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CIES - Centre for Infrastructure Engineering and Safety Annual Report 2014 Never Stand Still

Faculty of Engineering

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering


© 2015 CIES - Centre for Infrastructure Engineering and Safety School of Civil and Environmental Engineering The University of New South Wales Sydney NSW 2052 Australia CRICOS Provider Code 00098G Address CIES - Centre for Infrastructure Engineering and Safety School of Civil and Environmental Engineering (H20) UNSW Australia UNSW Sydney NSW 2052 Australia Enquiries T +61 (0)2 9385 6853 E i.calaizis@unsw.edu.au W www.cies.unsw.edu.au Project Coordination Irene Calaizis With grateful thanks to providers of text, stories and images. Design Heléna Brusić The Imagination Agency Pty Ltd helena@theimagination.agency Print FAASTPRINT CRICOS PROVIDER NUMBER: 00098G


Contents 4

Executive Reports

Director’s Report.............................. 4 Vision............................................... 5 The Centre........................................ 6 Centre Management......................... 8

8

Activity Highlights

Distinguished Honours.................... 9 CIES Funding Success..................... 11 CIES Prominence............................. 12 Industry Activities .......................... 15 International Profile.......................... 15

16

Funding & Finance

Research Funding Summary............ 16 Financial Statement 2014................. 18

20 Research 68Appendices

CIES Research Success................... 20 Research Publications for 2014....... 20 CIES Research Collaborations.......... 20 Staff Research & Teaching............... 21 Selected Research............................ 26

Research Publications...................... 68 International Visitors........................ 75 Postgraduate Research Students...... 76 PhD Students Graduands ................ 78


Director’s Report It is with great pleasure that I write this Directors Report for the Centre for Infrastructure Engineering and Safety (CIES) for 2014. The annual report this year again focuses on the mission of the centre, its governance structure and finances and then highlights the progress of funded national projects. In addition, the report summarises the publications produced by staff and students throughout 2014. The annual CIES Symposium was held again on Thursday 6th November 2014 with the theme: “National Road and Rail Infrastructure - Structural Engineering Perspectives for Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure”. The symposium brought together an array of local, national and international leaders working in the area of road and rail infrastructure to try and bring a focus to this issue and the potential remedies to this situation. Engineers Australia has compiled two National Infrastructure Report Cards, in 2005 and 2010. For both of these exercises, road and rail infrastructure were found to be the most poorly performed of the nation’s infrastructure systems. The speakers discussed the current state of these systems, the areas of primary need and future areas of research and potential government investment. Inherent in much of this future investment is that structures must be both sustainable and resilient. Another area of increasing focus in the area of infrastructure systems is the use of technology and the increased potential for the use of structural health monitoring which is also being carried out in our centre.

November saw the announcement of the highly competitive Australian Research Council (ARC) grants. CIES was once again extremely successful with ten staff featuring on five ARC Grants totalling close to $2 million for 2015. I would like to take this opportunity to thank all our CIES staff and students for their outstanding contributions to the continued success of the centre, as well as our Steering Committee and Industry Advisory Committee for the important role they play in shaping and supporting the CIES activities. I do hope you enjoy reading about all these important activities and events of the Centre and I look forward to reporting on more exciting research and successes in the 2015 annual report. If you are interested in keeping up to date with our activities throughout the year, may I direct you to our website at: www.cies.unsw.edu.au.

PROFESSOR BRIAN UY, BE PhD UNSW, CPEng, CEng, PE, MIEAust, MASCE, MIStructE, FICE, MAICD

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Vision

As an internationally recognised research centre our vision is to provide outcomes that improve the design, construction and maintenance of economic, effective and safe civil engineering infrastructure that enhances the quality of human life in a sustainable way

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The Centre

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The Centre for Infrastructure Engineering and Safety is focused on high-level research in structural engineering, geotechnical engineering, engineering materials and computational mechanics. Specifically, we apply our skills to engineering and safety assessments and with the risk management of buildings, bridges, dams, roads and other infrastructure when subjected to both in-service conditions and overload (or limit) conditions, such as may occur in fire, earthquake, cyclone or blast situations, or when structures are exposed to hostile environments. The centre aims to promote multi-disciplinary collaboration across the Faculties of Engineering, Science and the Built Environment at UNSW and to foster international and interdisciplinary research partnerships.

CIES: QQ Is an established world-class interdisciplinary research team, supported by advanced analytical, computational and experimental techniques and facilities, and underpinned by structural and geotechnical engineering expertise, in the field of infrastructure engineering and mechanics. QQ Provides a forum for research engineers and scientists from various disciplines to exchange ideas and to develop and lead collaborative research programs. QQ Provides a platform for the submission of highly-competitive nationally peer-assessed research grant funding applications, specifically through the Australian Research Councilâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Discovery and Linkage Project schemes and for the development of proposals for research funding from industry. QQ Promotes the application of research outcomes and deliverables to industry. QQ Contributes to the education and training of high-quality postgraduate students in a wide range of relevant disciplines in engineering and applied science, and provides an outstanding research and learning environment.

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Centre Management The UNSW Centre for Infrastructure Engineering and Safety was managed in 2014 by an Executive Committee comprising of the CIES Director, Research Director, two Deputy Directors and the Centre Manager. The committee met on a regular basis to discuss strategy, performance and research opportunities. In addition, input to CIES management is provided by the CIES Academic Group.

CIES Staff Director Professor Brian Uy, BE PhD UNSW CPEng, CEng, PE, MIEAust, MASCE, MIStructE, FICE, MAICD Research Director Scientia Professor Mark Bradford, BSc BE PhD Syd DSc UNSW FTSE PEng CPEng CEng Dist. MASCE, FIEAust, FIStructE, MAICD Deputy Directors Emeritus Professor Ian Gilbert, BE PhD UNSW CPEng FIEAust MACI Professor Chongmin Song, BE ME Tsinghua, DEng Tokyo Centre Management Centre Manager Irene Calaizis, BCom UNSW Administrative Officer Patricia Karwan

A/Professor Mario Attard BE PhD MHEd UNSW, MIEAust, CPEng

Dr Inamullah Khan, BE MEngSc PhD University of Toulouse 

A/Professor Arnaud Castel BE, MEngSc, PhD Toulouse

Dr Nima Khorsandnia, BSc MSc BIHE, PhD UTS

A/Professor Wei Gao BE HDU, ME PhD Xidian, MIIAV, MAAS A/Professor Linlin Ge, PhD UNSW, MSc Inst of Seismology, BEng WTUSM

Dr Brendan Kirkland BE PhD UWS

A/Professor Adrian Russell BE, PhD UNSW, PGCert Bristol Dr Carolin Birk BE DEng Dresden Dr Kurt Douglas BE Syd. PhD UNSW, MIEAust Dr Ehab Hamed, BSc MSc PhD Technion Dr Arman Khoshghalb BE ME Sharif Uni of Tech, PhD UNSW Dr Kostas Senetakis, BEng, MSc, PhD AUTh Dr Hossein Taiebat BSc Isfahan M.E.S. PhD Syd Dr Sawekchai Tangaramvong BEng Chulalongkorn, MEngSc PhD UNSW, MIEAust Dr Hamid Vali Pour Goudarzi BSc MSc Tehran, PhD UNSW Dr Ghaofeng Zhao,BSc MSc CUMT, PhD EPFL Other Research Staff (alphabetical order)

Dr Ankit Agarwal, B-Tech IIT Kanpur PhD UNSW

Dr Farhad Aslani, BSC, MSc, Other Academics PhD UTS Professor Stephen Foster, BE Dr Huiyong Ban BE PhD NSWIT, MEngSc PhD UNSW, Tsinghua University, Beijing FIEAust Dr Zhen-Tian Chang, BE ME Professor Nasser Khalili, BSc Hunan PhD UNSW Teh MSc Birm PhD UNSW Dr Yue Huang, BE MPhil Professor Yong Lin Pi, BE CityU HK, PhD UNSW Tongji ME Wuhan PhD Dr David Kellerman BE, UNSW CPEng MIEAust PhD UNSW

Dr Jean Xiaojin Li, PhD UNSW, BEng WTUSM Dr Xinpei Liu BE SCUT, MEngSc MPhil PhD UNSW Dr Michael Man, BE PhD UNSW Dr Sundararajan Natarajan BE Mech Eng, PhD Cardiff Dr Alex Hay-Man Ng, PhD UNSW, MEngSc UNSW, BE UNSW Dr Ean Tat Ooi, BE UTM, PhD NTU Dr Vipulkumar Patel, BE, ME, PhD VU Dr Saeed Salimzadeh, BSc MSc Sharif SU) PhD UNSW Dr Babak Shahbodaghkhan, BSc. IKIU, MSc. Univ. of Tehran, PhD Kyoto Univ.

UNSW Members Professor Alan Crosky School of Materials Science & Engineering Professor Gangadhara Prusty, School of Mechanical Engineering Dr Mahmud Ashraf School of Engineering and Information Technology (SEIT), UNSW Canberra.

Steering Committee The Steering Committee meets throughout the year to oversee and monitor the progress of the Centre and to assist the Director in developing strategies to ensure that the goals and objectives of the Centre are realised. The membership of the 2014 Steering Committee for the Centre was:

Professor Graham Davies, Dean, Faculty of Engineering Dr Hossein Talebi, BSc, MSc, PhD Bauhaus-Universi- (Chair) ty Weimar BUW Professor Stephen Foster, Head of School – Civil and Dr Tai H. Thai, BE ME HCEnvironmental Engineering MUT, PhD Sejong Dr Thanh Vo, BE/BCom Syd, MEngSc, PhD UNSW

Professor Brian Uy, Director, CIES

Dr Guotao Yang, BE PhD Tongji

Scientia Professor Mark Bradford, Director of Research, CIES.

Technical Team John Gilbert Greg Worthing Ron Moncay Emeritus Professor Somasundaram Valliappan BE Annam, MS Northeastern, PhD DSc Wales, CPEng, FASCE, FIACM Francis Tin-Loi BE PhD Monash, CPEng MIEAust

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Professor Ian Gilbert, Deputy Director, CIES Professor Chongmin Song, Deputy Director, CIES Scientia Professor Deo Prasad, Faculty of the Built Environment Scientia Professor Rose Amal, School of Chemical Sciences & Engineering In Attendance: CIES Centre Manager Ms Irene Calaizis


Centre Activity Highlights CIES MEMBER ACHIEVEMENTS/ DISTINGUISHED HONOURS 2014 Chandra S. Desai Medal CIES member Professor Nasser Khalili was among the three recipients of the Chandra S Desai Medal awarded by the International Association for Computer Methods and Advances in Geomechanics (IACMAG) at its 14th conference, held in Kyoto, Japan. The Chandra S Desai medal is the most prestigious medal awarded every three years by the International Association for Computer Methods and Advances in Geomechanics (IACMAG). The award felicitates individuals who have made seminal contributions to research in geomechanics, particularly in computational modelling, advanced laboratory and field testing, computer methods and applications in geotechnical practice. The citation received by Professor Khalili was for his “outstanding contributions to experimental, constitutive and numerical modelling of unsaturated soils”.

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CIES RESEARCH FUNDING SUCCESS CIES & UNSW – Home to one of the world’s few Physical Blast Simulation facilities.

CIES Receives Funding to Develop Blast Mitigation Technologies

Led by CIES Director Professor Brian Uy, representatives from 7 Australian Universities (incl UNSW) and the Defence Science and Technology Organisation (part of Australia’s Department of Defence - as the Collaborating Organisation), were successful in a bid for funding under the ARC’s LIEF scheme which provides funding for research infrastructure, equipment and facilities.

CIES has received ARC Linkage Project funding to develop innovative Blast Mitigation Technologies.

The project is titled: “National Facility for Physical Blast Simulation (NFPBS)”. Recent terrorist attacks employing large quantities of high explosives have prompted the international demand for experimental investigation of civil infrastructure response to shock wave loadings.

CIES Director Professor Brian Uy along with colleagues from UWS and Qingdao Technological University in China were successful with the Shandong Zhihua Construction Group Company in receiving close to $270,000 to carry out research on “Development of novel viscoelastic sprayed material for the effective blast resistance of critical and resource infrastructure” . The project will also utilise the National Facility for Physical Blast Simulation at UNSW.

The National Facility for Physical Blast Simulation (NFPBS) will be one of only a few in the world that will be suitable for conducting experimental research via a physically generated blast approach.

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CIES ARC LINKAGE Grant Success CIES Researchers Prof Nasser Khalili, Dr Arman Khoshghalb and Mr John A Rubsov - Engineering Services Manager, Roads & Maritime Services have been successful in securing an ARC Linkage for the period 2014-2017. The project titled " Experimental investigation and constitutive modelling of weak rocks subject to mechanical and moisture degradation" aims to advance the experimental, theoretical and computational bases for the mechanics of weak rocks, and will provide scientists and engineers with much-needed predictive tools for the quantitative evaluation and assessment of their behaviour in geological settings.

Best of the best – School and CIES - one of the highest UNSW achievers in ARC research grants The School and CIES remained at the top of the research game having won ARC grants in the latest round (with funding to commence in 2015). With 4 new Discovery grants and 1 new LIEF grant, CIES won more than half the School’s total and more than any other research centre in its discipline nationwide. These wonderful results consolidate CIES’ position as the leading infrastructure centre in Australia.

Discovery Project Grants: Professor Mark Bradford - DP 150100446 - To investigate the capacity of high-strength steel (HSS) flexural members by undertaking physical tests and numerical simulations, and proposes to craft innovative overarching design guidance for them within a paradigm of Design by Advanced Analysis. Professor Stephen Foster & Dr Hamid Valipour DP 150104107 - TO investigate the moment-rotation performance of steel fibre reinforced concrete ( SFRC) beam-column connections containing economical fibre dosages.

Associate Professor Adrian Russell, Prof David Muir Wood – DP 150104123 - To make discoveries for modelling initiation, rate of progression and consequences of seepage induced internal erosion through soils which make up critical water retaining infrastructure like dams Professor Chongmin Song, Emeritus Professor Francis Tin-Loi, Dr Sawekchai Tangaramvong - DP 150103747 To develop, directly from computer-aided design models or digital images, an automatic numerical simulation approach for the safety assessment of engineering structures in three dimensions.

LIEF – Linkage Infrastructure, Equipment and Facilities Russell, A/Prof Adrian R; Khalili, Prof Nasser; Zhao, Dr GaoFeng; Khoshghalb, Dr Arman; Sloan, Prof Scott W; Kouretzis, Dr Georgios; Indraratna, Prof Buddhima N; Rujikiatkamjorn, A/Prof Cholachat; Cassidy, Prof Mark J; Gaudin, Prof Christophe; Williams, Prof David J; Scheuermann, Dr Alexander LE 150100130 - To develop Australia's most advanced earthquake shaking table to investigate soil-structure interactions. Dr Gaofeng Zhao and Professor Khalili were also involved in a successful LIEF grant (LE150100058) administered by Monash University. Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Research) Professor Les Field welcomed the result. “This impressive result in ARC grants recognises the calibre of research underway at UNSW. Our position as number one in the country this year is a testament to the importance and impact of the work we are doing,” he said.

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CIES RESEARCH COLLABORATIONS CIES – Promoting Sustainable Concrete Technology

CIES PROMINENCE Plenary Meeting ISO TC 71 Concrete, Reinforced Concrete and Pre-Stressed Concrete Technical Committee

CIES continues to promote a sustainable concrete technology within the CRC for Low Carbon Living under the leadership of A/Professor Arnaud Castel and Professor Steve Foster. In July 2014, this new project was approved by the CRC-LCL Board with a cash contribution of $1,100,000 in combination with the In-kind contributions from partner organisations of $1,900,000. Geopolymer concrete has an 80% lower carbon footprint compared to the conventional Portland cement concrete. Using field and laboratory data, a comprehensive Handbook for geopolymer specification will be developed and published through Standards Australia. Partner organisations include CIES at the UNSW, Swinburne University of Technology, ADAA, ASA, AECOM, Sydney Water and Standards Australia. The project coordinators also obtained letters of support from the main Australian geopolymer concrete suppliers: Zeobond Pty Ltd, Wagners Concrete Pty Ltd, Milliken Infrastructure solutions as well as RMS Pavement Structures, Transport and Main Roads QLD, Vicroads.

CIES & The Faculty of Engineering were major sponsors of the Plenary Meeting of ISO TC71 held in Sydney January 2014. As part of activities, CIES also hosted a workshop on: “Robustness of Concrete Structures”

One of the 33 precast slag/fly ash-based geopolymer concrete floor parts for the World's first public building with structural Geopolymer Concrete at University of QLD. Credit: Wagners Australia http://www.wagner.com.au/news/wagners-efc-setsnew-standard-global-change-institute-building/

ISO (International Organization for Standardization) is the world’s largest developer of voluntary International Standards and in Australia, is represented by Standards Australia - recognised by the Commonwealth Government as the nation's peak Standards body.

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ASCE Presidential visit: Professor Mark Bradford explaining some of the test work associated with his Australian Laureate Fellowship during the delegation’s visit to the Heavy Structures Research Laboratory at Randwick

ASCE GOVERNORS' VISIT TO CIES

UNSAT2014

In February 2014, CIES hosted a visit by the Governors of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE).

The best and brightest geotechnical engineering scholars and engineers visited Sydney during July 2014 to take part in the Sixth International Conference on Unsaturated Soils. The event was chaired and organised by CIES academics Professor Nasser Khalili, Dr Arman Khoshghalb and Associate Professor Adrian Russell.

The visit included an inspection of the Heavy Structures Research Laboratory at Randwick, where it provided an excellent opportunity for our PhD students and staff to showcase CIES’s structures activities to the top executive group of ASCE. Some PhD students had the good fortune to explain their work to the ASCE leaders. CIES Research Director Professor Mark Bradford - one of ASCE's only two Australian Distinguished Members and also President-Elect of the ASCE Australia Section, was involved in this group’s Australian visit. The ASCE delegation included its President and its Chief Executive and expressed positive feedback on the facilities at Randwick Heavy Structures Laboratory as well as the high calibre and groundbreaking research activity being carried out there.

The conference was a great success, showcasing the latest research on unsaturated soils from around the world on topics including unsaturated soil behaviour, experimentation, modelling, case histories, multidisciplinary problems and emerging research areas. Pictured: L-R Dr Arman Khoshghalb (secretary), Professor Nasser Khalili (chair) and Emeritus Professor Somasundaram Valliappan (honorary chair)

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Impact and innovation – peers recognise geotechnical engineering research at UNSW The research of CIES geotechnical engineering academics Professor Nasser Khalili and Associate Professor Adrian Russell has been awarded for its impact and innovation. Professor Khalili received the Outstanding Paper Award for his constitutive modelling work presented in the paper “A fully coupled flow deformation model for cyclic analysis of unsaturated soils including hydraulic and mechanical hysteresis”. The paper, published in Computers and Geotechnics in 2008, was judged to have made a highly significant impact to geotechnical engineering, based on citations over a five year period and the opinion of the journal’s Editors. A/Professor Adrian Russell received the International Innovation Award for his physical modelling research in the field of unsaturated soil mechanics. At UNSW A/Professor Russell developed with colleagues a calibration chamber, lateral earth pressure rig and shallow foundation rig to conduct full scale cone penetration tests, retaining wall tests and shallow foundation tests to study the influence of soil suction.

Scholarly Works Emeritus Professor Ian Gilbert, Deputy Director of CIES, published his latest text book (CRC Press – USA). The book titled “Structural Analysis – Principles, Methods and Modelling” is co-authored with A/Professor Gianluca Ranzi of the University of Sydney. It is intended as a text for undergraduate students of Civil or Structural Engineering about to embark on the adventure of learning how to analyse engineering structures. It provides a unique and in-depth treatment of structural analysis where fundamental aspects and derivations of the analytical and numerical formulations are outlined and illustrated by numerous worked examples.

CIES 2014 Symposium - “NATIONAL ROAD AND RAIL INFRASTRUCTURE - Structural Engineering Perspectives for Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure” investment. Inherent in much of this future investment is that structures must be both sustainable and resilient. The list of speakers included: Ian Pedersen - Managing Director, Pedersen Engineers. Professor Mark A Bradford CIES A/Prof Alex Remennikov - UoW Professor Stephen Foster - CIES Professor Hong Hao - Curtin University

The November symposium brought together an array of local, national and international leaders working in the area of road and rail infrastructure to try and bring a focus to this issue and the potential remedies to this situation. The speakers discussed the current state of road and rail infrastructure systems, the areas of primary need and future areas of research and potential government

Adj. Professor Wije Ariyaratne RTA/RMS Dr Stephen Hicks – HERA NZ Professor Tommy Chan - QUT Professor Mark Stewart - The University of Newcastle Mr Richard Hitch - Transport, NSW’s Asset Standards Authority Mr Peter Runcie - NICTA (National ICT Australia Ltd).

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Industry Activities

International Profile

CIES Industry Advisory Committee (IAC)

Throughout 2014, CIES continued to attract senior academic visitors on collaborative visits and also a program of delivering seminars which draw on international excellence and expertise.

The CIES IAC was established in 2011 to provide a mechanism for receiving input from industry stakeholders and the broader community on a wide range of planning issues. The CIES IAC provides industry’s views on the research directions of the Centre, on trends and directions within the profession, and on emerging technologies and opportunities in the broad research areas of civil engineering infrastructure. From time to time, particular briefs will be provided to the CIES IAC to address specific issues that arise in the Centre and provide advice to the Director. In addition, the CIES IAC may raise issues that it would like to see addressed by the Centre. The committee is comprised of the CIES Directors and representatives from the following companies: AECOM, Unicon Systems, Pells Sullivan Meynink (PSM), Aurecon, BOSFA, HYDER, Australian Steel Institute, ARUP, ECLIPSE Consulting Engineers Pty Ltd, Laing O’Rourke

Visitors included: Dr Xiaochun Fan Wuhan, University of Technology, China Professor Guangyun Gao, Tongji University, China Professor Paul J Hazell, School of Engineering and Information Technology, UNSW Canberra Dr Yiqian He, Dalian University of Technology, China Professor Moon-Young Kim, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU) Korea Dr Slavomir Krahulec, Institute of Construction and Architecture, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia) Dr Liguang Lin, Xi’an Modern Control Research Institute, China Dr Junyu Liu, Faculty of Infrastructure Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, China Associate Professor Hongbo Ma, Xidian University, China Professor Abhijit Mukherjee, Curtin University, WA Professor Dunja Peric, Kansas State University, USA Associate Professor Hui Qu, School of Civil Engineering, Yantai University, China Dr Maria Paola Santisi, University of Nice – Sophia Antipolis, France Professor YB Yang, Taiwan National University, Taiwan Professor Ronald D. Ziemian, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Bucknell University USA Dr Yan Zhu, Southwest Jiaotong University, China Professor Qingming Zhang, Beijing Institute of Technology, China

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Funding and Finance RESEARCH FUNDING SUMMARY Researcher(s)

Research Topic

Granting Organisation

Value at 2014

MA Bradford

An Innovative and Advanced Systems Approach for Full Life-Cycle, Low-Emissions Composite and Hybrid Building Infrastructure

ARC Laureate Fellowship including Faculty of Engineering & UNSW support ARC FL100100063

$600,392

B Uy

The behaviour and design of innovative connections to promote the reduction and reuse of structural steel in steel-concrete composite buildings

ARC Discovery DP140102134

$195,742

A Russell, N Khalili

Shallow foundations in unsaturated soils: mechanistic design through numerical modelling, analysis and experimental investigation"

ARC Discovery DP140103142

$149,382

W Gao, Y-L Pi, F Tin-Loi

Stochastic geometrically nonlinear elasto-plastic buckling and behaviour of curved grid-like structures

ARC Discovery DP140101887

$124,673

G Ranzi (USYD), A Castel, R I Gilbert, D Dias-da-Costa

Stiffness degradation of concrete members induced by reinforcement corrosion.

