp-_b - v), J-ad - p-∂n-k, ap_-jn-d. a-cp-a° - ƒ: h-lm_v (a-te-ky), dm-jn-Zv. ktlm-Zc - ß - ƒ: ap-lΩ - Z- v, l-k≥, A-–p-√, B-bnj, J-Zo-P, C-{_m-low, DΩp-Ip¬-kp.

X-e-t»-cn: Xn-cp-h-ßm-Sv sN-√-s´≥ ho-´n¬ kn hn tZ-h-Zm-kv Kp-cp-°ƒ (48). kn.hn.F≥. I-f-cn kw-L-Øn-s‚ Kp-cp-°fm-bn-cp-∂p. ]n-Xm-hv: ]tc-X-\m-b sN-cn-®¬ _m-e≥ \m-b¿. am-Xmhv: ]-tc-X-bm-b sI cmP-e-£v-an. `m-cy: tKm-]nI. k-tlm-Z-c-߃: Cμn-c, c-a, ]-tc-X-\m-b _m-e-tKm-]m¬. kw-kvIm-cw C-∂v cm-hn-se 11\v N-ºm-Sv ]p-©-°-c Xp-f-kn-bn¬.

sN-½-c³ B-et- °m-Sv: \-cn-b≥-]md-bn-se I-Æm sN-dn-b sN-Ωc - ≥ (85). `m-cy: \mcm-bW - n. a-°ƒ: cm-KnWn, a-t\m-Pv. a-cp-a° - ƒ: \m-cm-ba - ≥, ku-ay. kwkvI - m-cw C-∂v cm-hn-se 11\v ho-´p-hf - ∏ - n¬.

Ip-ªn-¡-®³ \m-bÀ \-Sp-h-Æq¿: Im-c-bm-Sv h-c-Sm-°q¬ Ip-™n-°Æ≥ \m-b¿ (105). `m-cy: I-eym-Wn A-Ω. a-°ƒ: _m-e≥ \m-b¿ (s\m-®m-Sv s]m-Xp-hn-Xc-W-tI-{μw D-S-a), KwKm-[-c≥ \m-b¿, \m-cmb-W≥, N-{μ≥, {io-[c≥, D-Æn (hn-ap-‡-`S≥), `m-kv-I-c≥, ktcm-Pn-\n, h-\-P, kp-ja.

e-£v-an Iq-Øp-]-d-ºv: am-\-t¥cn 12mw ssa-en-se ]-tcX-\m-b Ip-am-c-s‚ `m-cy kn ]n e-£v-an (70). a°ƒ: tcm-ln-Wn, Zmk≥, ]-fln-\n, ]-¶-P, A-tim-I≥, hn-iz-\mY≥, N-{μ≥, _m-_p. acp-a-°ƒ: ap-Ip-μ≥, hk-¥, hm-kp, D-Ø-a≥, Zo-], c-ay.

Kw-Km-[-c³ Iq-Øp-]-d-ºv: Np-≠ßm-s∏m-bn¬ U-b-a≠vap-°n-se A-tß-ap-‰Øv Kw-Km-[-c≥ (63). `mcy: hn-em-kn-\n. a-°ƒ: k-μo-]≥, k-®n≥. a-cp-a°ƒ: {]-_n-X, tc-jv-a.

]m-¯q-«n X-e-t»-cn: sa-bn≥ tdmUv tNm-\m-°-Øv h-f∏n-se ]q-gn-bn¬ ]mØq-´n (80). `¿-Øm-hv: ]-tc-X-\m-b l-k-bv\m¿. a-°ƒ: a-l-aq-Zv, Jm-Z¿ (C-cp-h-cpw Kƒ^v), \-_o-kp, kp-l-d, k-^n-b. a-cp-a-°ƒ: Ckv-am-Cu¬, C-{_mlow, A-–p-√, \-_ok, kp-l-d.

Ir-jv-W-³ D-Zp-a: D-Z-b-aw-K-ew Ing-t°-h-f-∏n-se sI Irjv-W-≥ (58). `m-cy: Im¿-Xym-b-\n. a-°ƒ: {]-ho¨, {]-Pn-X. a-cp-aI≥: c-ta-i≥. k-tlmZ-c-߃: tcm-ln-Wn, e£v-an, \m-cm-b-Wn.

tI-i-h³ t]-cm-{º: Ip-f-Øpw-Xd tI-i-h-≥ (70). `m-cy: tZ-hn. a-°ƒ: D-j, at\m-Pv. a-cp-a-°ƒ: P-bN-{μ≥, Po-\.

c-ho-{µ³ Iq-Øp-]d - º - v: am-ßm-´n-Sw tZ-i_ - ‘ - p-hn-se tIm-af `-h\ - n¬ tIm-´m-bn c-ho{μ≥ (87). `m-cy: Im-©\ - . a-°ƒ: A-Po-jv, dn-Po-jv, c-ay. a-cp-aI - ≥: [¿-ac - m-Pv.

tKm-]m-e³ Iq-Øp-]-d-ºv: sN-dp-hmt©-cn-bn-se ssX-∏-dº-Øv ho-´n¬ a-Ωm-en tKm-]m-e≥ (85). `m-cy: Pm-\p. a-°ƒ: Zm-tam-Z-c≥(Kƒ^v), k-tcm-Pn-\n, k-Xn, h-\-P, D-j, {]-Zo-]≥, jm-Pn, en-\n. a-cp-a-°ƒ: _n-μp, tc-jva, k-Zm-\-μ≥, cm-Lh≥, \m-Wp, c-ho-{μ≥, hn-t\m-Z≥.

I-Æq¿: F≥-.kn.-]n.- kwÿm-\ F-Iv-kn-Iyq-´o-hv Aw-Kw- ap-g-∏n-e-ßm-Sv- It®-cn-sam-´-bn-se ]p-g°¬- hm-kp-tZ-h≥ -(67)A-¥-cn-®p. C-∂-se sshIo-´v 6.-45Hm-sS ho-´n¬- Ipg-™p-ho-W Ct±-lsØ X-e-t»-cn- tIm-˛-Hm-]-td-‰ohv- B-ip-]-{Xn-bn¬- FØn-s®-¶n-epw- c-£n-°m-\m-bn-√.- ar-X-tZ-lw- C-∂p ]-cn-bm-cw -sa-Un-°¬ -tIm-f-Pn-\v ssI-am-dpw.- X-et»-cn- P-\-d¬ -B-ip-]-{Xn-bn¬- h-®v- cm-{Xn-X-s∂ IÆv-\o-°w-sN-bv-Xp.{_-Æ≥- tIm-f-Pn¬- hn-Zym¿-Yn-bm-bn-cn-s° sI.F-kv-.bp-hn-eq-sS-bm-Wv- hm-kp-tZ-h≥ s]m-Xp-cwK-sØ-Øn-b-Xv. sI.F-kv.bp.- Pn-√m ssh-kv- {]-knU‚ v, bq-Øv- tIm¨-{K-kv- Pn-√m {]-kn-U‚ v, sk-{I´-dn- F-∂o \n-e-I-fn¬ {]-h¿-Øn-®n-cp-∂p. D-Ω≥-Nm≠n- bq-Øv-tIm¨-{K-kv- {]-kn-U‚m-bn-cp-∂-t∏mƒ kw-ÿm-\ \n¿-hm-l-I- k-an-Xn- Aw-K-am-bn-cp-∂p Ct±lw.- 1979¬- tIm¨-{K-kv- ]n-f¿-∂-t∏mƒ- B‚Wn-s°m-∏w \n-∂p. tIm¨-{K-kv(F) hn-`m-Kw- Un-.kn-.kn-. sk-{I-´-dn-bm-bn-cp-∂p.tIm¨-{K-kv-(F-kv-) Pn-√m sk-{I-´-dn-, F≥-.kn-.]n. Pn-√m {]-kn-U‚ v, I-Æq¿- P-h-l¿ -sse-{_-dnap≥- sk-{I-´-dn-, Pn-√m k-l-I-c-W- _m-¶v- ap≥ -U-bd-Iv-S¿,- ap-g-∏n-e-ßm-Sv- k¿-ho-kv- k-l-I-c-W _m-¶vap≥- U-bd-Iv-S¿, sF-]v-tkm- kw-ÿm-\ ssh-kv-{]kn-U‚ v,- tZ-io-b-Iu¨-kn-ew-Kw,- C-kv-I-^v- Pn-√m {]-kn-U‚ v,- {_-Æ≥ -tIm-f-Pv- ]q¿-h- hn-Zym¿-Yn- kwL-S-\-bm-b {_-Æ-ss\-‰v-kv- `m-c-hm-ln F-∂o- \n-eI-fn-epw- {]-h¿-Øn-®n-cp-∂p. ap-g-∏n-e-ßm-Sv- Cu-kv-‰vF¬.-]n.- kv-Iqƒ- am-t\-P-cm-Wv.A-hn-hm-ln-X≥.- ]n-Xm-hv: ]-tc-X-\m-b ]p-g-°¬ cm-a≥- (A-[ym-]-I≥- ap-g-∏n-e-ßm-Sv- Cu-kv-‰v- F¬.-]n.kv-Iqƒ).- am-Xm-hv: ]-tc-X-bm-b e-£v-an -(A-[ym-]n-I, ap-g-∏n-e-ßm-Sv- Cu-kv-‰v- F¬.-]n.- kv-Iqƒ).- k-tlm-Z-c߃-: ]-fl-\m-`≥,- I-a-em-£n,- h-k-¥,- ]-tc-X-cm--b ]p-g-°¬ -_m-e-Ir-jv-W≥,- kp-Kp-W≥,- N-{μ≥.-

ap-kv-enw eo-Kv t\-Xm-hv F sI I-am lm-Pn A-´-cn-¨p k-tcm-Pn-\n X-e-t»-cn: s]m-∂yw ]dmw-Ip-∂n-se X-´m-t®-cn k-tcm-Pn-\n (75). `¿-Ømhv: ]-tc-X-\m-b A-NypX≥. a-°ƒ: tl-a-e-X, A-c-hn-μm-£≥ (kv-am-jv sS-bv-te-gv-kv, Nn-d-°-c), {io-I-e, ]-tc-X-\m-b PntX-{μ≥. a-cp-a-°ƒ: {]Im-i≥, am-[-h≥, Pn-j.

I-gn-™ Zn-hk - w sImSp-ap-≠b - n¬ A-¥c - n-® s]-cp-ºd - sXm-Sn ap-lΩ - Z- m-Pn

Ip-ª-l-½-Zv lm-Pn

A-l-½-Zv

ImÀ-Xym-b-\n

cm-a-N-{µ³ F-gp-¯-ѳ

Ip-ªn-cm-a³

am-[-hn-¡p-«n

A-\nÂ-Ip-amÀ -

Iq-Øp-]-d-ºv: tIm-´-bw Hm-em-bn-°-c-bn-se amcn-bw-I-≠n ho-´n¬ Fw sI A-l-Ω-Zv (64). `mcy: sI ]n dm-_n-b. a°ƒ: Im-knw, l¿-jmZv, Pw-jo¿, d-lo-\. a-cpa-I≥: lm-Pn-d, Im-knw (hym-]m-cn, B-{‘). kw-kv-Im-cw C-∂v cm-hnse H-º-Xn-\v tIm-´-bØ-ßm-Sn J-_¿-ÿm\n¬.

I-S-ep-≠n: a-Æq¿ ap-°Øv-I-S-hv ]n-em-°m-´v Im¿-Xym-b-\n (88). aÆq¿ ]-©m-b-Øv {]-Y-a {]-kn-U‚ v ]-tc-X-\m-b ]n-em-°m-´v tKm-]m-e-s‚ `m-cy-bm-Wv. a-°ƒ: hn-Pb≥ (_n-kn-\- v), taml-\≥ (_n-kn-\- v-˛Im¿-tKm-kv-‰o¬), ku-an\n, _m-em-a-Wn, P-b-e£v-an, e-Xn-I, ]-tc-X-\mb cm-Pp (^n-enw A-hm¿Uv tP-Xm-hv-˛-\m-cm-bw). acp-a-°ƒ: X-´mw-I-≠n tkm-a-kp-μ-c≥ (X-´mw-I≠n _m-t¶-gv-kv), \m-St©-cn k¿-thm-Ø-a≥ (dn-´. am-t\-P¿, sI-.F-kv.F-^v.C), hn-P-b-e-£van, P-\n, kp-a, ]-tc-X-cmb tIm-a-Øv A-tim-I≥ (jm-Pn Xo-tb-‰¿, t_∏q¿), Fw B¿ {]-km-Zv.

sN¿-∏p-t»-cn: ]-Xn-bSn-bn¬ cm-a-N-{μ≥ Fgp-Ø-—≥ (86). sN¿-∏p-f-t»-cn K-h¨sa‚ v l-b¿-sk-°≥U-dn kv-Iq-fn-se B-ZyIm-e A-[ym-]-I-\mWv. `m-cy: ]-fln-\n So-®¿ (dn-´. A-[ym-]n-I, Pn.hn.F-®v.F-kv.F-kv, sN¿-∏p-f-t»-cn). a-°-fn√.

t]-cm-{º: A-ºm-b-∏m-d-bnse ]p-en-t°m-´v ao-ج Ip-™n-cm-a≥ (60). `m-cy: \m-cm-b-Wn. a-°ƒ: kp-tcjv-_m-_p, kp-\n-X, kp-[ojv. a-cp-a-°ƒ: cm-P≥, kp\n, A-Rv-Pp. k-tlm-Z-c߃: ]n Fw tKm-]m-e≥, _m-e-Ir-jv-W≥, Pm-\-In, I-eym-Wn, tI-i-h≥, ]-tcX-\m-b tKm-]m-e≥ (dn-´. t]m-en-kv).

Xm-\q¿: ]-cn-bm-]p-cw tam-cy ]-tc-X-\m-b sN∂-e-a-®n-b-Øv _m-eIr-j-vW≥-\m-b-cp-sS `m-cy t]m-°m-´v am-[-hn°p-´n (Nn-∂-°p-´n˛86). k-tlm-Z-c-߃: \m-cmb-W≥-Ip-´n -\m-b¿, im-c-Zm-Ω, ]-tc-X-\m-b _m-e-N-{μ≥-\m-b¿.

Ip-ªn-¡-®³ \m-bÀ

t]-cm-{º: tN-t\m-fn-bnse Io-g¬ ao-ج ]\m-∏p-d-Øv th-em-bp[≥ (65). `m-cy: cm-[. a°ƒ: c-P-\n, c-hn-X, cRvPn-Xv. a-cp-a-°ƒ: {]ho¨, kp-`m-jv.

_m-ep-t»-cn: ]-\-ßm-Sv ]p-Xn-b-Im-hv ap-°n¬ Xp-º-bn¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b D-Æn-\m-b-cp-sS a-Iƒ ku-an-\n (43). `¿-Ømhv: ]n _-m-e-Ir-jv-W≥ ]-d-ºn¬ -_-km¿ (]mf-bw am¿-°-Øv). a°ƒ: l-cn-{]n-b (s{]mhn-U≥-kv F-®v.Fkv.F-kv, tIm-gn-t°mSv), {io-l-cn (Fw.F.Fw.bp.]n kvIqƒ ]-d-ºn¬ _km¿). k-©-b-\w RmbdmgvN.

ta-∏-b-q¿: Im-c-bm-Sv h-c-Zm°q¬ Ip-™n-°-Æ≥ \mb¿ (105). `m-cy: I-eym-Wn A-Ω. a-°ƒ: _m-e≥ \mb ¿(td-j≥ tjm-∏v am-t\P¿, s\-m-®m-Sv), Kw-Km-[c≥ \m-b¿, \m-cm-b-W≥, N-{μ≥, {io-[-c≥ (ss{Uh¿), D-Æn (dn-´. an-en-´-dn), `m-kv-I-c≥, k-tcm-Pn-\n, h\-P, kp-j-a. a-cp-a-°ƒ: tZ-hn sN-dp-h-Æq¿, I-a-e Im-c-bm-Sv, {]-k-∂ Xn-cp-hßm-bq¿, an-\n _m-ep-t»cn, do-\ hm-I-bm-Sv, Ko-X Im-hp-¥-d, B-i ]m-te-cn-, ]-fl-\m-`≥ \m-b¿ Im-cbm-Sv, {io-[-c≥ hm-eyt°m-Sv, cm-P≥ \-Sp-h-Æq¿.

I-S-ta-cn: ]-tc-X-\m-b a-tÆm-fn A-Ω-Xv Ip-‰nbn-en-s‚ `m-cy Ip™m-an l-÷p-Ω (78). -a-°ƒ.-A-_v-Zp-√,- sambv-Xp,- A-jv-d-^v (aq-hcpw J-Ø¿), \-^o-k,P-ao-e,- \-ko-a. a-cp-a°ƒ. I-cp-hm-≠n-bn¬ kq-∏n (-\-cn-°q-´pwNm¬), -ao-Ø-se am-dmt©-cn A-Ω-Zv (-ta-ap≠),- A-´-°p-f-ß-c Ako-kv (-\-cn-°m-t´-cn)-, ]-tc-X-bm-b B-bn-i sN-dp-Ip-∂p-Ω¬,-sNº-c-Øn-°-≠n km-d,- ab-ßn-bn¬ \-ao-Z (-hmWn-ta¬).

a-¶-S: tªm-°v ]-©m-bØw-Kw, Z-en-Xv eo-Kv t\Xm-hp-am-b a-¶-S th-cpw]p-em-°¬ I-f-Øpw-]Sn-b≥ A-\n¬-Ip-am¿ F-∂ A-\n-b≥ (48). Zen-Xv eo-Kv a-¶-S \n-tbmP-I a-fi-ew P-\-d¬ sk-{I-´-dn-bpw F-kv.-Sn.bp.- a-¶-S ]-©m-b-Øv P\-d¬ sk-{I-´-dn-bpw IqSn-bm-Wv. ]n-Xm-hv: them-bp-[≥, am-Xm-hv: e£v-an, `m-cy: Ip-™n-e£v-an. a-°ƒ: c-ay, tc-jva, c-Rv-Pn-Xv, a-cp-a-°ƒ: i-in-Ip-am¿ tX-e-°m-Sv, a-tl-jv A-e-\-√q¿.

th-ßc - : F-kv.F-kv tdm-Uv ]q-°p-Øv Ip-™l-ΩZ- v lm-Pn (78). `m-cy: ]m-Øp. a-°ƒ: B-bnip, J-Zo-P, A-kva - m-_n, dp-Jn-b, kp-sse-J, ap-lΩ-Zv A-en (ku-Zn), kpJ-Zo-P a-¶S- : sh-≈n-e ]-dt- °m- ss_-Z, d-km-Jv, dw-e, C- ƒ: A´p-]e - Ø - v Im-cym-´n¬ am- {_m-low. a-cp-a° - ^ - , ssk-\-_ \p F-∂ ap-lΩ - Z- n-s‚ `m- e-hn, d-Du-^v, ap-kvX cy J-Zo-P (67). a-°ƒ: P- A-–p¬ A-ko-kv, a-Po- X-®-\m-´p-I-c: B-cy-ºmZv, in-lm-_v, km-Pn-Zv, kp- hv Iq-´-]v-em≥ ho-´n¬ ao-e, \-^o-k, A-eh - n, Im-knw, ko-\Ø - v. a-cp-a- a-ø. tN-°p-´n-bp-sS `m-cy °ƒ: Ip-™n-ap-lΩ - Z- v, assk-\-_ (55). iw-kp_o-a Po-Zv, D-Ω¿, \p-kp-dØ - v, ±o≥, _-jo¿, ap-l-Ω-Zv ]p-Xp-∏m-Sn: a-tem-dw Iko-\Ø - v. jm-^n, A-eo-a. a-cp-a∏n-°p-∂v ]-tc-X\ - m-b °ƒ: d-ko-b, ap¿-jo-Zv, Ip-´n-lk - s - ‚ `m-cy s\A-Ðp Jm-ZÀ _-jo¿. k-tlm-Z-cXm-ac - t- »-cn: Cu¿-t∏m-W tcm-Øv _o-a (74). a߃: ]-tc-X-\m-b, Ahm-b¬ sXm-Sp-Ib - n¬ A- °ƒ: A-–p-√, A-_q-_- ssk-\m¿, lw-k. °¿, ap-lΩ - Z- e - n, C-kv–p¬ Jm-Z¿ (80). `m-cy: J-Zo-P. a-°ƒ: l-\o-^, lm-Jv k-Jm-^n, A-–p- l-k³ im-lp¬ l-ao-Zv, C¿-jm-Zv ∂m-k¿, a-dn-bw. a-cp-aF-S-°p-fw: ]-tc-X-\m-b - m≥, B-an-\, H-f-I-c A-l-Ω-Zv-Ip-´n(aq-hc - pw dn-bm-Zv), B-bn-i- °ƒ: D-kva - , k-°o-\, ap-kv-eym-cp-sS a-I≥ l°p-´n, dw-e, kp-ld - , sse- \-Zo-d, kp-lvd dq-_n-b, l-^vk - Ø - v. e, jm-ln-Z. k-≥ (52). `m-cy: dw-e.

th-em-bp-[³

ku-an-\n

Ip-ªm-an l-Öp-½

_o-hm-¯p ]p-Xp-s]m-∂m-\n: Np-h∂ tdm-Un-\p k-ao-]w ]p-Ø≥-]p-c-bn¬ _ohm-Øp (63).`¿-Øm-hv: ]-tc-X-\m-b _o-cm≥. a-°ƒ: D-ssa_, B-an-\, ssk-\-_, ku-Z, sse-e, kp-lv-dm_n, kp-ss_¿, _m-Zpj. a-cp-a-°ƒ: sam-bv-Xp, sam-bv-Xo≥, A-iv-d-^v.-

km-an

tZ-h-In

A-½-Zv

sN-t¡m-«n

\m-cm-b-W³-

Ip-ªn-t]m-¡À -

G-en-bm-½

am-[-hn

v-A-tØm-fn: sIm-ß∂q¿ F¬.]n kv-Iq-fn-\v k-ao-]w F-S-h-e-Øv aoج km-an (75). a-°ƒ: A-Xp¬, ]-tc-X-bm-b ]pjv-]. a-cp-a-I≥: A-\n¬Ip-am¿. k-tlm-Z-c-߃: i-¶-c≥, tZ-hn, I-eymWn, ]-tc-X-bm-b \m-cmb-Wn.

B-X-h-\m-Sv: am-´p-Ω¬ Ipº-f-]-d-ºn¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b Ip-am-c-s‚ `m-cy tZ-h-In (87). a-°ƒ: X-¶-∏, hm-kp, kp-μ-c≥, ap-Ip-μ≥, ao-\m£n, ]-tc-X-cm-b Zm-tam-Zc≥, im-¥. a-cp-a-°ƒ: kp`-{Z, \-fn-\n, k-tcm-Pn-\n, im-¥n-\n, A-∏p-Æn, Im¿Xym-b-\n, Nm-©p.

Xn-cp-h-≈q-¿: ]p-\-Øn°-≠n A-Ω-Zv (80). `mcy: ]-tc-X-bm-b B-bni. a-°ƒ: _-jo¿, k°o-\, i-co-^v (JØ¿), A-kv-a. a-cp-a-°ƒ: \m-k¿, A–p-¿-d-lv-am≥, dw-e, ap\o-d.

th-fw: s]-cp-h-b-en-se B-Zy-Im-e tIm¨-{K-kv {]-h-¿-Ø-I-\m-bn-cp-∂ F-gp-Ø-—≥ I-≠n sNt°m-´n (77). `m-cy: Pm\p. a-°ƒ: im-c-Z, ]-tcX-\m-b N-{μ≥, \-fn-\n, tim-`, kp-\n¬. a-cp-a°ƒ: hn-iz≥, `m-kv-Ic≥, Zn-t\-i≥, Kw-K.

tam-ßw: H-f-a-Xn¬ sN\-°¬ th-em-bp-[-s‚ a-I≥ \m-cm-b-W≥ (aWn-˛50). am-Xm-hv: ]-tcX-bm-b Pm-\-In. `m-cy: an-\n. k-tlm-Z-c-߃: hn-P-b≥, tam-l-\≥, jm-Pn, jm-_p, \-fn-\n, c-a, _n-μp.

th-ß-c: ]p-Ø-\-ßm-Snbn-se Im-hp-߬ Ip™n-t]m-°¿ (72). `mcy: a-Ωm-Øp. a-°ƒ: ssk-X-e-hn (Pn-±), l\o-^, A-ko-kv (A-_qZ-_n), ssa-aq-\. a-cp-a°ƒ: _o-°p-´n, \-ko-a, Xm-ln-d, A-l-Ω-Zv-Ip-´n.

F-S-°-c: ]m-te-am-Sv i-¶cw-Ip-f-sØ am-{º a-Ømbn-bp-sS `m-cy G-en-bmΩ (83). a-°ƒ: sska¨, tZ-h-k-y, ta-cn, s_∂n, `n-_p, h¬-k-e, tj¿-fn. a-cp-a-°ƒ: h¬k-Ω, am-X-yp, en-kn, t__n, tdm-bn, en-Pn, kp_n.

h-SI - c - : ]-tc-X\ - m-b In-g°-bn¬ Ip-am-cs - ‚ `m-cy ]-dº - Ø - v am-[h - n (90). a°ƒ: N-{μn, Pm-\p, k-tcmPn-\n, \-fn-\n, _m-eI - r-jvW≥, h¬-ke - . a-cp-a° - ƒ: I-cp-W≥, _me≥, A-®p-X≥, tam-l\≥, ]-tc-X\ - m-b I-Wmc≥, kp-a.

N-°-c-°-√v: ap-kv-enw eo-Kv t\-Xm-hpw a-X-˛-km-aqln-I -cw-K-sØ \n-d-km-∂n-[y-hp-am-bn-cp-∂ ]p-d-hq¿ ss_-Øp d-lv-a-Øn¬ F -sI -I-am¬ lm-Pn (80) A¥-cn-®p. ap-kv-enw eo-Kv Pn-√m I-Ωn-‰n-bw-Kw, am-b≥ ap-°v im-Jm {]-kn-U‚ v, kn.F-®v.- sk‚¿ sN-b¿am≥, ]p-d-hq¿ a-l-√v P-amA-Øv I-Ωn-‰n {]-knU‚ v, k-a-kv-X aZvd-km am-t\-Pv-sa‚ v I-Ωn-‰n Pn√m {]-kn-U‚ v, kw-ÿm\ I-Ωn-‰n-bw-Kw, kw-bp‡ P-am-A-Øv Pn-√m JPm©n, ]m-∏n-\n-t»-cn Pman-A A-kv-A-Zn-ø I-Ωn-‰n-bw-Kw, k-a-kv-X C-kv-eman-Iv sk‚¿ J-Pm≥-Pn F-∂o \n-e-I-fn¬ {]-h¿-Øn®ph-cn-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. ap-kv-enw eo-Kv kw-ÿm-\ Iu¨-kn¬ Aw-Kw, F-S-°m-Sv a-fi-ew JPm©n, kw-ÿm-\ l-÷v I-Ωn-‰n-bw-Kw F-∂o \n-e-I-fn-epw {]-h¿-Øn-®n-cp-∂p. `m-cy: sI -Sn -B-bn-kp. a-°ƒ: ^m-Xzn-a, kpss_¿ (_mw-•q¿), ^m-bn-k, km-_n-Øv, ^m-_n-Z. a-cp-a-°ƒ: Sn -ap-l-Ω-ZvIp-™n, kn A-_v-Zp- -emw (dn-bm-Zv), ]n -kn -Ip-™p-ap-l-Ω-Zv lm-Pn (sk-{I-´-dn, ]p-d-hq¿ a-l¬ P-am-A-Øv I-Ωn-‰n), k-_n-X (IÆq¿), ^-kv-\ (X-e-t»-cn). k-tlm-Z-c-߃: F -sI l-ao-Zv, a-dn-bw, ]-tc-X-cm-b sam-bv-Xo≥ lm-Pn, ap-lΩ-Zv, ^m-Xzn-a.

ku-Zn-bn a-cn-¨ lm-jn-an-sâ a-¿n-¯v C-¶v \m-«n-se-¯n-¡pw

D-cp-h-®m¬: ku-Zn-bn¬ hm-l-\m-]-I-S-Øn¬ a-cn-® in-h-]p-cw sh-º-Sn tdm-Un¬ d-Cu-km a≥-kn-en¬ Sn ]n lm-jn-an-s‚ ar-X-tZ-lw C-∂v D-®-bv-°v c-t≠msS in-h-]-p-c-sØ-Øpw. C-∂p cm-hn-se tIm-gn-t°mSv hn-am-\-Øm-h-f-Øn¬ F-Øp-∂ ar-X-tZ-lw in-h]p-c-Øv ho-´n-se-Øn-®- ti-jw in-h-]p-cw Pp-am-a-kvPn-Zn-\v k-ao-]w s]m-Xp-Z¿-i-\-Øn-\v h-bv-°pw. C-∂-se ssh-Io-´v \m-´n-se-tØ-≠n-bn-cp∂ ar-XtZ-lw Fw-_-kn-bn-se \-S-]-Sn-{I-a-߃ ]q¿-Ønbm-hm-Ø-Xv Im-c-W-am-Wv H-cp Zn-h-kw ssh-In-b-Xv. Rm-b-dm-gv-N cm-hn-se 10Hm-sS-bm-Wv ku-Zn-bn¬Xzm-C-^v F-∂ ÿ-e-Øp-h-®v lm-jnw k-©-cn-® Ct∂m-h Im-dpw s{S-bn-e-dpw Iq-´n-bn-Sn-®v A-]-I-Sw \-S∂-Xv.

ku-Znbn \ncym-X-\mbn

sN¿-∏p-f-t»-cn: s\-√m-b ]p-em-°m-Sv F-f-∏mw-tIm´v Xm-g-tØ-Xn¬ ss_-{Zphn-s‚ a-I≥ ap-kv-X-^ ankv-lm-ln Im-an¬-k-Jm^n (35) ku-Zn A-td-_ybn-se A-_-l-bn¬ a-cW-s∏-´p. am-Xm-hv: \-^ok. `m-cy: dm-_n A-Øp¬ A-Z-hn-ø. a-°ƒ: \-Cuw-dk, ^m-Xn-a-m ssi-a, A-_q-lp-ssd, ^m-Xn-a kpssl-a. k-tlm-Z-c-߃: A-_q-_-°¿,A-e-hn-°p´n, A-–p¬-k-emw, sk-ev-^p-±o≥, _o-hm-Øp-Ω, sF-im-_n, d-io-Z,ko-\-Øv.

a-c-¯nÂ-\n-¶p ho-Wp- a-cn-¨p Pm-\p

ssk-\-_

k-^n-b-

I-Xn-bm-ap

J-Zo-P

Ip-ªn-ap-l-½-Zv lm-Pn -

_ocm³-Ip-«n

lw-k- lm-Pn

sIm-bn-em-≠n: Xn-cp-hßq¿ ]-≈n-hb - ¬ Ip-\n P-m\ - p (62). `¿-Øm-h:v `mkvI - c - ≥. a-°ƒ: c-P\ - n, cPn-j, c-RP -v n-X.v a-cp-a°ƒ: kp-tc-j_ -v m-_p, \n-an-j, jm-en-_. k-©b-\w Rm-b¿.

tN-te-{º: ]-\-b-∏p-dw ]Xn-\m-emwssa¬ ]-tc-X\m-b X-te-sØm-Sn ssk-Xm-en-bp-sS a-Iƒ tIm-bn-∏-≈n Ip-∂-Øv ssk-\-_ (75). k-tlm-Zc-߃: B-an-\°p-´n, ]tc-X-cm-b \-^o-k, _nøm-Øp-´n.

hm-g-°m-Sv: sN-dp-hm-bq¿ ap-≈-ºm-e-Øn¬ ap-lΩ-ZvIp-´n-bp-sS `m-cy k^n-b (56). a-I≥, A-ao-dp±o≥ (dn-bm-Zv), a-cp-a-Iƒ. dn-^m-\ No-t°m-Sv, ktlm-Z-c-߃: ssk-\p±o≥-, P-ao-e-, jw-kn-b-, j-d-^n-b.

th-ß-c: Du-c-Iw I-t√߬-]-Sn th-tc-߬ sam-bv-Xo-s‚ `m-cy I-Xnbm-ap (55). a-°ƒ: B-cn-^, lm-P-d, lm-cn-kv, i-ao¬. a-cp-a°ƒ: \q-dp-±o≥ (sN-≠]p-dm-b), ap-kv-X-^ (lmPn-bm¿-]-≈n).

