CELEBRATING 133 YEARS AS CANADA’S PREMIER HORTICULTURAL PUBLICATION
VOLUME 63 NUMBER 04
Weather-proofing the farm KAREN DAVIDSON Mark Twain once wrote: “Everyone talks about the weather, but no one does anything about it.” Grape grower Trevor Falk is throwing those century-old words to the wind, literally. This spring, he’s installing 34 wind machines in his Niagara-on-the-Lake vineyards. In fact, the upgraded replacements have satellite monitoring devices that when connected to a smartphone, will allow him to start or stop the machines on a dime. At an operational cost of up to $50 per hour in fuel, he’s determined to be as precise as the weather is unpredictable. “Clearly, the weather seems to be more erratic,” observes Falk, noting extremes in recent years of hot and dry, hot and humid, cold and wet, and winter injury from temperatures north of minus 20 Celsius. “I’m doing everything possible to negate the negative effects of climate change.” These new machines have larger blades that will provide frost protection for up to 15 acres, rather than 10, explains Joe Pillitteri, owner of Lakeview Vineyard Equipment. Powered by diesel, they look much like older models. However, the difference is the computer link that allows real-time monitoring of wind speeds, temperatures and engine variables such as fuel levels. “If you have a block that gets colder earlier than others, you can
INSIDE Alien invasive species worry growers Page 6 Potato roundup
www.thegrower.org P.M. 40012319
This is one of 34 wind machines that Trevor Falk is installing this spring to protect against unseasonable frosts. With 500 acres of high-risk, high-value grapes at Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, he’s backing up crop insurance with hardware and software that allow remote monitoring of wind, temperatures and diesel engine variables. Photo by Denis Cahill.
activate a specific machine based on data,” says Pillitteri. Grapes are a high-risk, high-value crop that warrants the capital investment. It’s not enough to depend on crop insurance, increasingly viewed as a fall-back position. Last year’s unprecedented spring frost has forced other Ontario farmers to the same conclusion. Apple growers, who usually tally a $65 million crop, lost 90 per cent in 2012 and then learned that insurance premiums would be prohibitive this year. That’s why seminars at the Ontario Fruit and Vegetable Convention were so popular about how new technologies can protect against frost. Apple grower Dan DeVries shared the family farm’s challenges using frost fans at Fenwick, Ontario. His records show a cost of $5,000 to run one machine. That’s an unexpectedly high cost, he cautions, due to the extreme conditions last year. He calculated $32 per hour for 158
hours to protect 12 acres. He ran his frost fans 15 to 20 times, on average from four to six hours, but as many as eight hours.
We saved 50 to 75 per cent of the crop depending on apple variety.” ~ Dan DeVries
Frost fans are not perfect but they are better than no coverage at all. DeVries suggests investing in a solar panel so the battery on the machine stays charged. He also observed that frost fans will not warm up an area in five minutes. Fans must be activated for 30 to 45 minutes. He’s learned to start his fans at 1.5 degrees above zero Celsius.
“We saved 50 to 75 per cent of the crop depending on variety,” he says. “We hope that the weather situation last spring was abnormal.” Hope is not a management strategy. That’s why DeVries is investing in better temperature and wind speed data for each orchard location. He’s convinced weather patterns are changing and for that reason, he’s got six frost fans in operation and two more on order. For berry growers, the weather challenges are equally daunting. Mark Longstroth, an extension berry specialist with Michigan State University, summarized his in-depth knowledge. With blueberries, for instance, growers must know the critical temperatures depending on each stage of development: tight clusters tolerate -6 to -5 C; bud swell tolerates -9 to -7 C, and blooms tolerate -2 C. Longstroth is especially wary of a radiation freeze. That’s when the winds are calm with a clear
sky and a cool air mass. Under these conditions, overhead sprinklers work well for blueberries and strawberries. The goal is to capture the energy from the change of state of water. “It takes energy to melt ice or boil water into steam or vapour,” explains Longstroth. “Freezing water to ice or condensing water is a warming process. Once you make ice and keep it wet, everything is right at the freezing point and no damage occurs. If you use water for frost protection, understand what’s going on. Improper use of water can increase cooling causing greater damage than if you had done nothing at all.” In blueberries, Longstroth advises not to protect bud burst, only when there’s white blooms. Apply water fast enough to keep ice wet all the time. Uniformity is needed for effective frost protection. Don’t shut water off until water is melting, that is when bubbles form under the ice. CONTINUED ON PAGE 3
PAGE 2 –– APRIL 2013 THE GROWER
AT PRESS TIME… Facts behind contaminated salads
Second food terminal suggested
Results of a study on samples collected in 2009 and 2010 of pre-packaged, pre-washed salads grown in Canada, the U.S. and Mexico raised considerable media coverage early in March. The report by Health Canada in the Journal of Food Protection found the presence of food-borne parasites and pathogens including Giardia, Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora. The Canadian Produce Marketing Association responded with the following facts: - in total, 544 samples were taken - Of the 544 samples taken, 507 were products of the U.S., 23 were products of Canada and 7 were products of Mexico (the balance were multiple or other origin). - Of the 544 samples, 50 were labeled as organic. • Contaminated samples included: 46 of U.S. origin, three of Canadian origin and zero of Mexican origin. • The results showed that neither growing methodology (conventional or organic) was more heavily contaminated than the other. CPMA is in direct contact with senior officials from Health Canada. No illnesses were reported in association with the samples included in the study. Although the samples which confirmed the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia contained oocysts of the parasites, they did not confirm their viability (i.e. that the parasites found could reproduce and actually cause illness when consumed).
Ontario’s Conservative leader Tim Hudak is suggesting a regional food terminal be built in addition to the existing Ontario Food Terminal in downtown Toronto. In a Paths to Prosperity document, he proposes that a second terminal could offer one-stop access to smaller grocery chains, restaurants, convenience stores and garden centres for wholesale produce from Ontario farms. “It’s time for a second, regional food terminal to help connect our farmers with small food processors, restaurants and retailers, and to augment the Toronto facility – so successful, it’s called ‘the stock exchange’ for Ontario produce,” Hudak said.
Tech X-Change show cancelled for 2013 Canada’s Fruit & Veg Tech XChange trade show has been cancelled for July 2013, but plans remain underway for a biennual event in 2014. While exhibitors from the fruit and vegetable industry supported the show in St. Williams, Ontario, it was poorly attended in its trial years of August 2011 and July 2012. “After two years of putting everything we have into this specialized event spanning almost 20 acres, we feel we miscalculated the size of the event, relative to the size of the industry,” Jordon Underhill, general manager CFVTX told stakeholders. “We have delivered a qualified audience, however, not adequate
NEWSMAKERS numbers of producers to sustain a three-day, 20 acre, annual event.” Underhill plans to change the event from three to two days, Wednesday and Thursday. The site grid will be condensed. Four trade show buildings will be reduced to three. Educational seminars will be moved from the conference hall to a special events tent. An optimal timing for the event is still to be evaluated.
The board of directors of the Canadian Horticultural Council (CHC) has elected Keith Kuhl as incoming president. He’s a Winkler, Manitoba potato grower. First vice-president is Alvin Keenan (Atlantic-PEI) and Brian Gilroy is second vice-president (Ontario).
Carbon tax credits renewed The British Columbia government is renewing its carbon tax credits for greenhouse growers. In 2012, it was billed as a one-time initiative for growers who had 2011 sales of more than $20,000, owned at least 455 square metres of commercial production and provided fuel receipts. The industry estimated that carbon taxes for all floral and greenhouse vegetable growers in the province tallied $7.6 million. “Moving into an election period scheduled for May 14, this is a welcome announcement for us,” reports Linda Delli Santi, executive director, B.C. Greenhouse Growers’ Association.
Left to right: 2013 president Keith Kuhl is pictured here with federal ag minister Gerry Ritz and outgoing president Murray Porteous. Minister Ritz opened the 91st annual meeting of the Canadian Horticultural Council in Ottawa, ON. Photo courtesy of Anne Fowlie. The CHC committee chairs are: Murray Porteous, Human Resources; Claude Laniel, Research and Technology; Mark Wales, Finance and Marketing; Ken Forth, Trade and Industry Standards; Charles Stevens, Crop Plant Protection and the Environment; Joe Brennan, Potato; Brian Gilroy, Apple and Fruit; Jack Bates, Blueberries; Phil Tregunno, Tender Fruit; Andre Plante, Vegetables; Linda Delli Santi, Greenhouse; Paul LeBlanc, Food Safety. At the CHC’s banquet, the Doug Connery Award was presented to Ken Forth, president of the Foreign Agricultural Resource Management Service, for years of dedicated service to the labour file. The award honours exemplary passion, commitment and dedication to advancing the interests of Canada’s horticultural industry. The Canadian Federation of Agriculture has re-elected Ron Bonnett for another two-year term. One of his key goals is a national food strategy.
The Big Crunch
Terence Hochstein takes over the position of executive director of the Potato Growers of Alberta. Former executive director Helmut Leili has retired. Summerhill Pyramid Winery has announced Willem Semmelink as its new vineyard manager in Kelowna. He brings years of organic and biodynamic farming expertise from South Africa to the Okanagan area in British Columbia.
Join us in the kitchen with Kary Osmond, former host of Canada’s #1 daytime cooking show CBC’s Best Recipes Ever! Kary is going back-to-basics with her passion for produce, sharing DAILY tips and techniques on how to pick, store, and prepare fruits and vegetables!
The Foodland Ontario Retailer Awards recently recognized 68 grocery retailers for creatively showcasing and promoting Ontario food in their stores. This year, judges reviewed more than 3,400 photographs from more than 1,100 entries. The four Foodland Ontario Award of Excellence recipients are: • Hurley's Your Independent Grocer, Ingersoll • Stewart's Town & Country Market, Mildmay • Morello's Your Independent Grocer, Peterborough • Andrew and Emily's No Frills, Picton A new award category - the Vision award -- honours the retail banners (head office) for their corporate support. The first winners of this award are Longo Brothers Fruit Markets Inc. and Metro Ontario Inc.
Check out our produce made simple.ca website for: s DELICIOUSLY SIMPLE RECIPES s TIPS TRICKS AND TECHNIQUES
s HELPFUL HINTS s HOW TO VIDEOS
Do you have a fruit and veggie question? Just ask Kary! Follow us on d facebook.com/ProduceMadeSimple and e @ProduceSimple and don’t miss a minute of Produce made Simple with Kary! Thee OPMA thanks their 2012 / 201 Th 2013 13 Premier sponsors!
As the growing season gets underway, the Ontario Association of Food Banks (OAFB) reminds producers that food donations are always welcome. If you are a food producer, manufacturer or distributor and wish to make a donation, please contact Carolyn Stewart email@example.com or 416-656-4100 x2935 with the following information: company name, product description, quantity (pallets), quantity (cases), expiry date, reason for donation, storage details. “The OAFB is always in need of large, surplus food donations from generous food industry partners across the province, and we truly thank you for your contribution and support of hunger reduction in Ontario,” says Carolyn Stewart, manager, operations and finance. Any company or individual who makes a donation to a food bank or the OAFB, in good faith, is covered by Ontario's Food Donation Act, 1994.
APRIL 2013 –– PAGE 3 THE GROWER
Weather-proofing the farm
CONTINUED FROM PAGE 1 Last year’s spring frosts damaged one-third of Michigan’s blueberry crop. Simply put, some farmers didn’t get up early enough to turn the pumps on. Some fields couldn’t be protected due to lack of pumping capacity. Wind machines will work well if the inversion is low enough. They can provide protection of three to five degrees in a large area depending on the strength of the inversion. “Every freeze is different,” Longstroth warns. These farmer experiences are not news to Don MacIver, a farmer himself and retired Environment Canada climatologist who used to head the Adaptation and Impacts Research Division. Now mayor of Amaranth, a township in potato-growing Dufferin county, he advocates that farmers become more self-reliant in managing risks from weather. “The climate is changing with temperatures increasing in southern Ontario from 1.2 to 1.8 degrees Celsius in the last 30 years,” says MacIver. “That’s significant.” He adds that not all areas of Canada are changing at the same rate, so it’s important to consult a climatologist who has analyzed
Freezing water to ice or condensing water is a warming process. Once you make ice and keep it wet, everything is right at the freezing point and no damage occurs.” ~ Mark Longstroth, extension berry specialist, Michigan State University
Photo courtesy of Brookside Farms, Gobles, Michigan
the historical records, the trends and a subset of the global climate change models for your region. While there are opportunities for new varieties with an extended season of two to three weeks, there are also risks to sensitive crops from extreme events. Not only is the climate changing, but the political climate as well. Ontario’s Clean Water Act requires local communities to study existing and potential threats to municipal drinking water and to strike a plan to reduce those threats. MacIver says that farmers could inadvertently become victims of that legislation. “Dig those wells,” he says. “Create those ponds. Secure those water sources, especially for irrigation.” Then make sure there’s a climate station on your farm. Keep daily track of temperatures and set up a precipitation gauge as an early warning system. The loss of regional climate stations means that more local data is needed for farmers to make real-time decisions. Ironically, while many growers are investing heavily in frost protection this spring, MacIver observes that early frosts aren’t happening as often. When they do, as in 2012, frosts are devastating to the horticultural industry. MacIver acknowledges, “Rogue events will continue to happen.”
Potato psyllids survive Idaho winter
Radicchio gains superfood status
Role of white vegetables promoted
New Zealand ramps up exports
Bonduelle packs corn-gherkin mix
Entomologists report that potato psyllids, insects that spread zebra chip disease, have overwintered successfully in Boise, Idaho. The discovery is surprising given one of the coldest Januaries on record. Zebra chip, which creates bands in tuber flesh that darken when fried, first arrived in the Pacific Northwest in 2011. It’s caused by the Liberibacter bacterium, which can be harbored by aphid-like potato psyllids. A regional research director for Idaho, Washington and Oregon potato commissions, found the insects.
Radicchio, a member of the chicory family, has been certified by a third party as a superfood. The vegetable joins an elite group including spinach, blueberries, broccoli and pomegranates. These foods must meet or exceed high levels of bioflavonoids. The certification was conducted by SCS Global Services of the Royal Rose Radicchio variety based in Salinas, California. Purple radicchio adds not only colour but crunch and contrast to salads.
The Alliance for Potato Research and Education (APRE) is holding a special session on April 19 at the American Society for Nutrition’s annual meeting in Boston. “White Vegetables: addressing the nutrition gap” will address the role that potatoes and other vegetables make as sources of nutrients and micronutrients. According to Maureen Storey, APRE’s CEO, seven leading nutrition scientists will give expert insight on: • Metabolic response and health benefits associated with consumption of white vegetables • How science-based advances in preparation methods and processing technologies affect the nutrient profile of white vegetables • How the food group classification of white potatoes aligns with dietary guidance and policy
The Honeycrisp apple, developed at the University of Minnesota, has found a place to flourish: New Zealand. Its temperate climate has encouraged Waipopo Orchards to plant one-third of its 80 hectares to the variety. With favourable harvest conditions anticipated until midApril, it plans to export 650 tonnes (30,000 cartons) of Honeycrisp apples to the United States this season. The brand sells for the equivalent of NZ $12 a kilogram on the American market. Honeycrisp NZ has the commercial licence to grow the apple. Apple growers are responding to the demand cues from the United States, with hopes of expanding to Asia later.
Bonduelle is catering to the German palate with an inventive mix of corn, crispy gherkins and mustard. The crisp vegetable combo can be used for both cold and warm meals. The quality Dijon mustard seeds add a sophisticated bite in a salad or sandwich wrap. The mix is also used as a side or snack. The global vegetable processor had an earlier success story with a corn-olive mix. As a French company, Bonduelle has done well in Germany adjusting its recipes for local tastes. For example, the juice for canned peas is less sweet. It currently holds 40 per cent market share of tinned vegetables in Germany.
