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June/July 2014



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June/July 2014




Issue # 27

June / July 2014


05/ Hidden Gold: History, art, and adventure in Wells and Barkerville, BC This summer, if you fancy heading out on a road trip with stunning scenery and extra ordinary adventure, why not follow a section of the old Cariboo Waggon Road, a route of days gone by that leads to hidden historical tourism gems tucked in the Cariboo Mountains. - by Lisa Bland 06/ The Future of Tourism is Green Thirty years ago, there was no ecotourism. There was tourism, which meant going to unfamiliar places in a recreational state of mind, but the prefix “eco” was reserved for more traditional concepts like “ecology” and “economy,” and not at all for a gentler, and greener way of interacting with nature. - by Jessica Kirby 07/ Horsefly’s StoneRich Farm Our southern exposure garden has lots of sun but very poor soil—just a few inches on a bed of rock-studded clay. We decided we really wanted that location, so the answer was to improve the soil. - by Paul Hearsey and Sandy Mcie 17/ Eat, Drink, and be Healthy in Williams Lake When you want to treat yourself and your family to a healthy meal or meet a friend for righteous coffee, there are some excellent options in Williams Lake. - by LeRae Haynes 19/ Summer Solstice 2014 The wisdom of Indigenous cultures around the world tells us that during the cyclical course of each year we are presented with two times of great ‘turning’ in our processes—that we are given two moments or periods of time where the possibility for change both within ourselves and within our communities is seen as greater than at any other time. - by Ciel Patenaude 28/ Off-grid Checklist: ‘Tis the Season Blooming of the natural world in springtime and early summer brings us back to our outdoor pursuits, which in BC are often in remote locations. If we have the benefit of a seasonal home, a summer cabin, or an RV then chances are some kind of electrical power system is installed - by Ron Young

TheGreenGazette Publisher / Editor-in-Chief Lisa Bland Senior Editor Jessica Kirby Contributors David Suzuki, LeRae Haynes, Jenna Sipponen, Diane Dunaway, Paul Hearsey and Sandy McNie, Michelle Daymond, Ciel Patenaude, Ron Young, Lisa Bland, Dariusz Leszynski, Tera Grady, Van Andruss, A.K. Amy, Jasmin Schellenberg, Terri Smith, Susan Tritt, Jessica Kirby, Ray Grigg, Tammy Keetch, Adam McLeod, Vera Lehar, Carla Bullinger Brianna van de Wijngaard, Claire West Mattson, Venta Rutkauskasis Advertising Lisa Bland Creative Directors Lisa Bland / Teena Clipston Ad Design Teena Clipston, Rebecca Patenaude, Leah Selk Published by Earthwild Consulting Printing Black Press Ltd. Cover Photo Ron Hilton Index Photo John Moran

PO Box 164 Horsefly, BC, V0L 1L0 250-620-3419 TheGreenGazette is published by Earthwild Consulting. To subscribe call 250-620-3419. To view the web s ite an d on lin e f lipb oo k, v i s it © 2014 all rights reserved. Opinions and perspectives expressed in the magazine are those of authors, and do not necessarily represent the views of the ownership or management. Reproduction in whole or part June/July 2014 without the publisher’s consent is strictly prohibited.

Photo: Jon Moran

26/ The Hummingbird Project Takes Hold in the Cariboo If ever there were a bird that captures our sense of wonder, surely hummingbirds top the list. From their aerodynamic acrobatics to the metallic sheen of their feathers, the smallest birds on the planet exude beauty and joy. - by Diane Dunaway

Also in this Issue: 08/ Wireless Communication and Precautionary Principle - by Dariusz Leszynski 09/ Science Matters: On the urban green revolution, small is big - by David Suzuki 10/ One potato, two potato, three potato, grow! - by Michelle Daymond 11/ At Roads End: Confessions of a farmer - by Terri Smith 12/ The Reckless Expansion of Salmon Farms - by Van Andress 12/ Youth Perspective: Whales and dolphins in captivity - by Jenna Sipponen 14/ Chickens: Potpourri for parasites - by Susan Tritt 14/ Clean Air Day - by Tammy Keetch 15/ Exploring the Cariboo-Chilcotin in Earth Friendly Style - by Brianna van de Wijngaard 18/ Circle of Courage: Cariboo-Chilcotin style - by Carla Bullinger 20/ A Report on Precarious Civilizations - by Ray Grigg 21/ The Importance of Treating the Whole Patient - by Adam McLeod BDc, D 21/ Letters: <atural versus natural - by Vera Lehar 22/ What’s in Your Well? Part 3: Bacteriological, chemical, and mineral test results - by A. K. (Sandy) Amy 23/ Let me Tell you a Story - by Claire West Mattson 24/ Self Design Learning Community Student from Williams Lake Recognized in International Schools Essay Competition 25/ Featured Green Business: Lifelong memories at Sunshine Ranch Weddings - by LeRae Haynes 27/ Body Soul Flow: Yoga and sacred practices for your soul - by Venta Rutkauskasis 27/ Food Waste - by Tera Grady 28/ <ational Aboriginal Day: Celebrating culture in Williams Lake - by LeRae Haynes 29/ <ourishing our Children - by Jasmin Schellenberg 30/ Calendar of Events 31/ The Green Collective

Above photo: Female Rufous hummingbird drinks nectar from a garden Columbine flower (Aquilegia sp. )

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June/July 2014


Letter from the Publisher

Hidden Gold: History, art, and adventure in Wells and Barkerville, BC Lisa Bland Publisher/ Editor-in-Chief


his summer, if you fancy heading out on a road trip with stunning scenery and extra ordinary adventure, why not follow a section of the old Cariboo Waggon Road, a route of days gone by that leads to hidden historical tourism gems tucked in the Cariboo Mountains. Taking a right-hand turn after Quesnel and driving 80 km east along the meandering Hwy 26, along the historical gold rush route, leads to the gold mining area of the Wells, Barkerville, and Bowron Lakes region. Here, the invigorating air of wild alpine vistas converge with ghosts of miners past in a rich medley of Cariboo Gold Rush history, modern day visual and performing arts, and extreme outdoor adventure. The first gem you’ll encounter is the vibrant artists’ town of Wells. Its galleries, studios, and restored historical buildings in bright, funky hues of fuchsia, robin-egg blue, and lavender are a few of many visual clues that this place is a little out of the ordinary. Wells originally sprung up around the successful hard rock lode Cariboo GoldQuartz Mine in the 1930s and is named after prospector, Fred Wells. His determined search for gold in nearby Cow Mountain struck pay dirt. This local “motherload,” vein of gold was the source of the placer (smaller gold particle deposits) mining in the first wave of the Cariboo Gold Rush that created Barkerville and surrounding mines in the 1860s. At the height of the Great Depression in the 1930s, the gold rush town of Wells was booming, and core community buildings such as the Wells Community hall, Wells Hotel, and Hill Meat Market building were constructed. Still in use today, these historic spaces helped the community flourish and became the backdrop for a thriving art scene. In 1977, the nonprofit organization, Island Mountain Arts (IMA) opened its first Summer School of the Arts in Wells. Today, IMA programming continues to offer standards of excellence with workshops and classes throughout the summer with professional instructors in diverse areas such as pottery, literary arts, painting, and music. IMA projects include Canada’s longest running International Harp School, the Toni Onley Artists’ Project, and the fabulous ArtsWells Festival of All Things Art. View their programs here: Every summer, the epic four-day Artswells Festival transforms Wells and Barkerville and their tagline, “Expect the Unexpected,” says it all. The buzz in the air is reminiscent of ‘gold fever,’ as a diverse mix of world class jazz, electronic, world, hip-hop, funk, indie, pop, country, and folk music performances set the stage for a an experience you’ll never forget. Whether you’re hustling to venues to attend music,

June/July 2014

dance, theatre, or literary performances at historical hot spots like the Sunset Theatre cabaret and the Wells community hall, strolling down the colourful streets, or relaxing by the meandering creek in the townsite, ArtsWells offers something for everyone. Rain or shine, it’s not unusual to see crowds of festival goers dance-walking along the road, interspersed with accordion players, jugglers, poi fire dancers, violinists, stilt-walkers, acrobats, tri-cyclists, and bands of hula hoop dancers. Visit to find out more. See more on the ArtsWells scene here http:// Just a few miles down the road you’ll find the thriving Barkerville Historic Town, a bustling re-enactment of the 18691885 period and first wave of the Cariboo Gold rush. In 1862, prospector Billy Barker discovered an ounce of placer gold for every three pans of dirt from the Williams Creek area in Richfield near Barkerville. Within a short time Barkerville became the hub of the Cariboo gold fields, with its deep placers and rich hillside deposits. At its height, Barkerville was the largest city north of San Francisco and west of Chicago. In 1865, the 700 km Cariboo Waggon Road from Fort Yale ending in Barkerville was completed, transforming the dangerous mule pack-trail through BC Interior canyon country into an efficient gold transport route. Designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1924, Barkerville was recognized as a key influence in the economic and political development of BC. In 1958, the provincial government created the Barkerville Historic Provincial Park, reconstructing the town to mirror its appearance between 1869-1885. Today, Barkerville’s live street performers dressed in the era’s fashion enact songs and stories from this rich period of gold rush history. Step back in time and roam around the town site visiting the historic displays and listening to the wooden floorboards creak while wandering inside many of the 107 original heritage buildings. Listen to the metal ringing as an 1870s working blacksmith smashes a hot iron and fashions a metal horseshoe. Stop by for a live theatre performance, 1870s style, at the Theatre Royal, dedicated to recreating gold rush entertainments of the day, or view exhibits about the areas’ gold mining history, including the significant role played by Chinese miners adapted to the rugged Cariboo region. You may want to catch a demonstration of an 1870s Cornish water wheel, or get a taste of gold fever, panning for a gold nugget of your own at the Eldorado Gold Panning and Gift Shop. A horse drawn wagon ride will drop you off at the beautifully restored Richfield Courthouse, the oldest surviving wooden building in BC, built in 1882. Here you can attend a live court session and listen to the famous Judge Begbie deliver sentences to Barkerville’s criminals and troublemakers. For more info or to plan your visit to Barkerville go to or call (800) 994-3332. If you’re looking for a rugged offroad adventure, spectacular alpine vistas offer excellent options for summer hiking in the wild expanse of the Cariboo Mountains. An extensive network of trails surrounds the

Dominion Day Tug O' War in Barkerville, BC with Miss Fanny Bendixon and Mrs. Bella Hodgkinson. Photo: Thomas Drasdauskis region with trails suitable for day hikes or longer journeys. Feature trails include the Cornish Mountain network and meadow route, the ‘Barkerville Boneshaker’ route, part of the Cariboo Waggon Road route between the ghost towns of Stanley and Barkerville, and exhilarating mountain treks on Two Sisters Mountain, Mount Murray, and Yanks Peak. For more information on area maps, guided hiking, mountain bike, and horseback trips visit or call (877) 451-9355. For serious eco-adventurers that want to plan ahead, nearby Bowron Lakes Provincial Park is an internationally recognized wilderness area with a canoeing route on the Bowron Chain of Lakes and its network of 116 km of lakes, rivers, and, portages offering 2 to 10-day route options. Paddling the canoe circuit requires preregistration. More information: http:// www .e nv . gov . bc .c a/bcpar ks/ e xpl ore / parkpgs/bowron_lk/. So get out there and explore your backyard this summer! Mystery and adventure await when you follow the gold trail to the Cariboo Mountains. Local Eats Wells: The Bear’s Paw Cafe – More than a dinner cafe... it’s an experience. Offering frequent live music on the outdoor patio, fresh, delicious food, great micro-beer selection, and friendly staff. (866) 994-2345. Barkerville: Long Duck Tong Restaurant – Fresh, authentic Chinese cuisine served in a beautifully restored 1800s building. Some say it’s the best Chinese food in BC! Excellent service. Hong Kong trained chefs. (250) 994-3458. Barkerville: Wake Up Jake Restaurant and Coffee Saloon – An 1870s, 60+ seat, Victorian-style restaurant with authentic good rush food from the era. Great for the whole family. Miners breakfast spread, Western fare, and featured high tea on Victoria Day for the past 16 years. (250) 994-3259. Hitting the Hay Wells: The Wells Hotel – This heri-

tage country inn built in 1934 features a lovely fir wooden staircase leading you to a range of unique cozy rooms for recharging, relaxing, or romancing. With 16 guest rooms, a restaurant, and a pub, the Wells Hotel is well worth the sta y. (800) 860-2299. Barkerville: Kelly and King House Bed and Breakfast – Restored homes in the heart of Barkerville historic town are perfect for family comfort. Feather duvets, claw footed tubs, and antique furnishings add creature comfort to everyday modern c o nv e ni e nce s . ( 25 0) 99 4- 3 32 8 Barkerville: St. George Hotel – The famously haunted hotel is an 1890s restored saloon and brothel turned bed and breakfast boutique hotel in middle of Barkerville. The Victorian-style St. George is charmingly filled with antique furniture and curious and magical breakable things. (888) 246-7690 Don’t Miss Barkerville: Mason & Daly General Merchants Store – A 19th century style general store with an eclectic mix of historic paraphernalia and extraordinary selection of goods from fasteners, feathers, stationery, and straight razors to an incredible selection of hats. A huge selection of licorice, chocolates, fudge, and cheese in big rounds. No kitchy tourist stuff here. (250) 994-3227. Barkerville: Barkerville Cowboy and Drover Jubilee – Hit the dusty trail and celebrate BC’s rich cowboy heritage with a three-day cowboy festival with seven acoustic performers and four stages. Featuring spoken word, music, dance, singing competition, and more. September 5 to 7. (888) 994-3332 Wells: 7 Summits Bike and Hike Challenge – Seven mountains, seven stages, 7,000 feet up – one day. 20 km total hiking distance and 40 km total biking distance. September 13. Hosted by Friends of Barkerville to raise awareness of the fragile local alpine ecosyste m. http://

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The Future of Tourism is Green By Jessica Kirby, Senior Editor of TheGreenGazette


hirty years ago, there was no ecotourism. There was tourism, which meant going to unfamiliar places in a recreational state of mind, but the prefix “eco” was reserved for more traditional concepts like “ecology” and “economy,” and not at all for a gentler, and greener way of interacting with nature. Ecotourism in its contemporary expression can mean several things— travelling into delicate, gently touched, environments with light feet and strict respect; low-impact, small-scale travel in relatively undisturbed areas; and, travelling to developing nations to gain perspective and experience for international environmental concerns. This vision evolved over the past 30 years thanks to public emphasis on preventing environmental destruction, promoting economic preservation, and reconciling the debate on international aid—ecotourism combines and supports all three by financially supporting communities, educating travellers, and preserving nature, ideally simultaneously and in a single place. Internationally, ecotours generate awareness about environmental plights in various countries with the hope that travellers will appreciate and take personal interest in these places. Often funds from ecotours will go into community development funds, empowering entire communities, and fostering respect for cultural diversity and human rights. In Canada, ecotourism means more or less the same thing, but on a larger scale. Our diverse natural landscape has made the bucket lists of millions, mainly from other developed countries, especially those where true wilderness is a thing of the past. As a privileged nation, we may not live and die by eco-tourism dollars, but they are important economic drivers. In 2011, revenue from international travellers to Canada and Canadians travelling domestically reached $78.8 billion, resulting in $26.4 billion in constant dollars, $31.2 billion in unadjusted dollars, $22 billion in tax revenues, and 603,400 jobs. But even more importantly, Canada’s status as a highly desired eco-tourism destination, the fact that people want to come and see our bears and eagles, walk in our forests, swim in our rivers, and look in awe at our sunsets, should serve as an essen-