Xm-a-c-t»-cn: A-Sn-hm-cw s]m-´n-°-bn¬ a-c-°m-dns‚ `m-cy J-Zo-P (70). a°ƒ: K-^q¿ (sI.Fw.-kn.-kn-, -a-°), dp-Jn-ø, kp-l-d, j-co-^, P-ko-\. a-cp-a-°ƒ: dm-_n-b, tambn≥, lw-k, A-–p¬ Jm-Z¿, ap-l-Ω-Zv.

h-fm-t©-cn: aq-®n-°¬ Xfn-I∏ - d - º - n¬ Ip-™np-lΩ-Zv- lm-Pn (D-∏m-Wn-˛68).a-°ƒ: sam-bvX - o≥-Ip-´n, J-ad - p-±o≥, Ao-k, ap-lΩ - Zv km-enw.-ac - p-a° - ƒ - : dm_n-b, jw-\m-Pm-kva - n≥, A-–p¬ l-ao-Zv ]-´¿-\S- °m-hv, kp-aø - X-kv\ - nw.-

a-°-c-∏-dºv: Im-fm-hv ]p-Xp-°p-Sn _o-cm≥-Ip´n (82). `mcy: Ban-\ cm-a-]pcw. a°ƒ: A-–p¬ I-cow, ap-l-ΩZv, DΩ¿, A–p¬ \mk¿, D-ΩpIp¬kp, ssa-aq-\.

a-°c - ∏ - d - º - v: sX-°Ø - v lw-kl - m-Pn (68). `m-cy: ssk-\_ - . a-°ƒ: A–p¬- d-low, A-–p¬ _-jo¿, km-Pn-Z, kp-aø - . a-cp-a° - ƒ: k-do-\, jlm-\, A-lΩ - Z- v I-_o¿, ^m-dq-Jv.

]m-d-a-S-bn a-®n-Sn-ªphoWv c-−pt]À a-cn¨p A-Sq¿: A-Sq¿ G-\m-Znaw-KeØv ]m-d-a-S-bn-¬ a-Æn-Sn-™p ho-Wv c-≠v sXm-gn-em-fn-Iƒ acn®p. C-f-a-Æq¿ Ip∂n-S a-™Øq-cnem-bn-cp-∂p A-]-ISw. s{]m-ss¢≥ ss{U-h¿- tIm-∂n sN-ß-d a-cp-tØ-Øv ta-Ωp-dn jn-_p (27), k-lm-bn h-S-t»-cn°-c sX-°pw-a-e ]p-Ø≥-]p-cbn¬ tKm-]n-bp-sS aI≥ A-\ojv (26) F-∂n-h-cmWv a-cn-®-Xv. C∂-se cm-hnse 9.45Hm-sSbm-bn-cp-∂p A-]-I-Sw. 200 A-Sntbm-fw D-b-c-Øn-ep-≈ Ip-∂pw d-_¿ a-c-ßfpw C-Sn-™v, a-Æv \o-°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂ c-≠v s{]mss¢-\p-Iƒ-°p-ta¬ ]-Xn-°pI-bm-bn-cp-∂p. Ip-∂v C-Sn-™v h-cp∂-XpI-≠ Ch¿ Hm-Snc-£s∏-Sm≥ {i-an-s®-¶nepw Iq-‰≥ ]m-d- ho-gp-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. Cu

A-\ojv ka-bw ]m-d-a-S-bn-se 20 Hm-fw sXm-gn-em-fn-Iƒ {]`m-X`£Ww I-gn-°m≥ ]p-d-tØ-°v t]m-bXn-\m¬ IqSp-X¬ Bf]m-b-ap-≠m-bn√. A-]-I-SØn¬ Iq-Sp-X¬ sXm-gn-em-fnIƒ Dƒ-s∏-´n-cn-°m-sa-∂ kw-

i-bhpw ]-cn-{`m-¥n ]-c-Øn. kao]sØ a-‰v {I-j¿ bq-\n-‰p-Ifn¬ \n-∂v Iq-Sp-X¬ ln-‰m-®nIfpw Pm-°v lm-a-dp-Ifpw FØn-®m-Wv c-£m-{]-h¿Ø-\w \-S-Øn-bXv. ar-X-tZ-l-߃ On-∂-`n∂am-b \n-e-bn-em-bn-cp-∂p. t]m-k-‰vtam¿-´-Øn-\p ti-jw ar-X-tZ-l߃ _-‘p-°ƒ-°v hn-´p\¬In. d-h\yq h-Ip-∏n-s‚ A-\p-aXn-bn√m-sX-bm-Wv ]md-a-S {]h¿-Øn-®n-cp-∂-sX-∂v A-[n-IrX¿ ]-d-™p. d-h-\yq, t]m-en-kv hn-`m-K-߃ A-t\z-j-W-߃ B-cw-`n-®n-´p-≠v. h-μ-\-bm-Wv jn-_p-hn-s‚ `mcy. a-°ƒ: F-_n≥, A√p. A\o-jn-s‚ am-Xmhv: Ko-X-. ktlm-Z-c-n: A-\ne.

Xn-c-sª-Sp-¸n [o-h-c-k-ap-Zm-b-¯n\v ko-äv \Â-I-Ww: [o-h-c-k-` B-e-∏p-g: h-cp-∂ ]m¿-e-sa‚ v Xn-c-s™-Sp-∏n¬ [o-h-c-k-ap-Zmb-Øn¬-s∏-´-h¿-°v ko-‰v \¬Im≥ {]-_-e cm-{„o-b-∏m¿-´nIƒ X-øm-dm-h-W-sa-∂v A-Jn-e tI-c-f [o-h-c-k-` kw-ÿm-\ IΩn-‰n cm-{„o-b ]m¿-´n-I-tfm-Sv B-h-iy-s∏-´p. tI-c-f-Øn¬ a¬-ky-sØm-gn-em-fn hn-`m-K-ßfn¬ 60 i-X-am-\-Øn-s‚ {]m-Xn\n-[y-ap-≈ [o-h-c-k-ap-Zm-bsØ ]-cn-K-Wn-°m≥ cm-{„o-b ]m¿-´n-Iƒ X-øm-dm-h-Ww. 12mw ]-©-h¬-k-c ]-≤-Xn°m-e-Øv a¬-ky-sØm-gn-em-fn t£-a-Øn-\v tI-{μ-a-{¥n-k-`-bpsS km-º-Øn-I-Im-cy k-an-Xn h-I-bn-cp-Ønb 640 tIm-Sn cq-] Xn-I-®pw A-]-cym-]v-X-am-b-Xn-

\m¬ A-Xv 6400 tIm-Sn cq-]-bm°n h¿-[n-∏n-°-W-sa-∂v [o-h-ck-` B-h-iy-s∏-´p. 70,000 tImSn cq-]-bp-sS a¬-ky-k-º-Øv cm-Py-Øn-\v kw-`m-h-\ sN-øp∂ a¬-ky-sØm-gn-em-fn-I-fp-sS t£-a-Øn-\v h-I-bn-cp-Øp-∂ apgp-h≥ Xp-I-bpw tI-{μ-K-h¨sa‚ v \¬-I-W-w. tZ-h-kzw \nb-a-\-ß-fn¬ A-ln-μp-°ƒ-°p≈ 18 i-X-am-\w kw-h-c-Ww kwh-c-W k-ap-Zm-b-߃-°p Xs∂ B-\p-]m-Xn-I-am-bn \¬-IWsa∂pw Ah¿ Bh-iys∏´p. Cu 18 i-X-am-\w ap-∂m° k-ap-Zm-b-ß-fn-se km-ºØn-I-am-bn ]n-∂m-°w \n¬-°p∂ ln-μp-°ƒ-°v \¬-I-W-sa∂p-≈ F≥.F-kv.F-kv. P-\-

d¬ sk-{I-´-dn-bp-sS- B-h-iyw H-cp Im-c-W-h-im-epw Aw-Ko-Icn-°-cp-sX-∂pw C-Xv `-c-WL-S\m hn-cp-≤-am-sW-∂pw [o-h-ck-`m P-\-d¬ sk-{I-´-dn hn Zn-\I-c≥ ]-d-™p. `q-cn-]-£ sFIy-Øn-s‚ t]-cp-]-d-™p kw-hc-W k-ap-Zm-b-߃-°v A¿-lX-s∏-´ kw-h-c-Ww t\-Sn-sb-Sp°m-\p-≈ \o-°-sØ F-¥p- hne-sIm-Sp-Øpw ]-cm-P-b-s∏-SpØp-∂-Xn-\v F-kv.F≥.Un.]n A-S-°-ap-≈ Z-en-Xv-˛-]n-∂m-° k-ap-Zm-b kw-L-S-\-Iƒ H-‰s°-´m-bn \n¬-°p-sa-∂pw At±lw ]-d-™p. A-º-e-∏p-g Xm-eq-°v I-Ωn-‰n {]-kn-U‚ v kt¥m-jv Pn-tX-{μ-\pw hm¿-Ømk-tΩ-f-\-Øn¬ ]-s¶-Sp-Øp.

A-e-\-√q¿: sh-´p-∂-Xn-\n-sS a-c-Øn¬-\n-∂v ho-Wv sXmgn-emfn a-cn-®p. Im-´p-Ip-f-Øv Xm-a-kn-°p-∂ BWn-b≥-]-d-º≥ A-–p¬ k-emw (45) B-Wv a-cn-®Xv. C-∂-se cm-hn-se 11Hm-sS-bm-Wv kw-`-hw. `m-cy: dlo-a. a-°ƒ: dm-Pn-^v, dm-jn-Zv, dn-jm-Zv.

\-h-h-[p- Xq-§n-a-cn-¨ \ne-bnÂ

Im-k¿-tIm-Uv: \-h-h-[p ho-´n-\p≈n¬ Xq-ßn-a-cn-® \ne-bn¬. A-Uq¿ a-Wn-bq-dn-se Ir-jv-tWm-Pn dm-hphn-s‚ a-Iƒ b-tim-Z(25)bm-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. B-dp amkw ap-ºv ap-t≈-cn-b-bn-se I¿-j-I-\m-b P-K-∂m-Ybp-am-bn b-tim-Z-bp-sS hn-hm-lw \-S-∂n-cp-∂p. amXm-hv: N-{μm-h-Xn. k-tlm-Z-cn: Pm-\-In.-

Im-dp-I-fn-se-¯n-b kw-Lw ¢-ºv B-{I-an-¨v bp-hm-¡-sf X-«n-s¡m-−p-t]m-bn D-∏-f: ss]-h-fn-sK-bn¬ aq-∂v Im-dp-If - n-se-Øn-b 15 Aw-K kwLw ¢-∫v A-Sn-®pX-I¿-Øv c-≠v bp-hm-°-sf X-´n-s°m-≠p-t]mbn. bq-Øveo-Kn-s‚ t\-Xr-XzØn-ep-≈ ss]-h-fn-sK-bn-se tπ t_m-bv-kv ¢-∫m-Wv X-I¿Ø-Xv. ¢-∫n¬ I-fn-®p-sIm-≠ncp-∂ \n-kmw, iw-kp-±o≥ F-∂nh-sc-bm-Wv X-´n-s°m-≠p-t]m-bXv. C-∂-se cm-{Xn F-´-c-tbm-sSbm-Wv kw-`h - w. ssk-°nƒ sN-bn≥, C-cp-

ºph-Sn, ap-fI - ps]m-Sn Xp-Sß - n-bh-bp-am-bn F-Øn-b kw-Lw \m´p-Im-sc hn-c-´n-tbm-Sn-® ti-jw ¢-∫v A-Sn-®p-X-I¿-°p-I-bm-bncp-∂p. an-\n-‰p-It- fm-fw `o-Ic - m-¥co-£w kr-„n-® ti-ja - m-Wv bphm-°s - f X-´n-s°m-≠p-t]m-bX - v. A-©pZn-h-kw ap-ºv ss]-hfn-sK-bn¬ _m-fn-K A-ko-kv sIm-√-sN-ø-s∏-´n-cp-∂p. C-t±-lØn-s‚ _-‘p-hm-Wv A-{I-aØn-\v ]n-∂n-se-∂v a-t©-iz-cw t]m-en-kv ]-d™ p.

C-c-hn-Ip-fw tZ-io-tbm-Zym-\w G-{]n aq-¶p-h-sc A-S-¨n-Spw C-Sp-°n: h-c-bm-Sp-I-fp-sS {]-P-\-\-hp-am-bn _-‘-s∏-´v C-c-hn-Ipfw tZ-io-tbm-Zym-\w s^{_p-hcn aq-∂p- ap-X¬ G-{]n¬ aq-∂ph-sc A-S-®n-Sm≥ No-^v ssh¬-Uv- sse-^v hm¿-U≥ D-Ø-c-hn-´p. BSpIƒ-°v kp-c-£n-X-am-b {]-P-\-\-Im-ew D-d-∏p-h-cp-Øp-∂Xn-\m-bmWnXv. tZ-io-tbm-Zym-\w A-S-®n-Sp-∂ Im-e-b-f-hn¬ Sq-dn-Ãp-Iƒ-°v k-μ¿-i-\w A-\p-h-Zn-°n-√. - -


8

thÀ-]mSv

kottayam

tKm-]m-e-Ir-jv-W-]n-Å

X-¦-¸³ \m-bÀ

Nm-t¡m

tXm-a-kv

_m-e³-]n-Å

t{X-kym-½

am-∂m¿: am-∂m¿ hn-jh¿-ti-cn-°-c hm-\y-Øpho-´n¬ tKm-]m-e-Ir-jvW-]n-≈ (78). kw-kv-Imcw \-S-Øn. `m-cy: Hm-a-\b-Ω. a-°ƒ: c-hn-Ip-am¿, kn-‘p, a-©p. a-cp-a°ƒ: Ko-X, \-tS-i≥, km-bn.

C-e-¥q¿: Xp-cp-im-e tIm-bn-°¬-ho-´n¬ X-¶∏≥ \m-b¿ (dn-´-. sI-.-Fkv.-C.--_n. F-≥-Pn-\n-b¿-˛ 74). kw-kv-Im-cw C-∂v H∂n-\p ho-´p-h-f-∏n¬. `mcy: ]-tc-X-bm-b Aw-_nI. a-°ƒ: _n-Pp ‰n \mb¿, _n-μp-Ip-am-cn. a-cp-a°ƒ: cm-P-tKm-]m¬, kpam-Ip-am-cn.-

Xn-cp-h-√: I-t‰m-Sv hm-ep]-d-ºn¬ kn Fw Nmt°m (73). kw-kv-Im-cw C-∂v cm-hn-se 11.-30\v _tY¬ am¿-tØm-a ]-≈n sk-an-tØ-cn-bn¬. `m-cy: A-Ωp-°p-´n. a-°ƒ: sken, kp-\n¬, ]-tc-X-\m-b k-Pn. a-cp-a-°ƒ: `-{Z≥, jo-\.

Xn-c-p-h-√: Ip-‰q¿ Im™n-cw-]-d-ºn¬ _m-e≥]n-≈ (74). kw-kv-Im-cw C-∂v cm-hn-se 11\v ho-´ph-f-∏n¬. `m-cy: cm-P-Ω. a°ƒ: P-b, _m-e-ap-c-fn. a-cp-a-°ƒ: th-Wp-`m-bv, kp-io-e.

s]-cn-©mw-Ip-´n: sN-ºI-∏m-d I-´-°-bw ]-tc-X\m-b sN-dn-bm-s‚ `m-cy t{X-kym-Ω (93). ]-tc-X X-e-\m-Sv πm-tØm-´w IpSpw-_mw-Kw. a-°ƒ: sN-dnbm≥, tPm-k-^v, Nm-≠n, Ip-´n-®≥, tPm¨, s]-ÆΩ, ]-tc-X-cm-b k-Æn, DΩ-®≥, sX-øm-Ω.

Ìm-en³ hÀ-Kokv

aq-hm-‰p]p-g: hmf-Iw s]cp-¥m-d-tam-tf¬ \m-cm-bW≥(77).

Ip-dp-∏w-]Sn: Xp-cp-Øn πm-t®-cn ho-´n¬ Ãm-en≥ h¿-Ko-kv(56). `mcy: B\n. a°ƒ: h¿-Ko-kvIp´n, sa-do-\. a-cp-aI≥: a\p. kw-kv-Im-cw cm-hnse sk‚ v.ta-co-kv bmt°m_m-b I-Øo-{Uen¬.

ap-°p-gn: B-bn-°p-∂Øv ap-Ø≥-ho-´n¬ ]-tcX-\m-b \m-cm-b-W-s‚ `mcy `m¿-K-hn(92). kw-kvIm-cw C-∂v D-®-bv-°v c≠n-\v ho-´p-h-f-∏n¬. a°ƒ: k-Zm-\-μ≥, k-Zmin-h≥, cm-[-Ω, c-a-Wn. acp-a-°ƒ: hn-iz-\m-Y≥, ca-Wn, C-μn-c, {]-`m-I-c≥.

Xn-cp-h-√: dn-´. ]n.-B¿.F-^v. D-tZym-K-ÿ≥ h-f™-h-´w ]p-Ø≥-ho-´n¬ sI Fw tXm-a-kv (76). kw-kv-Im-cw \m-sf D-®-bv°v 2.-30\v \n-c-Ww sk‚ v ta-co-kv Hm¿-Ø-tUm-Ivkv h-en-b ]-≈n sk-antØ-cn-bn¬. `m-cy: ]-tcX-bm-b eo-em-Ω. a-°ƒ: tPm-kv, tam-f-Ω, sIm-®ptam≥, k-Pn, an-\n, ]-tcX-bm-b tam-\-®≥. a-cp-a°ƒ: sIm-®p-tamƒ, Ip™p-tam≥, B-\n, a-Wn, jn-_p.

Kp ap-l-½-Zv

hm-kp-tZ-h³-]n-Å

h-≈-°-S-hv: _w-•m-tZ-iv tIm-f-\n-bn¬ Kp¬ ap-lΩ-Zv(61). `m-cy: kp-sse-J. a-°ƒ: Jm-Z¿, im-an-e, kp¬-^n-°¿. J-_-d-S-°w C-∂v cm-hnse 9\v h-≈-°-S-hv Pp-ama-kv-Pn-Zv J-_¿-ÿm\n¬.

t]m-Ø≥-tIm-Sv: πm-aq-Sv km-bn-`-h-\n¬ hm-kp-tZh≥ ]n-≈ (69). `m-cy: eoem-Ω. a-°ƒ: km-bn, ku-ay. a-cp-a-°ƒ: _nPp, \o-Xp.

A-Ðp-Ê-emw Nm-cpw-aq-Sv: Np-\-°-c sX°v s\-Sn-b-hn-f-bn¬ akq-Zv dm-hp-Ø-dp-sS a-I≥ A-–p- -emw (36). `m-cy: j-ao-\. a-°ƒ: kn-bm-Zv, k-l-Zv.

\m-cm-bW³

cm-P-¸-³ sN-«n-bmÀ sa-Un-°¬- tIm-f-Pv: Km‘n-]p-cw ]m-cp-Ip-∂-Øv ho-´n¬ cm-P-∏≥ sN-´nbm¿ (69). `m-cy: k-c-kz-Xn A-Ω. a-°ƒ: cm-Pp-Ip-am¿, l¿j-Ip-am¿, {io-Ip-am¿. a-cp-a-°ƒ: t_-_n, _nμp, {io-P.

ku-Zm-an-\n sa-Un-°¬ -tIm-f-Pv: IpS-∏-\-aq-Sv ]p-fn-bq¿-t°mWw Nn-Øn-c \-K-dn¬ Kpcp-hn-lm-dn¬ ku-Zm-an-\n (62). a-°ƒ: Kp-cp-{]-Imiv, {]o-Xn. a-cp-a-°ƒ: ku-ay, Ir-jv-W-Ip-am¿.

{^m³-kn-kv ]m-hd - ´- n: H-et- °-¶n¬ sIm-®m-∏p {^m≥-kn-kv (67). `m-cy: t{X-ky.a-°ƒ - : sUm-an-\n, Uo-\, Um-fn.

ap-¯p-ao-cm dm-hp¯À

31 -P\p-h-cn 2014 sh≈n

ss_-¡n-Sn-¨v ho-«-½ a-cn-¨p

ao-\m-Ip-am-cn

X-¦-½

B-e-∏p-g: tXm-´-∏-f-fn Zzm-c-I-bn¬ ho-´n¬ ap-cfo-Zm-kn-s‚ `m-cy ao-\mIp-am-cn (jo-_-˛ 54). ]-√\ Ip-am-c-tIm-Sn Ip-am-c\m-im≥ sa-tΩm-dn-b¬ bp.-]n. kv-Iq-fn-se {]-[m\m-[ym-]n-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. kw-kv-Im-cw \-S-Øn. a°ƒ: tUm.- A-cp¨ ap-cfo-Zm-kv, Ko-Xp kp-Pn-Øv dm^n-b (sF.-Sn, a-{Zm-kv). a-cp-aaqhm-‰p-]p-g: Im-hp-¶-c ]- °ƒ: tUm.- e-b-Xn-e-Iv, ´-cp-aT-Øn¬ ]-tc-X\m-b kp-Pn-Øv (sF.-Sn. a-{Zmkp-sse-am-s‚ `m-cy dmkv). k-©-b-\w Xn-¶-fm-gv^n-b(85). a°ƒ: A-_-v N cm-hn-se 9\v.Zp¬ A-kokv, kp-ss_Z, sse-e, k-eow, jmPn, Pm-\-In-b-½ \u-jmZv. a-cp-a°ƒ: kp- A-ø-t¥mƒ: sX-t° Ipss_-Z, A-e-hn-°p´n, \- ∂-º-Øv dn-´. sk-bn¬ko-a, ko-\, ko-\, ]-tckv Sm-Iv-kv Hm-^o-k¿ hn X\m-b tIm-bm≥. Pm-\-In-b-Ω(91).

]o-cp-ta-Sv: ]p-Ø≥-ho´n¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b cm-Lh≥ ]n-≈-bp-sS `m-cy X¶-Ω (80). dn-´. t]m-ì A-kn-Âm-Wv. kw-kv°m-cw C-∂v c-≠n-\v ho´p-h-f-∏n¬.- a-I≥: k-Pn. a-cp-a-Iƒ: Zo-] (Pn-√m `mKy-°p-dn Hm-^o-kv).

amWn

I-f-a-t»cn: aq-te-∏mSØv hm-SI-°p Xm-a-kn°p-∂ ]-©m-_v kz-tZ-in A-\q-]v knw-§n¬(42).

aqhm-‰p-]p-g: A-Sq-∏d-ºv Nn-‰-∏-\-am-cn-bn¬-ap-Øpao-cm dm-hp-Ø¿(87). `mcy: ^m-Øn-a. a°ƒ: ^m-Øn-a, C-kv-am-bn¬, kp-ss_-Z, dw-e, C-{_mlnw, lm-Pn-d, B-an-\, aqk. a-cp-a-°ƒ: X-ºn°Æ≥, an-kvdn, \mk¿, sIm-®p-ap-l-ΩZv, J-Zo-P _ohn, a-Po-Zv, \u-jmZv, kp-ld.

ku-an-{X³

cm-[-½-]n-Å

tZ-h-In

Ip-«³ sN-«n-bmÀ

i-¦-c³

k-Xn

h-¿-°-e: sN-dp-∂n-bq¿ F-en-b≥-hn-fm-Iw `o-hØn¬ h-´-hn-f ss^\m≥-kv D-S-a ku-an-{X≥ (71). `m-cy: sse-e. am-Xmhv: A-\-¥-Ω. a-°ƒ: ssj-≥, jm≥, jn-\n. acp-a-°ƒ: Pn-\n, Pn-j, _ntP-jv.

tIm-h-fw: sh-ßm-\q¿ tIm-fn-bq¿ ]-fl hn-emk-Øn¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b I-p-™p-Ir-jv-W-]n-≈-bpsS `m-cy cm-[m-Ω-]n-≈ (96). a-°ƒ: tKm-]m-e-Irjv-W≥ \m-b¿, hn-a-em-tZ-hn, N-{μn-Im-tZ-hn. a-cp-a-°ƒ: c-ho-{μ≥ \mb¿, _m-e-Ir-jv-W≥ \mb¿, k-c-kz-Xn A-Ω.

sh-™m-d-aq-Sv: A-cq¿ -aÆm≥ hn-fm-I-Øv ho-´n¬ tKm-]m-e-s‚ `m-cy tZ-hIn (75). a-I≥: k-Zm-inh≥. a-cp-a-Iƒ: ]p-jv-]-hXn.

I-g-°q-´w: Ip-f-Øq¿ hn.F-kv.-F-kv.-kn. P-Mv-j≥ tc-h-Xn-bn¬ Ip-´≥sN-´nbm¿ (90). `m-cy: tKm-a-Xn A-Ωmƒ. a-°ƒ: tUm. sP Pn Ir-jv-W-Ip-am¿ (A-kn-Â v s{]-^, Xncp-h-\-¥-]p-cw sa-Un°¬ tIm-f-Pv), Ir-jv-WIp-am-cn. a-cp-a-I≥: _n-Pp.

I-cp-\m-K-∏-≈n: Ip-e-tiJ-c-]p-cw B-Zn-\m-Sv sX°v B-e-°-S ]-Sn-™mtd X-d-bn¬ i-¶-c≥(84). `m-cy: in-hm-\n. a-°ƒ: iin-[-c≥, Zn-\-a-Wn, X-¶-aWn. a-cp-a-°ƒ: i-in-I-e, tKm-]m-e-Ir-jv-W≥, hnizw-`-c≥.

I-cp-\m-K-∏-≈n: ]p-Xn-bIm-hv Ip-Sp-߬ k-Xn aμn-c-Øn¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b hm-kp-hn-s‚ `m-cy k-Xn (65). a-°ƒ: Ko-X, a-[p, ]-tc-X-\m-b A-\n¬-Ipam¿, jm-Pn. a-cp-a-°ƒ: e-X, kp-\n-X, t_-_n, ]tc-X-\m-b tkm-a≥.

k-^-dpÃ

A-¿-¸³

A-l½-Zv k¿-Zv _-joÀ

cm-[-½

sjdo-^

F-f-a°-c: A-“-Zn-øm apkvvenw P-amA-Øv F-dWm-Ip-fw Pn√m I-Ωn-‰n saw-_dpw ^-kv-se D-a¿ F-Pyp-t°-j-\¬ t_m¿Uv sk-{I-´-dn-bpam-b X-SØn¬ ho-´n¬ kn sI k^-dp√(62). dn-´.tIm-´-∏pdw F-®v.Un.F-^v.kn. _m-¶v am-t\-P-dmWv.

Kp-cp-hm-bq¿: tIm-´-∏-Sn Ip-f-ß-c A-ø-∏≥(Ip´≥˛107). kw-kv-Im-cw C∂v D-®-bv-°v 12\v ho-´p-hf-∏n¬. a-°ƒ: ]-tc-X-\mb _m-e≥, tKm-]m-e≥, A-tim-I≥, Pm-\-In, N{μn-I, I-a-em-£n. a-cp-a°ƒ: tk-am-kp-μ-c≥, A-\n-X, D-j.

`mÀ-K-hn

tKm-]n-\m-Y³ \m-bÀ sa-Un-°¬ -tIm-f-Pv: A£-b Km¿-U≥-kv A-izXn-bn¬ tKm-]n-\m-Y≥ \m-b¿ (58). `m-cy: kp-[nem tZ-hn. a-°ƒ: c-P-\n, c-Rv-Pn-\n.

cp-Iv-an-Wn Kp-cp-hm-bq¿: a-‰w hm-I G-d-Øv i-¶-c≥-Ip-´n `mcy cp-Iv-an-Wn(67).

A-\q-]v

sa-Un-°¬- tIm-f-Pv: ap´-S I-√-d-aq-e km-bn Ir]-bn¬ cm-[-Ω (69). a-°ƒ: N-{μ-te-J, dm-Wn. a-cp-a-°ƒ: c-ho-{μ≥ \mb¿, _n-Pp-Ip-am¿.

k-Pp sa-Un-°¬ tIm-f-Pv: sN-√-aw-K-ew h-´-hn-f Xncp-hm-Xn-c-bn¬ k-Pp (44). `m-cy: {io-e-X. a-°ƒ: kzm-Xn, tkm-\p. Im-eSn: C-S-hq¿ Hm-W-∏n≈n ap-t®-Øv ]-tc-X\mb _o-cm-°p-´n `m-cy sjdo-^(85). a-°ƒ: d-lo-a, dw-e, A-–p¬-k-emw, ]tc-Xcm-b J-a-dp-∂o-k, A-bn-j-_ohn.

sIm-Sp-ß√q¿: im-¥n-\K¿ Im-´I-Øv dn-´.Un.Fkv.]n. ap-lΩ-Zv D-Æn-bpsS a-I≥ sIm√n°p-d AUz.A-lΩ-Zv kø-Zv _-jo¿(71). `m-cy: ssk\-_. a°ƒ: ap-lΩ-Zv \n-km¿, _n-μp P-eo¬, A-Uz. jo-_ jm-Pn.

th-´mw-]m-d: Xm-g-Øp-dpºn¬ am-Wn(90). `mcy: ]tc-Xbm-b G-en-bm-Ω. a°ƒ: A-®m-Ω, tkmap, kÆn, enkn, kp-P, ]-tcX-\m-b cmPp. a-cp-a°ƒ: tXm-a-kv, ^n-tem-an-\, s‰ n, em-en®≥, PnΩn, knPn. kw-kv-Im-cw C-∂v aq-∂n-\v sk.sk-_mÃy≥-kv ]-≈n-bn¬.

F³.kn.]n. t\-Xm-hv bp-hm-hv Xq-§n-a-cn-¨p ]p-g-¡Â- hm-kp-tZ-h³- A-´-cn-¨p em-kÀ tem-d-³-kv

ImÀ-¯n-tI-b³

k-c-k-½

cm-L-h³-]n-Å

c-ho-{µ³-]n-Å

N-h-d: \o-≠-I-c ta-cn sU-bv-en≥ em-k¿ temd≥-kv(84). `m-cy: ]-tc-Xbm-b ta-cn. a-°ƒ: sPtdmw, {In-kv-‰-^¿, tPmkv, ]-t{Xm-kv, t_-_n, {_n-t´m, an-\n. a-cp-a-°ƒ: {In-Ão-\, jo-_, tam-fΩ, F-en-k-_-Øv, hn≥kn, {]o-Xn, B-‚-Wn.

N-h-d: sIm-´p-Im-Sv h-´Ø-d sIm-´p-hn-f-bn¬ Im¿-Øn-tI-b≥(86). kwkv-Im-cw C-∂v D-®-bv-°p H-∂n-\v ho-´p-h-f-∏n¬. a°ƒ: kp-μ-tc-i-≥, `m-kpc, A-tim-I≥, h-k-¥, {]-Im-iv. a-cp-a-°ƒ: sle≥, hn-Zym-[-c≥, tim-`, X-¶-∏≥, a-\o-P.

]m-cn-∏-≈n: tIm-´-bv-t°d-Øv ln¬-hyq lu-kn¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b tKm-hn-μ-Ipdp-∏n-s‚ `m-cy k-c-kΩ(72). a-°ƒ: jo-e, KoX, tim-`, _o-\. a-cp-a°ƒ: I¿-a-N-{μ≥, Kn-coj≥, cm-[m-Ir-jv-W≥.

I-√p-hm-Xp-°¬: C-fwIp-fw h-b-en¬ Xr-t°mhn¬ h-en-b Im-cm-fn-bn¬ ho-´n¬ cm-L-h≥-]n≈(78). a-°ƒ: k-c-kzXn-b-Ω, D-Æn-Ir-jv-W°p-dp-∏v, A-\n-¬-Ip-am¿. a-cp-a-°ƒ: i-in-[-c≥ ]n≈, kp-`m-jn-Wn, Ko-X.