Source: PotatoPro Weekly
Source: The Packer
Source: Alliance for Potato Research and Education
Source: FreshPlaza.com Source: FreshPlaza.com
PAGE 4 –– APRIL 2013 THE GROWER
CANADIAN HORTICULTURAL COUNCIL ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING
Hello Mister Minister: Hort leaders learn how to lobby KAREN DAVIDSON For the first time, the Canadian Horticultural Council (CHC) officially registered to lobby ministers of the crown last year. Politics have evolved in Ottawa, and that means winning face time with ministers. Sometimes it’s a serendipity meeting in an airport as past-president Murray Porteous recalls how he met Opposition Leader Thomas Mulcair. Or it’s the sought-after corner office meeting with agriculture minister Gerry Ritz. No matter how the relationship is cemented, it’s the dialogue that matters. And Ritz delivered by opening the CHC’s 91st annual meeting talking about
a done deal: Growing Forward II. Horticulture has been lukewarm to the five-year framework that kicks in April 1, but nevertheless growers will be applying for their share of funds under the new programs of AgriInnovation, AgriMarketing and AgriCompetitiveness. If anything, Ritz is one of the most well-travelled ministers, respected for knocking on international doors for livestock, grains and oilseeds. He told growers that he’s going to China this spring and will work to open the market for cherries. One of the biggest issues on the table this year will be working on Maximum Residue Limits (MRL). “It’s generally not hard to
Our industry is the knight in shining armor as we provide the healthiest food in the fruits and vegetables produced on farms across Canada.” ~ Keith Kuhl get access, but to maintain access,” Ritz commented, referring to exported crops and the increasing difficulty of
meeting a hodge-podge of standards across countries. Encouraged by Ritz’s answers on some issues, delegates turned to debating a number of resolutions during the conference. They passed: • Support for a national marketing task group • Development of a new insurance-based product to mitigate the cost of product recalls • Call for competitively priced crop protection products Incoming president Keith Kuhl shared his personal story of growing up hoeing sugar beets, before turning his hand to potatoes as part of the family farm near Winkler, Manitoba. Today sons Marlon and Jeremy manage the
3,500-acre operation. He evoked the tough times of growing up in the 1950s, and compared that experience with the tough financial decisions facing the CHC. The board of directors passed a funding increase of 17 per cent to all member organizations for the 2013 calendar year. Given the positive experience of lobbying efforts last year, Kuhl promised to lead on a number of files that range from harmonization to health. “Healthy eating needs to be the number one priority for government as this is the key to balancing the budget,” he said. “The cost of our Medicare program continues to be the highest cost area in the budget and it is through healthy eating that we can best move to reduce the amount that is needed for health care. Our industry is the knight in shining armor as we provide the healthiest food in the fruits and vegetables produced on farms across Canada.” The 2014 annual general meeting is slated for Kelowna, British Columbia. In 2015, Quebec City will play host.
Research committee renews its mandate
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The topic of research was robustly debated at CHC, mostly due to the discouraging cuts in Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada research positions across the country. To name just a few, they include the Saint-Jeansur-Richelieu Research Station in Quebec, the Delhi Research Station in Ontario and several positions in British Columbia. A resolution was passed to support replacing those specific positions. However, the discussion focused on the business case needed for the research, not the positions per se. As Murray Porteous articulated, “The reality is that it’s not our job to tell government how to allocate its resources, but to tell them what we need and before the position is cut or a station is closed.” “We will encourage the need for government to be more heavily invested in basic research and platform development for new and existing commodities, technologies and products and will be prepared as an industry to invest in applied science and the commitment to commercialize discovery.” CHC has resolved to continue its research committee under the leadership of Claude Laniel from Quebec.
APRIL 2013 –– PAGE 5 THE GROWER
CANADIAN HORTICULTURAL COUNCIL ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING
Sanitation issues not resolved for RPCs CHC’s greenhouse committee is not satisfied that complaints about sanitation issues for Reusable Plastic Containers (RPC) have been resolved. In fact, members are demanding that the RPC Task Force commission the science to prove that visible materials or invisible contaminants cannot survive the sanitation procedures put in place by the RPC suppliers. “It’s hard for growers to have confidence when plant residues are visible,” said Don Taylor, chair of the Ontario Greenhouse
Vegetable Growers. “We are not opposed to the use of RPCs, but we are not aware of any controlled studies to give us comfort. Moving RPCs between farms without clear evidence that sanitation procedures will ensure against the introduction of any possible harmful organisms is counter to the protocols of infection protection.” The issue rankles when all RPCs must go to the U.S. for cleaning. Committee members reported that some containers are sent back to the U.S. with pro-
duce still in them. That’s a problem of undeclared goods going back with improper manifests. Not only are RPCs a Canadian issue, but an American issue involving the American Plant Health Inspection System (APHIS). “Our concerns are about viral contamination, not soil,” added George Gilvesy, general manager, OGVG. “It’s the things we can’t see. A virus could easily decimate our industry.” CPMA’s Jane Proctor said that these concerns would be relayed
Photo by Herb Sherwood to the RPC task force which has been on hiatus since last
What’s new, what’s under review in crop protection A total of 27 new active ingredients were registered in the last fiscal year reported Marion Law, chief registrar, Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA). Of those, 18 were of agricultural interest: nine registered via joint review, six under global joint reviews and three were under NAFTA. Currently, 13 new active ingredients are under review of which nine are conventional chemicals and four are biopesticides. Law anticipates seven new active ingredients to be registered by 2015. Re-evaluations of 11 active ingredients were initiated last fall according to Margherita Conti, director general, Health Evaluation Directorate, PMRA. This includes three neonicotinoid actives which have been implicated in pollinator deaths. In 2013, decisions will be issued on mancozeb and linuron. From an apple grower’s perspective, Brian Gilroy said that single-site mode of action fungicides aren’t enough to control some diseases. Blueberry grower Bill Parks questioned whether regulators were “too over-exuberant in taking away some of these tools from farmers.” The PMRA’s plan is to review the pyrethroid class of chemicals, anticipating decisions in 2016. Conti indicated that transition strategies are part of that work, outlining steps to alternative pesticides. “Can we look at reduced rates or number of applications?” she asked rhetorically. The issue of harmonizing Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) is becoming more thorny as growers seek to export crops outside Canada’s borders to multiple countries and to emerging countries. This is particularly true for crops such as wild blueberries, from the Maritime provinces, and high-bush blueberries from British Columbia. Cherries are another crop that could go to China, if MRLs were standardized. “This is a very complex subject,” says Charles Stevens, newly elected chair of the CHC crop protection committee. “Trade is going to emerging countries which don’t have the regulatory frameworks. To get alignment of
MRLs on pesticides on everything from canola to lentils will be complicated.” MRLs are now at the top of
the list of problems for Canada and the U.S because of the Regulatory Cooperation Council pushing the agenda for harmo-
nization. Canada is sending a contingent to CODEX meetings which includes a new commodity-organized committee led by
PAGE 6 â€“â€“ APRIL 2013 THE GROWER
ALIEN INVASIVE SPECIES SYMPOSIUM
The devil is in the spotted-wing drosophila fly KAREN DAVIDSON American entomologist Hannah Burrack has her own name for the newest invasive species: spotted wing devil fly. She is, of course, referring to spotted wing drosophila (SWD) or D. suzukii which first debuted in California in 2008 and has since invaded Texas, Colorado and most recently the New England states in 2012. The story is the same for Canada. The expert from North Carolina State University briefed attendees to the Alien Invasive Species Symposium which was held in conjunction with last monthâ€™s Canadian Horticultural Council meetings in Ottawa. â€œIt took folks a few months to correctly identify when they were first found in 2008,â€? Burrack explained. â€œWe could not identify the larvae and match it with the adult. The bottom line is itâ€™s active in all horticultural crops during the growing season.â€? Whatâ€™s just as worrisome is that the date of first detection has become earlier every year. With the help of a volunteer monitoring network, positive identification has occurred all winter throughout many states. Adults can live up to one month, and it takes about 10 to 15 days for a new generation to develop depending on temperatures. â€œDamage is cryptic,â€? said Burrack. â€œBerries can appear sound until harvest.â€? Then the ugly surprise is that larvae will appear in harvested fruit. In one example of blackberries, 125 acres were impacted by this pest for a total cost of $777,000. She estimated that SWD has the potential to destroy 40 per cent of blackberry and raspberry crops in the eastern U.S. Chemical tools, costly at all times, have unclear benefits with this pest, especially with preharvest intervals limiting their use in soft fruits. To date, the pestâ€™s
damage in grapes is not wellknown but grapes donâ€™t seem to be as affected. More research needs to be done on monitoring methods. A multi-state study showed higher trap capture with yeast and sugar bait traps rather than apple cider vinegar traps. â€œThe yeast traps are a bear to work with,â€? said Burrack. â€œThey need to be changed weekly. When you catch more flies, you catch other flies. They are not specific lures.â€? Burrack concludes that commercially available traps donâ€™t outperform homemade traps. While red traps seem to be more attractive than yellow ones, they only indicate the presence or absence of SWD flies. There is no validated treatment threshold for SWD based on trap captures. Burrack reported that infestation rates vary between hosts. Raspberries are very attractive to SWD because of their soft fruit. â€œThe firmer the fruit, the fewer eggs laid,â€? she said. â€œInfestation rates may differ when flies have a choice between hosts.â€? Under laboratory conditions, researchers have detected higher rates depending on sweetness and firmness of fruit. For growers with high tunnels, there is a glimmer of good news in that lower infestation rates have been found. â€œRain is a problem in managing this insect,â€? said Burrack. â€œPyrethroid, spinosyn and organophosphates are effective against SWD but their efficacy is reduced under rainy conditions.â€? Clean picking is a must. Timely harvest and destruction of soft, bruised fruit may help control. Tracy Hueppelsheuser, entomologist for the British Columbia ministry of agriculture, agreed with her American colleagueâ€™s assessment. â€œDamage in blueberries is cryptic,â€? she said. â€œWe see bruising, but itâ€™s harder to see the damage. The worst time for blueberries is mid-August. Blueberry
variety Elliott seems less susceptible.â€? Blueberry grower Bar Hayre has been dealing with SWD for a number of years at his Abbotsford, B.C. farm. â€œGet over your denial,â€? Hayre advised. â€œIf you have ripe fruit, then there will be SWD flies and risk to your crop.â€? He has used Malathion and Ripcord, paying close attention to pre-harvest interval times when actively harvesting. These treatment methods are unsatisfactory, facing a regeneration of pests every seven to 10 days. Thatâ€™s why Hayre has turned to cultural practices, eliminating or reducing potential feeding and breeding sites. That means removing wild blackberry patches around the perimeter of fields. He keeps equipment and processing area clear of old or discarded fruit. Heâ€™s aware of his neighbourâ€™s management practices. He is surrounded by raspberry fields â€“ a number one target of SWD -as well as blueberry fields that are machine harvested at late maturity dates. â€œWe pick for the fresh market, so harvest as quickly as possible when the fruit is ripe,â€? he said. The B.C. Blueberry Council issues a newsletter on a weekly basis reporting trap counts. Hayre consistently compares his own trap counts to this reference point. In British Columbia, traps have been baited with apple cider vinegar and checked weekly. Hueppelsheuserâ€™s recommendation is not to skimp on the sugar
Risk: Fruit damage to berry crops in BC in these traps. No commercial impact has been recorded in grapes in the Okanagan or on the B.C. coast, confirming earlier evidence that firmer fruit are less attractive to the adult flies depositing eggs. In the panel discussion on SWD a number of key points arose. Doug Park, Canadian Food Inspection Agency reported, â€œWeâ€™re not aware of any parasitoids for SWD.â€? Charles Stevens, chair of OFVGAâ€™s crop protection committee, asked about the Pest Management Regulatory Agencyâ€™s (PMRA) mandate to reduce the use of insecticides. â€œThis pest will increase their use and disrupt our integrated pest management plans. Will there be a policy change to softer chemistries which arenâ€™t working on these insects? Will there be movement to register another
product, perhaps something that can be sprayed once rather than multiple times? Heather McBrien speaking for PMRA reported: â€œWeâ€™re active on emergency registrations for SWD. A new DuPont product, Cyazypyr, may have some activity. Weâ€™re not recommending organophosphates. We lack the tolerances for pyrethroids on crops which are exported. Harmonization of Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) would be extremely helpful now that we have a globally distributed organism. Our hope is that field practices could mitigate pressure on the fruit.â€? Gary Brown, summing up the Alien Invasive Species Symposium concluded, â€œYou have educated me and frightened me.â€? Editorâ€™s note: See brown marmorated stink bug report in May.
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APRIL 2013 â€“â€“ PAGE 7 THE GROWER
Highlights from the National Minor Use Priority Setting Workshop JIM CHAPUT, OMAF AND MRA, PROVINCIAL MINOR USE COORDINATOR, GUELPH Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Pest Management Centre (AAFC-PMC) hosted the 11th national minor use priority setting workshop in Gatineau, Quebec March 18 â€“ 21. This meeting brought together a wide range of participants from across Canada including university and federal researchers, crop extension specialists, provincial specialists, minor use coordinators, registrants, PMRA representatives, growers and grower organization representatives, processing companies and other stakeholders. In addition several individuals from the U.S. IR-4 program, Brazilian departments of agriculture and health, New Zealand growers association and Chinese department of agriculture also attended the meeting. The purpose was to review the top minor use priorities identified by each of the provinces for all crops including ornamentals and to establish the top priority projects for the new Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Pest Management Centre (AAFCPMC) to work on in 2014. The first day covered biopesticide priorities for all crops, the second day covered entomology priorities, the third day covered pathology priorities and the fourth day covered weed science priorities. Eight biopesticide projects are chosen during the first day of meetings. On the remaining minor use days and for each of the three main pest management disciplines, only 10 top priorities (ranked as As) are chosen from a long list of identified crop protection product solutions. Additional secondary priorities (ranked as Bs) were also chosen for each discipline each day. The provincial minor use coordinators could also add five regional upgrade projects at the end of the process and the organic industry could also add two priority projects to the list of chosen projects. Additional top crop/pest issues that did not have any identifiable solutions were also chosen to be part of minor use screening trials designed to find some useful solutions for growers. At this yearâ€™s meeting the top priorities chosen for this group (called APWS) included white pine weevils on outdoor grown conifers, broadleaf weeds on hemp, weed control on opium poppy, root rot on dry peas and powdery mildew on greenhouse ornamentals. The discussions, collaborations and decisions made at this meeting demonstrated not only potential challenges for the minor use
system in Canada, but also highlighted the many needs our growers have. Growers, researchers, registrants, provincial specialists and other stakeholders worked very hard to reach consensus and negotiate needs. Overall the process was a success and now the next step is for AAFC-PMC to complete the minor use submissions that were agreed upon. Additionally the provinces also have to follow up on a number of potential submissions and rationales for minor use needs. For a table that summarizes the tentative projects agreed upon as the top 10 for each discipline, go to www.thegrower.org. These
projects will be submitted to the PMRA by AAFC-PMC, and the data requirements completed in 2015-2016. Registration decisions
for these will likely occur in late 2016 and 2017. A final version of the top projects will be available this summer on the AAFC-PMC
website: www.agr.gc.ca/env/pest/ index_e.php Photo courtesy Randy Fletcher, AAFC
Know your RMP
Get a head start on SDRM in 2013 Participation packages for the 2013 self-directed risk management (SDRM) plan for edible horticulture will be mailed to producers in the fall, but there are things you can do now to prepare: t$IFDL ZPVS NBJM Agricorp mailed information and a calendar to help you plan your participation in SDRM for 2013 and meet important deadlines. t&TUJNBUF ZPVS NBYJNVN HPWFSONFOU DPOUSJCVUJPO The package you receive this month can help you plan for your 2013 deposit. t$POĂśSN ZPVS BVUIPSJ[FE DVTUPNFS DPOUBDUT Click Online tools at agricorp.com or call us. t&OSPM JO "HSJ4UBCJMJUZ CZ "QSJM Participation in AgriStability is required. Contact Agricorp at 1-888-247-4999 or visit BHSJDPSQDPN.