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Travellers experience adrenaline-fuelled excitement on the Chilcotin River, thanks to Interior Whitewater Expeditions, a company committed to perfecting—and greening— vactions into the Interior wilderness. Photo courtesy of Interior Whitewater Expeditions. tial reminder that we are fortunate and have something here that exists nowhere else on earth. Peggy and Gary Zorn own EcotoursBC, a family-run wilderness adventure company based in Likely, BC that brings worldly travellers in touch with the beautiful Cariboo Mountain natural environment. The Zorns have been in tourism for three decades, and have an integral interest in preserving BC’s wilderness and sharing it with travellers. “Ecotourism has become the number one reason to travel in the world,” says Peggy Zorn. “To be eco-friendly in tourism, our clientele expects reuse and recycling in every way possible, but without having to give up comforts/luxuries they are used to.” Ecotours-BC offers mountain high backcountry adventures with hiking, rock climbing, and wildlife observation; tours focused on observing bird habitats; winter “call of the wild” tours to get a look at moose, wolves, and high-mountain beauty; and, for thrill-seekers: chances to walk among the bears in the boreal forest. “Our tours are non-intrusive and educational for clients,” says Zorn. “We are very careful not to disturb sensitive ecosystems, particularly in the alpine and in areas where rare species of plants exist. With wildlife we maintain distances in order to not stress the animals, and we take only small groups and avoid visiting the same areas on a daily basis.” Passion for nature and wildlife has always been a way of life for the Zorns, and after 35 years in the outdoor adventure business, the company took its natural course into eco-tourism. “We were involved in the guide outfitting business and the fly fishing industry, and clients often brought non-hunting/ fishing partners who were more interested in

nature, wildlife, birds, and the ecosystems so it was a natural progression to offer exclusive ecotour programs,” says Zorn. Ecotours-BC’s primary clientele is highly populated European countries with huge cities where wilderness no longer exists, says Zorn. This generation of travellers want to see many things in the world, including grizzly bears, polar bears, whales, tigers, and other natural wonders. They also want adventure that will elevate their natural lives to a new level of experience and excitement. “Over the past 15 years or so these desires have grown in the world, creating the opportunities to grow ecotourism businesses in Canada—something that was almost unheard of 20 years ago,” says Zorn. “In this fast-paced, electronic world people are looking to disconnect and re-energize and breathe clean air and the place to do this is to return to the roots of humankind in nature.” Zorn says travellers are battling “nature deficiency disorder” by bringing their young children and other family members to learn about and reconnect with nature. “Many North Americans still do not understand ecotourism and its contributions to society, a better way of life and thinking, and the economies of communities,” she says. The Zorns’ biggest challenge as an industry is with consumptive industries permanently altering or even destroying BC’s wilderness. “Once an area is disturbed or infrastructure is created it cannot be returned to the natural or wilderness state,” says Zorn. “As far as the business is concerned there are many things we can do to green our operations from recycling to using energy efficient equipment. However, the

costs of greening our operations is often prohibitive for small operations like ours.” Interior Whitewater Expeditions (IWE), located inside Wells Gray Provincial Park in Clearwater, BC, also operates under green pretences, taking whatever baby steps it can to lighten its impact on the Earth. The business has 30 years behind it, taking adventurers rafting on some of the most powerful and pristine rivers in BC’s interior. Tours range from three hours of wet and wild whitewater manoeuvring where participants “get intimate with the water” to family-focused day trips and multi-day camping-rafting-wildlife-viewing expeditions focused on kicking back and relaxing in nature. Co-owner Jane Trotter says the company observes eco-tourism principles like leaving no trace on the wilderness, respecting wildlife, and educating travellers on the park’s ecosystems, but not because it is trendy. “My husband Doug started this business 30 years ago and has always spent time outdoors and respected the environment,” she says. “He was aware of and respected the natural environment probably before many others did.” Besides working closely with the parks department to observe its boundaries, trails, and water safety requirements, IWE oars every trip, and Doug ensures tourists don’t leave so much as a twist tie behind. “He’s a stickler,” says Trotter. “We use and encourage reusable containers as much as possible, but we also make sure whatever we bring in, we take out.” The Trotters use environmentally safer products and apparel in the day-to-day operation of their business, and the on-site Kettle Café serves up a 100-mile diet with tasty, nutritious meals prepared from scratch. The future of tourism in BC has got to be green, says Trotter, as travellers tend to be more health conscious and looking for ways to live those ideals while on vacation. “People who are interested in outdoor sports are usually in tune with the environment, and respecting the environment is an issue that is important to them,” she says. “People take the environment into consideration when making decisions about how they spend their time, because they are involved in it and want it to stay the same and beautiful.” Tourists and travellers the world over can help companies like Ecotours-BC and Interior Whitewater Expeditions stay committed to safe, green exploration of the natural world by sharing their experiences in other parts of the world and communicating green ideas that have impressed them in other places. “Many people like to contribute by joining in restoration projects to enhance damaged areas,” says Zorn. “They can also contribute to nature and wildlife foundations and local projects in areas where they visit. “Advocacy work by tourism industry organizations is important in maintaining operating areas as well as natural areas and parks for all—resident recreationists, visitors, and tourism businesses.

June/July 2014

Horsefly's StoneRich Farm


By Paul Hearsey and Sandy McNie


e have been organic gardeners for many years with as much self-sufficiency as possible as our goal. Our five-acre farm on the coast had large vegetable gardens and fruit orchards. Cash crops of berries and tree fruits provided much of the income we needed to make a go of it. Selling chicken and rabbit meat, and milk from the goats and cows helped. This was all done in agricultural Zone 8, of course. Gardening here in Zone 3 has proven to be quite a challenge, but entirely do-able. Moving to Horsefly has been exciting and a lot of hard work, but we have never looked back. Our southern exposure garden has lots of sun but very poor soil—just a few inches on a bed of rock-studded clay. We decided we really wanted that location, so the answer was to improve the soil. Discing with a neighbour’s tractor proved almost impossible as the discs simply scraped across the rocks without doing much damage, so we ended up buying an ancient spring-tooth cultivator. That was the answer: the seven shanks could break up the ground without much fuss. Pulled by our 1950 Ferguson tractor, the cultivator allowed us to bring up rocks for hand-picking, again and again, until we’d had enough. A soil analysis found our soil to be seriously deficient in phosphorous, zinc, copper, iron, and boron. What to do? Planting half of the 5,500-square-foot garden in a cover crop (annual rye or buckwheat) that can be turned under in the spring, as well as adding compost and other organic amendments, such as rock phosphate, wood ash, kelp meal, and boron to the whole garden, has built up the soil beautifully over the last four years. We plant the other half with vegetables for eventual storage in our root cellar and freezer. Of course, we then alternate sides, so both sides of the garden slowly improve. Apple and plum trees, plus raspberries, blueberries, gooseberries, currents, strawberries, and rhubarb round out the planting. As well, a dozen more Saskatoon bushes are on their w a y f r o m a S a s k a to o n Fa r m ( in Okotoks, Alberta as we write this. Saskatoons are very hardy and deserve a little space in every backyard. The jam they make is excellent, as Canadian as maple syrup. The first thing we built when we moved here was our 8 x 16 foot root cellar, set into the hillside. We are able to keep all our root crops (potatoes, carrots, parsnips, beets, and rutabagas) and cabbages until the next har-

June/July 2014

Left photo: A look into Sandy and Paul's root cellar, showing the shelving and laundry baskets used for vegetable storage. Right photo: A view of Paul and Sandy's big garden, where they plant the bulk of their vegetables, with greenhouse to the right. Photos: Paul Hearsey

vest is ready. Our best keeping cabbage is January King, an old heritage semi savoy that keeps well into June. Tip: always pull up your cabbages and hang them with string by their roots. Without lots of air circulation, cabbages often start to mould quickly. On the north side of this garden is our 20 x 40 foot commercial greenhouse. It was purchased as a kit from BW Greenhouses ( in Aldergrove. We use this for our tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, bush beans, and a tiny patch of sweet corn. This is a great space to work in on rainy days. We have power and seasonal water there. Now it should be said that, in the business, our greenhouse is really a coldframe. We don't supply heat yearround, so it doesn’t quite meet the definition of “greenhouse,” but we refer to it as one all the same. Our goal is to eventually set up some sort of heat source, maybe a wood stove or propane furnace, to slightly extend the growing season. Paul has been working up half an acre of neglected (abused would be more accurate) hayfield for our future grain field. Have you ever contemplated trying grains? We always thought grain growing was rocket science, until we read an article by Dan Jason of Sa l ts pri ng Seeds ( He’s been growing many grains successfully for years, and points out that a bushel of wheat (that’s 60 lbs) can be harvested easily from only 1,200 square feet. We grew perhaps ten varieties of wheat, plus rye and oats last year. Little test plots, mind you, about six square feet of each. Our aim is to grow enough wheat and rye for our needs, as well as hull-less oats. Quinoa is also on our wish list. Just last month we splurged and bought a beautiful KoMo grain mill from Bruce at

Sta-Well Health Foods. What a gem! We'll never buy flour again for our breadmaking. We also have a kitchen garden...we simply call it the 'small garden', only 2,500 square feet. There we plant all our greens and herbs, edible flowers, and more berries. Sandy loves this garden. A small arbour flanked with roses, delphiniums, honeysuckle, and lilies makes a beautiful entry. Many more flowers and spring bulbs achieve a natural look, with colours that work together. This is where we experiment with a large variety of salad greens, unusual kales, oriental greens, lots of spinach, and lettuce varieties. A healthy salad topped with colourful edible flowers is on our daily menu in the summer. Both of our gardens have seven-foot game fencing on split cedar posts to keep the wildlife out. Perhaps a very hungry bear could force its way in if it wanted to, but so far we’ve had no trouble. Last year we did have a hoary marmot take up residence in the greenhouse (where did he come from?) and his appetite was impressive, to say the least. We live-trapped him before he completely destroyed our beans and took him for a drive to a much nicer neighbourhood. Last year we experimentally rigged up a single row of potatoes with drip tape on a simple mechanical timer. That row produced 92% more pounds of tubers than the two hand-watered rows. We were sold; this year we’ve ordered enough drip tape, timers, and miscellaneous hardware to set up the entire garden on a watering system. Next year we’ll do the same to the small garden and greenhouse. It only makes sense to go this route, not just to save water but time. Time spent not just watering by

hand but weeding the undesirables that spring up in the paths because of “stray” water. An experiment we tried this spring was tapping a few of our birch trees, collecting the sap and cooking it down to syrup. It was so successful we'll be building a reverse osmosis system next winter to handle the daily harvest from 12 to 15 trees. We can easily produce 3/4 liter of delicious syrup each day for the three weeks the sap runs, and that will be our “honey substitute” because keeping bees is not something we want to get into again. Trees are so much less maintenance! In case you don't know, birch sap straight from the tree can be very tasty and can be found in stores all over Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine, Poland, and Russia. Seasonally, of course; it’s sold as a sort of spring tonic and has been for centuries. We drink it instead of water when we have an excess of it. We know what you’re thinking. No, all this food is for us. We don’t sell anything, but enjoy bartering and sharing with others. The wintertime is our time to slow down and visit friends, bringing out the fruits of our labours. The root cellar and freezer are full, and the pantry is full of canning and jams and other preserves. Life is good. We are almost finished building a highperformance, off-grid super-insulated house, but that’s another story for another i s s ue of TheGreenGazette. Paul Hearsey and Sandy Mcie live on a forty-acre farm in beautiful Horsefly. They are into all things farming, gardening, photovoltaics, solar, thermal, and building design. Feedback, questions, and visits are w e lc o me . Email t hem at

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Wireless Communication and Precautionary Principle

By Dariusz Leszynski, PhD, DSc


e, the cellphone users, are seriously misled. When buying a cellphone, we assume this radiationemitting product has been tested for human health safety before it was put on the market. We assume cellphones are safe to use. But this might be a wrong assumption. Cellphones were not tested for their human health safety before they were put on the market years ago. It is the first time in the history of humankind that we have put microwave-emitting devices directly to our heads and expose our organs, including the brain, to the deep-penetrating microwave radiation. Any comparisons with TV stations, used to alleviate our worries, are a sham. We, the users, never have working TV antennae touching our heads. On the other hand, we have microwave radiationemitting cellphones that, by design of modern engineers, work as antennae themselves. Engineers and dosimetry experts try to convince us that cellphone-emitted microwave radiation causes only thermal effects and that any potential health danger caused by thermal effects is prevented by the 1998 ICNIRP (International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection) safety standards. There are, however, two untruthful statements made to us again and again by the experts. The first untruthful statement is about the questionable existence of nonthermal biological effects. The non-thermal biological effects of cellphone radiation are real and have been shown and confirmed in numerous experimental studies. The problem is, and this helps in dismissing the nonthermal effects as either non-existent or irrelevant to human health, that the vast majority of studies showing the existence of the non-thermal effects are animal studies and studies on cells grown in a laboratory. The other untruthful statement suggests that we are all well protected by the safety standards. How do we know it in situations where we do not know how the cellphone radiation affects the human body? There are in existence only three human volunteer studies examining the molecular-level effects of cellphone radiation on the human body: one study on protein expression in the skin (Karinen et al. 2008) and two studies on glucose metabolism in the brain (Volkow et al. 2011; Kwon et al. 2011). All three studies were small pilot studies, but all three have shown that cellphone radiation at levels allowed by current safety standards might induce biological effects in living persons. It is puzzling that while there is an ongoing debate about whether cellphone radiation causes health effects in humans, there are only three studies that examined it… and have shown the possible nonthermal effects of cellphone radiation in human volunteers. How can the ICNIRP experts be certain that their safety standards protect all users, when there are practically no studies examining the physiology of people exposed to cellphone radiation? There is an even bigger scientific problem with the radiation dosimetry itself. The measurements model used by scientists

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Dr. Dariusz Leszczynski Model-head photo (left): Specific Anthropomorphic Mannequin (SAM): "The measurements model used to determine cellphone radiation distribution in human brain consists of a plastic mold in the form of a half-head filled with water solution of salt and sugar... a mold with fluid where ions can move freely is scientifically ridiculous." ~ Dr. Dariusz Leszczynski

Photo: to determine radiation distribution in the human brain consists of a plastic mold in the form of a half-head filled with a water solution of salt and sugar. Scientifically, it is an absolutely ridiculous model. In this model, upon exposure to cellphone radiation, ions in the liquid are free to move around. There are no obstacles. In real living cells in our brains the situation is absolutely the opposite. Ions do not move freely. There are compartments where some ions are permitted to reside and some ions are not. The ions are prevented by various mechanisms to move freely. There are gradients of ions forming gradients of electric potentials that are the basis of functioning of our cells and tissues, the brain included. The function of our whole body depends on electric potentials. That is why the dosimetry model of a mold with fluid where ions can move freely is scientifically ridiculous. It is a “dinosaur” relic from the times when computers had very little computing powers and to “crunch numbers” the models had to be very simple. With all the above listed limitations of scientific evidence, the World Health Organization and ICNIRP claim that current safety standards are sufficient to protect everyone. However, evidence demonstrates that the ICNIRP safety standards are insufficient for the protection of adult users. In 2011, a group of 30 experts* met at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in Lyon, France and for nearly two weeks debated whether cellphone radiation could cause brain cancer. The result of this debate was the classification of cellphone radiation as a 2B Possible Carcinogen to humans. The basis for such a classification was provided by epidemiological case-control studies showing that avid use of cellphones (ca. 30 min/day for over a 10-year period) by adults leads to increased risk of brain cancer—glioma. There were no such studies available for children or people with otherwise compromised health. The IARC classification of cellphone radiation invalidates the protective claims of the current safety standards. In epidemiological case-control studies evaluated by the IARC, adult participants used regular, off-the-shelf, cellphones. These cellphones were built to fulfill the ICNIRP safety standards. However, avid use of such “safe” phones for a period of over 10 years led to an increased risk of

brain cancer. This means that the current safety standards do not sufficiently protect users of cellphones. This situation of scientific uncertainty calls for an action—the implementation of the Precautionary Principle (PP). There are several conditions that need to be fulfilled before debating the implementation of PP: PP can be implemented when scientific information is insufficient, inconclusive, or uncertain. IARC classification of cellphone radiation as a possible carcinogen has clearly shown that the information on health effects of cellphone radiation is “insufficient, inconclusive, or uncertain.” PP can be implemented when there are indications that the possible effects on human health may be potentially dangerous. IARC classification of cellphone radiation, based on the evidence from epidemiological case-control studies, has pointed out that avid, long-term cellphone users are at an increased brain cancer risk— this is a potential danger to over six billion cellphone users. PP can be implemented when the current situation is inconsistent with the chosen level of protection. IARC classification pointing out an increased brain cancer risk is based on epidemiological studies where subjects used regular cellphones meeting current safety standards; this means the current safety standards are insufficient to protect users. Final conclusion: To protect cellphone users, the outdated and obsolete 1998 ICNIRP safety standards should be tightened to reflect the current status of scientific knowledge. Based on the IARC 2011 classification of cell phone radiation as a Possible Human Carcinogen, the authorities should implement the Precautionary Principle. The time to act is now.