Ip-≠-d: s]-cp-ºp-g ]p-\p°-∂q¿ a-bq-c-Øn¬ hn-can-® sU-]yq-´n d-kn-U‚ v I-Ωo-j-W¿ (F.B‚ v.F≥. A-Uv-an-\n-kv-t{S-j≥) c-ho-{μ≥-]n-≈(65). `m-cy: kp-aw-K-e B¿ ]n≈. a-°ƒ: k-Pp B¿ ]n≈, cm-Pp B¿ ]n-≈. a-cpa-°ƒ: l-cn-X, B-i.

i-¦-c³-\mbÀ

kn-±oJv

h-f-b≥-Nn-dß-c: hm-g°p-g-bv-°¬ ho-´n¬ hn F i-¶-c≥ \m-b¿(90). `mcy: R-df-Øv ho-´n¬ ]-tc-Xbm-b kp-\o-XnbΩ. a°ƒ: F-kv kpioe, F-kv c-ho-{μ≥, F-kv kpj-a, F-kv i-in-[-c≥, D-j, Ko-X.

aqhm-‰p-]p-g: sh-Ãv ap-fhq¿ Im-´-°p-Sn-bn¬ ssaXo-s‚ a-I≥ sI Fw kn±o-Jv(34). ap-kvenw eo-Kv ap-f-hq¿ \memw hm¿-Uv im-Jm ssh.{]-kn-U‚mbn-cp∂p. `mcy: \ko-d (sN-dp-h-´q¿ Rm-Wn-a-‰Øn¬ Ip-Spw-_mw-Kw).

{]-^.cm-P-ti-J-c IÀ-¯ I-f-a-t»cn: I-cn-∏m-bntdm-Un¬ km-bqPyw ho´n¬ {]-^.cm-P-ti-J-cI¿-Øm(63). sk‚ v.B¬-_¿-´v tIm-fPn¬ dn-´.Cw-•o-jv {]-^k-dm-bn-cp∂p. `mcy: Djm-Ip-am-cn(dn-´.Cw-•o-jv e-Iv-Nd¿, A¬.A-ao≥ tImf-Pv). a°ƒ: kq-cPv, \o-cPv, [\p. a-cp-a°ƒ: {io-e-£van.

BâWn ]-g-ß-\mSv: aT-Øn-∏-dºn¬ ]-t{Xm-kn-s‚ aI≥ B‚-Wn (Fw ]n B‚-Wn˛65). `mcy: AΩn-Wn(C-S∏-≈n ta-\mt»-cn-bn¬ Ip-Spw-_mwKw). a°ƒ: ]o-‰¿ B‚Wn, B≥kn, en≥kn. a-cp-a°ƒ: jmPn, k-Pbv.

ap-l-½-Zv am-ÌÀ X-®\ - m-´p-Ic - : Zo¿-LI - mew a-l√ - v sk-{I-´d - n-bmbn-cp-∂ I-cp-hm-Øv ap-lΩ-Zv am-ÿ (80). `m-cy: ]m-Øp-Ω. a-°ƒ: A-–p∏ , jw-kp-±o≥, k-°d - nø, A-–p¬ \m-k¿, apj-vXm-Jv, dw-e, km-_n-d, kp-ss_-Z, Pp-ssa-e.

s]-cp-ºm-hq¿: kmºØn-I _m[y-X aqew bp-hm-hv ktlm-Z-cn-bp-sS ho´n¬ Xq-ßn-a-cn-®p. C-cn-tßmƒ ]-d-ºn°p-Sn ho-´n¬ \n-[n≥ (29)B-Wv Im-cm-´p-]f-fn-°-c-bn-ep-f-f ktlm-Z-cn-bp-sS ho´n¬ C∂-se cm-hnse H≥]-tXm-sS Xqßn-a-cn-® \n-ebn¬ I-s≠-Øn-bXv. cm-hn-se ktlmZ-cn Ip-´n-sb kvIq-fn-e-b-°m≥ t]mb k-a-b-Øm-bn-cp∂p a-c-Ww. A-hn-hmln-X\m-b \n[n≥ Iq-en-∏-Wn-°m-c\mWv. kw-kv-Im-cw \-SØn.

Hm-^n-kv Pm-ay-¯n-en-d-§n-b {]-Xn Kp-−m-¯-e-h-s\ Sn-Po-¸hÀ--\t-¡em-dmcnn-ba-n-Scn-¨n-¨v BÀ.Sn. p Xoh¨v sIm-e-s¸-Sp-¯n I-g-°q-´w: \-s´-s√m-Sn-™p ho´n¬ In-S-∏m-b ap≥ Kp-≠m-Ø-eh-s\ Pm-ay-Øn-en-d-ßn-b {]-Xn s]-t{Smƒ H-gn-®v sIm-e-s∏-Sp-Øn. aw-K-e-]p-cw sh-bn-eq¿ hm-en-tImWw ssa-\m-Iw ho-´n¬ _o-Un kp-\n F-∂p hn-fn-°p-∂ kp-\n¬Ip-am-dm-Wv (38)B-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. kw-`-h-Øn-\p ti-jw H-fnhn¬-t]m-b tXm-∂-bv-°¬ sI sI h-\w kz-tZ-in ss_-Pp-hn-\pth-≠n t]m-en-kv Xn-c-®n¬ B-cw`n-®p. _p-[-\m-gv-N cm-{Xn G-g-c-bv°m-Wp kw-`-hw. A-∂v ssh-In-´p aq-∂p-a-Wn-tbm-sS kp-\n¬ Ip-amdn-s‚ ho-´n-se-Øn-b ss_-Pp-hpw, a-s‰m-cp kp-lr-Øpw kw-km-cn-®v C-cn-°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. C-Xn-\n-S-bn-¬ ss_-Pp-hpw kp\n-epw X-Ωn¬ hm-°p-X¿-°-ambn. ss_-Pp sXm-´-Sp-Øp-≈ ]ºn¬ t]m-bn H-cp en-‰¿ s]-t{Smƒ hm-ßn sIm-≠p-h-∂p sIm-√p-sa∂p `o-j-Wn-ap-g-°n-. A-Sp-Øn-cp-

∂-h¿ C-Xp Xam-ibm-sW∂p Icp-Xn Cu s]t{Smƒ ss_° n kp-\n¬-Ip-am-¿ sem-gn-®v t]m-hpI-bpw sN-bv-Xp. G-gp-a-Wn-tbm-sS ss_-Pp ho-≠pw t]m-bn s]{tSmƒ hm-ßn Xn-c-s®-Øn-b tijw kp-lr-Øn-s\ sXm-´-Sp-Ø IS-bn¬ _o-Un hm-ßm≥ ]-d™phn-´p. C-Xn-\p-ti-jw Fgpt∂¬°m≥ I-gn-bm-sX In-S-∂ kp-\n-en-s‚ tZ-l-Øv s]-t{Smƒ H-gn-®ti-jw sXm-´-Sp-Ø sN-dn-b t£-{X-Øn-\v ap-∂n-¬ I-Øn-®ph® a¨-hn-f-°v F-Sp-Øv F-dn-bp-Ibm-bn-cp-∂p.

Xn-cn-®p-h-∂ kp-lr-Øv Xo B-fn ]-S-cp-∂-Xp I-≠v Hm-Sn-sbØn sh-≈-sa-Sp-Øv Xo- sI-Sp-ØpI-bm-bn-cp-∂p. X-e-bv-°p Xm-sg ]q¿-Æ-am-bn s]m-≈-te-‰ kp-\nen-s\ sa-Un-°¬-tIm-f-Pv B-ip]-{Xn-bn¬ {]-th-in-∏n-®p-sh-¶nepw C-∂-se D-®-tbm-sS A-¥yw kw-`-hn-®p. a-c-W-Øn-\p ap-ºv No-^v PpUo-jy¬ a-Pn-kv-t{S-‰pw t]m-enkpw kp-\n¬-Ip-am-dn-s‚ sam-gn B-ip-]-{Xn-bn¬ F-Øn tc-J-s∏Sp-Øn-bn-´p-≠v. kp-\n¬-Ip-am-dns‚ t]-cn¬ aw-K-e-]p-cw, ]m-cn-∏≈n, B-‰n-߬ Xp-S-ßn-b t]m-enkv kv-t‰-j-\p-I-fn¬ \n-c-h-[n tIkp-I-fp-s≠-∂p t]m-en-kv ]-d™p. A-Xp-t]m-se ss_-Pp-hpw \n-c-h-[n {In-an-\¬ tI-kp-I-fn-se {]-Xn-bm-sW-∂p t]m-en-kv ]-d™p. P-bn-en-em-bn-cp-∂ ss_-Pp C-°-gn-™ 20\m-Wv Pm-ay-Øn-end-ßn-b-Xv.

t]m-en-kns\ `-b-t¶m-Sn-b bp-hm-hv In-W-än ho-Wp- a-cn-¨p c-−p-t]À-¡v Kp-cp-X-cw; \o-te-iz-c-¯v kw-LÀ-jm-h-Ø Im-™ß - m-Sv: t]m-en-kns\ `bt∂mSnb bp-hm-°fn¬ c≠pt]¿ Bƒ-ad - b - n-√m-Ø In-W‰ - n¬ ho-Wp. H-cmƒ X¬-£W - w a-cn®p. c-≠p-t]¿-°v ]cn-t°‰p. kw`-hØ - n¬ {]Xn-tj-[n®v \m´p-Im¿ \o-te-iz-cw t]m-en-kv kvt‰-j≥ h-f™ p. cm-{Xn ssh-Inbpw kw-L¿-jm-hÿ Xp-S¿ - ∂p. C-∂s - e ssh-Io´v B-dc - t- bmsS-bm-Wv kw-`h - w. Nn-d∏ - p-dw a¬ky-am¿-°‰ - v sI-´n-SØ - n¬ C-cn°p-Ib - m-bn-cp-∂ bp-hm-°s - f \ote-iz-cw F-kv.s - F ssa-°n-fn-s‚ t\-Xr-Xz-Øn-ep-≈ t]m-en-kv kw-Lw em-Øn-®m¿-Pv sN-øp-I-

bm-bn-cp-∂p. C-Xp-I≠ - v `-bt- ∂mSp-Ib - m-bn-cp-∂ bp-hm-°f - m-Wv InW-‰n¬ ho-WX - v. Nn-d∏ - p-ds - Ø Ip´n-cm-a≥-tIm-ac - w-˛I - p-™Ω - m-dp Zº-Xn-I-fp-sS a-I≥ i-in-[-c-\mWv- (29) a-cn-®X - v. H-∏w- InW-‰n¬ hoW Ip™n-cm-as‚ aI≥ KtW-is\ (28) Kpcp-Xc ]cn-°pI-tfmsS awK-em-]pcw kzImcy Bip-]-{Xn-bn¬ {]th-in-∏n-®p. HmSp-∂X - n-\nsS ]cn-t°‰ \m-cmb-Ws - ‚ a-I≥ k-Pn-Xv(28) \oteizcw kzImcy Bip-]{- Xn-bn¬ NnIn¬k-bn-emWv. i-in-[c - ≥ \o-te-iz-cw ]-©m-bØ - v ap≥ {]kn-U‚ v sI hn Zm-tam-Zc - s - ‚ k-

tlm-Zc - ]p-{X-\m-Wv. t]m-en-kv \S-]S- n-bn¬ {]-Xntj-[n-®v \m´p-Im¿ kvt- ‰-j\ - n-te°p am¿-®v \-SØ - n. F-∂m¬ Nn-d∏p-dw a¬-ky-am¿-°‰ - pw Hm-´p-Iº - \n-bpw tI-{μo-Ic - n-®v km-aq-lnIhn-cp-≤ {]-h¿-Ø\ - ß - ƒ \-S°p-∂p-s≠-∂ hnh-csØ Xp-S¿∂v t]m-enkv ÿ-es - Ø-Øptºmƒ a-Zy-]n-®p-sIm-≠n-cp-∂ Nne¿ Hm-Sn-t∏m-hp-Ib - m-bn-cp-s∂-∂v \o-te-iz-cw F-kv.sF ssa-°nƒ ]-d™ p. kw-`-h-Øn¬ {]-Xn-tj-[n-®v \o-te-iz-c-Øv C-∂v l¿-Øm¬ {]-Jym-]n-®n-´p-≠v.

I-cp-\m-K-∏-≈n: Sn-∏¿ tem-dn-bn-Sn-®v kv-Iq-´¿ bm{X-°m-cn X¬-£-Ww a-cn®p. I-cp-\m-K-∏-≈n tPmbn‚ v B¿.Sn. Hm-^n-knse ¢m¿-°v ssa-\m-K-∏≈n I-S-∏ e-£v-an `-h-\Øn¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b l-cnIr- j v - W - ] n- ≈ - b p- t S- b pw Ir-jv-W-Ip-am-cn-bp-sS-bpw a-Iƒ e-£v-an Ir-jv-W≥(26)B-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. I-cp-\m-K-∏-≈n Xm-eq-°v Hm-^n-kn-\v ap-∂n¬ kn·¬ sse-‰v sX-fn-™-tXmS ssa-\m-K-∏-≈n dq-´n-te°p bp-h-Xn kv-Iq-´¿ ap-t∂m-´p \o-°p-∂-Xn-\n-S-bn¬ C-S-Xp`m-K-Øp\n-∂p sIm-√w `m-K-tØ-°p h-∂ Sn∏¿ tem-dn C-Sn-®m-Wv A-]-I-Sw. C-Sn-bp-sS B-Lm-XØn¬ X-e-bn-Sn-®v X¬-£-Ww a-cn-°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. `m¿-Øm-hv cm-Po-hv Kƒ-^n-em-Wv. a-Iƒ: ssh-K.

Kr-l-\m-Y³ s{S-bn³ X-«n a-cn-¨p

h¿-°-e: Kr-l-\m-Y-≥ s{S-bn≥ X-´n-a-cn-®p. h¿-°-e A-b-¥n \n¿-a¬ lu-kn¬ X-ºn-sb-∂v hn-fn-°p-∂ kp-tc-jv _m-_p-hm-Wv (48) a-cn-®-Xv. C-∂-se cm-hnse B-tdm-sS h-gn-bm-{X-°m-cm-Wv A-b-¥n ]m-e-Øn\v k-ao-]w Bƒ-∏m¿-∏n-√m-Ø ÿ-e-Øv ar-X-tZ-lw I-≠-Xv. `m-cy: h-k-¥-Ip-am-cn. a-°ƒ: \n¿-Ω¬ _m_p, \n-Xn≥ _m-_p.

I-Æq¿: F≥-.kn.-]n.- kwÿm-\ F-Iv-kn-Iyq-´o-hv Aw-Kw- ap-g-∏n-e-ßm-Sv- It®-cn-sam-´-bn-se ]p-g°¬- hm-kp-tZ-h≥ -(67)A-¥-cn-®p. C-∂-se sshIo-´v 6.-45Hm-sS ho-´n¬- Ipg-™p-ho-W Ct±-lsØ X-e-t»-cn- tIm-˛-Hm-]-td-‰ohv- B-ip-]-{Xn-bn¬- FØn-s®-¶n-epw- c-£n-°m-\m-bn-√.- ar-X-tZ-lw- C-∂p ]-cn-bm-cw -sa-Un-°¬ -tIm-f-Pn-\v ssI-am-dpw.- X-et»-cn- P-\-d¬ -B-ip-]-{Xn-bn¬- h-®v- cm-{Xn-X-s∂ IÆv-\o-°w-sN-bv-Xp.{_-Æ≥- tIm-f-Pn¬- hn-Zym¿-Yn-bm-bn-cn-s° sI.F-kv-.bp-hn-eq-sS-bm-Wv- hm-kp-tZ-h≥ s]m-Xp-cwK-sØ-Øn-b-Xv. sI.F-kv.bp.- Pn-√m ssh-kv- {]-knU‚ v, bq-Øv- tIm¨-{K-kv- Pn-√m {]-kn-U‚ v, sk-{I´-dn- F-∂o \n-e-I-fn¬ {]-h¿-Øn-®n-cp-∂p. D-Ω≥-Nm≠n- bq-Øv-tIm¨-{K-kv- {]-kn-U‚m-bn-cp-∂-t∏mƒ kw-ÿm-\ \n¿-hm-l-I- k-an-Xn- Aw-K-am-bn-cp-∂p Ct±lw.- 1979¬- tIm¨-{K-kv- ]n-f¿-∂-t∏mƒ- B‚Wn-s°m-∏w \n-∂p. tIm¨-{K-kv(F) hn-`m-Kw- Un-.kn-.kn-. sk-{I-´-dn-bm-bn-cp-∂p.tIm¨-{K-kv-(F-kv-) Pn-√m sk-{I-´-dn-, F≥-.kn-.]n. Pn-√m {]-kn-U‚ v, I-Æq¿- P-h-l¿ -sse-{_-dnap≥- sk-{I-´-dn-, Pn-√m k-l-I-c-W- _m-¶v- ap≥ -U-bd-Iv-S¿,- ap-g-∏n-e-ßm-Sv- k¿-ho-kv- k-l-I-c-W _m-¶vap≥- U-bd-Iv-S¿, sF-]v-tkm- kw-ÿm-\ ssh-kv-{]kn-U‚ v,- tZ-io-b-Iu¨-kn-ew-Kw,- C-kv-I-^v- Pn-√m {]-kn-U‚ v,- {_-Æ≥ -tIm-f-Pv- ]q¿-h- hn-Zym¿-Yn- kwL-S-\-bm-b {_-Æ-ss\-‰v-kv- `m-c-hm-ln F-∂o- \n-eI-fn-epw- {]-h¿-Øn-®n-cp-∂p. ap-g-∏n-e-ßm-Sv- Cu-kv-‰vF¬.-]n.- kv-Iqƒ- am-t\-P-cm-Wv.A-hn-hm-ln-X≥.- ]n-Xm-hv: ]-tc-X\ - m-b ]p-g° - ¬cm-a≥- (A-[ym-]I - ≥- ap-g∏ - n-eß - m-Sv- Cu-kv‰ - v- F¬.-]n.kvI - qƒ).- am-Xm-hv: ]-tc-Xb - m-b e-£va - n (- A-[ym-]n-I, ap-g∏ - n-eß - m-Sv- Cu-kv‰ - v- F¬.-]n.- kvI - qƒ).- k-tlm-Zc - ߃-: ]-fl-\m-`≥,- I-a-em-£n,- h-k-¥,- ]-tc-X-cm--b ]p-g° - ¬_ - m-eI - r-jvW - ≥,- kp-Kp-W≥,- N-{μ≥.-

hml-\m-]-I-S-¯n ]-cn-t¡-ä Hm-t«m-ss{U-hÀ a-cn-¨p

sh-≈-d-S: hm-l-\m-]-I-SØn¬ ]-c-n-t°-‰ H-t´m-ss{U-h¿ a-cn-®p. ss_-°n¬ Im-dn-Sn-®v Kp-cp-X-c-am-bn ]cn-t°-‰v Nn-In¬-k-bn-embn-cp-∂ In-fn-bq¿ tdm-Uc - nI-Øv ho-´n¬ k-Pn (35) BWv a-cn-®-Xv. C-°-gn-™ 26\p cm-{Xn F-´n-\m-bn-cp∂p kw-`-hw. sh-≈-d-S t]m-en-kv sa-Un-°¬ tIm-f-Pn¬ F-Øn ta¬-\-S-]Sn-Iƒ kzo-I-cn-®ti-jw t]m-kv-‰v-tam¿-´w \-S-Øn C∂-se ssh-Io-´v ho-´p-h-f-∏n¬ kw-kv-I-cn-®p. `m-cy: kn-‘p. a-°ƒ: k-Pn-X, kw-Ko-X.

Xn-c-sª-Sp-¸n [o-h-c- k-ap-Zm-b-¯n\v ko-äv \Â-I-Ww: [o-h-c-k-` B-e-∏p-g: h-cp-∂ ]m¿-e-sa‚ v Xn-c-s™-Sp-∏n¬ [o-h-c-k-ap-Zmb-Øn¬-s∏-´-h¿-°v ko-‰v \¬Im≥ {]-_-e cm-{„o-b-∏m¿-´nIƒ X-øm-dm-h-W-sa-∂v A-Jn-e tI-c-f [o-h-c-k-` kw-ÿm-\ IΩn-‰n cm-{„o-b ]m¿-´n-I-tfm-Sv B-h-iy-s∏-´p. tI-c-f-Øn¬ a¬-ky-sØm-gn-em-fn hn-`m-K-ßfn¬ 60 i-X-am-\-Øn-s‚ {]m-Xn\n-[y-ap-≈ [o-h-c-k-ap-Zm-bsØ ]-cn-K-Wn-°m≥ cm-{„o-b ]m¿-´n-Iƒ X-øm-dm-h-Ww. 12mw ]-©-h¬-k-c ]-≤-Xn°m-e-Øv a¬-ky-sØm-gn-em-fn t£-a-Øn-\v tI-{μ-a-{¥n-k-`-bpsS km-º-Øn-I-Im-cy k-an-Xn hI-bn-cp-Ønb 640 tIm-Sn cq-] XnI-®pw A-]-cym-]v-X-am-b-Xn-

\m¬ A-Xv 6400 tIm-Sn cq-]-bm°n h¿-[n-∏n-°-W-sa-∂v [o-h-ck-` B-h-iy-s∏-´p. 70,000 tImSn cq-]-bp-sS a¬-ky-k-º-Øv cm-Py-Øn-\v kw-`m-h-\ sN-øp∂ a¬-ky-sØm-gn-em-fn-I-fp-sS t£-a-Øn-\v h-I-bn-cp-Øp-∂ apgp-h≥ Xp-I-bpw tI-{μ-K-h¨sa‚ v \¬-I-W-w. tZ-h-kzw \n-ba-\-ß-fn¬ A-ln-μp-°ƒ-°p≈ 18 i-X-am-\w kw-h-c-Ww kwh-c-W k-ap-Zm-b-߃-°p Xs∂ B-\p-]m-Xn-I-am-bn \¬-IWsa∂pw Ah¿ Bh-iys∏´p. Cu 18 i-X-am-\w ap-∂m° k-ap-Zm-b-ß-fn-se km-ºØn-I-am-bn ]n-∂m-°w \n¬-°p∂ ln-μp-°ƒ-°v \¬-I-W-sa∂p-≈ F≥.F-kv.F-kv. P-\-

d¬ sk-{I-´-dn-bp-sS- B-h-iyw H-cp Im-c-W-h-im-epw Aw-Ko-Icn-°-cp-sX-∂pw C-Xv `-c-WL-S\m hn-cp-≤-am-sW-∂pw [o-h-ck-`m P-\-d¬ sk-{I-´-dn hn Zn-\I-c≥ ]-d-™p. `q-cn-]-£ sFIy-Øn-s‚ t]-cp-]-d-™p kw-hc-W k-ap-Zm-b-߃-°v A¿-lX-s∏-´ kw-h-c-Ww t\-Sn-sb-Sp°m-\p-≈ \o-°-sØ F-¥p- hne-sIm-Sp-Øpw ]-cm-P-b-s∏-SpØp-∂-Xn-\v F-kv.F≥.Un.]n A-S-°-ap-≈ Z-en-Xv-˛-]n-∂m-° k-ap-Zm-b kw-L-S-\-Iƒ H-‰s°-´m-bn \n¬-°p-sa-∂pw At±lw ]-d-™p. A-º-e-∏p-g Xm-eq-°v I-Ωn-‰n {]-kn-U‚ v kt¥m-jv Pn-tX-{μ-\pw hm¿-Ømk-tΩ-f-\-Øn¬ ]-s¶-Sp-Øp.

Ip-dn-®n: ss_-°v C-Sn-®v ]-cn-t°-‰v kz-Im-cy B-ip]-{Xn-bn¬ Nn-In¬-k-bnem-bn-cp-∂ ho-´-Ω a-cn-®p. sN-ºp-Nn-d k-Po-k-Z-\Øn¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b sI F≥ X-¶-∏-s‚ `m-cy ]fln-\n (62) B-Wv a-cn-®Xv. sIm-√m-Sv sIm-®n-°pt∂¬ Ip-Spw-_mw-K-amWv. I-gn-™ Un-kw-_¿ 19\v Ip-dn-®n tIm-f-\n an-√pI-h-e-bn¬ h-®v ss_-°v C-Sn-®v Kp-cp-X-c-am-bn X-ebv°v ]-cn-t°-‰v kz-Im-cy B-ip-]-{Xn-bn¬ Nn-In¬k-bn-em-bn-cp-∂p. kw-kv-Im-cw \-S-Øn. a-°ƒ: k-Pn F-kv, _n-Pn-tamƒ, {]-k-∂≥. a-cp-a-°ƒ: {]-k-∂Ip-am¿, B-i k-Pn.

ss_-¡]-I-S-w; ]cn-t¡ä hn-ZymÀ-Yn a-cn-¨p

sXm-Sp-]p-g: ss_-°v A]-I-S-Øn¬ ]-cn-t°-‰v NnIn¬-k-bn¬ I-gn-™ πkvSp hn-Zym¿-Yn a-cn-®p.-Icn-a-Æq¿ sk‚ v tPm-k^v l-b¿ sk-°≥-U-dn kv-Iq-ƒ π-kv-Sp Iw-]yq-´¿ k-b≥-kv hn-Zym¿-Yn-bpw \-S-°p-g-bv-°¬ tPm-bv-ks‚ a-I-\p-am-b sìhn≥ (18) B-Wp a-cn-®-Xv. Rm-b-dm-gv-N aq-∂p-a-Wn-tbm-sS I-cn-a-Æq¿ sk‚ v. tPm-k-^v l-b¿ sk-°≥-U-dn kv-Iq-fn-\p k-ao]w \n-b-{¥-Wwhn-´ ss_-°v Hm-t´m-bn¬ C-Sn-®m-bncp-∂p A-]-I-S-w.- sXm-Sp-]p-g-bn¬ \n-∂p ho-´n-te-°p t]m-hp-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p sì-hn≥. ]-cn-t°-‰p ap-X-et°m-Sw kz-Im-cy B-ip-]-{Xn-bn¬ Nn-In¬-k-bn-embn-cp-∂p. C-∂-se cm-hn-se-bm-Wp a-cn-®-Xv.-kw-kvIm-cw C-∂v D-®-bv-°v 1.-30\v I-cn-a-Æq¿ sk‚ v-ta-cokv s^m-tdm-\ ]-≈n- skan-tØcnbn¬. am-Xm-hv: kn_n, a-W-°m-Sv a-T-Øn¬ Ip-Spw-_mw-Kw. k-tlm-Z-cn: F-hn-en≥ (_n.-kn.-F. hn-Zym¿-Yn-\n).

bp-h-Xn-sb Xq-§n-a-cn-¨- \n-e-bn I-s−-¯n

Xp-d-hq¿: bp-h-Xn-sb ho-´n-\p-≈n¬ Xq-ßn-a-cn-®- \ne-bn¬ I-s≠-Øn. F-c-a-√q¿ sIm-®p-sh-fn I-h-e-bv°v k-ao-]w th-tg-°m-Sv Xn-e-I≥ ˛ jo-e Z-º-Xn-I-fpsS a-Iƒ \n-ay (20) B-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. C-∂-se D-®-bv°v H-cp a-Wn-tbm-sS-bm-bm-cp-∂p kw-`-hw. ar-X-tZlw tN¿-Ø-e Xm-eq-°v B-ip-]-{Xn tam¿-®-dn-bn-te°v am-‰n. kw-kv-Im-cw C-∂v D-®-bv-°v H-∂n-\v ho-´p-hf-∏n¬. k-tlm-Z-cn: \o-Xp.

sXm-gn-ep-d-¸v ]-Wn-¡n-sS Ip-g-ªp ho-Wv a-cn-¨p

a-d-bq¿: sXm-gn-ep-d-∏v ]Wn-°n-sS Ip-g-™p hoWv a-cn-®p.- B-‰n¬ ap-Jw I-gp-Ip-∂-Xn-\n-sS-bm-Wv a-d-bq¿ {Km-a]-©m-b-Øv H-∂mw hm¿-Uv s]-cn-b-IpSn-bn¬ X-¶-∏-s‚ `m-cy ho-c-e-£v-an(62) a-cn-®-Xv.C-∂-se cm-hn-se `q-an Inf-°p∂ tPmen-°nsS hn-{i-a-k-a-b-Øv k-ao-]-Øp-≈ B-‰n¬ ap-Jw I-gpIm-\n-d-ßp-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. C-h¿-°v 8 a-°-fp-≠v. -ar-XtZ-lw Ip-Sn-bn-ep-≈ iv-a-im-\-Øn¬ kw-kv-I-cn-®p.

h-gn-h-¡n kw-km-cn-¨p \nÂ-¡-sh ImÀ C-Sn-¨n-« bp-h-m-hv a-cn-¨p

sXm-Sp-]p-g: kp-lr-Øpam-bn h-gn-h-°n¬ kw-kmcn-®p \n¬-°-sh A-anXth- K - X - b n- s e- Ø n- b Im¿ C-Sn-®p Kp-cp-X-cm-hÿ-bn-em-bn-cp-∂ hym-]mcn a-cn-®p. ssI-X-t°m-Sv h-en-b ho-´n¬ hn sI k_o¿ (31) B-Wv C-∂-se ssh-In-´v B-dp a-Wn-tbmsS tIm-e-t©-cn sa-Un-°¬ tIm-f-Pv B-ip-]-{Xnbn¬ a-cn-®-Xv. sNm-Δm-gv-N cm-{Xn 10 a-Wn-tbm-sS ]m-em tdm-Unse tdm-b¬ t_-°-dn-°v ap-∂n-em-Wv A-]-I-Sw. GXm-\pw ao-‰¿ A-I-se-bp-f-f ]p-fn-aq-´n¬ _n¬-Unßn-se ssk-c sam-ss_¬-kv D-S-a-bm-b k-_o¿ IS A-S-®v ss_-°n¬ t]m-I-sh hm-l-\w \n¿-Øn-b ti-jw kp-lr-Øn-t\m-Sv kw-km-cn-®p \n¬-°p-I-bmbn-cp-∂p. ]m-em `m-K-tØ-°v t]m-b kzn-^v-‰v Im-dmWp C-Sn-®Xv.- hn F-kv Im-knw-˛- kp-ss_-Z Z-º-Xn-Ifp-sS a-I-\m-Wv. h-Æ-∏p-dw N-ß-gn-a-‰w ]-tc-X-\m-b A-{¥p-hn-s‚ a-Iƒ \-^n-b-bm-Wv `m-cy. a-°ƒ: Ben-b (tIm-˛-Hm-∏-td-‰o-hv kv-Iqƒ), B-Zn¬ (H-∂-c hb-kv). k-tlm-Z-c-߃-: \n-km¿ (ssk-c jq-am¿-´v), k-Po-\. kw-kv-Im-cw sh-f-fn-bm-gv-N 11 a-Wn-°v Im-cnt°m-Sv ss\-\m¿ ]-f-fn J-_¿-ÿm-\n¬. C-Sn-® Im¿ t]m-en-kv I-kv-‰-Un-bn-se-Sp-Øp.

A-ÚmX-hr-²³ Xq-§n-a-cn-¨p

G-‰p-am-\q¿: A⁄m-X-\m-b hr-≤-s\ Xq-ßn-a-cn-® \n-e-bn¬ I-s≠-Øn. G-‰p-am-\q¿ \q-s‰m-∂p I-h-ebv-°p k-ao-]w Ip-‰n-°m-´n-se a-c-Øn-em-Wv C-∂-se cm-hn-se hr-≤-s\ Xp-ßn-a-cn-® \n-e-bn¬ I-s≠-Ønb-Xv. D-t±-iw 65 h-b-kv {]m-bw tXm-∂n-°pw. sN-°v j¿-´pw sh-≈-ap-≠p-am-Wv th-jw. Im-en-s‚ C-cp-ap´p-I-fn-epw- ap-dn-hv D-≠m-bn sI-´n-bn-´p-≠v. ar-X-tZlw sa-Un-°¬ tIm-f-Pv B-ip-]-{Xn tam¿-®-dn-bn¬ {]-th-in-∏n-®p.-

ss_-¡n-Sn-¨v hr²³ a-cn-¨p

\o-≠-I-c: tZ-io-b-]m-X-bn¬ ^u-t≠-j≥ B-ip]-{Xn-°v k-ao-]w ss_-°n-Sn-®v hr≤≥ a-cn-®p. N-h-d Nm-h-Sn-∏p-d-Øv In-g-°-Xn¬ Zm-k-\m(68)Wv a-cn-®-Xv. Iq-sS-bp-≠m-bn-cp-∂ N-h-d kz-tZ-in d-jo-Zn-\pw ss_-°v bm-{Xn-I-cm-b c-≠p-t]¿°pw ]-cn-t°‰p. B-ip-]-{Xn-bn¬ t]m-hm-\m-bn tdm-Un\p kao]w \n¬-°p-tºm-gm-bn-cp-∂p A-]-I-Sw. c-Xv-\-Ω-bm-Wv Zm-k-s‚ `m-cy. a-I≥: hn-]n≥-Zm-kv.