PAGE 8 –– APRIL 2013 THE GROWER
CANADIAN PRODUCE MARKETING ASSOCIATION
Toronto hosts annual convention and trade show CPMA’s 88th annual convention and trade show will be held April 17 to 19 at the Direct Energy Centre, downtown Toronto. Here’s a look at the numbers to date: 521 - The number of exhibit spaces (10x10 ft) on the CPMA trade show floor in Toronto this year –an increase of almost 29 per cent (or 116 booths) over the last visit to Toronto in 2009. This will be CPMA’s largest trade show to date. 272 - The number of exhibiting companies 148 – The number of International exhibitors 125 – The number of Canadian exhibitors, including 67 Ontario exhibitors 56 - The number of first-time exhibitors 50 - The number of new CPMA members, exhibiting for the first time in 2013. 55 – The number of companies participating in the New Product Showcase. Over 26% - The percentage of total attendance at CPMA’s 2012 trade show that represented retailers, wholesalers and foodservice Although exhibit space is sold out, there is still time to register
to attend the event at www.convention.cpma.ca. Retailers open doors This year’s retail tour on April 17 features Metro, Costco, Longo’s and Loblaws in
downtown Toronto. Each store has been chosen for its uniqueness and target market. The Loblaws store, for instance, is located at the famous hockey address of Maple Leaf Gardens. The recently opened Longo’s store is in a rehabilitated
warehouse which used to service steam locomotives for Canadian Northern Railway. Each store has a different produce footprint. Coming to the fore is evidence of more produce packaging, says CPMA tour organizer Mario Masellis, M.L. Catania Inc.
“There’s a lot of value-added and user-friendly packaging,” says Masellis. Prepared salads and cut-up veggies are mainstream while the art of building a produce display is slowly being lost. The produce department is increasingly full of ready-to-eat items. Be aware of the companies who are branding. Andy Boy out of Salinas, California consistently packs rapini with larger florets. Zespri kiwifruit out of New Zealand has made a name for its fruit although Italy produces bigger volumes. Watch for different retailing tactics depending on the target audience. For conventional stores, produce is the most important section. For other stores, a bell pepper that’s seen better days ends up in a soup at the prepared food counter. “Take kiwi fruit as an example,” says Masellis. “They used to be put out rock hard and couldn’t be eaten for a week. Taste, not just appearance, matters now.” For CPMA delegates wishing to take the retail tour, purchasing tickets online in advance is strongly recommended.
APRIL 2013 –– PAGE 9 THE GROWER
Introducing a product that’s as exciting as dirt.
Yes, you read that right. Alion®, the new Group 29 pre-emergent herbicide is anything but exciting to watch. Why? Because you’ll never actually see it do anything – and that’s the point. Spray it in your orchard for season-long control of annual grassy and broadleaf weeds. Not to mention glyphosate, triazine and ALS-resistant weeds, too. It’s literally as exciting as dirt. Until you see the results. Learn more at BayerCropScience.ca/Alion
BayerCropScience.ca/Alion or 1 888-283-6847 or contact your Bayer CropScience representative. Always read and follow label directions. Alion® is a registered trademark of the Bayer Group. Bayer CropScience is a member of CropLife Canada.
PAGE 10 –– APRIL 2013 THE GROWER
A strong national voice
RAY DUC CHAIR, OFVGA I recently attended the Canadian Horticultural Council’s (CHC) annual conference and directors’ meeting in Ottawa. The convention is attended by grower
representatives from every province in Canada as well as a good cross section of government officials and industry reps from all levels of the value chain. The conference offers a good opportunity to network with government officials, scientists and stakeholders that can influence our livelihoods as horticultural producers. The work at annual meetings is a small part of what is done in the months between these annual conferences. The executive and staff of CHC are a dedicated team that work on issues that are national in scope. International trade, food safety, crop protection and a domestic food policy are just some of the files addressed by CHC. Issues of priority this
year will be harmonization of pesticide registrations and Maximum Residue Limits (MRL), standard container regulations and financial protection for growers selling into the United States. President Obama And Prime Minister Harper highlighted these issues as priorities that should and could be resolved in an open border initiative. This all sounds encouraging and it appears we are getting traction on some of these very important matters. However lobbying on a national and international scale is very expensive. Provincial farm organizations fund CHC based on farm gate value, however in recent years the current funding model has fallen short. CHC does
not have the financial resources to fully confront all the issues with the vigour they would like. After five years of consecutive deficits, the executive must be very strategic and frugal when assessing their lobby priorities. At the annual directors‘ meeting, a funding increase of 17 per cent was approved by the directors to allow for a balanced budget for the 2013 calendar year. A second motion was passed to maintain the increase for 2014 pending a review of CHC activities. An oversight committee was formed to review the finances, operations and governance of CHC and report back to its members before any further funding adjustments are made. The committee, consisting of grower reps from
across the country, is chaired by Adrian Huisman. Moving forward, we need a strong national voice to meet the challenges we will face in a global marketplace. Our national organization must be able to focus on the issues. They cannot spend valuable time and energy on fundraising. A legacy fund has been established to deal directly with the matters raised by Obama and Harper with good initial support from industry and growers but sponsorship monies are increasingly difficult to find in today’s economy. There is no easy fix for this problem, but a resolution must be found. A horticultural industry without a strong national voice is not an option.
replaced. Here is a great opportunity to do so. Cogeneration in greenhouse facilities would provide greenhouse operators an additional source of income thereby reducing the costs of production of their vegetable crops; it would be a source of clean dependable electricity and a benefit to our environment as the CO2 given off during the burning of the natural gas would be utilized by the plants themselves and not released into the environment. This would be a win-win situation. (As a point of interest 20 per cent of electricity in the Netherlands comes from greenhouse co- gen facilities.) To do so, however, requires the availability of natural gas in rural Ontario. Probably every new house in urban Ontario has access to natural gas but it is my understanding that there has not been a new main line built in rural Ontario in many many years. So now when natural gas is selling for all time low prices many of our farmers as well as other rural businesses cannot access this energy product.
It is estimated that the energy savings on a chicken barn alone can amount to $75,000 a year when using natural gas. That money could be reinvested in the farm or other business which would create jobs in rural Ontario. For co-generation, an updated electricity grid is also necessary -- one that can handle the inflow of energy into it and one that does not suffer from frequent brownouts. It’s not just greenhouses that need access to a good grid but also bio-digesters. These can go a long way to serving Ontarians with reliable clean alternative forms of energy; but it means having access to adequate modern infrastructure. Farmers have answers to many of Ontario’s problems from job creation to supplying healthy local food to providing alternative forms of energy but without the investment in rural Ontario it can never happen. For what it is worth, it’s the way I see it.
These organizations have contributed to the Canadian Horticultural Council's legacy fund.
Investing in rural Ontario
ART SMITH CEO, OFVGA There has become a great divide in this province and never was it more obvious than after the last election when the governing party failed to win a seat in rural Ontario. Some blamed farmers for that loss but personally I don’t think they made much difference in the outcome. After all, there are only about 50,000 farm families in all of Ontario. The issues were rural issues not just farm issues. Kathryn Wynne is our new Premier and it is no small
coincidence, at least in my mind, that she is also the minister of Agriculture and Food. The reason is obvious and it is to make inroads in rural Ontario. I would suggest the greatest way to do this is to listen to rural Ontario and let them participate in the decision-making process of those issues which affect them. Another way is to ensure that rural Ontario has the capacity to grow and flourish and this will require modernized or updated infrastructure. Governments of all stripes and colours are concerned about job loss and more importantly job creation and once again modernized infrastructure is one of the greatest ways to create or at least allow for the creation of new jobs. Government must provide for an adequate infrastructure system if it expects businesses to continue to invest in the rural part of the province. It also needs to streamline business and get rid of those regulations that curtail growth and threaten sustainability of Ontario agriculture. Regulations that add cost without benefit need
to be eliminated and instead put in achievable policies to get us where we need but that can be done in a cost effective manner. We are at a place in time within our own sector where outdated hydro grids and lack of access to natural gas supply is curtailing growth. The greenhouse vegetable sector is looking at expanding by two to three hundred acres in southern Ontario. Unfortunately the hydro grid is so outdated and non-dependable in the Leamington area that new greenhouse construction is severely hampered. We would expect this in a developing country but certainly not here in Ontario. Every new acre of greenhouse production directly creates two to three new jobs on farm and then of course there are the additional off farm jobs as well. The opportunity is there but due to inadequacy of the infrastructure, these jobs are not being created When Dalton McGuinty took office in 2003 he promised to close down all the coal-fired electricity plants in the province but they were never adequately
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The Grower is printed 12 times a year and sent to all members of the Ontario Fruit and Vegetable Growers’ Association who have paid $30.00 (plus G.S.T.) per year for the paper through their commodity group or container fees. Others may subscribe as follows by writing to the office:
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ONTARIO FRUIT AND VEGETABLE GROWERS’ ASSOCIATION BOARD OF DIRECTORS 2013 MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE Chair Vice-Chair Fruit Director Veg Director Director
Ray Duc, Niagara-on-the-Lake Jason Verkaik, Bradford Norm Charbonneau, Port Elgin Jan Vander Hout, Waterdown Brian Gilroy, Meaford
BOARD OF DIRECTORS Apples Fresh Vegetable - Other Tender Fruit ON Asparagus Grws’. Mkg. Brd. GGO/Fresh Grape Growers Fresh Vegetable - Muck ON. Potato Board Small Fruit/Berries ON. Ginseng Growers’ Greenhouse Greenhouse
Brian Gilroy, Meaford Mary Shabatura, Windham Centre Fred Meyers, Niagara-on-the-Lake Jason Ryder, Delhi Ray Duc, Niagara-on-the-Lake Jason Verkaik, Bradford Mac James, Leamington Norm Charbonneau, Port Elgin Ken Van Torre, Burford Jan Vander Hout, Waterdown Don Taylor, Durham
OFVGA SECTION CHAIRS Crop Protection Research Property Labour Safety Nets CHC
Charles Stevens, Newcastle Harold Schooley, Simcoe Brian Gilroy, Meaford Ken Forth, Lynden Mark Wales, Alymer Murray Porteous, Simcoe
APRIL 2013 –– PAGE 11 THE GROWER
PERSPECTIVE Branded peaches first of new variety wave from Vineland
OWEN ROBERTS UNIVERSITY OF GUELPH Ontario fruit – particularly apples -- are known, loved and sold by their distinctive brands, such as Honeycrisp and Ambrosia. So why not peaches? To most consumers, peaches are generic fruit. They taste wonderful but they lack identity. However, that’s about to change. This spring three new Ontario branded peach varieties will hit nurseries, and be ready for producers’ orchards in 2014. The three are Vee Blush, a much-desired new early variety; White Knight, Canada’s first original white-fleshed peach (AND the most consumer-branded of the
lot); and a late-season peach named Virtue. Some growers are already ordering them. Last summer, they viewed the trees growing in test plots during an open house at the Vineland Research and Innovation Centre, where they were developed as part of the University of Guelph tender fruit breeding program. Now, they’re ready to say yes to branded peaches. “We’re hoping these new varieties, as well as others currently in the pipeline, give growers value-added fruit,” says Lana Culley, the centre’s director of business development. “There hasn’t been much market differentiation for the consumer with tender fruit, or with branding. Now there will be.” The three peaches have distinctly different traits, designed so growers can capitalize on the most lucrative markets. Culley says they were selected with an eye towards current gaps in the market, such as early and late season, and growing consumer interests in niche products. “We went from the start to the end of every project with the consumer in mind,” says Culley. The first, Vee Blush, is an early
COMING EVENTS 2013
We’re hoping these new varieties, as well as others currently in the pipeline, give growers value-added fruit.” ~ Lana Culley
Samples of white-fleshed peaches developed at the Vineland Research and Innovation Centre. variety, bred to be available in the first harvest period, around the second week of August (within two days of Harrow Diamond, the current early peach). Culley describes it as having a slightly better blush than Harrow Diamond. The second peach, White Knight, seizes on the growing popularity of white-fleshed
peaches and nectarines with consumers. In fact, White Knight is the first of what Culley says will be a white-fleshed “Royal Series” of peaches and nectarines coming out of the University of Guelph breeding program. And finally, the third new variety, Virtue, is a late season peach with global potential. Culley says that besides being popular in
Agricultural * Commercial * Industrial
Farm & Food Care Social Media Communications Workshop, Hanlon Convention Centre, Guelph, ON
Farm & Food Care 2013 Annual General Meeting, Hanlon Convention Centre, Guelph, ON
50 Years of Excellent Service
April 3, 4
62nd Annual Conference Muck Vegetable Growers, Bradford & District Memorial Community Centre, Bradford, ON
Refrigeration (All Types)
B.C. Greenhouse Growers’ Association Annual General Meeting, White Rock, B.C.
Garlic Growers of Ontario Annual General Meeting, OMAF office, Woodstock, ON
Ontario Agri-Food Education Annual General Meeting, University of Guelph Arboretum, Guelph, ON
Apr 17 – 19 Canadian Produce Marketing Association Convention and Trade Show, Direct Energy Centre, Toronto, ON May 30
4-H Canada 100th Anniversary Gala Celebration, Fairmont Winnipeg, Winnipeg, MB
Federal-Provincial-Territorial Agriculture Ministers’ Meeting, Halifax, NS
Soupfest, Ansnorveldt Park, Bradford, ON
October 24 Ontario Harvest Gala, Guelph, ON Nov 1 – 10 Royal Agricultural Winter Fair, Direct Energy Centre, Toronto, ON
Heating, Air Conditioning Controlled Atmosphere
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Ontario, she expects it to catch on abroad in peach-growing countries and regions such as France and other parts of Europe. While the buzz is significant over the new varieties about to come on the market, Culley says it’s just the beginning for a steady run over the next four years. She predicts at least two – and as many as six or eight – new fruit varieties will be introduced during that period, owing to a backlog in licensing. The new varieties had been developed over the past several years, but hadn’t gone through the licensing process until the centre got involved. Now it’s working closely with nurseries to make sure the field stock will be available to growers. Watch for more new varieties of peaches, sweet cherries, plums and nectarines. Once the bottleneck clears, things might slow down a bit. After all, it takes 10 years to develop most new varieties. Releases are expected to be less numerous. So the centre is being proactive. A technician is scouting the globe – particularly the U.S., New Zealand, South America and Europe -- for consumer demand, for new markets and for new varieties that could be adapted to Canadian climates and environmental conditions. “We're very excited at Vineland to work with our breeding partners, both here in the region and around the world, to introduce new varieties to help diversify and update the tender fruit options available to Ontario growers and consumers,” says Culley. “With these new peaches we can offer our markets produce that is not only locally grown, but also locally developed. There is great value in that.”
PAGE 12 –– APRIL 2013 THE GROWER
Target is on the move!
PETER CHAPMAN While in the Toronto area in mid-March, I made a point of visiting the new Target store in Milton, Ontario. After visiting stores in the U.S., I have a preconceived idea of what Target will be in Canada. It is obvious that working within the confines of the previous tenant have restricted Target in making an impressive first impression. The exterior is non descript and the location must have been tired as a Zellers. With the traffic that Target will generate, the surroundings will change. Traffic will bring new tenants and revitalize the location. The interior of the store is bright and the customer walks into seasonal offerings and clothing. The Easter seasonal was small compared to the competition but you have to give them the benefit of the doubt. They are saying “soft” opening and there is not much point investing in too much inventory and too many skus for a soft opening. The food is on the extreme right side of the store. The grocery, household and pet sections occupy approximately 18,000 sq ft. They have a broad cross section of categories without a lot of depth in each category. There is a minimal fresh section, which has some bakery, deli and prepackaged meat. Merchandising The merchandising is simple and there is not a lot of room for inventory. Ends are narrow and not built for power. There were some off shelf displays between the food and the housewares sections however the number of skus was limited. While Walmart generates a lot of sales from their off shelf merchandising units, Target has not embraced this philosophy yet. I am of two minds about the distribution deal they have with Sobeys. The positive side is that they can hit the ground running with food. The in stock position in food was better than non-food which is because the warehouse is already stocked for Sobeys. Likely it required fewer resources to get started. The negative for me is that they are constrained by Sobeys listings. I was hoping to
see more of the unique items Target is known for. I saw very few items that are not available at other stores. This is one of their biggest points of differentiation in the U.S. Hopefully it will come and perhaps the priority was to get the private label listed and in stock. The private label assortment and pricing are impressive. Not many unique items but a very good cross section of categories is represented. The pricing relative to the national brands is very aggressive. Significant discounts such as: - Green Giant frozen veg 1kg $2.99 - Market Pantry frozen veg 1kg $1.99 - Minute Maid refr Orange juice 1.75L $3.99 - Market Pantry refr Orange juice 1.75L $1.67 It is a big job to develop the packaging for private label in Canada. Bilingual packaging can be a challenge and they have done a good job getting the items ready to go. I am sure they will continue to look for more Canadian suppliers to produce items; this could be an opportunity for producers and processors. One big gap in the present offering is imported or global foods. The competition all have significantly more linear footage devoted to these products. The Loblaws Superstore would offer the largest selection. The present offering will not suffice in our changing market place, nor in Milton’s ethnically diverse population. There were some local items but not many. The depth in each category does not give them much room for local items. It will be interesting to watch if they expand this and if the customer puts pressure on them to do so. My expectation would be that their target market would be more vocal about having some local selection. It is interesting to look at linear footage in the market. The following table summarizes the stores I visited. They are not representative of all stores but they do indicate how the retailers are looking at categories and who they are trying to appeal to. I did not include end aisles or off shelf merchandising. For example I did not include floor refrigerated space or walk around merchandising units.