ARC Discovery DP140100529

$50,000

C Song

A high-performance stochastic scaled boundary finite-element framework for safety assessment of structures susceptible to fracture

ARC Discovery DP130102934

$144,017

RI Gilbert

Control of cracking caused by early-age contraction of concrete

ARC Discovery DP130102966

$139,081

N Khalili

Dynamics analysis of unsaturated porous media subject to damage due to cracking

ARC Discovery DP130104918

$106,986

L Ge

Advanced techniques for imaging radar interferometry

ARC Discovery DP130101694

$117,684

MA Bradford

Thermal-induced unilateral plate buckling of concrete pavements: design and evaluation

ARC Discovery DP120104554

$133,322

B Uy; Z Tao; F Mashiri

The behaviour and design of composite columns coupling the benefits of high strength steel and high strength concrete for large scale infrastructure

ARC Discovery DP120101944

$144,433

C Song, F Tin-Loi, W Becker

Scaled boundary finite-element approach for safety assessment of plates and shells under monotonic and shakedown loadings

ARC Discovery DP120100742

$111,102

Ehab Hamed; Stephen Foster

Nonlinear long-term behaviour and analysis of high strength concrete panels

ARC Discovery DP120102762

$99,992

S Foster; Hamid Valipour

Progressive collapse resistance of reinforced concrete framed structures with membrane action

ARC Discovery DP120103328

$66,102

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Researcher(s)

Research Topic

Granting Organisation

Value at 2014

G Zhao

Dynamic fracturing in shale rock through coupled continuum-discontinuum modelling

ARC DECRA DE130100457

$132,294

T Thai

Reliability assessment of concrete-filled steel tubular frames designed by advanced analysis

ARC DECRA DE140100747

$127,476

MA Bradford

Climate adaptation technology and engineering for extreme events.

CSIRO / Flagship Collaborative Research Program

$182,650

H M Goldsworthy, E Gad, B Uy, S Fernando

Development of efficient, robust and architecturally-flexible structural systems using innovative blind-bolted connections

ARC Linkage LP110200511

$30,000

S Foster; E Hamed; Z Vrcelj

Advanced Composite Structures

Cooperative Research Centre for Advanced Composite Structures Ltd (CRC-ACS)

$140,180

S Foster

Performance based Criteria for Concretes: Creating Pathways for Low Carbon Concrete Manufacture with Existing Standards

Cooperative Research Centre for Low Carbon Living Ltd

$110,676

(CRC LCL) H Valipour

Development of a timber-concrete composite system with precast slabs

Faculty of Engineering

$40,000

M Attard

Orthotropic Hyperelastic Modelling for the Analysis of Composites

UNSW Goldstar Award

$40,000

L Ge

Mapping decadal change of the Australian landscape from space

UNSW Goldstar Award

$40,000

A Russell

Triaxial System for Stress Path and Dynamic Tests

UNSW MREII

$99,755

A Castel

Equipment to develop a World class laboratory for carrying out durability tests at the material and structural level

UNSW MREII

$57,545

L Ge

Dedicated Computing Cluster for Near Real-Time Satellite Remote Sensing (NRT-RS)

UNSW MREII

$100,000

Industry funded research undertaken by the CIES Projects team

Various

$168,191

TOTAL

$3,451,675

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The CIES Team A world-class centre in such a broadly based and exciting field attracts world-class research staff and academics. The team at CIES are working together to challenge and change how things are done in this industry. Often being called upon to provide advice to government and industry, helping to set standards that raise the bar across the industry.

Research opportunities

Infrastructure needs around the world are changing â&#x20AC;&#x201C; materials, demands, and expectations are all changing. At CIES, our research is contributing to advanced solutions to improve the way we plan, design, build, maintain and rehabilitate the things we build, from bridges and dams to roads, rail and other critical infrastructure. Better, stronger, longer lasting

CIES Facilities

The Centre for Infrastructure Engineering and Safety is supported by some remarkable facilities to enhance research across the board. These include the Randwick Heavy Structural Laboratory at UNSW, and the Materials Research Laboratory and Geotechnical Engineering Laboratories, collectively known as the Infrastructure Laboratories

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Centre Research CIES Research Success This yearâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ARC success continues to add to the success of CIES in attracting Category 1 funding through the Australian Research Council. CIES staff currently hold over 30 ARC grants, including ARC Discovery and Linkage, LIEF and DECRA grants. CIES is also home to Australiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s only ARC Laureate Fellow in Structural Engineering, Professor Mark Bradford. Ten CIES staff have been successful in Seven ARC Grants totalling over $3.5 million for 2014. CIES staff were involved in the following four ARC Discovery Project Grants: DP140101887, Dr Wei Gao, Professor Yong- Lin Pi and Emeritus Professor Francis Tin Loi, $395,000 Project Title: Stochastic geometrically nonlinear elasto-plastic buckling and behaviour of curved grid-like structures DP140102134, Professor Brian Uy, $530,000 Project Title: The behaviour and design of innovative connections to promote the reduction and reuse of structural steel in steel-concrete composite buildings DP140103142, A/Professor Adrian Russell and Professor Nasser Khalili, $420,000 Project Title: Shallow foundations in unsaturated soils: understanding mechanistic behaviour through numerical modelling, analysis and experimental investigation DP140100529, A/Professor Gianluca Ranzi, A/Professor Arnaud Castel, Emeritus Professor Ian Gilbert and Dr Daniel Dias-da-Costa, $300,000

Professors Nasser Khalili, Brian Uy and Adrian Russell were also part of a successful LIEF bid led by Professor Buddhima Indraratna from the University of Wollongong for a National Testing Facility for High Speed Rail, which received $900,000 from the ARC.

Research Publications for 2014 Research Publications are an important output of Centre related research activities. In 2014, CIES researchers continued to have a consistently strong publishing output including 3 books, 161 refereed journal papers and 75 refereed conference papers.

Post Graduate Research Students Most academic staff involved with the Centre also supervise higher degree research (HDR) students. All new HDR income associated with Centre students is distributed to the Faculties and Schools in which they are enrolled. Since its inception, there has been a steady growth in new PhD student enrolments associated with CIES member supervision. 2011 Number of PhD students supervised by 42 CIESmembers

2012

2013

2014

53

62

69

Project Title: Stiffness degradation of concrete members induced by reinforcement corrosion Dr Huu-Tai Thai was also successful with an ARC Discovery Early Career Researcher Award (DECRA): DE140100747, $333,157. Project Title: Reliability assessment of concrete-filled steel tubular frames designed by advanced analysis CIES Staff were also involved in successful Linkage, Infrastructure Equipment and Facilities (LIEF) grants. Associate Professor Ganga Prusty (School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering) led a bid from UNSW including Professor Brian Uy that received $500,000 for a National Facility for Robotic Composites. Furthermore,

...consistently strong publishing output including 3 books, 161 refereed journal papers and 75 refereed conference papers...

< 20> CIES - CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING AND SAFETY - ANNUAL REPORT 2014


Research & Teaching Areas of Centre Members Name

Position within School

Research Areas

Teaching Areas

Dr Brian Uy

Professor of Civil Engineering

Composite steel-concrete structures, critical infrastructure protection systems, deconstruction techniques, rehabilitation and strengthening techniques, steel structures, structural health monitoring, structural systems, sustainable construction materials

Composite steel-concrete structures, steel structures, structural design

Dr Mark Bradford

Australian Laureate Fellow, Scientia Professor and Professor of Civil Engineering

Structures subjected to elevated temperature. Steel, concrete and composite steel-concrete structures. Curved members, including members curved in plan and arches. Structural stability. Numerical techniques (FE, finite strip, non-discretisation methods). Time-dependent behaviour of concrete arches and domes.

Engineering mechanics. Structural analysis and design. Steel and composite steel-concrete structures. Structural stability.

Dr Stephen Foster

Professor of Civil Engineering

Analysis and design of reinforced concrete deep beams, corbels and nibs. High strength and reactive powder concretes. Nonlinear 2-D and 3-D modelling of concrete structures. Confined concrete structures.

Engineering mechanics and engineering design. Structural analysis and design. Concrete structures.

Dr Ian Gilbert

Emeritus Professor

Serviceability of concrete and composite structures. Creep and shrinkage of concrete and time-dependent behaviour of concrete structures, including prediction of deflection and cracking. Impact of low-ductility reinforcement on strength and ductility of concrete structures. Nonlinear FE modelling of concrete structures. Structural applications of high strength and reactive powder concrete.

Engineering mechanics and engineering design. Structural analysis and design. Concrete structures.

Dr Chongmin Song

Professor of Civil Engineering

Scaled boundary finite element method. Dynamic soil-structure interaction. Fracture mechanics. Elasto-plastic damage constitutive modelling.

Computing. Foundation engineering. Pavement analysis and design. Numerical techniques.

Dr Francis Tin Loi

Emeritus Professor

Strength of materials. Structural Large-scale limit and shakedown analyses. Limit analysis and design. Bridge analysis in the presence of constitutive instabilities. Identification of quasi-brittle fracture parame- engineering. ters. Smoothing of contact mechanics problems.

Dr Nasser Khalili

Professor of Civil Engineering

Numerical methods. Unsaturated soils. Remediation of contaminated soils. Flow and contaminant mitigation.

Dr Somasundaram Valliappan

Emeritus Professor

Numerical analysis. Continuum Stress analysis in soil and rock mechanics. Stamechanics. Soil mechanics. bility of large dams. Wave propagation. Fracture mechanics. Fuzzy analysis. Biomechanics. Smart materials and structures. Earthquake engineering.

Numerical methods. Geotechnical engineering. Foundation engineering.

CIES - CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING AND SAFETY - ANNUAL REPORT 2014 < 21>


Name

Position within School

Research Areas

Teaching Areas

Dr Mario Attard

Associate Professor in Civil Engineering

Finite strain isotropic and anisotropic hyperelastic modelling. Fracture in concrete and masonry. Crack propagation due to creep. Ductility of highstrength concrete columns. Structural stability.

Mechanics of solids. Structural analysis and design. Design of concrete structures. Finite element analysis. Structural stability.

Dr Yong-Lin Pi

Professor in Civil Engineering

Advanced nonlinear mechanics. Members curved Engineering mechanics and mathematics. in plane, including beams curved in-plan and arches. Nonlinear FE techniques. Thin-walled structural mechanics. Structural dynamics.

Dr Kurt Douglas

Pells Sullivan Meynink Senior Lecturer

Rock mechanics. Probabilistic evaluation of concrete dams and landslides. Numerical methods.

Geotechnical engineering. Engineering geology. Design of tunnels, slopes, retaining walls

Dr Adrian Russell

Associate Professor in Civil Engineering

Unsaturated soils. Fibre reinforced soils. Particle crushing in granular media. Wind turbine foundations. In-situ testing and constitutive modelling of soils.

Geotechnical engineering. Soil mechanics.

Dr Linlin Ge

Associate Professor in Civil Engineering

Remote Sensing and Applications Near Real-time Satellite Remote Sensing Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (including InSAR, DInSAR and PSInSAR/PSI) and Applications Integration of Remote Sensing, GIS and GPS Structural Deformation and Health Monitoring Natural Hazard Monitoring (e.g. Landslide, Bushfire, Flood, Tropical Cyclone, Beach Erosion, Earthquake and Volcano) Ground Deformation Monitoring (e.g. Mine Subsidence) Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), especially site stability monitoring

Remote Sensing and Photogrammetry Radar Remote Sensing Satellite Remote Sensing and Applications Surveying for Civil Engineers Surveying for Mining Engineers Surveying and GIS

Dr Arnaud Castel

Associate Professor in Civil Engineering

Durability of construction materials: Steel corrosion in concrete, chemical attacks Low Carbone Concrete Technology:  Geopolymer concrete, blended cements,    Manufactured aggregates Time-dependent behaviour:     Shrinkage and creep of concrete Modelling of Time-dependent steel corrosion process in concrete Repair and Strengthening using CFRP  

Concrete technology Engineering Mechanics Concrete Structure Analysis and Design Earthquake engineering

Dr Hossein Taiebat

State Water Senior Lecturer of Dam Engineering

Embankment dams, Erosion and piping, Numerical modellings, Slope stability analysis. Fibre reinforced clays, Analysis of offshore foundations, Liquefaction analysis.

Applied geotechnics, Fundamentals of geotechnics; Advanced foundation engineering, Ground improvement techniques, Embankment dams

< 22> CIES - CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING AND SAFETY - ANNUAL REPORT 2014


Name

Position within School

Research Areas

Teaching Areas

Dr Wei Gao

Associate Professor in Civil Engineering

Uncertain modelling and methods. Vehicle/ bridge interaction dynamics. Wind and/or seismic random vibrations. Stochastic nonlinear systems. Smart structures.

Dynamics. Structural analysis and design.

Dr Hamid Valipour

Senior Lecturer

Mechanics of Solids, Steel and Structural Mechanics, Constitutive modelling of concrete and timber, Finite element modelling, Lo- Timber Design, Bridge Design, Design of reinforced concrete calisation limiters, progressive collapse analysis and structural dynamics.

Dr Senior Ehab Hamed Lecturer

Viscoelasticity of concrete and composite materials, Creep buckling of concrete domes and shells, Strengthening of concrete and masonry structures with composite materials (FRP), Nonlinear dynamics of concrete structures.

Steel and Composite Structures

Dr Carolin Birk

Lecturer

Numerical modelling of wave propagation in unbounded domains and in bounded domains containing discontinuities, Soil-structure interaction, fluid-structure interaction  Longitudinal railway track-structure interaction  Artificial boundary conditions for diffusion  Fractional calculus

Structural Dynamics Engineering Mechanics Mechanics of Solids

Dr Arman Khoshghalb

Lecturer

Mechanics of unsaturated soils Numerical modelling of porous media Large deformation problems Meshfree methods Soil water characteristic curve Coupled flow-deformation

Soil Mechanics Fundamental of Geomechanics

Dr Gaofeng Zhao

Lecturer

Rock dynamics Microstructure constitutive model Computational methods Mutiphysical modelling

Pavement engineering Advanced Topics in Geotechnical Engineering Water & Soil Engineering

Dr Sawekchai Tangaramvong

Lecturer

Structural safety assessment; Optimal design and retrofit of strctures; Limit and shakedown analysis; Elastoplastic analysis; Contact mechanics; Mixed finite element method; Structural uncertainty

Steel Structure Design; Reinforced Concrete Design; Structural Analysis; Mechanics of Solids

Dr Kostas Senetakis

Lecturer

Experimental Mechanics, Soil Dynamics, Micromechanics, Earthquake Engineering, Pavement Engineering.

Foundation Engineering, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Structural Dynamics

Dr Babak ShahbodaghKhan

Lecturer

Computational Poromechanics, Dynamic Soil-Structure, Interaction Analysis, Constitutive Modelling of Geomaterials, Swarm-Based Optimization

Numerical Methods in Geotechnical Engineering, Pavement Engineering, Civil Engineering Practice

Dr Zhen-Tian Chang

Senior Research Fellow

Corrosion of reinforced concrete, concrete repair, structural analysis

CIES - CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING AND SAFETY - ANNUAL REPORT 2014 < 23>


Name

Position within School

Research Areas

Teaching Areas

Dr Xiaojing Li Research Fellow

Algorithms for information extraction from optical and radar imagery for earth surface change detection Structural deformation monitoring using DInSAR, PSI and GPS techniques.

Dr Michael Man

Research Associate

Scaled boundary Finite Element Method for Plate/ Engineering Mechanics: statics and dynamics shell structures Damage identification using artificial neural networks Composite structures and piezoelectric materials  

Dr David Kellerman

Research Associate

Continuum Mechanics, Computational Mechanics, Advanced Composite Materials, Forming Analysis, Fibre Kinematics, Biomechanics, Orthotropic and Hyperelastic Material Modelling, Finite Deformation, Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis, Buckling and Stability

Dr Xinpei Liu

Research Associate

Composite steel and concrete structures, Numerical modelling of structures, Non-linear analysis and behaviour of curved members, Quasi-viscoelastic behaviour of concrete.

Dr Huiyong Ban

Research Associate

High-performance and high-strength steel structures, flexural behaviour of steel-concrete composite beams, buckling behaviour of steel structures, residual stress.

Dr Sundararajan Natarajan

Research Associate

Method development (extended finite element method, iso-geometric analysis, mesh free methods), functionally graded materials, Thin-walled structures, Composite Materials, Computational Fracture Mechanics

Dr Guotao Yang

Research Associate

Stability of railway tracks under thermal loading, Fatigue reliability of steel bridges, Structural behaviour of steel-concrete composite structures

Dr Inamullah Khan

Research Associate

Structural Analysis, Design of Time dependent behaviour of concrete, Steel concrete structures. Corrosion in RC structures, Service life design of Reinforced concrete structures exposed to severe environment

Dr Tai H. Thai

Research Associate

Advanced analysis; Steel structures; Steel-concrete composite structures; Beam and plate theories; Functionally graded and laminated composite plates.

Dr Ankit Agarwal

Research Associate

Durability of steel-FRP joints under thermal loading, Numerical Modelling

Dr Yue Huang

Research Associate

Nonlinear short-term and time-dependent behaviour of high-strength concrete panels, analysis and numerical modelling of RC structures, creep buckling of structures

< 24> CIES - CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING AND SAFETY - ANNUAL REPORT 2014

Mechanics of Solids Engineering Mechanics Computational Mechanics

Structural Stability

Engineering Design


Name

Position within School

Research Areas

Dr Nima Khorsandnia

Research Associate

Structures: Timber, concrete, steel, timber-concrete and timber-timber composites; Numerical Modelling: Non-linear finite element modelling of structures, finite difference method, computational mechanics, 3D continuum-based elements, frame and fibre elements, force-based formulation, coupled analysis; Time Dependent Analysis: Long-term behaviour of timber, concrete and timber-concrete composite structures; Progressive collapse of RC structures

Dr Saeed Salimzadeh

Research Associate

Mechanics of Multi Phase Multi Porous Media Advanced Numerical Modelling in Geomechanics

Dr Alex HayMan Ng

Research Associate

Remote sensing application in monitoring land surface changes

Dr Vipulkumar Patel

Research Associate

Demountable connections, Residual stresses, Concrete-filled steel tubular columns.

Dr Hossein Talebi

Research Associate

Scaled boundary Finite Element Method for modelling damage and elastoplasticity Multiscale methods High Performance Computing

Dr Farhad Aslani

Research Associate

Composite steel-concrete structures, Steel structures, Reinforced concrete structures, Analytical and numerical modelling of structures, Fire performance of reinforced concrete structures.

Dr Thanh Vo

Research Associate

Physical and Theoretical Modelling of Interactions between Unsaturated Soils and Structures

Teaching Areas

Remote Sensing

Composite steel-concrete structures

CIES - CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING AND SAFETY - ANNUAL REPORT 2014 < 25>


Research Projects

Resilience & Safety

Sustainability

Rehabilitation

GLOBAL INFRASTRUCTURE CHALLENGES < 26> CIES - CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING AND SAFETY - ANNUAL REPORT 2014


Project Name:

Principal

An Innovative and Advanced Systems Approach for Full Life-Cycle, Low-Emissions Composite and Hybrid Building Infrastructure

Investigator:

Scientia Professor Mark Bradford

Funding Body:

ARC Australian Laureate Fellowship

Project Duration:

Project2011-2015 Name:

An Innovative and Advanced Systems Approach for Full LifeCycle, Low-Emissions Composite and Hybrid Building Project Name: An Innovative and Advanced Systems Approach for Full LifeInfrastructure Cycle, Low-Emissions Composite and Hybrid Building Principal Investigator: Scientia Professor Mark Bradford Infrastructure Funding Body: ARC Australian Laureate Fellowship Principal Investigator: Scientia Professor Mark Bradford Project Duration: 2011-2015 Funding Body: ARC Australian Laureate Fellowship Project Duration: 2011-2015 Theofaim this research Project is to adevelop methodology for sustainable tests,scientific considering semi-rigid connections with composite H-section The aim this of research Project is to develop feasiblea feasible framed building for infrastructure embodying reduced-emissions concrete and steelsteel, components its and CFST columns, high-strength low-carbon in Portscientific methodology sustainable composite framed The aimconstruction. of this research Project is tofordevelop a feasible scientific methodology for sustainable The provision deconstructability atland thecement-based end of its service lifeand with acomposite maximisation concrete bolted shear connec-of building infrastructure embodying reduced-emissions framed component building infrastructureis embodying reduced-emissions concrete andframe steel components in its part of theTheProject.tion. The Twocomposite types of slab were system tested asutilises shown ininnovative Fig. 1, concrete and steel recycling components inalso its construction. construction. The provision for deconstructability at theflooring end ofasitswell service lifestrength with a maximisation of with geopolymer concrete and “low carbon” concrete as high steel components, since consideration for the precast slab being in tension in provision for deconstructability at the end of its service life component recycling isshear also connectors part of thejoining Project. The frame system utilises frames innovative tensioned bolted them. Theacomposite significant challenges inBeam modelling with these connection is essential. testing also commenced with a maximisation of component recycling is also part of geopolymer concreteisand “lowaddressed, carbon” concrete flooring as of wellguidance as high strength components, components being as is the delivery to rapidlysteel progress relevantwith Australian in 2014 and extensive numerical studies have been conthe Project. The shear composite frame system utilises innotensioned bolted connectors joining them. The significant challenges in modelling frames with technologies into adopting low carbon design practices and operations. The fourth year ofthese the Project ducted to (Fig. 2), showing that relevant ABAQUS Australian software can modvative geopolymer concrete and “low carbon” concreteof guidance components is being addressed, is the delivery rapidly progress saw the completion of jointas tests, considering semi-rigid connections with H-section and CFST columns, el the response of joints very closely, and so providing a flooring as well as high strength steel components, with technologies into adopting low carbon design practices and operations. The fourth year of the Project high-strength steel, low-carbon Portland cement-based concrete and bolted shear connection. Two types means for conducting parametric studies to craft design tensioned bolted shear connectors joining them. The sigsaw theofcompletion of joint tests, considering semi-rigid connections with H-section and CFST columns, slab were tested as shown in Fig. 1, since consideration for the precast slab being in tension in a high-strength steel,islow-carbon cement-based concrete and bolted connection. Two types guidance. Research Associate Dr Xinpei Liu was closely nificant challenges inessential. modelling Portland frames with these compoconnection Beam testing also commenced in 2014 andshear extensive numerical studies have of nents slab been were tested as (Fig. shown Fig. 1, that since consideration for can the with precast slab being in aclosely, associated the the work, and Mr in Reza Ataeivery undertook is being addressed, as 2), is in the delivery of guidance conducted showing ABAQUS software model response oftension joints connection is Beam testing also commenced inboth 2014 and extensive studies modelling have experimental and computation as to rapidly relevant technologies intoparametric and progress soessential. providing a Australian means for conducting studies to testing craft numerical design guidance. Research been conducted (Fig. 2), showing that ABAQUS software can model the response of joints very closely, part of PhD studies. adopting low carbon design practices operations. Associate Dr Xinpei Liu was and closely associated with thehiswork, and Mr Reza Ataei undertook both and providing means forcomputation conducting parametric to PhD craftstudies. design guidance. Research experimental testing and modelling part of his Theso fourth year of a the Project saw the completion of joint asstudies Associate Dr Xinpei Liu was closely associated with the work, and Mr Reza Ataei undertook both Figure 2: Computational experimental testing and computation modelling as part of his PhD studies. Modelling Figure 1: Joint Testing