Im-dp-I-fn-se-¯n-b kw-Lw ¢-ºv B-{I-an-¨v bp-hm-¡-sf X-«n-s¡m-−p-t]m-bn D-∏f - : ss]-hf - n-sK-bn¬ aq-∂v Imdp-I-fn-se-Øn-b 15 Aw-K kwLw ¢-∫v A-Sn-®pX-I¿-Øv c-≠v bp-hm-°-sf X-´n-s°m-≠p-t]mbn. bq-Øveo-Kn-s‚ t\-Xr-Xz-Ønep-≈ ss]-h-fn-sK-bn-se tπ t_m-bk v- v ¢-∫m-Wv X-I¿-ØX - v. ¢-∫n¬ I-fn-®p-sIm-≠n-cp-∂ \nkmw, iw-kp-±o≥ F-∂n-hs - c-bmWv X-´n-s°m-≠p-t]m-bX - v. C-∂se cm-{Xn F-´-c-tbm-sS-bm-Wv kw-`h - w. ssk-°nƒ sN-bn≥, C-cp-

ºph-Sn, ap-fI - ps]m-Sn Xp-Sß - n-bh-bp-am-bn F-Øn-b kw-Lw \m´p-Im-sc hn-c-´n-tbm-Sn-® ti-jw ¢-∫v A-Sn-®p-XI - ¿-°p-Ib - m-bn-cp∂p. an-\n-‰p-It- fm-fw `o-Ic - m-¥c - o£w kr-„n-® ti-ja - m-Wv bp-hm°-sf X-´n-s°m-≠p-t]m-bX - v. A-©pZn-h-kw ap-ºv ss]-hfn-sK-bn¬ _m-fn-K A-ko-kv sIm-√s - N-øs - ∏-´n-cp-∂p. C-t±-lØn-s‚ _-‘p-hm-Wv A-{I-aØn-\v ]n-∂n-se-∂v a-t©-iz-cw t]m-en-kv ]-d™ p.

C-c-hn-Ip-fw tZ-io-tbm-Zym-\w G-{]n aq-¶p-h-sc A-S-¨n-Spw C-Sp-°n: h-c-bm-Sp-I-fp-sS {]-P-\-\-hp-am-bn _-‘-s∏-´v C-c-hn-Ipfw tZ-io-tbm-Zym-\w s^{_p-hcn aq-∂p- ap-X¬ G-{]n¬ aq-∂ph-sc A-S-®n-Sm≥ No-^v ssh¬-Uv- sse-^v hm¿-U≥ D-Ø-c-hn-´p. BSpIƒ-°v kp-c-£n-X-am-b {]-P-\-\-Im-ew D-d-∏p-h-cp-Øp-∂Xn-\m-bmWnXv. tZ-io-tbm-Zym-\w A-S-®n-Sp-∂ Im-e-b-f-hn¬ Sq-dn-Ãp-Iƒ-°v k-μ¿-i-\w A-\p-h-Zn-°n-√. - -


8

thÀ-]mSv

kozhikode

31 P-\p-h-cn 2014 sh≈n

¹-kvh¬ hn-ZymÀ-Yn-\n an-\n-tem-dn-bn-Sn-¨v a-cn-¨p- _n-¿m-¯p l-Öp-½

B-bn-i-¡p-«n l-Öp-½

A-_vZp K-^q
A-¼n-fn-

D-®o-a l-Öp-½

tUm .sP-dmÄ-Uv

\-^o-k

I-S-ta-cn: ]-tc-X-\m-b Nma ]-d-º-Øv Ip-™-–p-√ lm-Pn-bp-sS `m-cy _n-ømØp l-÷p-Ω (78). a°ƒ: Nm-en-bm-S≥ C-{_mlow lm-Pn, A-Ω-Zv lm-Pn (C-cp-h-cpw _-lv-d-bv≥), Ip-™m-an, Ip-™n-∏mØp, P-ao-e, k-°o-\, ]tc-X-bm-b \-^o-k. a-cp-a°ƒ: ]p-e-b‚-]-d-º-Øv A-–p-√, sIm-´-°p-fØn¬ C-{_m-low ]-¥n-cn°-c, tam-Xn-c-°p-∂-Øv A-Ω-Zv ]-¥n-cn-°-c, h-ß∏-‰ Ip-™-Ω-Zv A-c-bm°q¬-Xm-g, a-l-vaq-Zv Im-fnt®-cn, X-øn¬ Ip-™m-an l-÷p-Ω, B-ky \m-b¿°-≠n. k-tlm-Z-c-߃: sX-°n-Ww-ho-´n¬ sam-bvXp, ss]-°m-´v-Ip-\n A{¥p, C-{_m-low, aq-k, ]tc-X-cm-b kq-∏n, Ip-™Ω-Zv.

]-c-∏-\-ßm-Sn: ]m-eØn-߬ No¿-∏n-ßkn-se N-∏-ß-Øn¬ sam-bv-Xo≥-Ip-´n lm-Pnbp-sS `m-cy B-bn-i°p-´n l-÷p-Ω (78). a°ƒ: A-l-Ω-Zv au-ehn, A-–p-¿d-lv-am≥, ^m-Øn-a-°p-´n, J-Zo-P, a-dn-bp-Ω, B-ky, ssk\-_. a-cp-a-°ƒ: B-bnim-_n, B-cn-^, A-_q_-°¿, A-–p¬- JmZ¿ (dn-bm-Zv), tIm-b, A-l-Ω-Zv k-lo-Zv (Pn±). J-_-d-S-°w C-∂p cm-hn-se H-º-Xn-\v sIm´-¥-e Pp-am-a-kv-Pn-Zv J_¿-ÿm-\n¬.

sh-ß-fw: No-\-t®-cn ]tc-X-\m-b sam-bv-Xo≥tIm-b-bp-sS a-I≥ A-_vZp¬ K-^q¿ (40). `m-cy: P-kv-\ ]m-e-Øv. a-°ƒ: dn-bm≥, jn-lm≥, G-gpZn-h-kw {]m-b-am-b aIƒ. am-Xm-hv: ]-tc-X-\mb D-Ω-ø. k-tlm-Z-c߃: A-_q-_-°¿, aΩp-t°m-b, ap-l-Ω-Zv, Ako-kv, \-_o-k, B-bn-i_n, P-ao-e. a-øn-Øv No-\t®-cn Pp-am-a-kv-Pn-Zv J_¿-ÿm-\n¬ a-d-hp-sNbv-Xp.

F-S-°-c: am-a-¶-c \m-bv°≥-Iq-fn-bn-se ]p-Xp-∏d-ºn¬ F-{_-lm-an-s‚ aIƒ \n-Pn-\ F-∂ A-ºnfn (14). ]m-te-am-Sv F-kv.hn.-F-®v.-F-kv.F-kn-se Hº-Xmw ¢m-kv hn-Z-ym¿Yn-\n-bm-bn-cp-∂p. am-Xmhv: ta-cn-. k-tlm-Z-c≥: \n-_n≥. kw-kv-Im-cw C∂v cm-hn-se 10\v \-cn-hme-ap-≠v sk‚ v tPm-k-^v tZ-hm-e-b sk-an-tØ-cnbn¬.

^-tdm-°v: ^m-dq-Jv tImf-Pv ]-tc-X-\m-b I-Æw]-d-º-Øv A-ss -\m¿ lm-Pn-bp-sS `m-cy D-Æoa l-÷p-Ω (93). a-°ƒ: I-Ω-Zv lm-Pn, jm-lp¬ l-ao-Zv ({]-kn-U‚ v, sh¬-s^-b¿ ]m¿-´n cma-\-m-´p-I-c), A-–p¬ -dkm-Jv (Pn-±), \-^o-k, ^m-Xzn-a kp-l-d, J-Zo-P. a-cp-a-°ƒ: A-_q-_°¿ tIm-hq¿, ssk-X-ehn (^m-dq-Jv tIm-f-Pv), tam-\p-±o≥ h-en-b-]-dºv, B-bn-im-_n (sIm-fØ-d), P-ao-e h-en-b-]-dºvv, l-^o-e Im-°-t©cn

Iq-´n-e-ßm-Sn: I-\ym-Ipam-cn am¿-Øm-fiw kztZ-in tUm. Fw sP F¬ sP-dmƒ-Uv (51). 16 h¿-j-am-bn Iq-´n-e-ßm-Sn Su-Wn¬ ¢n-\n-°v \-SØn-h-cn-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. Un.F≥._n k¿-P-\mWv. am-Xm-hv: tPym-Xn ]e-b _m-bv. k-tlm-Z-c߃: F-bv-©¬ tem-kv, ]-tc-X-\m-b tPm¨ sldmƒ-Uv. kw-kv-Im-cw kztZ-i-Øv \-S-°pw.

s]m-∑p-≠w: Im-h-\m-´ptNm-e ]-tc-X-\m-b apt≠-°m-´v Ip-™n-t°mb-bp-sS `m-cy Im-b¬-aTØn¬ \-^o-k (67). a°ƒ: A-–p¬ a-Po-Zv, A–p-¬ d-jo-Zv, Jm-en-Zv, A-–p¬ I-_o¿, A–p¬ l-ao-Zv, kp-l-d, Pao-e. a-cp-a-°ƒ: d-ko-\, J-ZoP, ^-ko-e, A-kv-_o-\, P-ao-e, k-ao-d. J-_-d-S-°w C-∂p cm-hnse F-´n-\v s]m-∑p-≠w Pp-am-a-kv-Pn-Zv J-_¿ÿm-\n¬.

Ip-ªo-cyw

ap-°w: tX-°pw-Ip-‰n I∏m-e Ip-™o-cyw (85). a-°ƒ: B-an-\, ]-tc-XI-®³ \m-b sam-bv-Xp- lm-Pn. Ip-‰ym-Sn: Im-b-s°m-Sn-bn- a-cp-a-I≥: ]-tc-X-\m-b se ]-c-∏p-Ω¬ I-Æ≥ ]m-e-°-sXm-Sn A- -bv(75). `m-cy: am-Wn-°w. a°ƒ: Ip-am-c≥, I-cp-W≥, \m¿. J-_-d-S-°w C-∂v Zn-hm-I-c≥, t{]-a≥. a-cp-a- cm-hn-se 10\v tX-°pw°ƒ: tZ-hn, _n-μp, en-Pn, Ip-‰n I-∏m-e Pp-am-a-kvPn-Zv J-_¿-ÿm-\n¬. kp-\n-e.

ssk-\-_ X-®-\m-´p-I-c: B-cy-ºmhv Iq-´-∏v-em≥-ho-´n¬ tN°p-´n-bp-sS `m-cy ssk-\_ (55). a-°ƒ: jw-kp±o≥, _-jo¿, ap-l-Ω-Zv jm-^n, A-eo-a. a-cp-a°ƒ: d-ko-b, ap¿-jn-Z, _-jo¿. k-tlm-Z-c-߃: ]-tc-X-\m-b A-ssk\m¿, lw-k.

Ip-ª-n-¸m-¯p ]p-Xn-b-ßm-Sn: ssl-kvIq-fn-\p k-ao-]w Ip™n-∏m-Øp (60).

s]m-¡³ Ip-‰ym-Sn: sam-tI-cn-bnse ao-Ø-se h-S-bw-Nmen¬ s]m-°≥ (64). `mcy: Pm-\p. a-°ƒ: A-\ojv, {io-P (A-£-b sk‚¿, sam-tI-cn). a-cp-a°ƒ: _n-Pn, _m-_p.

sN-½-c³ B-et- °m-Sv: \-cn-b≥-]md-bn-se I-Æm sN-dn-b sN-Ωc - ≥ (85). `m-cy: \mcm-bW - n. a-°ƒ: cm-KnWn, a-t\m-Pv. a-cp-a° - ƒ: \m-cm-ba - ≥, ku-ay. kwkvI - m-cw C-∂v cm-hn-se 11\v ho-´p-hf - ∏ - n¬.

tNm-bn-¡p-«n s]m-∑p-≠w: B-Zr-t»cn ]-tc-X-\m-b A-b-\n°¬ I-d-∏-s‚ a-I≥ tNm-bn-°p-´n (61). amXm-hv: tZ-h-In. `m-cy: hnem-kn-\n. a-°ƒ: kp-Ipam-c≥, cm-tP-jv, ssjP, \n-j. a-cp-a-°ƒ: {]Im-i≥, ssj-Pn-Xv. ktlm-Z-c-߃: am-[-hn, im-¥, A-ø-∏≥.

Ip-ª-¼p ]-ø-∂q¿: B-Zy-Im-e IΩyq-Wn-Ãpw sNØpsXm-gn-em-fn bq-\nb≥ (kn.sF.Sn.bp) t\Xm-hp-am-bn-cp-∂ A-∂q¿ X-e-b-t∂-cn ]p-am-e-°mhn-\-Sp-Ø N-°-c-tb≥ Ip-™-ºp (88). `m-cy: a-μy-Øv k-tcm-Pn\n. a-°ƒ: K-tW-i≥, kp-tc-i≥ (C-cp-h-cpw Zp_-bv), c-kn-X. a-cp-a°ƒ: jo-e, _n≥-j, ]fl-\m-`≥. k-tlm-Z-c߃: ]-tc-X-cm-b Ip©n-cn, ]m-dp.

B-an-\ \m-Zm-]p-cw: Nm-e-∏p-dw ]-tc-X-\m-b Ip-™nt°m-b X-ß-fp-sS `m-cy Ip-\n-ج-B-an-\ (65). a-°ƒ: ssk-\p (Zp-_bv), k-^n-b, dp-Jn-b, Dssa-_. a-cp-a-°ƒ: apØp-t°m-b X-߃ Iogm-bn Xm-g-°p-\n (A[ym-]-I≥, ]n.sF.Fw. l-b¿-sk-°≥-U-dn kvIqƒ), Ip-an-°-≠n B_n-Zv Xo-°p-\n, ssk-Zp D-a¿ Kp-fn-I-∏p-g.

F sI I-am lm-Pn N-°-c-°-√v: ap-kv-enw eoKv t\-Xm-hpw a-X-˛-km-aqln-I -cw-K-sØ \n-d-km∂n-[y-hp-am-bn-cp-∂ ]p-dhq¿ ss_-Øp d-lv-aØn¬ F -sI -I-am¬ lm-Pn (80). ap-kv-enw eoKv Pn-√m I-Ωn-‰n-bw-Kw, am-b≥ap-°v im-Jm {]kn-U‚ v, kn.F-®v.sk‚¿ sN-b¿-am≥, ]p-dhq¿ a-l-√v P-am-A-Øv IΩn-‰n {]-kn-U‚ v, k-a-kvX aZvd-km am-t\-Pv-sa‚ v I-Ωn-‰n Pn-√m {]-knU‚ v, kw-ÿm-\ I-Ωn-‰nbw-Kw, kw-bp-‡ P-amA-Øv Pn-√m J-Pm©n, ]m-∏n-\n-t»-cn Pm-an-A A-kv-A-Zn-ø I-Ωn-‰n-bwKw, k-a-kv-X C-kv-em-anIv sk‚¿ J-Pm≥-Pn F∂o \n-e-I-fn¬ {]-h¿Øn-®ph-cn-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. ap-kv-enw eo-Kv kw-ÿm\ Iu¨-kn¬ Aw-Kw, kw-ÿm-\ l-÷v I-Ωn‰n-bw-Kw F-∂o \n-e-I-fnepw {]-h¿-Øn-®n-cp-∂p. `m-cy: sI -Sn -B-bn-kp. a°ƒ: ^m-Xzn-a, kpss_¿, ^m-bn-k, km_n-Øv, ^m-_n-Z.

cm-a-\m-´p-I-c: kv-Iq-fn-te-°p t]m-hp-I-bm-bn-cp-∂ π-kvh¨ hn-Zym¿-Yn-\n an-\n-tem-dn-bn-Sn-®p-a-cn-®p. aq∂n-bq¿ Ir-jn-`-h≥ A-kn- v tN-te-{º ]p-√n-∏-dºv \-μ-\-Øn¬ h-en-bXpd-°¬ {]-Im-i-s‚ (A-{KnIƒ-®-d¬ A-kn-k-v ‰‚ v, ap-∂n-bq¿ Ir-jn `-h≥) aIƒ A-\-L(16)bm-Wv acn-®-Xv. I-t°m-hv ]n.-Fw.F-kv.F ]q-t°m-b X߃ sa-tΩm-dn-b¬ lb¿ sk-°-≥U-dn kv-Iqƒ hn-Zym¿-Yn-\n-bm-bncp∂p. C-∂-se cm-hn-se F-´-c-tbm-sS tZ-io-b]m-X- CSn-aq-gn-°-¬ \n-k-cn PMv-j-\n-se _-kvtÃm-∏v ]-cnk-c-Øm-Wv A-]-I-Sw. kv-Iq-fn-te-°p-≈ _-kv- I-bdm≥ t]m-Ip-w-h-gn tdm-Uv- ap-dn-®pI-S-°m≥ \n¬-°ptºmƒ C-Sn-aq-gn-°¬ `m-K-Øp \n-∂p cm-a-\m-´p-I-c `m-K-tØ-°v h-cn-I-bm-bn-cp-∂ tem-dn C-Sn-®psX-dn∏n-°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. \n-b-{¥-Ww-hn-´ tem-dn k-ao]-sØ ap≥ cm-a-\m-´p-I-c {Km-a∏-©m-b-Øv ssh-kv {]-kn-U-‚ v A- ≥-am-\p-hn-s‚ ho-Sn-s‚ Np-‰p-a-Xnen¬ C-Sn-®p\n¬-°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. \m-´p-Im¿ hnZym¿-Yn-\n-sb tIm-gn-t°m-Sv sa-Un-°¬ tIm-f-Pv Bip-]-{Xn-bn¬ F-Øn-s®-¶n-epw c-£n-°m\mbn-√. am-Xm-hv: kz¿-W-e-X (A-[ym-]n-I, ao-©-¥ K-h.l-b¿-sk-°-≥U-dn kv-Iqƒ). k-tlm-Z-c-߃: taL, A-`n-\-μv.

ss_-¡n Kp-Uv-kv Hm-t«m- CSn-¨v bp-hm-hv a-cn-¨ptIm-´-°¬: ss_-°n-\v ]n∂n¬ Kp-Uv-kv Hm-t´m C-Sn-®v bp-hm-hv a-cn-®p. FS-cn-t°m-Sv s]m-´n-∏m-d aÆn-߬ a-c-°m-dn-s‚ aI≥ am-\m-^v (40) B-Wv acn-®-Xv. sNm-Δm-gv-N Xr-iq¿ SuWn-em-Wv A-]-I-Sw. `m-cy: P-ao-e. a-°ƒ: P-kv-\, Pwio¿, X-kv-\n. am-Xm-hv: B-an-\p.

a-¡-bn-Â \n-cym-X-\m-bn

ap-l-½-Zv km-en-lv

Pm-\-InA-½

\m-cm-b-Wn

]m-¯p-½-

kp-{_-lva-Wy³

ap-l-½-Zv am-ÌÀ

ap-l-½-Zv ap-kv-eymÀ

lÀ-jm-`m-bv

I-cp-hm-c-°p-≠v: dn-´. A[ym-]-I≥ tI-c-f F-tÉv ]p-fn-¶-S-hn-se ap-√bn¬ ap-l-Ω-Zv km-en-lv (km-en-lv am-ÿ-˛80). `mcy: ssk-\-_ _o-Kw. a°ƒ: lm-cn-kv, ln-Zm-bØv (Zp-_-bv), ln-jmw _m-_p (H-am≥). a-cp-a°ƒ: P-eo-e, j-do-\, s^-ao-\.

sIm-bn-em-≠n: tN-en-b im-¥n `-h-\w Pm-\-In-bA-Ω (79). `¿-Øm-hv: ]tc-X-\m-b F ]n Ip-™n°-Wm-c≥ \m-b¿. a-°ƒ: ap-c-f-o-[-c≥, Ko-X, c-a, ]tc-X-\m-b D-Æn-Ir-jvW≥. a-cp-a-°-ƒ: {io-[c≥ \m-b¿, th-Wp (I-t®cn), Ko-Xm-e-£v-an, c-a. k©-b-\w Rm-b-dm-gv-N.

]-tøm-fn: ]-tc-X-\m-b C-tøm-Øpw-Ip-‰n sN-dnb-°-s‚ `m-cy \m-cm-bWn (70). a-°ƒ: tZ-hn, k-Xn, kp-[, c-a, _n-μp. a-cp-a-°ƒ: N-{μ≥ (]tøm-fn), _m-e-Ir-jvW≥ (Xn-t°m-Sn), \m-cmb-W≥ (]-≈n-°-c), _m_p (\m-Zm-]p-cw tdm-Uv), k-Xy≥ (hn-f-bm-´q¿). ktlm-Z-c-߃: tcm-lnWn, Iu-kp, I-cp-W≥, ]-tc-X-\m-b tKm-]m-e≥.

A-co-t°m-Sv: Du¿-ßm-´ncn aq¿-°-\m-Sv ]-tc-X-\mb h-en-b]o-Sn-b-°¬ aΩ-ZvIp-´n sam-√-bp-sS `mcy s]-º-I-Øv ]m-Øp-Ω (84). a-°ƒ: ap-l-Ω-Z-en. en-bm-°-Ø-en, l-°ow, A-–p¬ K-^q¿, A–p¬ d-Du-^v, \-^o-k, B-an-\, B-bn-i-°p-´n. J-_-d-S-°w C-∂p cm-hnse 9.30\p aq¿-°-\m-Sv Ppam-a-kv-Pn-Zv J-_¿-ÿm\n¬.

Iq-fn-am-Sv: ]n.F-®v.C.Un. sIm-°-t©-cn Nmen¬ kp-{_-lva-Wy≥ (70). am-hq¿ {Km-knw sXm-gn-em-fn-bm-bn-cp-∂p. `m-cy: A-Ωp. a-°ƒ: _m-_p-cm-Pv, P-b-{]-Imiv, k-Pve, jn-\p. a-cp-a°ƒ: in-h-Zm-k≥ (Im-c°-≠n), ]-hn-{X≥ (Ipgn-a-Æ), _n-μp (]-bn{º), jn-\n (]p-√q-cm-w]m-d).

X-®\ - m-´p-Ic - : ]u-c{- ]-ap-J\pw a-l√ - v sk-{I-´d - n-bp-ambn-cp-∂ sh-´Ø - q¿ I-cp-hmØv ap-lΩ - Z- v am-ÿ (80). `m-cy: ]m-Øp-Ω. a-°ƒ: A-–p-∏, jw-kp-±o≥, k°-cn-b, A-–p¬- \m-k¿, ap-jvX - m-Jv, dw-e, km-_n-d, kp-ss_-Z, Pp-ssa-e, lko-\. a-cp-a° - ƒ: sam-bvX - p´n, sam-bvX - p-Æn, l-ao-Zv, apl-ΩZ- v _-jo¿, k-AZ- v,ko\-Øv, dw-e, j-do-\, kp-\od, ]¿-km-\.

]-c-∏-\-ßm-Sn: Su¨lmƒ tdm-Un-se sI apl-Ω-Zv ap-kv-eym¿ (km-Zplm-Pn˛75). F-kv.ssh.F-kv ]-©m-b-Øv I-Ωn‰n {]-kn-U‚m-bn-cp-∂p. `m-cy: _o-]m-Øp. a-°ƒ: A-–p-¿d-lv-am≥, B-bnim-_n, \-^o-k, dp-Jn-b, C-{_m-low, A-_q-_°¿, P-ao-e, J-a-dp-∂ok, jw-kp-±o≥. a-cp-a°ƒ: lw-k- lm-Pn, tImb- lm-Pn, A-h-dm≥-Ip-´n, ap-kv-X-^, a-Po-Zv, ku-Zm_n, a-dn-b-Ωp, ^u-kn-b, _-Z-dp-∂n-k.

sam-I-hq¿: h-S-s°-]-dº-Øv ]-tc-X-\m-b i-¶c-s‚ a-Iƒ lm¿-jm-`mbv (40). `¿-Øm-hv: ]-ø∏m-´v _m-e≥ (ss{Uh¿). am-Xm-hv: ]-tc-Xbm-b am-[-hn. k-tlm-Zc-߃: {]-km-Zv, ]-hn{X≥ (dn-´. t]m-en-kv), hn-P-b≥ (ss{U-h¿), kp-\n¬, {]-ao-f, A-PnX, Po-P, j-ao-a (t]m-eokv). kw-kv-Im-cw C-∂v cm-hn-se 11.30\v sh-Ãvln¬ iv-a-im-\-Øn¬. k-©-b-\w Rm-b-dm-gvN.

F³.kn.]n. t\-Xm-hv ]p-g-¡Â- hm-kp-tZ-h³- A-´-cn-¨p

I-Æq¿: F≥-.kn.-]n.- kwÿm-\ F-Iv-kn-Iyq-´o-hv Aw-Kw- ap-g-∏n-e-ßm-Sv- It®-cn-sam-´-bn-se ]p-g°¬- hm-kp-tZ-h≥ -(67)A-¥-cn-®p. C-∂-se sshIo-´v 6.-45Hm-sS ho-´n¬- Ipg-™p-ho-W Ct±-lsØ X-e-t»-cn- tIm-˛-Hm-]-td-‰ohv- B-ip-]-{Xn-bn¬- FØn-s®-¶n-epw- c-£n-°m-\m-bn-√.- ar-X-tZ-lw- C-∂p ]-cn-bm-cw -sa-Un-°¬ -tIm-f-Pn-\v ssI-am-dpw.- X-et»-cn- P-\-d¬ -B-ip-]-{Xn-bn¬- h-®v- cm-{Xn-X-s∂ IÆv-\o-°w-sN-bv-Xp.{_-Æ≥- tIm-f-Pn¬- hn-Zym¿-Yn-bm-bn-cn-s° sI.F-kv-.bp-hn-eq-sS-bm-Wv- hm-kp-tZ-h≥ s]m-Xp-cwK-sØ-Øn-b-Xv. sI.F-kv.bp.- Pn-√m ssh-kv- {]-knU‚ v, bq-Øv- tIm¨-{K-kv- Pn-√m {]-kn-U‚ v, sk-{I´-dn- F-∂o \n-e-I-fn¬ {]-h¿-Øn-®n-cp-∂p. D-Ω≥-Nm≠n- bq-Øv-tIm¨-{K-kv- {]-kn-U‚m-bn-cp-∂-t∏mƒ kw-ÿm-\ \n¿-hm-l-I- k-an-Xn- Aw-K-am-bn-cp-∂p Ct±lw.- 1979¬- tIm¨-{K-kv- ]n-f¿-∂-t∏mƒ- B‚Wn-s°m-∏w \n-∂p. tIm¨-{K-kv(F) hn-`m-Kw- Un-.kn-.kn-. sk-{I-´-dn-bm-bn-cp-∂p.tIm¨-{K-kv-(F-kv-) Pn-√m sk-{I-´-dn-, F≥-.kn-.]n. Pn-√m {]-kn-U‚ v, I-Æq¿- P-h-l¿ -sse-{_-dnap≥- sk-{I-´-dn-, Pn-√m k-l-I-c-W- _m-¶v- ap≥ -U-bd-Iv-S¿,- ap-g-∏n-e-ßm-Sv- k¿-ho-kv- k-l-I-c-W _m-¶vap≥- U-bd-Iv-S¿, sF-]v-tkm- kw-ÿm-\ ssh-kv-{]kn-U‚ v,- tZ-io-b-Iu¨-kn-ew-Kw,- C-kv-I-^v- Pn-√m {]-kn-U‚ v,- {_-Æ≥ -tIm-f-Pv- ]q¿-h- hn-Zym¿-Yn- kwL-S-\-bm-b {_-Æ-ss\-‰v-kv- `m-c-hm-ln F-∂o- \n-eI-fn-epw- {]-h¿-Øn-®n-cp-∂p. ap-g-∏n-e-ßm-Sv- Cu-kv-‰vF¬.-]n.- kv-Iqƒ- am-t\-P-cm-Wv.A-hn-hm-ln-X≥.- ]n-Xm-hv: ]-tc-X-\m-b ]p-g-°¬ cm-a≥- (A-[ym-]-I≥- ap-g-∏n-e-ßm-Sv- Cu-kv-‰v- F¬.-]n.kv-Iqƒ).- am-Xm-hv: ]-tc-X-bm-b e-£v-an -(A-[ym-]n-I, ap-g-∏n-e-ßm-Sv- Cu-kv-‰v- F¬.-]n.- kv-Iqƒ).- k-tlm-Z-c߃-: ]-fl-\m-`≥,- I-a-em-£n,- h-k-¥,- ]-tc-X-cm--b ]p-g-°¬ -_m-e-Ir-jv-W≥,- kp-Kp-W≥,- N-{μ≥.-

I-®³

tI-f-¸³

e-£v-an

hm-kp- \-¼ymÀ

Ieym-Wn

h-S-I-c: ssh-°n-en-t»-cn sam-´-Ø-d-°p-∂p-Ω¬ tI-f-∏≥ (75), `m-cy: \mcm-b-Wn, a-°ƒ: c-Pn-e, A-Pn-X, _-hn-X, ssj-a, a-cp-a-°ƒ: cm-P≥, _m_p, hn-b≥, kp-[n.

h-S-I-c: ta-ap-≠ ]pØq¿ tI-f-∏-s‚ `m-cy e£v-an (65). a-°ƒ: c-ho{μ-\m-Yv, k-tμm-jv, hnt\m-Z≥, do-Ø. a-cp-a°ƒ: kv-Xy≥, km-hn{Xn, k-Pn-\n, kn-an.

h-S-I-c: Ip-\n-ßm-Sv Nncn-b-tßm-Øv hm-kp- \ºym¿ (76). `m-cy: Im¿Xym-b-\n-A-Ω. a-°ƒ: c-ta-iv, c-Pn-e. a-cp-a°ƒ: P-b≥, P-kv-\.

]¥o-cm-¶mhv: ]tc-X\mb th-em-dº-Øv aB-\-µ³ am-cmÀ Wen¬ _me-s‚ ktlm-Z-cn Ieym-Wn (85). sIm-bn-em-≠n: ]-tc-Xkw-kv-Im-cw C∂v 12\v am- \m-b ta-eq¿ ]p-d-tØ-SØv Ip-´n-i-¶-cam-cm-cp¶m-hv iv-a-im-\Øn¬. sS a-I≥ B-\-μ≥ amcm¿ (45). `m-cy: _n-μp. a-°ƒ: A¿-Pp≥, A¿-®-\. ktlm-Z-c-߃: sIm-≠wh-≈n cm-P≥-am-cm¿ (_mw-•q¿), X-¶-a-Wn. k-©-b-\w Xn-¶-fm-gv-N.

t_-_n

A-_q-_-¡À-

A-_q-_-¡À lm-Pn

\-co-jv

Xn-cp-h-ºm-Sn: tI-fw Ipt∂¬ sI Fw t_-_n (52). `m-cy: P- n H≥-t]-‰pth-en¬. a-°ƒ: tUm-W (kv-‰m-^v \-gv-kv, t_-_n satΩm-dn-b¬ B-ip-]-{Xn, tIm-gn-t°m-Sv), ta-Lv\ (tdUn-tbm-f-Pn-kv-‰v, tIm-´-bw).

a-e-∏p-dw-:- ]-cp-h-a-Æ- Iqcn- A-_q-_-°¿- (62).- `mcy-:- \-^o-k.- a-°ƒ-:- A–p¬- d-jo-Zv,- ss^-k¬(C-cp-h-cpw- Z-Ωmw-),- klo-d,- A-–p¬- hm-ln-Zv.a-cp-a-°ƒ-:- A-ao¿- (Pn±),- ap-\o-d,- \m-kn-b.-

N-ß-cw-Ip-fw: I-√q¿Ω s]-cp-ºmƒ Ip-‰n-∏pd-Øv h-f-∏n¬ A-_q_-°¿ lm-Pn. `m-cy: ^m-Øn-a. a-I≥: Ip-™n-hm-∏p (Zp-_-bv). a-cp-a-Iƒ: dw-e.