Linear footage by store Target
Pop/chips/water 1,176 snacks
get to the shelf. The dairy all has to be loaded from the front through doors and there was a lot of hand-stacked product. With the high cost of labour in Canada this could be a challenge as they work to control expenses down the road. Where food should be high turns the back room did not look to be close to the retail section, forcing the employees to bring it further, another costly venture. The staff were very friendly and engaged. That many new people can be a challenge for exe-
cution. I heard one employee tell a customer they opened early “to give Walmart and Loblaws time to get in and do price checks before they really drive the traffic with the Grand Opening in April.” Interesting comments and there is no doubt there were a lot of food industry people in the store. It is not hard to tell who is shopping and who is working. Pricing I did some price checks compared to the Milton Walmart
SuperCentre and a Metro store. All of these stores would be in the same trade area and no more than a 10-minute drive from each other. In the categories where you would expect Target to compete aggressively, you can find laundry detergent, household, and the staples such as soup, mayonnaise, ketchup etc. The big discount for the private label was most interesting. This could be an introductory investment to give the customer incentive to try the item. CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE
A FUM E
Staff I was surprised at the approach they are taking to labour in the store. There were very few if any tactics employed to reduce labour in the food sections. Product from the back room was coming out on a cart after it had been removed from the original carton meaning it was touched twice to
APRIL 2013 –– PAGE 13 THE GROWER
Target is on the move! CONTINUED FROM PAGE 12 Walmart was the cheapest in the market. Target and Superstore would be close and Metro is obviously higher. Currently, Target has no ad and once they gain some critical mass they will likely have an ad. They did have “Temporary price reductions” on items that would be close to ad retails in other stores. They do post a guarantee that they will match any advertised price. For the customer willing to make the effort this will reduce the need to cherry pick the traditional stores for the front-page
items. And here’s a note about the changing consumer –- a woman pulled out her iPad to show the Target employee the competitor’s ad on line. You no longer need a piece of paper to get the lower price! Overall One thing Target has is great carts. It’s easy to push around. As a symbol of what Target stands for, they are effective. I watched the front end of the line for a while and customers were moving through relatively easily. Very few if any items were not scanning or causing problems. In
the orders I could see, 16 of 27 had grocery store items in the orders. That is a big number considering that there was really no big loss leaders or promotion. The soft opening is a good strategy to get their feet wet with a few stores. They can rotate staff in to give them some experience and also give the employees from the three test stores a bit of a breather. This is possible in markets where they have the critical mass. The 15,000 square feet of grocery and household at $10 per square foot in 125 stores will give them approximately $1 billion in sales in the first 12 months of
operation. Not a bad start and as they improve assortment, execution and develop pricing models and an ad they will grow. The biggest strength they will have is the traffic and the opportunity to sell food. I remember when Walmart opened the first pantry stores and some in the food industry thought they were not a serious player.
Now they have a 15 per cent share nationally and competitors use them as the yard-stick for pricing. Target will get there and sooner than later. Regardless of whether you will supply them or not, they will impact your business. If and when you have a chance, grab one of those big red carts and go for a walk in the store.
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• Fruitone N (Pest Control Product #14630) - Fruitone N (U.S. EPA #5481-427) • Oracle Dicamba Agricultural Herbicide (Pest Control Product #26722) - Oracle Dicamba Agricultural Herbicide
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• Nufarm MCPA Ester 600 Liquid Herbicide (Pest Control Product #27803) - Dagger Selective Herbicide (U.S. EPA # 228-267-71368)
• Force 3.0G Insecticide (Pest Control Product #23917) - Force 3.0G Insecticide (U.S. EPA #1001075)
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• AATREX LIQUID 480 (Pest Control Product #18450) AATREX 4L (EPA # 100-497) Container Label • REFLEX LIQUID HERBICIDE (Pest Control Product #24779) - REFLEX HERBICIDE (EPA # 100-993) • ROUNDUP WEATHERMAX WITH TRANSORB 2 TECHNOLOGY LIQUID HERBICIDE (Pest Control Product #27487) - ROUNDUP WEATHERMAX HERBICIDE (EPA #524-537) • BANVEL II HERBICIDE (Pest Control Product #23957) CLARITY HERBICIDE (EPA # 7969-137) • BASAGRAN LIQUID HERBICIDE (Pest Control Product #12221) - BASAGRAN T/O HERBICIDE (EPA # 7969-45) The list of approved products and instructions on how to use the program are available under this URL: www.hc-sc.gc.ca/cps-spc/ pest/agri-commerce/import/ _grou-piapda/index-eng.php
PAGE 14 –– APRIL 2013 THE GROWER
Board briefs Following are highlights from the OFVGA board meeting held March 21, 2013. This brief is to keep you up to date on the issues that the OFVGA is working on, as well as projects and initiatives the organization is involved in. Property Property section chair Brian Gilroy reported that the Horticulture Value Chain Round Table (HVCRT) labour sub-committee has engaged the Vineland Research and Innovation Centre to conduct a benchmarking study on labour innovation in horticultural production. The report is due at the end of March. Industry members of the Energy Environment Working Group (EEWG) of the HVCRT are conducting a survey on the Environmental Performance of Canada's Horticulture Value Chain. Understanding the activities and priorities of the horticulture industry will better equip the sector to develop information and tools for the sector, to meet the environmental demands of the market. The survey is available at www.surveymonkey.com/s/7PL5
ZGS. Gilroy will be participating in the second annual Canadian Food Summit next month in Toronto. The event is being hosted by the Conference Board’s Centre for Food in Canada and will engage delegates in refining the draft Canadian Food Strategy it is developing. Information is available at http://www.conferenceboard.ca/conf/foodsummit/default .aspx. The provincial government is wrapping up a study on wash water for potatoes and other muck vegetable crops; results are expected by the end of the month. This is part of ongoing efforts to have horticulture regulated under the Nutrient Management Act (NMA), similar to other agricultural sectors in Ontario. Regulations are now being developed to address nutrient feed water in the greenhouse sector, which encompasses any nutrientcontaining solution that will not be used in a greenhouse operation. A discussion paper outlining some of the technical details related to land application of “nutrient feed water” under the NMA is currently available on the
Environmental Registry for public comment (http://www.ebr.gov.on.ca/ERSWEB-External/). Research The OFVGA/Vineland Research and Innovation Centre priority planning session for edible horticulture was held February 13. The goal was to bring together producer groups and representatives from across the value chain to define priority areas for research and innovation. The ultimate outcome will be a list of research needs for the sector; a committee will be reviewing the priorities that were brought forward at the session. Berry breeder Prof. Adam Dale retired from the University of Guelph last year and there is currently no one conducting berry breeding work. The Ontario Berry Growers Association has asked the university to ensure berry research continues by replacing Dale and has also requested it continue to maintain the berry breeding facility in New Liskeard, where all nuclear stock is currently housed.
THANK YOU! On behalf of CPMA, the organizing committee and the produce industry, we would like to express sincere thanks to all of our sponsors for their support of CPMA’s 88th Annual Convention and Trade Show. Our sponsors are an integral part of this annual event, going above and beyond to assist with the business, social and companion programs, and more. Their active participation ensured that the Canadian Produce Marketing Association’s 2013 Convention & Trade Show was memorable for all.
cpma.ca to see the full list of our sponsors!
Canadian Horticultural Council The CHC has adopted a 17 per cent membership fee increase for 2013 at the organization’s recent annual general meeting. An oversight committee has been established to review the operations and finances of CHC and to make recommendations moving forward. Potato grower Keith Kuhl of Manitoba became president of CHC, replacing Murray Porteous, a tender fruit, apple and asparagus grower from Ontario. Ontario’s representatives to the CHC are Adrian Huisman and Brian Gilroy. Porteous will stay on as past president of the organization.
get consultation process, OFVGA has asked the provincial government for investment into rural energy infrastructure, including natural gas distribution and hydro grid upgrades. Energy is a critical component of doing business in agriculture, but is also one of its leading costs. Only 15 per cent of Ontario farms have access to natural gas. The Ontario Federation of Agriculture (OFA) estimates, for example, that a single poultry barn can lower its operating expenses by approximately $75,000 per year simply by using natural gas. The OFVGA is working in conjunction with the OFA and the Ontario Greenhouse Vegetable Growers to develop a lobbying strategy on this issue.
Tire tax Mark Wales reported a new fee structure for tire taxes will come into effect in Ontario on April 1st. Previously, taxes were assessed according to tire use; the new staggered fee is based on tire weight, which will result in significant cost increases for agricultural tires. Under the new structure, for example, a farm use tire in the range of 70 to 120 kg will be assessed a tax of $47.04 and tires weighing 120 to 250 kg will be taxed at $117.60 each. It is estimated that up to 70 per cent of farm tractor and implement tires are expected to fall into the $47 category and the rest into the $117.60 category. Previously, the maximum fee per tire for off-road pneumatic tires was $16 each. The fees are to be used to safely dispose of used tires going forward as well as clean up existing piles of discarded tires. Rural energy infrastructure Through the Ontario pre-bud-
Agri-food sustainability systems project The OFVGA board approved funding support for a project that has been submitted to the Agricultural Adaptation Council (AAC)’s Canadian Agriculture Adaptation Program (CAAP) focused on agri-food sustainability. It aims to review existing global programs for the certification of agricultural sustainability by assessing their strengths and weaknesses and suitability for Ontario/Canadian farmers and buyers of farm produce. The primary purpose of the project will be to determine if one of these programs could be suitable for Ontario producers – or if not suitable, what should be included in an all-crop-agriculture certification program for Ontario. A decision on funding is expected from AAC in the spring. The next OFVGA board meeting will take place Thursday, April 25th, 2013 at the OFVGA office starting at 9:00 a.m.
Associations search for answers on bee kills During the spring 2012 corn planting season, 230 separate incidents of bee kills were reported in Ontario, predominantly in the southwest, involving thousands of bee hives at different beeyard locations. These reports have triggered a re-evaluation of neonicotinoid insecticides by Health Canada’s Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA). With the re-evaluation on-going, and this year’s corn planting season fast approaching, the Ontario Beekeepers Association, Ontario Federation of Agriculture, Christian Farmers Federation of Ontario, and Grain Farmers of Ontario are working together to address the concerns of all farmer-members in relation to this issue. The four organizations agree there is much more work to be done to clarify the relationship between neonicotinoid insecticides and the spring 2012 bee kills. The goal is to ensure farmers have access to all crop protection products as they deem necessary for a successful growing season. At the same time, honey bees play an important role in pollinating crops and all farm associations are dedicated to ensuring a healthy bee population in Ontario. The four associations are encouraging the continued investigation into the cause of the bee kills, and support existing and ongoing objective research into new products and technology that have the potential to reduce pesticide exposure. More information on the re-evaluation by PMRA can be found at: www.hc-sc.gc.ca/cpsspc/pubs/pest/_fact-fiche/pollinator-protectionpollinisateurs/index-eng.php.
APRIL 2013 –– PAGE 15 THE GROWER
Potato production: The 20 things to remember in the spring EUGENIA BANKS, ONTARIO POTATO SPECIALIST The potato is one of the more complex crops to grow, and potatoes require intensive management to ensure success. Mother Nature plays the biggest role in determining what pests appear; in wet years, diseases like late blight, white mold, Botrytis grey mold and pink rot are major problems. By contrast, insect populations develop faster in dry years. Readiness is everything, and readiness is helped by implementing management practices that reduce the incidence of pests. What follows is a list for growers of the 20 things they should not forget in the Spring Field Selection 1. Practice crop rotation. This is one of the best management practices to reduce several important diseases and insects.
8. Conduct complete soil tests. Nutrient deficiencies can encourage diseases and limit yield. Soil tests will also allow you save money by applying the right rate of the fertilizers needed. Field Preparation 9. Aim for soil of good tilth without drying out the soil or producing soil clods. Tillage should produce enough loose soil to allow the planter shoe to penetrate to the desired depth and to provide the hiller discs with enough loose soil to construct a proper hill over the seed. Tillage that dries out the soil surface reduces plant vigor. Also, sufficient tillage is required to properly incorporate pre-emergence herbicides CONTINUED ON PAGE 16 Healthy seed is the foundation of a high quality crop
2. Drainage, soil texture, soil compaction and soil organic matter all have a significant impact on pest development. Varieties very susceptible to late blight should be planted in the lightesttextured field because sandy soils do not remain saturated for long periods after heavy rainfall. Soil compaction reduces soil drainage and favors nematode infestation. Identify compacted soil areas by checking root growth and soil texture in a 3-foot deep trench. Look for excessive clod formation, slow water infiltration, distorted root and tuber growth and premature crop death. These are all signs of shallow rooting. 3. If soil organic-matter is low, incorporate cover crops and/or manure. Cattle manure from large operations is usually free of scab because the cows are not fed cull potatoes. In Ontario, soils high in organic matter rarely have problems with common scab. 4. Check for nematodes, wireworms and white grubs before planting. These pests can cause serious economic losses. Take soil samples for nematode counts, and use baits to trap wireworms. White grubs are usually easy to see when plowing the soil in the spring. 5. Take soil samples to be analyzed for Verticillium before planting. If Verticillium levels in a field are medium to high, do not plant early or susceptible varieties like Superior, Pike or GoldRush. 6. If the field is infested with common scab, grow only resistant varieties. 7. If you are renting land, be aware of previous crops and problem weeds. Some herbicides persist in the soil for several years and damage potatoes.
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PAGE 16 –– APRIL 2013 THE GROWER
Digging deeper for the potato variety story EarthFresh Foods, a Toronto-based company, is marketing potatoes to Sobey’s under a variety by usage program. Launched last fall, the program streams potatoes into four categories of baking, boiling, roasting and mashing. “We found that a 10-pound bag of
potatoes could have a lot of variability in taste, depending on its end use,” explains Len Brackenbury, field manager, EarthFresh Foods. “So we had our Sobey’s client taste test our various varieties and make their own picks.” The results are Russets for baking, Klondike Gold Dust for boiling, Klondike Rose for roasting and Elegance for mashing. Some of those varieties might be new
for consumers used to familiar names such as Yukon Gold. “In France, 90 per cent of the potatoes are sold by variety like apples,” says Brackenbury. “The majority of Canadian consumers don’t buy by variety, but could have an entirely new view of this staple if they tried new varieties.” Last fall, EarthFresh launched the Green Giant branded Cook the Right Potato pro-
gram in 98 Sobeys stores and 13 Urban Fresh stores in Ontario. The program educates customers about different potatoes and matches potato varieties to cooking methods. Each store has its own potato section for bulk and bagged product with signage denoting the proper cooking usage. Here’s how Stephanie Cutaia, EarthFresh marketing manager, describes the four picks.
Klondike Rose Best for Roasting & Grilling
Klondike Goldust Best for Boiling, Soups, Stews and Salads
Russet Best for Baking
Élégance Best for Mashing
• The Klondike Rose is a luscious roseskinned potato with a bright gold-coloured interior. • Its taste is simply delightful – a nice balance of nutty and cream flavours with no hint of bitterness. • Its texture is very unique – almost melting in your mouth, with a buttery smooth and rich “feel.” • Discovered in Germany, the Klondike Rose has become one of the best selling potatoes in North America since its introduction in 2001. • Best for roasting and grilling
• This unique new yellow potato, heralding from Holland, has become one of the biggest selling new varieties in Europe and South America. • Its very smooth, bright golden skin and its delicate flavour separates the Goldust from all others. • The flavour of the Goldust is unique very mild, and “fresh,” tasting like it was just harvested a few hours earlier. • The Goldust texture is a little more to “firm,” so it holds up well in soups, stews and salads, but many just love it boiled with a little butter.