Member of the Advisory Board, Cellraid Ltd, Oulu, Finland. With two doctorates and docentship in biochemistry, Dr. Dariusz Leszczynski has 22 years of experience at Finland's Säteilyturvakeskus (Radiation and uclear Safety Authority), including four years as Head of the radiation biology laboratory and 13 years as research professor. He has also served as assistant professor at Harvard Medical School, guangbiao professor at Zhejiang University in China, and visiting professor at Swinburne University of Technology in Australia.. Dr. Leszczynski testified in the U.S. Senate hearing on cellphones and health in 2009, and was one of the 30 experts invited by the IARC to evaluate the carcinogenicity of cellphone radiation in May, 2011. Read more on this science blog: BRHP – Between a Rock and a Hard Place or follow on Twitter: @blogBRHP Disclaimer: opinions presented are author’s own expert opinions and should not be considered as opinions of any of his employers.

*** Dr. Dariusz Leszczynski Adjunct professor; Department of. Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. Editor-in-chief of Frontiers in Radiation and Health, a specialty of the Frontiers in Public Health, Lausanne, Switzerland.

June/July 2014


Science Matters

In the urban green revolution, small is big By David Suzuki

Make no little plans. They have no magic to stir men’s blood and probably will not themselves be realized.” That was American architect Daniel Burnham’s city-planning advice at the turn of the 20th century. More than 100 years later, he couldn’t be more wrong. Big, top-down building projects no longer stir the imaginations of North American city dwellers. Now people are excited about little changes to our urban fabric. Small, creative projects that make cities more liveable are popping up in unexpected places: alleys, front yards, vacant lots, and parking spaces. Whether it’s yarnbombed street furniture, roadway parking turned to mini-parkettes, or guerrilla gardens in overlooked spaces, these oftenunauthorized interventions are helping to transform properties and neighbourhoods, one light, quick, cheap tweak at a time. Last spring, residents of Toronto’s Palmerston Square took note when an old chalkboard suddenly appeared on a tall, rusted schoolyard fence that runs along their quiet residential street—the first salvo from two participants in the David Suzuki Foundation’s Homegrown National Park Project. Passersby were encouraged to write their desires for green improvements. Neighbours began meeting. One family filled a perpetual pothole with flowers. Others put benches in their front yards to begin “parkifying” the block. Graffiti knitters yarnbombed the chain-link fence. An artist and local kids created a DIY outdoor version of fridge magnet poetry with plastic pipes cut in half, painted with words and hung on the fence with simple S-hooks. Two garden planters were dug into spots where trees had perished. This spring, residents successfully funded a project to replace the entire stretch of asphalt with a large pollinator-friendly garden. There’s even talk of removing the fence. The ripple effect: People from nearby streets have started organizing their own interventions, like a pollinator garden at the neighbourhood daycare and moss graffiti in an alleyway. As resident Anjum Chagpar said, “Inspiration breeds inspiration. Simple, fun interventions are contagious.” Replacing pavement with a pollinator garden on one small street won’t solve the vast issues our communities face, but little spaces perhaps hold the greatest potential. To make our cities truly green, we must bring nature to the oft-neglected bits between parks and existing green areas. Streets and sidewalks alone account for about 80 per cent of a city’s public space. Private spaces like yards, rooftops, and balconies cover more than half the urban landscape. Stretching our visions of urban green

June/July 2014

Small, creative projects that make cities more livable are popping up in unexpected places: alleys, front yards, vacant lots, and parking spaces. Photo:

space to include these allows us to reimagine the city as a vibrant green mosaic. Squeezing more nature into cities requires creativity. It also needs buy-in from homeowners, property managers, and experts from fields like landscape architecture and urban planning. That’s why the David Suzuki Foundation and Workshop Architecture launched the Homegrown Design Challenge, an open competition that provides an opportunity to present ideas for low-cost, easy-toimplement landscape design solutions for front yards, backyards, balconies, schoolyards, and laneways that provide environmental benefits, like capturing storm-water during severe weather events and providing habitat for birds, bees, and butterflies. “While we expect interest from architects, landscape architects, designers, and planners, the competition is open to anyone with innovative green design ideas,” said Helena Grdadolnik, Workshop Architecture competition organizer. Daniel Burnham lived in a time when telegrams were cutting-edge. Today, good ideas can spread from community to community across the globe almost instantaneously. So it’s no surprise that a growing number of design competitions and events are celebrating urban interventions, from PARK(ing) Day, which highlights the transformation of parking spots into temporary public spaces in 35 countries, to 100-in-1 Day, which will be held this year on June 7 in Toronto, Halifax, and Vancouver to celebrate citizen-led initiatives that “raise awareness of urban and social issues, inspire ideas, and motivate leaders to consider new approaches to old problems.” If a project requires start-up dollars, crowd-funding websites help organizers raise money in mere days or weeks. Sites like enable groups and individuals to fund, design, and build projects in their neighbourhoods. What can we take from this revolutionary wave of small, creative interventions? That residents can play an active, hands-on role in transforming the places they live, work, play, and share. Making your community truly greener is a tall order. But starting small can pay big dividends.

With contributions from David Suzuki Foundation Homegrown ational Park project lead Jode Roberts. Learn more at

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One potato, two potato,

three potato, grow! By Michelle Daymond

Greenologist Club at Williams Lake Secondary, Columneetza Campus. From left to right: Gabrielle Pierce, Delainey Smith, Karena Sokolan, Adrian Kennedy. Photo: <ara Riplinger


he Williams Lake Food Policy Council is very excited to have undertaken constructing a Children’s Learning Garden within the Memory Garden Community Garden. Its purpose will be to serve as a space to engage the senses and imagination in terms of our relationships with food—and have fun in the process! This project came about to build on the keen interest our local schools have in growing their own food, running farm-toschool salad bar programs (where students are fed a lunch of locally grown food on a regular basis), composting, and quite simply introducing children to a healthy way of eating. In my experiences as a preschool teacher, children who think they have an aversion to vegetables will frequently eat something they can pick from the ground themselves. First, though, a little bit of history. The Williams Lake Food Policy Council has created two successful Community Gardens in Williams Lake. The Memory Garden Community Garden site is located at the base of Carson Drive, below the Williams Lake Campus of Lake City Secondary. A Leadership class at the Williams Lake Campus, Lake City Secondary, initiated the idea and the name, wanting to create a more beautiful space and better memories for those living in the area. The Cariboo Lodge Community Garden was built in 2010. Combined, the Community Gardens offer over 90 gardening spaces for families, individuals, and local organizations to grow healthy food for themselves and our town. Prior to 2010, the Cariboo Lodge site and the Memory Garden were virtually unused patches of bare land, with nothing but a few weeds growing on them. Today, they are alive with organic food-growing beds, enthusiastic community members, community composters, a demonstration xeriscape garden, and many more developments to come. They have, and will continue to, host gardening demonstrations and workshops, art-making events, harvest celebrations, and much more.

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So now, back to the exciting Children’s Learning Garden. The importance of this space for our community cannot be emphasized enough, as it will: • Allow children to unplug from their electronic gadgets and engage with nature in a safe and child-friendly environment • Provide children and their families with hands-on opportunities to learn sustainable, healthy practices for their bodies as well as the environment • Encourage children to eat more fresh vegetables • Provide plenty of ways for children to be active and get a regular dose of fresh air and vitamin D A number of preschools and daycares have already requested gardening spaces in the new section, but if you have young children who want to grow their own food, separate from adults, please contact us. Beds are allocated on a first come first serve basis, so the sooner you get your name in, the sooner you will be able to start growing. And now for the fun part—the Food Policy Council is interested in beautifying the Children’s Learning Garden with weather-resistant children’s art. You do not need to be a Community Gardener to contribute. We want our Community Gardens to be a feast for the eyes as much as for the belly, with many mediums of art on display showcasing Cariboo artists and representing our unique spirit. Although we are interested in art from all community members, the focus this season is the Children’s area. If your child has created a work of art, or if you would like to discuss this further, please contact me. Happy Gardening, everyone! Michelle Daymond Food Action Coordinator

June/July 2014


Looking for Local Foods this Season? By Jessica Knodel, Cariboo Growers Growing season has officially begun. After a long snowy winter, fresh local food is available again in Williams Lake. But where to go? There are multiple local options, most notably the three local markets which include: Cariboo Growers Farmers’ Co-op, Friday Farmers’ Market in Boitanio Park, and Oliver Street Market. At all three venues you will find fresh foods, local producers, and a great atmosphere.

At Road’s End: Confessions of a farmer By Terri Smith

When are they open? The Farmers’ Co-op, Cariboo Growers, is open four days a week, all-year long, Tuesday, Wednesday, and Friday from 11 a.m. to 6 p.m., and Saturdays from 10 a.m. to 3 p.m. As a not-for-profit co-operative, multiple producers work as a big team. It is designed to be the place you can go at anytime of the year to find as much local food as possible (including meats) and everything is grown organically and/or in a healthy sustainable manner. The Fridays Farmers Market in Boitanio Park is the oldest of the three. The Market runs Fridays from 9 a.m. to 2 p.m. in the park from May 9 to Oct 10. There are farmers, ranchers, and local artisans selling their products, entertainment, and mobile food vendors offering a yummy bite to eat. Multiple farmers bring multiple seasonal choices and you will see familiar local faces on a weekly basis. The Oliver Street Market, which moved last year, is the only market open in the evening every Friday night in Courthouse Square from 3 p.m. to 8 p.m. on the corner of Oliver & 1st Ave. from May to October. There are local farmers, ranchers, artisans, mobile food vendors, fresh coffee, and there is music and activities for children. It feels like an event downtown where everyone is welcome to buy, eat, or even just hang-out. Enjoy this season of green and all the local foods the beautiful Cariboo has to offer... see you at the Co-op!

Digging Potatoes By Linda Purjue Winner for the Cariboo Region in the BC Farmers’ Market Association Poetry contest. I know where a treasure lies As golden as the dawning skies, As white as pearls from salty seas: I’ll show you it, if you please. Come, follow me with your spade and pail we’ll wander along the garden trail, through the gate with the rusty latch, into yonder garden patch. Dig here, I say, beneath this mound; Here the treasure will be found; More precious than a rajah’s gems, You’ll find beneath these wilting stems. Carefully dig and lift the soil; Here’s a reward for all your toil; Russet brown encasing gold, A precious treasure, as I told. Come, fill your pail then off we’ll trot to the kitchen and a good big pot. We’ll roast our find with butter sweet Then share with all this wondrous treat.

June/July 2014

Some of last summer's bounty; love of food is the reason I farm. Photo: <oemie Vallelian


t’s unusually chilly for being almost May. We’ve spent weeks now preparing the expansion of the garden for the coming season. The old fence has come down and the new one now encompasses an area that will be three times the size of my original garden. I love this new expanse of fenced ground. I love walking through it and imagining what will soon be growing. It feels like being somewhere new and I am looking forward to being somewhere new. I’m not entirely sure that I’m cut out for life as a farmer, longing as I always do for new horizons. I’ve never been good at staying in one place for more than a few years so perhaps moving into more space will satisfy my restless spirit for another few years while I figure out how to do this thing that I do. Don’t get me wrong; I love this life that I’ve chosen. But it is not without its frustrations and its heartaches. There are also the backaches, knee aches, shoulder aches, and wrist aches that wake me up at night with either a burning pain or a freezing numbness. I have been here at Road’s End for five years now. I am 32 years old. I know that something’s got to give because to continue thus would be madness. Madness is part of why I came here in the first place. You have to be a bit crazy to drop everything and become a farmer. It’s not that I didn’t know what I was doing. I was raised here. I grew up out of doors. I know this work. I love this work. The difficult thing is not that it is hard work; the difficult thing is that it is not valued enough. We all need to eat. Why, then, can farmers barely afford to live? My mom and I spoke of this the other day. She pointed out that you’ll never hear a doctor say, “I think I’m going to have to go to work at the mill so I can afford to keep practicing medicine.” Or a lawyer lamenting, “It looks like I’ll have to go back to the mine so I can keep my law practice going.” And yet farmers can rarely afford to farm and almost always work another job so that they can afford to keep farming. Why? Why would anyone do this?! Here’s why I do it: After a day of pounding posts by hand we rolled out the salvaged rolls of page wire and untangled the one rusty strand of barbed wire running through it. Everything takes longer than you think it will and when the materials are all salvaged and recycled it takes even longer. I had nightmares about rusty wire all week. My pants ripped where the barbs kept catching at the fabric and, even though I was careful, I

still ended up bleeding from more than a few scratches. Earlier that morning, as we twisted a thick branch into the bracing wire to tighten it, my chin somehow got in the way and the force it hit with temporarily knocked my jaw out of line. It was my own fault; the branch was from a freshly cut poplar tree and smelled so fresh and spring-like that I was inhaling its wonderful scent when my assistant let go of the other end. He felt bad; I felt stupid. My jaw didn’t line up again till the next evening. But then, at the end of the day, wondering if any vegetables survived the winter, I walked into last year’s garden with a digging fork and discovered carrots, parsnips, purple potatoes, and red onions all of which were still as fresh as they had been last fall. I stopped at the greenhouse and did a quick weeding, collecting a bowl full of young lamb’s quarter and chickweed, then visited the spring that runs by the house to add some fresh watercress to the greens. That night was the smallest meal the three of us had eaten all week and yet it was the most satisfying. We roasted the vegetables on the barbeque and I made a dressing of egg yolk, garlic, lemon, and oil for the greens. We still don’t have a root cellar and all winter we have eaten large meals made with grocery-store organic produce and never felt full, but this night we had a small plate each and felt wonderfully satiated. This is why I farm. There is nothing left to nourish a body in most food. The methods of production that have led people to believe growing food can now be mostly automated have also left us with food that has no vibrancy, no flavour, and few nutrients. We have become a continent of malnourished fat people. Ironic, really, since our media suggests we should all aspire to be well-fed skinny people. In any case, my passion is good food and though I fear I may be slightly delusional, I’m going to keep growing and I’m going to keep trusting that one day soon farmers will be valued enough that they will be able to stop working other jobs to support their farming habit. Terri and Amadeus the goat run Road's End Vegetable Company and at least one of them can be found each week from June-October at the Oliver Street Market and during the winter at Cariboo Growers' Coop. Email Terri at or for more about the farm and Amadeus like Road's End Vegetable Company on Facebook.