Xm-\q¿: kv-Iqƒ-]-Sn ]-tc-X-\m-b sIm-°men¬ Zm-tam-Z-c-s‚ aI≥ \-co-jv (32). amXm-hv: Pm-\-In. ktlm-Z-c-߃: jm-Pn, cm-tP-jv.

ku-Zn-bn a-cn-¨ lm-jn-an-sâ a-¿n-¯v C-¶v \m-«n-se-¯n-¡pw

D-cp-h-®m¬: ku-Zn-bn¬ hm-l-\m-]-I-S-Øn¬ a-cn-® in-h-]p-cw sh-º-Sn tdm-Un¬ d-Cu-km a≥-kn-en¬ Sn ]n lm-jn-an-s‚ ar-X-tZ-lw C-∂v D-®-bv-°v c-t≠msS in-h-]-p-c-sØ-Øpw. C-∂p cm-hn-se tIm-gn-t°mSv hn-am-\-Øm-h-f-Øn¬ F-Øp-∂ ar-X-tZ-lw in-h]p-c-Øv ho-´n-se-Øn-®- ti-jw in-h-]p-cw Pp-am-a-kvPn-Zn-\v k-ao-]w s]m-Xp-Z¿-i-\-Øn-\v h-bv-°pw. C-∂-se ssh-Io-´v \m-´n-se-tØ-≠n-bn-cp∂ ar-XtZ-lw Fw-_-kn-bn-se \-S-]-Sn-{I-a-߃ ]q¿-Ønbm-hm-Ø-Xv Im-c-W-am-Wv H-cp Zn-h-kw ssh-In-b-Xv. Rm-b-dm-gv-N cm-hn-se 10Hm-sS-bm-Wv ku-Zn-bnseXzm-C-^n¬ lm-jnw k-©-cn-® C-t∂m-h Im-dpw s{Sbn-e-dpw Iq-´n-bn-Sn-®-Xv.

I-a-em-£n

\m-cm-b-W³

N-¡n-¡p-«n

Ip-ªn

Ip-μ-aw-K-ew: ]n-em-t»-cn Iq-fn-∏-d-º-Øv ]-tc-X-\mb A-f-Kn-cn-bp-sS `m-cy Ia-em-£n (87). a-°ƒ: \mcm-b-Wn, Ip-™≥, Nn-∂Ωp, am-fp, \m-cm-b-W≥, A-Ωp, im-¥, tKm-hn-μ≥, tKm-]m-e≥. a-cp-a-°ƒ: Ip-™≥, I-a-e, cm-a≥, Nn-∂-Ωp, Ip-™≥, Ir-jvW≥, _n-μp, {io-P.

F-S-h-Æ: ]-Ø-∏n-cn-bw hn-√-Øq¿ {io-cm-a-kzman t£-{X-Øn-\p k-ao]w ]-∂n-t°m-S≥ \m-cmb-W≥ (75). `m-cy: am-Wn-°p-´n. a°ƒ: e-£v-an, ssj-eP. a-cp-a-I≥: ]-tc-X-\m-b si¬-h-cm-Pv.

th-ß-c: I-Æ-aw-K-ew ]-tc-X-\m-b Nm-en¬ \m-bm-Sn-bp-sS `m-cy N°n-°p-´n (70). a-I≥: cma≥ (t]m-kv-‰v-am≥, sNΩm-Sv). a-cp-a-Iƒ: ]p-jv] e-X. -kw-kv-Im-cw C∂v cm-hn-se H-º-Xn-\v \m-ep-I-≠w iv-a-im-\Øn¬.

Xn-cq¿: am-ßm-´n-cn ]qss°-X h-en-b ]-dºn¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b Xm-an°p-´n-bp-sS `m-cy Ip™n (74). a-°ƒ: X-¶, eo-e, hm-kp, Iu-k-√y, a-Wn, k-c-kz-Xn. a-cp-a°ƒ: tc-Wp-I, jo-P, th-em-bp-[≥, a-Wn, kptc-{μ≥.

]m-d-a-S-bn a-®n-Sn-ªphoWv c-−pt]À a-cn¨p A-Sq¿: A-Sq¿ G-\m-Znaw-KeØv ]m-d-a-S-bn-¬ a-Æn-Sn-™p ho-Wv c-≠v sXm-gn-em-fn-Iƒ acn®p. C-f-a-Æq¿ Ip∂n-S a-™Øq-cnem-bn-cp-∂p A-]-ISw. s{]m-ss¢≥ ss{U-h¿- tIm-∂n sN-ß-d a-cp-tØ-Øv ta-Ωp-dn jn-_p (27), k-lm-bn h-S-t»-cn°-c sX-°pw-a-e ]p-Ø≥-]p-cbn¬ tKm-]n-bp-sS aI≥ A-\ojv (26) F-∂n-h-cmWv a-cn-®-Xv. C∂-se cm-hnse 9.45Hm-sSbm-bn-cp-∂p A-]-I-Sw. 200 A-Sntbm-fw D-b-c-Øn-ep-≈ Ip-∂pw d-_¿ a-c-ßfpw C-Sn-™v, a-Æv \o-°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂ c-≠v s{]mss¢-\p-Iƒ-°p-ta¬ ]-Xn-°pI-bm-bn-cp-∂p. Ip-∂v C-Sn-™v h-cp∂-XpI-≠ Ch¿ Hm-Snc-£s∏-Sm≥ {i-an-s®-¶nepw Iq-‰≥ ]m-d- ho-gp-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. Cu

A-\ojv ka-bw ]m-d-a-S-bn-se 20 Hm-fw sXm-gn-em-fn-Iƒ {]`m-X`£Ww I-gn-°m≥ ]p-d-tØ-°v t]m-bXn-\m¬ IqSp-X¬ Bf]m-b-ap-≠m-bn√. A-]-I-SØn¬ Iq-Sp-X¬ sXm-gn-em-fnIƒ Dƒ-s∏-´n-cn-°m-sa-∂ kw-

i-bhpw ]-cn-{`m-¥n ]-c-Øn. kao]sØ a-‰v {I-j¿ bq-\n-‰p-Ifn¬ \n-∂v Iq-Sp-X¬ ln-‰m-®nIfpw Pm-°v lm-a-dp-Ifpw FØn-®m-Wv c-£m-{]-h¿Ø-\w \-S-Øn-bXv. ar-X-tZ-l-߃ On-∂-`n∂am-b \n-e-bn-em-bn-cp-∂p. t]m-k-‰vtam¿-´-Øn-\p ti-jw ar-X-tZ-l߃ _-‘p-°ƒ-°v hn-´p\¬In. d-h\yq h-Ip-∏n-s‚ A-\p-aXn-bn√m-sX-bm-Wv ]md-a-S {]h¿-Øn-®n-cp-∂-sX-∂v A-[n-IrX¿ ]-d-™p. d-h-\yq, t]m-en-kv hn-`m-K-߃ A-t\z-j-W-߃ B-cw-`n-®n-´p-≠v. h-μ-\-bm-Wv jn-_p-hn-s‚ `mcy. a-°ƒ: F-_n≥, A√p. A\o-jn-s‚ am-Xmhv: Ko-X-. ktlm-Z-c-n: A-\ne.

I-cn-sh-≈q¿: ]-ø∂ - q¿ K-h. t_m-bvk - v ssl-kvIq-fn-se dn-´. Po-h\ - ° - mc≥ Hm-W° - p-∂n-se ]mSm-t®-cn I-Æ≥ (83). Icn-sh-≈q¿ K-h. ssl-kvIqƒ, Im-k¿-tIm-Uv _p°v Un-t∏m F-∂n-hn-Sß - fn-epw tPm-ensN-bvX - n-´p≠v. `m-cy: bp ]n hn Pm-\In. a-°ƒ: ]-h\ - ≥ (Kƒ^v), t{]-ae - X - (A-[ym]n-I, A-∂q¿ bp.]n kvIƒ), Ko-X (A-[ym-]n-I, cm-as - X-cp bp.]n. kvI - qƒ ]p-Xn-bs - X-cp), {io-P (A-[ym-]n-I, K-h. l-b¿ - sk-°≥-Ud - n kvI - qƒ, N{μ-Kn-cn).

tem-dn-bn-Sn-¨v Hm-t«m ss{U-hÀ a-cn-¨p

h-S-I-c: Hm-t´m-bpw tem-dnbpw Iq-´n-bn-Sn-®v Hm-t´m ss{U-h¿ a-cn-®p. I-gn™Zn-h-kw ]p-e¿-s® \men-\v \m-Zm-]p-cw-tdm-Un-emWv A-]-I-Sw. ssI-\m-´n Ip-gn-®m-en¬ k-eo-w (39) BWv a-cn-®-Xv. a- ¬ ky- s Øm- g n- e m- f nI-sf tNm-ºm¬ lm¿-_dn¬ sIm-≠phn-´v Xn-cn®ph-cn-I-bm-bn-cp-∂ Hm-t´m-sb F-Xn-tc h-∂ tem-dn C-Sn-°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. ssI-\m-´n-bn-se Hm-t´m ss{U-h-dmbncp∂p k-eow. `m-cy: dm-_n-b. a-°ƒ: j-m-an¬, jm-\n-kv.

t]m-en-kn-s\ `-b-t¶m-Sn-b bp-hm-hv In-W-än ho-Wp a-cn-¨p F-kv.-sF¡vv k-kv-s]³j³ Im-™-ßm-Sv: t]m-en-kn-s\ `-bt∂m- S n- b bp- h m- ° - f n¬ c- ≠ pt]¿ Bƒ- a - d - b n- √ m- Ø In- W ‰n¬ ho-Wp. H-cmƒ X-Zv-£-Ww acn- ® p. c- ≠ p- t ]¿- ° p ]- c n- t °- ‰ p. kw-`-h-Øn¬ {]-Xn-tj-[n-®v \m´p-Im¿ \o-te-iz-cw t]m-en-kv kvt‰- j ≥ h- f - ™ p. Fkv . - s F- s b At\z- j W hnt[- b - a mbn kkvs]‚ v sNbvXp. cm-{Xn sshIn-bpw kw-L¿-jm-h-ÿ Xp-S¿∂p. C-∂-se ssh-Io-´v B-d-c-tbmsS-bm-Wv kw-`-hw. Nn-d-∏p-dw a¬ky- a m¿- ° - ‰ v sI- ´ n- S - Ø n¬ C- c n°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂ bp-hm-°-sf \ote- i z- c w F- k v . - s F. ssa- ° n- f ns‚ t\- X r- X z- Ø n- e p- ≈ t]m- e nkv kw-Lw em-Øn-®m¿-Pv sN-øpI- b m- b n- c p- ∂ p. C- X p I- ≠ v `- b t∂m- S n- b bp- h m- ° - f m- W v In- W ‰n¬ ho-W-Xv. Nn-d-∏p-d-sØ Ip-´n-

cm-a≥-tIm-a-cw-˛ Ip-™-Ωm-dp Zº- X n- I - f p- s S a- I ≥ i- i n- [ - c - \ mWv (29) a-cn-®-Xv. H-∏w In-W-‰n¬ ho- W Ip- ™ n- c m- a - s ‚ a- I ≥ KtW-i-s\ (28) Kp-cp-X-c ]-cn-°pI-tfm-sS aw-K-em-]p-cw kz-Im-cy B-ip-]-{Xn-bn¬ {]-th-in-∏n-®p. Hm-Sp-∂-Xn-\n-sS ]-cn-t°-‰ \m-cmX

\m¬ A-Xv 6400 tIm-Sn cq-]-bm°n h¿-[n-∏n-°-W-sa-∂v [o-h-ck-` B-h-iy-s∏-´p. 70,000 tImSn cq-]-bp-sS a¬-ky-k-º-Øv cm-Py-Øn-\v kw-`m-h-\ sN-øp∂ a¬-ky-sØm-gn-em-fn-I-fp-sS t£-a-Øn-\v h-I-bn-cp-Øp-∂ apgp-h≥ Xp-I-bpw tI-{μ-K-h¨sa‚ v \¬-I-W-w. tZ-h-kzw \nb-a-\-ß-fn¬ A-ln-μp-°ƒ-°p≈ 18 i-X-am-\w kw-h-c-Ww kwh-c-W k-ap-Zm-b-߃-°p Xs∂ B-\p-]m-Xn-I-am-bn \¬-IWsa∂pw Ah¿ Bh-iys∏´p. Cu 18 i-X-am-\w ap-∂m° k-ap-Zm-b-ß-fn-se km-ºØn-I-am-bn ]n-∂m-°w \n¬-°p∂ ln-μp-°ƒ-°v \¬-I-W-sa∂p-≈ F≥.F-kv.F-kv. P-\-

d¬ sk-{I-´-dn-bp-sS- B-h-iyw H-cp Im-c-W-h-im-epw Aw-Ko-Icn-°-cp-sX-∂pw C-Xv `-c-WL-S\m hn-cp-≤-am-sW-∂pw [o-h-ck-`m P-\-d¬ sk-{I-´-dn hn Zn-\I-c≥ ]-d-™p. `q-cn-]-£ sFIy-Øn-s‚ t]-cp-]-d-™p kw-hc-W k-ap-Zm-b-߃-°v A¿-lX-s∏-´ kw-h-c-Ww t\-Sn-sb-Sp°m-\p-≈ \o-°-sØ F-¥p- hne-sIm-Sp-Øpw ]-cm-P-b-s∏-SpØp-∂-Xn-\v F-kv.F≥.Un.]n A-S-°-ap-≈ Z-en-Xv-˛-]n-∂m-° k-ap-Zm-b kw-L-S-\-Iƒ H-‰s°-´m-bn \n¬-°p-sa-∂pw At±lw ]-d-™p. A-º-e-∏p-g Xm-eq-°v I-Ωn-‰n {]-kn-U‚ v kt¥m-jv Pn-tX-{μ-\pw hm¿-Ømk-tΩ-f-\-Øn¬ ]-s¶-Sp-Øp.

tj- [ n- ® v \m- ´ p- I m¿ kv - t ‰- j - \ nte-°p am¿-®v \-S-Øn. F-∂m¬, Nn- d - ∏ p- d w a¬- k y- a m¿- ° - ‰ pw Hm´p-I-º-\n-bpw tI-{μo-I-cn-®v kmaq-ln-I-hn-cp-≤ {]-h¿-Ø-\-ß-ƒ \- S - ° p- ∂ p- s ≠- ∂ hn- h - c - s Ø Xp- S ¿- ∂ v t]m- e n- k v ÿ- e - s ØØp-tºmƒ a-Zy-]n-®p-sIm-≠n-cp-

2 -t]À-¡v Kp-cp-X-cw; \o-te-iz-c-¯v kw-LÀ-jm-h-Ø

b- W - s ‚ a- I ≥ k- P n- X v (28) \ote- i z- c w kz- I m- c y B- i p- ] - { Xnbn¬ Nn-In¬-k-bn-em-Wv. In-W‰n¬ ho-W-h-sc Im-™-ßm-Sv ^b¿-t^m-gv-km-Wv ]p-d-sØ-Sp-ØXv. i-in-[-c≥ \o-te-iz-cw ]-©mb-Øv ap≥ {]-kn-U‚ v sI hn Zmtam- Z - c - s ‚ k- t lm- Z - c - ] p- { X- \ mWv. t]m-en-kv \-S-]-Sn-bn¬ {]-Xn-

Xn-c-sª-Sp-¸n [o-h-c-k-ap-Zm-b-¯n\v ko-äv \Â-I-Ww: [o-h-c-k-` B-e-∏p-g: h-cp-∂ ]m¿-e-sa‚ v Xn-c-s™-Sp-∏n¬ [o-h-c-k-ap-Zmb-Øn¬-s∏-´-h¿-°v ko-‰v \¬Im≥ {]-_-e cm-{„o-b-∏m¿-´nIƒ X-øm-dm-h-W-sa-∂v A-Jn-e tI-c-f [o-h-c-k-` kw-ÿm-\ IΩn-‰n cm-{„o-b ]m¿-´n-I-tfm-Sv B-h-iy-s∏-´p. tI-c-f-Øn¬ a¬-ky-sØm-gn-em-fn hn-`m-K-ßfn¬ 60 i-X-am-\-Øn-s‚ {]m-Xn\n-[y-ap-≈ [o-h-c-k-ap-Zm-bsØ ]-cn-K-Wn-°m≥ cm-{„o-b ]m¿-´n-Iƒ X-øm-dm-h-Ww. 12mw ]-©-h¬-k-c ]-≤-Xn°m-e-Øv a¬-ky-sØm-gn-em-fn t£-a-Øn-\v tI-{μ-a-{¥n-k-`-bpsS km-º-Øn-I-Im-cy k-an-Xn h-I-bn-cp-Ønb 640 tIm-Sn cq-] Xn-I-®pw A-]-cym-]v-X-am-b-Xn-

a-t©-cn: Dw-d \n¿-h-ln°m-\m-bn a-°-bn-te°p t]m-b N-¥-°p-∂v kz-tZin-bpw s\-√n-°p-Øn¬ Xm-a-kn-°p-∂-bm-fp-am-b ]-tc-X-\m-b ]p-fn-°¬ aΩp-Zp-hn-s‚ a-I≥ kq-∏n (55) a-°-bn¬ \n-cym-X-\mbn. am-Xm-hv: ]m-Øp-Ωp. `m-cy: kp-ss_-Z. a-°ƒ: kp-\n-X d-lv-a-Øv, \m-Zn-b kq-∏n ssj-\n, ^-ko-e, ^m-kn¬(Pn-±). a-cp-a-°ƒ: Pk¬, ss^-k¬, ap-\o¿. k-tlm-Z-c-߃: k-°o-\, D-Ωp-k¬-a, K-^q¿, l-^v-k-Øv, ap-l-Ω-Zv ^n-tdmkv, l-kv-°¿ _m-_p(Pn-±), C-{_m-low _m-Zp-j. Xn-cp-h-ºm-Sn: Dw-d-bv-°p t]m-b Xo¿-∞m-S-I≥ a-°bn¬ \n-cy-m-X-\m-bn. Xn-cp-h-ºm-Sn Hm-a-t»-cn ho-´n¬ A-–p-√(71)bm-Wv hym-gm-gv-N cm-hn-se a-°-bn¬ a-cn®-Xv. `m-cy: \-^o-k. a-°ƒ: ssa-aq-\, Pm-kv-an≥, A–p- -emw, A-–p- -a-Zv (ku-Zn), j-ao¿, Cw-Xn-bmkv, C-kv -Xn-Im¿, ap-l-Ω-Zv A-–p¬ P-hm-Zv. a-cp-a°ƒ: ap-l-Ω-Zv A-iv-d-^v, j-ao¿, \-kv-e, X-^v-ko-e, ^¿-km-\ Pm-kv-an≥, im-Zn-b, l-°o-a.

∂ Nn-e¿ Hm-Sn-t∏m-hp-I-bm-bn-cp∂p- s h- ∂ v \o- t e- i z- c w F- k v . sF. ssa-°nƒ ]-d-™p. kw-`-hØn¬ {]-Xn-tj-[n-®v \o-te-iz-cØv C- ∂ v l¿- Ø m¬ {]- J ym- ] n®n-´p-≠v. F- k v . - s F. ssa- ° n- f n- s \ Pn√m t]m- e n- k v No- ^ v tXmwk¨ tPm-kv k-kv-s]≥-Uv sNbvXp.

Im-dp-I-fn-se-¯n-b kw-Lw ¢-ºv B-{I-an-¨v bp-hm-¡-sf X-«n-s¡m-−p-t]m-bn D-∏-f: ss]-h-fn-sK-bn¬ aq-∂v Im-dp-If - n-se-Øn-b 15 Aw-K kwLw ¢-∫v A-Sn-®pX-I¿-Øv c-≠v bp-hm-°-sf X-´n-s°m-≠p-t]mbn. bq-Øveo-Kn-s‚ t\-Xr-XzØn-ep-≈ ss]-h-fn-sK-bn-se tπ t_m-bv-kv ¢-∫m-Wv X-I¿Ø-Xv. ¢-∫n¬ I-fn-®p-sIm-≠ncp-∂ \n-kmw, iw-kp-±o≥ F-∂nh-sc-bm-Wv X-´n-s°m-≠p-t]m-bXv. C-∂-se cm-{Xn F-´-c-tbm-sSbm-Wv kw-`h - w. ssk-°nƒ sN-bn≥, C-cp-

ºph-Sn, ap-fI - ps]m-Sn Xp-Sß - n-bh-bp-am-bn F-Øn-b kw-Lw \m´p-Im-sc hn-c-´n-tbm-Sn-® ti-jw ¢-∫v A-Sn-®p-X-I¿-°p-I-bm-bncp-∂p. an-\n-‰p-It- fm-fw `o-Ic - m-¥co-£w kr-„n-® ti-ja - m-Wv bphm-°s - f X-´n-s°m-≠p-t]m-bX - v. A-©pZn-h-kw ap-ºv ss]-hfn-sK-bn¬ _m-fn-K A-ko-kv sIm-√-sN-ø-s∏-´n-cp-∂p. C-t±-lØn-s‚ _-‘p-hm-Wv A-{I-aØn-\v ]n-∂n-se-∂v a-t©-iz-cw t]m-en-kv ]-d™ p.

C-c-hn-Ip-fw tZ-io-tbm-Zym-\w G-{]n aq-¶p-h-sc A-S-¨n-Spw C-Sp-°n: h-c-bm-Sp-I-fp-sS {]-P-\-\-hp-am-bn _-‘-s∏-´v C-c-hn-Ipfw tZ-io-tbm-Zym-\w s^{_p-hcn aq-∂p- ap-X¬ G-{]n¬ aq-∂ph-sc A-S-®n-Sm≥ No-^v ssh¬-Uv- sse-^v hm¿-U≥ D-Ø-c-hn-´p. BSpIƒ-°v kp-c-£n-X-am-b {]-P-\-\-Im-ew D-d-∏p-h-cp-Øp-∂Xn-\m-bmWnXv. tZ-io-tbm-Zym-\w A-S-®n-Sp-∂ Im-e-b-f-hn¬ Sq-dn-Ãp-Iƒ-°v k-μ¿-i-\w A-\p-h-Zn-°n-√. - -


8

thÀ-]mSv

kozhikode

31 P-\p-h-cn 2014 sh≈n

F³.kn.]n. t\-Xm-hv ]p-g-¡Â- hm-kp-tZ-h³- A-´-cn-¨p ap-l-½-Zv am-ÌÀ

I-®³

Ip-ª-¼p

Ip-ª-n-¸m-¯p

B-km-Zv

in-h-Zm-k³

aq-k

tZ-h-Zm-kv Kp-cp-¡Ä

X-®\ - m-´p-Ic - : sh-SpØq¿ km-aq-ln-I{]-h¿Ø-I\ - pw Zo¿-LI - m-ew a-l√ - v sk-{I-´d - n-bp-am-bncp-∂ I-cp-hm-Øv ap-lΩ - Zv am-ÿ (80). `m-cy: ]mØp-Ω. a-°ƒ: A-–p-∏ (Pn-Zp), jw-kp-±o≥, k°-dn-ø, A-–p¬ \mk¿, ap-jv-Xm-Jv, dw-e, km-_n-d, kp-ss_-Z, Ppssa-e, lw-ko-\. a-cp-a°ƒ: sam-bvX - q-´n, sam-bvXp-Æn, l-ao-Zv, ap-lΩ - Z- v _-jo-¿ (hn.]n.F.Fw.bp.]n, kvI - qƒ ]pØq¿), k-AZ- v (Pn-±),ko\-Øv, dw-e, j-do-\, kp\n-X (]n.Sn.Fw.F-®v.Fkv.F-kv.Xm-sg-t°m-Sv), ]¿-km-\.

I-cn-sh-≈q¿: ]-ø∂ - q¿ K-h. t_m-bvk - v sslkvI - q-fn-se dn-´. Po-h\ - °m-c≥ Hm-W° - p-∂nse ]m-Sm-t®-cn I-Æ≥ (83). I-cn-sh-≈q¿ K-h. ssl-kvI - qƒ, Im-k¿tIm-Uv _p-°v Un-t∏m F-∂n-hn-Sß - f - n-epw tPm-ensN-bvX - n-´p-≠v. `m-cy: bp ]n hn Pm-\In. a-°ƒ: ]-h\ - ≥ (Kƒ-^v), t{]-ae - X - (A[ym-]n-I, A-∂q¿ bp.]n kvI - ƒ), Ko-X (A-[ym-]n-I, cm-as - X-cp bp.]n. kvI - qƒ ]p-Xn-bsX-cp), {io-P (A-[ym]n-I, K-h. l-b¿ - s - k°≥-Ud - n kvI - qƒ, N-{μKn-cn). a-cp-a° - ƒ: \m-cmb-W≥ (sI¬ G-P≥ko-kv, ]-ø∂ - q¿), Zn-t\i≥ (Kƒ-^v), a-[p-kq-Z\≥ (sk-{I-´d - n, I-S∂ - ∏-≈n, ]m-W∏ - p-g k¿ho-k k-lI - c - W - _m¶v), do-\ (C-cn-Wm-hv). k-tlm-Zc - ß - ƒ: tKm]m-e≥, X-ºm-bn, _me≥, Zm-tam-Zc - ≥.

]-ø-∂q¿: B-Zy-Im-e I-Ωyq-Wn-Ãpw sNØpsXm-gn-em-fn bq-\nb≥ (kn.sF.Sn.bp) t\-Xm-hp-am-bn-cp-∂ A∂q¿ X-e-b-t∂-cn ]p-ame-°m-hn-\-Sp-Ø N-°-ctb≥ Ip-™-ºp (88). `m-cy: a-μy-Øv k-tcm-Pn\n. a-°ƒ: K-tW-i≥, kp-tc-i≥ (C-cp-h-cpw Zp-_-bv), c-kn-X. a-cp-a°ƒ: jo-e, _n≥-j, ]fl-\m-`≥. k-tlm-Z-c߃: ]-tc-X-cm-b Ip©n-cn, ]m-dp.

]p-Xn-b-ßm-Sn: ssl-kvIq-fn-\p k-ao-]w Ip™n-∏m-Øp (60). `¿Øm-hv: sI kn Ip-™l-Ω-Zv. a-°ƒ: a-l-aq-Zv, iw-kp±o≥, Ip-™m-bn-i, a≥kq¿, ssd-lm-\-Øv, apkv-X-^, A-iv-d-^v.

ap-g-∏n-e-ßm-Sv: ]-tc-X\m-b C-ºn-®n Kp-cp-°fp-sS a-I≥ Ip-fw-_km¿ I-S-hv tdm-Un-se jm-an¬ B-km-Zv (58). B-{‘-bn-se tlm-´¬hym-]m-cn-bm-bn-cp-∂p. `m-cy: lm-Pn-d. a-°ƒ: jm-\n-Zv (B{‘), j-l¿-_m≥, kdo-\. a-cp-a-°ƒ: apssk-_v (Zp-_-bv), k^, ]-tc-X-\m-b \nkm¿. k-tlm-Z-c-߃: _m-_p, C-Iv-_m¬, ap^n-kp-±o≥, a-lv-dq-^v, km-dp.

am-ln: a-ßm-s´ Iqtem-Øv Xm-sg-Ip-\nbn¬ ]n Fw in-h-Zmk≥ (70). dn-´. an-en-´-dn D-tZym-K-ÿ-\m-Wv. `mcy: sN-dn-b-Øv hn-P-be-£v-an. a-°ƒ: cm-tKjv, Po-th-jv (Zp-_-bv), Po-\-‰v. a-cp-a-I≥: c-ho{μ≥. k-tlm-Z-c-߃: c-ho-{μ≥, t{]-a, hn-Pbn, {]-Im-i≥ (Zp-_bv), ]-tc-X-bm-b \n¿-ae.

Xr-°c - n-∏q¿: Im-tcm-fw tdm-Un¬ Xm-ak - n-°p-∂ hƒ-h° - m-Sv sI Fw aq-k (63). ap-kvenw eo-Kn- s - ‚ ]g-bI - m-e {]-h¿-ØI - \ - pw ssI-t°m-´p-IS- h - v ]qt°m-b X-߃ kva - m-cI shm-t°-j\ - ¬ l-b¿ sk-°≥-Ud - n kvI - qƒ dn´. Po-h\ - ° - m-c\ - p-am-bn-cp∂p. apw-ss_¬, sIm¬-°Ø F-∂n-hn-Sß - f - n¬ hym-]mcn-bpw \yq-kv G-P‚p-ambn-cp-∂p. `m-cy: B-bn-i. a°ƒ: ap-jvX - m-Jv A-la - Z- v (Zp-_b - v), J-ad - p-∂n-k, ap_-jn-d. a-cp-a° - ƒ: h-lm_v (a-te-ky), dm-jn-Zv. ktlm-Zc - ß - ƒ: ap-lΩ - Z- v, l-k≥, A-–p-√, B-bnj, J-Zo-P, C-{_m-low, DΩp-Ip¬-kp.

X-e-t»-cn: Xn-cp-h-ßm-Sv sN-√-s´≥ ho-´n¬ kn hn tZ-h-Zm-kv Kp-cp-°ƒ (48). kn.hn.F≥. I-f-cn kw-L-Øn-s‚ Kp-cp-°fm-bn-cp-∂p. ]n-Xm-hv: ]tc-X-\m-b sN-cn-®¬ _m-e≥ \m-b¿. am-Xmhv: ]-tc-X-bm-b sI cmP-e-£v-an. `m-cy: tKm-]nI. k-tlm-Z-c-߃: Cμn-c, c-a, ]-tc-X-\m-b _m-e-tKm-]m¬. kw-kvIm-cw C-∂v cm-hn-se 11\v N-ºm-Sv ]p-©-°-c Xp-f-kn-bn¬.

sN-½-c³ B-et- °m-Sv: \-cn-b≥-]md-bn-se I-Æm sN-dn-b sN-Ωc - ≥ (85). `m-cy: \mcm-bW - n. a-°ƒ: cm-KnWn, a-t\m-Pv. a-cp-a° - ƒ: \m-cm-ba - ≥, ku-ay. kwkvI - m-cw C-∂v cm-hn-se 11\v ho-´p-hf - ∏ - n¬.

Ip-ªn-¡-®³ \m-bÀ \-Sp-h-Æq¿: Im-c-bm-Sv h-c-Sm-°q¬ Ip-™n-°Æ≥ \m-b¿ (105). `m-cy: I-eym-Wn A-Ω. a-°ƒ: _m-e≥ \m-b¿ (s\m-®m-Sv s]m-Xp-hn-Xc-W-tI-{μw D-S-a), KwKm-[-c≥ \m-b¿, \m-cmb-W≥, N-{μ≥, {io-[c≥, D-Æn (hn-ap-‡-`S≥), `m-kv-I-c≥, ktcm-Pn-\n, h-\-P, kp-ja.

e-£v-an Iq-Øp-]-d-ºv: am-\-t¥cn 12mw ssa-en-se ]-tcX-\m-b Ip-am-c-s‚ `m-cy kn ]n e-£v-an (70). a°ƒ: tcm-ln-Wn, Zmk≥, ]-fln-\n, ]-¶-P, A-tim-I≥, hn-iz-\mY≥, N-{μ≥, _m-_p. acp-a-°ƒ: ap-Ip-μ≥, hk-¥, hm-kp, D-Ø-a≥, Zo-], c-ay.

Kw-Km-[-c³ Iq-Øp-]-d-ºv: Np-≠ßm-s∏m-bn¬ U-b-a≠vap-°n-se A-tß-ap-‰Øv Kw-Km-[-c≥ (63). `mcy: hn-em-kn-\n. a-°ƒ: k-μo-]≥, k-®n≥. a-cp-a°ƒ: {]-_n-X, tc-jv-a.

]m-¯q-«n X-e-t»-cn: sa-bn≥ tdmUv tNm-\m-°-Øv h-f∏n-se ]q-gn-bn¬ ]mØq-´n (80). `¿-Øm-hv: ]-tc-X-\m-b l-k-bv\m¿. a-°ƒ: a-l-aq-Zv, Jm-Z¿ (C-cp-h-cpw Kƒ^v), \-_o-kp, kp-l-d, k-^n-b. a-cp-a-°ƒ: Ckv-am-Cu¬, C-{_mlow, A-–p-√, \-_ok, kp-l-d.

Ir-jv-W-³ D-Zp-a: D-Z-b-aw-K-ew Ing-t°-h-f-∏n-se sI Irjv-W-≥ (58). `m-cy: Im¿-Xym-b-\n. a-°ƒ: {]-ho¨, {]-Pn-X. a-cp-aI≥: c-ta-i≥. k-tlmZ-c-߃: tcm-ln-Wn, e£v-an, \m-cm-b-Wn.

tI-i-h³ t]-cm-{º: Ip-f-Øpw-Xd tI-i-h-≥ (70). `m-cy: tZ-hn. a-°ƒ: D-j, at\m-Pv. a-cp-a-°ƒ: P-bN-{μ≥, Po-\.

c-ho-{µ³ Iq-Øp-]d - º - v: am-ßm-´n-Sw tZ-i_ - ‘ - p-hn-se tIm-af `-h\ - n¬ tIm-´m-bn c-ho{μ≥ (87). `m-cy: Im-©\ - . a-°ƒ: A-Po-jv, dn-Po-jv, c-ay. a-cp-aI - ≥: [¿-ac - m-Pv.

tKm-]m-e³ Iq-Øp-]-d-ºv: sN-dp-hmt©-cn-bn-se ssX-∏-dº-Øv ho-´n¬ a-Ωm-en tKm-]m-e≥ (85). `m-cy: Pm-\p. a-°ƒ: Zm-tam-Z-c≥(Kƒ^v), k-tcm-Pn-\n, k-Xn, h-\-P, D-j, {]-Zo-]≥, jm-Pn, en-\n. a-cp-a-°ƒ: _n-μp, tc-jva, k-Zm-\-μ≥, cm-Lh≥, \m-Wp, c-ho-{μ≥, hn-t\m-Z≥.