• The Russet Burbank, first discovered by Luther Burbank in 1872, is the most popular potato of all time • It is characterized by its brown, netted, or russeted skin finish which crisps up well during baking or roasting • Its bright white flesh becomes fluffy and dry when cooked, making it a perfect baking potato • It also stays firm and golden after frying, making it ideal for fries, hash browns, and chips. • Russet Burbanks are great baked, fried, roasted, mashed and in potato pancakes, but they are not recommended for soups, stews, salads or boiling since they are fluffy, and will fall apart in preparation.
• The Élégance has a bright smooth, elongated appearance, with a distinctive deep yellow interior. • The Élégance is known for its sweet, buttery flavour, and its fluffy yellow texture. • The Élégance is a newer variety in North America and it continually surpasses all other yellow potatoes in colour, taste, and flavour scores. • Its fluffy texture makes it ideal for mashing, but you will also love it baked, fried, or roasted.
Potato production: The 20 things to remember in the spring 12. Warm seed tubers to 50-550F before cutting. This reduces bruising when handling, promotes rapid healing of cut surfaces and initiates sprouts before planting.
CONTINUED FROM PAGE 15 Seed Quality and Handeling 10. Plant healthy seed. Always check seed upon arrival. You have only 48 hrs to contact the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) if you detect seed problems. 11. Calibrate the seed cutter. Sharpen knives and sanitize cutting equipment at least once a day and/or when changing seed lots to avoid spreading diseases like dry rot, blackleg and soft rot.
resistant to soft rot.
16. Destroy slivers and any tuber waste left after cutting.
19. Apply seed treatments and in-furrow pesticides depending on anticipated problems.
Planting 13. Set aside samples of suspicious tubers. Contact your potato specialist or crop consultant if you are uncertain of the cause. 14. Apply the fungicide/insecticide seed treatment you know will be cost effective. 15. If possible, use B-size seed for early planting. Whole seed tolerates cool, wet conditions better than cut seed and is more
17. Make sure the planter is in good condition. 18. Try to schedule planting to coincide with favorable soil and weather conditions. Ideally seed and soil should be the same temperature at planting. Do not plant cold seed in warm soil. The seed will sweat, and this creates favorable conditions for
20. Check the depth and spacing of seed pieces at the beginning of planting and throughout planting. Skips and clumped seed pieces reduce yields. Doubles reduce average tuber size. Plants adjacent to skips don’t fully compensate for their missing neighbor.
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APRIL 2013 –– PAGE 17 THE GROWER
ONTARIO POTATO CONFERENCE
Tips to increase herbicide effectiveness in potatoes What’s the critical weed-free period in potatoes? That’s the question for potato growers as they juggle timing of hilling and a range of soil-applied pre- and post-emergent herbicides, says Kristen Callow, OMAF and MRA weed management program lead, horticulture. “Since many herbicides in potatoes are soil-applied, they do not control emerged weeds,” said Callow. “It’s important to incorporate with the appropriate amount of water shortly after application into the weed seed germination zone to activate the herbicide before weeds emerge.” The timing of hill application is important to take advantage of residual activity of applied herbicides. Building the hill at planting does not provide weed control as late into the season as building the hill two to three weeks after planting, then applying herbicide as soon as possible after hilling. Most growers choose to hill at planting and after the potato crop cracks through the ground, rehill the field and immediately spray after their second hilling operation. At this time the best strate-
gy is to apply a pre-emergence herbicide. A post-emergence herbicide may not be necessary Another alternative is to build the hill at planting, and two to three weeks later, just before potato emergence, apply a mixture of a non-selective herbicide that destroys emerged weeds, plus a pre-emergence herbicide that provides residual control. A fourth control strategy would be to hill just before potato emergence and follow with a post-emergence herbicide after potato and weed emergence and before row closure. The herbicide would have to control emerged weeds and provide residual control until row closure. For best weed control, be sure to properly identify the weeds in your fields. If you have resistant weeds or suspect resistance, modify herbicide treatments accordingly. “Resistance to herbicide groups 2, 5 and 7 is fairly widespread in potato-growing areas of Ontario,” says Callow. For that reason, tank mix multiple modes of action or at least use more than one mode of action per year in each field to delay
Photo courtesy Weather Innovations Inc. resistance. Herbicide tank mixes are recommended over single modes of action to control a broader spectrum of weeds. They offer more consistent performance under varying soil and weather conditions, reduce the potential for crop injury and reduce selection pressure for herbicide-resistant weeds. If you are targeting a specific resistant weed, make sure each tank mix
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partner has efficacy on the resistant weed for optimum control. Callow provided action plans for various weed scenarios that might be encountered in potato fields.
ever, some nightshade populations confirmed to have Group 2 resistance) • Note: Chateau is only recommended by the company for use in Western Canada
1. Broadleaf Weeds Only – No Nightshade • Tank mix combinations including: – Dual Magnum, Eptam, Lorox, Sencor, or Treflan If you have Group 2 resistant pigweed and / or lamb’s-quarters OR If you have Group 5 or Group 7 resistant pigweed BEST: Use any combination of the above to manage Group 2 resistance. BEST: Not to use Sencor or Lorox when trying to manage Group 5 or Group 7 (or both) resistant pigweed
3. Yellow nutsedge • Tank mix combinations including: – Dual II Magnum + Eptam • In the future pre applications of Reflex (fomesafen) will add to yellow nutsedge control when tank-mixed with Dual II Magnum (U.S. research) • Frontier/Outlook will also be a beneficial herbicide to increase yellow nutsedge control.
2. Broadleaf Weeds Including Nightshade • Tank mix combinations including: – Chateau / Reflex (submitted to PMRA) in two or three way combinations • Mix Chateau with the other herbicides based on the other weed populations present: – Light infestations: Chateau + one other herbicide – Heavy infestations: Chateau + two other herbicides with different modes of action – Chateau must be tank mixed with a grass herbicide. • Post application of Prism (how-
4. Grassy Weeds • Dual Magnum, Eptam and Treflan can effectively control barnyardgrass and green foxtail. Sencor also has activity on these two grasses. • Eptam, Treflan and Sencor will control wild or volunteer oat and volunteer wheat. • Eptam can control quackgrass pre-plant. • Poast Ultra, Select, Venture and Excel can be applied POST only and will control most annual grasses and volunteer grains. Apply to actively growing small grasses (1-6 L). • Do NOT tank-mix Select with broadleaf herbicides, this will reduce control. • Do NOT apply broadleaf herbicides within four days of Select application or within three days of Venture application.
PAGE 18 â€“â€“ APRIL 2013 THE GROWER
Pests enjoy culinary herbs too! SEAN WESTERVELD, GINSENG AND MEDICINAL HERBS SPECIALIST AND MELANIE FILOTAS, IPM SPECIALIST FOR SPECIALTY CROPS, OMAF AND MRA We often hear that most herbs can be used to repel pests in the garden, but herb growers know that they are susceptible to many pests as well. Unfortunately, there is very little information available to herb growers on pests and the strategies that can be used to control them. Just knowing what pests to look out for is half the battle, because it allows for pest control strategies to be implemented before pests become a problem. Over the past two years, OMAF and MRA staff have been surveying culinary herb crops in southern Ontario to determine the major pests of herbs and eventually develop pest identification resources to assist herb growers. The project was initially funded through the OMAFRA/University of Guelph Undergraduate Student Experiential Learning Program, and summer student Alex Harris was hired to survey herb fields. There are numerous culinary herbs that can be grown in
Ontario, and most of them fall into two families: the mint family (e.g. mint, basil, rosemary, sage, lavender, oregano, thyme, lemon balm) and the carrot family (e.g. parsley, cilantro, dill, fennel, anise, chervil). Chives, tarragon, and fenugreek (methi) are the main herbs not included in these families. Insect pests tend to affect most of the herbs in a certain family, while diseases can be more specific to an individual herb. Listed below are the major pests identified over the past few years:
not usually an issue on annual herbs such as rosemary and basil. Nymphs and adults pierce the leaves and stems with sucking mouthparts in June and July causing circular brown lesions. Affected leaves are often unmarketable. Insecticidal soaps used early when nymphs are small can reduce populations. Populations can also be reduced by controlling susceptible weeds and rotating mint-family herbs to different areas of the farm. Leafhoppers are an important pest of virtually all herb crops. Many carrot-family herbs are susceptible to aster yellows, a
Four-lined plant bugs and damage on lemon balm
Initial symptoms of basil downy mildew
mycoplasma disease transmitted by the aster leafhopper. Affected plants are distorted with multiple branches and are unmarketable. Leafhoppers cause hopper-burn, dieback of leaves from the tips,
Four-Lined Plant Bugs attack most members of the mint family. Since they lay their eggs on perennial plant tissues, they are
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on several herbs, especially fenugreek (methi). Leafhopper feeding causes a stippling on leaves of most other herbs, which can reduce marketability, but rarely renders them completely unmarketable. Japanese Beetles are a major pest of basil in certain areas of Ontario. The adult beetles emerge in late July and feed for one to two months at the top of the plant, causing ragged holes. They are more of a problem if basil is grown near a perennial grass, on which the immature grubs develop. Japanese beetle traps are available on the market but have not proven effective to control this pest and may actually attract more adults to the area. Two-spotted spider mites can be a significant problem on many of the mint-family herbs. Mites usually feed on the underside of leaves causing leaves to turn mottled and silvery. Fine webbing is usually present on the underside of the leaves. They are more of a problem in dry years when infested transplants are moved from a greenhouse to the field.
Septoria leaf spot is a significant disease on parsley in Ontario. It appears as round lesions on the leaves with small black specks (pycnidia). It usually affects the crop when extended dew periods occur, often later in the summer. It is especially a concern when the plants are weakened by another factor such as dry conditions, nutritional deficiencies, or root damage. Avoiding these issues will help to reduce the impact of the disease. An unrelated Septoria leaf spot also affects lavender, but has less impact on the crop because leaves of lavender are not harvested. Bacterial blight often affects cilantro in Ontario. It is characterized by small circular lesions with a darker border. Bacterial diseases are usually spread by rain or irrigation-splashed spores or by machinery or field workers. Sanitation is important with this disease, since there are no products registered for its control. Other significant diseases of culinary herbs include Phoma blight on dill, rust on mint, anthracnose on basil, powdery
Japanese beetles on basil
Septoria leaf spot on parsley
Other insect pests of herbs include aphids and garden fleahoppers (most herbs), leafrollers and spittlebugs (mint family), parsleyworms (carrot family), thrips (chives), and tarnished plant bug (most herbs). These pests do not occur in every year or field, but can build up to damaging levels, especially when large acreages are grown.
mildew on most mint-family herbs, and various Alternaria and Cercospora leaf blights on many mint and carrot-family herbs and fenugreek. Numerous soil-borne diseases also affect herbs, but in most cases have not been identified. Rhizoctonia and Fusarium are the most common fungi associated with crown and root rots. Root knot and root lesion nematodes also affect a wide range of herbs and can build up to significant levels if herbs are not rotated with unsusceptible hosts. Management of pests of herbs is particularly challenging because few pest control products are registered for use on these crops. Growers should continually scout fields to identify problems before they get out of hand. Some pest issues can be more easily controlled at an early stage when they are isolated to one or a few plants. Sanitation, crop rotation, proper site selection, and fertilization are essential to reduce the chances of a pest developing to damaging levels. OMAF and MRA staff are working on resources to assist growers with identification of these pests. Information on pests of culinary herbs along with photos of the significant pests are available in the new SPECIALTY CROPportunities module, which was made available on the OMAF Crops website in March 2013. For more assistance with identification and management of herb pests, growers should contact an OMAF and MRA specialist.
DISEASES Basil downy mildew is a new disease in Ontario, first identified in the field in 2010. It appears as chlorotic (yellow) sections of the leaves defined by the veins, often with grey spores underneath. Once initial symptoms are found in a field the crop can be completely destroyed within a couple of weeks. Control of this disease is only possible through the use of a rotation of the registered pest control products Ranman and Confine. On-going research suggests that the cultivar â€˜Medinetteâ€™ is slightly less susceptible to the disease than other cultivars. The disease may be delayed by growing basil in an open location with good airflow, with wider plant spacing. Phomopsis has been identified on oregano/marjoram in Ontario and may also affect sage. Lesions develop on the leaves and stem, causing rapid senescence and collapse of individual stems. Little is known about this disease, and more research is required on its biology and management.
APRIL 2013 –– PAGE 19 THE GROWER
New resource for specialty crop growers SEAN WESTERVELD, EVAN ELFORD, MELANIE FILOTAS AND JIM TODD, OMAF AND MRA Growers in Ontario have a new resource to help choose and grow a wide range of specialty crops. The resource, called “SPECIALTY CROPportunities,” will be launched on the OMAF website this month. There are literally hundreds of specialty crops that can be grown in Ontario including culinary and medicinal herbs, specialty/ethnic vegetables, specialty fruits and nuts, specialty grains and oilseeds, and industrial crops. Due to limited research and experience with many of these crops, there has been very little written information available to Ontario growers looking for a new crop to grow. The research that has been conducted on these crops in Ontario has often been forgotten over time without a permanent database to provide those results to the public – until now. Agriculture Development Branch staff along with University of Guelph colleagues, assembled a team of researchers from the University of Guelph, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Erie Innovation and Commercialization, and Vineland Research and Innovation Centre to pull together all of the available research on specialty crops and provide a single resource for growers. Initially the resource includes specific information on
100 specialty crops, which will be expanded over the next few years. Growers looking for information pertaining to a specific crop can use the crop category selection or alphabetical crop list to locate a profile on that crop. Each profile summarizes background information on the crop, its growth habit, and specific agronomic information such as plant spacing, fertility, irrigation, soil type, harvest, and storage requirements. It also includes information on pests of that crop, such as a listing of existing and potential pests, notes on potential pest impacts, and how to find more information on pest management. Finally, the profile lists any research projects conducted on that crop in Ontario and other references used to create the profile. If growers are unsure of what they want to grow, they can use the Crop Selection Tool to narrow the list of specialty crops to those specifically suited to their preferences and growing conditions. The selection tool asks four questions and the end result is a listing of crops that match the selection criteria along with an indication of labour, irrigation and specialized equipment requirements. Crops not included in the list could still be grown, but may
Manage cover crops to stop wind this spring ANNE VERHALLEN, OMAF AND MRA SOIL MANAGEMENT SPECIALIST – HORTICULTURE If it is April, it is going to be windy in Ontario. Last spring we saw a lot of soil changing fields. Cover crops can help to stop that. The key is to keep the soil covered as long as possible and to break up the sweep of the wind across a field. Leave cover crops intact – that is undisturbed by tillage as long as possible, particularly if the cover crop winter killed. That residue is quite fragile and easily destroyed. If the cover crop is still living, certainly use a burnoff herbicide to kill or start a slow kill of a cover crop but leave the soil undisturbed as long as you can to prevent soil from moving. Consider strip tillage – strip tillage creates tillage zones for the emerging seeds or young transplants while leaving the rest of the inter-row area undisturbed. This can be the best of both worlds – great ground cover for wind protection and the benefits
of tillage in the early crop root zone. As an added bonus, the residue in the inter row can help to retard weed growth and preserve soil moisture. Michigan research has shown that this practice can help to preserve moisture and moderate soil temperatures mid summer by two to five degrees or more. Create wind strips – selectively till or burn off existing cover crop to create wind strips in field. They will reduce the sweep of wind across the field while allowing normal tillage and planting in between. Research in Ontario has shown a one to two degree soil and air temperature advantage in these areas in early spring. Get planting – if you have some time i.e. six weeks before planting your main crop, you do have time to fit in a short season cover crop such as oats, barley, oilseed radish, mustard or other fast growing cover crops. They can be no-till seeded to avoid disturbing the soil any more than necessary. Caution: consider how and when to terminate the cover crop and any pest implications.
require some additional site modifications. Just because a crop can be grown, doesn’t mean there is a market for it. Growers still need to find a market before growing any specialty crop. The resource also includes a
wealth of general information on specialty crops including crop fertility, pest management, on-farm research, business planning and marketing, food safety, and an introduction to organic crop production. A particular challenge
for specialty crop growers is a lack of fertility recommendations. The resource provides suggested approaches for fertilizing crops when there are no recommendations. Another challenge is pest management, since it is often unknown what will attack the crop and how to control those pests. The resource discusses integrated pest management, provides information on the major types of insects and diseases, provides alternative management approaches, and discusses how to determine which products are registered for use on the crop. The resource will be available on the OMAF Crops page at www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/cr ops/ listed under “specialty crops.” We encourage growers to contact us if they have suggestions for new crops to include in the resource or have information to add from their experiences growing and selling any of the specialty crops. Contact information is provided in the resource. This project was funded by Agri-Food and Rural Link, a program of the OMAFRA/University of Guelph Partnership.