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The Reckless Expansion of Salmon Farms

Youth Perspective: Whales and Dolphins in Captivity

By Van Andruss

By Jenna Sipponen



ike many thoughtful British Columbians, I am dumbfounded that the Harper government has given a green light to the expansion of salmon farms along the BC coast. Never mind the multitude of warnings against the perils of open-net farming, its epidemic of sea lice, its dissemination of lethal viruses, its dumping of toxic chemicals. And never mind the wise but disregarded recommendations of the $26 million dollar Cohen Commission, the damning evidence of science, and the widespread public rejection of the industry. You wonder how Justice Bruce Cohen feels after his painstaking inquiry into the collapse of the sockeye salmon in the Fraser River. In his eight recommendations specific to BC, the Judge stated unequivocally that the salmon farms along the migration route in the Discovery Islands were a potential source of disease. He called for removing the promotion of aquaculture from the DFO’s mandate, as it contradicted the department’s responsibility to protect wild salmon. He said the DFO should fully implement and fund both the 2005 Wild Salmon Policy and the 1986 Habitat Policy with its “No Net Loss” principle, and that the health of wild salmon should take priority over suitability for aquaculture when choosing locations for farms. Furthermore, the DFO should not issue new licences for net-pen salmon farms in the Discovery Islands, or permit increases in production at any existing farms along these Islands until September 2020. That’s six years from now! The provincial government accepted “the intent” of all the Commission’s recommendations. All Judge Cohen’s recommendations have been ignored and the Commission’s website has been “archived.” Meanwhile, Marine Harvest, the biggest salmon farming company in BC and the world, has got itself listed on the New York Stock Exchange. Their press release trumpets a plan to, “lead the blue revolution similar to 5,000 years ago when we went from hunting to farming.” In a video of the event, we witness its promoter – the richest man in Norway – smiling and clapping ever so happily. Behind this jubilation remains the fact that wild salmon counts decline everywhere salmon farms are located (Ford and Myers, 2008). Norway, a country that destroyed its own wild salmon due to opennet farms, own 98% of the industry in BC. The Norwegian government owns the largest share of Cermaq. And now the Canadian Senate Standing Committee on Fisheries and Oceans is conniving to sweep aside all regulatory obstacles to expansion by writing a “stand alone” Aquaculture Act. On February 25, 2014, the DFO testified to the Senate Committee that the federal government intends to remove the

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Sockeye salmon. Photo: J. Armstrong, University of Washington

most important section of the Canadian Fisheries Act, Section 36, because the salmon farming industry asked them to. David Bevan, associate deputy minister for Fisheries and Oceans Canada, said, “I think the first steps that we were asked to take by the industry were to resolve the issue around the use of therapeutants and other treatments. Under section 36, it’s illegal to put into the water any harmful substances, so that was a very critical impediment to further operation of the aquaculture industry, so that’s what we’re currently dealing with.” Let us not forget that the people in charge of wild salmon are the same people that led the North Atlantic cod into commercial extinction. At a conference on aquaculture in Nanaimo in March, Senator Green Raine gave her support to salmon farms and made this profoundly puzzling statement: “At the end of the day, there is no solid evidence that salmon farms here impact wild salmon stocks.” The inevitable conclusion to be drawn from these anomalies is that big money is involved. I ran into a figure somewhere quoting $800 million from salmon farms in yearly revenue for the federal government. No doubt that is a lot of money, but is it really worth the extermination of wild salmon, a mainstay of coastal ecology and economy, as well as provisioning people in the interior of BC? It would be more intelligent to remove the obnoxious fish farms to containers on land while giving full support to the resurgence of wild salmon stocks, creatures able to fend for themselves without daily “management,” if only free from contamination, and which have the pleasing habit, from time immemorial, of swimming upriver to deliver themselves into our hands. By what twist of logic can we justify the destruction of this natural gift? It is to be remembered that the government of BC is the landlord of fish farms. Licences of occupation can be denied or revoked at any time. Therefore, if, like me, you are concerned about the fate of wild salmon, at least write your MLA and Christie Clark and let them know how you feel. For a more complete analysis of the current salmon situation, see, or refer to her website. Van Andruss is editor of the magazine Lived Experience. He enjoys the bioregional life and community in historic Moha outside of Lillooet, B.C

t is a common theme in our current status as humans to possess and control other beings. This applies to many beings, but we are going to focus on one subject. The exploitation of dolphins and orcas has reached a point where people aren't putting up with it any longer. Yeah, we get it: dolphins can jump high out of the water and grab a fish out of someone's hand. You watch a live orca show to spice up a boring afternoon, and then go home after being mildly entertained by whales jumping in and out of the water. But is it all worth it? Dolphins are intelligent mammals, lovable and full of character. Recently, India has declared dolphins to be “NonHuman Persons,” and it is illegal to exhibit or showcase dolphins for entertainment purposes in that country. This is definitely a step in the right direction, as they should not even be held in pools. Dolphins belong in the wide open ocean—everyone knows that. A lot of hype lately has been leading back to orcas being enclosed in tiny pools just like dolphins. Let’s quickly review the hardships that orcas must endure while in captivity. I use the word “must,” because they literally have no other choice but to be kept in tiny pools. First, their average life expectancy lowers when in captivity. In the wild, females are known to live an average of 50 years. Males usually live to their 30s in the ocean. However, condemn a killer whale to a pool for its entire existence, and it only lives about 20 years. If you Google “orca in pool,” you'll notice in a lot of the pictures that the dorsal fin is flopped over. People like to argue that it happens to a lot of whales, when really it only happens to ones under high stress and psychological damage. When their fin is flopped over, this is a big warning sign. Now Google “orca in the ocean,” and it’s a totally different story. You can see for yourself how much happier they are in the ocean. Their dorsal fins are upright, and they’re swimming in a straight line. When kept with other orcas from a different family, rivalry begins. The pecking order is there because these whales are completely different from each other, even speaking different languages. As a result, the whales “rake” each others skin with their teeth, creating long scratches down the length of their bodies. “You’ve got animals from different cultural subsets that have been brought in from various parks. These are different nations. These aren’t just two different killer whales. These animals—they’ve got different genes. They’ve got different languages.” – Blackfish documentary, 2013. The negative changes that happen to an orca’s mind while being held captive are extremely scarring to the individual whale. “All whales in captivity have a bad life. They’re all emotionally destroyed. They’re all psychologically traumatized. So they’re ticking time bombs.” – Blackfish documentary, 2013. Not only is keeping orcas and other sea mammals in captivity inhumane and harmful to their well being, it’s also extremely dangerous to the trainers.

Two mammal-eating "transient" killer whales photographed off the south side of Unimak Island, eastern Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Photo: Robert Pittman According to the documentary, BlackFish, orca whales are getting so psychologically drained, they are starting to viciously attack trainers. On February 24, 2010, a famous SeaWorld trainer was killed in the water by the long-time resident whale, Tilikum. And this wasn’t the first time Tilikum showed aggression toward his trainers. Let’s start at the very beginning; go back in time. Tilikum was captured as a young calf in November, 1983. He was shipped to Sea Land in Vancouver in 1984, after being kept in a tank for a year in Reykjavik. Many believe this confinement in the tank had started his psychosis, and things kept going downhill from there. All he could do in this tank was swim in small circles, or float on the surface in one place. Yes, very restricting, confined, and uncomfortable for a whale that obviously needs to spend his life in the ocean. His life at Sea Land was going just fine, until he started showing signs of distress. Living in his 100-foot-by-50-foot pool just 35 feet deep, he killed his first person. Immediately after this incident, Sea Land closed its doors for good. Tilikum was then sold to SeaWorld, and his stress levels sky rocketed. He killed his second trainer (I think he’s trying to tell us something), in 1999. The famous SeaWorld trainer who was killed by Tilikum in 2010 was one of the most experienced trainers there, and yet the media blamed this incident on the fact that she had a long ponytail. Folks, I don’t think it was the ponytail that distracted Tilikum. I believe it was his troubled past that distracted him. So, now we have found out two facts: one, whales and dolphins are meant to be in their natural habitat. And two, whales get dangerous and unpredictable when placed in a tank for their whole lives. What are people doing about it? I recently signed a petition for the Orca Welfare and Safety Act that would make it illegal to hold orcas in captivity. The bill was apparently extremely successful, reaching 1.2 million signatures. If you would like to get involved, go to Take-Action. Just in time, too, for World Oceans Day on June 6. Because most of this world is ocean, let’s give it some love and treat its inhabitants with respect! Jenna Sipponen is in Grade 12 and lives in a cute little valley called the Similkameen. Her hobbies include procrastinating, theatre, and yoga in random places.

June/July 2014


June/July 2014

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Chickens: Potpourri for parasites

By Susan Tritt

Clean Air Day

By Tammy Keetch

Williams Lake Environme ntal Society / WL Air Quality Roundtable


elp reduce air pollution, improve your health, and save money during Clean Air Day on Wednesday, June 4, part of Bational Environment Week. Lace up, oil that bike chain, carpool, take transit, or work from home! Motor vehicles create more air pollution than any other single human activity. In Williams Lake, the air pollutant of special concern for our health is called particulate matter (PM 2.5 & 10) of which vehicle exhaust is a contributor. If everyone in Canada chose an environmentally friendly form of transportation like cycling or walking one day a week vehicle emissions would be reduced by 20 per cent. Using active transportation is one way to help keep our air clean.

Marigolds are a natural anti-parasitic. Photo: Susan Tritt


ell it’s the time of year when the snow has melted in the Cariboo and we are faced with new challenges in the coop. Two of those are the ones that automatically make people start to cringe and itch: yup, the dreaded lice and mites. First off, everyone needs to know that the lice chickens get are speciesspecific, and although they can climb on you from an infected chicken, they will not survive on you. They can, however, wreak havoc in your chicken coop if left untreated. The other external parasites of concern are mites. In this area we have two. The first is the Northern Red Mite and the other is the Poultry Leg Mite. Prevention is the best treatment for all of these parasites and one natural way chickens avoid getting them is by dust bathing. You may notice your chickens rolling in the dusty dirt and flicking it all over their bodies. This is a bit of a shock and somewhat funny to someone who has not seen it before, but it is a natural way chickens remove dead skin and excessive oils that external parasites feed on in addition to the chicken. To add further treatment for internal parasites you can add food grade diatomacious earth and wood ash to their usual dusting beds. The Poultry Leg mites are just that: they burrow under the “scales” on a chicken’s legs and if left untreated will cause extreme swelling that is painful and can lead to irreversible deformities. To treat this condition, a good soaking in warm water with a mild soap and a scrub using a soft brush gets rid of the loose particles. Then lathering the legs with mineral oil soothes and works to drown the mites. This treatment will need to be repeated a few times. The Northern Red Mite infects the chickens and the coops and can be very difficult to eradicate. I have actually heard of people burning their coops because they could not rid them of the mites. Along with mites, the lice bite and feed on the chickens causing anemia, low egg production, and other health concerns. I like to do a weekly bird check. This includes taking a

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good look at all the birds, under their wings and especially around their vents. This is usually the first place the lice will begin to lay their eggs. The lice eggs will appear as white or light beige solid clumps close to the skin on the shaft of the feathers, and the mite eggs can be beige, black, or dark on the skin of the chicken. The mites are beige until they feed on the chicken. Then they become red from the blood. Another way to confirm if you have a Northern Red Mite infestation in your coop is to go in after dark with a flashlight and rub your hand along the bottom of the roost. If your coop is infested you’ll get mites on your hand, and if you have a heavy infestation you will get mites on you. In the event of an infestation the first thing you want to do is clean and move the chickens to a clean uninfected house. There are packaged organic delousing products on the market such as SPR Eradicate Powder, which combines teatree oil, cedarwood oil, and piperonal in a base of corn flour, or you can try natural remedies such as an apple cider bath. To clean the coop, try a good pressure wash and a spray down with neem oil and let it dry. You do need to make sure the chickens don’t get wet with the neem oil because it can be toxic. There are mixed reports on the safe levels for exposure to neem oil and I do not use it directly on chickens. So what it comes down to is that prevention is the best treatment for lice and mites and thankfully there are a number of natural ways this can be done. Growing anti-parasitic plants around your chicken coop or adding a mix of dried herbal mixes to your nesting boxes not only gives your chickens a little snack and freshens their boxes, but also provides the extra security of preventing parasites. Some herbs you may consider are peppermint, wormwood, marigold, and oregano, just to name a few. Susan and her husband Rudy have shared a passion for hobby farming since they met almost 30 years ago. “Our goal at Funky Fowl Farm is to grow everything we need to live, and to grow as naturally as possible.”

Be ne fits of Sustaina ble , Active Transportation • Enhances physical, mental, and emotional health. • Reduces air pollutants that negatively affect lung and heart health. Pollutants from many transportation sources aggravate respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and conditions. • Reduces climate change. Did you know that it takes 130 trees to produce the amount of oxygen needed to combat the carbon dioxide emitted from one car each year? • Enhances the quality of your relationship with the community and environment. Smell the roses, hit the local coffee shop, or chat with neighbours when you walk or cycle to and from work. • Save money! Driving 18,000 km per year costs an average of $8,441.25 per year or 46.9 cents per kilometre (Canadian Automobile Association, 2011 national average for a Cobalt LT). • Reduce health care costs for Canadians. It is estimated that transportation-related emissions will cost the health care system $11 billion to $38 billion between 1997 and 2020 (Transportation Association of Canada, 1998). • Driving less reduces the need for non-renewable fossil fuel resources. • Reduce sick days and workplace accidents. Healthy commuters are more relaxed at the workplace and take fewer days off sick. Healthy commuters are more alert and adept at work. Remember: It doesn’t have to be all or nothing. Focus on how good you will feel if you do walk or ride. Find a bike buddy near you. Bike to work or ride on the weekends. Make a goal to ride to work once a week, or if that’s too far, to run easy errands by bike/foot. Add more days as you feel ready, or plan to ride on days when it’s most convenient, for whatever reason. Ride/walk when you can, and keep it fun so that you’ll keep doing it.

Spare the Air Every Day Air quality doesn’t just affect your health; it also affects your wallet. Here are some more great ways to Spare the Air and help reduce air pollution. Skip a Trip and Link Your Errands By combining or eliminating trips, you reduce pollution in addition to saving gas and time. For small trips of less than 1-2 km think twice before jumping in the car. Walking or cycling can be your new, free gym. Don't Idle Idling wastes gasoline and money and affects your health. More than 10 seconds of idling uses more fuel than restarting the engine and reduces engine life by up to 20 per cent. Compared to a moving vehicle it releases twice as many exhaust fumes; air that even the driver and its occupants have to breathe. If Canadian motorists avoided idling for just three minutes every day of the year, this would be equivalent to taking 320,000 cars off the road for the entire year. Cars idling at school mean unhealthy air for children. Always make an effort to turn off your vehicle, rather than idling. Buy Local The shorter the trip to get to you, the less gas it requires. Yards, Gardens, and BBQs Gardening is a great way for you to improve the quality of our air, as plants absorb carbon dioxide and produce oxygen. Paradoxically, many gardening tools and products are among the worst polluters. Consider replacing gas powered with electric or manual tools. Planning a barbeque? Avoid woodburning grills that pollute the air. Consider propane instead. If you must use charcoal, you can spare the air by using a briquette starter instead of lighter fluid. Lighter fluid contains high levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are hazardous to human health. We All Share the Air! To learn more about air quality in Williams Lake and actions you can take to improve it visit or email

June/July 2014


Exploring the Cariboo-Chilcotin in Earth-Friendly Style By Brianna van de Wijngaard


ummer is likely welcomed with a sigh of relief, at the very least, by most of us this year. Even though much of BC could be considered lucky, we are still talking about the most extreme winter this country has seen in 35 years. As such, we may see a lot more tourists on the road this summer, craving hot, lake-front adventures and grand plans to explore the expanses of the Central Interior. These explorers come from all over the country and world, but British Columbians make up the lion’s share (76% in 2010) of visitors to the region. Even though there has been a downward trend in visitor numbers to the Cariboo-Chilcotin Coast (CCC) since 2001 (2011 statistics), the region still welcomed 204,000 leisure visitors to the area in 2010. In addition, many visitors to the Cariboo-Chilcotin voted wildlife and nature viewing, and/or hiking in the area as top activities in which to participate, according to Destination BC, 2012 In- Market Research Report – Cariboo Chilcotin Coast. This means, as with every year, an increase in pressure on regional ecosystems. Granted, many visitors to the area are not unseasoned wilderness adventurers, and will likely have an above-average level of respect for the sensitive terrain upon which they are treading. But there are still many that do not, and consistent education and messaging is one of the few ways we can lessen this impact. This can include the usual venues, such as locational signage and outreach materials, or more indirect and systemic education via greener tour operator standards, such as clean energy sources in resort facilities and machinery, or even no n-pro fi t/ gover nme nt partners hips, wherein revenue is generated through tourist fees to support outdoor childhood education programs in surrounding communities. Whatever the means, protecting both the environment and the tourism sector it employs, is important in this region: according to Destination BC – Regional Tourism Profile, it generated over $105 million in revenue in 2010. There are three primary ecosystems in the region which have their own unique sensitivities to human traffic: deserts and sandstone canyons; evergreen timberlands, deciduous woodlands, and forests; and ocean fjords, alpine mountains, and glaciers. Below are some general tips on water and waste-wise travelling. Water Use: By necessity campers tend to manage with less water than they are used to. It is a great way to discover how little water we actually need, compared to what we tend to use and waste daily, back at home. It is important to remember that everything put on the land will eventually reach water and in turn is carried further down the watershed. Tips to keep in mind: • Purchase biodegradable soaps, shampoo, and toothpaste • Plan ahead to avoid toxic spills such as oil leaks or harmful cleaning products • Avoid driving through lakes and streams, as you will stir up sediment

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that damages fish and other aquatic organisms downstream Use only what you need, as often the supply of safe drinking water is limited.

Waste: When traveling in the CaribooChilcotin it is important to consider how you will transport your garbage back to a refuse bin. Wildlife is susceptible to harm, especially when things such as glass bottles or sharp cans and plastic can holders are left in their habitat. They may become cut or entangled in the garbage, and then left vulnerable to prey. BC Parks have both garbage and recycle bins available, as do many highway rest stops. If you include a sealable tin for your compostable refuse, it can be added to your compost bin once you arrive home, buried in the earth if you are in the back country, or dropped off at the Potato House Composting Project at 49 Borland Street in Williams Lake. A small but important token to environmental stewardship when travelling is the various supplies we bring into the wild. One such supply that is always on the list is bug spray. Here are some nifty ingredients to use instead of toxic ones, such as DEET. DEET, for instance, not only damages human nervous systems, but it is also toxic to wildlife. DEET is already found in 75% of North American waterways.