I-Æq¿: F≥-.kn.-]n.- kwÿm-\ F-Iv-kn-Iyq-´o-hv Aw-Kw- ap-g-∏n-e-ßm-Sv- It®-cn-sam-´-bn-se ]p-g°¬- hm-kp-tZ-h≥ -(67)A-¥-cn-®p. C-∂-se sshIo-´v 6.-45Hm-sS ho-´n¬- Ipg-™p-ho-W Ct±-lsØ X-e-t»-cn- tIm-˛-Hm-]-td-‰ohv- B-ip-]-{Xn-bn¬- FØn-s®-¶n-epw- c-£n-°m-\m-bn-√.- ar-X-tZ-lw- C-∂p ]-cn-bm-cw -sa-Un-°¬ -tIm-f-Pn-\v ssI-am-dpw.- X-et»-cn- P-\-d¬ -B-ip-]-{Xn-bn¬- h-®v- cm-{Xn-X-s∂ IÆv-\o-°w-sN-bv-Xp.{_-Æ≥- tIm-f-Pn¬- hn-Zym¿-Yn-bm-bn-cn-s° sI.F-kv-.bp-hn-eq-sS-bm-Wv- hm-kp-tZ-h≥ s]m-Xp-cwK-sØ-Øn-b-Xv. sI.F-kv.bp.- Pn-√m ssh-kv- {]-knU‚ v, bq-Øv- tIm¨-{K-kv- Pn-√m {]-kn-U‚ v, sk-{I´-dn- F-∂o \n-e-I-fn¬ {]-h¿-Øn-®n-cp-∂p. D-Ω≥-Nm≠n- bq-Øv-tIm¨-{K-kv- {]-kn-U‚m-bn-cp-∂-t∏mƒ kw-ÿm-\ \n¿-hm-l-I- k-an-Xn- Aw-K-am-bn-cp-∂p Ct±lw.- 1979¬- tIm¨-{K-kv- ]n-f¿-∂-t∏mƒ- B‚Wn-s°m-∏w \n-∂p. tIm¨-{K-kv(F) hn-`m-Kw- Un-.kn-.kn-. sk-{I-´-dn-bm-bn-cp-∂p.tIm¨-{K-kv-(F-kv-) Pn-√m sk-{I-´-dn-, F≥-.kn-.]n. Pn-√m {]-kn-U‚ v, I-Æq¿- P-h-l¿ -sse-{_-dnap≥- sk-{I-´-dn-, Pn-√m k-l-I-c-W- _m-¶v- ap≥ -U-bd-Iv-S¿,- ap-g-∏n-e-ßm-Sv- k¿-ho-kv- k-l-I-c-W _m-¶vap≥- U-bd-Iv-S¿, sF-]v-tkm- kw-ÿm-\ ssh-kv-{]kn-U‚ v,- tZ-io-b-Iu¨-kn-ew-Kw,- C-kv-I-^v- Pn-√m {]-kn-U‚ v,- {_-Æ≥ -tIm-f-Pv- ]q¿-h- hn-Zym¿-Yn- kwL-S-\-bm-b {_-Æ-ss\-‰v-kv- `m-c-hm-ln F-∂o- \n-eI-fn-epw- {]-h¿-Øn-®n-cp-∂p. ap-g-∏n-e-ßm-Sv- Cu-kv-‰vF¬.-]n.- kv-Iqƒ- am-t\-P-cm-Wv.A-hn-hm-ln-X≥.- ]n-Xm-hv: ]-tc-X-\m-b ]p-g-°¬ cm-a≥- (A-[ym-]-I≥- ap-g-∏n-e-ßm-Sv- Cu-kv-‰v- F¬.-]n.kv-Iqƒ).- am-Xm-hv: ]-tc-X-bm-b e-£v-an -(A-[ym-]n-I, ap-g-∏n-e-ßm-Sv- Cu-kv-‰v- F¬.-]n.- kv-Iqƒ).- k-tlm-Z-c߃-: ]-fl-\m-`≥,- I-a-em-£n,- h-k-¥,- ]-tc-X-cm--b ]p-g-°¬ -_m-e-Ir-jv-W≥,- kp-Kp-W≥,- N-{μ≥.-

ap-kv-enw eo-Kv t\-Xm-hv F sI I-am lm-Pn A-´-cn-¨p k-tcm-Pn-\n X-e-t»-cn: s]m-∂yw ]dmw-Ip-∂n-se X-´m-t®-cn k-tcm-Pn-\n (75). `¿-Ømhv: ]-tc-X-\m-b A-NypX≥. a-°ƒ: tl-a-e-X, A-c-hn-μm-£≥ (kv-am-jv sS-bv-te-gv-kv, Nn-d-°-c), {io-I-e, ]-tc-X-\m-b PntX-{μ≥. a-cp-a-°ƒ: {]Im-i≥, am-[-h≥, Pn-j.

I-gn-™ Zn-hk - w sImSp-ap-≠b - n¬ A-¥c - n-® s]-cp-ºd - sXm-Sn ap-lΩ - Z- m-Pn

Ip-ª-l-½-Zv lm-Pn

A-l-½-Zv

ImÀ-Xym-b-\n

cm-a-N-{µ³ F-gp-¯-ѳ

Ip-ªn-cm-a³

am-[-hn-¡p-«n

A-\nÂ-Ip-amÀ -

Iq-Øp-]-d-ºv: tIm-´-bw Hm-em-bn-°-c-bn-se amcn-bw-I-≠n ho-´n¬ Fw sI A-l-Ω-Zv (64). `mcy: sI ]n dm-_n-b. a°ƒ: Im-knw, l¿-jmZv, Pw-jo¿, d-lo-\. a-cpa-I≥: lm-Pn-d, Im-knw (hym-]m-cn, B-{‘). kw-kv-Im-cw C-∂v cm-hnse H-º-Xn-\v tIm-´-bØ-ßm-Sn J-_¿-ÿm\n¬.

I-S-ep-≠n: a-Æq¿ ap-°Øv-I-S-hv ]n-em-°m-´v Im¿-Xym-b-\n (88). aÆq¿ ]-©m-b-Øv {]-Y-a {]-kn-U‚ v ]-tc-X-\m-b ]n-em-°m-´v tKm-]m-e-s‚ `m-cy-bm-Wv. a-°ƒ: hn-Pb≥ (_n-kn-\- v), taml-\≥ (_n-kn-\- v-˛Im¿-tKm-kv-‰o¬), ku-an\n, _m-em-a-Wn, P-b-e£v-an, e-Xn-I, ]-tc-X-\mb cm-Pp (^n-enw A-hm¿Uv tP-Xm-hv-˛-\m-cm-bw). acp-a-°ƒ: X-´mw-I-≠n tkm-a-kp-μ-c≥ (X-´mw-I≠n _m-t¶-gv-kv), \m-St©-cn k¿-thm-Ø-a≥ (dn-´. am-t\-P¿, sI-.F-kv.F-^v.C), hn-P-b-e-£van, P-\n, kp-a, ]-tc-X-cmb tIm-a-Øv A-tim-I≥ (jm-Pn Xo-tb-‰¿, t_∏q¿), Fw B¿ {]-km-Zv.

sN¿-∏p-t»-cn: ]-Xn-bSn-bn¬ cm-a-N-{μ≥ Fgp-Ø-—≥ (86). sN¿-∏p-f-t»-cn K-h¨sa‚ v l-b¿-sk-°≥U-dn kv-Iq-fn-se B-ZyIm-e A-[ym-]-I-\mWv. `m-cy: ]-fln-\n So-®¿ (dn-´. A-[ym-]n-I, Pn.hn.F-®v.F-kv.F-kv, sN¿-∏p-f-t»-cn). a-°-fn√.

t]-cm-{º: A-ºm-b-∏m-d-bnse ]p-en-t°m-´v ao-ج Ip-™n-cm-a≥ (60). `m-cy: \m-cm-b-Wn. a-°ƒ: kp-tcjv-_m-_p, kp-\n-X, kp-[ojv. a-cp-a-°ƒ: cm-P≥, kp\n, A-Rv-Pp. k-tlm-Z-c߃: ]n Fw tKm-]m-e≥, _m-e-Ir-jv-W≥, Pm-\-In, I-eym-Wn, tI-i-h≥, ]-tcX-\m-b tKm-]m-e≥ (dn-´. t]m-en-kv).

Xm-\q¿: ]-cn-bm-]p-cw tam-cy ]-tc-X-\m-b sN∂-e-a-®n-b-Øv _m-eIr-j-vW≥-\m-b-cp-sS `m-cy t]m-°m-´v am-[-hn°p-´n (Nn-∂-°p-´n˛86). k-tlm-Z-c-߃: \m-cmb-W≥-Ip-´n -\m-b¿, im-c-Zm-Ω, ]-tc-X-\m-b _m-e-N-{μ≥-\m-b¿.

Ip-ªn-¡-®³ \m-bÀ

t]-cm-{º: tN-t\m-fn-bnse Io-g¬ ao-ج ]\m-∏p-d-Øv th-em-bp[≥ (65). `m-cy: cm-[. a°ƒ: c-P-\n, c-hn-X, cRvPn-Xv. a-cp-a-°ƒ: {]ho¨, kp-`m-jv.

_m-ep-t»-cn: ]-\-ßm-Sv ]p-Xn-b-Im-hv ap-°n¬ Xp-º-bn¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b D-Æn-\m-b-cp-sS a-Iƒ ku-an-\n (43). `¿-Ømhv: ]n _-m-e-Ir-jv-W≥ ]-d-ºn¬ -_-km¿ (]mf-bw am¿-°-Øv). a°ƒ: l-cn-{]n-b (s{]mhn-U≥-kv F-®v.Fkv.F-kv, tIm-gn-t°mSv), {io-l-cn (Fw.F.Fw.bp.]n kvIqƒ ]-d-ºn¬ _km¿). k-©-b-\w RmbdmgvN.

ta-∏-b-q¿: Im-c-bm-Sv h-c-Zm°q¬ Ip-™n-°-Æ≥ \mb¿ (105). `m-cy: I-eym-Wn A-Ω. a-°ƒ: _m-e≥ \mb ¿(td-j≥ tjm-∏v am-t\P¿, s\-m-®m-Sv), Kw-Km-[c≥ \m-b¿, \m-cm-b-W≥, N-{μ≥, {io-[-c≥ (ss{Uh¿), D-Æn (dn-´. an-en-´-dn), `m-kv-I-c≥, k-tcm-Pn-\n, h\-P, kp-j-a. a-cp-a-°ƒ: tZ-hn sN-dp-h-Æq¿, I-a-e Im-c-bm-Sv, {]-k-∂ Xn-cp-hßm-bq¿, an-\n _m-ep-t»cn, do-\ hm-I-bm-Sv, Ko-X Im-hp-¥-d, B-i ]m-te-cn-, ]-fl-\m-`≥ \m-b¿ Im-cbm-Sv, {io-[-c≥ hm-eyt°m-Sv, cm-P≥ \-Sp-h-Æq¿.

I-S-ta-cn: ]-tc-X-\m-b a-tÆm-fn A-Ω-Xv Ip-‰nbn-en-s‚ `m-cy Ip™m-an l-÷p-Ω (78). -a-°ƒ.-A-_v-Zp-√,- sambv-Xp,- A-jv-d-^v (aq-hcpw J-Ø¿), \-^o-k,P-ao-e,- \-ko-a. a-cp-a°ƒ. I-cp-hm-≠n-bn¬ kq-∏n (-\-cn-°q-´pwNm¬), -ao-Ø-se am-dmt©-cn A-Ω-Zv (-ta-ap≠),- A-´-°p-f-ß-c Ako-kv (-\-cn-°m-t´-cn)-, ]-tc-X-bm-b B-bn-i sN-dp-Ip-∂p-Ω¬,-sNº-c-Øn-°-≠n km-d,- ab-ßn-bn¬ \-ao-Z (-hmWn-ta¬).

a-¶-S: tªm-°v ]-©m-bØw-Kw, Z-en-Xv eo-Kv t\Xm-hp-am-b a-¶-S th-cpw]p-em-°¬ I-f-Øpw-]Sn-b≥ A-\n¬-Ip-am¿ F-∂ A-\n-b≥ (48). Zen-Xv eo-Kv a-¶-S \n-tbmP-I a-fi-ew P-\-d¬ sk-{I-´-dn-bpw F-kv.-Sn.bp.- a-¶-S ]-©m-b-Øv P\-d¬ sk-{I-´-dn-bpw IqSn-bm-Wv. ]n-Xm-hv: them-bp-[≥, am-Xm-hv: e£v-an, `m-cy: Ip-™n-e£v-an. a-°ƒ: c-ay, tc-jva, c-Rv-Pn-Xv, a-cp-a-°ƒ: i-in-Ip-am¿ tX-e-°m-Sv, a-tl-jv A-e-\-√q¿.

A-½-Zv

sN-t¡m-«n

\m-cm-b-W³-

Ip-ªn-t]m-¡À -

G-en-bm-½

am-[-hn

Xn-cp-h-≈q-¿: ]p-\-Øn°-≠n A-Ω-Zv (80). `mcy: ]-tc-X-bm-b B-bni. a-°ƒ: _-jo¿, k°o-\, i-co-^v (JØ¿), A-kv-a. a-cp-a-°ƒ: \m-k¿, A–p-¿-d-lv-am≥, dw-e, ap\o-d.

th-fw: s]-cp-h-b-en-se B-Zy-Im-e tIm¨-{K-kv {]-h-¿-Ø-I-\m-bn-cp-∂ F-gp-Ø-—≥ I-≠n sNt°m-´n (77). `m-cy: Pm\p. a-°ƒ: im-c-Z, ]-tcX-\m-b N-{μ≥, \-fn-\n, tim-`, kp-\n¬. a-cp-a°ƒ: hn-iz≥, `m-kv-Ic≥, Zn-t\-i≥, Kw-K.

tam-ßw: H-f-a-Xn¬ sN\-°¬ th-em-bp-[-s‚ a-I≥ \m-cm-b-W≥ (aWn-˛50). am-Xm-hv: ]-tcX-bm-b Pm-\-In. `m-cy: an-\n. k-tlm-Z-c-߃: hn-P-b≥, tam-l-\≥, jm-Pn, jm-_p, \-fn-\n, c-a, _n-μp.

th-ß-c: ]p-Ø-\-ßm-Snbn-se Im-hp-߬ Ip™n-t]m-°¿ (72). `mcy: a-Ωm-Øp. a-°ƒ: ssk-X-e-hn (Pn-±), l\o-^, A-ko-kv (A-_qZ-_n), ssa-aq-\. a-cp-a°ƒ: _o-°p-´n, \-ko-a, Xm-ln-d, A-l-Ω-Zv-Ip-´n.

F-S-°-c: ]m-te-am-Sv i-¶cw-Ip-f-sØ am-{º a-Ømbn-bp-sS `m-cy G-en-bmΩ (83). a-°ƒ: sska¨, tZ-h-k-y, ta-cn, s_∂n, `n-_p, h¬-k-e, tj¿-fn. a-cp-a-°ƒ: h¬k-Ω, am-X-yp, en-kn, t__n, tdm-bn, en-Pn, kp_n.

h-SI - c - : ]-tc-X\ - m-b In-g°-bn¬ Ip-am-cs - ‚ `m-cy ]-dº - Ø - v am-[h - n (90). a°ƒ: N-{μn, Pm-\p, k-tcmPn-\n, \-fn-\n, _m-eI - r-jvW≥, h¬-ke - . a-cp-a° - ƒ: I-cp-W≥, _me≥, A-®p-X≥, tam-l\≥, ]-tc-X\ - m-b I-Wmc≥, kp-a.

th-ßc - : F-kv.F-kv tdm-Uv ]q-°p-Øv Ip-™l-ΩZ- v lm-Pn (78). `m-cy: ]m-Øp. a-°ƒ: B-bnip, J-Zo-P, A-kva - m-_n, dp-Jn-b, kp-sse-J, ap-lΩ-Zv A-en (ku-Zn), kpJ-Zo-P a-¶S- : sh-≈n-e ]-dt- °m- ss_-Z, d-km-Jv, dw-e, C- ƒ: A´p-]e - Ø - v Im-cym-´n¬ am- {_m-low. a-cp-a° - ^ - , ssk-\-_ \p F-∂ ap-lΩ - Z- n-s‚ `m- e-hn, d-Du-^v, ap-kvX cy J-Zo-P (67). a-°ƒ: P- A-–p¬ A-ko-kv, a-Po- X-®-\m-´p-I-c: B-cy-ºmZv, in-lm-_v, km-Pn-Zv, kp- hv Iq-´-]v-em≥ ho-´n¬ ao-e, \-^o-k, A-eh - n, Im-knw, ko-\Ø - v. a-cp-a- a-ø. tN-°p-´n-bp-sS `m-cy °ƒ: Ip-™n-ap-lΩ - Z- v, assk-\-_ (55). iw-kp_o-a Po-Zv, D-Ω¿, \p-kp-dØ - v, ±o≥, _-jo¿, ap-l-Ω-Zv ]p-Xp-∏m-Sn: a-tem-dw Iko-\Ø - v. jm-^n, A-eo-a. a-cp-a∏n-°p-∂v ]-tc-X\ - m-b °ƒ: d-ko-b, ap¿-jo-Zv, Ip-´n-lk - s - ‚ `m-cy s\A-Ðp Jm-ZÀ _-jo¿. k-tlm-Z-cXm-ac - t- »-cn: Cu¿-t∏m-W tcm-Øv _o-a (74). a߃: ]-tc-X-\m-b, Ahm-b¬ sXm-Sp-Ib - n¬ A- °ƒ: A-–p-√, A-_q-_- ssk-\m¿, lw-k. °¿, ap-lΩ - Z- e - n, C-kv–p¬ Jm-Z¿ (80). `m-cy: J-Zo-P. a-°ƒ: l-\o-^, lm-Jv k-Jm-^n, A-–p- l-k³ im-lp¬ l-ao-Zv, C¿-jm-Zv ∂m-k¿, a-dn-bw. a-cp-aF-S-°p-fw: ]-tc-X-\m-b - m≥, B-an-\, H-f-I-c A-l-Ω-Zv-Ip-´n(aq-hc - pw dn-bm-Zv), B-bn-i- °ƒ: D-kva - , k-°o-\, ap-kv-eym-cp-sS a-I≥ l°p-´n, dw-e, kp-ld - , sse- \-Zo-d, kp-lvd dq-_n-b, l-^vk - Ø - v. e, jm-ln-Z. k-≥ (52). `m-cy: dw-e.

th-em-bp-[³

ku-an-\n

Ip-ªm-an l-Öp-½

_o-hm-¯p ]p-Xp-s]m-∂m-\n: Np-h∂ tdm-Un-\p k-ao-]w ]p-Ø≥-]p-c-bn¬ _ohm-Øp (63).`¿-Øm-hv: ]-tc-X-\m-b _o-cm≥. a-°ƒ: D-ssa_, B-an-\, ssk-\-_, ku-Z, sse-e, kp-lv-dm_n, kp-ss_¿, _m-Zpj. a-cp-a-°ƒ: sam-bv-Xp, sam-bv-Xo≥, A-iv-d-^v.-

]m-d-a-S-bn a-®n-Sn-ªphoWv c-−pt]À a-cn¨p

A-Sq¿: A-Sq¿ G-\m-Znaw-Ke-Øv ]m-d-a-S-bn-¬ a-ÆnSn-™p ho-Wv c-≠v sXm-gn-em-fn-Iƒ a-cn®p. C-f-aÆq¿ Ip∂n-S a-™-Øq-cnem-bn-cp-∂p A-]-ISw. s{]m-ss¢≥ ss{U-h¿- tIm-∂n sN-ß-d a-cp-tØ-Øv ta-Ωp-dn jn-_p (27), klm-bn h-S-t»-cn-°-c sX°pw-a-e ]p-Ø≥-]p-cbn¬ tKm-]n-bp-sS aI≥ A-\o-jv (26) F-∂n-hcmWv a-cn-®-Xv. C∂-se cm-hnse 9.45Hm-sS-bm-bn-cp-∂p A]-I-Sw. 200 A-Sn-tbm-fw Db-c-Øn-ep-≈ Ip-∂pw d_¿ a-c-ßfpw C-Sn-™v, A-\ojv a-Æv \o-°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂ c-≠v s{]m-ss¢-\p-Iƒ-°p-ta¬ ]-Xn-°p-I-bm-bn-cp∂p. Ip-∂v C-Sn-™v h-cp∂-XpI-≠ Ch¿ Hm-Snc-£s∏-Sm≥ {i-an-s®-¶nepw Iq-‰≥ ]m-d- ho-gp-I-bm-bn-cp∂p. Cu ka-bw ]m-d-a-S-bn-se 20 Hm-fw sXm-gn-em-fnIƒ {]`m-X`£-Ww I-gn-°m≥ ]p-d-tØ-°v t]mbXn-\m¬ IqSp-X¬ Bf-]m-b-ap-≠m-bn√. A-]-I-SØn¬ Iq-Sp-X¬ sXm-gn-em-fn-Iƒ Dƒ-s∏-´n-cn-°m-sa∂ kw-i-bhpw ]-cn-{`m-¥n ]-c-Øn. k-ao]sØ a-‰v {I-j¿ bq-\n-‰p-I-fn¬ \n-∂v Iq-Sp-X¬ ln-‰m-®n-Ifpw Pm-°v lm-a-dp-Ifpw F-Øn-®m-Wv c-£m-{]-h¿Ø\w \-S-Øn-bXv. ar-X-tZ-l-߃ On-∂-`n-∂am-b \ne-bn-em-bn-cp-∂p. t]m-k-‰vtam¿-´-Øn-\p ti-jw ar-XtZ-l߃ _-‘p-°ƒ-°v hn-´p\¬In. d-h\yq h-Ip-∏n-s‚ A-\p-a-Xn-bn√m-sX-bm-Wv ]md-a-S {]-h¿-Øn-®n-cp-∂-sX-∂v A-[n-Ir-X¿ ]-d™p. d-h-\yq, t]m-en-kv hn-`m-K-߃ A-t\z-j-W߃ B-cw-`n-®n-´p-≠v. h-μ-\-bm-Wv jn-_p-hn-s‚ `mcy. a-°ƒ: F-_n≥, A√p. A-\o-jn-s‚ am-Xmhv: Ko-X-. k-tlm-Z-c-n: A\ne.

ku-Zn-bn a-cn-¨ lm-jn-an-sâ a-¿n-¯v C-¶v \m-«n-se-¯n-¡pw

D-cp-h-®m¬: ku-Zn-bn¬ hm-l-\m-]-I-S-Øn¬ a-cn-® in-h-]p-cw sh-º-Sn tdm-Un¬ d-Cu-km a≥-kn-en¬ Sn ]n lm-jn-an-s‚ ar-X-tZ-lw C-∂v D-®-bv-°v c-t≠msS in-h-]-p-c-sØ-Øpw. C-∂p cm-hn-se tIm-gn-t°mSv hn-am-\-Øm-h-f-Øn¬ F-Øp-∂ ar-X-tZ-lw in-h]p-c-Øv ho-´n-se-Øn-®- ti-jw in-h-]p-cw Pp-am-a-kvPn-Zn-\v k-ao-]w s]m-Xp-Z¿-i-\-Øn-\v h-bv-°pw. C-∂-se ssh-Io-´v \m-´n-se-tØ-≠n-bn-cp∂ ar-XtZ-lw Fw-_-kn-bn-se \-S-]-Sn-{I-a-߃ ]q¿-Ønbm-hm-Ø-Xv Im-c-W-am-Wv H-cp Zn-h-kw ssh-In-b-Xv. Rm-b-dm-gv-N cm-hn-se 10Hm-sS-bm-Wv ku-Zn-bn¬Xzm-C-^v F-∂ ÿ-e-Øp-h-®v lm-jnw k-©-cn-® Ct∂m-h Im-dpw s{S-bn-e-dpw Iq-´n-bn-Sn-®v A-]-I-Sw \-S∂-Xv.

ku-Znbn \ncym-X-\mbn

sN¿-∏p-f-t»-cn: s\-√m-b ]p-em-°m-Sv F-f-∏mw-tIm´v Xm-g-tØ-Xn¬ ss_-{Zphn-s‚ a-I≥ ap-kv-X-^ ankv-lm-ln Im-an¬-k-Jm^n (35) ku-Zn A-td-_ybn-se A-_-l-bn¬ a-cW-s∏-´p. am-Xm-hv: \-^ok. `m-cy: dm-_n A-Øp¬ A-Z-hn-ø. a-°ƒ: \-Cuw-dk, ^m-Xn-a-m ssi-a, A-_q-lp-ssd, ^m-Xn-a kpssl-a. k-tlm-Z-c-߃: A-_q-_-°¿,A-e-hn-°p´n, A-–p¬-k-emw, sk-ev-^p-±o≥, _o-hm-Øp-Ω, sF-im-_n, d-io-Z,ko-\-Øv.

a-c-¯nÂ-\n-¶p ho-Wp- a-cn-¨p k-^n-b-

I-Xn-bm-ap

J-Zo-P

Ip-ªn-ap-l-½-Zv lm-Pn -

_ocm³-Ip-«n

lw-k- lm-Pn

hm-g-°m-Sv: sN-dp-hm-bq¿ ap-≈-ºm-e-Øn¬ ap-lΩ-ZvIp-´n-bp-sS `m-cy k^n-b (56). a-I≥, A-ao-dp±o≥ (dn-bm-Zv), a-cp-a-Iƒ. dn-^m-\ No-t°m-Sv, ktlm-Z-c-߃: ssk-\p±o≥-, P-ao-e-, jw-kn-b-, j-d-^n-b.

th-ß-c: Du-c-Iw I-t√߬-]-Sn th-tc-߬ sam-bv-Xo-s‚ `m-cy I-Xnbm-ap (55). a-°ƒ: B-cn-^, lm-P-d, lm-cn-kv, i-ao¬. a-cp-a°ƒ: \q-dp-±o≥ (sN-≠]p-dm-b), ap-kv-X-^ (lmPn-bm¿-]-≈n).

Xm-a-c-t»-cn: A-Sn-hm-cw s]m-´n-°-bn¬ a-c-°m-dns‚ `m-cy J-Zo-P (70). a°ƒ: K-^q¿ (sI.Fw.-kn.-kn-, -a-°), dp-Jn-ø, kp-l-d, j-co-^, P-ko-\. a-cp-a-°ƒ: dm-_n-b, tambn≥, lw-k, A-–p¬ Jm-Z¿, ap-l-Ω-Zv.

h-fm-t©-cn: aq-®n-°¬ Xfn-I∏ - d - º - n¬ Ip-™np-lΩ-Zv- lm-Pn (D-∏m-Wn-˛68).a-°ƒ: sam-bvX - o≥-Ip-´n, J-ad - p-±o≥, Ao-k, ap-lΩ - Zv km-enw.-ac - p-a° - ƒ - : dm_n-b, jw-\m-Pm-kva - n≥, A-–p¬ l-ao-Zv ]-´¿-\S- °m-hv, kp-aø - X-kv\ - nw.-

a-°-c-∏-dºv: Im-fm-hv ]p-Xp-°p-Sn _o-cm≥-Ip´n (82). `mcy: Ban-\ cm-a-]pcw. a°ƒ: A-–p¬ I-cow, ap-l-ΩZv, DΩ¿, A–p¬ \mk¿, D-ΩpIp¬kp, ssa-aq-\.

a-°c - ∏ - d - º - v: sX-°Ø - v lw-kl - m-Pn (68). `m-cy: ssk-\_ - . a-°ƒ: A–p¬- d-low, A-–p¬ _-jo¿, km-Pn-Z, kp-aø - . a-cp-a° - ƒ: k-do-\, jlm-\, A-lΩ - Z- v I-_o¿, ^m-dq-Jv.

t]m-en-kns\ `-b-t¶m-Sn-b bp-hm-hv In-W-än ho-Wp- a-cn-¨p c-−p-t]À-¡v Kp-cp-X-cw; \o-te-iz-c-¯v kw-LÀ-jm-h-Ø Im-™-ßm-Sv: t]m-en-kns\ `bt∂mSnb bp-hm-°fn¬ c≠pt]¿ Bƒ-a-d-bn-√m-Ø In-W‰n¬ ho-Wp. H-cmƒ X¬-£W - w acn-®p. c-≠p-t]¿-°v ]cn-t°‰p. kw`-hØ - n¬ {]Xn-tj-[n®v \m´p-Im¿ \o-te-iz-cw t]m-en-kv kvt‰-j≥ h-f™ p. cm-{Xn ssh-Inbpw kw-L¿-jm-hÿ Xp-S¿ - ∂p. C-∂s - e ssh-Io´v B-dc - t- bmsS-bm-Wv kw-`h - w. Nn-d∏ - p-dw a¬ky-am¿-°-‰v sI-´n-S-Øn¬ C-cn°p-Ib - m-bn-cp-∂ bp-hm-°s - f \ote-iz-cw F-kv.s - F ssa-°n-fn-s‚ t\-Xr-Xz-Øn-ep-≈ t]m-en-kv kw-Lw em-Øn-®m¿-Pv sN-øp-I-

N-°-c-°-√v: ap-kv-enw eo-Kv t\-Xm-hpw a-X-˛-km-aqln-I -cw-K-sØ \n-d-km-∂n-[y-hp-am-bn-cp-∂ ]p-d-hq¿ ss_-Øp d-lv-a-Øn¬ F -sI -I-am¬ lm-Pn (80) A¥-cn-®p. ap-kv-enw eo-Kv Pn-√m I-Ωn-‰n-bw-Kw, am-b≥ ap-°v im-Jm {]-kn-U‚ v, kn.F-®v.- sk‚¿ sN-b¿am≥, ]p-d-hq¿ a-l-√v P-amA-Øv I-Ωn-‰n {]-knU‚ v, k-a-kv-X aZvd-km am-t\-Pv-sa‚ v I-Ωn-‰n Pn√m {]-kn-U‚ v, kw-ÿm\ I-Ωn-‰n-bw-Kw, kw-bp‡ P-am-A-Øv Pn-√m JPm©n, ]m-∏n-\n-t»-cn Pman-A A-kv-A-Zn-ø I-Ωn-‰n-bw-Kw, k-a-kv-X C-kv-eman-Iv sk‚¿ J-Pm≥-Pn F-∂o \n-e-I-fn¬ {]-h¿-Øn®ph-cn-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. ap-kv-enw eo-Kv kw-ÿm-\ Iu¨-kn¬ Aw-Kw, F-S-°m-Sv a-fi-ew JPm©n, kw-ÿm-\ l-÷v I-Ωn-‰n-bw-Kw F-∂o \n-e-I-fn-epw {]-h¿-Øn-®n-cp-∂p. `m-cy: sI -Sn -B-bn-kp. a-°ƒ: ^m-Xzn-a, kpss_¿ (_mw-•q¿), ^m-bn-k, km-_n-Øv, ^m-_n-Z. a-cp-a-°ƒ: Sn -ap-l-Ω-ZvIp-™n, kn A-_v-Zp- -emw (dn-bm-Zv), ]n -kn -Ip-™p-ap-l-Ω-Zv lm-Pn (sk-{I-´-dn, ]p-d-hq¿ a-l¬ P-am-A-Øv I-Ωn-‰n), k-_n-X (IÆq¿), ^-kv-\ (X-e-t»-cn). k-tlm-Z-c-߃: F -sI l-ao-Zv, a-dn-bw, ]-tc-X-cm-b sam-bv-Xo≥ lm-Pn, ap-lΩ-Zv, ^m-Xzn-a.

bm-bn-cp-∂p. C-Xp-I≠ - v `-bt- ∂mSp-I-bm-bn-cp-∂ bp-hm-°-fm-Wv In-W‰ - n¬ ho-WX - v. Nn-d∏ - p-ds - Ø Ip-´n-cm-a≥-tIm-a-cw-˛-Ip-™-Ωmdp Z-º-Xn-I-fp-sS a-I≥ i-in-[-c\m-Wv- (29) a-cn-®-Xv. H-∏-w InW‰n¬ hoW Ip™n-cm-as‚ aI≥ K-tW-is\ (28) Kpcp-Xc ]cn-°pI-tfmsS awK-em-]pcw kzImcy Bip-]-{Xn-bn¬ {]th-in-∏n-®p. HmSp-∂X - n-\nsS ]cn-t°‰ \m-cmb-Ws - ‚ a-I≥ k-Pn-Xv(28) \oteizcw kzImcy Bip-]{- Xn-bn¬ NnIn¬k-bn-emWv. i-in-[-c≥ \o-te-iz-cw ]-©m-bØ - v ap≥ {]kn-U‚ v sI hn Zm-tam-Zc - s - ‚ k-

tlm-Zc - ]p-{X-\m-Wv. t]m-en-kv \S-]-Sn-bn¬ {]-Xntj-[n-®v \m´p-Im¿ kvt- ‰-j\ - n-te°p am¿-®v \-SØ - n. F-∂m¬ Nn-d∏p-dw a¬-ky-am¿-°-‰pw Hm-´p-Iº-\n-bpw tI-{μo-Ic - n-®v km-aq-lnIhn-cp-≤ {]-h¿-Ø-\-߃ \-S°p-∂p-s≠-∂ hnh-csØ Xp-S¿∂v t]m-enkv ÿ-e-sØ-Øptºmƒ a-Zy-]n-®p-sIm-≠n-cp-∂ Nn-e¿ Hm-Sn-t∏m-hp-Ib - m-bn-cp-s∂∂v \o-te-iz-cw F-kv.sF ssa°nƒ ]-d™ p. kw-`-h-Øn¬ {]-Xn-tj-[n-®v \o-te-iz-c-Øv C-∂v l¿-Øm¬ {]-Jym-]n-®n-´p-≠v.