PAGE 20 –– MARCH 2013 THE GROWER
DuPont Canada briefs industry on new insecticide KAREN DAVIDSON DuPont Canada is expecting the registration of cyantraniliprole to be known by the trade name Cyazypyr in the near future. According to Priscila Vansetti, director, DuPont Canada’s crop protection business, there will be three new insecticides launched with this active ingredient: Benevia, Exirel and Verimark. In a technical briefing to industry key influencers, Billy Annan, global technical lead, explained that this new insecticide controls a wide spectrum of pests: whiteflies, leafminers, fruit flies, beetles, weevils, psyllids, thrips and aphids. “It’s the second active ingredient in the anthranilic diamide class, and the first to control a cross-spectrum of chewing and sucking pests,” explained Annan. Used early in the season, this insecticide protects the young seedlings from insect feeding damage, helping the crop get a healthy start so it can reach its full yield potential. The mortality of affected insects is observed
typically within four to seven days after exposure to the product. This is a new mode of action to kill sucking pests, which may be responsible for some pest-transmitted plant diseases. The product is selective for beneficial arthropods and is therefore a strong fit for integrated pest management programs. Canada and the U.S. are the first OECD countries expected to register this insecticide with more registrations expected globally in 2013 and 2014. Benevia Used in potatoes, Benevia as a foliar treatment controls chewing and sucking pests such as Colorado potato beetle, European corn borer and potato aphid. It controls group 4, neonicotinoidresistant Colorado potato beetle. Exirel Used in bushberries, pome and stone fruit, tree nuts as well as bulb, leafy, brassica, fruiting and cucurbit vegetables, Exirel shows rapid cessation of insect feeding by preventing muscle contraction
at the cellular level. It controls pests at all life stages due to its ovi-larvicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal activity. However, optimal control is achieved at the egg hatch or young larval stages. The pest list is broad: apple maggot, blueberry gall midge, blueberry maggot, cabbage looper, cherry fruit fly, codling moth, Colorado potato beetle, ]cutworms, diamondback moth, European sawfly, European corn borer, green peach aphid, imported cabbage worm, Japanese
beetle, leafrollers, Oriental fruit moth, plum curculio, rosy apple aphid, spotted tentiform leafminer, Swede midge, thrips, western cherry fruit fly, western tentiform leafminer and white apple leafhopper. This product provides a new mode of action for thrips and sucking insects with no crossresistance to other chemistries. Verimark Used as an in-furrow and seed
treatment for potatoes and soil applications for vegetables, Verimark protects tender seedlings from feeding damage. It has fast root uptake through translocation as well as systemic movement in the plant for residual control. This product controls cabbage looper, Colorado potato beetle, diamondback moth, imported cabbage worm, potato flea beetle and Swede midge. This product provides a new mode of action for soil-applied Colorado potato beetle control.
Managing black root rot in strawberries
JIM CHAPUT, OMAF AND MRA, PROVINCIAL MINOR USE COORDINATOR, GUELPH The Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) recently announced the approval of a minor use registration for Scholar 203SC fungicide (fludioxonil) for suppression of black root rot (Rhizoctonia) on strawberries in Canada. SCHOLAR® 230SC was already registered on pome fruit, stone fruit, ginseng and sweet potatoes for control of a number of important diseases. Black root rot has been a devastating new disease of strawberries in Canada in recent years. For suppression of black root rot of strawberry Scholar 230SC can be applied at a rate of 1.2 L per hectare (6.5 mL per 100 metres of row) applied as a
drench or high volume foliar application. Consult label for specific details. On new strawberry plantings apply within one week of transplanting when plants have three to five leaves unfolded and apply a second application when plants are setting axillary buds. On established plantings apply in the spring when new leaves emerge and apply a second application after renovation. Up to two applications per season can be applied and do not apply within one day of harvest of strawberries. For copies of the new minor use label contact Pam Fisher, OMAFRA Berry Crops Specialist, Simcoe (519) 4262238, Mike Celetti, Plant Pathologist, Horticulture Crops, OMAFRA, Guelph (519) 8244120 ext. 58910 or visit www.syngenta.com
APRIL 2013 –– PAGE 21 THE GROWER
BayerCropScience.ca or 1 888-283-6847 or contact your Bayer CropScience representative. Always read and follow label directions. Movento® is a registered trademark of the Bayer Group. Bayer CropScience is a member of CropLife Canada.
PAGE 22 –– APRIL 2013 THE GROWER
MINOR USE CRAIG’S COMMENTS
Let’s talk price
CRAIG HUNTER OFVGA A long time back, (it seems just like yesterday to me) there was a difference between Horticulture and the Grains and Oilseeds sectors when it came to their priority for pesticides. G&O wanted price competition, (because they were getting all the new pesticides they needed anyway) and Hort. needed access to new technology (Minor Uses/Tech Gap), so pricing came second on their list. Times have changed! The price competition for pesticides had faltered from 1977 (when the border was closed to the movement of pesticides) until the original OUI (Own Use Import) program was put in place circa 1991. It became almost moribund until a massive amount of glyphosate came in under its provisions in 2003. The upshot of
this was a new ‘program’ operated (it still is) under a “gentlemen’s” agreement, called the GROU (Grower Own Use) import program. There is a plan currently underway to put these provisions into law, (since not everyone out there is a ‘gentleman’!). The monitoring of pesticide prices between Canada and the U.S. has been carried out for a number of years, and continues to this day. For many products, the prices may vary as much between dealers here as they do there. Inter-country differences that do exist show very few ‘better’ prices in Canada, many that are close, but a goodly number that are significantly to obscenely higher here. Last year an unweighted average showed a 56% higher price here in Canada! That is where Horticulture comes in today. It seems that most of these price hits affect Horticulture more than other sectors. Furthermore, the Minor Use and Tech Gap issues that dominated our agenda in the past, while not all resolved, appear to be ‘under control,’ so the grower passion has switched to pricing inequities. In some cases with a vengeance! There are some ‘games’ that appear to be getting played here that need revelation. One that has been going on for a long time is to get a new product formulation
registered in the U.S. first, and then wait for an interminable time before getting it here in Canada. Often that new formulation may be better, safer, easier to use. It may allow a lower rate, and may be cheaper to formulate and thus reduce the growers’ costs. (This is not usually the case as any savings usually accrue to the registrant!) However, while the U.S. producer gets access, (and new Minor Use work there may be limited to the new formulation thus freezing us out of possible joint projects) our Canadian producers only have access to the old version. Does that mean we are the ‘dumping ground’ to use up all the old stuff before reluctant registration of the new stuff?
Another off-shoot of this (and we have examples of this) is when the old version here has been the basis of a request under GROU for product equivalence, and thus possible importation to level the price gap. While the U.S. part of a company stops the sale of the old product there, it may stay ‘on the books’ but just not be available for sale. This stymies our attempts for price discipline, since the product owner must be the same both sides of the border under the current program rules, in addition to product ‘equivalence.’ The other ‘game’ (almost a spectator sport!) is selling off older products to third parties. Under the current ‘GROU’ rules, this then precludes the ability to access those for consideration in the program. A conspiracy theorist might think all of these are deliberate. A much more plausible explanation is that these products may be at or past their data protection deadline, so possible market entry and competition from generics may reduce the gravy train pricing anyway, so the decision is made to cut these in favour of new actives with a longer ‘bonus price’ structure. Until the GROU program allows (once again) cross company product access for importation, all of these products will remain outside the program. When the original GROU program was agreed to, there was concern expressed that such ‘games’ could happen. Now they have. Perhaps the program needs fulsome changes to bring about a level playing field. It seems that horticulture producers are getting a raw deal on some prices. We are not talking chump change here: differences of up to 700% can be shown on individual products! Maybe the whole legislative piece needs to be redrafted with some real teeth. Here is what I ‘really feel’ on the issue.
Way back when, it was more expensive and it took a longer time to get a pesticide registered here. In today’s world, joint registrations with the U.S. and global registrations are saving registrants millions of dollars, and timeframes are less. Data protection rules here now allow even longer possible exclusive sales than in the U.S. Much of the new minor use work is done here for the companies by AAFC. (The company-inspired ones are for them to gain extra data protection time.) There is less difference now in the ‘costs of business’ here, so the prices should be much more closely aligned. There are even provisions like a NAFTA label that very few have used, even though it could save them a lot of money. (Maybe they just don’t want to try?) However, in fact, for many companies, the prices are very close all the way down their product lists, and they may have none or only a single product named to the GROU lists. I laud these ‘fair traders.’ Their fairness certainly highlights the predatory pricing of some others. Some companies take a different view- gouge as much as you dare. As an example, a product that may have been 250% more here had been ‘awarded’ a 10% price drop and they were amazed that we appeared to be ‘ungrateful.’ (After all, it is now ‘only’ 225% higher here!) Horticulture is in a buyer’s market when we sell our crops, but when it comes to inputs, we are in the seller’s hands. G&O have enjoyed better crop prices lately: in fruit we have seen a one per cent increase in the past 20 years, and a loss of 4% for vegetable returns in the market over that same time. While G&O do not want to see inflated prices for their pesticide inputs, at least their crop returns can absorb more than can horticulture. If the net result of all government programming is to doom us to the losses of market price, the only room left to gain is to lower input costs. For example, labour costs are fixed by government rule: the last wage rate increase in Ontario was 28%, but growers have not seen any market price adjustment to accommodate that. Pesticide pricing should not be contributing to our inability to compete, or to make a fair living. That is what I really think! I also believe there will be a lot of backlash from some companies over this. I only ask that they open their books on pricing to show that they are not a part of the problem! I would be pleased to see them!
APRIL 2013 –– PAGE 23 THE GROWER
Callisto controls weeds in rhubarb The Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) recently announced the approval of several minor use label expansions for Callisto 480SC herbicide (mesotrione) for control of weeds on sorghum, pearl millet and flax grown in eastern Canada and rhubarb in Canada. Callisto herbicide was already labeled for management of weeds on corn, mesotrionetolerant soybeans, cranberries, blueberries and asparagus in Canada. The minor use project for rhubarb was sponsored by Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada, Pest Management Centre in 2008 in response to priorities identified by producers in Canada.
The following is provided as a general outline only. Users should consult the complete label before using Callisto 480SC herbicide. Rhubarb Callisto herbicide can be used pre-emergent to rhubarb at 0.3 L per ha in 200 L water per ha. Apply to dormant (prior to spring green-up) rhubarb. Applications of Callisto to rhubarb that is not dormant will result in crop injury. Rainfall or irrigation after herbicide application may also increase the risk of injury to emerging rhubarb. Only one application per year is
permitted and do not harvest rhubarb within 42 days of Callisto application. Consult label for more details. Callisto herbicide should be used in an integrated weed management program and in rotation with other management strategies. Follow all other precautions and directions for use on the Callisto herbicide label. For copies of the new supplemental label Kristen Callow, OMAFRA, Harrow (519) 738-1232 or visit the Syngenta Canada website at www.syngentafarm.ca/ Labels/Default2.aspx?&src=syngentaca
Managing mites on blueberries and hops The Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) recently announced the approval of minor use label expansions for Envidor SC miticide (spirodiclofen) for control of two-spotted spider mites on hops and blueberry bud mite on blueberries in Canada. Envidor 240 SC miticide was already labeled in Canada for management of mites on pome fruit, stone fruit, tree nuts and grapes and has a proven record of efficacy and safety. The minor use project for hops was sponsored by the minor use office of OMAFRA and submitted in 2011 in response to minor use priorities identified by producers and extension personnel in Canada. The minor use project for blueberries was co-sponsored by Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada, Pest Management Centre and the U.S. IR-4 program in 2006 in response to priorities identified by producers in both the U.S. and Canada.
supplemental label for hops contact Melanie Filotas, OMAFRA,
Simcoe (519) 426-4434, for blueberries contact Pam Fisher,
OMAFRA, Simcoe (519) 4262238 or visit the Bayer
CropScience website at http://www.bayercropscience.ca
HOPS: Envidor 240 SC miticide can be applied as a foliar spray at 0.75 litres per hectare for control of mites. Apply in 500 – 1000 L water per ha and consult local experts for treatment threshold. Use a maximum of one application per growing season and do not apply within 21 days of harvest of hops. BLUEBERRIES: Envidor 240 SC miticide can be applied as a foliar spray at 1.3 litres per hectare for control of bud mites. Apply in 100 – 1000 L water per ha and consult local experts for treatment threshold. Use a maximum of one application per growing season and do not apply within seven days of harvest of blueberries. Envidor 240 SC miticide should be used in an integrated pest management program and in rotation with other management strategies. Follow all other precautions and directions for use on the Envidor 240 SC miticide label. For copies of the new
Growers have some unusual traditions — things they do every year to ensure a successful growing season. From the hula girl one grower pulls out at planting, to the barn dance another grower throws after every harvest, you go with what works. Just like the products that come through for you year after year, why mess with a good thing?
Thanks for putting your trust in our products. For more information, visit www.gowithwhatworks.ca or call 1-866-761-9397 toll free. Always read and follow label directions. ELEVATE, the ELEVATE logo, MAESTRO, the MAESTRO logo, KANEMITE and the KANEMITE logo are registered trademarks of Arysta LifeScience North America, LLC. “Go with what works” is a trademark of Arysta LifeScience North America, LLC. Arysta LifeScience and the Arysta LifeScience logo are registered trademarks of Arysta LifeScience Corporation. ORTHENE is a registered trademark of OMS Investments, Inc., exclusively licensed to Arysta LifeScience Corporation in numerous countries. ©2012 Arysta LifeScience North America, LLC. ORT-048
C PAGE 24 –– APRIL 2013 THE GROWER
Sure, let’s compare apples to apples.
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BayerCropScience.ca/LunaTranquility or 1 888-283-6847 or contact your Bayer CropScience representative. Always read and follow label directions. Luna Tranquility™ is a trademark of the Bayer Group. Bayer CropScience is a member of CropLife Canada.