The Cariboo Chilcotin Conservation Society's 2014 Parks Guide available now. Contact (250) 398-7929

Bug Spray Ingredients: • Essential oils: choose from Citronella, Clove, Lemongrass, Rosemary, Tea Tree, Cajeput, Eucalyptus, Cedar, Catnip, Lavender, Mint • Natural Witch Hazel • Distilled or boiled Water • Vegetable glycerin (optional) How to Make Homemade Bug Spray: 1.Fill small spray bottle 1/2 full with distilled or boiled water 2.Add witch hazel to fill almost to the top 3.Add 1/2 tsp vegetable glycerin, if using Add 30-50 drops of essential oils to desired scent. The more oils you use, the stronger the spray will be. (Source: If you and your family or friends are planning a trip within the Cariboo-Chilcotin in the coming months, be sure to pick up a copy of the Conservation Society’s 2014 edition Parks Guide, which outlines and directs you to countless natural areas in the region. It can be found at various local retailers, or the Williams Lake Tourism Centre, free of charge. Before Brianna moved to the Cariboo in March, 2013, she lived on and off Vancouver Island for 20 years. She attended Vancouver Island University, where she graduated with a BA in Global Studies and Geography, and now works as the Community Liaison for the Cariboo-Chilcotin Conservation Society.

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June/July 2014

Eat drink and be healthy in Williams Lake By LeRae Haynes



hen you want to treat yourself and your family to a healthy meal or meet a friend for righteous coffee, there are some excellent options in Williams Lake. You can find organic, freetrade, fair-trade, natural, local, fresh, gluten-free, grass-fed treats from local bistros, restaurants, and coffee shops with one thing in common: they all offer great products at affordable prices that are both environmentally friendly and delectable. CJ’s Southwestern Grill practices waste reduction, recycling, and composting. They use local foods when available and feature gluten-free menu items, local wild salmon, Lac La Hache Bakery breads, and seasonal local produce. Menu items include mouth-watering smoked salmon avocado salad, cilantro lime salmon, southwestern spaghetti squash, as well as French press organic coffee. The restaurant is located at 1527 S Hwy 97 and can be reached at 250-392-4225. Smashin’ Smoothies juice, smoothie, and espresso bar offers fresh, organic, dairy- and sugar-free items. You can enjoy ethical and fair-trade organic coffee as well as a wide range of custom, fresh juices, and satisfy your appetite with things like ‘Oh My Greens’ smoothies, delicious gluten-free quinoa salad, and organic spelt wraps. Smashin’ Smoothies is at 102 41 N 7th Ave and can be reached at 778-412-2112. Bean Counter Bistro is located at B180 N 3rd Ave, and offers a full selection of organic coffee and organic food options, as well as locally-grown products. Customers love the cinnamon buns made with fresh, local apples, a ‘Spinach Delight’ blended juice drink that includes fresh ginger, pineapple, bananas, and kale, as well as quinoa salad made with fresh lime juice, beans, and cilantro. Find out more by calling 250-305-2326. The Hobbit House at 71 S 1st Ave has an organic raw juice, shake, and smoothie bar with organic coffee, offering treats like the chocolate chilli bar, the Hobbit bar, and wheatgrass, sprouted on site and juiced to perfection. Delicacies include ‘Helen’ juice made from pear, apple, spinach, and lemon, the lovely ‘Frogger’ smoothie, and chai featuring Daksha spices. Thirsty yet? Call 250-392-7599. You can enjoy a full selection of grass-fed beef burgers, wild salmon, and seafood with an Ocean Wise sustainable label at The Laughing Loon Restaurant at A1730 S Broadway Ave. The restaurant offers glutenfree menu options, local produce when available, and features lovely dishes like Wild Canadian maple glazed coho salmon, gluten-free tomato basil prawn spaghettini,

June/July 2014

Local produce from the Grower's Market. Photo: LeRae Haynes

and a great Greek wrap. Visit The Laughing Loon at or phone 778-412-6655. New to Williams Lake is 4 Sure Bistro at 24F 2nd Ave S. It offers “country style urban flair,” and has gluten-free menu options, no MSG, sauces and serve soups made daily from scratch, and organic coffees and teas. 4 Sure Bistro uses local produce, Canadian products, and environmentally-friendly packaging wherever possible, offers catering services, has fresh baked bread, and features mouth-watering dishes like creamy curry chicken soup, wild salmon Caesar salad and Alaskan King Crab. You can reach the bistro at 778-412-1399. Gecko Tree Café and Catering offers “real food for real people,” and has long been delighting the Cariboo with local produce, fresh-baked bread, gluten-free options, organic coffee, and homemade soups. It is known for vegetarian and vegan options; its delicacies include the Gecko Salad, the Hungry Hippie, and 49th Parallel coffee. Gecko Tree Café and Catering can be found at 54 N Mackenzie Ave and can be reached at 250-398-8983. Customers can find organic, fair-trade, farmerfriendly coffee at <ew World Coffee and Tea House, where even the to-go food containers and coffee cups are compostable and made from recycled products. It features home-made granola bars, fresh pies, and divine soups made from scratch every day. New World Coffee and Tea House is located at 72 Oliver St. and can be reached at 778-412-5282. We can be proud to recommend local restaurants and bistros that are committed to healthy, local, fresh choices and to supporting the environment all along the way!

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Circle of Courage – Cariboo-Chilcotin Style By Carla Bullinger


any of us in the CaribooChilcotin are familiar with the Circle of Courage. But have you heard about the Circle of Courage CaribooChilcotin style? We had a unique opportunity to personalize the Circle of Courage for our region, and here’s how it happened. Let’s start with the Circle of Courage. The Circle of Courage is a model of positive youth development based on the universal principle that to be emotionally healthy all youth need a sense of belonging, mastery, independence, and generosity. This unique model integrates the cultural wisdom of tribal peoples, the practice wisdom of professional pioneers with troubled youth, and findings of modern youth development research. (Reclaiming Youth International) Here is the essence of these four universal growth needs: The Spirit of Belonging – The universal longing for human bonds is nurtured by relationships of trust so that the child can say, “I am loved.” The Spirit of Mastery – The child’s inborn thirst for learning is nurtured; learning to cope with the world, the child can say, “I can succeed.” The Spirit of Independence: The child’s free will is nurtured by increased responsibility so that the child can say, “I have the power to make decisions.” The Spirit of Generosity – The child’s character is nurtured by concern for others so that the child can say, “I have a purpose for my life.” In March, 2012, Dr. Martin Brokenleg, co-founder of the Circle of Courage, visited Williams Lake where he provided a one-day workshop on the Circle of Courage. More than 200 people came out to hear the inspiring message and presentation of Dr. Brokenleg. He walked us through the model; described how the circle keeps individuals and communities strong; provided concrete examples of what happens to youth who are disconnected from the circle; demonstrated how to reconnect youth to the circle; and, stressed the importance of community mobilization to support and embrace children, youth, and families in the Circle of Courage.

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In the afternoon, workshop participants brainstormed what our community is doing well in each of the areas of belonging, mastery, independence, and generosity, and what we would like to create and build on in the future. The lists we created were long, and it was very affirming to see how much we are already doing as a community, as families, as individuals, and as schools. We were also inspired and excited to read about the energy and creative ideas people had to strengthen the circle. We were determined not to lose our energy, creativity, and momentum, and so a group of people made a commitment to take the lists and provide follow-up actions. The result is this “Made in the Cariboo-Chilcotin” Circle of Courage, which we designed with the assistance of graphic facilitator, Sam Bradd. It is a 6’x6’ visual representation of some of our current actions and future ideas. We display this Circle of Courage at community events, have made laminated poster size copies which we distribute widely, created a portable banner, and make the electronic version available to whoever wants a copy. In other words, we want it to be visible and utilized wherever possible. We shared this image with Dr. Brokenleg before he spoke at the Truth and Reconciliation Event in Williams Lake in May, 2013. He was excited to see how the Cariboo-Chilcotin has embraced the Circle of Courage and made it our own. We want to emphasize that this image is not all encompassing. It is a snapshot of where we are at and some ideas of where we’d like to go next. We are encouraging community groups, businesses, and organizations to use the circle as a tool in discussions, planning, and taking ideas to the next level. We want the Circle to become a “way of doing business” in the Cariboo-Chilcotin.

The Cariboo-Chilcotin Circle of Courage designed by Sam Bradd in consultation with the working group to coincide with the Truth and Reconciliation Event held in Williams Lake on May 2013, where the original 6’x6’ work was displayed for the first time. Dr. Brokenleg, one of the keynote speakers, commended our region for embracing the Circle of Courage and making it our own. Photo: Sam Bradd

Submitted by Carla Bullinger on behalf of the working group Carla Bullinger facilitates Communities that Care in Williams Lake and area. She is also the literacy outreach co-ordinator for Cariboo-Chilcotin Partners for Literacy. You can reach her at

June/July 2014


Integrative Health

Summer Solstice 2014: The Great Turning Point By Ciel Patenaude


he wisdom of Indigenous cultures around the world tells us that during the cyclical course of each year we are presented with two times of great ‘turning’ in our processes—that we are given two moments or periods of time where the possibility for change both within ourselves and within our communities is seen as greater than at any other time. It is through the alignment of the planets and stars that we are led to a pinnacle of energetic potential on Earth at these times, and like an amplified version of the full moon, our whole beings are ‘pulled’ by the tides and cycles of the entire system to change and evolve. Within the darkest moments of our cold months in the north we are offered the great turning of Winter Solstice, a time classically defined and experienced as an opportunity to dive deeper into our inner selves—to explore those cast-off characteristics and emotions classically defined as the ‘shadow’ or the ‘subconscious.’ Winter is a time of going within, enjoying the darkness, and finding wisdom in slowing down, should we accept it as that and find the intelligence within that experience. On the flip side of the seasonal cycle we are presented with the Summer Sol-

June/July 2014

stice, which lands on June 21 of this year. The longest day and shortest night of the year, summer solstice is everything that winter solstice is not: vibrant, external, invigorating, expressive, and active. This moment of change therefore provides not further emphasis on our internal processes and self-awareness as an individual, but on knowing ourselves in system through bringing attention to our self-expression, life path, creativity, and personal power. At either of these points of change and evolution—as with all moments in life—we have the choice to partake and utilize this intense energy to bring about greater awareness and growth in ourselves and our relationships with others, or we can choose not to. This is the beauty of our experience: free will. At any moment we are free to do whatever it is we would like to do, attending to the results and outcomes of those choices as they present themselves. But, just for argument’s sake, if the possibility to understand yourself and your relationship to the world better—as well as to increase your confidence, sense of power and ability to make conscious, healthy decisions—is potentially inherent within the turning of this summer’s sun, would it not be a wise decision to take part in that? I can’t say I know anyone who wouldn’t want a little more power or crea-

Summer Solstice Stonehenge. Photo: tivity or knowing in their life experience, and I would bet you don’t either. Even if you don’t particularly ‘believe’ in the enhanced energetics of the high or low sun, or in the movement of the universal system at all, you can surely agree that there is an enhanced amount of energy running through you as the days become longer and warmer. What are you using this energy for? It is in the application of our intent and awareness that we are able to fully utilize these moments of accelerated evolution. There is no great magic here aside from that which is implicit in your mind and spirit and has always been with you. It is the magic which is capable of changing everything about your life experience should you decide to make it so, refusing to be a passive observer in your life experience and the process you undertake. Therefore, as this year’s summer solstice approaches and passes, I would encourage you to utilize the high energies of the time to bring intent and awareness into your life. To stop for a moment and focus upon what it is that you would like to experience more of, how you would like to relate to others, and what kind of level of personal creativity you would like to express to the world.

As I have mentioned before, there is great magic in writing our intentions and foci down, so take a pen to paper and create a specific list of what you are using this great turning for; and, how you are applying the energy available to you to bring yourself to a place of enhanced happiness, confidence, and meaning. Write your intentions in a present and positive tense (‘I am…’), and on June 21 dedicate a few moments to meditating on these possibilities. We are, always, profoundly affected by our environment and the larger system of which we are a part. We can experience this as either a negative or positive thing, and yet it is not the energy that changes but our perception and relationship to it. Decide to utilize the enhanced energies of this coming summer season to encourage growth and evolution in yourself, and that is what will happen. Happy Solstice. Ciel Patenaude is an Integrative Health & Shamanic Practitioner based in Williams Lake, BC. A highly trained and naturally gifted intuitive healer, Ciel holds a BSc in Biology, an MA in Integrative Healing, and is a certified Yoga Teacher & Wellness Coach.

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By Ray Grigg

A Report on Precarious Civilizations


nthropologists such as Ronald Wright in his book, A Short History of Progress, and physiologist Jared Diamond in his, Collapse, are not the only ones noting the precarious condition of civilizations. Bow, a report by a multi-disciplinary team of natural and social scientists from the University of Maryland, led by an applied mathematician Safa Motesharri of the US Bational Science Foundation, has brought the precautionary message from the past much closer to the present. The report, called the “Human And Nature DYnamical model (HANDY),” uses research tools developed by NASA to examine the durability of our current civilization. Their conclusion, like the one in the books of Wright and Diamond, is that civilizations are fragile, that they rise and fall, and that ours exhibits some of the historical characteristics of vulnerability. As expected, the credibility of an academic report such as HANDY is automatically doubted because every civilization proceeds with the blind confidence of its own ideology, believing it has the formula for perpetual success—until it belatedly realizes it doesn't. Careful academic study, however, can expose the fiction of this confidence by analyzing the evidence beyond such ideological myopia. This is what HANDY has done. Its unsettling impact derives from its access to detailed and contemporary information, very different from the historical sources that are available to anthropologists. This means HANDY’s conclusions apply directly to us, and that we have no justification in believing that history grants us an exception. Should anyone forget the lessons of the past, however, we are reminded in the report that, “The fall of the Roman Empire, and the equally (if not more) advanced Han, Mauryan, and Gupta Empires, as well as so many advanced Mesopotamian Empires, are all testimony to the fact that advanced, sophisticated, complex, and creative civilizations can be both fragile and impermanent.” The report analyzed the human and natural factors involved in the decline and fall of previous civilizations over the last five thousand years, then compared those conditions to our own. The determining factors that played a central role in the character or in the process of the collapse were population, climate, water, agriculture, and energy. While any one of these factors could threaten the stability of a civilization, a re-

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view of our own situation might remind us that this full suite of interconnected challenges are now testing the limits of our technologies and occupying increasing amounts of our attention and concern. HANDY found that these factors can be grouped into two general categories. The first, frequently explored in innumerable other studies, is “the stretching of resources due to the strain placed on the ecological carrying capacity” of the surroundings, a factor that is becoming increasingly obvious in the disturbed and deteriorating environmental conditions now occurring almost everywhere on our planet. But the second general category that has not been adequately examined is the internal social dynamic that contributes to a civilization's collapse. HANDY identifies this as “the economic stratification of society into Elites and Commoners.” In our globalized civilization, this “economic stratification” is evident in the vast disparity between wealthy, industrialized cultures and the impoverished ones that are now exploited as the source of increasing quantities of needed resources and services. Within affluent countries, however, this same unbalanced process is evident in the shrinking middle class and the growing separation of the rich from the poor. Why is economic stratification a threat to a civilization's stability? The answer, the report found, is in the complex interdependence of the two groups. The obvious explanation is that the Elites are dependent on the Commoners to provide labour and resources for the creation of wealth. If the Commoners are unable to offer these services because of debilitating poverty, destructive weather, famine, ecological deterioration or any number of adverse conditions, then the capability of Elites to produce wealth is eventually so impaired that the whole system collapses. But a less obvious explanation for

system collapse is that the first signs of trouble occur among the poor because they are least able to adapt to the stresses of adversity. If the separation between the two classes is sufficient to prevent these vital warning signs from reaching the rich in a timely manner, then the Elites are denied the information necessary to initiate corrective action, the situation deteriorates beyond the point of recovery, and the civilization collapses. A variation of this failure is that the isolation of the Elites causes them to misread the warning signs, mistakenly attributing the underlying social unrest to superficial factors, when the actual cause is structural poverty or ecological ruin. In simple terms, the Elites have a vested interest in maintaining the economic, social, and material health of the Commoners. In our globalized civilization, the Elites have attempted to address the needs of the Commoners by using technology to increase efficiency. While HANDY found that

this may relieve some poverty – if the appropriate policies are enacted – the report concluded that this strategy “also tends to raise both per capita resource consumption and the scale of resource extraction,” thereby adding additional stress to “the ecological carrying capacity” upon which the viability of the civilization depends. Any gains in efficiency, therefore, are lost to increased production and consumption. Even if more Commoners are lifted out of poverty, the economic distance between them and the Elites increases, as does the total number in poverty because of population increases. Meanwhile, the global ecological stresses continue to worsen. Put succinctly, the HANDY study found that, given our present circumstances and the current intransigence of the Elites, a preventative strategy that attempts to evade a crisis in one part of the problem causes a crisis in the other part of the problem. The Elites can neither continue exploiting the poor to maintain wealth and power, nor can they create sufficient wealth to elevate the poor out of poverty without doing irreparable damage to ecosystems. Motesharri and his colleagues found that under conditions “closely reflecting the reality of the world today... we find that collapse is difficult to avoid.” Not surprisingly, the report was not well-received. Ray Grigg is a weekly environmental columnist for the Campbell River Courier-Islander. He is the author of seven internationally published books on Oriental philosophy, specifically Zen and Taoism.