Xn-c-sª-Sp-¸n [o-h-c-k-ap-Zm-b-¯n\v ko-äv \Â-I-Ww: [o-h-c-k-` B-e-∏p-g: h-cp-∂ ]m¿-e-sa‚ v Xn-c-s™-Sp-∏n¬ [o-h-c-k-ap-Zmb-Øn¬-s∏-´-h¿-°v ko-‰v \¬Im≥ {]-_-e cm-{„o-b-∏m¿-´nIƒ X-øm-dm-h-W-sa-∂v A-Jn-e tI-c-f [o-h-c-k-` kw-ÿm-\ IΩn-‰n cm-{„o-b ]m¿-´n-I-tfm-Sv B-h-iy-s∏-´p. tI-c-f-Øn¬ a¬-ky-sØm-gn-em-fn hn-`m-K-ßfn¬ 60 i-X-am-\-Øn-s‚ {]m-Xn\n-[y-ap-≈ [o-h-c-k-ap-Zm-bsØ ]-cn-K-Wn-°m≥ cm-{„o-b ]m¿-´n-Iƒ X-øm-dm-h-Ww. 12mw ]-©-h¬-k-c ]-≤-Xn°m-e-Øv a¬-ky-sØm-gn-em-fn t£-a-Øn-\v tI-{μ-a-{¥n-k-`-bpsS km-º-Øn-I-Im-cy k-an-Xn h-I-bn-cp-Ønb 640 tIm-Sn cq-] Xn-I-®pw A-]-cym-]v-X-am-b-Xn-

\m¬ A-Xv 6400 tIm-Sn cq-]-bm°n h¿-[n-∏n-°-W-sa-∂v [o-h-ck-` B-h-iy-s∏-´p. 70,000 tImSn cq-]-bp-sS a¬-ky-k-º-Øv cm-Py-Øn-\v kw-`m-h-\ sN-øp∂ a¬-ky-sØm-gn-em-fn-I-fp-sS t£-a-Øn-\v h-I-bn-cp-Øp-∂ apgp-h≥ Xp-I-bpw tI-{μ-K-h¨sa‚ v \¬-I-W-w. tZ-h-kzw \nb-a-\-ß-fn¬ A-ln-μp-°ƒ-°p≈ 18 i-X-am-\w kw-h-c-Ww kwh-c-W k-ap-Zm-b-߃-°p Xs∂ B-\p-]m-Xn-I-am-bn \¬-IWsa∂pw Ah¿ Bh-iys∏´p. Cu 18 i-X-am-\w ap-∂m° k-ap-Zm-b-ß-fn-se km-ºØn-I-am-bn ]n-∂m-°w \n¬-°p∂ ln-μp-°ƒ-°v \¬-I-W-sa∂p-≈ F≥.F-kv.F-kv. P-\-

d¬ sk-{I-´-dn-bp-sS- B-h-iyw H-cp Im-c-W-h-im-epw Aw-Ko-Icn-°-cp-sX-∂pw C-Xv `-c-WL-S\m hn-cp-≤-am-sW-∂pw [o-h-ck-`m P-\-d¬ sk-{I-´-dn hn Zn-\I-c≥ ]-d-™p. `q-cn-]-£ sFIy-Øn-s‚ t]-cp-]-d-™p kw-hc-W k-ap-Zm-b-߃-°v A¿-lX-s∏-´ kw-h-c-Ww t\-Sn-sb-Sp°m-\p-≈ \o-°-sØ F-¥p- hne-sIm-Sp-Øpw ]-cm-P-b-s∏-SpØp-∂-Xn-\v F-kv.F≥.Un.]n A-S-°-ap-≈ Z-en-Xv-˛-]n-∂m-° k-ap-Zm-b kw-L-S-\-Iƒ H-‰s°-´m-bn \n¬-°p-sa-∂pw At±lw ]-d-™p. A-º-e-∏p-g Xm-eq-°v I-Ωn-‰n {]-kn-U‚ v kt¥m-jv Pn-tX-{μ-\pw hm¿-Ømk-tΩ-f-\-Øn¬ ]-s¶-Sp-Øp.

A-e-\-√q¿: sh-´p-∂-Xn-\n-sS a-c-Øn¬-\n-∂v ho-Wv sXmgn-emfn a-cn-®p. Im-´p-Ip-f-Øv Xm-a-kn-°p-∂ BWn-b≥-]-d-º≥ A-–p¬ k-emw (45) B-Wv a-cn-®Xv. C-∂-se cm-hn-se 11Hm-sS-bm-Wv kw-`-hw. `m-cy: dlo-a. a-°ƒ: dm-Pn-^v, dm-jn-Zv, dn-jm-Zv.

\-h-h-[p- Xq-§n-a-cn-¨ \ne-bnÂ

Im-k¿-tIm-Uv: \-h-h-[p ho-´n-\p≈n¬ Xq-ßn-a-cn-® \ne-bn¬. A-Uq¿ a-Wn-bq-dn-se Ir-jv-tWm-Pn dm-hphn-s‚ a-Iƒ b-tim-Z(25)bm-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. B-dp amkw ap-ºv ap-t≈-cn-b-bn-se I¿-j-I-\m-b P-K-∂m-Ybp-am-bn b-tim-Z-bp-sS hn-hm-lw \-S-∂n-cp-∂p. amXm-hv: N-{μm-h-Xn. k-tlm-Z-cn: Pm-\-In.-

Im-dp-I-fn-se-¯n-b kw-Lw ¢-ºv B-{I-an-¨v bp-hm-¡-sf X-«n-s¡m-−p-t]m-bn D-∏-f: ss]-h-fn-sK-bn¬ aq-∂v Im-dp-If - n-se-Øn-b 15 Aw-K kwLw ¢-∫v A-Sn-®pX-I¿-Øv c-≠v bp-hm-°-sf X-´n-s°m-≠p-t]mbn. bq-Øveo-Kn-s‚ t\-Xr-XzØn-ep-≈ ss]-h-fn-sK-bn-se tπ t_m-bv-kv ¢-∫m-Wv X-I¿Ø-Xv. ¢-∫n¬ I-fn-®p-sIm-≠ncp-∂ \n-kmw, iw-kp-±o≥ F-∂nh-sc-bm-Wv X-´n-s°m-≠p-t]m-bXv. C-∂-se cm-{Xn F-´-c-tbm-sSbm-Wv kw-`h - w. ssk-°nƒ sN-bn≥, C-cp-

ºph-Sn, ap-fI - ps]m-Sn Xp-Sß - n-bh-bp-am-bn F-Øn-b kw-Lw \m´p-Im-sc hn-c-´n-tbm-Sn-® ti-jw ¢-∫v A-Sn-®p-X-I¿-°p-I-bm-bncp-∂p. an-\n-‰p-It- fm-fw `o-Ic - m-¥co-£w kr-„n-® ti-ja - m-Wv bphm-°s - f X-´n-s°m-≠p-t]m-bX - v. A-©pZn-h-kw ap-ºv ss]-hfn-sK-bn¬ _m-fn-K A-ko-kv sIm-√-sN-ø-s∏-´n-cp-∂p. C-t±-lØn-s‚ _-‘p-hm-Wv A-{I-aØn-\v ]n-∂n-se-∂v a-t©-iz-cw t]m-en-kv ]-d™ p.

C-c-hn-Ip-fw tZ-io-tbm-Zym-\w G-{]n aq-¶p-h-sc A-S-¨n-Spw C-Sp-°n: h-c-bm-Sp-I-fp-sS {]-P-\-\-hp-am-bn _-‘-s∏-´v C-c-hn-Ipfw tZ-io-tbm-Zym-\w s^{_p-hcn aq-∂p- ap-X¬ G-{]n¬ aq-∂ph-sc A-S-®n-Sm≥ No-^v ssh¬-Uv- sse-^v hm¿-U≥ D-Ø-c-hn-´p. BSpIƒ-°v kp-c-£n-X-am-b {]-P-\-\-Im-ew D-d-∏p-h-cp-Øp-∂Xn-\m-bmWnXv. tZ-io-tbm-Zym-\w A-S-®n-Sp-∂ Im-e-b-f-hn¬ Sq-dn-Ãp-Iƒ-°v k-μ¿-i-\w A-\p-h-Zn-°n-√. - -


8

thÀ-]mSv

THIRUVANANTHAPURAM

31 -P\p-h-cn 2014 sh≈n

A-Úm-Xhr-²³ a-cn-¨ \n-e-bnÂ

Kp ap-l-½-Zv

hm-kp-tZ-h³-]n-Å

ku-an-{X³

cm-[-½-]n-Å

tZ-h-In

Ip-«³ sN-«n-bmÀ

i-¦-c³

k-Xn

h-≈-°-S-hv: _w-•m-tZ-iv tIm-f-\n-bn¬ Kp¬ ap-lΩ-Zv(61). `m-cy: kp-sse-J. a-°ƒ: Jm-Z¿, im-an-e, kp¬-^n-°¿. J-_-d-S-°w C-∂v cm-hnse 9\v h-≈-°-S-hv Pp-ama-kv-Pn-Zv J-_¿-ÿm\n¬.

t]m-Ø≥-tIm-Sv: πm-aq-Sv km-bn-`-h-\n¬ hm-kp-tZh≥ ]n-≈ (69). `m-cy: eoem-Ω. a-°ƒ: km-bn, ku-ay. a-cp-a-°ƒ: _nPp, \o-Xp.

h-¿-°-e: sN-dp-∂n-bq¿ F-en-b≥-hn-fm-Iw `o-hØn¬ h-´-hn-f ss^\m≥-kv D-S-a ku-an-{X≥ (71). `m-cy: sse-e. am-Xmhv: A-\-¥-Ω. a-°ƒ: ssj-≥, jm≥, jn-\n. acp-a-°ƒ: Pn-\n, Pn-j, _ntP-jv.

tIm-h-fw: sh-ßm-\q¿ tIm-fn-bq¿ ]-fl hn-emk-Øn¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b I-p-™p-Ir-jv-W-]n-≈-bpsS `m-cy cm-[m-Ω-]n-≈ (96). a-°ƒ: tKm-]m-e-Irjv-W≥ \m-b¿, hn-a-em-tZ-hn, N-{μn-Im-tZ-hn. a-cp-a-°ƒ: c-ho-{μ≥ \mb¿, _m-e-Ir-jv-W≥ \mb¿, k-c-kz-Xn A-Ω.

sh-™m-d-aq-Sv: A-cq¿ -aÆm≥ hn-fm-I-Øv ho-´n¬ tKm-]m-e-s‚ `m-cy tZ-hIn (75). a-I≥: k-Zm-inh≥. a-cp-a-Iƒ: ]p-jv-]-hXn.

I-g-°q-´w: Ip-f-Øq¿ hn.F-kv.-F-kv.-kn. P-Mv-j≥ tc-h-Xn-bn¬ Ip-´≥sN-´nbm¿ (90). `m-cy: tKm-a-Xn A-Ωmƒ. a-°ƒ: tUm. sP Pn Ir-jv-W-Ip-am¿ (A-kn-Â v s{]-^, Xncp-h-\-¥-]p-cw sa-Un°¬ tIm-f-Pv), Ir-jv-WIp-am-cn. a-cp-a-I≥: _n-Pp.

I-cp-\m-K-∏-≈n: Ip-e-tiJ-c-]p-cw B-Zn-\m-Sv sX°v B-e-°-S ]-Sn-™mtd X-d-bn¬ i-¶-c≥(84). `m-cy: in-hm-\n. a-°ƒ: iin-[-c≥, Zn-\-a-Wn, X-¶-aWn. a-cp-a-°ƒ: i-in-I-e, tKm-]m-e-Ir-jv-W≥, hnizw-`-c≥.

I-cp-\m-K-∏-≈n: ]p-Xn-bIm-hv Ip-Sp-߬ k-Xn aμn-c-Øn¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b hm-kp-hn-s‚ `m-cy k-Xn (65). a-°ƒ: Ko-X, a-[p, ]-tc-X-\m-b A-\n¬-Ipam¿, jm-Pn. a-cp-a-°ƒ: e-X, kp-\n-X, t_-_n, ]tc-X-\m-b tkm-a≥.

k-^-dpÃ

A-¿-¸³

k-c-k-½

cm-[-½

sjdo-^

F-f-a°-c: A-“-Zn-øm apkvvenw P-amA-Øv F-dWm-Ip-fw Pn√m I-Ωn-‰n saw-_dpw ^-kv-se D-a¿ F-Pyp-t°-j-\¬ t_m¿Uv sk-{I-´-dn-bpam-b X-SØn¬ ho-´n¬ kn sI k^-dp√(62). dn-´.tIm-´-∏pdw F-®v.Un.F-^v.kn. _m-¶v am-t\-P-dmWv.

Kp-cp-hm-bq¿: tIm-´-∏-Sn Ip-f-ß-c A-ø-∏≥(Ip´≥˛107). kw-kv-Im-cw C∂v D-®-bv-°v 12\v ho-´p-hf-∏n¬. a-°ƒ: ]-tc-X-\mb _m-e≥, tKm-]m-e≥, A-tim-I≥, Pm-\-In, N{μn-I, I-a-em-£n. a-cp-a°ƒ: tk-am-kp-μ-c≥, A-\n-X, D-j.

cm-P-¸-³ sN-«n-bmÀ sa-Un-°¬- tIm-f-Pv: Km‘n-]p-cw ]m-cp-Ip-∂-Øv ho-´n¬ cm-P-∏≥ sN-´nbm¿ (69). `m-cy: k-c-kz-Xn A-Ω. a-°ƒ: cm-Pp-Ip-am¿, l¿j-Ip-am¿, {io-Ip-am¿. a-cp-a-°ƒ: t_-_n, _nμp, {io-P.

ku-Zm-an-\n sa-Un-°¬ -tIm-f-Pv: IpS-∏-\-aq-Sv ]p-fn-bq¿-t°mWw Nn-Øn-c \-K-dn¬ Kpcp-hn-lm-dn¬ ku-Zm-an-\n (62). a-°ƒ: Kp-cp-{]-Imiv, {]o-Xn. a-cp-a-°ƒ: ku-ay, Ir-jv-W-Ip-am¿.

{^m³-kn-kv ]m-hd - ´- n: H-et- °-¶n¬ sIm-®m-∏p {^m≥-kn-kv (67). `m-cy: t{X-ky.a-°ƒ - : sUm-an-\n, Uo-\, Um-fn.

tKm-]n-\m-Y³ \m-bÀ sa-Un-°¬ -tIm-f-Pv: A£-b Km¿-U≥-kv A-izXn-bn¬ tKm-]n-\m-Y≥ \m-b¿ (58). `m-cy: kp-[nem tZ-hn. a-°ƒ: c-P-\n, c-Rv-Pn-\n.

cp-Iv-an-Wn Kp-cp-hm-bq¿: a-‰w hm-I G-d-Øv i-¶-c≥-Ip-´n `mcy cp-Iv-an-Wn(67).

sa-Un-°¬- tIm-f-Pv: ap´-S I-√-d-aq-e km-bn Ir]-bn¬ cm-[-Ω (69). a-°ƒ: N-{μ-te-J, dm-Wn. a-cp-a-°ƒ: c-ho-{μ≥ \mb¿, _n-Pp-Ip-am¿.

k-Pp sa-Un-°¬ tIm-f-Pv: sN-√-aw-K-ew h-´-hn-f Xncp-hm-Xn-c-bn¬ k-Pp (44). `m-cy: {io-e-X. a-°ƒ: kzm-Xn, tkm-\p. Im-eSn: C-S-hq¿ Hm-W-∏n≈n ap-t®-Øv ]-tc-X\mb _o-cm-°p-´n `m-cy sjdo-^(85). a-°ƒ: d-lo-a, dw-e, A-–p¬-k-emw, ]tc-Xcm-b J-a-dp-∂o-k, A-bn-j-_ohn.

sIm-√w: ]p-Øq-¿-t»cn¬ aT-Øn¬-°m-c-◊bn¬ ]-fl-\m-`-s‚ `m-cy k-c-k-Ω(70). a-°ƒ: ]n N-{μ-`m-\p, F-kv Ko-Xm_m-_p, ]-tc-X-\m-b ]n ap-c-fo-[-c≥. a-cp-a-°ƒ: N-{μ-a-Xn, F≥ sI kptc-jv _m-_p.

h¿-°-e: `n-£m-S-\w \-SØn-h-∂ A-⁄m-X-\m-b hr-≤≥ h¿-°-e Su-Wn¬ a-cn-® \n-e-bn¬. _p-[-\mgv-N D-®-tbm-sS ssa-Xm\w du-≠v F-_u-´n¬ \S-∏m-X-tbm-Sv tN¿-∂v Ah-i-\n-e-bnemWv hr-≤s\ bm-{X-°m¿ I≠Xv. kw-i-bw tXm-∂n-b-Xn-\m¬ t]m-en-kn-s\-bpw ^-b¿-t^m-gv-kn-s\-bpw hn-hcw A-dn-bn-®p. ^-b¿-t^m-gv-kv C-bm-sf Xm-eq-°v Bip-]-{Xn-bn¬ F-Øn-®p. D-t±-iw 65 h-b-kv {]m-bw tXm-∂n-°pw. 172 sk.-an D-b-cw, C-cp-\n-d-hpw, sa-en™ i-co-c-hpw \-c-® X-e-ap-Sn-bpw, Xm-Sn-bpw ao-i-bpam-Wv. arX-tZlw Xn-cp-h-\-¥-]p-cw sa-Un-°¬ tImf-Pv B-ip-]-{Xn tam¿-®-dn-bn¬. F-s¥-¶n-epw hn-hcw e-`n-°p-∂-h¿ h¿-°-e t]m-en-kn¬ hn-h-cw Adnbn-°-W-sa-∂v F-kv.-sF. A-dn-bn-®p.

Ìu s]m-«n-s¯-dn-¨v bp-hm-hv a-cn-¨p

im-kv-Xmw-tIm-´: Ãu s]m-´n-sØ-dn-®v ]-cn-t°-‰v NnIn¬-k-bn-em-bn-cp-∂ bp-hm-hv a-cn-®p. im-kv-XmwtIm-´ k-c-kz-Xn `-h-\-Øn¬ N-{μ-ti-J-c≥ \m-b-cpsS a-I≥ {io-Ip-am¿(25) B-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. G-Xm-\pw Znh-k-߃-°v ap-ºm-Wv Ãu s]m-´n-sØ-dn-®p {io-Ipam-dn-\v ]-cn-t°-‰-Xv. C-bmƒ sIm-®n-bn-se kz-Im-cy B-ip-]-{Xn-bn¬ Nn-In-¬-k-bn-em-bn-cp-∂p. C-∂-se cm-hn-se- a-cn-®p.

ss_-¡n-Sn-¨v hr²³ a-cn-¨p

\o-≠-I-c: tZ-io-b-]m-X-bn¬ ^u-t≠-j≥ B-ip]-{Xn-°v k-ao-]w ss_-°n-Sn-®v hr≤≥ a-cn-®p. N-h-d Nm-h-Sn-∏p-d-Øv In-g-°-Xn¬ Zm-k-\m(68)Wv a-cn-®-Xv. Iq-sS-bp-≠m-bn-cp-∂ N-h-d kz-tZ-in d-jo-Zn-\pw ss_-°v bm-{Xn-I-cm-b c-≠p-t]¿°pw ]-cn-t°‰p. B-ip-]-{Xn-bn¬ t]m-hm-\m-bn tdm-Un\p kao]w \n¬-°p-tºm-gm-bn-cp-∂p A-]-I-Sw. c-Xv-\-Ω-bm-Wv Zm-k-s‚ `m-cy. a-I≥: hn-]n≥-Zm-kv.

em-kÀ tem-d-³-kv

ImÀ-¯n-tI-b³

k-c-k-½

cm-L-h³-]n-Å

c-ho-{µ³-]n-Å

tKm-]m-e-Ir-jv-W-]n-Å

X-¦-¸³ \m-bÀ

Nm-t¡m

N-h-d: \o-≠-I-c ta-cn sU-bv-en≥ em-k¿ temd≥-kv(84). `m-cy: ]-tc-Xbm-b ta-cn. a-°ƒ: sPtdmw, {In-kv-‰-^¿, tPmkv, ]-t{Xm-kv, t_-_n, {_n-t´m, an-\n. a-cp-a-°ƒ: {In-Ão-\, jo-_, tam-fΩ, F-en-k-_-Øv, hn≥kn, {]o-Xn, B-‚-Wn.

N-h-d: sIm-´p-Im-Sv h-´Ø-d sIm-´p-hn-f-bn¬ Im¿-Øn-tI-b≥(86). kwkv-Im-cw C-∂v D-®-bv-°p H-∂n-\v ho-´p-h-f-∏n¬. a°ƒ: kp-μ-tc-i-≥, `m-kpc, A-tim-I≥, h-k-¥, {]-Im-iv. a-cp-a-°ƒ: sle≥, hn-Zym-[-c≥, tim-`, X-¶-∏≥, a-\o-P.

]m-cn-∏-≈n: tIm-´-bv-t°d-Øv ln¬-hyq lu-kn¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b tKm-hn-μ-Ipdp-∏n-s‚ `m-cy k-c-kΩ(72). a-°ƒ: jo-e, KoX, tim-`, _o-\. a-cp-a°ƒ: I¿-a-N-{μ≥, Kn-coj≥, cm-[m-Ir-jv-W≥.

I-√p-hm-Xp-°¬: C-fwIp-fw h-b-en¬ Xr-t°mhn¬ h-en-b Im-cm-fn-bn¬ ho-´n¬ cm-L-h≥-]n≈(78). a-°ƒ: k-c-kzXn-b-Ω, D-Æn-Ir-jv-W°p-dp-∏v, A-\n-¬-Ip-am¿. a-cp-a-°ƒ: i-in-[-c≥ ]n≈, kp-`m-jn-Wn, Ko-X.

Ip-≠-d: s]-cp-ºp-g ]p-\p°-∂q¿ a-bq-c-Øn¬ hn-can-® sU-]yq-´n d-kn-U‚ v I-Ωo-j-W¿ (F.B‚ v.F≥. A-Uv-an-\n-kv-t{S-j≥) c-ho-{μ≥-]n-≈(65). `m-cy: kp-aw-K-e B¿ ]n≈. a-°ƒ: k-Pp B¿ ]n≈, cm-Pp B¿ ]n-≈. a-cpa-°ƒ: l-cn-X, B-i.

am-∂m¿: am-∂m¿ hn-jh¿-ti-cn-°-c hm-\y-Øpho-´n¬ tKm-]m-e-Ir-jvW-]n-≈ (78). kw-kv-Imcw \-S-Øn. `m-cy: Hm-a-\b-Ω. a-°ƒ: c-hn-Ip-am¿, kn-‘p, a-©p. a-cp-a°ƒ: Ko-X, \-tS-i≥, km-bn.

C-e-¥q¿: Xp-cp-im-e tIm-bn-°¬-ho-´n¬ X-¶∏≥ \m-b¿ (dn-´-. sI-.-Fkv.-C.--_n. F-≥-Pn-\n-b¿-˛ 74). kw-kv-Im-cw C-∂v H∂n-\p ho-´p-h-f-∏n¬. `mcy: ]-tc-X-bm-b Aw-_nI. a-°ƒ: _n-Pp ‰n \mb¿, _n-μp-Ip-am-cn. a-cp-a°ƒ: cm-P-tKm-]m¬, kpam-Ip-am-cn.-

Xn-cp-h-√: I-t‰m-Sv hm-ep]-d-ºn¬ kn Fw Nmt°m (73). kw-kv-Im-cw C-∂v cm-hn-se 11.-30\v _tY¬ am¿-tØm-a ]-≈n sk-an-tØ-cn-bn¬. `m-cy: A-Ωp-°p-´n. a-°ƒ: sken, kp-\n¬, ]-tc-X-\m-b k-Pn. a-cp-a-°ƒ: `-{Z≥, jo-\.

i-¦-c³-\mbÀ

kn-±oJv

ap-l-½-Zv am-ÌÀ

h-f-b≥-Nn-dß-c: hm-g°p-g-bv-°¬ ho-´n¬ hn F i-¶-c≥ \m-b¿(90). `mcy: R-df-Øv ho-´n¬ ]-tc-Xbm-b kp-\o-XnbΩ. a°ƒ: F-kv kpioe, F-kv c-ho-{μ≥, F-kv kpj-a, F-kv i-in-[-c≥, D-j, Ko-X.

aqhm-‰p-]p-g: sh-Ãv ap-fhq¿ Im-´-°p-Sn-bn¬ ssaXo-s‚ a-I≥ sI Fw kn±o-Jv(34). ap-kvenw eo-Kv ap-f-hq¿ \memw hm¿-Uv im-Jm ssh.{]-kn-U‚mbn-cp∂p. `mcy: \ko-d (sN-dp-h-´q¿ Rm-Wn-a-‰Øn¬ Ip-Spw-_mw-Kw).

Nm-cpw-aq-Sv: Np-\-°-c sX°v s\-Sn-b-hn-f-bn¬ akq-Zv dm-hp-Ø-dp-sS a-I≥ A-–p- -emw (36). `m-cy: j-ao-\. a-°ƒ: kn-bm-Zv, k-l-Zv.

{]-^.cm-P-ti-J-c IÀ-¯ I-f-a-t»cn: I-cn-∏m-bntdm-Un¬ km-bqPyw ho´n¬ {]-^.cm-P-ti-J-cI¿-Øm(63). sk‚ v.B¬-_¿-´v tIm-fPn¬ dn-´.Cw-•o-jv {]-^k-dm-bn-cp∂p. `mcy: Djm-Ip-am-cn(dn-´.Cw-•o-jv e-Iv-Nd¿, A¬.A-ao≥ tImf-Pv). a°ƒ: kq-cPv, \o-cPv, [\p. a-cp-a°ƒ: {io-e-£van.

BâWn ]-g-ß-\mSv: aT-Øn-∏-dºn¬ ]-t{Xm-kn-s‚ aI≥ B‚-Wn (Fw ]n B‚-Wn˛65). `mcy: AΩn-Wn(C-S∏-≈n ta-\mt»-cn-bn¬ Ip-Spw-_mwKw). a°ƒ: ]o-‰¿ B‚Wn, B≥kn, en≥kn. a-cp-a°ƒ: jmPn, k-Pbv.

X-®\ - m-´p-Ic - : Zo¿-LI - mew a-l√ - v sk-{I-´d - n-bmbn-cp-∂ I-cp-hm-Øv ap-lΩ-Zv am-ÿ (80). `m-cy: ]m-Øp-Ω. a-°ƒ: A-–p∏ , jw-kp-±o≥, k-°d - nø, A-–p¬ \m-k¿, apj-vXm-Jv, dw-e, km-_n-d, kp-ss_-Z, Pp-ssa-e.

A-Ðp-Ê-emw

\m-cm-bW³ aq-hm-‰p]p-g: hmf-Iw s]cp-¥m-d-tam-tf¬ \m-cm-bW≥(77).

bp-hm-hv Xq-§n-a-cn-¨p tXm-a-kv

_m-e³-]n-Å

t{X-kym-½

Xn-cp-h-√: dn-´. ]n.-B¿.F-^v. D-tZym-K-ÿ≥ h-f™-h-´w ]p-Ø≥-ho-´n¬ sI Fw tXm-a-kv (76). kw-kv-Im-cw \m-sf D-®-bv°v 2.-30\v \n-c-Ww sk‚ v ta-co-kv Hm¿-Ø-tUm-Ivkv h-en-b ]-≈n sk-antØ-cn-bn¬. `m-cy: ]-tcX-bm-b eo-em-Ω. a-°ƒ: tPm-kv, tam-f-Ω, sIm-®ptam≥, k-Pn, an-\n, ]-tcX-bm-b tam-\-®≥. a-cp-a°ƒ: sIm-®p-tamƒ, Ip™p-tam≥, B-\n, a-Wn, jn-_p.

Xn-c-p-h-√: Ip-‰q¿ Im™n-cw-]-d-ºn¬ _m-e≥]n-≈ (74). kw-kv-Im-cw C-∂v cm-hn-se 11\v ho-´ph-f-∏n¬. `m-cy: cm-P-Ω. a°ƒ: P-b, _m-e-ap-c-fn. a-cp-a-°ƒ: th-Wp-`m-bv, kp-io-e.

s]-cn-©mw-Ip-´n: sN-ºI-∏m-d I-´-°-bw ]-tc-X\m-b sN-dn-bm-s‚ `m-cy t{X-kym-Ω (93). ]-tc-X X-e-\m-Sv πm-tØm-´w IpSpw-_mw-Kw. a-°ƒ: sN-dnbm≥, tPm-k-^v, Nm-≠n, Ip-´n-®≥, tPm¨, s]-ÆΩ, ]-tc-X-cm-b k-Æn, DΩ-®≥, sX-øm-Ω.

A-\q-]v I-f-a-t»cn: aq-te-∏mSØv hm-SI-°p Xm-a-kn°p-∂ ]-©m-_v kz-tZ-in A-\q-]v knw-§n¬(42).

ap-¯p-ao-cm dm-hp¯À aqhm-‰p-]p-g: A-Sq-∏d-ºv Nn-‰-∏-\-am-cn-bn¬-ap-Øpao-cm dm-hp-Ø¿(87). `mcy: ^m-Øn-a. a°ƒ: ^m-Øn-a, C-kv-am-bn¬, kp-ss_-Z, dw-e, C-{_mlnw, lm-Pn-d, B-an-\, aqk. a-cp-a-°ƒ: X-ºn°Æ≥, an-kvdn, \mk¿, sIm-®p-ap-l-ΩZv, J-Zo-P _ohn, a-Po-Zv, \u-jmZv, kp-ld.

X-¦-½

ao-\m-Ip-am-cn

B-e-∏p-g: tXm-´-∏-f-fn Zzm-c-I-bn¬ ho-´n¬ ap-cfo-Zm-kn-s‚ `m-cy ao-\mIp-am-cn (jo-_-˛ 54). ]-√\ Ip-am-c-tIm-Sn Ip-am-c\m-im≥ sa-tΩm-dn-b¬ bp.-]n. kv-Iq-fn-se {]-[m\m-[ym-]n-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. kw-kv-Im-cw \-S-Øn. a°ƒ: tUm.- A-cp¨ ap-cfo-Zm-kv, Ko-Xp kp-Pn-Øv dm^n-b (sF.-Sn, a-{Zm-kv). a-cp-aaqhm-‰p-]p-g: Im-hp-¶-c ]- °ƒ: tUm.- e-b-Xn-e-Iv, ´-cp-aT-Øn¬ ]-tc-X\m-b kp-Pn-Øv (sF.-Sn. a-{Zmkp-sse-am-s‚ `m-cy dmkv). k-©-b-\w Xn-¶-fm-gv^n-b(85). a°ƒ: A-_-v N cm-hn-se 9\v.Zp¬ A-kokv, kp-ss_Z, sse-e, k-eow, jmPn, Pm-\-In-b-½ \u-jmZv. a-cp-a°ƒ: kp- A-ø-t¥mƒ: sX-t° Ipss_-Z, A-e-hn-°p´n, \- ∂-º-Øv dn-´. sk-bn¬ko-a, ko-\, ko-\, ]-tckv Sm-Iv-kv Hm-^o-k¿ hn X\m-b tIm-bm≥. Pm-\-In-b-Ω(91).