C APRIL 2013 –– PAGE B1 THE GROWER
FOCUS: IRRIGATION MARKETPLACE
CELEBRATING 133 YEARS AS CANADA’S PREMIER HORTICULTURAL PUBLICATION
$381,000 is more than a drop in the bucket KAREN DAVIDSON Research funds are flowing to a number of Ontario commodity groups this spring so that they can better understand how to manage and conserve water. In fact, $381,000 have been award to horticulturalrelated projects according to Bruce Kelly, Farm & Food Care, coordinator of the Water Resource Adaptation and Management Initiative (WRAMI). The timing of the joint Canada-Ontario investment is welcomed after a droughty 2012 Ontario season that challenged all fruit and vegetable growers. The Grape Growers of Ontario (GGO), for example, organized an irrigation committee last August, inviting apple and tender fruit growers to the table. “Some growers don’t have access to water, but could benefit from a whole farm water management plan,” explains Debbie Zimmerman, CEO, GGO. That’s why GGO considers their $70,000 grant a perfect opportunity to develop best management practices for irrigating grapes, some of which are situated on vulnerable landscapes near the Great Lakes. As Mary Jane Combe, GGO market analyst explains, irrigation for deep-rooted grapes has often been viewed as an emergency management tool, but has become an increased priority due to climate change and a more rigorous water permit process. Whole-farm water management and efficient irrigation use first requires an understanding of how irrigation is being used, sources of water, methods of delivery, current water usage, outflow or runoff, and strategies currently employed by viticulturists. The research project will assess efficiency of vineyard water use through the installation of water flow meters on different farms and soil types. Comparisons will be made between overhead and trickle systems. Growers will be specifically looking at the research results on efficiency, accuracy,
Potato growers depend on irrigation for much of the 38,000 acres grown in Ontario. Photo courtesy Ontario Potato Board. cost and user-friendliness of various types of soil moisture sensors. This information, combined with a survey on irrigation sources, will develop a more refined understanding of how to conserve water, reduce operating costs and assess future needs. The Ontario Tender Fruit Producers’ Marketing Board will be working in tandem with grape growers on soil moisture monitoring devices as well, with $22,000 in funding. The peach industry will also receive a boost with $31,000 in funding to John Zandstra, University of Guelph’s Ridgetown Campus, who will investigate use of ground covers and remote soil moisture monitoring equipment to maximize
water use efficiency. The Ontario potato industry, spanning 38,000 acres, has high demand for irrigation. Funding for two projects, worth $95,000, will drill down into specifics of variable rate irrigation and technology-driven models for strategic water management. “Showcasing variable rate irrigation technologies is something new for us,” says Don Brubacher, general manager, Ontario Potato Board. Growers commonly use centre pivot irrigation, but a variable rate system could allow them to apply water according to soil types that vary across a field. The idea is to take soil sam-
ples and then to calibrate variable rates of water according to the need. Sandy soils need more water, for instance, than loamy soils. That project will be demonstrated north of Allison, Ontario this summer. “Water is such a valuable resource,” says Brubacher. “We don’t want to use more than we need.” Inside hydroponic greenhouses, conserving water is equally important. In a $27,000 project, the Ontario Greenhouse Vegetable Growers (OGVG) will be looking at precision fertigation, according to Justine Taylor, OGVG environmental projects specialist. CONTINUED ON PAGE 2
PAGE B2 –– APRIL 2013 THE GROWER
$381,000 is more than a drop in the bucket
Photo courtesy of Rebecca Shortt, OMAF
Raised troughs are used to collect and recirculate nutrient feedwater.
CONTINUED FROM PAGE 1
PHILLIPS FARM SUPPLIES
Many Ontario greenhouse vegetables are grown hydroponically in inert media and are fed the nutrients they need to grow in a solution through drip irrigation. Typically, a 25 per cent over fertigation is applied to the crop to maintain the ideal nutrient and water content around the root zone. Excess nutrient feedwater is captured in troughs, treated, balanced and
recirculated back to the crop. Taylor explains that the nutrient feedwater is tested every one or two weeks and therefore only infrequent adjustments are made to correctly balance the depleted nutrients. This delay can result in an oversupply or undersupply of specific nutrients causing a decrease in productivity
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and limiting the usefulness of the nutrient feedwater. In this study, nutrient analysis will be conducted onsite using rapid FTIR spectroscopy. Using this feedback system, instant adjustments can be made to the input nutrient feedwater to ensure all elements are correctly balanced, reducing any fertilizer waste and tailoring feed water components to the plant’s needs. At the University of Windsor, Bulent Mutus will be investigating biopolymer/ biofilters to remove nutrients and micronutrients in greenhouse wastewaster.
That project grant is $66,000. Finally, a $70,000 project conducted by Ann Huber will evaluate pathogen removal by DE nitrification bioreactors and constructed wetlands in an Ontario demonstration to promote water reuse and good water management. Water is the lifeblood of the horticulture industry. Stay tuned as these WRAMIfunded projects progress this summer.
APRIL 2013 –– PAGE B3 THE GROWER
OMAF proposes regulations for utilizing greenhouse ‘nutrient feedwater ’ for agricultural crops KAREN DAVIDSON Ontario’s greenhouse growers are inching closer to changes that would regulate nutrient feedwater under the agriculture ministry’s Nutrient Management Act. The term ‘nutrient feedwater’ refers to the hydroponic nutrient solution that can no longer be recirculated in the greenhouse, but that still has significant fertilizer value for field crops. The proposed regulations are posted under the province’s environmental and regulatory registries for public comment until mid-April. Concurrently, a series of public meetings are being held in Leamington, Niagara and Toronto for further input. “From our reading of the proposed areas of regulation, it’s fairly close to what we proposed,” says Don Taylor, chair, Ontario Greenhouse Vegetable Growers. “Each farmer will develop farm-specific nutrient management strategies and plans for the
This system is typical of greenhouses in the Leamington Ontario area, where nutrient feedwater is recirculated. production, storage, transportation and utilization of nutrient feedwater, similar to what is done by livestock farmers for manure.” Feedwater samples from greenhouses have been analysed showing that they
contain adequate levels of plant nutrients to make their use in growing field crops a viable economic proposition. The study has also determined that all areas of greenhouse production in the province have adequate production of field crops in
reasonable proximity to allow for the use of the nutrients. Once finalized, the regulations will provide detail on such things as required storage, application limits based upon soil type and receptor crop, and permissible dates of application, in a similar manner that current regulations do for livestock manure. If enacted, the new regulations will be preferable to the costly environmental compliance approvals under the environment ministry which viewed feedwater as part of an industrial disposal issue rather utilizing it for agricultural production. The current schedule of legislative and regulatory changes aims to finalize wording in time for approval later this year. Scientific studies are underway to measure the nutrient status of washwater in potato and other vegetable farms. Pending those results, it’s too early to predict whether washwater may be regulated under the Nutrient Management Act as well.
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PAGE B4 –– APRIL 2013 THE GROWER
Monitoring soil moisture reveals depth of water needs
Images courtesy of Weather Innovations Incorporated KAREN DAVIDSON Weather Innovations Incorporated (WIN), a company that provides weather-based advisories for agriculture, has a very extensive rainfall data base. WIN put together an Ontario map series for the summer of 2012 based on the cyclical droughty periods. Ian Nichols, president, explains that three of these maps graphically show the regional differences in weather patterns. Key areas of horticultural interest have been circled. It is particularly interesting that areas A & B, Essex-Kent and Niagara did not get much relief from extremely dry conditions during early and mid June when much of the province was getting some relief. Norfolk(C) and Prince Edward County (D) did get some relief, but with sandy soils and the bone-dry conditions in Norfolk county, the soil moisture situation was equally challenging if not worse. Also the Grand Bend (E) and Holland (F) Marsh areas had significant droughty conditions with a bit of relief in that mid to early June period. The impact depends on crop and crop stage when the rains stop, but for most of the horticultural areas, 2012
was a very busy irrigation season. Are these maps predictive for 2013? Not really, but last year’s experience has persuaded many growers to consider additional monitoring and keeping on top of the soil moisture situation. As the above spread graph demonstrates in a potato field, the sensor produces the blue line at a 10 cm depth. It’s clear that between July 23 and 24th, the soil is very dry. The potatoes are working hard, taking water from a 40 cm depth. If fertilizer is available only in the top 30 cm, the plant is not getting the nutrients it needs. The concept applies to tree fruit farmers who want shallow roots to take up fertilizer. On the 25th, a 30-minute rainfall of 11.8 mm wets the top profile of the soil. “Look at the blue line,” says Nichols. “Hallelujah, the plant is starting to drink water from the upper soil profile. The plant doesn't have to work quite as hard and the soil nutrients are more predominant in that zone.” On the 26th, there’s another long soaking rain wetting the entire soil profile. But by the 31st, the rainshower has only moistened the top 10 cm of soil and at the rate of water consumption that you can observe, this
will be used up in about two days. After that, the potato plants will be getting thirsty again. “Without knowing the soil
holding capacity or anything about the potato plants, this graph would indicate it’s time to irrigate,” says Nichols. “In less
than five days, the plant has gone from surfeit to the beginning of stress. In this case, a picture is worth a million dollars.”
The 'AQUA Wetland System' “A new breed of constructed wetland” AQUA Treatment Technologies Inc. designs and installs the 'AQUA Wetland System' (AWS) for tertiary treatment of many types of waste water including sanitary sewage, landfill leachate, dairy farm & abattoir wastewater, greenhouse irrigation leachate water & mushroom farm leachate water (i.e. manure pile leachate) and high strength winery washwater. The 'AQUA Wetland System' is operated out of doors and can achieve year-round tertiary treatment of wastewater. This sub-surface, vertical flow constructed wetland consists of sand & gravel beds planted with moisture tolerant plant species. Water is pumped vertically from cell to cell. There is no open or standing water. Treatment occurs through physical filtration & biological degradation. Plants shade & insulate the cells, cycling nutrients while preventing algae growth. There is no production of sludge. The AWS has been approved for use by the Ontario Ministry of Environment through over 40 Environmental Compliance Approvals. Recently the Region of Niagara began approving the AWS for treatment of 'small flow' winery washwater I.e. < 10,000 liters per day. Other agencies who have issued approvals include Health Canada, USEPA and OMAFRA. Recent projects include: 1) treatment of cider mill washwater at Bennett's Apple and Cider in Ancaster 2) treatment of winery washwater at DiProfio Wines and Lincoln Farm Winery in Niagara 3) treatment of pond water at Hihojo Farms for supply of hog drinking water
For additional information please Contact Lloyd Rozema at: cell. 905-327-4571 email. firstname.lastname@example.org
APRIL 2013 –– PAGE B5 THE GROWER
How well does your irrigation system work? KAREN DAVIDSON Two years ago, water quality engineer Rebecca Shortt was fortunate enough to attend a week-long course in California on mobile irrigation laboratories, a standardized approach to measuring the distribution uniformity (DU) of an irrigation system. The specialist with the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food is now exploring whether the concept is transferable. The assessment requires a half-day to run an irrigation system, measuring pressures, water volume and diagnosing whether there’s a good distribution pattern. The goal is to ensure that the irrigation system is delivering the same amount of water to every plant; this is called good distribution uniformity (DU). Ensuring each plant gets the same amount of water means you don’t have to over irrigate in one area just to ensure all plants get the minimum water they require. By assessing and improving the DU you can optimize the use of fuel, labour and water. Part of the assessment
Photos courtesy of Rebecca Shortt judges whether fuel costs are in line with the amount of water distributed. With a standardized approach to measuring DU, now producers can track the effect of improvements made to their systems or operating procedures. For example, DU can be improved by increasing sprinkler or gun
overlap. The system assessment will measure how much the DU is improved and this allows the producer to understand whether this management change is cost effective (considering both capital and operational costs). Also producers can compare the DU of different systems. Drip and centre pivots have the potential to
provide the greatest DU. However every system’s DU can be assessed and improved. In a test case in California, a farmer knew his system wasn’t working properly due to his stressed nursery trees. Water pressures were low and the pump didn’t seem to be working properly. The problem was traced to a supplier who did not build the pump properly. Using the California troubleshooting format, Shortt looked at two drip irrigation systems and one sprinkler system in Ontario in 2011: strawberries and beets. In 2012, her colleagues from Agriculture and Agri Food Canada looked at centre pivots in potatoes. In the case of the drip system, the line was clogging and the distribution uniformity was below
average. Maintenance was required to flush the line. With older systems, Shortt says that components wear out, emitters and lines clog and pumps may not be working up to par. Troubleshooting isolates the cause. Perhaps something as simple as a new nozzle set will solve the problem. This year, Shortt plans to do more assessments but can’t service every grower. Her test case in California was an irrigation system covering 278 acres. “There are issues of scale,” she warns. “There needs to be caution in bringing these ideas to smaller operations.” Measuring and then improving dstribution uniformity makes sense. It optimizes irrigation costs and water use.
VEGETABLE EQUIPMENT FOR SALE -
3 used potato trucks. 18’ - 24’, $7,500 each. Thomas WR944 4 row windrower, field ready, $26,500. Thomas C91 2 row harvester, field ready, TTT warranty. Call for price. 2 row Spudnick potato harvester, $30,000. 4 row mechanical transplanter with water tank, $3,500. Lockwood 5000 4 row, windrower, field ready, $20,000. 4 row Lockwood pick planter, $4,500. 12-row Agricola vegetable seeder. Call for details. Grimme GB1700 potato harvester. Call for details. Grimme DL1500 2-row windrower, $8,000. Better Built seed cutter with 3 cut and duster, $7,500. 6 row Lockwood pick planter, [parting out].
CHECK OUT OUR WEBSITE FOR OUR FULL LISTING OF USED EQUIPMENT!
3211 - 8th Line Bradford, ON L3Z 2A5 Ph: 905-960-0033 email@example.com www.agriveg.ca
PAGE B6 –– APRIL 2013 THE GROWER
Water conserved through booms on center pivots
Courtesy Howard Neibling, extension water management engineer, University of Idaho.
KAREN DAVIDSON Idaho’s potato country may have some useful lessons for Canadian growers when it comes to saving irrigation water. The idea is to widen the footprint of the irriga-
tion system in such a way that the water has time to absorb into the soil. For medium-textured or heavy clay soils that tend to form a crust, this spray pattern is particularly beneficial in preventing run-off. The system was profiled at last January’s Idaho Irrigation Equipment
Show. Jon Johnston, owner of Irrigation Accessories Company, explained that the system started with carrot growers. In California, they had a germination problem with carrot seeds that must be planted shallowly yet are washed away before establishment. Not only did the gentler spray pattern solve the germination issues, but the growers noticed savings in water. That discovery led to the booms that can be used on onions, sweet corn and potatoes. Howard Neibling, an extension water management engineer with the University of Idaho, confirms that spreading the water application is a more important factor than drop size or sprinkler type. The goal is not to have a peak water application rate but a peak infiltration rate. Water doesn’t do any good if there’s run-off. “I’m aiming for more robust plants that
will be forgiving of one- or two-day spikes in temperature,” says Neibling. “A very shallow root zone won’t help the plants.” “This system is feasible and a good idea on heavier ground,” comments Ontario potato grower, Homer Vander Zaag. “I have seen them installed on a few pivots around here. But primarily used on sod fields to help keep the wheel tracks dry. It really is a function of soil infiltration rates being matched to the nozzle design being used.” Adopting this technology will be based on factors such as soil texture and economics, concludes Ontario potato specialist Eugenia Banks.
Ontario growers plan ahead for water shortages A pilot project to determine the best way to manage limited water supplies during a drought has been undertaken by the Innisfil Creek Water Users Association (ICWUA) in partnership with the Nottawasaga Valley Conservation Authority (NVCA). "Drought has serious impacts on the ecosystem and agricultural production," says the NVCA's Hydrogeologist, Ryan Post. "When we encounter a low water situation it has to be managed carefully to ensure that protecting the natural
environment is balanced with the need for agricultural and other products that depend on irrigation." The project will be undertaken using the best water management science, including a 3D model that simulates various water use and water shortage scenarios. The results will be used to develop a drought management plan for the Innisfil Creek area and will have the potential to be applied to other subwatersheds across the province. The plan will also help inform decisions
made under the Ontario Low Water Response program. This program is managed by the provincial government and comes into play whenever a serious low water situation occurs. The plan will make recommendations on how water might be best allocated and how water requirements should be prioritized during periods of drought. The Innisfil Creek area in south Simcoe County is noted for its vast agricultural fields and exceptional crop production of potato, sod, carrots and onions, which
require an extensive irrigation network. This area has also experienced periods of severe drought, which impacted agricultural production, ecosystem health and the local economy.