CIES - CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING AND SAFETY - ANNUAL REPORT 2014 < 27> Fig. 1. Joint Testing Fig. 2. Computational Modelling

Fig. 1. Joint Testing

Fig. 2. Computational Modelling


Project Name:

Thermal-Induced Unilateral Plate Buckling of Concrete Pavements: Design and Evaluation

Principal Investigator:

Scientia Professor Mark Bradford

Funding Body:

ARC Discovery Grant

Duration: Project Project Name: Project Name:

2012-2014

Thermal-Induced Unilateral PlateUnilateral Buckling Plate of Concrete Pavements: Design and Evaluation Thermal-Induced Buckling of Concrete Pavements: Design and Evaluation

Principal Investigator: Principal Investigator:

Scientia Professor MarkProfessor Bradford Mark Bradford Scientia

Funding Body:Funding Body:

ARC DiscoveryARC Project Discovery Project

Project Duration: Project Duration:

2012-2014

2012-2014

This is investigating investigating theupheaval upheaval buckling ofbuckling concrete made using ordinary Portland This Project is investigating the upheaval of pavements concrete pavements made using ordinary Portland A model of a continuous pavement has been developed ThisProject Project is the buckling of concement (OPC) and new low-carbon geopolymer cementitious (GPC) materials. The increasing cement (OPC) and new low-carbon geopolymer cementitious (GPC) materials. The increasing with Dr Liao Liang Ke (on leave from Tsinghua University) crete pavements made using ordinary Portland cement occurrences of prolonged spells of high are being are associated with pavement upheavals,upheavals, occurrences of prolonged spellstemperature of high temperature being associated with pavement which allows for the variation of the temperature through (OPC) and new low-carbon geopolymer cementitious which clearly compromise societal safety, economy and amenity. 1 shows upheaval upheaval which clearly compromise societal safety, economy and Fig. amenity. Fig. a1 pavement shows a pavement the thickness; this is particularly important for black(GPC) materials. The increasing occurrences of probuckle caused a heatwave in Cherrybrook, NSW. TheNSW. theoretical and experimental modelling modelling is bucklebycaused by a heatwave in Cherrybrook, The theoretical and experimental is top pavements. Fig. 2 shows the relationship longed insofar spells ofas temperature being unique, such pavements buckleassociated in buckle a unilateral fashion away from the subgrade, and between their and their unique,high insofar as sucharepavements in a unilateral fashion away from the subgrade, theoutcomes dimensionless axial force in aare jointed pavement (of with pavement upheavals, which sociweight acts against theagainst direction ofdirection the compromise buckle. The outcomes being developed are a means for assessing weight acts theclearly of the buckle. The being developed a means for assessing the type in Fig. 1) and the thermal strain αT. When this etal safety, economy and amenity. Fig. 1 shows a pavethe vulnerability of existingofOPC pavements and the design of adesign new generation of GPC pavements, and the vulnerability existing OPC pavements and the of a new generation of GPC pavements, and upheaval buckle caused by a heatwave inand Cherrysoment addressing the impacts climate change variability. so addressing theofimpacts of climate change andparameter variability.reaches a certain value (being a 15°C increment from the neutral temperature for α = 10-5 °C-1), the

brook, NSW. The theoretical and experimental modelling

pavement buckles upwards in a fashion and unique, asofsuch pavementspavement buckle in ahas unilateral Aismodel ofAinsofar amodel continuous pavement has been developed with Dr Liao Liang Ke (on leave fromleave Tsinghua a continuous been developed with Dr Liao Liang Kesnap-through (on from Tsinghua University) which for allows theand variation of the temperature through the thickness; thisbyisone particularly axial compression is reduced third case; fashion away from allows thewhich subgrade, their weight acts University) for the variation of thethe temperature through the thickness; this in is this particularly important for black-top Fig.outcomes 2 shows the relationship between the dimensionless axial slowly forceaxial in important for black-top Fig. 2 shows the pavement relationship between the dimensionless force in the deformation then increases in the against the direction of pavements. the buckle.pavements. The being a developed jointed pavement (of for theassessing type 1) in and the1) T. strain When this parameter reachesin athe a are jointed pavement (of intheFig. type Fig. and ensuring thestrain thermal T.range When parameter reaches post-buckling withthis a reduction axial a a means the vulnerability ofthermal certain (being a 15oC increment from thegeneraneutral temperature for = 10-5 theoC-1), pavement certain value (being adesign 15oC of increment from the neutral for oC-1), = 10-5 the pavement force in it.temperature existingvalue OPC pavements and the a new buckles upwards in a snap-through fashion the ofaxial is reducedisby one third in this buckles upwards snap-through fashion and compression the axial compression reduced by one third in this tion of GPC pavements, and in so a addressing the and impacts case; the pavement deformation then increases slowly Ainclosed-form the ensuring range with a case; the variability. pavement deformation then increases slowly in solution the post-buckling ensuring post-buckling with a has been developed forrange determinclimate change and reduction in the axialinforce in it. force in it. reduction the axial ing the buckling temperature as a function of the weight of the pavement and frictional sliding characteristics of

A closed-form solution has been developed for determining the buckling temperature asvulnerability a function the A closed-form solution has been developed for determining the buckling temperature as aof function of the the subgrade, with the intent of assessment weight of the pavement and frictional characteristics of the subgrade, with the intent of vulnerability weight of the pavement andsliding frictional sliding characteristics of the subgrade, with the intent of vulnerability of buckling in asset management and evaluation. assessment of bucklingofinbuckling asset management and evaluation. assessment in asset management and evaluation.

1.2

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Thermal parameter (x 10-6)αT (x 10-6) Thermal αT parameter Fig. 1. Buckled Pavement

Fig. 2. Non-linear pre and post buckling response

< 28> CIES - CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING AND SAFETY - ANNUAL REPORT 2014

Fig. 1. Buckled Fig. 1.Pavement Buckled Pavement

Fig. 2. Non-linear pre and post Fig. 2. Non-linear prebuckling and postresponse buckling response

250


Project Name:

Project Name: Thermal-Induced Railway Buckling Thermal-Induced Railway Buckling Principal Investigator: Scientia Professor Mark Bradford

Principal Investigator:

Funding Body: Climate Adaptation Technology and Engineering for Scientia Professor Mark Bradford

Funding Body:

Climate Adaptation Technology and Engineering for

Project Duration:

2013-2016

Extreme Events. CSIRO / Flagship Collaborative Research Program Extreme Events. CSIRODuration: / Flagship Collaborative Research Program Project 2013-2016

This Project has as its focus the buckling of railways, and particularly curved railways, during heatwav

such buckle is illustrated in Fig. 1. These buckling instances are becoming quite frequent during Thermal-Induced Railway Buckling Australia, and particularly in Melbourne. The Project aims to provide a deterministic modelling to b Scientia Bradford stochasticProfessor one, so thatMark a reliability analysis can be undertaken to determine the probability and cost of b Climate Adaptation Technology and as Engineering for The Project has employed Dr Gaotao Yang a Research Associate. Extreme Events. CSIRO / Flagship Collaborative Research The critical temperature for a snap-through type buckle has been established in closed form. It ha Program however, that the ballast resistance is non-linear with softening characteristics the behaviour is somew This Project has as its focus the buckling of railways, andhas an In this therestraining ballast hasresponse an initialand elastic Project Duration: 2013-2016 this case, the ballast initialcase, elastic the restraining railway buckles in a bifurcatio

Project Name: Principal Investigator: Funding Body:

particularly curved railways, duringpredicted heatwaveby events. response and the railway buckles in a bifurcation mode, the theory of struts on an elastic foundation. Following this, the postbuckling mode is un

This has as its focus inthe buckling ofbuckling railways, andasbut particularly curved duringon heatwave deformations not only grow, as shown in Fig.of2 struts which represents thefounlengthwise buckling OneProject such buckle is illustrated Fig. 1. These is localise, predicted by the railways, theory an elastic the load p decreases with an increase ofthe temperature. This observation events. One buckle is illustrated in parameter Fig. 1. These buckling instances are becoming quite frequent instances are such becoming quite frequent during heatwaves dation. Following this, postbuckling mode is unsta-is consistent with the 1 and differs from “established” buckling theory which predicts harmonic buckling shapes. More during heatwaves in Australia, andFig. particularly in Melbourne. The the Project aims to not provide a deterministic in Australia, and particularly in Melbourne. The Project ble and deformations only grow, but localise, as modelling ofsothe foundation characteristics have been determined and implemented into a flow modelling to be used with a stochastic one, that a reliability analysis can be undertaken to determine aims to provide a deterministic modelling to behardening used withto provide shown in Fig. 2 whichtreatment represents thephenomenon. lengthwise buckling associated a computational of the the probabilityone, andsocost ofreliability bucklinganalysis events.can The has employed Yang as a Research a stochastic that a be Project undeformation as Dr the Gaotao load parameter p decreases with an Associate. dertaken to determine the probability and cost of buckling increase of temperature. This observation is consistent events. The Project has employed Dr Gaotao Yang as a

with the field results of Fig. 1 and differs from “estab-

The critical temperature for a snap-through type buckle has been established in closed form. It has been Research Associate. lished” buckling theory which predicts harmonic buckling found, however, that the ballast resistance is non-linear with softening characteristics the behaviour is sophisticated modelling of the foundation somewhat different. In this case, the ballast has an initialshapes. elasticMore restraining response and the railway The critical temperature for a snap-through type buckle characteristics have been determined and implemented buckles in a bifurcation mode, as is predicted by the theory of struts on an elastic foundation. Following has the been established mode in closed form. It has been intonot a flow with but non-associated to provide a this, postbuckling is unstable and the found, deformations onlyrule grow, localise, as hardening shown in Fig. however, that the ballast resistance is non-linear with sofcomputational treatment of the phenomenon 2 which represents the lengthwise buckling deformation as the load parameter p decreases with an tening characteristics the behaviour is somewhat different. with the field results of Fig. 1 and differs from increase of temperature. This observation is consistent “established” buckling theory which predicts harmonic buckling shapes. More sophisticated modelling of the foundation characteristics have been determined and implemented into a flow rule with nonassociated hardening to provide a computational treatment of the phenomenon. Fig. 1. Buckled Railway

0.2

0.06 0.04

Fig. 2. Increasing localisation in the post-buckling range as force parameter decreases: p = 1.999, 1.99, 1.9, 1.8, 1.5, 1.0 (p = 2 at bifurcation buckling)

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Fig. 1. Buckled Railway Fig. 1. Buckled Railway

Fig. 2. Increasing localisation in the post-buckling range s s s as force parameter decreases: p = 1.999, 1.9, 1.8, Fig. 2. Increasing localisation in the post-buckling range as1.99, force parameter decreases: 1.5,p1.0 (p 1.99, = 2 1.9, at bifurcation = 1.999, 1.8,1.5, 1.0 (p = 2buckling) at bifurcation buckling) −1 −25

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CIES - CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING AND SAFETY - ANNUAL REPORT 2014 < 29>


Project Name:

Nonlinear long-term behaviour and analysis of high strength concrete panels

Principal Investigator:

Dr Ehab Hamed and Professor Stephen Foster

Funding Body

ARC Discovery Grant

Project Duration

2012-2014

To have a safely design concrete structures with relatively new technologies that use high strength precast panels, an understanding and an investigation of their long-term creep and shrinkage behaviour are required. The main challenge in predicting the long-term response and design lifetime of high strength concrete panels lies in the ability of the numerical models to accurately describe the time-dependent cracking, geometric nonlinearity and buckling, aging of the concrete, shrinkage, and other effects. Slender high strength concrete panels are characterized by creep buckling as shown in Fig. 1, which is accompanied with cracking and other material nonlinear effects that make predicting the long-term response a difficult and a challenging task. Describing the structural response requires a step-by-step time analysis that takes into account the change in the structural geometry, internal stresses, and material characteristics at each time increment. Through a 3-years project funded by the ARC, this project aimed to provide a better understanding of the nonlinear time-dependent behaviour of high strength concrete (HSC) panels in order to enhance their effective design and safe use. The project involved both theoretical and experimental studies. Comprehensive theoretical models, as

well as numerical and computational tools for the unidirectional short-term and long-term nonlinear analyses of HSC panels have been established. An experimental study that investigated the short-term response of 8 HSC panels was finalized during 2013. Full-scale panels that some of them exhibited creep buckling failures were tested under long-term sustained loading with different load levels, load eccentricities, and concrete age. Such an experimental program has not been conducted elsewhere. The creep experimental study that included the testing of 9 full-scale panels was finalized by the end of 2014. A PhD student (Huang Y) and a Senior Research Associate (Chang Z-T) were involved in this project and they worked on the mathematical formulation of the problem, and on conducting the long-term testing. The already developed long-term mathematical formulation includes a one-way model of the HSC panel that accounts for the effects of creep, shrinkage, aging, cracking, tension-stiffening, and geometric nonlinearity (as shown in Fig. 2). The model will be further calibrated and validated against the experimental results, and is currently being further enhanced and expanded to account for the two-way action of HSC panels. The two-way model is expected to be completed by mid 2015.

< 30> CIES - CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING AND SAFETY - ANNUAL REPORT 2014


t and a challenging task. Describing the structural response requires a step-by-step time analysis akes into account the change in the structural geometry, internal stresses, and material teristics at each time increment.

Comprehensive theoretical models, as well as numerical and computational tools for the unidirectional short-term and long-term nonlinear analyses of HSC panels have been established. An experimental study that investigated the short-term response of 8 HSC panels was finalized during 2013. Full-scale panels as that of them and exhibited creep buckling failures were tested under long-term sustained Comprehensive theoretical models, wellsome as numerical computational tools for the unidirectional loading with different load levels, load eccentricities, and concrete age. Such an experimental program short-term and long-term nonlinear analyses of HSC panels have been established. An experimental has not been elsewhere. experimental study that included the testing of 9 fullComprehensive theoreticalthe models, as well asconducted numerical and computational tools for the unidirectional study that investigated short-term response of 8 HSC panels The was creep finalized during 2013. Full-scale scale panels wasof finalized by thehave end of 2014. hort-term andsome long-term nonlinear analyses HSC panels been established. An experimental panels that of them exhibited creep buckling failures were tested under long-term sustained tudy thatwith investigated response of 8 HSC panels was finalized during 2013. Full-scale loading different the loadshort-term levels, eccentricities, Such Associate an experimental A PhDload student (Huang Y)and andconcrete a Senior age. Research (Chang program Z-T) were involved in this project and panels thatbeen some of them elsewhere. exhibited creep buckling failures were tested under long-term sustained has not conducted The creep experimental study that included the testing 9 conducting fullthey worked on the mathematical formulation of the problem, andofon the long-term testing. oading with different load levels, load eccentricities, and concrete age. Such an experimental program scale panels was finalized by the end of 2014. The already developed long-term mathematical formulation includes a one-way model of the HSC panel has not been conducted elsewhere. The creepforexperimental study that shrinkage, included the testing of 9Figure. full1: Testing of panels for timeand geometric accounts effects(Chang of creep, aging, cracking, tension-stiffening, A PhD student (Huang Y) andthat a Senior Research the Associate Z-T) were involved in this project and effects cale panels was finalized by the end of 2014. nonlinearity (as shown in Fig. 2). model will the be long-term further calibrated they worked on the mathematical formulation of the problem, andThe on conducting testing. and validated against the results, and is(Chang currently further enhanced andHSC expanded A PhD studentdeveloped (Huang Y) long-term and a experimental Senior Research Associate Z-T)being were involved in this project and The already mathematical formulation includes a one-way model of the panel to account for the two-way action of HSC panels. The two-way model is expected to be completed by mid 2015. hey worked on the mathematical formulation of the problem, and on conducting the long-term testing. that accounts for the effects of creep, shrinkage, aging, cracking, tension-stiffening, and geometric The already developed long-term formulation includescalibrated a one-wayand model of the HSC panelthe nonlinearity (as shown in Fig. mathematical 2). The model will be further validated against hat accounts for the effects of creep,being shrinkage, cracking, tension-stiffening, geometric experimental results, and is currently furtheraging, enhanced and expanded to accountand for the two-way nonlinearity (aspanels. shownThe in two-way Fig. 2). The model will betofurther calibrated and2015. validated against the action of HSC model is expected be completed by mid experimental results, and is currently being further enhanced and expanded to account for the two-way action of HSC panels. The two-way model is expected to be completed by mid 2015. Figure. 1: Testing of panels for time effects Figure 2: (a) Panel geometry, loads, coordinates

gh a 3-years project funded by the ARC, this project aimed to provide a better understandingandofdisplacements; (b) Cross-section of the panel; (c) Instantaneous stress-strain curve nlinear time-dependent behaviour of high strength concrete (HSC) panels in order to enhance of the concrete; (d) Instantaneous absolute effective design and safe use. The project involved both theoretical and experimental studies. stress-strain curve of the steel; (e) Maxwell chain model

Figure 2: (a) Panel geometry, loads, coordinates and displacements; (b) Cross-section of the panel; (c) Instantaneous stress-strain curve of the concrete; (d) Instantaneous absolute stress-strain curve of the steel; (e) Maxwell chain model

Figure 2: (a) Panel geometry, loads, coordinates and displacements; (b) Cross-section of the panel; (c) Instantaneous stress-strain curve of the concrete; (d) Instantaneous absolute stress-strain curve of the steel;2:(e)(a)Maxwell chain model Figure Panel geometry, loads, coordinates and displacements; (b) Cross-section of the Figure 3: Influence of panel; load level(c) on the long-term behaviour of theof HSC nstantaneous stress-strain curve of the concrete; (d) Instantaneous absolute stress-strain curve thepanel (e = h/6, ρv = 0.2%) teel; (e) Maxwell chain model

CIES - CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING AND SAFETY - ANNUAL REPORT 2014 < 31>

Figure 3: Influence of load level on the long-term behaviour of the HSC panel (e = h/6, ρv = 0.2%)


Project Name:

The behaviour and design of innovative connections to promote the reduction and reuse of structural steel in steel-concrete composite buildings

Principal Investigators:

Professor Brian Uy

Funding Body:

ARC Discovery Grant

Project Duration:

2014-2016

Reducing, reusing and recycling steel have been identified as having potential for future composite high rise buildings. The main aim of this project is to promote the reuse of structural members by designing demountable connections. The reduction of structural steel is also encouraged through the use of concrete-filled steel tubular columns. The material and geometric parameters for the experimental program on demountable column-column splice connections have been carefully selected based on initial finite element studies. The experiments on demountable column-column splice connections will be carried out at the end of 2015 at the Randwick Heavy Structural Laboratory (UNSW) using hydraulic actuators with force capacities up to 5,000 kN. Experimental ultimate strengths and

axial load-strain curves of demountable column-column splice connections will be used to verify the accuracy of the ABAQUS finite element models. The verified model will then be utilised to investigate the effects of important parameters on the behaviour of demountable connections. Composite beams have been widely used in steel-concrete buildings and bridges for many years. A finite element model has been developed for determining the behaviour of demountable composite steel-concrete beams with profiled steel decking, hollowcore slabs and bolted shear connectors. The influence of oversized holes for demountability of composite beams has also been evaluated. Dr Vipulkumar Patel, research associate, and Mr Dongxu Li, PhD scholar, are currently working on this project under the close supervision of Professor Brian Uy.

Figure 1: Demountable column-column connections

< 32> CIES - CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING AND SAFETY - ANNUAL REPORT 2014


Figure 2: Demountable composite beam

Publications Emanating from this Project in 2014: Uy, B. (2014) Innovative connections for the demountability and rehabilitation of steel, space and composite structures. Paper presented at the 12th International Conference on Steel, Space and Composite Structures (SS14), Prague, Czech Republic

CIES - CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING AND SAFETY - ANNUAL REPORT 2014 < 33>


Project Name:

Control of cracking caused by early-age contraction of concrete.

Principal Investigators:

Professor Ian Gilbert, A/Professor Arnaud Castel, Dr Inam Khan

Funding Body:

ARC Discovery Grant

Project Duration:

2013 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2015

Early-age contraction of concrete may cause excessive cracking in restrained concrete slabs and walls within the first few days and weeks after casting. The repair of such cracks results in high annual costs to the construction industry. Early-age contraction of concrete is due to thermal contraction and shrinkage. Thermal contraction occurs as the concrete cools from its peak hydration temperature to its lowest ambient temperature (usually within the first few days after csting). Contraction also occurs due to shrinkage as the concrete dries in the days and weeks after casting (drying shrinkage) and during the hydration process (autogenous shrinkage). When early-age contraction is restrained by embedded reinforcement or by the supports or adjacent parts of the structure, tensile stresses develop in the immature concrete and, to some extent, cracking is inevitable. Where the contraction varies through the thickness of a member, as it almost always does due to temperature and shrinkage gradients, additional eigenstresses develop that can also lead to cracking.

This project involves an experimental study to calibrate and quantify the early-age deformational characteristics of Australian concretes and an analytical study to develop mathematical models to predict the width and spacing of early-age cracks in reinforced concrete structures. A further objective is to develop procedures for use in structural design to determine the amount of steel reinforcement required to satisfactorily control early-age cracking. In 2014, the first and second stages of testing cwere completed aimed at quantifying the early-age properties of concrete, including the tensile elastic modulus, tensile creep and shrinkage strain (both drying and autogenous). Testing rigs have been fabricated to facilitate the measurement of tensile creep at early ages (see sketch in Figure 2). Mathematical models to determine the restraint to early age deformation and the development of stress in restrained concrete elements have also been developed.

Some typical types of restraint in reinforced concrete structures and the consequent cracking are shown in Figure 1. < 34> CIES - CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING AND SAFETY - ANNUAL REPORT 2014


Potential cracking near surface

T = (1-R)freeE sA s

free

Tensile strain near surface

Heating

+

Heat of hydration – temperature profile

Rfree

Strain due to internal restraint during heating

-

Potential internal cracking due to thermal contraction Cooling

-

Temperature profile during cooling – thermal contraction

(a) Tensile restraint T due to bonded reinforcement

+

Internal tensile strain during cooling

(b) Development of potential cracking in a thick wall due to heat of hydration free T = RfreeEeAc Rfree

(c) Restraint and full-depth cracking in a member partially restrained at each end

Wall restrained at base by footing

wall restrained on two adjacent edges

Buttress

Contraction

Contraction

Footing

Footing

Restraint

Restraint

(d) Contraction of a wall with one edge restrained and potential cracking

(e) Contraction of wall with two adjacent edges restrained and potential cracking

Figure 1: SomeFigure typical types of restraint reinforced 1: Some typical types of restraint ininreinforced concrete concrete This project involves an experimental study to calibrate and quantify early-age deformational 200 the 1000 mm Threaded coupler at an analytical study to develop mathematical models to predict characteristics of Australian concretes and each end the width and spacing of early-age cracks in reinforced concrete structures. A further objective is to develop procedures for use in structural design to determine the amount of steel reinforcement required End plate Gauge length: to satisfactorily control early-age cracking. epoxy glued Dimensions:

to specimen

30 mm stages of testing ends In 2014, the 200 firstx 100 andx second cwere completed aimed at quantifying the1500 early-age mm (deformation recorded properties of with concrete, LVDT) including the tensile elastic modulus, tensile creep and shrinkage strain (both drying and autogenous). Testing rigs have been fabricated to facilitate the measurement of tensiledead creep at weights Structural steel early ages (see sketch in Figure 2). testing frame

Mathematical models to determine the restraint to early age deformation and the development of Load cell stress in restrained concrete elements have also been developed. (a) Dog bone specimen

(b) Schematic of portable creep rig

Figure 2: Tensile creep speciment and typical testing rig.