June/July 2014

The Importance of Treating the Whole Patient By Adam McLeod, BDc, ND


e live in a fast-paced world where we always want quick fixes to our problems. This mentality has translated over to our healthcare and this is not good for patients. Too often in my practice I encounter patients who are on many unnecessary prescriptions and supplements. In many cases, prescriptions are given at a walk-in clinic where the physician clearly did not take the time to look at the entire case, nor did they take the time to actually listen to what the patient is saying. The patients feel as if their voices are unheard in this disjointed approach to medicine. This leaves them searching for other solutions at the local drug store where they purchase supplements that they believe are helpful for their health. It is great to see patients being proactive about their health, but a healthcare professional is necessary to determine if these supplements are actually helpful and safe for each particular patient. As a naturopathic doctor, it is my job to listen to the patient and develop a treatment plan that is appropriate for each unique individual. If it is necessary I will write a prescription, but very often this is not necessary because there are so many effective natural therapies available. It is not unusual for a patient to come to my office with massive bags full of supplements they selfprescribed. You do not need to be taking a long list of supplements to be healthy. All you need is a couple of high-quality supplements that are targeted to the condition you are dealing with. The future of medicine is personalized medicine. What this means is that a treatment plan is customized to address the unique circumstances in the patient’s health history. The current medical model relies very heavily on a “cookie cutter system” where if a patient has “Condition A” they get “Drug B,” regardless of everything else that is going on. Evidence is growing that this is not the best approach to health care because it does not treat the whole patient. Prescription medication can be an effective tool but it must be used in the correct clinical context, which takes the patient’s complete health history into consideration.

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Photo: Leanne Lam The amazing thing about Naturopathic Medicine is that we have such a large tool box at our disposal. We can help patients using several modalities including, but not limited to, acupuncture, botanical medicine, nutrition, physical medicine, intravenous therapies, and prescription medication. These natural therapies are very effective when used appropriately. It is important to remember that there is more to health than simply taking supplements. Healing must be addressed on the physical, emotional, and spiritual levels. Anyone with a serious illness is well aware of the fact that there are many different layers to healing. In order to optimize healing, all of these factors must be addressed. By being proactive and taking control of your health you can help to prevent illness from forming in the first place. Naturopathic doctors will take the time to actually listen to patients, and they are experts at preventative medicine while treating patients as a whole. The great news is that naturopathic care is covered by most extended health insurance plans. Very few Canadians take advantage of this coverage but it is something that everyone should use to take control of their health. Dr. Adam McLeod, D, also known as Dreamhealer, brings a scientific framework to healing with intentions. He graduated from Boucher Institute of aturopathic Medicine as a naturopathic doctor and practices at Yaletown aturopathic Clinic in Vancouver, British Columbia.


Letters: Natural versus natural By Vera Lehar


n Bovember, 2013 the best article on diet and health appeared in TheGreenGazette titled “Diet and Health Part Two – Food Safety,” in which Robert L. Bichol asks: “How conscious are we of the ways the food we eat, the water we drink, or the air we breathe impacts our physical beings?” He pointed out certain practices in our food industry and how they affect us and our health. Are we listening? Are we paying attention? Are we taking responsibility for what we are putting in or on our bodies? You might say: “I eat well and I only buy what is natural.” Great! Let’s see what the word natural actually means. According to The New Lexicon Webster’s Dictionary of the English Language, natural means: “Pertaining to, existing in, or produced by nature/not artificial... or food containing no chemical additives....” I might be looking in the wrong dictionary, or by some new human-made laws the meaning of words were changed and altered to suit some higher purpose. Or maybe there is more than one meaning of the word natural. This certainly seems so, since literally hundreds and hundreds of chemicals, pesticides, GMOs, and hormones are in food that the FDA doesn’t object to when using the word natural. It is right in our faces, playing with our taste buds and stealing money from our pocket, leaving us not hungry but extremely undernourished. It is hard to watch an elderly woman with a hat hiding her bald head, obviously not feeling well, reaching for packaged food labelled “all natural” in the supermarket as she strives to eat healthy after chemotherapy. What she is actually doing is putting chemicals into her weak body only to feed the cancer she tries to fight so hard. Literally. Food that is found boxed, bagged, and packaged on grocery store shelves is refined and processed to the degree that, more often than not, it does not resemble real food. Sometimes it can’t even rot! If food can be left on shelves for several weeks, let alone years, without changing form, it is far from natural. Processed food is certainly not found in nature, yet the word natural is being thrown on packages to the left and to the right. If you take just an extra minute of time at the grocery store to flip over a box of “natural” cheese crackers or “100% natural” salad dressing and read the ingredients, you will find many of them are unpronounceable. It would make sense that, since the package says “100% natural,” 100% of the ingredients would be found in “nature.” But don’t be fooled, people. The unpronounceable ingredients are found, not in nature, but synthesized in labs. Highly educated people working within this food industry would have a problem to pronounce these words without knotting their tongue! The word natural lost its meaning. It means nothing. NOTHING. The word has been raped, abused, chained, and put to slavery. It’s a no brainer; it will increase the imaginary value of a foodlike matter. Labels such as “natural,” “100% natural,” and “all natural” are

slowly replacing less effective labelling like, “Made with natural ingredients,” “Partially natural ingredients,” “Mostly natural,” etc. Thanks to these magic words on pretty packaged foods, money is rolling in. Food scientists came up with a brilliant idea. They crossed genes from certain bacteria with corn to make the corn pest resistant by means of transgenic modification. That sounds natural enough doesn’t it? Why not put a big “200% natural” label on that, since it consists of two living organisms? Now if that doesn’t sell millions per day, I don’t know what will! Read labels. The more ingredients there are in the food, the more processed and less natural it is. Why do we need colour, flavour, polysorbate 20 or 60 or any polysorbate number, high fructose corn syrup, hydrogenated, or partially hydrogenated oil? Hydrolyzed yeast extract – it is just another name for MSG as are isolated protein source and texturized vegetable protein – Acesulfame potassium, TBHQ as Tertiary butylhyroquinone, BHA and butylated hydroxyanisole, and caramel colour, have no place in the cells of our wonderful human bodies. The list can literally go on and on for quite some time, not to mention that if the food is not certified organic it is genetically modified and this, for sure, is not found in nature. The great thing with living in Williams Lake in the Central Cariboo is that for those who don’t grow and raise their own food, there are farmers throughout the area providing locally grown quality and organic products. We really don’t have to support the production of artificial food or even worse, food-like substances labelled “natural.” If your food is not certified organic, there is probably not much “nature” left in it. Statistics show that 100 years ago in the US 1% of the population was diagnosed with cancer. Today almost 40% of the people in North America are diagnosed with cancer. Doesn’t that make you wonder? What are we creating? In ancient times many diseases didn’t exist. Also chemicals, preservatives, and GMOs were not introduced. Isn’t it time to reclaim the real “natural”? Only we can do it. Nobody will do it for us. Search and educate yourself. This is just a knock on the door. v=AftZshnP8fs#t=236. Vera Lehar – Old Country Cottage: Collecting old remedies and recipes from Europe.

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What’s in Your Well? (Part 3): Bacteriological, chemical, and mineral test results By A. K. (Sandy) Amy


acteria are everywhere—in the air, in water, on our skin, and inside our bodies. Most of these are benign, and in some cases, beneficial. In fact, humans (and all animals) would not be able to survive without bacteria. Some bacteria, however, are hazardous to health. Testing is possible for a myriad of bacterial types. Nuisance bacteria such as ironrelated or sulphate-reducing species are often found in groundwater and water wells. Though not generally considered health-hazardous (and therefore not generally tested for), if uncontrolled, these can colonize the intake areas and plumbing of wells. They form a slimy substance called biofilm, which can reduce well production and degrade water quality. The most common bacteriological parameters that drinking water is tested for are Total Coliforms and E. Coli. Total Coliforms Coliform bacteria are described and grouped based on their common origin or characteristics. The Total group includes Fecal Coliform bacteria such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), as well as other types of Coliform bacteria that are naturally found in the soil. Fecal Coliform bacteria exist in the intestines of warm blooded animals and humans, and are found in bodily waste, animal droppings, and naturally in soil. Most of the Fecal Coliform in fecal material (feces) is comprised of E. coli, and the serotype E. coli 0157:H7 is known to cause serious human illness. Total Coliform do not necessarily indicate recent water contamination by fecal waste; however, the presence or absence of these bacteria in treated water is often used to determine whether water disinfection is working properly. Coliform bacteria are considered “indicator organisms”; their presence warns of the potential presence of disease causing organisms and should alert the person responsible for the water to take precautionary action.

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E. Coli (or Escherichia coli) Fecal coliform bacteria are a specific kind of total coliform. The feces (or stool) and digestive systems of humans and warm-blooded animals contain millions of fecal coliforms. E. coli is part of the fecal coliform group and may be tested for by itself. Fecal coliforms and E. coli are usually harmless. However, a positive test may mean that feces and harmful germs have found their way into your water system. These harmful germs can cause diarrhea, dysentery, and hepatitis. When water is tested for Fecal or Total Coliform, the results are usually given as the number of colony forming units per 100 millilitres (CFU/100ml) of water sampled. No sample should contain Fecal Coliform or E. coli, and ideally there should be no Total Coliform. If any Coliform bacteria are detected in drinking water, the source should be immediately investigated. If known or suspected to be Fecal Coliform or E. coli, the water should not be consumed without treatment such as boiling for a minimum of one minute. Sources of Total and Fecal Coliform in groundwater can include: agricultural runoff, effluent from septic systems or sewage discharges, or infiltration of domestic or wild animal fecal matter. Poor well maintenance and construction (particularly shallow dug wells) can also increase the risk of bacteria and other harmful organisms getting into a well water supply. Chemical and Mineral Test Results The Canadian Drinking Water Standards guidelines specify maximum amounts of a myriad of possible chemical and mineral contaminants that may be found in your well water. A full potability test for your water will include testing for all of these suggested limited components, and sometimes more. These are identified by testing done as either “extractable” compounds or “dissolved” compounds using laboratory instrumentation known as ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma), which is able to identify extremely small amounts of chemicals and minerals in a water sample. From the guidelines, these test results will

be grouped in categories called MAC (Maximum Allowable Concentration), AO (Aesthetic Objective, i.e. taste, smell, etc.), or OG (Operating Guideline – limits for water treatment plants). Again, due to space constraints, only items commonly found in area wells will be discussed here. These items would only be a concern if the levels were above the guideline limits. For clarification of results of other testing parameters, contact your well testing service provider or laboratory. Bitrates and Bitrites: Nitrate is a chemical compound, and the most common form of Nitrogen found in water. Nitrate is introduced into groundwater through many possible sources, which can be hard to detect. Some of these potential sources could be: leaching of chemical fertilizers or animal manure, or groundwater pollution from septic and sewer discharges. Though Nitrate is considered relatively non-toxic, a high Nitrate concentration in drinking water is an environmental health concern. It can harm infants, especially those less than six months old, by reducing the ability of blood to transport oxygen, causing “blue-baby syndrome.” Death can occur in extreme cases. Nitrates are used widely as inorganic fertilizers; almost 400 million kilograms are sold annually in Canada. The current Guideline limit for Nitrates is 10 mg/l or 10 ppm (parts per million) Nitrite is usually formed by microbial degradation of Nitrate. This can occur naturally in groundwater, or from degradation of Nitrates when introduced into the human body. Nitrites are also found in prepared meats such as bacon, ham, or hot dogs, and account for 90% of the Nitrites that people ingest. It is also slightly chemically reactive, and is the more hazardous of the two compounds. Therefore, the Guideline limit is much lower at 1.0 mg/l or 1.0 ppm. Arsenic: Many localized areas in the region have elevated levels of Arsenic in the groundwater. This is a naturally-occurring mineral, and is dissolved into the water from the soil and rock below. A metal like Arsenic can have serious and long-term health effects. Long-term (years to decades) exposure to even relatively low amounts of arsenic in drinking water can increase your risk of developing certain cancers, including: skin, lung, kidney, and bladder. Iron: Iron is also a naturally-occurring metal. Although excess Iron in your water is not generally considered health-hazardous, it can cause rusty (red to brown) staining of fixtures and laundry, and/or a metallic taste. Manganese: Manganese is another naturallyoccurring metal, which usually results in black specks in the water. It is also responsible for black staining of fixtures and laundry, and has a distinctive taste. Copper and Lead: These are also found in private drinking water supplies. These metals are not usually in the groundwater itself, but leached out of pipes and soldered joints by aggressive water. This is only a sample of minerals and chemicals commonly found in area wells. Others would include (but not be limited to) Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, Silicon, Chloride, Cadmium, and Uranium. Next time: How do I fix the problem with my well? A. K. (Sandy) Amy has over 40 years of laboratory experience in analytical chemistry and trace analysis. As the proprietor of Safe Well Water Consulting, he provides well water quality, well performance testing, and water treatment consulting services to private well owners in the South Cariboo region. ote: Correction for “What’s In Your Well – Part 2” in the April/May 2014 issue. In the “physical parameters” segment of the article, under “Turbidity,” it was erroneously reported that the Maximum Acceptable Concentration (MAC) under the Canadian Drinking Water Guidelines is 1.0 TU. According to both Exova and Maxxam Labs (both of whom are certified by the Public Health Officer to do water potability certification), there is no actual MAC for Turbidity for privately-owned wells. The Guideline published relates to shallow or surface wells, or groundwater readily influenced by surface conditions.

June/July 2014


Let Me Tell You a Story

telling a story the teacher has memorized, a relationship is established between the child and adult, a relationship of the heart. “Learning by heart” is different from learning by rote. When the teacher makes the story theirs, and pictures and imagines each part and then passes the story to the child, a connection is made as the child “receives” the story. So, when this summer draws to a close and our adventures become memories, let’s stay awakened to the tradition and significance of storytelling as a folk art, “to touch the heart so that head may understand,” as Waldorf founder Rudolph Steiner says. In our classrooms and our homes let’s share our stories…. as a way to stay connected in this “wired” world… after we step off the train… in any season. “Snip, snap, snout, this story is told out”… “… Kespeadooksit”… “… Now the story is yours…” May your voice be heard.