]o-cp-ta-Sv: ]p-Ø≥-ho´n¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b cm-Lh≥ ]n-≈-bp-sS `m-cy X¶-Ω (80). dn-´. t]m-ì A-kn-Âm-Wv. kw-kv°m-cw C-∂v c-≠n-\v ho´p-h-f-∏n¬.- a-I≥: k-Pn. a-cp-a-Iƒ: Zo-] (Pn-√m `mKy-°p-dn Hm-^o-kv).

amWn th-´mw-]m-d: Xm-g-Øp-dpºn¬ am-Wn(90). `mcy: ]tc-Xbm-b G-en-bm-Ω. a°ƒ: A-®m-Ω, tkmap, kÆn, enkn, kp-P, ]-tcX-\m-b cmPp. a-cp-a°ƒ: tXm-a-kv, ^n-tem-an-\, s‰ n, em-en®≥, PnΩn, knPn. kw-kv-Im-cw C-∂v aq-∂n-\v sk.sk-_mÃy≥-kv ]-≈n-bn¬.

s]-cp-ºm-hq¿: kmºØn-I _m[y-X aqew bp-hm-hv ktlm-Z-cn-bp-sS ho´n¬ Xq-ßn-a-cn-®p. C-cn-tßmƒ ]-d-ºn°p-Sn ho-´n¬ \n-[n≥ (29)B-Wv Im-cm-´p-]f-fn-°-c-bn-ep-f-f ktlm-Z-cn-bp-sS ho´n¬ C∂-se cm-hnse H≥]-tXm-sS Xqßn-a-cn-® \n-ebn¬ I-s≠-Øn-bXv. cm-hn-se ktlmZ-cn Ip-´n-sb kvIq-fn-e-b-°m≥ t]mb k-a-b-Øm-bn-cp∂p a-c-Ww. A-hn-hmln-X\m-b \n[n≥ Iq-en-∏-Wn-°m-c\mWv. kw-kv-Im-cw \-SØn.

Hm-^n-kv Pm-ay-¯n-en-d-§n-b {]-Xn Kp-−m-¯-e-h-s\ Sn-Po-¸hÀ--\t-¡em-dmcnn-ba-n-Scn-¨n-¨v BÀ.Sn. p Xoh¨v sIm-e-s¸-Sp-¯n I-g-°q-´w: \-s´-s√m-Sn-™p ho´n¬ In-S-∏m-b ap≥ Kp-≠m-Ø-eh-s\ Pm-ay-Øn-en-d-ßn-b {]-Xn s]-t{Smƒ H-gn-®v sIm-e-s∏-Sp-Øn. aw-K-e-]p-cw sh-bn-eq¿ hm-en-tImWw ssa-\m-Iw ho-´n¬ _o-Un kp-\n F-∂p hn-fn-°p-∂ kp-\n¬Ip-am-dm-Wv (38)B-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. kw-`-h-Øn-\p ti-jw H-fnhn¬-t]m-b tXm-∂-bv-°¬ sI sI h-\w kz-tZ-in ss_-Pp-hn-\pth-≠n t]m-en-kv Xn-c-®n¬ B-cw`n-®p. _p-[-\m-gv-N cm-{Xn G-g-c-bv°m-Wp kw-`-hw. A-∂v ssh-In-´p aq-∂p-a-Wn-tbm-sS kp-\n¬ Ip-amdn-s‚ ho-´n-se-Øn-b ss_-Pp-hpw, a-s‰m-cp kp-lr-Øpw kw-km-cn-®v C-cn-°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. C-Xn-\n-S-bn-¬ ss_-Pp-hpw kp\n-epw X-Ωn¬ hm-°p-X¿-°-ambn. ss_-Pp sXm-´-Sp-Øp-≈ ]ºn¬ t]m-bn H-cp en-‰¿ s]-t{Smƒ hm-ßn sIm-≠p-h-∂p sIm-√p-sa∂p `o-j-Wn-ap-g-°n-. A-Sp-Øn-cp-

∂-h¿ C-Xp Xam-ibm-sW∂p Icp-Xn Cu s]t{Smƒ ss_° n kp-\n¬-Ip-am-¿ sem-gn-®v t]m-hpI-bpw sN-bv-Xp. G-gp-a-Wn-tbm-sS ss_-Pp ho-≠pw t]m-bn s]{tSmƒ hm-ßn Xn-c-s®-Øn-b tijw kp-lr-Øn-s\ sXm-´-Sp-Ø IS-bn¬ _o-Un hm-ßm≥ ]-d™phn-´p. C-Xn-\p-ti-jw Fgpt∂¬°m≥ I-gn-bm-sX In-S-∂ kp-\n-en-s‚ tZ-l-Øv s]-t{Smƒ H-gn-®ti-jw sXm-´-Sp-Ø sN-dn-b t£-{X-Øn-\v ap-∂n-¬ I-Øn-®ph® a¨-hn-f-°v F-Sp-Øv F-dn-bp-Ibm-bn-cp-∂p.

Xn-cn-®p-h-∂ kp-lr-Øv Xo B-fn ]-S-cp-∂-Xp I-≠v Hm-Sn-sbØn sh-≈-sa-Sp-Øv Xo- sI-Sp-ØpI-bm-bn-cp-∂p. X-e-bv-°p Xm-sg ]q¿-Æ-am-bn s]m-≈-te-‰ kp-\nen-s\ sa-Un-°¬-tIm-f-Pv B-ip]-{Xn-bn¬ {]-th-in-∏n-®p-sh-¶nepw C-∂-se D-®-tbm-sS A-¥yw kw-`-hn-®p. a-c-W-Øn-\p ap-ºv No-^v PpUo-jy¬ a-Pn-kv-t{S-‰pw t]m-enkpw kp-\n¬-Ip-am-dn-s‚ sam-gn B-ip-]-{Xn-bn¬ F-Øn tc-J-s∏Sp-Øn-bn-´p-≠v. kp-\n¬-Ip-am-dns‚ t]-cn¬ aw-K-e-]p-cw, ]m-cn-∏≈n, B-‰n-߬ Xp-S-ßn-b t]m-enkv kv-t‰-j-\p-I-fn¬ \n-c-h-[n tIkp-I-fp-s≠-∂p t]m-en-kv ]-d™p. A-Xp-t]m-se ss_-Pp-hpw \n-c-h-[n {In-an-\¬ tI-kp-I-fn-se {]-Xn-bm-sW-∂p t]m-en-kv ]-d™p. P-bn-en-em-bn-cp-∂ ss_-Pp C-°-gn-™ 20\m-Wv Pm-ay-Øn-end-ßn-b-Xv.

t]m-en-kns\ `-b-t¶m-Sn-b bp-hm-hv In-W-än ho-Wp- a-cn-¨p c-−p-t]À-¡v Kp-cp-X-cw; \o-te-iz-c-¯v kw-LÀ-jm-h-Ø Im-™ß - m-Sv: t]m-en-kns\ `bt∂mSnb bp-hm-°fn¬ c≠pt]¿ Bƒ-ad - b - n-√m-Ø In-W‰ - n¬ ho-Wp. H-cmƒ X¬-£W - w a-cn®p. c-≠p-t]¿-°v ]cn-t°‰p. kw`-hØ - n¬ {]Xn-tj-[n®v \m´p-Im¿ \o-te-iz-cw t]m-en-kv kvt‰-j≥ h-f™ p. cm-{Xn ssh-Inbpw kw-L¿-jm-hÿ Xp-S¿ - ∂p. C-∂s - e ssh-Io´v B-dc - t- bmsS-bm-Wv kw-`h - w. Nn-d∏ - p-dw a¬ky-am¿-°‰ - v sI-´n-SØ - n¬ C-cn°p-Ib - m-bn-cp-∂ bp-hm-°s - f \ote-iz-cw F-kv.s - F ssa-°n-fn-s‚ t\-Xr-Xz-Øn-ep-≈ t]m-en-kv kw-Lw em-Øn-®m¿-Pv sN-øp-I-

bm-bn-cp-∂p. C-Xp-I≠ - v `-bt- ∂mSp-Ib - m-bn-cp-∂ bp-hm-°f - m-Wv InW-‰n¬ ho-WX - v. Nn-d∏ - p-ds - Ø Ip´n-cm-a≥-tIm-ac - w-˛I - p-™Ω - m-dp Zº-Xn-I-fp-sS a-I≥ i-in-[-c-\mWv- (29) a-cn-®X - v. H-∏w- InW-‰n¬ hoW Ip™n-cm-as‚ aI≥ KtW-is\ (28) Kpcp-Xc ]cn-°pI-tfmsS awK-em-]pcw kzImcy Bip-]-{Xn-bn¬ {]th-in-∏n-®p. HmSp-∂X - n-\nsS ]cn-t°‰ \m-cmb-Ws - ‚ a-I≥ k-Pn-Xv(28) \oteizcw kzImcy Bip-]{- Xn-bn¬ NnIn¬k-bn-emWv. i-in-[c - ≥ \o-te-iz-cw ]-©m-bØ - v ap≥ {]kn-U‚ v sI hn Zm-tam-Zc - s - ‚ k-

tlm-Zc - ]p-{X-\m-Wv. t]m-en-kv \S-]S- n-bn¬ {]-Xntj-[n-®v \m´p-Im¿ kvt- ‰-j\ - n-te°p am¿-®v \-SØ - n. F-∂m¬ Nn-d∏p-dw a¬-ky-am¿-°‰ - pw Hm-´p-Iº - \n-bpw tI-{μo-Ic - n-®v km-aq-lnIhn-cp-≤ {]-h¿-Ø\ - ß - ƒ \-S°p-∂p-s≠-∂ hnh-csØ Xp-S¿∂v t]m-enkv ÿ-es - Ø-Øptºmƒ a-Zy-]n-®p-sIm-≠n-cp-∂ Nne¿ Hm-Sn-t∏m-hp-Ib - m-bn-cp-s∂-∂v \o-te-iz-cw F-kv.sF ssa-°nƒ ]-d™ p. kw-`-h-Øn¬ {]-Xn-tj-[n-®v \o-te-iz-c-Øv C-∂v l¿-Øm¬ {]-Jym-]n-®n-´p-≠v.

I-cp-\m-K-∏-≈n: Sn-∏¿ tem-dn-bn-Sn-®v kv-Iq-´¿ bm{X-°m-cn X¬-£-Ww a-cn®p. I-cp-\m-K-∏-≈n tPmbn‚ v B¿.Sn. Hm-^n-knse ¢m¿-°v ssa-\m-K-∏≈n I-S-∏ e-£v-an `-h-\Øn¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b l-cnIr- j v - W - ] n- ≈ - b p- t S- b pw Ir-jv-W-Ip-am-cn-bp-sS-bpw a-Iƒ e-£v-an Ir-jv-W≥(26)B-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. I-cp-\m-K-∏-≈n Xm-eq-°v Hm-^n-kn-\v ap-∂n¬ kn·¬ sse-‰v sX-fn-™-tXmS ssa-\m-K-∏-≈n dq-´n-te°p bp-h-Xn kv-Iq-´¿ ap-t∂m-´p \o-°p-∂-Xn-\n-S-bn¬ C-S-Xp`m-K-Øp\n-∂p sIm-√w `m-K-tØ-°p h-∂ Sn∏¿ tem-dn C-Sn-®m-Wv A-]-I-Sw. C-Sn-bp-sS B-Lm-XØn¬ X-e-bn-Sn-®v X¬-£-Ww a-cn-°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. `m¿-Øm-hv cm-Po-hv Kƒ-^n-em-Wv. a-Iƒ: ssh-K.

Kr-l-\m-Y³ s{S-bn³ X-«n a-cn-¨p

h¿-°-e: Kr-l-\m-Y-≥ s{S-bn≥ X-´n-a-cn-®p. h¿-°-e A-b-¥n \n¿-a¬ lu-kn¬ X-ºn-sb-∂v hn-fn-°p-∂ kp-tc-jv _m-_p-hm-Wv (48) a-cn-®-Xv. C-∂-se cm-hnse B-tdm-sS h-gn-bm-{X-°m-cm-Wv A-b-¥n ]m-e-Øn\v k-ao-]w Bƒ-∏m¿-∏n-√m-Ø ÿ-e-Øv ar-X-tZ-lw I-≠-Xv. `m-cy: h-k-¥-Ip-am-cn. a-°ƒ: \n¿-Ω¬ _m_p, \n-Xn≥ _m-_p.

Ìm-en³ hÀ-Kokv Ip-dp-∏w-]Sn: Xp-cp-Øn πm-t®-cn ho-´n¬ Ãm-en≥ h¿-Ko-kv(56). `mcy: B\n. a°ƒ: h¿-Ko-kvIp´n, sa-do-\. a-cp-aI≥: a\p. kw-kv-Im-cw cm-hnse sk‚ v.ta-co-kv bmt°m_m-b I-Øo-{Uen¬.

Ip-dn-®n: ss_-°v C-Sn-®v ]-cn-t°-‰v kz-Im-cy B-ip]-{Xn-bn¬ Nn-In¬-k-bnem-bn-cp-∂ ho-´-Ω a-cn-®p. sN-ºp-Nn-d k-Po-k-Z-\Øn¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b sI F≥ X-¶-∏-s‚ `m-cy ]fln-\n (62) B-Wv a-cn-®Xv. sIm-√m-Sv sIm-®n-°pt∂¬ Ip-Spw-_mw-K-am`mÀ-K-hn ap-°p-gn: B-bn-°p-∂Wv. Øv ap-Ø≥-ho-´n¬ ]-tcI-gn-™ Un-kw-_¿ 19\v Ip-dn-®n tIm-f-\n an-√pX-\m-b \m-cm-b-W-s‚ `m- I-h-e-bn¬ h-®v ss_-°v C-Sn-®v Kp-cp-X-c-am-bn X-ecy `m¿-K-hn(92). kw-kvbv°v ]-cn-t°-‰v kz-Im-cy B-ip-]-{Xn-bn¬ Nn-In¬Im-cw C-∂v D-®-bv-°v ck-bn-em-bn-cp-∂p. kw-kv-Im-cw \-S-Øn. a-°ƒ: k-Pn ≠n-\v ho-´p-h-f-∏n¬. aF-kv, _n-Pn-tamƒ, {]-k-∂≥. a-cp-a-°ƒ: {]-k-∂°ƒ: k-Zm-\-μ≥, k-Zmin-h≥, cm-[-Ω, c-a-Wn. a- Ip-am¿, B-i k-Pn. cp-a-°ƒ: hn-iz-\m-Y≥, ca-Wn, C-μn-c, {]-`m-I-c≥.

F³.kn.]n. t\-Xm-hv ]p-g-¡Â- hm-kp-tZ-h³- A-´-cn-¨p

I-Æq¿: F≥-.kn.-]n.- kwÿm-\ F-Iv-kn-Iyq-´o-hv Aw-Kw- ap-g-∏n-e-ßm-Sv- It®-cn-sam-´-bn-se ]p-g°¬- hm-kp-tZ-h≥ -(67)A-¥-cn-®p. C-∂-se sshIo-´v 6.-45Hm-sS ho-´n¬- Ipg-™p-ho-W Ct±-lsØ X-e-t»-cn- tIm-˛-Hm-]-td-‰ohv- B-ip-]-{Xn-bn¬- FØn-s®-¶n-epw- c-£n-°m-\m-bn-√.- ar-X-tZ-lw- C-∂p ]-cn-bm-cw -sa-Un-°¬ -tIm-f-Pn-\v ssI-am-dpw.- X-et»-cn- P-\-d¬ -B-ip-]-{Xn-bn¬- h-®v- cm-{Xn-X-s∂ IÆv-\o-°w-sN-bv-Xp.{_-Æ≥- tIm-f-Pn¬- hn-Zym¿-Yn-bm-bn-cn-s° sI.F-kv-.bp-hn-eq-sS-bm-Wv- hm-kp-tZ-h≥ s]m-Xp-cwK-sØ-Øn-b-Xv. sI.F-kv.bp.- Pn-√m ssh-kv- {]-knU‚ v, bq-Øv- tIm¨-{K-kv- Pn-√m {]-kn-U‚ v, sk-{I´-dn- F-∂o \n-e-I-fn¬ {]-h¿-Øn-®n-cp-∂p. D-Ω≥-Nm≠n- bq-Øv-tIm¨-{K-kv- {]-kn-U‚m-bn-cp-∂-t∏mƒ kw-ÿm-\ \n¿-hm-l-I- k-an-Xn- Aw-K-am-bn-cp-∂p Ct±lw.- 1979¬- tIm¨-{K-kv- ]n-f¿-∂-t∏mƒ- B‚Wn-s°m-∏w \n-∂p. tIm¨-{K-kv(F) hn-`m-Kw- Un-.kn-.kn-. sk-{I-´-dn-bm-bn-cp-∂p.tIm¨-{K-kv-(F-kv-) Pn-√m sk-{I-´-dn-, F≥-.kn-.]n. Pn-√m {]-kn-U‚ v, I-Æq¿- P-h-l¿ -sse-{_-dnap≥- sk-{I-´-dn-, Pn-√m k-l-I-c-W- _m-¶v- ap≥ -U-bd-Iv-S¿,- ap-g-∏n-e-ßm-Sv- k¿-ho-kv- k-l-I-c-W _m-¶vap≥- U-bd-Iv-S¿, sF-]v-tkm- kw-ÿm-\ ssh-kv-{]kn-U‚ v,- tZ-io-b-Iu¨-kn-ew-Kw,- C-kv-I-^v- Pn-√m {]-kn-U‚ v,- {_-Æ≥ -tIm-f-Pv- ]q¿-h- hn-Zym¿-Yn- kwL-S-\-bm-b {_-Æ-ss\-‰v-kv- `m-c-hm-ln F-∂o- \n-eI-fn-epw- {]-h¿-Øn-®n-cp-∂p. ap-g-∏n-e-ßm-Sv- Cu-kv-‰vF¬.-]n.- kv-Iqƒ- am-t\-P-cm-Wv.A-hn-hm-ln-X≥.- ]n-Xm-hv: ]-tc-X\ - m-b ]p-g° - ¬cm-a≥- (A-[ym-]I - ≥- ap-g∏ - n-eß - m-Sv- Cu-kv‰ - v- F¬.-]n.kvI - qƒ).- am-Xm-hv: ]-tc-Xb - m-b e-£va - n (- A-[ym-]n-I, ap-g∏ - n-eß - m-Sv- Cu-kv‰ - v- F¬.-]n.- kvI - qƒ).- k-tlm-Zc - ߃-: ]-fl-\m-`≥,- I-a-em-£n,- h-k-¥,- ]-tc-X-cm--b ]p-g° - ¬_ - m-eI - r-jvW - ≥,- kp-Kp-W≥,- N-{μ≥.-

ss_-¡]-I-S-w; ]cn-t¡ä hn-ZymÀ-Yn a-cn-¨p

sXm-Sp-]p-g: ss_-°v A]-I-S-Øn¬ ]-cn-t°-‰v NnIn¬-k-bn¬ I-gn-™ πkvSp hn-Zym¿-Yn a-cn-®p.-Icn-a-Æq¿ sk‚ v tPm-k^v l-b¿ sk-°≥-U-dn kv-Iq-ƒ π-kv-Sp Iw-]yq-´¿ k-b≥-kv hn-Zym¿-Yn-bpw \-S-°p-g-bv-°¬ tPm-bv-ks‚ a-I-\p-am-b sìhn≥ (18) B-Wp a-cn-®-Xv. Rm-b-dm-gv-N aq-∂p-a-Wn-tbm-sS I-cn-a-Æq¿ sk‚ v. tPm-k-^v l-b¿ sk-°≥-U-dn kv-Iq-fn-\p k-ao]w \n-b-{¥-Wwhn-´ ss_-°v Hm-t´m-bn¬ C-Sn-®m-bncp-∂p A-]-I-S-w.- sXm-Sp-]p-g-bn¬ \n-∂p ho-´n-te-°p t]m-hp-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p sì-hn≥. ]-cn-t°-‰p ap-X-et°m-Sw kz-Im-cy B-ip-]-{Xn-bn¬ Nn-In¬-k-bn-embn-cp-∂p. C-∂-se cm-hn-se-bm-Wp a-cn-®-Xv.-kw-kvIm-cw C-∂v D-®-bv-°v 1.-30\v I-cn-a-Æq¿ sk‚ v-ta-cokv s^m-tdm-\ ]-≈n- skan-tØcnbn¬. am-Xm-hv: kn_n, a-W-°m-Sv a-T-Øn¬ Ip-Spw-_mw-Kw. k-tlm-Z-cn: F-hn-en≥ (_n.-kn.-F. hn-Zym¿-Yn-\n).

sXm-gn-ep-d-¸v ]-Wn-¡n-sS Ip-g-ªp ho-Wv a-cn-¨p

a-d-bq¿: sXm-gn-ep-d-∏v ]-Wn-°n-sS Ip-g-™p ho-Wv acn-®p.- B-‰n¬ ap-Jw I-gp-Ip-∂-Xn-\n-sS-bm-Wv a-d-bq¿ {Km-a]-©m-b-Øv H-∂mw hm¿-Uv s]-cn-b-Ip-Sn-bn¬ X-¶-∏-s‚ `m-cy ho-c-e-£v-an(62) a-cn-®-Xv.C-∂-se cm-hn-se `q-an Inf-°p∂ tPmen-°nsS hn-{i-a-k-a-b-Øv k-ao-]-Øp-≈ B-‰n¬ ap-Jw I-gpIm-\n-d-ßp-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. C-h¿-°v 8 a-°-fp-≠v. -ar-XtZ-lw Ip-Sn-bn-ep-≈ iv-a-im-\-Øn¬ kw-kv-I-cn-®p.

ImÀ C-Sn-¨v bp-h-m-hv a-cn-¨p

sXm-Sp-]p-g: kp-lr-Øpam-bn h-gn-h-°n¬ kw-kmcn-®p \n¬-°-sh A-anXth- K - X - b n- s e- Ø n- b Im¿ C-Sn-®p Kp-cp-X-cm-hÿ-bn-em-bn-cp-∂ hym-]mcn a-cn-®p. ssI-X-t°m-Sv h-en-b ho-´n¬ hn sI k_o¿ (31) B-Wv C-∂-se ssh-In-´v B-dp a-Wn-tbmsS tIm-e-t©-cn sa-Un-°¬ tIm-f-Pv B-ip-]-{Xnbn¬ a-cn-®-Xv. sh-≈-d-S: hm-l-\m-]-I-SsNm-Δm-gv-N cm-{Xn 10 a-Wn-tbm-sS ]m-em tdm-UnØn¬ ]-c-n-t°-‰ H-t´m-ssse tdm-b¬ t_-°-dn-°v ap-∂n-em-Wv A-]-I-Sw. G{U-h¿ a-cn-®p. ss_-°n¬ Xm-\pw ao-‰¿ A-I-se-bp-f-f ]p-fn-aq-´n¬ _n¬-UnIm-dn-Sn-®v Kp-cp-X-c-am-bn ]ßn-se ssk-c sam-ss_¬-kv D-S-a-bm-b k-_o¿ Icn-t°-‰v Nn-In¬-k-bn-emS A-S-®v ss_-°n¬ t]m-I-sh hm-l-\w \n¿-Øn-b bn-cp-∂ In-fn-bq¿ tdm-Uc - nti-jw kp-lr-Øn-t\m-Sv kw-km-cn-®p \n¬-°p-I-bmI-Øv ho-´n¬ k-Pn (35) Bbn-cp-∂p. ]m-em `m-K-tØ-°v t]m-b kzn-^v-‰v Im-dmWv a-cn-®-Xv. C-°-gn-™ Wp C-Sn-®Xv.- hn F-kv Im-knw-˛- kp-ss_-Z Z-º-Xn-I26\p cm-{Xn F-´n-\m-bn-cpfp-sS a-I-\m-Wv. h-Æ-∏p-dw N-ß-gn-a-‰w ]-tc-X-\m-b ∂p kw-`-hw. sh-≈-d-S A-{¥p-hn-s‚ a-Iƒ \-^n-b-bm-Wv `m-cy. a-°ƒ: Bt]m-en-kv sa-Un-°¬ tIm-f-Pn¬ F-Øn ta¬-\-S-]- en-b (tIm-˛-Hm-∏-td-‰o-hv kv-Iqƒ), B-Zn¬ (H-∂-c hSn-Iƒ kzo-I-cn-®ti-jw t]m-kv-‰v-tam¿-´w \-S-Øn C- b-kv). k-tlm-Z-c-߃-: \n-km¿, k-Po-\. kw-kv-Im∂-se ssh-Io-´v ho-´p-h-f-∏n¬ kw-kv-I-cn-®p. `m-cy: cw sh-f-fn-bm-gv-N 11 a-Wn-°v Im-cn-t°m-Sv ss\-\m¿ kn-‘p. a-°ƒ: k-Pn-X, kw-Ko-X. ]-f-fn J-_¿-ÿm-\n¬.

hml-\m-]-I-S-¯n ]-cn-t¡-ä Hm-t«m-ss{U-hÀ a-cn-¨p

Xn-c-sª-Sp-¸n [o-h-c- k-ap-Zm-b-¯n\v ko-äv \Â-I-Ww: [o-h-c-k-` B-e-∏p-g: h-cp-∂ ]m¿-e-sa‚ v Xn-c-s™-Sp-∏n¬ [o-h-c-k-ap-Zmb-Øn¬-s∏-´-h¿-°v ko-‰v \¬Im≥ {]-_-e cm-{„o-b-∏m¿-´nIƒ X-øm-dm-h-W-sa-∂v A-Jn-e tI-c-f [o-h-c-k-` kw-ÿm-\ IΩn-‰n cm-{„o-b ]m¿-´n-I-tfm-Sv B-h-iy-s∏-´p. tI-c-f-Øn¬ a¬-ky-sØm-gn-em-fn hn-`m-K-ßfn¬ 60 i-X-am-\-Øn-s‚ {]m-Xn\n-[y-ap-≈ [o-h-c-k-ap-Zm-bsØ ]-cn-K-Wn-°m≥ cm-{„o-b ]m¿-´n-Iƒ X-øm-dm-h-Ww. 12mw ]-©-h¬-k-c ]-≤-Xn°m-e-Øv a¬-ky-sØm-gn-em-fn t£-a-Øn-\v tI-{μ-a-{¥n-k-`-bpsS km-º-Øn-I-Im-cy k-an-Xn hI-bn-cp-Ønb 640 tIm-Sn cq-] XnI-®pw A-]-cym-]v-X-am-b-Xn-

ss_-¡n-Sn-¨v ho-«-½ a-cn-¨p

\m¬ A-Xv 6400 tIm-Sn cq-]-bm°n h¿-[n-∏n-°-W-sa-∂v [o-h-ck-` B-h-iy-s∏-´p. 70,000 tImSn cq-]-bp-sS a¬-ky-k-º-Øv cm-Py-Øn-\v kw-`m-h-\ sN-øp∂ a¬-ky-sØm-gn-em-fn-I-fp-sS t£-a-Øn-\v h-I-bn-cp-Øp-∂ apgp-h≥ Xp-I-bpw tI-{μ-K-h¨sa‚ v \¬-I-W-w. tZ-h-kzw \n-ba-\-ß-fn¬ A-ln-μp-°ƒ-°p≈ 18 i-X-am-\w kw-h-c-Ww kwh-c-W k-ap-Zm-b-߃-°p Xs∂ B-\p-]m-Xn-I-am-bn \¬-IWsa∂pw Ah¿ Bh-iys∏´p. Cu 18 i-X-am-\w ap-∂m° k-ap-Zm-b-ß-fn-se km-ºØn-I-am-bn ]n-∂m-°w \n¬-°p∂ ln-μp-°ƒ-°v \¬-I-W-sa∂p-≈ F≥.F-kv.F-kv. P-\-

d¬ sk-{I-´-dn-bp-sS- B-h-iyw H-cp Im-c-W-h-im-epw Aw-Ko-Icn-°-cp-sX-∂pw C-Xv `-c-WL-S\m hn-cp-≤-am-sW-∂pw [o-h-ck-`m P-\-d¬ sk-{I-´-dn hn Zn-\I-c≥ ]-d-™p. `q-cn-]-£ sFIy-Øn-s‚ t]-cp-]-d-™p kw-hc-W k-ap-Zm-b-߃-°v A¿-lX-s∏-´ kw-h-c-Ww t\-Sn-sb-Sp°m-\p-≈ \o-°-sØ F-¥p- hne-sIm-Sp-Øpw ]-cm-P-b-s∏-SpØp-∂-Xn-\v F-kv.F≥.Un.]n A-S-°-ap-≈ Z-en-Xv-˛-]n-∂m-° k-ap-Zm-b kw-L-S-\-Iƒ H-‰s°-´m-bn \n¬-°p-sa-∂pw At±lw ]-d-™p. A-º-e-∏p-g Xm-eq-°v I-Ωn-‰n {]-kn-U‚ v kt¥m-jv Pn-tX-{μ-\pw hm¿-Ømk-tΩ-f-\-Øn¬ ]-s¶-Sp-Øp.

Im-dp-I-fn-se-¯n-b kw-Lw ¢-ºv B-{I-an-¨v bp-hm-¡-sf X-«n-s¡m-−p-t]m-bn D-∏f - : ss]-hf - n-sK-bn¬ aq-∂v Imdp-I-fn-se-Øn-b 15 Aw-K kwLw ¢-∫v A-Sn-®pX-I¿-Øv c-≠v bp-hm-°-sf X-´n-s°m-≠p-t]mbn. bq-Øveo-Kn-s‚ t\-Xr-Xz-Ønep-≈ ss]-h-fn-sK-bn-se tπ t_m-bk v- v ¢-∫m-Wv X-I¿-ØX - v. ¢-∫n¬ I-fn-®p-sIm-≠n-cp-∂ \nkmw, iw-kp-±o≥ F-∂n-hs - c-bmWv X-´n-s°m-≠p-t]m-bX - v. C-∂se cm-{Xn F-´-c-tbm-sS-bm-Wv kw-`h - w. ssk-°nƒ sN-bn≥, C-cp-

ºph-Sn, ap-fI - ps]m-Sn Xp-Sß - n-bh-bp-am-bn F-Øn-b kw-Lw \m´p-Im-sc hn-c-´n-tbm-Sn-® ti-jw ¢-∫v A-Sn-®p-XI - ¿-°p-Ib - m-bn-cp∂p. an-\n-‰p-It- fm-fw `o-Ic - m-¥c - o£w kr-„n-® ti-ja - m-Wv bp-hm°-sf X-´n-s°m-≠p-t]m-bX - v. A-©pZn-h-kw ap-ºv ss]-hfn-sK-bn¬ _m-fn-K A-ko-kv sIm-√s - N-øs - ∏-´n-cp-∂p. C-t±-lØn-s‚ _-‘p-hm-Wv A-{I-aØn-\v ]n-∂n-se-∂v a-t©-iz-cw t]m-en-kv ]-d™ p.

C-c-hn-Ip-fw tZ-io-tbm-Zym-\w G-{]n aq-¶p-h-sc A-S-¨n-Spw C-Sp-°n: h-c-bm-Sp-I-fp-sS {]-P-\-\-hp-am-bn _-‘-s∏-´v C-c-hn-Ipfw tZ-io-tbm-Zym-\w s^{_p-hcn aq-∂p- ap-X¬ G-{]n¬ aq-∂ph-sc A-S-®n-Sm≥ No-^v ssh¬-Uv- sse-^v hm¿-U≥ D-Ø-c-hn-´p. BSpIƒ-°v kp-c-£n-X-am-b {]-P-\-\-Im-ew D-d-∏p-h-cp-Øp-∂Xn-\m-bmWnXv. tZ-io-tbm-Zym-\w A-S-®n-Sp-∂ Im-e-b-f-hn¬ Sq-dn-Ãp-Iƒ-°v k-μ¿-i-\w A-\p-h-Zn-°n-√. - -

Thejas Epaper obit Edition 2014-01-31  

Thejas Epaper obit edition. 2014-01-31

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