Figure 2 Tensile creep specimen and typical testing rig.

CIES - CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING AND SAFETY - ANNUAL REPORT 2014 < 35>


Project Name:

Time-dependent deformation of cracked reinforced concrete containing macrosynthetic fibres.

Principal Investigators:

Professor Ian Gilbert

Funding Body:

TSE Pty Ltd, Australia

Project Duration:

2014 – 2015

When macro-synthetic fibres are included in reinforced concrete significant improvements in both the serviceability and durability of the structure can be achieved, including:  reduced crack widths – better control of both flexural and direct tension cracking;  better confinement of concrete in compression leading to reduced spalling of the cover concrete;  improved seismic performance;  reduced anchorage lengths for bar reinforcement;  reduced time-dependent deformation of cracked cross-sections due to creep and shrinkage of concrete; and  improved fatigue performance for pavements and other members subject to repetitive loading. Macro-synthetic fibres have recently been proposed for inclusion in segmental reinforced concrete tunnel linings. However, concerns have been raised about the long-term

performance of these fibres in respect of creep and the associated consequences for crack width development with time under sustained flexural loads. To address these concerns, a method is being developed in this project to determine the effects of creep and shrinkage on the time-dependent behaviour of cracked, macro-synthetic fibre reinforced concrete cross-sections containing conventional bar reinforcement subjected to a sustained bending moment and axial force. Various constructive relationships are being trialled to model the time-dependent behavior of the cracked fibre-reinforced concrete and creep and shrinkage of the concrete are included in the analysis using a step-by-step method of geometric and temporal discretisation and relying on the principle of superposition. Although the inclusion of fibres in the concrete has only a minor effect on the flexural strength of the cross-section, the fibres reduce time-dependent in-service deformations and significantly reduce maximum crack widths when used in combination with conventional reinforcing bars. Some typical results for a cracked doubly reinforced cross-section (D = 300 mm, b = 1000 mm, Ast = Asc = 1000 mm2/m, with M = 100 kNm and N = -300 kN) are shown below.

b D

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b b D D

CIES - CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING AND SAFETY - ANNUAL REPORT 2014 < 37>


Project Name:

Stiffness degradation of concrete members induced by reinforcement corrosion

Principal Investigators:

A/Professor Gianluca Ranzi (USyd), A/Professor Arnaud Castel, Professor Ian Gilbert, Dr Daniel Dias-da-Costa

Funding Body:  

ARC Discovery Grant

Project Duration:

2014 - 2016

Corrosion of steel reinforcement is the major cause of deterioration of reinforced concrete structures exposed to coastal and marine environments. This is particularly important for Australia, considering that most of its large cities are coastal. At early active corrosion stage, serviceability is a lot more affected than ultimate capacity because of the high sensibility of the bending stiffness to corrosion induced steel-concrete bond loss, with the consequent development of excessive deflections and deformations as well as undesired concrete cracking and delamination. In normal service condition, the bending stiffness can be affected by both time-dependant effects and steel corrosion. This project aims to quantify the respective contribution of creep, shrinkage and steel corrosion on the stiffness reduction. Experimentations are carried out using accelerated corrosion methods applied to reinforced concrete beams subjected to sustained loading. Models are developed and calibrated aiming to provide efficient tool for corroding structures assessment.

< 38> CIES - CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING AND SAFETY - ANNUAL REPORT 2014


Project Name:

Equipment to develop a World class laboratory for carrying out durability tests at the material and structural level

Principal Investigators:

A/Professor Arnaud Castel, Dr Ali Akbarnezhad

Funding Body:  

UNSW MREII

Project Duration:

2014

In the future, infrastructure needs will increase with the growing world population and urbanization process. Researchers and engineers face a crucial challenge to reduce the environmental impact of the construction sector and the concrete industry. Development of sustainable design approaches by seeking lower environmental impact and better durability is necessary. Managing the ageing of existing infrastructure is another critical challenge for engineers especially considering the huge amount of deteriorating construction all over the world. The project aims to develop a world class laboratory for carrying out durability tests on construction materials. The equipment obtained improves greatly the CIES capability to carry out research on the durability of infrastructures and buildings including the development of innovating construction materials such low carbon concretes.

CIES - CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING AND SAFETY - ANNUAL REPORT 2014 < 39>


Project Name:

Stochastic geometrically nonlinear elasto-plastic buckling and behaviour of curved grid-like structures

Principal Investigators:

A/Professor Wei Gao, Professor Yong-Lin Pi, Emeritus Professor Francis Tin-Loi

Funding Body:  

ARC Discovery Grant

Project Duration:

2014 – 2016

The aim of this project is to develop an advanced stochastic framework for the nonlinear elasto-plastic analysis and reliability assessment of curved structures considering uncertainties in their material, geometry and loading. Novel formulations and effective algorithms are devised to account for the random geometric nonlinearity and material elasto-plasticity. An efficient tool is developed for reliability assessment of this class of structures.

Estimated PDF

Uncertainties are pervasive in engineering practice due to inherent variability and lack of knowledge. It is vital to assess reliably the safety of large spatially curved complex structures addressing the inevitable uncertainties in structural parameters and loads for design and rehabilitation purposes. Curved structures are commonplace in structural engineering and are particularly sensitive to material variation and geometric imperfection. Their behaviour becomes quite nonlinear even when the external load is much lower than the failure load and their deformations often possess elasto-plastic characteristics.

In the first stage of this project, time-variant stochastic response analysis and reliability assessment have been investigated for concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST) arches addressing the inevitably uncertain viscoelastic effects of the concrete infill. A computationally efficient probabilistic method has been proposed to determine the time-variant statistical characteristics of the random structural responses of CFST arches. Furthermore, the proposed computational scheme has been extended to estimate the time-variant structural reliability of CFST arches with uncertain viscoelastic effects. The applicability, accuracy and efficiency of the proposed scheme have been 3500 18-Day testified. Figures 1 and 2 show the evolution of rigorously 3000 probability density function (PDF) and cumulative distri2500 bution function (CDF) of central radial displacement of a 30-Day 180-Day 270-Day 2000 pin-ended CFST arch 100-Day respectively. Figures 3 and 4 show 365-Day the time-variant sensitivity of reliability of serviceability 1500 and reliability of strength of a pin-ended CFST arch re1000 spectively. Matrix plot of a pin-ended CFST arch illustrat500 ing the various correlations between concerned random 0 3.5 4 4.5 5 6.5 7 variables is explicitly presented in5.5displacement Figure 65. Dimensionless central radial x 10 -3

Figure 1 PDF of central radial displacement 3500

1

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Figure 1 PDF1of PDF central radial displacement Figure of central radial

0.4

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displacement

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x 10

-3

0 3.5

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4.5

stimated CDF

< 40> CIES - CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING AND SAFETY - ANNUAL REPORT 2014 100-Day

180-Day 0.4

270-Day

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5.5

Figure 2 CDF of2central Figure CDFradial of displacement central radial

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6.5

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Figure 1 PDF of central radial displacement Figure 1 PDF of central radial displacement 1 1

Estimated CDF Estimated CDF

0.8 0.8

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6.5

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x 10

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Figure 2 CDF of central radial displacement Figure 2 CDF of central radial displacement

7

-3

Figure 4 Sensitivity of reliability of strength

Figure 3 Sensitivity of reliability of serviceability

Figure 3 Sensitivity of reliability of serviceability Figure 3 Sensitivity of reliability of serviceability

Figure 5 Matrix plot

Figure 5 Matrix plot

Figure 4 Sensitivity of reliability of strength

CIES - CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING AND SAFETY - ANNUAL REPORT 2014 < 41>


Project Name:

Reliability assessment of concrete-filled steel tubular frames designed by advanced analysis

Principal Investigators:

Dr Tai Thai

Funding Body:  

ARC DECRA

Project Duration:

2014 – 2016

Concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST) structures have been increasingly used in high-rise buildings, bridges and other infrastructure due to their enhanced properties such as high strength, high ductility and large energy absorption capability. The existing studies on CFST structures are restricted to deterministic approaches in which the influence of uncertainties on the structural safety is neglected. The consideration of system reliability in the design of CFST structures will increase the safety of structures, and consequently, provide greater security against physical and financial losses. The aim of this project is to evaluate the system reliability of CFST frames designed by advanced analysis. The influences of inherent uncertainties in loads, material properties and geometric properties on the system reliability of CFST frames will be studied. The outcomes of this research will be used to develop the provisions for the system reliability-based design of CFST frames to achieve a target reliability range.

In the first state of this project, the semi-rigid behaviour of beam-to-column composite joints in framed buildings is investigated to obtain a moment-rotation model for this kind of composite joint. Figure 1 shows the finite element simulation of a half of a typical blind bolted endplate composite joint with a CFST column. The obtained moment-rotation model is then included in a fibre beam-column element (see Figure 2 and References [R1-R2] for more details) to predict the ultimate strength of CFST frames. Monte Carlo simulation is used to calculate the system probabilities of failure and evaluate the system reliability of the CFST frame.

REFERENCES [R1] Thai HT, Uy B. Nonlinear inelastic analysis of semi-rigid steel frames. Proceedings of 12th International Conference on Steel Space and Composite Structures, 28-30 May 2014, Prague, Czech Republic, p. 369-378. [R2] Thai HT, Uy B, Khan M. A modified stress-strain model accounting for the local buckling of thin-walled stub columns under axial compression. Journal of Constructional Steel Research 2015;111:57-69.

< 42> CIES - CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING AND SAFETY - ANNUAL REPORT 2014


concrete slab Headed studs Rebars

CFST column

concrete slab

Headed studs

Rebars

CFST column

concrete slab

Blind bolts

Headed studs

Blind bolts Rebars

Blind bolts

Steel beam Steel beam

Endplate

(a) Configuration

(a) Configuration

Steel beam

Endplate

Endplate

(a) Configuration (a) Configuration

(b) Crack in concrete slab

(c) Local buckling in steel beam

(b) Crack in concrete slab (c) Local buckling in steel beam Figure 1. Modelling of a half a Modelling typicalof bind bolted joint with a CFST column Figure 1. a half a typical bindendplate bolted endplatecomposite composite joint with a CFST column

(b) Crack in concrete slab (c) Local buckling in steel beam y endplate Crack in concrete Local buckling inwith steelabeam gure 1. Modellingziyof(b) a half a typical bindslab bolted joint CFST col Steel Steel (c) composite zi y

Concrete Figure 1. Modelling of a half a typical bind bolted endplate composite joint with a CFST colu Fibre i

Fibre i yi

z

yi

C z

z

yi

Concrete fibre Rectangular CFST column

Concrete fibre Circular CFST column

y

Steel fibre

Fibre i

zi

Steel beam with RC slab

B

A

x z x

L

Figure 2. Fibre beam-column element Figure 2. Fibre beam-column element CIES - CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING AND SAFETY - ANNUAL REPORT 2014 < 43>


Project Name:

Scaled boundary finite-element approach for safety assessment of plates and shells under monotonic and shakedown loadings

Principal Investigators:

Dr Hou (Michael) Man, Professor Chongmin Song & Professor Francis Tin-Loi

Funding Body:

ARC, UNSW

Project Duration:

2012-2014

Piezoelectric materials are widely used in sensing devices and actuators for engineering applications due to their unique electro-mechanical coupling characteristics. Their increasing usage in smart structures and structural health monitoring, both continuously ensure structural safety, has emphasised the significance in reliably simulating the responses of piezoelectric materials even in their design stage. This project aims to develop a computer tool to analyse plate and shell structures made of composite and piezoelectric materials. The approach is based on the scaled boundary finite element method. The in-plane dimensions are discretised into high-order elements. The through thickness behaviour is expressed analytically. This leads to a highly efficient technique while maintaining 3D consistency and accuracy. The through-thickness electric potential in the piezoelectric plate, which shows high-order behavior, is captured accurately.

This novel technique has been shown to be highly accurate and efficient, especially when dealing with piezoelectric materials. Figure 1 shows a circular piezoelectric sensor with a central hole under a non-uniformly distributed pressure and is grounded at the top and bottom surfaces. It is commonly appeared in the designs of piezoelectric sensor. Only 4 high order elements are used to discretise the sensor. The results in Figure 2 show that the proposed technique (denoted by SBFEM) requires significantly less number of nodes than the solid elements of ANSYS for the same accuracy (no shell element in ANSYS can be used for piezoelectric bending analysis). Figure 3 further shows the distribution of the electric potential and the axial stress, which are both consistent with the ANSYS 3D results.

< 44> CIES - CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING AND SAFETY - ANNUAL REPORT 2014


Figure 1. Circular piezoelectric sensor Figure 1. Circular piezoelectric sensor

Electric potential at mid plane (a)(a)Electric potential at mid plane

Figure 2. Comparison of computational Figure 2. Comparison of computational requirement with ANSYSrequirement with ANSYS

(b) Axial stress at top plane (b) Axial stress at top plane

Figure 3. Normalised electric potential and in-plane axial stress of a circular piezoelectric sensor under non-uniformly distributed pressure

Figure 3. Normalised electric potential and in-plane axial stress of a circular piezoelectric sensor under non-uniformly distributed pressure

CIES - CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING AND SAFETY - ANNUAL REPORT 2014 < 45>


Project Name:

A high-performance stochastic scaled boundary finite-element framework for safety assessment of structures susceptible to fracture

Principal Investigators:

Professor Chongmin Song, Dr Ean Tat Ooi, Dr Hou (Michael) Man & A/Professor Wei Gao

Funding Body:

ARC Discovery Grant

Project Duration:

2013-2015

Cracks appear in many ageing infrastructure such as dams, bridges and buildings. After an extreme loading event such as impact, blast, cyclone and earthquake, a structure often sustains damages in the form of cracking. For ageing and damaged structure, uncertainties of the system parameters for structural analysis exist. For the safe and cost-effective management of aging structures, it is essential to consider the uncertainties in evaluating the stability of cracks and crack propagation. The aim of this project is to develop an advanced numerical framework for the reliability assessment of structures considering uncertainties in structural parameters and loading. Of particular importance is the ability to assess crack propagation and its effect on structural safety, which is a major challenge to existing numerical methods. Underpinning the project is the development of the stochastic scaled boundary finite-element method and its application to reliability analysis.

In this first stage of this project, a scaled boundary polygon element of arbitrary order is developed to model the stress concentration at the crack tip. The key parameters for a fracture analysis are conveniently determined. No local mesh refinement around the crack tip, such as in the finite element method, or asymptotic enrichment, as in the extended finite element method, is needed. The scaled boundary polygon element is ideally suited to the quadtree technique for automatic mesh generation. This work leads to a highly accurate and efficient technique in modelling crack propagation. This technique has been successfully applied to various problems in fracture analysis of cracked structures. An example is shown in Figure 1. Significant advantages and potential of the developed approach are demonstrated. For example, Figure 2 shows the modeling of the XCT image of a concrete specimen to predict its material properties.

< 46> CIES - CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING AND SAFETY - ANNUAL REPORT 2014


P 1.25

P P PP

r = 0.25 1.25 r = 0.25 1.25 1.25 r = 0.25 1.25 r =r0.25 2.0 = 0.25 2.0 2.02.02.0 8.0 b 2.0 8.08.08.0 2.0 2.0 4.0 a b 2.0 b b b 4.0 a 4.04.04.0 a a a 1.0 9.0 9.0 1.0 1.0 9.0 9.0 1.0 1.0 9.0 9.0 1.01.0 9.09.0 9.09.0 1.01.01.0 a b CASE a CASE I CASE 1.5 5.0 a b bb CASE CASE a a b 1.5 II I I 1.0 4.0 I 1.5 1.5 5.05.05.0 I 1.5 5.0 II 1.0 4.0 a) Geometry II II II 1.01.01.0 4.04.04.0 2.0

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(b) Quadtree mesh (a) Image of b) Quadtree mesh (b) Quadtree mesh (b) Quadtree mesh (a) Image Quadtree mesh concrete (a) Image ofofof (b) Quadtree mesh (a) Image (a) Image concrete concrete concrete concrete

a) Image of concrete

(c) ߪଵ in aggregates c) σ1 in(c) ߪଵaggregates inaggregates aggregates (c)(c) ߪଵaggregates (c) in ߪߪin ଵଵin aggregates

Figure 2: Modelling of XCT imageFigure of concrete specimen 2: Modelling of XCT image of concrete specimen Figure 2: Modelling of XCT image of concrete specimen Figure 2: Modelling of XCT image of concrete Figure 2: Modelling of XCT image of concrete specimen Figure 2: Modelling image of concretespecimen specimen

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CIES - CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING AND SAFETY - ANNUAL REPORT 2014 < 47>

77 66 55 44 33 22 11 00


Project Name:

Shallow foundations in unsaturated soils: mechanistic design through numerical modelling, analysis and experimental investigation

Principal Investigators:

A/Professor A Russell, Professor N Khalili

Funding Body:

ARC Discovery Grant

Project Duration:

2014-2016

At UNSW, the geotechnical engineering research group is building innovative design tools that account for the complex interactions between shallow foundations and unsaturated soils. Current design tools for shallow foundations are only applicable for soils that are fully saturated or dry. This is alarming, since roughly 60 per cent of the world’s population lives in regions where the surface soils – to a depth of several metres – are unsaturated.

The research involves:  Rigorous theoretical analyses using the method of characteristics and the finite element method to quantify bearing capacity and load‑settlement response.  Use of a full-scale shallow foundation testing rig to generate relevant experimental evidence for validation of theory.  Establishment of reliable and safe design tools.

Unsaturated soils have an internal suction that increases the contact forces between particles meaning they are generally stronger and stiffer than completely saturated or dry soils.

Engineers need tools for incorporating the influence of suction on bearing capacity, settlement and safety. The proposed research will meet this need and will be the most comprehensive of its kind ever undertaken.

The ARC funded project involves integrating the group’s expertise in unsaturated soil mechanics, theory of elasto-plasticity, numerical modelling, limit analysis and experimental investigation.

< 48> CIES - CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING AND SAFETY - ANNUAL REPORT 2014


Project Name:

Triaxial System for Stress Path and Dynamic Tests

Principal Investigators:

A/Professor Russell, Dr Khoshghalb, Professor Song, Dr Taiebat, Dr Douglas, Dr Birk, Dr Zhao, Dr Shahbodagh

Funding Body:

UNSW MREII

Project Duration:

2014

Geotechnical engineering researchers have set up Australia’s most advanced triaxial system for testing unsaturated soils. The apparatus capable of applying cyclic and dynamic loads to unsaturated soil samples under either stress or strain control conditions while monitoring the specimen pore water and air pressures during a test.

The equipment is being used to open new areas of research and technology development related to:

The equipment will launch new research in areas of need and strength, especially related to soil dynamics and earthquake engineering.

 dynamic soil‑structure interaction, and

 the geotechnics of cyclic loading, dynamic loading and earthquake engineering involving unsaturated soils,

 making soils and foundations earthquake resistant using fibre reinforcement.

Hundreds of billions of dollars are spent each year across the world to make buildings and structures safe when subjected to earthquake induced cyclic and dynamic loading. Without this, earthquakes cause massive devastation. The Christchurch earthquake, for example, resulted in 182 lives lost and a $30 billion rebuild cost.

CIES - CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING AND SAFETY - ANNUAL REPORT 2014 < 49>


Project Name:

Dynamic analysis of unsaturated porous media subject to damage due to cracking

Principal Investigators:

Professor Nasser Khalili, Dr Babak Shahbodagh Khan

Funding Body:

ARC, UNSW and School of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Project Duration:

2013 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2015

The development of constitutive and computational models for the behaviour of unsaturated materials has significantly lagged behind similar developments for saturated soils. This has largely been due to the inherent complexities associated with the behavior of multiphase porous materials, e.g. simultaneous flow of fluids such as water and air through the medium, complex interaction of fluid flow and deformation fields, and existence of various sources of nonlinearity in the governing equations. This research relates to rigorous analysis of nonlinear dynamic response of unsaturated soils. It will lead to cost savings in many geotechnical engineering practices as it will provide a better understanding of the behaviour of unsaturated soils under dynamic loading and a greater confidence in the prediction of the performance of earth-structures. As a part of this research project, a numerical model based on the mixture theory was developed for the nonlinear dynamic analysis of flow and defor-

mation behaviour of unsaturated porous media. Starting from the conservation laws, finite element incremental formulations for large deformation static and dynamic analyses were derived in the updated Lagrangian framework, whereas the time integration was conducted using the Newmark technique. The coupling between solid and fluid phases was established using the effective stress principle. The effect of hydraulic hysteresis on the effective stress parameters and soil water characteristic curve was also taken into account. The computational model was successfully applied to several nonlinear fundamental problems in geotechnical engineering and the applicability and accuracy of the model were demonstrated. The model is currently being further developed to a more complex rate dependent continuum damage-elasto-plastic model for variably saturated porous media including damage due to straining and the stiffening effects of suction.

< 50> CIES - CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING AND SAFETY - ANNUAL REPORT 2014


xistence of three types of ional waves in unsaturated soil ubjected to transient load. istence of three types of onal waves in unsaturated soil bjected to transient load.

Fig 1. Existence of three types of compressional waves in unsaturated soil column subjected to transient load.

ect of hydraulic hysteresis on of unsaturated soil under dynamic load: Suction ct with of hydraulic hysteresis on on sInitial=20KPa. of unsaturated soil under dynamic load: Suction n with sInitial=20KPa.

Fig 2. Effect of hydraulic hysteresis on response of unsaturated soil under partial dynamic load: Suction distribution with sInitial=20KPa. CIES - CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING AND SAFETY - ANNUAL REPORT 2014 < 51>


Project Name:

Advanced techniques for imaging radar interferometry

Principal Investigators:

A/Professor Linlin Ge, Dr Jean Xiaojing Li, Professor Howard Zebker (Stanford University), Dr Scott Hensley (NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory), and Dr Horng-Yue Chen (Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica)

Funding Body:  

ARC Discovery Grant

Project Duration:

2013 – 2015

Persistent scatterer radar interferometry (PSI) has been increasingly used to measure ground surface deformation caused by earthquakes, groundwater extraction, underground mining, and other activities. It is an important tool in safeguarding significant infrastructure. The aims of the Project are to develop advanced techniques to further enhance PSI through exploiting SAR polarisations, incor-

porating the new wide-area imaging mode, and integrating multi-geometry & multi-source ground displacement measurements. The expected outcomes are a suite of innovative techniques that aim to transform PSI into a robust, cost-effective, large coverage and fully 3-dimensional remote sensing technology capable of frequently monitoring ground displacement.

Artistic impression of the ALOS-2 satellite which captured images used in the above UNSW study (image credit: Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency and Mitsubishi Electric)

< 52> CIES - CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING AND SAFETY - ANNUAL REPORT 2014


Ground deformation of the Mw7.8 Nepal Earthquake on 25 April 2015 as measured by the Japanese satellite ALOS-2 based on comparing radar images taken on 21 Feb 2015 before the quake and on 2 May 2015 after the quake

CIES - CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING AND SAFETY - ANNUAL REPORT 2014 < 53>


Project Name:

The behaviour and design of composite columns coupling the benefits of high strength steel and high strength concrete for large scale infrastructure

Principal Investigators:

Professor Brian Uy, Professor Zhong Tao (UWS), Dr Fidelis Mashiri (UWS), Professor Richard Liew (National University of Singapore), Professor Lin-Hai Han (Tsinghua University)

Funding Body:

ARC - Discovery Grant

Project Duration:

2012-2014

This project began in 2012 and a PhD student Mr Mahbub Khan was appointed. Short and slender column tests on high strength steel box columns filled with high strength concrete have already been carried out at the University of Western Sydney. A postdoctoral fellow has also been appointed and the project has also been enhanced through the collaboration with Dr Anna Paradowska from ANSTO which has led to a successful bid for time to use the Kowari facility to use neutron scattering techniques to determine residual stress measurements in high strength steel. Research by postdoctoral fellow: Dr Tai Thai developed a finite element (FE) model for predicting the ultimate strength and behaviour of high strength concrete filled steel tubular columns under axial compression. The developed FE model accounts for the effects of initial local imperfections and residual stresses of the steel tube. In addition, a new empirical equation for estimating the confining pressure on the concrete infill was also proposed based on an extensive numerical analysis of a wide range of the width-to-thickness ratio, yield stress of the steel tube and compressive strength of the concrete core. Verification studies demonstrate that the present model can accurately predict the ultimate strength as well as the failure modes (see Figure 2). Parameter studies indicate that both the Eurocode EC4 and Australian Standard AS 5100 approaches can be safely extended to predict the ultimate strength of concrete-filled steel columns with high strength materials. More details about this work can be found in Thai et al. (2014).