Pipe & Fittings for Water Systems • PVC, ABS, Poly, Copper • Stainless, Brass, Steel Product Lines • Drip & Micro Irrigation • Septic & Sewer • Drainage & Culverts • Berkeley Water Pumps
Winona Concrete & Pipe Products Ltd. 489 Main St. W., Grimsby, ON. L3M 1T4
Phone (905) 945-8515 Fax: (905) 945-1149 or call toll-free
APRIL 2013 –– PAGE B7 THE GROWER
To advertise phone: 519-380-0118 • 866-898-8488 x 218 • Fax: 519-380-0011 AUCTION
Auction Sale Of Green houses, vegetable equipment & related items, tractors, farm machinery and miscellaneous items, to be held at 169 Katherine St. North bordering Winterbourne, for Jesse Gingrich, on Saturday, April 6th @ 9:30 a.m. GREENHOUSES: 117 X 137ft. – 5 bay “Gutter Connect” greenhouse with steel frames, fans, work tables & drip system for hanging baskets – good condition. Note – Drip system selling separately. 3 – 20 X 48ft. steel framed greenhouses with fans & work tables. Boiler Smith 3.3 million btu natural gas steam boiler. VEGETABLE RELATED: Stanhay 4 row 3ph belt planter with Grandy insecticide boxes. Planet Junior 3 row 3ph planter. RJ 4 row transplanter. Asalift 3ph root harvester. Rain-Flo 2550 plastic mulch layer with auto Ro-Trak – excellent. Rain-Flo 1600 “Series 2” water wheel transplanter. CHE 80in. 3ph roto tiller. Wilsey 30in. 3ph pto potato digger. 250 gal pto pull type sprayer with 32ft. single boom with hyd. lift (up to 7ft.). Large hyd. drive hose reel with quantity of 1 1/2, 2, 3, & 4in. lay flat hose (hose selling separately). Rovatti 4in. pto pump. Bauer irrigation wheel with 3 1/2in. X 1100ft. hose. Irrigation gun on wheels. “Air Blast” sprayer. Challenger 1800 plastic lifter. 24ft. tandem steel flat bed trailer with pick-aids – good. Soil mixer/flat filler with motors. Drum vegetable washer. Easy Grade 48WW produce washer/brusher. BCS 948 – 32in. rear tine tiller with Honda engine. Electric and hyd. conveyors. 8 X 12ft. platform scale (10,000 lb.). 4 large greenhouse fans. Hyd. plastic roll winder (loader attachment). Ground cover & drip system (for approx. 10,000 “moms”). 3 rolls shade cloth (20 X 125ft.). 25ft. tube conveyor on wheels. 30 plus greenhouse carts. Irrigation fittings. Row cover wires. Rolls of plastic row cover. MACHINERY: CIH MX110 – 4wd open station diesel tractor with creeper & duals. JD 5210 diesel tractor with “collarshift”. Landini Atlantis 70 – 4wd diesel tractor with creeper, 1500 hrs. Farmall 140 tractor with scuffler. Note – All tractors in good running order. NH 782 harvester with pickup. JD 2600 – 5 furrow semi-mount plow. CIH 800 Cyclo air 4 row corn planter with Market cross auger, insecticides & monitor. NH 316 baler with thrower. 2 new 24ft. steel racks on Horst 10 ton wagons with safety rails for people moving (easily convertible). 3 - 18ft. steel bale thrower racks on wagons. MISC. ITEMS: 5 – 48ft. highway storage trailers (1 insulated). 2 – 40ft. highway trailer frames. Note – Partial list only!! No reserves. Loading of purchased items is available. See www.auctionsfind.com/gerber for photos & complete list. Proprietor and auctioneers not responsible for accidents day of sale. Lunch booth. Terms – Cash or cheque with I.D. Proprietor – Jesse Gingrich 519-664-3826 (days) 664-3501 (evenings) Auctioneers – Gerber Auctions Ltd. 519-699-4451 or 698=0138 2827 Hutchison Rd., R#1 Millbank (Crosshill)
FARM CLEARING AUCTION Saturday April 20 - 10 a.m. (Preview Friday 12 – 4)
For Stratford - Anderson Ginseng Ltd. Located: 45 King Street North (old 24 HWY) Oakland. Approx 8 miles south of Brantford Consisting – 17 farm tractors, 50 - 125 h.p. - Case 680 I.L.B., 3 forklifts - 3 trucks, irrigation pipes and pumps - Ginseng planting and harvesting equipment - 3 P.T.H. P.M.T. Mini - Tile Plow Stone windrower and picker - good line of tillage farm equipment J.D. riding mowers - shop equipment - Good selection of miscellaneous equipment. (This is a full auction, most items have been shedded) For full list of photos check www.auctionsfind.com/mccartney. Terms - cash - cheque, interac, visa day of auction.
Jim McCartney Auction Service Ltd. 905-689-8778 Waterdown
PAGE B8 –– APRIL 2013 THE GROWER
To advertise phone: 519-380-0118 • 866-898-8488 x 218 • Fax: 519-380-0011 EQUIPMENT
WANTED NOW: CLEAN USED SPRAYER TRADES
ALL STAINLESS STEEL Made in Canada
** LOW DRIFT SPRAY TOWERS to fit any TURBO-MIST - IN STOCK NOW** Turbo-Mist 600 gal, Used 3 Yrs, Like New , Myers Pump . . . . . . $16,800 Turbo-Mist 500 gal, Used 3 Yrs, Centrifugal, Mint Cond . . . . . . . COMING Turbo-Mist 500 gal, Diaphram Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $8,500 Turbo-Mist 500 gal, Tall Stainless Steel Spray Tower . . . . . . . . . $11,500 Turbo-Mist 400 gal, Electric Controls, Split Boom, Low Hours. . . .$8,500 Turbo-Mist 500 gal, New Myers Centrifugal Pump . . . . . . . . . . . COMING John Bean/FMC 500 gal, Stainless Steel, Piston Pump, A-1. . . . . $6,900 Hardi 3 P.H., 400 Litre, Exc Condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $2,500 Perfect KG220 H.D. Flail Mower, New Hammers . . . . . . . . . . . . $6,900 Perfect Heavy Duty Brush Mulchers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IN STOCK Seppi Flail Mowers for Grass & Prunings New Holland TN95F 90H.P., Cab, 4 x 4, 2200 HRS . . . . . . . . . . $22,500 PARTS AND SERVICE 7 DAYS/WEEK IN SEASON TRADES, CONSIGNMENTS, LEASING, DELIVERY ANYWHERE
D O N A RT H U R O R C H A R D E Q U I P M E N T (519) 599-3058 firstname.lastname@example.org Clarksburg, ON
EQUIPMENT FOR SALE • Johnson Carrot Bedder, 6row, updated heavy duty T-box an driveshafts, extra hanger bearings, assist wheels. • Monosem Precision Vacuum Seeder 3-pt ultra narrow twin row 12 units, c/w carrot, onion, and redbeet plates. • Univerco Onion Harvester and Lifter, low acres. • Onion grading line and sizing chains. • Guarasi Tomato Harvester, self propelled, electronic sort. • Wooden tote boxes, approx. 400. • Irrigation pumps, pto driven.
WARWICK ORCHARDS & NURSERY LTD. R.R. #8 Watford, Ontario N0M 2S0 Tel: (519) 849-6730 Toll free: 877-550-7412 Fax: (519) 849-6731 Email: email@example.com
Munckhof Orchard Sprayers Votex Shredders and Mowers Orchard Equipment and Supplies Pruning Tools
• VEGETABLE SEEDERS Planet Jr.
• CASH CROP PLANTERS Conventional – Pneumatic (Air)
• FERTILIZER ATTACHMENTS
All equipment stored inside and in excellent condition. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org or call 519-809-0485 Can send pictures and more info.
• ROW CROP WEEDERS, ETC. • DISC HILLERS • SPECIALIZED ROW CROP EQUIPMENT Cultivator Steels, Sweeps, Hoes, Furrowers, Hillers, Etc.
JOHN C. GRAHAM CO. LTD. DISTRIBUTORS 88 Erie Street North • P.O. Box 13 Leamington, Ontario • N8H 3W1
Tel:(519) 326-5051 Fax: (519) 326-0480
FOR SALE • 5 bin orchard bin carrier, single large tires, hydraulic remote outlets $2,750. obo. • Mechanical mid-size nursery transplanter for planting bare root nursery rootstocks, blueberries, raspberries etc. two chains 12" and 15", $2,500. obo. Call Casper 519-670-1830 or 519-773-5635 Aylmer, ON
APRIL 2013 –– PAGE B9 THE GROWER
To advertise phone: 519-380-0118 • 866-898-8488 x 218 • Fax: 519-380-0011 CONTAINERS
LOUTH & NIAGARA ORCHARDS P.O. Box 43 • Virgil, Ontario • L0S 1T0 • 905-468-3297 4000 Jordan Road • Jordan Station, ON • 905-562-8825
Supplying Fruit and Vegetable Growers with: • Baskets • Masters • Fertilizer • Vineyard Trellis Supplies
• Berry Boxes • Waxed Cartons • Crop Protection Material
Mel Tech buys plastic and can recycle all your industrial waste.
Oriental Vegetable Seeds P: 519-326-8200 F: 1-888-567-1297 www.madleyglobal.com
REAL ESTATE Korea Green - F1
We buy plastic!
Food production containers, pails, barrels, unused plastic pellets and bins. Contact: James Burns 519-682 2900 email@example.com
AgroHaitai Ltd. Ph: 519-647-2280 • Fax: 519-647-3188 firstname.lastname@example.org• www.AgroHaitai.com REFRIGERATION
Reliable Refrigeration Systems
1-866-748-7786 www.kooljet.com Visit our website to view our complete line
One-Piece and Portable Skid-Mount Systems, HydroCoolers, Medical and Process Chillers, Blast Freezers, Vacuum Coolers, Refrigerated Dehumidiﬁers. Custom Built Designs • Domestic and International Markets
FOR SALE – Farm Equipment: -RJ Transplanter, with 1000 gal tank, set-up for any spacing for up-to 9 units (included) -Ramsay Vegetable Harvest Aid, can be used for various crops, was used for broccoli, 11 bunching machines included. -Kneverland airseeder, with 9 twin row units, very good condition, plates and spare parts included. -Pik Rite 190 Tomato Harvester, fully loaded, well maintained, high capacity machine - Front mounting platform harvest aid, used for broccoli/cauliflower etc. Pictures available via email. Contact email@example.com or (519) 809-0615 Soil sled bedder, Kennco style, 3pth, markers, plastic lined, shapes a 4-6” bed, 35” wide in preparation of mulch laying, $1250. Vegetable washer, 18" wide with 4' receiving belt, medium brushes, sponge absorber, variable speed. Best offer. Jacobs greenhouse walkway, $4 per foot. Wooden bins slatted for aeration, 44” x 40” x 27”, $45. Rotating packing table, 6 ft., $975. Call 519-768-1590 or firstname.lastname@example.org
PAGE B10 –– APRIL 2012 THE GROWER
To advertise phone: 519-380-0118 • 866-898-8488 x 218 • Fax: 519-380-0011 NURSERY AND ROOTSTOCK C.O.
• Certified Strawberry Plants & Raspberry Canes • All popular varieties available • Grown under the Nova Scotia Certification program. Plants shipped across North America. Contact us for a FREE brochure! 982 North Bishop Road, Kentville, Nova Scotia, Canada B4N 3V7 Ph: (902) 678-4497 Fax: (902) 678-0067 Email: email@example.com
STRAWBERRY PLANTS ***CERTIFIED*** RASPBERRY CANES Producers of Quality stock for 46 years. Grown under the Nova Scotia Certification Program. Shipping across North America. Contact us for more information and a free brochure
G.W. ALLEN NURSERY LTD. 7295 Hwy 221 Centreville, N.S. B0P 1J0 ph. 902-678-7519 fax: 902-678-5924
SPECIALIZING IN FRUIT TREES & GRAPE VINES & ELDERBERRIES. VARIETY AND PRICE LIST AVAILABLE ON REQUEST Howard A. Colcuc Nursery Manager R.R. #4 Creek Road Niagara-on-the-Lake, ON. L0S 1J0 Tel: (905) 262-4971 Fax: (905) 262-4404 firstname.lastname@example.org
ASPARAGUS ROOTS Jersey Giant
Wrightland Farm RR 1 • 1000 Ridge Rd. Harrow, ON N0R 1G0 Keith: 519-738-6120 Fax: 519-738-3358
ASPARAGUS CROWNS Available for Spring 2013 Millennium Mary Washington Sweet Purple Sandy Shore Farms Ltd. (519) 875-3382 www.sandyshorefarms.ca
Secure the varieties you need for 2013 and 2014 planting. Call now for quality: Apple, Pear and Peach trees.
WARWICK ORCHARDS & NURSERY LTD 7056 Egremont Rd. R.R. #8 Watford, Ontario N0M 2S0 email@example.com Tel: (519) 849-6730 Toll free: 877-550-7412 Fax: (519) 849-6731
Wholesale cedar forest products • Small orchard posts • Fence posts & poles • Cedar landscaping mulch Roger Hayes Wiarton, ON
519-534-2067 cell: 519-373-1891
APRIL 2013 –– PAGE B11 THE GROWER
To advertise phone: 519-380-0118 • 866-898-8488 x 218 • Fax: 519-380-0011 NURSERY AND ROOTSTOCK TOP QUALITY VEGETABLE, HERB AND STRAWBERRY PLUG TRANSPLANTS CERTIFIED ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL PLANTS AVAILABLE
Strawber Str Stra r awber wber r y & R aspber r y Raspber Plants Pl l ants
Tomatoes, Peppers, Brassica/Cole crops, Cucurbit/Vine crops, Lettuces, onions & leek
THE ONLY LICENSED COMMERCIAL PROPAGATOR IN ONTARIO SELLING STRAWBERRY PLUG TRANSPLANTS ***Bank on the benefits of using top quality ACTIVELY growing berry plants***
CONTACT US NOW TO RESERVE SPACE FOR YOUR 2013 CROP NEEDS
CARTHER PLANTS “MAXIMIZING YOUR PROFIT POTENTIAL” 30627 Jane Rd., RR5 Thamesville, ON N0P 2K0 Office 519.695.5445 Cell 519.359.2130 Fax 519. 695.5452 firstname.lastname@example.org Licensed by the University of California. Not recognized under the guidelines of the Ontario Plant Propagation program due to origin of stock.
CLASSIFIEDS Farm equipment for sale: - 6 row mechanical plug transplanter, frame, shade and adjustable $4500 OBO. - 2 rainflow single unit plastic mulch planters $1000 each. - 2 row flame thrower for organic crop weed maintenance $750. Call (519) 429-1183 or email email@example.com
Scott-Whaley Nurseries PEACH & NECTARINE TREES Still available for Spring 2013:
Harrow Diamond, Harrow Dawn, Garnet Beauty, Harrow Fair, Redhaven, Allstar, Harblaze, Fantasia 1903 RD 5E Ruthven ON N0P 2G0 Phone: 519-326-9330 • Fax: 519-326-3083 firstname.lastname@example.org
HARDY FRUIT TREES FOR CANADIAN CLIMATES
For sale: 2003 Williams 2 head/four row fully automatic transplanter. Comes with 1200 plug trays (338s). Please call (519) 446-2277 for more info. Custom vacuum cooling available in Scotland. We can cool leafy greens, broccoli, mushrooms and some berries. Call (519) 446-2277 for more info. For sale: 917H Ford flail mower offset 92” cut, $1000. Asparagus root digger, $500. 5000 used Blackmore cell trays, $500. Phone (519) 586-2159 For Sale: TurboMist sprayer, 400 gal, Turbo steer, excellent condition. IH140 tractor w/ cultivator and side dresser. Both always stored inside. (905) 765-2027 2001 SFM Samson bush berry harvester,excellent shape,well maintained, low hrs, $50,000 or obo. Call (403) 886-4120 or (403) 396-9262
CLASSIFIED ADS 1-866-898-8488 x 221
MAY 2013 AD DEADLINE: APRIL 15
PAGE B12 –– APRIL 2013 THE GROWER
A SWEEPING STRATEGY FOR SUCCESS. DuPont™ Altacor® insecticide delivers long-lasting insect control in blueberries, caneberries, grapes, pome and stone fruits and tree nuts. Say goodbye to oblique-banded leafroller, codling moth, grape berry moth, climbing cutworm, oriental fruit moth and others. Powered by Rynaxypyr®, Altacor® sweeps away these damaging pests, with minimal impact on bees and beneficials to protect your high-yielding, high-quality crops.
Questions? Ask your retailer, call 1-800-667-3925 or visit altacor.dupont.ca
As with all crop protection products, read and follow label instructions carefully. The DuPont Oval Logo, DuPont™, The miracles of science™, Altacor® and Rynaxypyr® are registered trademarks or trademarks of E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. E. I. du Pont Canada Company is a licensee. Member of CropLife Canada. © Copyright 2013 E. I. du Pont Canada Company. All rights reserved.
DuPont™ Altacor ®