By Claire West Mattson

Strong and universal as the urge has always been to listen to a story, the urge to tell it has been stronger.” Ruth Sawyer, The Way of the Storyteller The February/March issue of TheGreenGazette included a wonderful article, “Winter Storytelling,” by Jessica Kirby outlining the ancient beginnings of storytelling and reminding us of the power of a story to bring warmth and light to the dark and cold days and nights that follow the winter solstice. Now, as we enter June, this solstice brings us to the outbreath of summer, a season when children and adults alike seek and set out on adventures, creating their own stories… or at least they once did. Last summer I had the opportunity to travel across this vast country of ours by train. Leaving Vancouver on a Sunday evening, we arrived in Toronto three days and four nights later. For much of those 3,000 plus kilometres, the train alternately chugged and raced across terrain that was out of the reaches of WiFi. Interestingly, in t hi s e n v i r o n me n t o f a p pa r e n t “disconnection,” people were, well… connecting. Without eyes constantly looking down to handheld devices or heads buried in laptops “getting work done” or seeking virtual worlds of entertainment, passengers were playing cards, knitting, singing together… and sharing stories. In The Way of the Storyteller, written over 60 years ago and considered a storyteller’s “Bible” by many, Ruth Sawyer establishes that oral storytelling is a living folk art that is natural to all human beings. It was the first of all performed arts, and the foundation of modern drama. The art of storytelling, however, began to disappear with the increase in mass media and technology attempting to tell our stories for us. “For countless generations storytelling has provided vision and consolation, inspiration and instruction, and yet present times demand new approaches and dedication to this ancient art.” <ancy Mellon, Storytelling with Children A resurgence in storytelling, and recent research, remind us that oral history, folk stories, and family narrative are more important than ever. Storytelling groups and societies have been surfacing in urban and rural areas, encouraging us to try our hand at becoming masters of storytelling, while Nancy Mellon, in her book, Storytel-

Summer: A season whe n adults and children alike seek and set out on adventures, creating their own stories... Photo: gabczi ling with Children, supports parents in bringing the gift of storytelling , in their daily life, to their families and communities. She points out that, “many parents are surprised at first that young children want them to make up stories out of themselves.” Yet it does not take long to realize that discovering the stories they are meant to tell comes naturally and are a gift to the children and themselves, whether it is at naptime, ”Once upon a time,” while visiting the corner grocer or chatting with a neighbour over the fence, “Did you hear the story about,” sitting around the campfire on a family summer vacation, or, “Once there was a storyteller. Everyone was sitting around the fire with him. He was watching the flames dance, and in the midst of them he could see stories moving. And this was the story he told… ” As a parent, some of my most precious moments with my daughter have been while weaving and sharing a “telling” story. As an educator, learning to take a story “off page” has greatly enriched my teaching journey. Many parents and teachers have long known the importance of storytelling for young children. “Young children are developmentally wired to love language and using storytelling in the classroom cashes in on that expansive love of words. According to the Bational Council of Teachers of English, listeners encounter both familiar and new language patterns through story. Hearing stories regularly allows pre-

readers to become familiar with narrative patterns, speech rhythms, and the flow of language.” Jessica McColly, “The Importance of Storytelling” ( If we lose sight of that, Dr. Barry Sanders reminds us in his book, A is for Ox: The Collapse of Literacy and the Rise of Violence in an Electronic Age, that in order for children to obtain proficiency in literacy, one must first have a solid foundation of words and that children must first hear language in order to learn it. Spoken stories are needed to stimulate images in a child, and are a precursor for literacy, for “… images come from the emotions and all five senses, enhancing understanding and immersing the reader (to be) in rich detail,” says Debbie Miller, quoting Keen and Zimmerman, 2007, in her book Reading with Meaning: Teaching Comprehension in the Primary Grades. This seems especially important to remember when we also consider the words of Joseph Chilton Pierce, author of Magical Child and Evolution’s End: Claiming the Potential of Our Intelligence, and longtime proponent of Waldorf Education: “All around us we see the breaking of the bond of heart and mind.” With this understanding of the vital importance of storytelling for young children, in all Waldorf Early Childhood and Grades classrooms, since the first Waldorf School started up almost a century ago, you will find a story is told every day. While

Resources of inspiration and for consideration: • The Way of the Storyteller, Ruth Sawyer • Storytelling with Children, ancy Mellon • Storytelling and the Art of Imagination, ancy Mellon • Tell Me a Story – Stories from the Waldorf Early Childhood Association of orth America, edited by Louise Deforest • Glooscap and His Magic, Kay Hillat i o n a l S t o r y t e l l i n g e t w o r k • Vancouver Society of Storytelling See the events column of this issue of TheGreenGazette for information about an upcoming Storytelling Circle and event here in the Cariboo. Claire West Mattson has been teaching children and adults for the past 20 years. She holds a BA, a BEd, and has training, Certification, and experience as a Waldorf Educator. Beyond her formal education, she considers herself to be a student of life, and her students and daughter to be her greatest teachers. She has travelled and lived far and wide and is happy to again call the Cariboo home. For information about the Early Childhood Program inspired by Waldorf Education starting up this September you can contact Claire at (250)296-3265, or or visit the website at

Skywatch with Bill Irwin—Skies for June/July With the approach of solstice, we lose some sky darkness, which makes observing faint deep sky objects such as galaxies more difficult. The best observing is from midnight to 2 a.m. The all important southern view is least affected and dims by about one magnitude from the glow to the north. We can still see the alluring band of the Milky Way while sitting around a fire at a solstice party. By mid-July, darkness returns and the summer observing season begins. With the warm nights and generally clearer weather, this is really prime time for most casual stargazing. In the south, the Sagittarius and Scorpius regions are rich with objects, as we gaze toward the centre of the galaxy. I highly recommend the Mt Kobau star party, July 26 through August 3, down near Osoyoos. On top of Mt Kobau, in spectacular surroundings, this event draws both amateur and professionals from all walks of life. Anybody seriously considering getting into the hobby would find no better opportunity to look through many different telescopes and get a real introduction to the night sky from people who are passionate about it. Of course, it is a week camping out at 6,000 ft so you need to be prepared. The website is The Belles Lake Observatory near Horsefly welcomes people interested in the night sky. Our clubhouse cabin is up and running now, giving a warm place to hang out and have coffee. There is plenty of space to pitch a tent. Unpredictable weather being a factor, I expect people to show up at the drop of a hat. For more info contact (250)620-0596 or

June/July 2014

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Self Design Learning Community Student from Williams Lake Recognized in International Schools Essay Competition


he Trust for Sustainable Living, based in the UK, is delighted to announce that Rylee Smith, a student at Self Design Learning Community in Williams Lake, British Columbia, has been recognized with an Honourable Mention in the Trust for Sustainable Living 2014 International Schools Essay Competition Secondary School age category. Students participating in the competition were invited to write an essay outlining what sustainable living meant to them, and the steps they believe their respective country should be taking in order to achieve it. Rylee has been invited to receive her certificate at the International Schools Debate and Awards Ceremony, at which the overall winner of the competition will be announced, alongside the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd place winners for the Primary (ages 711) and Secondary (ages 11-17) categories. Karl Hansen, Director at The Living Rainforest (Trust for Sustainable Living), said, as organiser and one of judges for the International Schools Essay Competition & Debate, she would like to thank all of the students who entered. “This year, we received more than a thousand essays from students in over 70 countries around the world, a great many of which contained a huge array of imaginative ideas for sustainable living, in addition to being of excellent quality and composition,” she said. “The Trust for Sustainable Livings 2014 International Schools Essay Competition & Debate has a very strong international perspective which gives students the opportunity to work with some of the best young minds around, drawing inspiration from others, sharing knowledge, and fostering co-operation. We therefore very much hope to see Rylee participating in our International Schools Debate, which will take place in the United Kingdom in July.” Below is a copy of Rylee’s winning essay: Dear Mr. UN Secretary General, Imagine a completely sustainable global structure. It’s possible, and here are a few ways to achieve it. In this essay, I touch on filtration, alternative resources, and food. These are just some sustainable options we could utilize to reach the goal of a completely sustainable civilization. Filtration - Sewage and grey water can be filtered and reused as non-potable water, or with superior filtration, a drinkable water supply. Rain water could also be utilized, each city collecting the water and then adding it to the city’s water supply. At the landfills we should take out recyclables and compostables, and have repairmen, on site, who can strip parts and repair damaged products such as electronics, furniture, and appliances. These refurbished items could be sold at a reduced price or donated to charities. This would create more jobs, less waste, and benefit each community. Three garbage cans used at each household, one for compost, one for recycling, and one for garbage would also cut down on waste. Perhaps if we

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charged people a weekly fee for every ounce of garbage they throw away, they would be more conscious of their trash. Kelp, as well as trees and other vegetation, should be protected as they filter tons of pollution out of the air every year. Alternative Resources - We should use a form of fuel in our vehicles that is sustainable and reusable, so people would rarely have to refuel their cars, which could be sold pre-fuelled. We need to stop making things out of toxic or flimsy materials that aren’t sustainable (such as #7 plastics), and should instead make more durable and sustainable products. Banning harmful materials and applying strict warranty codes to all items sold would ensure quality control. Foods - In my opinion, GMOs and conventionally grown and processed foods should be banned. I may speak with prejudice as I have chemical allergies and can eat only organic and natural foods, but I believe we should use only natural preservatives and natural gardening methods (insect control, etc.). Until such a time, foods should be labelled as Artificial, GMO, or This Product is Almost as Toxic as Its Packaging, rather than requiring the Organic certification. That said, toxic packaging and over packaging needs to be banned as well. More stipulations established to prevent livestock from living in overcrowded conditions and/or inside all the time are necessary as animals must have adequate space and access to the outdoors. One example is conventional cattle farming, which produces large amounts of methane, and is the opposite of sustainable for the atmosphere, the land, and especially the animals. Another issue is grocery stores, restaurants, and other food companies throwing away or burning tons of food because it expires or is going to in the near future. Instead of throwing away the food we should donate it to food banks or even give it to the employees before it expires. Alternatives such as the ones I listed above are all around us; let’s put them into action! When people are already creating the next generations of vehicles, electronic devices, appliances, materials, etc., why not make them out of completely sustainable resources? All the latest in speed and style would be sustainable for the plants, animals, people, and planet… There are so many alternatives, too many to list, but if we put them into practice we could live a completely sustainable way of life without causing long-term problems or damage. To me living sustainably means to live in harmony with nature. ~ Rylee Smith, Age 13, BC, Canada Rylee Smith is a grade 8 homeschool student from Williams Lake, who enjoys writing, horseback riding, archery, martial arts, basketball, and playing the guitar. An environmentalist at heart, Rylee has always been interested in benefiting the environment and believes that humankind may need a wake up call to “stop biting the hand that feeds it.” Coming from a family of eco-enthusiasts, Rylee hopes to inspire people to change for the better and help save the environment.

June/July 2014


Featured Green Business

Lifelong memories at Sunshine Ranch Weddings By LeRae Haynes


aking your wedding day unique, unforgettable, and beautiful is a walk in the park for Sunshine Ranch Weddings in Horsefly. With the growing interest in environmentallyfriendly, natural wedding options, Sunshine Ranch owners Silvia and Franz Laffer offer flexible services, full facilities, and custom details for a range of events. Sylvia says Sunshine Ranch starting holding weddings in 2011. “Our daughter got married here. We had a big working barn that was perfect: we did some cleaning and hand scrubbing and it was perfect. We thought it was a one-time deal, but then our son wanted to get married here, and it grew from there,” she says, adding that they’re looking forward to holding an RCMP wedding on the ranch this summer. The ranch used to run only cattle; since Silvia and Franz purchased it in 1994, they run cattle during the summer and horses all year round. “When we bought the ranch there were 48 cows—it was a huge learning curve for me,” says Sylvia. “I was a big city girl who had never even owned a dog. Instead of reading romance novels in the evenings, I read Alberta cattle management magazines. “I loved every minute of it. Our kids didn’t play hockey or soccer—they worked on the ranch and learned how to run machinery and look after animals. They learned how a family works.” She says the kids all come home now with their skills, knowledge, and new technology to help with the weddings and events on the ranch, making it a real family operation. In addition, they trade and train horses on the ranch, and Franz and Silvia also do custom meat cutting during the fall. Silvia attends bridal fairs to promote the wedding option on the ranch, although it has grown beyond weddings. “We also do events like anniversaries, reunions, and birthdays—any event where you want to celebrate in truly unique Cariboo wilderness surroundings,” she says.

June/July 2014

She explains that they can offer as many options as needed to personalize the event and make it perfect for guests. “We can cater a lunch or a dinner, or you can organize it yourself or arrange a potluck. We can provide a justice of the peace to officiate for you, add custom décor to suit your needs—we can do as much or as little as you like,” she says. “You can choose a location in the forest, in a hayfield, by the river, or in the barn. We invite brides-to-be to come out when we’re holding a wedding to see it for themselves and check out all the options.” Sunshine Ranch is also flexible when it comes to animals and mode of transport for weddings. “People can bring their own horses to use for the ceremony, or we can put them in contact with the Cariboo Draft Horse Club, who can bring horses and wagons. You can use motor bikes, cars, 4-wheelers, or buggies,” says Silvia. “We even have chandeliers made from wagon wheels. I get so excited about this—this is my passion. Making people happy makes me happy, too.” She says her goal as hostess at Sunshine Ranch is to take the wedding stress away and make the event memorable and wonderful. “Emotions can run a little high, but we are easy-going and competent and committed to helping our guests relax and enjoy themselves. “Another benefit to weddings and other events at the ranch is seeing other Horsefly businesses get a ‘piece of the pie,’” she says. “That’s positive for all of us—the bed and breakfasts, the gas station, and grocery stores. I hire local help for serving, cooking, and cleaning. It supports the whole community.” The great appeal that a ranch wedding has for people is the freedom, the individuality, and the creative expression, says Silvia. “You can have your own dream wedding on a ranch, and whether you’re a city person or a country person you will have the event of a lifetime,” she says. She explains they had a wedding where all the relatives were from Vancouver. “They all said, ‘Oh, no!’ when they heard there would be outhouses, but when

Sunshine Ranch Weddings bride Ramona Ludwar 'tied the knot' at the ranch in August, 2011. Photo: Marshal Chupa Photography. they saw that they are custom-made, comfortable, and beautiful, they changed their tune. They all loved the setting, the service, the gorgeous scenery, and the wilderness—they told us it was the best wedding they’d ever seen.” Sunshine Ranch weddings and events are steeped in ‘green,’ with a commitment to the environment that began in childhood for Silvia. “I think ‘green’ keeps us alive. When I was a child in Europe everything was recycled: brown glass, white glass, clear glass, green glass, shoes, clothing, paper, cardboard, paint, and metal, as well as grass clippings and organic matter were all dropped off at separate stations. You could pay $2 for a sticker for a bag of things you could not recycle. Organic materials were made into fuel that ran some vehicles. “What a shock it was when I came here and saw a big open trench for all garbage. I’ve been here for 21 years and it has gotten better, but Canada is still so far behind. What people talk about doing here has been done in Europe for 20 years,” she says. At Sunshine Ranch events guests enjoy fresh, whole, natural foods grown on

site and everything is cooked from scratch. “I know exactly what is in the food,” she says. “I want to know what I’m eating and I want the same for the people I feed. “What I want most for people to take away with them after an event with us, is how special their day was. I want to show them how we live in the country— help them set aside misconceptions about country life and see that it can be rewarding and happy.” For more information about Suns hi ne R a nc h We d di ngs vis i t, email, or phone Silvia and Franz Laffer at 250-6203339. LeRae Haynes is a freelance writer, songwriter, co-producer of “Pursicles,” and the community co-ordinator for Success by 6. She is also the instigator of a lot of musical shenanigans in Williams Lake including “Borderband” with kids and is a member of the “Perfect Match” dance band.

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The Hummingbird Project Takes Hold in the Cariboo

By Diane Dunaway


f ever there were a bird that captures our sense of wonder, surely hummingbirds top the list. From their aerodynamic acrobatics to the metallic sheen of their feathers, the smallest birds on the planet exude beauty and joy. Bird books note their feisty behaviour. Hummingbirds are a New World species, 338 all told, that can only be found in the Americas. Four species visit British Columbia, and in the Cariboo we see three: the Rufous, the Calliope, and recently the Black-chinned. It’s expected that the Anna’s will eventually wend their way here, too. Hummingbirds are important warm-blooded pollinators, and their contribution to the ecosystem is essential. “The hummingbird parable, with origins in the Quechuan people of South America, has become a talisman for environmentalists and activists who are committed to making meaningful change in the world,” says Michael N. Yahgulanaas in Flight of the Hummingbird. “In this inspiring story, the determined hummingbird does everything she can to put out a raging fire that threatens her forest home. The hummingbird’s wisdom and courage demonstrates that doing something is better than doing nothing at all. The parable is embraced by two of the world’s most influential leaders: Wangari Maathai, the Nobel Peace Prize winner from Kenya who launched the Green Belt Movement and His Holiness the Dalai Lama, who has spoken widely about his commitment to preserving the environment.” The range of BC’s migratory hummingbirds is astonishing. In fact, the Rufous has the longest migration of any bird relative to its size. They over-winter in Mexico and the Gulf states and breed from Washington State, through BC, and into Alaska. For the last few years Anna’s hummingbirds have become established as year-round residents of Vancouver Island and the Lower Mainland. Both the Rufous and Calliope are considered by Partners in Flight to be 'Species of Continental Concern'. "One of our biggest concerns is the changing phenology of the flowers that they visit to the timing of their arrival," Susan Wethington notes in the 2010, Western Hummingbird Partnership Action Plan.

pdf/201006whp_actionplan.pdf That is, due to climate change, the new timing of the flower¹s nectar flow may not match the historic arrival timing of migratory hummingbirds. Broad-tailed hummingbirds are expected to be among the most heavily affected species because they require high-mountain forest breeding sites to nest and raise their young. With this in mind, how can we protect these amazing creatures? Habitat – Plant more hummingbird-friendly flowers; provide clean water in a shallow bath in your garden away from the reach of cats; and, don’t use cosmetic pesticides. To further encourage protein sources for the hummers, you can leave out an overripe banana peel to attract fruit flies. Syrup – Four parts boiling water to one part sugar, cool before feeding. No red dye, no honey or brown sugar, or any other sweeteners. Change frequently to avoid mould. Thicker dilutions interfere with preening, and don’t benefit the birds. Here’s a link to a video about the hummingbird tongue. It helps one understand why thick syrup is problema t ic : ht tp :/ / w w w. e vo lu t io n ne ws . o r g /2 0 1 3 / 06 / the_genius_of_b073491.html Type of feeder – The easier to clean, the better. Disease can pass from one bird to another if there are too many nooks and crannies where dirt and fungus can hide. Cleanliness of feeders – Rinse every time you fill and occasionally clean with mild dish soap or scrub with sand. Don’t use bleach or other strong disinfectants. Hummingbird Banding Conservation Project In 2012, Williams Lake resident Caren Pritchard and I volunteered as citizen scientists to The Hummingbird Project. Dr. Alison Moran, assistant professor, program head, Undergraduate Programs, leads the project with the assistance of her husband Dr. Jon Moran, associate professor, School of Environment and Sustainability at Royal Roads University in Victoria. They’ve taken over the work started by Dr. Cam Finlay. Super intelligent, moral, and kind people, they both dedicate a tremendous amount of volunteer time to this conservation effort.