Publications Emanating from this Project in 2014: Mashiri, F. R., Paradowska, A., Uy, B., Tao, Z., Khan, M., & Dayal, P. (2014). Residual stresses distribution measured by neutron diffraction in fabricated square high strength steel tubes. Materials Science Forum, 777(February (online)), 249-254. doi: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/ MSF.777.249 Mashiri, F. R., Uy, B., Tao, Z., & Wang, Z. B. (2014). Concrete-filled VHS-to-steel fabricated section stub columns subjected to axial compression. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 95(C), 141-161. doi: 10.1016/j. jcsr.2013.11.022 Thai HT; Uy B; Khan M; Tao Z; Mashiri F, (2014) â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Numerical modelling of concrete-filled steel box columns incorporating high strength materialsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, Journal of Constructional Steel Research 102:256-265.

< 54> CIES - CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING AND SAFETY - ANNUAL REPORT 2014


Project Name: 

Principal Investigators: 

Professor Brian Uy, Professor Zhong Tao (UWS (UWS), Professor Richard Liew (National Unive Professor Lin‐Hai Han (Tsinghua University)  

Funding Body:   

ARC ‐ Discovery Grant 

Project Duration: 

2012‐2014

Funding Body:   

The behaviour and design of composite columns coupling the benefits  BOTH Resilience and Safety AND Rehabilitation of high strength steel and high strength concrete for large scale  infrastructure  This project began in 2012 and a PhD student Mr Mahbub Khan was app column tests on high strength steel box columns filled with high strength c Professor Brian Uy, Professor Zhong Tao (UWS), Dr Fidelis Mashiri  carried out at the University of Western Sydney. A postdoctoral fellow has a (UWS), Professor Richard Liew (National University of Singapore),  project has also been enhanced through the collaboration with Dr Anna Para has led to a successful bid for time to use the Kowari facility to use neutro Professor Lin‐Hai Han (Tsinghua University)   determine residual stress measurements in high strength steel. ARC ‐ Discovery Grant 

Project Duration: 

2012‐2014

Principal Investigators: 

BOTH Resilience and Safety AND Rehabilitation This project began in 2012 and a PhD student Mr Mahbub Khan was appointed. Short and slender column tests on high strength steel box columns filled with high strength concrete have already been carried out at the University of Western Sydney. A postdoctoral fellow has also been appointed and the project has also been enhanced through the collaboration with Dr Anna Paradowska from ANSTO which has led to a successful bid for time to use the Kowari facility to use neutron scattering techniques to determine residual stress measurements in high strength steel. Figure 1. Kowari strain scanner, ANSTO and residual stress patterns

Research by postdoctoral fellow: Dr Tai Thai developed a finite element (FE) model for predicting the ultimate strength and behaviour of high strength concrete filled steel tubular columns under axial compression. The developed FE model accounts for the effects of initial local imperfections and residual stresses of the steel tube. In addition, a new empirical equation for estimating the confining pressure on the concrete infill was also proposed based on an extensive numerical analysis of a wide range of the width-to-thickness ratio, yield stress of the steel tube and compressive strength of the concrete core. Verification studies demonstrate that the present model can accurately predict the ultimate strength as well as the failure modes (see Figure 2). Parameter studies indicate that both the Eurocode EC4 and Australian Standard AS 5100 approaches can be safely extended to predict the ultimate strength of concrete-filled steel columns with high strength materials. More details about this work can be found in Thai et al. (2014). Figure 1. Kowari strain scanner, ANSTO and residual stress Local buckling

Figure 1. Kowari strain scanner, ANSTO and residual stress patterns 

Mid-height section Figure 2. Comparison of the failure mode

Figure 2. Comparison of the failure mode CIES - CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING AND SAFETY - ANNUAL REPORT 2014 < 55>


Project Name:

Progressive Collapse Resistance of Reinforced Concrete Framed Structures with Membrane Action

Principal Investigators:

Professor Stephen Foster, Dr Hamid Valipour and Nima FarhangVesali (UTS)

Funding Bodies:

ARC Discovery Grant

Project Duration:

2012 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2014

Among the different load redistribution mechanisms, membrane action has been identified as one of the primary mechanisms that significantly improve the progressive collapse resistance of frames during extreme loading events such as earthquake and blasts. However, little attention has been paid to membrane action of reinforced concrete members within framed structures and the contribution of membrane action in their progressive collapse resistance. Accordingly, the aims of this research project are to provide experimental baseline data and quantify the effects of boundary conditions, concrete compressive strength and detailing of reinforcement on membrane action of reinforced concrete beams within framed structures. Furthermore, efficient 1D frame and continuum-based finite element (FE) models are developed and verified by tested beam assemblages. Presently, CIES investigators are undertaking tests on reinforced concrete beam assemblages and frames subjected to point load at mid-span. In total, eighteen reinforced concrete (RC) and steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC) beam assemblages with different reinforcing proportion, stirrup configuration and concrete compressive strength have been tested so far. From the experimental results, effect of passive confinement (provided by transverse reinforcement) on the arching action was found to be negligible.

In addition, the CIES investigators have developed detailed 2D continuum-based (FE) models which can accurately capture local and global behaviour of RC and SFRC beam assemblages subject to large displacements (Figure 1). The experimental results and FE model predictions showed that peak of catenary action is similar for RC and SFRC assemblages with the same longitudinal reinforcing ratio (Figure 1), however, the extent of damage in the beam-to-end block zone and adjacent to centre stub was different in RC and SFRC assemblages. In the RC assemblages, major cracks developed in the beamto-end block zone, whereas no crack was observed in the beam-to-end block zone of SFRC assemblages (Figures 2 and 3). In RC assemblages, the tendency of catenary steel bars to be pulled out of concrete was resisted by the stirrups, accordingly no longitudinal cracking and spalling of concrete was observed in the sections adjacent to the centre stub (see Figure 3a). However, in SFRC assemblages, extensive longitudinal cracking and spalling of concrete cover was observed in the vicinity of centre stub (Figure 3b), owing to tendency of catenary bars to be pulled out of concrete. Nevertheless, in SFRC assemblages, the steel fibres managed to adequately arrest the longitudinal cracks and prevent extensive separation of steel bars from concrete core.

< 56> CIES - CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING AND SAFETY - ANNUAL REPORT 2014


a) RC b) SFRC

(a) RC (b) SFRC Figure 1 Load versus vertical displacement of centre stub captured by the continuum-based FE model for (a) RC assemblages with Figure 1 Load versus vertical displacement of centre stub captured by the continuum-based FE model for stirrups and (b) SFRC (a) assemblages RC without stirrups. (b) SFRC (a) RC vertical assemblages with stirrups and (b) SFRC assemblages without stirrups. FE model for Figure 1 Load versus displacement of centre stub captured by the continuum-based (a) RC assemblages with stirrups and (b) SFRC assemblages without stirrups. Concrete crushing  Concrete  No crack within  crushing  the beam‐to‐end  No crack within  block zone the beam‐to‐end 

Concrete crushing  Concrete  Major cracks developed crushing 

within the beam‐to‐end  Major cracks developed  block zone block zone  within the beam‐to‐end  150 mm  150 mm  block zone  150 mm  150 mm  (a) RC assemblage (b) SFRC assemblage Figure 2: Crushing of concrete in the sections adjacent to end supporting blocks. (a) RC assemblage (b)(noSFRC (a) RC assemblage (b) SFRC assemblage stirrup)assemblage Figure 2: Crushing of concrete in the sections adjacent to end supporting blocks. Figure 3: Concrete cover cracking and spalling adjacent to centre stub after bar rupture. Extensive damage in the cover,  owing to tendency of bars to be  No damage in the cover, owing to   Extensive damage in the cover,  pulled out of concrete, following  the resistance of stirrups against  owing to tendency of bars to be  No damage in the cover, owing to   development of catenary action.  pulled out of concrete, following  the tendency of bars to be pulled  the resistance of stirrups against  development of catenary action.  out of concrete.  the tendency of bars to be pulled  out of concrete. 

        

    

(a) RC assemblage (b) SFRC assemblage (no stirrup) Figure 3: Concrete cover cracking and spalling adjacent to centre stub after bar rupture. (a) RC assemblage (b) SFRC assemblage (no stirrup) CIES - CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING AND SAFETY - ANNUAL REPORT 2014 < 57> Figure 3: Concrete cover cracking and spalling adjacent to centre stub after bar rupture.


Project Name:

Dynamic fracturing in shale rock through coupled continuum-discontinuum modelling

Principal Investigators:

Dr Gaofeng Zhao

Funding Body:

ARCÂ DECRA

Project Duration:

2013â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2015

1) Digital microscope

A 3D reconstruction technique was developed to build the 3D microstructure of the sandstone from its local surface image. The 3D printing was preliminarily used for rock mechanics study. The jointed DLSM model was successfully developed. SHPB tests on the Datong coal (a typical anisotropic material similar to shale) and Changsha sandstone were conducted. The strain rate dependency of the uniaxial tensile strength in Gosford sandstone was studied by the DLSM with X-ray micro CT.

(a) 3D reconstruction from surface image 2) Surface image

3) Empirical relationship between 2D and 3D morphological description curves

3) Derived 3D morphological curve a) X-ray micro CT model 4) Simulated Annealing (SA)

c) Verification

< 58> CIES - CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING AND SAFETY - ANNUAL REPORT 2014


mage

(b) 3D printing

(a) 3D reconstruction from surface image (c) Jointed DLSM (a) 3D reconstruction

from surface image

(b) 3D printing (d) SHPB test on coal

(b) 3D printing

(b) 3D printing

(c) Jointed DLSM (c) Jointed DLSM

(d) SHPB test on coal (d) SHPB test on coal CIES - CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING AND SAFETY - ANNUAL REPORT 2014 < 59>


Project Name:

RP1020: Reducing Barriers for Commercial Adaptation of Construction Materials with Low-Embodied-Carbon

Project leaders:

Professor Stephen Foster, Professor Jay Sanjayan (SUT) and A/Professor Arnaud Castel

Funding Body:

CRC Low Carbon Living

Collaborating partner Organisations Project Duration:

Ash Development Association of Australia; Australasian (iron & steel) Slag Association, AECOM, Standards Australia, Sydney Water 2014 - 2016

The Centre for Infrastructure Engineering and Safety (CIES) continues to promote a sustainable concrete technology within the CRC for Low carbon Living under the leadership of A/Professor Arnaud Castel and Professor Steve Foster. The 2013 Scoping Study identified that the most promising sustainable option to traditional Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) concrete is the geopolymer concrete. Geopolymer concrete is the result of the reaction of materials containing aluminosilicate such as fly ash and slag with alkalis to produce an inorganic polymer binder. Geopolymer concrete has an 80% lower carbon footprint compared to the conventional Portland cement concrete. The major barriers to geopolymer adoption was the lack of standard specifications, track record and exclusion from current standards (e.g., AS 3600). The project submitted to the CRC-LCL in 2014 aims to gather field data from geopolymer real-life constructions to develop greater confidence in geopolymer use. Using the field and laboratory data, a comprehensive Handbook for geopolymer specification will be developed and published through Standards Australia.

Additionally, a pilot program will develop lightweight aggregates based on fly ash to produce lightweight concrete which reduces energy usage in buildings. Current technologies for producing lightweight aggregates using sintered fly ash involve carbon intensive processes. This project aims to develop low carbon processes based on geopolymerisation and alternative methods for producing aggregates from fly ash. Partner organisations include the CIES at the UNSW, Swinburne University of Technology, ADAA, ASA, AECOM, Sydney Water and Standards Australia. The project coordinators also obtained letters of support from the main Australian geopolymer concrete suppliers: Zeobond Pty Ltd, Wagners Concrete Pty Ltd, Milliken Infrastructure solutions as well as RMS Pavement Structures, Transport and Main Roads QLD, Vicroads. In July 2014, this new project was approved by the CRC-LCL Board with a cash contribution of $1,100,000 in combination with the In-kind contributions from partner organisations of $1,900,000.

< 60> CIES - CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING AND SAFETY - ANNUAL REPORT 2014


Figure 1. Some concrete Durability tests at the Centre for Infrastructure Engineering and Safety

Figure 1. Some concrete Durability tests Centre for Infrastructure Engineering an Figureat1.theSome concrete Durability tests at the Cen CIES - CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING AND SAFETY - ANNUAL REPORT 2014 < 61>


Project Name:

Durability of steel-CFRP adhesive joints under sustained loading and wet thermal cycles

Principal Investigators:

Dr Ankit Agarwal, Professor Stephen Foster, Dr Ehab Hamed

Funding Body:

CRC for Advanced Composite Structures

Project Duration:

2010-2015

The primary aim of this research project is to contribute to the development of certification-ready technology using Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) for the repair and rehabilitation of steel structures. The specific objective is to improve our basic understanding about the adhesive bonded joint between steel and carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) using the tensile testing of steel-CFRP single lap shear adhesive joints.

BACKGROUND Large numbers of steel structures, like pipelines, bridges etc, are deteriorating due to corrosion or are coming to the end of their design life. Such structures are in need of retrofitting and replacement; and many of them are located in regions that regularly experience fluctuating thermal (hot-cold) conditions. Applications of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) composites in the repair and rehabilitation of existing steel structures have gained significant attention due to their high strength to weight ratio, installation flexibility, and long term durability (Hollaway and Cadei, 2002, Zhao and Zhang, 2007). A number of research works have been conducted to investigate the impact of environmental conditions on the bond strength of steel-FRP joints (Dawood and Rizkalla, 2010, Al-Shawaf et. al., 2009, and others) but in few of these studies were the environmental field conditions and loading simulated. The influence of these combined loadings (environmental and mechanical) on the behavior and failure modes of FRP strengthened steel structures is crucial for their safe use and effective design, and requires further investigation.

1. Control test (no thermal cycle and no sustained load). 2. Sustained load only: Two levels of sustained loads were applied: 30% and 50% of the short-term bond strength of steel-CFRP joint (as obtained from control test). 3. Thermal cycle only: Two thermo-cyclic ranges were investigated: 10ºC to 50ºC and 10ºC to 40ºC. Both temperature ranges are below glass transition temperature of the Sikadur®30 adhesive used (62ºC). 4. Thermo-mechanical loading: Combination of sustained loads and thermal cycle ranges. The thermal cycle equipment, shown in Figure 1, was designed and manufactured to apply the thermo-mechanical loading on six specimens simultaneously. The thermal cycle profile obtained from the apparatus is also shown in Figure 2. The cycle time for cold and hot cycle is 150 minutes each. The intended length of the full test was to be 21 days (108 thermo-cycles). Figure 1: Thermal cycle apparatus

OBJECTIVES

Four different thermo-mechanical conditions were investigated, which are as follows:

40

Results 30

10ºC to 50ºC

20

0.25 10 0

0.2

Specimen Failed during 1stTemperature thermal cycle Water TankTemperature

0.15

5 10 TIME (HOURS)

0

< 62> CIES - CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING AND SAFETY - ANNUAL 0.1 REPORT 2014

50% sustained load 0.05

Displacement (mm)

EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM AND THERMAL CYCLE APPARATUS:

Figure 2: Thermal cycle profile from thermal cycle apparatus 50

Displacement (mm)

The specific objectives of this research is to investigate the impact of combined sustained load and wet thermal cycling on the long term strength and durability of steelCFRP single lap shear adhesive joint.

0.16

0.12

0.08

0.04


10 0

Specimen Temperature Water TankTemperature 0

5 10 TIME (HOURS)

RESULTS Results Figure 3: Displacement versus time curves of steel-CFRP joints.

1 050˚C ºC to 5 0ºC 10˚C to

1 0 ºCto to 40˚C 4 0 ºC 10˚C Displacement (mm)

Displacement (mm)

0.25 0.25 Failed 1st1st thermal cyclecycle Failedduring during thermal

0.2 0.2 0.15 0.15 0.1 0.1

50% sustained LOAD load 50% SUSTAINED

00

7

14 14

TIME (DAYS)

00

50% sustained load LOAD 50% SUSTAINED

0

Time (Days)

7

14

TIME (DAYS)

21

Time (Days)

0.16 0.16

0.2 0.2

Displacement (mm)

Displacement (mm)

0.08 0.08

21

0.25 0.25 Failed during during 15th cycle Failed 15ththermal thermal cycle

0.15 0.15 0.1 0.1 30% sustained LOAD load 30% SUSTAINED

0.05 0.05 00

Failed within5050 hours during Failed within hours during 11 th 11th thermal cycle thermal cycle

0.12 0.12

0.04 0.04

0.05 0.05 00

0.16 0.16

0.12 0.12 0.08 0.08

7

14 Time (Days)

TIME (DAYS)

21 21

stopped

30% 30%SUSTAINED sustained loadLOAD

0.04 0.04 00

0

Test stopped Test Survived thermo-mechanical loading for 21 for 21 Survived thermo-mechanical loading days with 20% reduction in bond strength days with 20% reduction in bond strength 00

7

14 14

TIME (DAYS)

21 21 Time (Days)

Figure 3: Displacement versus time curves of steel-CFRP joints.

100

C ontrol

50% Sustained load only

Thermal cycling (10ºC to 40ºC) only

80 60

Themomechanical (30% sustained load)

Thermomechanical (50% sustained load); failed within 11th thermal cycle

40 20 0

THERMAL CYCLING BETWEEN 10ºC AND 40ºC

NORMALIZED BOND STRENGTH (%)

NORMALIZED BOND STRENGTH (%)

Figure 4: Normalized bond strength of steel-CFRP joints after exposure to different thermo-mechanical conditions.

100 80 60 40

C ontrol

50% Sustained load only

Thermal cycling (10ºC to 50ºC) only

Themomechanical Themomechanical (50% sustained (30% sustained load); failed during 1st load); failed between 1st thermal cycle and 15th thermal cycle

20 0

THERMAL CYCLING BETWEEN 10ºC AND 50ºC

Figure 4: Normalized bond strength of steel-CFRP joints after exposure to different thermo-mechanical conditions.

CONCLUSIONS Conclusions It is and climate are coupled and must be considered together at the It concluded is concludedthat thatthe theinfluences influencesofofsustained sustained load load and climate are coupled mustprograms be considered together at and standards. time of planning theand testing and in design codes the time of planning the testing programs and in design codes and standards. CIES - CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING AND SAFETY - ANNUAL REPORT 2014 < 63>


Project Name:

Orthotropic Hyperelastic Modelling for the Analysis of Composites

Principal Investigators:

A/Professor M Attard

Funding Body:

UNSW Goldstar Award

Project Duration:

2014

Many advanced composites such as carbon ďŹ bre reinforced plastics are classiďŹ ed as orthotropic and are used in many industries, in particular, the emerging industry of composite body commercial aircraft such as the Boeing 787. Intrinsic Field Tensors offer a new way of dealing with the constitutive modelling of these orthotropic materials. This project will develop hyperelastic constitutive models and the underlying mathematics and mechanics, which can be used to model advanced composites . Applications include the computational analysis needed to simulate both the manufacturing process and the in service behaviour and failure response of these advanced composites.

< 64> CIES - CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING AND SAFETY - ANNUAL REPORT 2014


Project Name:

Dedicated Computing Cluster for Near Real-Time Satellite Remote Sensing (NRT-RS)

Principal Investigators:

A/Professor Linlin Ge, Dr Jean Xiaojing Li, A/Professor Ian Turner, Professor Travis Waller, A/Professor David Laurence, Professor David Taubman, A/Professor Chun Tung Chou

Funding Body:  

UNSW MREII

Project Duration:

2014

The Project seeks to upgrade the remote sensing computing cluster co-funded by a 2009 MREII grant. An upgrade would consist of: two remote sensing image processing servers, two file and database servers, two large volume data storage servers and a 10GB switch for HPC interconnect. The current omputing cluster consists of two Dell PowerEdge servers and a number of high-performance image processing workstations. It has been used extensively in the last four years to facilitate the emergency response to major natural disasters both in Australia and overseas. These research demonstrations on applications of NRTRS have significantly enhanced UNSW’s reputation as the leading engineering university in Australasia.

However, the system has reached the end of its useful life. There have been multiple hard disk and RAM failures in recent months. The proposed upgrade will create a dedicated high-performance computing system which is capable of transferring, storing and processing large volumes of remote sensing satellite imagery in near real-time (typically in less than two hours of image capture). It will maintain the world-class research environment and attract and retain a critical mass of research excellence. Thus, the Project will make a strategic investment enabling our researchers to continue working at the cutting-edge of local, national and international research.

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Project Name:

Mapping decadal change of the Australian landscape from space

Principal Investigators:

A/Professor Linlin Ge, Dr Jean Xiaojing Li

Funding Body:  

UNSW Goldstar Award

Project Duration:

2014

The Earth’s terrain, depicted by digital elevation models (DEMs), is constantly changing due to natural and anthropogenic causes such as floods, residential development, beach erosion, sediment deposit and mining. Some of these changes have profound economic and environmental impact. In order to quantify these changes, Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), one of the most powerful remote sensing capabilities developed, has been widely used for generating DEMs of the Earth. For example, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and partners flew the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) from 11 to 22 February 2000 over a period of only 11 days, which created the first most consistent, accurate and detailed DEM for 80% of the global land mass. SRTM DEMs are available at 10m vertical accuracy and 30m posting. A decade later, the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) launched the TanDEM-X mission in 2010, or TDX in short, in order to generate a consistent global DEM with an unprecedented accuracy. TDX DEMs have been generated at 2m vertical accuracy and 12m posting. The TDX mission has also provided the first ever opportunity to study decadal landscape changes at global and continental scales through comparing TDX and SRTM DEMs.

Most such changes will be at a magnitude of sub-metre, or at most a few metres. However, it is clear that a simple difference between the TDX and SRTM DEMs will only be able to measure landscape change at magnitudes larger than 10m. While ground survey and airborne laser scanning (ALS) can be used to generate DEMs with sub-metre level accuracy, it is cost-prohibitive to map large area with these techniques. Consequently, innovative and cost-effective techniques must be developed to greatly enhance the TDX and SRTM DEMs in order to detect elevation changes down to metre and sub-metre level. Cross-platform InSAR has the potential to generate DEMs with sub-metre level accuracy. Therefore, the Project develops innovative image matching and cross-platform InSAR techniques to greatly enhance TDX and SRTM DEMs and to measure: 1) the accumulated change of the Australian landscape through enhancing and differencing TDX and SRTM DEMs, and 2) the incremental change of the landscape through differential InSAR using the ALOS satellite archive data from the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA).

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The TanDEM-X mission (Image credit: the German Aerospace Centre)

The TanDEM-X mission (Image credit: the German Aerospace Centre) The TanDEM-X mission (Image credit: the German Aerospace Centre) The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) (Image credit: NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory)

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Appendices 1.RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS BOOKS Aslani, F. (2014). Short-term and long-term behaviour of reinforced self-compacting concrete structures. Switzerland: Materials Science Foundations. Ranzi, G., & Gilbert, R. (2014). Solutions Manual for Structural Analysis: Principles, Methods and Modelling (Vol. 1st). Boca Raton, Florida, USA: CRC Press. Ranzi, G., & Gilbert, R. I. (2014). Structural Analysis: Principles, methods and Modelling (Vol. 1st). Boca Raton, Florida, USA: CRC Press.

CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS Aldred, J., & Castel, A. (2014). Chloride Penetration after up to 19 Years Marine Exposure Compared with Estimates from Service Life Predication Models. Paper presented at the RILEM International workshop on performance-based specification and control of concrete durability, Zagreb, Croatia. Amin, A., & Foster, S. (2014). The Behaviour of Steel Fibre ReinforcedReinforced Concrete Beams in Shear. Paper presented at the 10th fib International PhD Symposium in Civil Engineering, Quebec, Canada. Amin, A., & Foster, S. J. (2014). Numerical Modelling of Large Scale Steel Fibre Reinforced-Reinforced Concrete Beams Failing in Shear. Paper presented at the FRC 2014 Joint ACI-fib International Workshop Fibre Reinforced Concrete: From Design to Structural Applications, Montreal, Canada. Aoki, Y., Vali Pour Goudarzi, H. R., Samali, B., & Saleh, A. (2014). Sensitivity analysis for steel deck of a cable-stayed bridge subjected to blast loadings. Paper presented at the 23rd Australasian Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials (ACMSM23). Ataei, A., & Bradford, M. (2014) FE modelling of semi-rigid flush end plate joints with concrete-filled steel tubular columns. Paper presented at the Research and Applications in

Structural Engineering, Mechanics & Computation: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Structural Engineering, Mechanics & Computationâ&#x20AC;? (ISBN 978-1-13800061-2). Ataei, A., & Bradford, M. (2014) Finite Element Analysis of sustainable and deconstructable semi-rigid beam-to-column composite joints. Paper presented at the 5th International Conference on Computational Methods (ICCM 2014). Ataei, A., & Bradford, M. (2014) Sustainable composite beams and joints with deconstructable bolted shear connectors. Paper presented at the 23th Australian conference on the Mechanics of structures and materials, Byron Bay, Australia. Ataei, R., & Bradford, M. (2014) Sustainable and Deconstructable Flush End Plate Semi-Rigid Beam to Column Composite Joints. Paper presented at the 23rd Australasian Conference on the Mechanics and Structures and Materials (ACMSM23). Babaee, M., Castel, A., & Akbar Nezhad, A. (2014). Active steel corrosion in blended slag and fly ash geopolymer concrete. Paper presented at the 34th Cement and Concrete Science Conference, University of Sheffield, UK. Bai, Y., & Khalili, N. (2014). A constitutive model for coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis of multiphase flow in local thermal non-equilibrium in fractured media. Paper presented at the 6th International Conference on Unsaturated Soils, UNSAT 2014, Sydney, Australia. Bradford, M. A. (2014). Composite beams with friction-grip bolted shear connection. Paper presented at the 12th International Conference on Steel, Space and Composite Structures, Prague, Czech Republic. Bradford, M. A., & Ban, H. (2014). Stability of tapered half-through girder high strength steel railway bridges. Paper presented at the The Second International Conference on Railway Technology: Research, Development and Maintenance, Corsica, France.

de Burgh, J. M., Foster, S. J., & Vali Pour, H. (2014). Prediction of water vapour sorption isotherms and microstructure of hardened Portland cement pastes. Paper presented at the 4th RILEM International Symposium on Concrete Modelling, Bejing, China. Do, D. M., Gao, W., & Song, C. M. (2014). Spectral stochastic finite element analysis of structures with random field parameters under bounded-but-uncertain forces. Paper presented at the The 23rd Australasian Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials, Byron Bay, Australia. Do, D. M., Gao, W., Yang, C., & Song, C. (2014). Dynamic analysis of structures with interval parameters under stochastic process excitation. Paper presented at the the 1st Australasian Conference on Computational Mechanics (ACCM2013), Sydney, Australia. Gao, W., Wu, D., Luo, K., & Pi, Y. L. (2014). Stochastic behaviour of shallow concrete-filled steel tubular arches. Paper presented at the The 23rd Australasian Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials, Byron Bay, Australia. Gholamhoseini, A., Gilbert, R. I., & Bradford, M. A. (2014). TimeDependent Deflection of Composite Concrete Slabs with Profiled Steel Decking. Paper presented at the Twelfth International Conference on Computational Structures Technology, Naples, Italy. Ghosni, N., Samali, B., & Vali Pour Goudarzi, H. R. (2014). Flexural behaviour of high strength concrete composite incorporating long hooked-end steel fibres. Paper presented at the 23rd Australasian Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials (ACMSM23), Byron Bay. Gui, Y., Zhao, G., & Khalili, N. (2014). Numerical investigation of desiccation cracking in finegrained soil using a lattice spring model. Paper presented at the 6th International Conference on Unsaturated Soils, UNSAT 2014, Sydney, Australia Hashemi, S. K., & Bradford, M. A. (2014). The strain-rate effects on the

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numerical simulation of steel beams under blast loads. Paper presented 13th International Conference on Structures Under Shock and Impact (SUSI 2014), UK Hashemi, S. K., & Bradford, M. A. (2014). Numerical Simulation of Free-Air Explosion Using LS-DYNA. Paper presented at 1st Australasian Conference on Computational Mechanics, Sydney, Australia Hashemi, S. K., & Bradford, M. A. (2014). The strain-rate effects on the numerical simulation of steel beams under blast loads. Paper presented at the 13th International Conference on Structures Under Shock and Impact (SUSI 2014), UK. Hicks, S. J., & Uy, B. (2014). The New Joint Australian and New Zealand Bridge Design Standard, AS/NZS: 5100 Part 6, Steel and Composite Construction. Paper presented at the Brian Uy, Australia. Huang, Y., Hamed, E., & Foster, S. J. (2014). Creep Testing and Analysis of High Strength Concrete Panels Under Eccentric Loading â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Buckling Effects. Paper presented at the 23rd Australasian Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials (ACMSM23), Byron Bay, New South Wales, Australia. Kellermann, D. C., & Attard, M. M. (2014). Orthotropic Simo and Pister Hyperelasticity Therory. Paper presented at the 11th World Conference on Computational Mechanics (WCCM XI), Barcelona, Spain. Kellermann, D. C., & Attard, M. M. (2014). Hyperelastic Fourth-Order Tensor Functions for Orthotropic Continua. Paper presented at the The 5th International Conference on Computational Methods, Cambridge, England. Khalili, N., Russell, A. R., & Khoshghalb, A. (2014). Preface. Unsaturated Soils: Research and Applications - Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Unsaturated Soils, UNSAT, Sydney, Australia Khorsandnia, N., Vali Pour Goudarzi, H. R., Foster, S. J., & Crews, K. (2014). 1D frame element formulation for analysis of layered composite beams. Paper presented at the 23rd Australasian Conference


on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials (ACMSM23), Byron Bay. Khoshghalb, A., & Khalili, N. (2014). Coupling between deformation and flow models in deformable unsaturated soils. Paper presented at the 6th International Conference on Unsaturated Soils, UNSAT 2014, Sydney, Australia. Luo, K., Pi, Y. L., Gao, W., & Bradford, M. A. (2014). Longterm analysis of crown-pinned concrete-filled steel tubular arches. Paper presented at the The 5th International Conference on Computational Methods, Cambridge, England. Mac, N., Shahbodaghkhan, B., & Khalili, N. (2014). A Constitutive Model for Time-Dependent Behavior of Clay. Paper presented at the ICSMGE 2014: XII International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, New York, USA. Mirza, O., Mashiri, F., Dawson, M., Pohl, A., & Uy, B. (2014). Fatigue behaviour of steel girder bridges. Paper presented at the Eurosteel 2014, Napoli, Italy. Ngo, T., Mohotti, D., Remennikov, A., & Uy, B. (2014). Response and failure mechanism of tubular steel columns subjected to close-range explosions. Paper presented at the 23rd Australasian Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials (ACMSM23), Byron Bay, Australia. Pathirana, I. S. W., Uy, B., Mirza, O., & Zhu, X. Q. (2014). Retrofitting of existing steel-concrete beams using innovative blind bolts. Paper presented at the 23rd Australasian Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials (ACMSM23), Byron Bay, Australia. PeriÄ&#x2021;, D., Zhao, G., & Khalili, N. (2014). Inception of strain localization in variably saturated soils. Paper presented at the 6th International Conference on Unsaturated Soils, UNSAT 2014, Sydney, Australia. Pi, Y. L., Bradford, M. A., Gao, W., Luo, K., Guo, Y. L., & Dou, C. (2014). Time-Dependant Aanalyses of Three-Pinned CFST Arches. Paper presented at the EUROSTEEL 2014. 7th European Conference on Steel and Composite Structures, Napoli. Italy. Pi, Y. L., Bradford, M. A., Guo, Y. L., & Dou, C. (2014). Linear and non-linear time-dependent analyses of singly-pinned concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST) arches. Paper presented at the Computational Structures Technology 2014 & Engineering Computational Technology 2014 (Naples), Naples, Italy.

Pi, Y. L., Bradford, M. A., Guo, Y. L., & Dou, C. (2014). Linear and non-linear time-dependent analyses of singly-pinned concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST) arches. Paper presented at the Computational Structures Technology 2014 & Engineering Computational Technology 2014 (Naples), Maples, Italy. Pi, Y. L., Bradford, M. A., Luo, K., & Gao, W. (2014). Non-linear analysis of three-pinned circular arches. Paper presented at the ASEASEC-2014, Bangkok, Thailand. Piscesa, B., Attard, M. M., & Khajeh, S. (2014). Refined Plasticity Model for Concrete Stress-Strain Relationship Part II: Inclusion of Size Effect. Paper presented at the 23rd Australian Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials, Byron Bay, NSW Australia. Piscesa, B., Attard, M. M., & Khajeh Samani, A. (2014). Refined Plasticity Model for Concrete Stress-Strain Relationship Part 1: Prediction of Peak Stress and Residual Stress. Paper presented at the 23rd Australian Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials, Byron Bay, NSW Australia. Pournaghiazar, M., Russell, A. R., & Khalili, N. (2014). Cavity Expansion in Soil of Finite Radial Extent. Paper presented at the 6th International Conference on Unsaturated Soils, UNSAT 2014, Sydney, Australia. Pournaghiazar, M., Russell, A. R., & Khalili, N. (2014). Interpretation of the cone penetration test in unsaturated sands. Paper presented at the 6th International Conference on Unsaturated Soils, UNSAT 2014, Sydney, Australia. Qu, W. L., Liu, J., Pi, Y. L., & Bradford, M. A. (2014). A Reduced Model for Robust Control of Longitudinal Vibration of Floating Cable-stayed Bridge Induced by Train Braking and Moving Vertical Load. Paper presented at the The second international conference on railway technology: research, development and maintenance, Ajaccio, Corsica, France. Remennikov, A. R., Uy, B., & Mentus, I. R. (2014). Experimental investigation of response of steel tubular columns to close range explosions. Paper presented at the Brian Uy, Australia. Paper presented at the Structural Engineering in Australasia â&#x20AC;&#x201C; World Standard, Auckland, New Zealand Russell, A. R. (2014). Voids ratio dependent soil-water characteristic curves: Theoretical derivations using fractals. Paper presented at the 6th International Conference on Unsaturated Soils, UNSAT 2014, Sydney, Australia.

Sadeghi, H., Kimoto, S., Oka, F., & Shahbodaghkhan, B. (2014). Dynamic analysis of river embankments during earthquakes using a finite deformation FE analysis method. Paper presented at the Computer Methods and Recent Advances in Geomechanics, Kyoto, Japan. Salimzadeh, S., & Khalili, N. (2014). Double porosity behaviour and application in geotechnical problems. Paper presented at the 8th European Conference on Numerical Methods in Geotechnical Engineering, NUMGE 2014, Delft, The Netherlands. Salimzadeh, S., & Khalili, N. Consolidation analysis of unsaturated double porosity media. Paper presented at the 6th International Conference on Unsaturated Soils, UNSAT 2014,Sydney, Australia Shahbodaghkhan, B., Alipour Esgandani, G., & Khalili, N. (2014). Large deformation dynamic analysis of unsaturated soils. Paper presented at the Unsaturated Soils: Research & Applications, Sydney, Australia. Shi, X., Gao, W., & Pi, Y. L. (2014). Uncertainty in non-linear longterm behavior and buckling of shallow concrete-filled steel tubular arches. Paper presented at the The 5th International Conference on Computational Methods, Cambridge, England. Su, L. (2014). In-plane buckling behaviors of shear-deformable columns with variable cross sections. Paper presented at the Safety and Reliability: Methodology and Applications - Proceedings of the 24th European Safety and Reliability Conference, Wroclaw, Poland. Su, L. (2014). In-plane buckling of shear-deformable columns with variable cross-sections. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Computational Structures Technology, Naples Italy. Su, L. (2014). Lateral buckling of varying arbitrary cross-section beams with shear effects. Paper presented at the Safety and Reliability: Methodology and Applications - Proceedings of the 24th European Safety and Reliability Conference, Wroclaw, Poland. Su, L., & Attard, M. M. (2014). In-plane buckling of sheardeformable columns with variable cross-sections. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Computational Structures Technology, Naples Italy.

Su, L., & Attard, M. M. (2014). Lateral buckling of variable crosssection beams considering shear deformations. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Computational Structures Technology, Naples Italy. Su, L., & Attard, M. M. (2014/09/09/). In-plane buckling behaviors of shear-deformable columns with variable cross sections. Paper presented at the Safety and Reliability: Methodology and Applications - Proceedings of the European Safety and Reliability Conference. Su, L., & Attard, M. M. (2014. Lateral buckling of varying arbitrary crosssection beams with shear effects. Paper presented at the Safety and Reliability: Methodology and Applications - Proceedings of the European Safety and Reliability Conference, Wroclaw, Poland. Tangaramvong, S., Tin-Loi, F., & Gao, W. (2014). Interval limit analysis of structures with uncertain but non-probabilistic applied forces. Paper presented at the The Second International Conference on Vulnerability and Risk Analysis and Management and The Sixth International Symposium on Uncertainty, Modeling, and Analysis, Liverpool, UK. Tangaramvong, S., Yang, C., TinLoi, F., & Gao, W. (2014). Direct determination of critical bounds to elastoplastic responses of structures with interval material properties. Paper presented at the The 23rd Australasian Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials, Byron Bay, Australia. Thai, H. T., & Uy, B. (2014). Nonlinear inelastic analysis of semirigid steel frames. Paper presented at the 12th International Conference on Steel, Space and Composite Structures, Prague, Czech Republic. Uy, B. (2014). Innovative connections for the demountability and rehabilitation of steel, space and composite structures. Paper presented at the 12th International Conference on Steel, Space and Composite Structures (SS14), Prague, Czech Republic. Uy, B. (2014). Parameter calibration and application of fracture models to high-performance steel seismic dampers. Paper presented at the Eurosteel 2014, Napoli, Italy. Uy, B. (2014. The New Joint Australian and New Zealand Bridge Design Standard, AS/NZS: 5100 Part 6, Steel and Composite Construction. Paper presented at the 9th Austroads Bridge Conference, Sydney.

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Uy, B., & Hicks, S. J. (2014). Australia/New Zealand Standard for Composite Structures. Paper presented at the Structural Engineering in Australasia – World Standard, Auckland, New Zealand. Vasdravellis, G. G., Karavasilis, T. L., & Uy, B. (2014). Experimental evaluation of energy dissipation and fracture capacities of highperformance steel seismic dampers. Paper presented at the Eurosteel 2014, Napoli, Italy. Vessali, N., Vali Pour Goudarzi, H. R., Samali, B., & Foster, S. (2014). Development of the compressive membrane action in partially restrained reinforced concrete subassemblages. Paper presented at the 23rd Australasian Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials (ACMSM23), Byron Bay, Australia Vo, T., & Russell, A. R. (2014). Development of facility and testing procedures to investigate retaining wall-unsaturated soil interactions. Paper presented at the 6th International Conference on Unsaturated Soils, UNSAT 2014, Sydney, Australia. Vo, T., & Russell, A. R. (2014). Slip line theory extended to unsaturated soils and applied to the retaining wall-unsaturated soil interaction problem. Paper presented at the 6th International Conference on Unsaturated Soils, UNSAT 2014, Sydney, Australia. Wang, C., Gao, W., & Tangaramvong, S. (2014). Hybrid probabilistic and non-probabilistic analysis of structures with mixed uncertainties. Paper presented at the The Second International Conference on Vulnerability and Risk Analysis and Management and The Sixth International Symposium on Uncertainty, Modeling, and Analysis, Liverpool, UK. Xu, T., Zhu, W., Zhao, G., & Lin, Y. (2014). Dynamic spallation in fiber reinforced concrete under impact loading. Geotechnical Special Publication. American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Yichang, Hubei, China Y. Pasha, A., Khalili, N., & Khoshghalb, A. (2014). Straindependent soil-water characteristic curve parameters. Paper presented at the 8TH European Conference on Numerical Methods in Geotechnical Engineering, Delft, The Netherlands. Yang, H., Khoshghalb, A., & Russell, A. R. (2014). Hydraulic conductivity from soil-water characteristic curves with hysteresis Paper presented at the 6th International Conference on Unsaturated Soils, UNSAT 2014, Sydney, Australia. Zhao, G., & Khalili, N. (2014). A preliminary meso-mechanical

analysis of effective stress in unsaturated soil. Paper presented at the 6th International Conference on Unsaturated Soils, UNSAT 2014, Sydney, Australia.

reinforced self-compacting concrete one way slabs under flexural loading. Computers and Concrete, 13(6), 709-737. doi: 10.12989/ cac.2014.13.6.709

Zhu, J., Attard, M., & Kellermann, D. (2014). In-plane localised buckling in submarine pipelines. Paper presented at the 17th U.S. National Congress on Theoretical & Applied Mechanics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan.

Aslani, F., Nejadi, S., & Samali, B. (2014). Long-term flexural cracking control of reinforced selfcompacting concrete one way slabs with and without fibres. Computers and Concrete, 14(4), 419-444. doi: 10.12989/cac.2014.14.4.419

JOURNAL ARTICLES

Aslani, F., & Samali, B. (2014). Constitutive Relationships for Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete at Elevated Temperatures. Fire Technology, 50(5), 1249-1268. doi: 10.1007/s10694-012-0322-5

Agarwal, A., Foster, S. J., Hamed, E., & Ng, T. S. (2014). Influence of freeze–thaw cycling on the bond strength of steel–FRP lap joints. Composites Part B: Engineering, 60(C), 178-185. doi: 10.1016/j. compositesb.2013.12.024 Akbarnezhad, A., & Moussavi Nadoushani, Z. S. (2014). A computational method for selection of optimal concrete recycling strategy. Magazine of Concrete Research, 1-16. doi: 10.1680/ macr.14.00211 Akbarnezhad, A., Ong, K. C. G., & Chandra, L. R. (2014). Economic and environmental assessment of deconstruction strategies using building information modeling. Automation in Construction, 37(C), 131-144. doi: 10.1016/j. autcon.2013.10.017 Aliabadian, Z., & Sharafisafa, M. (2014). Distinct Element Modeling of the Effect of Joint Persistence on Dynamic Fracturing of Jointed Rock Masses. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 553, 445-451. doi: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/ AMM.553.445 Aliabadian, Z., & Sharafisafa, M. (2014). Numerical modeling of presplitting controlled method in continuum rock masses. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 7(12), 5005-5020. doi: 10.1007/s12517013-1158-0 Aliabadian, Z., Sharafisafa, M., Mortazavi, A., & Maarefvand, P. (2014). Wave and fracture propagation in continuum and faulted rock masses: distinct element modeling. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 7(12), 5021-5035. doi: 10.1007/s12517-013-1155-3 Aliabadian, Z., Sharafisafa, M., Nazemi, M., & Khamene, A. R. (2015). Numerical analyses of tunnel collapse and slope stability assessment under different filling material loadings: a case study. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 8(3), 1229-1242. doi: 10.1007/ s12517-014-1286-1 Aslani, F., Nejadi, S., & Samali, B. (2014). Short term bond shear stress and cracking control of

Aslani, F., & Samali, B. (2014). High Strength Polypropylene Fibre Reinforcement Concrete at High Temperature. Fire Technology, 50(5), 1229-1247. doi: 10.1007/s10694013-0332-y Aslani, F., & Samali, B. (2014). Flexural toughness characteristics of self-compacting concrete incorporating steel and polypropylene fibers. Australian Journal of Structural Engineering, 15(3), 269-286. doi: 10.7158/S13011.2014.15.3 Ataei, A., & Bradford, M. A. (2014/05//). Sustainable and Deconstructable Semi-Rigid Flush End Plate Composite Joints. Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vol 553, pp. 557-563 10.4028/www.scientific. net/AMM.553.557 Ataei, A., & Bradford, M. A. (2014). Parametric Studies of Semi-Rigid Flush End Plate Joints with Concrete-Filled Steel Tubular Columns. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 553, 588-593. doi: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/ AMM.553.588 Ataei, A., Bradford, M. A., & Valipour, H. R. (2014). MomentRotation Model for Blind-Bolted Flush End-Plate Connections in Composite Frame Structures. Journal of Structural Engineering, 04014211-04014211 doi:10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943541X.0001147 Attard, M. M., Zhu, J., & Kellermann, D. C. (2014). In-plane buckling of prismatic funicular arches with shear deformations. Archive of Applied Mechanics, 84(5), 693-713. doi: 10.1007/s00419-014-0825-2 Ban, H., Shi, G., & Shi, Y. (2014). Overall buckling behavior of 960 MPa high strength steel welded section columns subjected to axial compression. Jianzhu Jiegou Xuebao/Journal of Building Structures, 35(1), 117-125. Ban, H., Shi, G., & Shi, Y. (2014). Research on design method for overall buckling behavior of welded box columns fabricated

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from high-strength steels. Jianzhu Jiegou Xuebao/Journal of Building Structures, 35(5), 57-64. Ban, H. Y., Shi, G., & Shi, Y. J. (2014). Investigation on design method of overall buckling behaviour for Q420 high strength steel equal-leg angle members under axial compression. Gongcheng Lixue/ Engineering Mechanics, 31(3), 63-71. doi: 10.6052/j.issn.10004750.2013.06.0561 Ban, H. Y., Shi, G., & Shi, Y. J. (2014). Experimental and unified model investigations on residual stress within high strength steel welded I-sections. Gongcheng Lixue/Engineering Mechanics, 31(8), 83-91. doi: 10.6052/j.issn.10004750.2012.12.0915 Ban, H. Y., Shi, G., Shi, Y. J., & Wang, Y. Q. (2014). Experimental investigation and modeling of residual stress in I sections welded by Q460 high strength steel. Gongcheng Lixue/Engineering Mechanics, 31(6). doi: 10.6052/j. issn.1000-4750.2012.09.0680 Bastami, M., Baghbadrani, M., & Aslani, F. (2014). Performance of nano-Silica modified high strength concrete at elevated temperatures. Construction and Building Materials, 68(C), 402-408. doi: 10.1016/j. conbuildmat.2014.06.026 Bayat, M., Rahimi, M., Saleem, M., Mohazzab, A. H., Wudtke, I., & Talebi, H. (2014). Onedimensional analysis for magnetothermo-mechanical response in a functionally graded annular variable-thickness rotating disk. Applied Mathematical Modelling, 38(19-20), 4625-4639. doi: 10.1016/j.apm.2014.03.008 Bayat, M., Rahimi, M., Saleem, M., Mohazzab, A. H., Wudtke, I., & Talebi, H. (2014). Onedimensional analysis for magnetothermo-mechanical response in a functionally graded annular variable-thickness rotating disk. Applied Mathematical Modelling, 38(19-20), 4625-4639. doi: 10.1016/j.apm.2014.03.008 Behnke, R., Mundil, M., Birk, C., & Kaliske, M. (2014). A physically and geometrically nonlinear scaled-boundary-based finite element formulation for fracture in elastomers. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 99(13), 966-999. doi: 10.1002/ nme.4714 Bradford, M. A. (2014). The structural modelling of deconstructable beams, fabricated using friction-grip shear connection. WIT Transactions on the Built Environment, 136, 267-277. doi: 10.2495/MAR140221


Bradford, M. A., & Pi, Y. L. (2014). Geometric Nonlinearity and LongTerm Behavior of Crown-Pinned CFST Arches. Journal of Structural Engineering, 04014190-04014190. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943541X.0001163 Castel, A., Foster, S., Aldred, J. (2014). Time-Dependent Behaviour of a Class F Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Concrete. International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, 03(25), 109-113. doi: 10.15623/ijret.2014.0325018 Cahill, L. M. A., Natarajan, S., Bordas, S. P. A., O’Higgins, R. M., & McCarthy, C. T. (2014). An experimental/numerical investigation into the main driving force for crack propagation in uni-directional fibre-reinforced composite laminae. Composite Structures, 107(C), 119-130. doi: 10.1016/j. compstruct.2013.05.039 Castel, A., & Gilbert, R. I. (2014). Influence of time-dependent effects on the crack spacing in reinforced concrete beams. Structural Concrete, 15(3), 373-379. doi: 10.1002/suco.201300065 Castel, A., Gilbert, R. I., & Ranzi, G. (2014). Instantaneous Stiffness of Cracked Reinforced Concrete Including Steel-Concrete Interface Damage and Long-Term Effects. Journal of Structural Engineering, 140(6), 04014021-04014021. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943541X.0000954

Chiong, I., Ooi, E. T., Song, C., & Tin-Loi, F. (2014). Computation of dynamic stress intensity factors in cracked functionally graded materials using scaled boundary polygons. Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 131(C), 210-231. doi: 10.1016/j.engfracmech.2014.07.030 Chiong, I., Ooi, E. T., Song, C., & Tin-Loi, F. (2014). Scaled boundary polygons with application to fracture analysis of functionally graded materials. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 98(8), 562-589. doi: 10.1002/ nme.4645 Chowdhury, M. S., Song, C., & Gao, W. (2014). Shape sensitivity analysis of stress intensity factors by the scaled boundary finite element method. Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 116(C), 13-30. doi: 10.1016/j.engfracmech.2013.12.007 Chowdhury, M. S., Song, C., & Gao, W. (2014). Probabilistic fracture mechanics with uncertainty in crack size and orientation using the scaled boundary finite element method. Computers and Structures, 137, 93-103. doi: 10.1016/j. compstruc.2013.03.002 Chowdhury, M. S., Song, C. M., & Gao, W. (2014). Sensitivity of Stress Intensity Factors with Respect to the Crack Geometry by the Scaled Boundary Finite Element Method. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 553, 737-742. doi: 10.4028/www. scientific.net/AMM.553.737

Castel, A., Gilbert, R. I., Ranzi, G., & Foster, S. (2014). A non-linear steel-concrete interface damage model for reinforced concrete after cracking. Australian Journal of Structural Engineering, 15(2). doi: 10.7158/S13-017.2014.15.2

de Burgh, J. M., Valipour, H. R., & Foster, S. J. (2014). Hygro-Thermal Modelling of Concrete Exposed to High Temperatures. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 553, 637642. doi: 10.4028/www.scientific. net/AMM.553.637

Chen, Q. J., Cai, J., Bradford, M. A., Liu, X., & Zuo, Z. L. (2014). Seismic behaviour of a throughbeam connection between concrete-filled steel tubular columns and reinforced concrete beams. Engineering Structures, 80(C), 24-39. doi: 10.1016/j. engstruct.2014.08.036

Do, D. M., Gao, W., Song, C., & Tangaramvong, S. (2014). Dynamic analysis and reliability assessment of structures with uncertainbut-bounded parameters under stochastic process excitations. Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 132(C), 46-59. doi: 10.1016/j. ress.2014.07.002

Chen, Q. J., Liu, D. X., Khan, I., Cai, J., & Bai, F. (2014). Application of SAP2000 API and .NET Framework for Reliability Assessment of RC Structures. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 578-579, 1482-1488. doi: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/ AMM.578-579.1482

Dou, C., Guo, Y. L., Pi, Y. L., & Zhao, S. Y. (2014). Flexural-Torsional Buckling and Ultimate Resistance of Parabolic Steel Arches Subjected to Uniformly Distributed Vertical Load. Journal of Structural Engineering, 140(10), 0401407504014075. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE) ST.1943-541X.0000997

Chen, X., Birk, C., & Song, C. (2014). Numerical modelling of wave propagation in anisotropic soil using a displacement unit-impulseresponse-based formulation of the scaled boundary finite element method. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 65(C), 243-255. doi: 10.1016/j. soildyn.2014.06.019

Dou, C., Guo, Y. L., Pi, Y. L., Zhao, S. Y., & Bradford, M. A. (2014). Effects of shape functions on flexural– torsional buckling of fixed circular arches. Engineering Structures, 59(C), 238-247. doi: 10.1016/j. engstruct.2013.10.028 E-Kan, M., & Taiebat, H. A. (2014). On implementation of bounding

surface plasticity models with no overshooting effect in solving boundary value problems. Computers and Geotechnics, 55(C), 103-116. doi: 10.1016/j. compgeo.2013.08.006 Erkmen, R. E., Bradford, M. A., & Crews, K. (2014). Treatment of locking behaviour for displacementbased finite element analysis of composite beams. Structural Engineering and Mechanics, 51(1), 163-180. doi: 10.12989/ sem.2014.51.1.163 Ge, L., Ng, A. H. M., Li, X., Abidin, H. Z., & Gumilar, I. (2014). Land subsidence characteristics of Bandung Basin as revealed by ENVISAT ASAR and ALOS PALSAR interferometry. Remote Sensing of Environment, 154(C), 46-60. doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2014.08.004 Gholamhoseini, A., Gilbert, I., & Bradford, M. (2015). Calculation of Time-Dependent Deflection of Composite Concrete Slabs: Simplified Design Approach. Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction, 20(1), 04014024-04014024. doi: 10.1061/ (ASCE)SC.1943-5576.0000219 Gholamhoseini, A., Gilbert, R. I., & Bradford, M. A. (2014). Timedependent deflection of composite concrete slabs: A simplified design approach. Australian Journal of Structural Engineering, 15(3), 287298. Gholamhoseini, A., Gilbert, R. I., & Bradford, M. A. (2014). Creep and Shrinkage Effects on the BondSlip Characteristics and Ultimate Strength of Composite Slabs. Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, 8(9), 1085-1097. Gholamhoseini, A., Gilbert, R. I., Bradford, M. A., & Chang, Z. T. (2014). Longitudinal shear stress and bond–slip relationships in composite concrete slabs. Engineering Structures, 69(C), 37-48. doi: 10.1016/j. engstruct.2014.03.008 Gholamhoseini, A., Gilbert, R. I., Bradford, M. A., & Chang, Z. T. (2014). Time-dependent deformation of composite concrete slabs. ACI Structural Journal, 111(4), 765-775. doi: 10.14359/51686629 Gravenkamp, H., Bause, F., & Song, C. (2014). On the computation of dispersion curves for axisymmetric elastic waveguides using the Scaled Boundary Finite Element Method. Computers and Structures, 131, 46-55. doi: 10.1016/j. compstruc.2013.10.014 Gravenkamp, H., Birk, C., & Song, C. (2014). Computation of dispersion curves for embedded waveguides using a dashpot boundary condition. The Journal

of the Acoustical Society of America, 135(3), 1127-1138. doi: 10.1121/1.4864303 Gravenkamp, H., Birk, C., & Song, C. (2014). The computation of dispersion relations for axisymmetric waveguides using the Scaled Boundary Finite Element Method. Ultrasonics, 54(5), 1373-1385. doi: 10.1016/j.ultras.2014.02.004 Gravenkamp, H., Birk, C., & Song, C. (2014). Numerical modeling of elastic waveguides coupled to infinite fluid media using exact boundary conditions. Computers & Structures, 141(C), 36-45. doi: 10.1016/j.compstruc.2014.05.010 Guo, Y. L., Zhang, B. H., Zhao, S. Y., Dou, C., & Pi, Y. L. (2014). Ultimate Resistance Design of ShuttleShaped Steel Tubular Latticed Columns. Journal of Structural Engineering, 140(10), 0401407604014076. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE) ST.1943-541X.0000998 Guo, Y. L., Zhao, S. Y., Dou, C., & Pi, Y. L. (2014). Out-of-Plane Elastic Buckling of Circular Arches with Elastic End Restraints. Journal of Structural Engineering, 140(10), 04014071-04014071. doi: 10.1061/ (ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0000987 Hamed, E. (2014). Modelling of creep in continuous RC beams under high levels of sustained loading. Mechanics of TimeDependent Materials, 18(3), 589-609. doi: 10.1007/s11043-0149243-7 Huang, Y., Hamed, E., Chang, Z. T., & Foster, S. J. (2015). Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Failure Behavior of One-Way HighStrength Concrete Wall Panels. Journal of Structural Engineering, 141(5), 04014143-04014143. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943541X.0001072 Jiang, C., & Zhao, G. F. (2015). A Preliminary Study of 3D Printing on Rock Mechanics. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 48(3), 10411050. doi: 10.1007/s00603-0140612-y Jung, H. Y., Linlin, G., & Xiaojing, L. (2014). Radargrammetry for Digital Elevation Model Generation Using Envisat Reprocessed Image and Simulation Image. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 11(9), 1589-1593. doi: 10.1109/ LGRS.2014.2301731 Jung, M. R., Shin, S. U., Attard, M. M., & Kim, M. Y. (2014). Deflection Theory for SelfAnchored Suspension Bridges under Live Load. Journal of Bridge Engineering, 04014093-04014093. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)BE.19435592.0000687

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Kan, M. E., & Taiebat, H. A. (2014). A bounding surface plasticity model for highly crushable granular materials. Soils and Foundations, 54(6), 1188-1201. doi: 10.1016/j. sandf.2014.11.012 Khan, I., François, R., & Castel, A. (2014). Prediction of reinforcement corrosion using corrosion induced cracks width in corroded reinforced concrete beams. Cement and Concrete Research, 56(C), 84-96. doi: 10.1016/j. cemconres.2013.11.006 Khan, I., François, R., & Castel, A. (2014). Experimental and analytical study of corroded shear-critical reinforced concrete beams. Materials and Structures/Materiaux et Constructions, 47(9), 1467-1481. doi: 10.1617/s11527-013-0129-y Khorsandnia, N., Schänzlin, J., Valipour, H., & Crews, K. (2014). Time-dependent behaviour of timber–concrete composite members: Numerical verification, sensitivity and influence of material properties. Construction and Building Materials, 66(C), 192-208. doi: 10.1016/j. conbuildmat.2014.05.079 Khorsandnia, N., Valipour, H., Foster, S., & Crews, K. (2014). A force-based frame finite element formulation for analysis of two- and three-layered composite beams with material non-linearity. International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics, 62(C), 12-22. doi: 10.1016/j. ijnonlinmec.2014.02.001 Khorsandnia, N., Valipour, H. R., & Crews, K. (2014). Nonlinear LongTerm Analysis of Timber-Concrete Composite Structures with Finite Element-Finite Difference Scheme. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 553, 618-624. doi: 10.4028/www. scientific.net/AMM.553.618 Khoshghalb, A., Russell, A. R., & Yang, H. (2014). Fractal-based estimation of hydraulic conductivity from soil–water characteristic curves considering hysteresis. Géotechnique Letters, 4(January - March), 1-10. doi: 10.1680/ geolett.13.00071 Kim, M. Y., Kim, D. Y., Jung, M. R., & Attard, M. M. (2014). Improved methods for determining the 3 dimensional initial shapes of cablesupported bridges. International Journal of Steel Structures, 14(1), 83-102. doi: 10.1007/s13296-0141009-1 Li, C., Song, C., Man, H., Ooi, E. T., & Gao, W. (2014). 2D dynamic analysis of cracks and interface cracks in piezoelectric composites using the SBFEM. International Journal of Solids and Structures, 51(11-12), 2096-2108. doi: 10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2014.02.014

Liu, N., Gao, W., Song, C., & Zhang, N. (2014). Hybrid probabilistic interval dynamic analysis of vehicle– bridge interaction system with uncertainties. International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics, 14(03), 1350069-1350069. doi: 10.1142/S0219455413500697 Long, X. Y., Jiang, C., Han, X., Gao, W., & Bi, R. G. (2014). Sensitivity analysis of the scaled boundary finite element method for elastostatics. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 276(C), 212-232. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2014.03.005 Ma, J., Zhang, S., Wriggers, P., Gao, W., & De Lorenzis, L. (2014). Stochastic homogenized effective properties of three-dimensional composite material with full randomness and correlation in the microstructure. Computers & Structures, 144(C), 62-74. doi: 10.1016/j.compstruc.2014.06.003 Ma, J., & Zhao, G. (2014). Studying the influence of heterogeneity on particle breakage using distinct lattice spring model. Arabian Journal of Geosciences. doi: 10.1007/s12517-014-1709-z Man, H., Song, C., Gao, W., & Tin-Loi, F. (2014). Semi-analytical analysis for piezoelectric plate using the scaled boundary finite-element method. Computers and Structures, 137, 47-62. doi: 10.1016/j. compstruc.2013.10.005 Mashiri, F. R., Paradowska, A., Uy, B., Tao, Z., Khan, M., & Dayal, P. (2014). Residual stresses distribution measured by neutron diffraction in fabricated square high strength steel tubes. Materials Science Forum, 777(February (online)), 249-254. doi: 10.4028/ www.scientific.net/MSF.777.249 Mashiri, F. R., Uy, B., Tao, Z., & Wang, Z. B. (2014). Concretefilled VHS-to-steel fabricated section stub columns subjected to axial compression. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 95(C), 141-161. doi: 10.1016/j. jcsr.2013.11.022 Mazumder, M. H., & Gilbert, R. I. (2013). Empirical Analytical Modelling of Average Bond Stress and Anchorage of Tensile Bars in Reinforced Concrete. International Journal of Civil, Architectural Science and Engineering, 7(12), 416-421. Mazumder, M. H., Gilbert, R. I., & Chang, Z. T. (2013). Analytical Modelling of Average Bond Stress within the Anchorage of Tensile Reinforcing Bars in Reinforced Concrete Members. International Journal of Civil, Architectural Science and Engineering, 7(6), 46-52.

Nasser, A., & Castel, A. (2014). Microcell versus galvanic corrosion currents in carbonated concrete. Magazine of Concrete Research, 66(14), 697-707. doi: 10.1680/ macr.13.00214 Natarajan, S., Deogekar, P. S., Manickam, G., & Belouettar, S. (2014). Hygrothermal effects on the free vibration and buckling of laminated composites with cutouts. Composite Structures, 108(C), 848-855. doi: 10.1016/j. compstruct.2013.10.009 Natarajan, S., Ferreira, A. J. M., Bordas, S., Carrera, E., Cinefra, M., & Zenkour, A. M. (2014). Analysis of Functionally Graded Material Plates Using Triangular Elements with Cell-Based Smoothed Discrete Shear Gap Method. Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 2014, 1-13. doi: 10.1155/2014/247932 Natarajan, S., Haboussi, M., & Manickam, G. (2014). Application of higher-order structural theory to bending and free vibration analysis of sandwich plates with CNT reinforced composite facesheets. Composite Structures, 113(C), 197-207. doi: 10.1016/j. compstruct.2014.03.007 Natarajan, S., Kerfriden, P., Mahapatra, D. R., & Bordas, S. P. A. (2014). Numerical Analysis of the Inclusion-Crack Interaction by the Extended Finite Element Method. International Journal for Computational Methods in Engineering Science and Mechanics, 15(1), 26-32. doi: 10.1080/15502287.2013.833999 Natarajan, S., Ooi, E. T., Chiong, I., & Song, C. (2014). Convergence and accuracy of displacement based finite element formulations over arbitrary polygons: Laplace interpolants, strain smoothing and scaled boundary polygon formulation. Finite Elements in Analysis and Design, 85(C), 101122. doi: 10.1016/j.finel.2014.03.006 Natarajan, S., Song, C., & Belouettar, S. (2014). Numerical evaluation of stress intensity factors and T-stress for interfacial cracks and cracks terminating at the interface without asymptotic enrichment. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 279(C), 86-112. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2014.06.024 Ng, T. S., Foster, S. J., Htet, M. L., & Htut, T. N. S. (2014). Mixed mode fracture behaviour of steel fibre reinforced concrete. Materials and Structures/Materiaux et Constructions, 47(1-2), 67-76. doi: 10.1617/s11527-013-0045-1 Nguyen, V. H., Nguyen, T. K., Thai, H. T., & Vo, T. P. (2014). A new inverse trigonometric shear deformation theory for isotropic and functionally graded sandwich plates. Composites Part B:

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Engineering, 66(C), 233-246. doi: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2014.05.012 Nott, D. J., Fan, Y., Marshall, L., & Sisson, S. A. (2014). Approximate Bayesian computation and Bayes' linear analysis: Toward high- dimensional ABC. Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics, 23(1), 65-86. doi: 10.1080/10618600.2012.751874 Nott, D. J., Marshall, L., Fielding, M., & Liong, S. Y. (2014). Mixtures of experts for understanding model discrepancy in dynamic computer models. Computational Statistics and Data Analysis, 71, 491-505. doi: 10.1016/j.csda.2013.04.020 Ooi, E. T., Song, C., & Tin-Loi, F. (2014). A scaled boundary polygon formulation for elastoplastic analyses. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 268(C), 905-937. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2013.10.021 Ooi, E. T., Song, C. M., & Tin-Loi, F. (2014). Crack Propagation Modeling with Scaled Boundary Polygons. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 553, 719-724. doi: 10.4028/www. scientific.net/AMM.553.719 Oshkour, A. A., Talebi, H., Seyed Shirazi, S. F., Yau, Y. H., Tarlochan, F., & Abu Osman, N. A. (2015). Effect of Geometrical Parameters on the Performance of Longitudinal Functionally Graded Femoral Prostheses. Artificial Organs, 39(2), 156-164. doi: 10.1111/aor.12315 Pasha, A. Y., Hu, L., & Meegoda, J. N. (2014). Numerical simulations of a light nonaqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) movement in variably saturated soils with capillary hysteresis. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 51(9), 1046-1062. doi: 10.1139/cgj-2012-0165 Patel, V. I., Liang, Q. Q., & Hadi, M. N. S. (2014). Numerical analysis of high-strength concrete-filled steel tubular slender beam-columns under cyclic loading. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 92(C), 183-194. doi: 10.1016/j. jcsr.2013.09.008 Patel, V. I., Liang, Q. Q., & Hadi, M. N. S. (2014). Behavior of biaxiallyloaded rectangular concrete-filled steel tubular slender beam-columns with preload effects. Thin-Walled Structures, 79(C), 166-177. doi: 10.1016/j.tws.2014.02.013 Patel, V. I., Liang, Q. Q., & Hadi, M. N. S. (2014). Biaxially loaded high-strength concrete-filled steel tubular slender beam-columns, part II: Parametric study. Journal of Constructional Steel Research. doi: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2012.03.029 Perić, D., Zhao, G., & Khalili, N. (2014). Strain Localization in Unsaturated Elastic-Plastic Materials Subjected to Plane Strain Compression. Journal of


Engineering Mechanics, 140(7), 04014050-04014050. doi: 10.1061/ (ASCE)EM.1943-7889.0000767 Pi, Y. L., & Bradford, M. A. (2014). Long-term analyses of concrete-filled steel tubular arches accounting for interval uncertainty. CMES - Computer Modeling in Engineering and Sciences, 99(3), 233-253. doi: 10.3970/ cmes.2014.099.233 Pi, Y. L., & Bradford, M. A. (2014). Multiple unstable equilibrium branches and non-linear dynamic buckling of shallow arches. International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics, 60(C), 33-45. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnonlinmec.2013.12.005 Pi, Y. L., & Bradford, M. A. (2014). Effects of nonlinearity and temperature field on in-plane behaviour and buckling of crownpinned steel arches. Engineering Structures, 74(C), 1-12. doi: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2014.05.006 Remennikov, A. M., & Uy, B. (2014). Explosive testing and modelling of square tubular steel columns for near-field detonations. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 101(C), 290-303. doi: 10.1016/j. jcsr.2014.05.027 Rodrigues, J. D., Natarajan, S., Ferreira, A. J. M., Carrera, E., Cinefra, M., & Bordas, S. P. A. (2014). Analysis of composite plates through cell-based smoothed finite element and 4-noded mixed interpolation of tensorial components techniques. Computers & Structures, 135(C), 83-87. doi: 10.1016/j.compstruc.2014.01.011 Russell, A. R. (2014). How water retention in fractal soils depends on particle and pore sizes, shapes, volumes and surface areas. GĂŠotechnique, 64(5), 379-390. doi: 10.1680/geot.13.P.165 Salimzadeh, S., & Khalili, N. (2014). Consolidation of Unsaturated Lumpy Clays. Journal of GeoEngineering Sciences, 2(1-2), 6782. doi: 10.3233/JGS-141317 Samani, A.K., & Attard, M.M., Lateral Strain Model for Concrete under Compression. (2014). ACI Structural Journal, 111(2). doi: 10.14359/51686532 Sankar, A., Natarajan, S., Haboussi, M., Ramajeyathilagam, K., & Ganapathi, M. (2014). Panel flutter characteristics of sandwich plates with CNT reinforced facesheets using an accurate higher-order theory. Journal of Fluids and Structures, 50(C), 376-391. doi: 10.1016/j.jfluidstructs.2014.06.028 Senetakis, K., & Coop, M. (2014). The Development of a New MicroMechanical Inter-Particle Loading Apparatus. Geotechnical Testing Journal, 37(6), 20120187-20120187. doi: 10.1520/GTJ20120187

Sharafisafa, M., Aliabadian, Z., Alizadeh, R., & Mortazavi, A. (2014). Distinct element modelling of fracture plan control in continuum and jointed rock mass in presplitting method of surface mining. International Journal of Mining Science and Technology, 24(6), 871-881. doi: 10.1016/j. ijmst.2014.10.022 Silani, M., Talebi, H., Ziaei-Rad, S., Hamouda, A. M., Zi, G., & Rabczuk, T. (2015). A three dimensional extended Arlequin method for dynamic fracture. Computational Materials Science, 96(PB), 425-431. doi: 10.1016/j. commatsci.2014.07.039 Silani, M., Ziaei-Rad, S., Talebi, H., & Rabczuk, T. (2014). A semi-concurrent multiscale approach for modeling damage in nanocomposites. Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics, 74(C), 30-38. doi: 10.1016/j. tafmec.2014.06.009 Sepasgozar, S. M. E., Naghipour, M., & Akbarnezhad, A. (2014/05//). Seismic Behaviour of RBS and AWRBS Moment Resistant Connections in Double I-Beams. Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vol 553, pp. 612-617, May. 2014 DOI: 10.5829/idosi.ijee.2013.04.03.03 Su, Q., Yang, G., & Bradford, M. A. (2014). Behavior of a Continuous Composite Box Girder with a Prefabricated Prestressed-Concrete Slab in Its Hogging-Moment Region. Journal of Bridge Engineering, B4014004-B4014004. doi: 10.1061/ (ASCE)BE.1943-5592.0000698 Su, Q., Yang, G., & Bradford, M. A. (2014). Static behaviour of multi-row stud shear connectors in high- strength concrete. Steel and Composite Structures, 17(6), 967-980. doi: 10.12989/ scs.2014.17.6.967 Su, Q. T., Wang, W., Luan, H. W., & Yang, G. T. (2014). Experimental research on bearing mechanism of perfobond rib shear connectors. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 95(C), 22-31. doi: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2013.11.020 Su, Q. T., Yang, G. T., & Li, C. X. (2014). Structural behaviour of perforated shear connectors with flange heads in composite girders: an experimental approach. International Journal of Steel Structures, 14(1), 151-164. doi: 10.1007/s13296-014-1013-5 Sun, L., Zhao, G. F., & Zhao, J. (2014). A multiscale manifold method using particle representations of the physical domain. Geomechanics and Geoengineering, 9(2), 124-132. doi: 10.1080/17486025.2013.871068 Talebi, H., Silani, M., Bordas, S. P. A., Kerfriden, P., & Rabczuk, T.

(2014). A computational library for multiscale modeling of material failure. Computational Mechanics, 53(5), 1047-1071. doi: 10.1007/ s00466-013-0948-2 Tangaramvong, S., & Tin-Loi, F. (2014). Topology optimization of softening structures under displacement constraints as an MPEC. Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, 49(2), 299-314. doi: 10.1007/s00158-0130985-7 Tangaramvong, S., Tin-Loi, F., & Gao, W. (2014). Optimal retrofit of moment resisting frames using braces accounting for geometric nonlinearity and serviceability conditions. Engineering Structures, 80(C), 189-199. doi: 10.1016/j. engstruct.2014.08.039 Thai, H. T., & Choi, D. H. (2014). Improved refined plate theory accounting for effect of thickness stretching in functionally graded plates. Composites Part B: Engineering, 56(C), 705-716. doi: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2013.09.008 Thai, H. T., & Choi, D. H. (2014). Retraction notice to "Zeroth-order shear deformation theory for functionally graded plates resting on elastic foundation" [International J. Mech. Sci. 78 (2014) 35-43]. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 88, 244-244. doi: 10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2014.08.010 Thai, H. T., Uy, B., Khan, M., Tao, Z., & Mashiri, F. (2014). Numerical modelling of concrete-filled steel box columns incorporating high strength materials. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 102(C), 256-265. doi: 10.1016/j. jcsr.2014.07.014 Thai, H. T., Vo, T. P., Bui, T. Q., & Nguyen, T. K. (2014). A quasi-3D hyperbolic shear deformation theory for functionally graded plates. Acta Mechanica, 225(3), 951-964. doi: 10.1007/s00707-013-0994-z Thai, H. T., Vo, T. P., Nguyen, T. K., & Lee, J. (2014). A nonlocal sinusoidal plate model for micro/ nanoscale plates. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, 228(14), 2652-2660. doi: 10.1177/0954406214521391 Valipour, H., Khorsandnia, N., Crews, K., & Foster, S. (2014). A simple strategy for constitutive modelling of timber. Construction and Building Materials, 53(C), 138-148. doi: 10.1016/j. conbuildmat.2013.11.100 Valipour, H. R., Vesali, N., Samali, B., & Foster, S. (2014). Reserve of strength in reinforced concrete frames: Analysis of arching action. Australian Journal of Structural Engineering, 15(2). doi: 10.7158/

S13-005.2014.15.2 Vasdravellis, G., Karavasilis, T. L., & Uy, B. (2014). Design Rules, Experimental Evaluation, and Fracture Models for High-Strength and Stainless-Steel Hourglass Shape Energy Dissipation Devices. Journal of Structural Engineering, 140(11), 04014087-04014087. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943541X.0001014 Vasdravellis, G., & Uy, B. (2014). Shear Strength and Moment-Shear Interaction in Steel-Concrete Composite Beams. Journal of Structural Engineering, 140(11), 04014084-04014084. doi: 10.1061/ (ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0001008 Vo, T., & Russell, A. R. (2014). Slip line theory applied to a retaining wallâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;unsaturated soil interaction problem. Computers and Geotechnics, 55(C), 416-428. doi: 10.1016/j.compgeo.2013.09.010 Vo, T. P., Thai, H. T., Nguyen, T. K., Inam, F., & Lee, J. (2015). A quasi3D theory for vibration and buckling of functionally graded sandwich beams. Composite Structures, 119(C), 1-12. doi: 10.1016/j. compstruct.2014.08.006 Vo, T. P., Thai, H. T., Nguyen, T. K., Maheri, A., & Lee, J. (2014). Finite element model for vibration and buckling of functionally graded sandwich beams based on a refined shear deformation theory. Engineering Structures, 64(C), 12-22. doi: 10.1016/j. engstruct.2014.01.029 Wang, C., Gao, W., Song, C., & Zhang, N. (2014). Stochastic interval analysis of natural frequency and mode shape of structures with uncertainties. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 333(9), 2483-2503. doi: 10.1016/j.jsv.2013.12.015 Wang, X., Ge, L., Li, X., & Gherardi, S. (2014). The Feasibility of Using ENVISAT ASAR and ALOS PALSAR to Monitor Pastures in Western Australia. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, 80(1), 43-57. doi: 10.14358/ PERS.80.1.43 Wu, D., Gao, W., Tangaramvong, S., & Tin-Loi, F. (2014). Robust stability analysis of structures with uncertain parameters using mathematical programming approach. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 100(10), 720-745. doi: 10.1002/nme.4758 Wu, X., Lu, M., & Shen, X. (2014). Computational Approach to AsBuilt Tunnel Invert Survey Based on Processing Real-Time TBM Tracking Data. Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, 05014012-05014012. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)CP.19435487.0000435

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Wudtke, I., Talebi, H., Silani, M., & Werner, F. (2015). A hierarchical multi-scale approach to mechanical characterization of heat affected zone in welded connections. Computational Materials Science, 96(PB), 396-402. doi: 10.1016/j. commatsci.2014.08.053 Xi, L., Linlin, G., & Xiaoling, C. (2014). Quantifying Contribution of Land Use Types to Nighttime Light Using an Unmixing Model. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 11(10), 1667-1671. doi: 10.1109/LGRS.2014.2304496 Xiang, T., Natarajan, S., Man, H., Song, C., & Gao, W. (2014). Free vibration and mechanical buckling of plates with inplane material inhomogeneity â&#x20AC;&#x201C; A three dimensional consistent approach. Composite Structures, 118(C), 634-642. doi: 10.1016/j. compstruct.2014.07.043 Xiao, J., Ying, J., Tam, V. W. Y., & Gilbert, I. R. (2014). Test and prediction of chloride diffusion in recycled aggregate concrete. Science China Technological Sciences, 57(12), 2357-2370. doi: 10.1007/s11431-014-5700-4 Xu, T., Zhao, G., Tang, C. A., & Ranjith, P. G. (2014). Modeling of Transverse Thermal Cracking of FRP Bars Embedded in Concrete. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 39(4), 2621-2629. doi: 10.1007/s13369-013-0927-0 Yan, Y. G., Dai, H. Y., Ge, L. L., Guo, J. T., Ng, A. H. M., & Li, X. J. (2014). Numerical simulation of dynamic surface deformation based on DInSAR monitoring. Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 24(4), 1248-1254. doi: 10.1016/ S1003-6326(14)63186-1 Yin, P., & Zhao, G. F. (2014). Stochastic reconstruction of Gosford sandstone from surface image. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 70(C), 82-89. doi: 10.1016/j. ijrmms.2014.04.012 Ying, K. S., Remennikov, A. M., & Uy, B. (2014). Numerical Investigation of the Response of Protective Barrier under Blast Loading. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 567, 440445. doi: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/ AMM.567.440 Yousuf, M., Uy, B., Tao, Z., Remennikov, A., & Liew, J. Y. R. (2014). Impact behaviour of precompressed hollow and concrete filled mild and stainless steel columns. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 96(C), 54-68. doi: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2013.12.009 Yu, Y., Zhang, C., Zhu, X., Kang, W. H., Mao, X., & Uy, B. (2014). Design and Experimental Investigations of a Vibration Based Wireless Measurement System for Bridge

Cable Tension Monitoring. Advances in Structural Engineering, 17(11), 1657-1668. doi: 10.1260/13694332.17.11.1657 Zhao, G. (2014). Modeling stress wave propagation in rocks by distinct lattice spring model. Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 6(4), 348-355. doi: 10.1016/j. jrmge.2014.03.008 Zhao, G., & Jiao, Y. (2014). Discontinuous deformation analysis and numerical manifold method. Geomechanics and Geoengineering, 9(2), 79-79. doi: 10.1080/17486025.2014.900247 Zhao, G. F. (2014). Development of the distinct lattice spring model for large deformation analyses. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 38(10), 1078-1100. doi: 10.1002/nag.2249 Zhao, G. F., & Khalili, N. (2014/05//). An Overview and Recent Developments of Distinct Lattice Spring Model on Dynamic Fracturing of Rock. Applied Mechanics and Materials Vol 553 (2014) pp 507-512doi:10.4028/www. scientific.net/AMM.553.507

Zhu, J., Attard, M. M., & Kellermann, D. C. (2014). In-Plane Nonlinear Buckling of Funicular Arches. International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics, 15(5). doi: 10.1142/S0219455414500734 Zhu, J., Attard, M. M., & Kellermann, D. C. (2014). In-plane nonlinear buckling of circular arches including shear deformations. Archive of Applied Mechanics, 84(12), 1841-1860. doi: 10.1007/ s00419-014-0890-6 Zhu, J., Attard, M. M., & Kellermann, D. C. (2014). In-Plane Nonlinear Buckling of Funicular Arches. International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics, 1450073-1450073. doi: 10.1142/ S0219455414500734 Zhu, J., Hu, X., Zhang, J., Li, T., Wang, J., & Wu, M. (2014). The Inertial Attitude Augmentation for Ambiguity Resolution in SF/ SE-GNSS Attitude Determination. Sensors, 14(7), 11395-11415. doi: 10.3390/s140711395

Zhao, G. F., Russell, A. R., Zhao, X., & Khalili, N. (2014). Strain rate dependency of uniaxial tensile strength in Gosford sandstone by the Distinct Lattice Spring Model with X-ray micro CT. International Journal of Solids and Structures, 51(7-8), 1587-1600. doi: 10.1016/j. ijsolstr.2014.01.012 Zhao, Y., Liu, S., Zhao, G. F., Elsworth, D., Jiang, Y., & Han, J. (2014). Failure mechanisms in coal: Dependence on strain rate and microstructure. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 119(9), 6924-6935. doi: 10.1002/2014JB011198 Zhao, Y., Zhao, G. F., Jiang, Y., Elsworth, D., & Huang, Y. (2014). Effects of bedding on the dynamic indirect tensile strength of coal: Laboratory experiments and numerical simulation. International Journal of Coal Geology, 132(C), 81-93. doi: 10.1016/j. coal.2014.08.007 Zhong, H., Ooi, E. T., Song, C., Ding, T., Lin, G., & Li, H. (2014). Experimental and numerical study of the dependency of interface fracture in concreteâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; rock specimens on mode mixity. Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 124-125(C), 287-309. doi: 10.1016/j. engfracmech.2014.04.030 Zhou, P., & Wang, J. (2013). Stochastic Ionosphere Models for Precise GNSS Positioning: Sensitivity Analysis. Journal of Global Positioning Systems, 12(1), 53-60. doi: 10.5081/jgps.12.1.53

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2.CIES INTERNATIONAL VISITORS' SEMINARS NAME

INSTITUTION

SEMINAR TOPIC

WHEN

Professor Yeong-Bin Yang

National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan

Rigid Mechanics and Nonlinear Structural Analysis Involving Postbucking Response

February 2014

Professor Yeong-Bin Yang

National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan

2.5D Finite/Infinite Element Approach for Simulation of Train-Induced Ground Vibrations

February 2014

Professor Ronald D. Ziemian

Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA, USA

Design by Inelastic Analysis – New Opportunities In The U.S

March 2014

Unstrained Element Length-Based Methods for Determining Professor Moon-Young Kim

Sungkyunkwan University, S. Korea

Associate Professor Gianluca Cusatis

Northwestern University, USA

Multiscale Computational Models for the Simulation of Concrete Materials and Structures

May 2014

Professor Paul Hazell

UNSW Canberra

Impact mechanics

August 2014

Dr Amir Gat

Technion – Israel institute of Technology, Israel

The interaction between creeping flows and elastic structures

August 2014

Professor Abhijit Mukherjee

Curtin University, WA

Path to Sustainable InfrastructureMonitor, Maintain and Develop

August 2014

Dr Scott Hensley

NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, USA

Radar and Radar Interferometry for the Remote Sensing of the Earth and Planets

October 2014

Professor Carlo Sansour

University of Nottingham, UK

Generalised continua and scale effects: theoretical frameworks and numerical implementations

October 2014

Professor Carlo Sansour

University of Nottingham, UK

On aspects of anisotropy at finite strains in engineering and biological materials

October 2014

Professor Chunan Tang

Dalian University of Technology, China

Rock Failure Process Analysis

November 2014

Dr Peter Cleall

Cardiff University, UK

Coupled thermal processes and near surface soil behaviour

November 2014

One Optimized Initial State of Extremely Long Cable-Supported Bridges

May 2014

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3.POSTGRADUATE RESEARCH STUDENTS NAME Aliabadian, Zeinab Alipour Esgandani, Golnaz Allan, Rebecca Jane

Ataei, Abdolreza

RESEARCH TOPIC Rock mechamics, numerical method, stress wave propagation Numerical modelling of unsaturated soils under earthquake loading Backward erosion piping of dams The Post Cracking Behaviour of Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete: From Material to Structure Steel and composite structures

Babaee, Seyed Mahdi

Durability of geopolymer concrete in marine environments

Amin, Ali

Coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical (THM) Model for multiphase flow in double porous media Estimating rock mass strength and stiffness with particular Bertuzzi, Robert interest in the load on a tunnel lining. Development of the scaled boundary finite element method for Chen, Xiaojun dynamic soil-structure interaction analysis in the time domain Modelling and analysis of concrete building and tunnel de Burgh, James Matthew structures in fire Bai, Yun

Dissanayake, Dilina

Computional structural analysis

Stability of composite steel concrete T-section beams continuous over one or more supports. Stochastic interval analysis of structures with a mixture of Do, Duy Minh random and interval uncertainties Elhadayri, Farj Constitutive modelling of lightly cemented unsaturated soils. Earth and rockfill dams, in particular the earthquake resistance Esfahani Kan, Mojtaba and liquefaction susceptibility of their foundations Time-dependent numerical modelling of corrosion initiation in Gharib, Mohammad reinforced concrete structures under projected climate change Mahdi impacts. Probabilistic analysis in computational mechanics with Green, David Kristopher applications in civil engineering. Habaragamu Arachchige, Durability of Geo-Polymer Concrete with respect to Alkali Dinesh Mahanama Aggregate Reactio n (AAR) Hashemiheidari, Evaluating bridges subjected to extreme loading Seyedkomeil Development of steel-timber composite system for large scale Hassanieh, Amirhossein construction He, Ke Numerical Modelling of Cracking in Embankment Dams The use of innovative anchors for the achievement of Henderson, Ian Edward composite action for rehabilitating existing and deployment in James demountable steel structures Rock Dynamics. Discrete element method; Stress wave Hossain, Sumaiya Bushra progagation Huang, Yue Long-term behaviour of high-strength concrete panels. Do, Anh Tuan

James, Edward Malcolm

Pavement systems on soft soils

Jiang, Chao

Hydraulic fracture

Ma, Jianjun

Behaviour and design of composite columns coupling the benefits of high strength steel and high strength concrete Buckling and post-buckling behaiour of composite laminated structures with material non-linearities Structure Engineering - composite structures Noise and vibration analysis using the scaled boundary finite element method Structural analysis and optimization, computational mechanics, structural safety and reliability. Numerical simulation of the behaviour of composite frames at elevated temperatures CO2 sequestration in geological formations

Mac, Thi Ngoc

A bounding surface viscoplasticity model for soils

Khan, Mahbub Hossain Khezri, Mani Li, Dongxu Liu, Lei Luo, Kai Luu, Trung Kien

< 76> CIES - CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING AND SAFETY - ANNUAL REPORT 2014

SUPERVISOR Zhao

CO-SUPERVISOR Khalili

Khoshghalb

Khalili

Douglas

Peirson

Foster

Gilbert

Bradford Castel Akbarnezhad

Valipour

Khalili Douglas

Mostyn

Birk Song

Hou Michael

Foster

Valipour

Song

Gao Birk

Bradford

Vrcelj

Gao

Song

Khalili

Russell

Taiebat

Al-Kilidar

Foster

Castel

Gao Douglas Castel Bradford

Valipour

Valipour

Foster

Birk

Song

Uy

Bradford

Zhao

Russell

Hamed Oeser Russell Khalili Zhao

Foster

Uy

Bradford

Bradford Uy

Vrcelj Uy Thai

Birk

Song

Pi Gao Bradford

Vrcelj

Khalili Zhao Khalili

Oeser


NAME RESEARCH TOPIC Masoumi, Saeed Multiscale modeling of FRP-Concrete interface Mazumder, Maruful Hasan Structural engineering, computational mechanics, dynamic soil-structure interaction The Iterative Limit and Shakedown Analysis of Structures Mellati, Afshin using A Scaled Boundary Finite Element Method Miller, Hugh David

Nano-reinforced ultra high performance concrete

Moutabsherkati, Shahrokh

Dynamics Analysis of Unsaturated Porous Media Subject to Damage due to Cracking

Murray, Angus Lachlan

Structural Engineering / Concrete Technology

Noushini, Amin

Low carbon concrete design

Fibre reinforced concrete structures Investigation on shear modulus of unsaturated soils in small Payan, Meghdad strain Piscesa, Bambang Ductility of reinforced concrete frames Rana, Mohammad Masud Behaviour of post-tensioned composite steel-concrete slabs Normal simulation of carbon sequestration in geological Salimzadeh, Saeed formations Parvez, Md. Ahsan

Saputra, Albert Artha

Computational mechanics and structural analysis.

Wang, Junchao

Uncertain analysis of engineering structures, structural reliability analysis, structural dynamics. Reactive powder concrete subjected to high temperature and temperature cycles Lateral and post buckling with shear effects. Soil mechanics Fracture analysis by using the scaled boundary finite element method. Numerical modelling of foundation on unsaturated soils Numerical modelling of behaviour of unsaturated soils under large deformation Computational mechanics. Structural dynamics structural analysis Computational mechanics

Waqas, Rumman

Steel and Composite Structures.

Wijesekara, Dinusha Madushani

Prediction of Strong Ground Motions by Advanced Numerical Modelling of Seismic Wave Propagation Use of innovative anchors as shear connectors in composite steel-concrete beams for the rehabilitation of existing structures and deployment of new structures Advanced methods for structural analysis, structural safety and reliability, structural dynamics and optimization

Shi, Xue Sriskandarajah, Sanchayan Su, Lijuan Sufian, Adnan Sun, Zhicheng Tang, Yi Tootoonchi, Arash Wang, Chen

Wijesiri Pathirana, Indika Sameera Wu, Binhua

SUPERVISOR Valipour

CO-SUPERVISOR Foster

Foster

Gilbert

Tin-Loi Tangaramvong Akbarnezhad Foster Khalili

Song

Taiebat

Castel Gilbert Castel Gilbert Foster Khoshghalb

Khalili

Attard Uy

Tangaramvong Bradford

Khalili

Oeser

Song Birk Gao Pi Gowripalan

Tin-Loi

Attard Russell Song

Tin-Loi Khoshghalb

Taiebat

Russell

Khoshghalb

Khalili

Gao

Song

Song Uy

Birk

Birk

Song

Uy

Bradford

Gao

Song

Gao

Thai

Wu, Di

Interval analysis framework for structural safety assessment

Tangaramvong Gao

Xiang, Tingsong

Scaled boundary finite element analysis of plates and shells.

Song

Yang, Chengwei

Nondeterministic analysis of linear and nonlinear structures.

Yang, Yang

Upheaval buckling

Yin, Peijie

Micromechanics of Unsaturated Flow in Fractured Porous Medium.

Zhao

Khalili

Numerical modelling of Cone penetration in unsaturated soils.

Khalili

Khoshghalb

In-plane nonlinear localised lateral buckling of pipelines and rail tracks under thermal loading

Attard

Yousefnia Pasha,Amin

Zhu, Jianbei

Tangaramvong Gao Bradford

Gao Hou Michael

Uy

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3.PhD STUDENTS GRADUATED IN 2014 Agarwal, Ankit - Behaviour of steel-CFRP adhesively bonded connections under thermal loading Supervisors: Foster, SJ & Hamed, E Chiong, Irene - The development of a polygon based numerical technique for structural analyses: scaled boundary polygons Supervisor: Song, C Cholathat, Rattanasuda - Mapping the impact of CO2 sequestration using NDVI time-series from multi-sensor optical satellite data Supervisor: Ge, L Chowdhury, Morsaleen Shehzad - A nondeterministic fracture analysis tool by extending the scaled boundary finite element method Supervisor: Song, C Esfahani Kan, Mojtaba - Seismic Deformation Analysis Of Earth And Rockfill Dams. Supervisor: Taiebat, H Gholamhoseini, Alireza - Time-dependent behaviour of composite concrete slabs Supervisor: Gilbert, RI Gui, Yilin - Desiccation cracking in unsaturated soils Supervisor: Khalili, N Khajeh Samani, Ali - Ductility In Reinforced Concrete Columns. Supervisor: Attard M Li, Chao - Fracture analysis of Piezoelectric composites using scaled boundary finite element method Supervisor: Song, C

Ma, Jianjun - Coupled flow deformation analysis of fractured porous media subject to elasto-plastic damage Supervisor: Khalili, N Mazumder, Maruful Hasan - The anchorage of deformed bars in reinforced concrete members subjected to bending Supervisor: Gilbert, RI Mohamad Abas, Fairul Zahri - Strength of fibre reinforced concrete composite slabs with deep trapezoidal profiled steel decking Supervisor: Gilbert, RI Salimzadeh, Saeed - Numerical modelling of twophase fluid flow through deformable fractured porous media Supervisor: Khalili, N Sriskandarajah, Sanchayan - High temperature behaviour of reactive powder concrete (RPC) Supervisor: Foster, SJ Vo, Thanh Liem - Interaction between a rigid retaining wall and unsaturated soils Supervisor: Russell, A Wang, Chen - Stochastic interval analysis of structures with uncertainties SupervisoR: Gao, W Wang, Xin - The feasibility of using satellite SAR images to monitor pasture in Australia Supervisor: Ge, L

Liu, Nengguang - Dynamic analysis of vehicle-bridge interaction system with uncertain parameters Supervisor: Gao,W

< 78> CIES - CENTRE FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING AND SAFETY - ANNUAL REPORT 2014


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UNSW CIES CENTRE Annual Report 2014  

CIES - Centre for Infrastructure Engineering and Safety at the University of New South Wales, Australia

UNSW CIES CENTRE Annual Report 2014  

CIES - Centre for Infrastructure Engineering and Safety at the University of New South Wales, Australia

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