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My interest in hummingbirds has increasingly piqued since we started feeding them 23 years ago at our home in Soda Creek. Each year we track the first day they arrive, typically a day or two on either side of April 20. Through consistent feeding we’ve built the peak population in May to well over 140 birds. We go through about five litres or more syrup per day at this time when the migratory birds are pushing through and the resident hummers are busy with nest and breeding preparations. Caren’s deepened love of hummingbirds came about from labour of love. She had a unique rescue experience a few years ago that entailed becoming a licensed wildlife rehabilitator. She successfully raised two orphaned baby hummingbirds from pre-fledglings to their release as adults. Her dedication meant feeding them every 15 minutes during daylight hours for weeks. Here’s a link to a six-part YouTube series. Google “Pritchards Hummingbird babies” to find the rest: http ://www.yo utub m/watch? v=t9T1J7zSfWo The opportunity to learn more about hummers, network with some great people, and discover new resources has proved invaluable. It’s serious and delicate conservation work that nobody takes lightly. Caren and I are well on the way to becoming accredited banders, which requires banding 100 birds each under licensed supervision. We’ve methodically put together a banding team and kit for our area. Sheila Murland and Robb Patterson of Quesnel have both volunteered as scribes. While the work is nerve-wracking and intense it’s also incredibly rewarding. The protocols are extremely strict. Humane traps, numbered jeweler-grade leg bracelets, and fine banding instruments have been developed for this work. Hygienic handling goes without saying. Everything and everyone is wiped down and sterilized between each bird. Notes are made about the age, sex, size, fat stores, body measurements, and health of each bird that is processed. We check for parasites, evidence of pollen on their culmen (beaks), and feathers. A quick puff with a straw to a female’s abdomen shows us where she’s at in the breeding cycle. Occasionally you’ll even see an egg ready to drop. Selecting a band size takes in to consideration the age of the bird, the species, and sex. Nesting females experience swelling of the tarsus (legs), thus a larger size of band is used. It’s thought that the reason for this swelling has to do with the mother bird’s ability to transfer heat to its eggs and young by gently stomping down on them whilst in the nest. We aim to have tracking in place before BC’s fourth hummingbird species, the Anna’s, expands its range into the Cariboo. Fortunately, we’ve just secured a permanent banding site in Quesnel to commence this summer. Brian Murland, field supervisor for Conservation and Protection in BC’s interior north district through Fisheries and Oceans Canada, is an avid birder. He’s confirmed that Baker Creek Enhancement Society’s Nature Education and Resource Centre has agreed to participate in our project. This second site in Quesnel is insurance for when Dan Churchill’s Moose Heights private site becomes unavailable. In addition, it’s our goal to find a public site in Williams Lake that will also be available in perpetuity. A commitment to consistent feeder filling and maintenance is crucial. It’s our hope that as conscientious citizen scientists our work and data collection will contribute valuable information for generations to come. We’re happy to take our lead from the fable about the hummingbird’s wisdom and courage. Even though many aspects of climate change are beyond our reach, surely doing something is better than doing nothing at all. Further reading and references: BEST BOOKS - World of Hummingbirds - Eric Hanson Hummingbirds of orth America - Sheri L Williamson Flight of the Hummingbird – Michael N. Yahgulanaas. BEST WEBSITES Rocky Point Bird Observatory – The Hummingbird Project of BC The Hummingbird Monitoring Network (HMN) Diane Dunaway is a Master Beekeeper and lover of all creatures great and small. When she's not chasing down spring and summer swarms, she can be found at home in Soda Creek where she lives with Dave, her husband of 23 years, and their menagerie of rescue animals.

1. Caren Pritchard hard at work at her hummingbird banding station in Quesnel July, 2013. Photo: Diane Dunaway 2. A Rufous male hummingbird is gently blown on with a straw to check his throat area fat stores. This fellow has plenty, which is no surprise as he weighs in at 4.6 grams. Photo: Sue Elwell 3. Rufous male hummingbird quietly lies on its back as Diane Dunaway prepares to place an identification band around its leg. Photo: Robb Patterson. 4. Spring feeding frenzy in Soda Creek. Hummingbirds Rufous and Calliope compete for their share of sugar syrup. Photo: Diane Dunaway

June/July 2014

Body Soul Flow: Yoga and Sacred Practices for Your Soul By Venta Rutkauskasis


he ancients believed that within each of us was a subtle or invisible body, one that penetrated the physical body and also expanded to infinity. Two of those ancient systems are the Chinese and the Vedic, where the terms meridians and chakras have come from. The study of these systems can be exciting and profound, as the subtle body’s dynamics can help us awaken to great mystery and the inner capacity for great accomplishment. At Langara College’s Integrative Energy Healing Program, I found some guidance and depth in the study of the human energy field and how working with it can impact our health in profound ways. With new models of the subtle body provided by such biofield scholars and seers as Barbara Ann Brennan, Carolyn Myss, and Anodea Judith, the work of the ancients is made relevant to our development and evolution today. Through exploration of our subtle dimensions, we begin to build a self and a life that is full and fulfilling. To really know oneself, a process of introspection is prescribed. It can seem overwhelming at first, trying to find a direction in which to proceed. We live in a time where we have access to so much information on spiritual development and we

Food Waste By Tera Grady


art of the Cariboo Regional District’s Solid Waste Info Series: Becoming Waste Wise How much of your garbage is food? The average Canadian family wastes approximately 275 kg of food every year; for the Cariboo Regional District this equates to over 6,800 tonnes of food waste per year. It is estimated that $27 billion in Canadian food is annually disposed of in landfills and composters, creating methane and carbon dioxide as it decomposes. Over 50 per cent of this food waste is generated by consumers in the home. Not only is the food being wasted; so are the energy, water, packaging, and human resources that were used in the production, transportation, and storage of the food. Only about one fifth of the food waste disposed of in the home is made up of peelings, cores, and bones. The rest is disposed of because it has gone bad, too much was cooked or prepared, there is a lack of confidence to use leftovers, or the expiry date has passed. What can you do to reduce the amount of food waste in your home? Planning ahead for meals will make a difference, as will choosing to eat perishables that have the shortest shelf life first. Eat asparagus before broccoli, ripe bananas before apples, and the lettuce and cucumber before the carrots and potatoes. Did you know that tomatoes should not be stored in the fridge? But, if they ripen too fast you can put them in the fridge to slow the ripening for a day or two—same goes for bananas.

June/July 2014

are not always able to share in these practices directly. Learning to do our inner and spiritual work is a process of trial and error, and it is helpful to have guidance on this journey. Let us return to the chakra system, which provides a template for personal development. It is like a map that details the important landmarks or must-sees on the journey to fulfillment. Beginning at the root chakra, the main issue is balance and mastery of the physical plane. Being able to provide food, safety, and other primary needs is the foundation upon which everything else is built. The second landmark leads us to explore emotion, creativity, and our sensual nature. Once the inner landscape of emotion is developed, we move into the realm of personal willpower and defining our identity in the world. The chakra map continues to expand into more subtle aspects of our lives, such as relationships, love, creative expression, truth, vision, and unity, all of which add richness and depth to life. In Integrative Energy Healing, we apply this map to the body-mind to assist clients in aligning their energy fields for improved health. Gentle, non-invasive hands-on techniques are coupled with awareness dialogue to encourage the client to recognize areas of disharmony, while bringing attention to positive new patterns. A practitioner will then encourage clients


Venta Rutkauskas, Integrative Energy Healing Practitioner, teaches the Body Soul Flow class at Satya Yoga Studio which resumes in the fall. Check Satya Yoga Studio’s schedule to find out more at to practice self-care at home. This provides support for the energetic session work and promotes self-knowledge. My class, Body Soul Flow: The Sacred Blend, is designed to offer multidimensional self-care for those who are seeking ways to tune themselves inward for growth. It will be a place where you can experiment with sacred technology. Yoga, meditation, and mantras, sacred poetry, reflective writing, hands-on healing work, and beautiful soundscapes will be a staple part of what I bring to the table (or mat!) each week. Each month, I'll work with an overarching theme that links the practice together, because the soul speaks in symbols and story and the soul is what we’re here to explore... I humbly seek out with fresh eyes and ears the beautiful wisdom traditions that I long to share with you. I hope you’ll join me this upcoming fall for some soulful and creative exploration.

Photo: Jana Roller Photography Venta Rutkauskas is a certified integrative energy healing practitioner through Langara College and has a Bachelor in Fine Arts (Performance) from Ryerson University. She moved to Likely in 2006, where she began the study of meditation and the healing arts. In 2012, Venta became a proud mama of a beautiful daughter. She can be reached at

Use leftovers soon and try using them in a different dish like wraps, salads, or on top of pizza. Freeze vegetables and meats that you know you aren’t going to eat in time and then use them in chilli, soup, or stew, or use almost-expired fruits in baking, deserts, or smoothies. Consider eating parts of fruit and veggies that you usually don’t. Did you know that the inside and top portion of broccoli stems can be grated up and added to salads or coleslaws? Organic apples, carrot, potato, and yam peels are all edible. Wash them up and include in your meals the vitamins and minerals they contain. If you find yourself throwing away the same items week after week, stop buying them. Or buy smaller portions. Many purchase groceries by habit, rather than by what is needed; try making a list at home to make sure you know what you need. Composting is better than landfilling, but composing still creates carbon dioxide and should only be used for the parts of fruit and veggies that are not edible. Landfilling food waste creates methane gas, increases landfill leachate production, takes up space in the landfill, costs money to transport, and wastes the nutrient content of the food. Waste Wise education is delivered to students in the CRD, but the CRD would like to make waste education available to everyone, as we all have the ability to change our waste handling habits for the better. For more info on Waste Wise call (250) 398-7929 or find details on WasteWise activities and events at Please join us this year to become Waste Wise and make a difference. For direct access to our monthly topics “Like” us on Facebook at caribooregion, check out,or look for our articles in your local paper.

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Off-grid Checklist: ‘Tis the season

if you have a healthy set of batteries and make sure they are fully charged before you leave for the season (not just topped up) and disconnect all loads then they would not freeze. Even if batteries have become seriously discharged over the winter due to an equipment failure you can usually recover much of their capacity. Tip: Put your batteries in an insulated enclosure to help avoid extreme temperatures during the winter.

By Ron Young


looming of the natural world in springtime and early summer brings us back to our outdoor pursuits, which in BC are often in remote locations. If we have the benefit of a seasonal home, a summer cabin, or an RV then chances are some kind of electrical power system is installed. A few years ago these systems were simply a portable generator with an extension cord, but the evolution of that idea has led to quieter, less expensive renewable energy solutions like solar panels and wind generators. A power system that hasn’t been used for several months needs to be examined carefully to make sure all of the components have survived the elements intact. Following is a list of the basic power system components and suggestions of a few things that you should look at to check their function and integrity. Solar Panels Solar panels can be mounted on a roof, on a ground mount, or on a standing pole mount. Over the winter heavy snow accumulation, ice formation, snowmelt, leaf accumulation, and rodents are a few things that can cause potential problems. Examine the wiring for stress damage caused by wind, snow, ice, or wildlife. I’ve seen horses pull connection boxes right off the back of a solar array and rodents and other critters munch on wire insulation. Look at the structure of the mount to make sure wind and temperature variations haven’t loosened bolts or fittings. The ground wire from the panel frame should also be

Off-grid solar installation by earthRight Solar in the Cariboo. Photo: Ron Young checked. Finally, the surface of the panels should be cleaned with a mild soap cleaner. Accumulated dirt and film on the panel surface can rob you of power and deteriorate the clarity of the glass by etching it over time. Tip: If you have an adjustable solar mount, a good strategy on shutting down your seasonal residence is to adjust the panels to their most vertical setting to avoid snow accumulation. Batteries If the system was left operational over the winter then the batteries should be charged. If you have a battery monitor as part of your inverter or controller then you can see the voltage and a fully charged battery will be around 12.6 volts. Multiply that times two if you have a 24v system or times four for a 48v system. The difference between fully charged and fully discharged is only a few tenths of a volt. A battery at 12.2 volts is below fifty percent charged; in other words, it is discharged. However, as I have noted in previous articles, battery voltage is a very inaccurate measure of battery health. A high voltage on a battery that drops dramatically when a

load is applied indicates a sulphated battery that needs attention. The best way to determine this is by using a battery hydrometer to measure the specific gravity of the electrolyte in the battery. This quick check will tell you instantly what the batteries actual state of charge is. Any battery that has not had charge/ discharge cycles for several weeks or months will need to be equalized. This is accomplished by applying a controlled overcharge for a few hours. This is done through a generator, usually hooked up to your inverter to control the charge voltage or through the charge controller using the sun. The decision to leave the charging system turned on depends on a few variables. If it’s a small system with just one or two batteries you may want to turn it off and take the batteries home. With more batteries it becomes impractical to do that and the best strategy is usually to leave the charge controller from the solar panels turned on. If the panels receive sun and aren’t covered by snow or disabled in some other manner your batteries will be kept charged, but that’s a big IF. For example, if the solar is disabled or the charge controller fails then you could end up replacing a set of batteries. However,

Charge Controller and Inverter These two electrical components that are the brains of the system are usually located indoors. However, at the very least a visual inspection should be performed to make sure all connections remain secure. A charge controller that is left on will generate a small amount of heat but it can be enough to attract rodents that love to build nests over an ‘electric blanket.’ Both inverter and controller often have fan or vent openings and you’ll want to make sure uninvited guests have not invaded these. If the components were shut down you will want to review the battery charging set points to make sure they are correct. The more sophisticated controllers and inverter monitors have a small battery backup to retain settings but double check to make sure your system is at its optimal settings, which you should have recorded previously. Tip: A battery state of charge monitor, which can be purchased separately or incorporated into a charge controller or inverter, can give you a detailed report on several months of charging history. This not only helps troubleshoot problems but also tells you how well the system is performing and if there are any stray loads that you are unaware of. Copyright Ron Young. Ron Young a Renewable Energy specialist owns the earthRight store in Williams Lake established in 1993. A series of articles on the basics of solar energy can be found at his website:

National Aboriginal Day: Celebrating culture in Williams Lake By LeRae Haynes


ational Aboriginal Day on June 21 in Williams Lake is celebrated with pride and excitement with a parade through town and activities, great food, and fun for the whole family at both Boitanio Park and Thompson Rivers University. The Northern Shuswap Tribal Council (NSTC) has organized the National Aboriginal Day parade and events in Boitanio Park for the past six years, according to NSTC community services co-ordinator Marg Casey, who said National Aboriginal Day has been celebrated in Williams Lake for more than 20 years. Canada’s National Aboriginal Day is held annually on June 21 to celebrate the unique heritage, diverse cultures, and outstanding achievements of the nation’s Aboriginal peoples—the First Nations, Inuit, and Métis peoples. Casey said National Aboriginal Day has something for everyone, from babies to

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elders, and that everyone is warmly invited to attend. “There are all kinds of family activities, including a Lahal display, food booths, face painting, crafting booths, and drumming and dancing,” she explained. “And of course there is a bouncy castle for the kids!” The Community Arts Council (CAC) of Williams Lake is pursuing a unique project to add to the celebrations in Boitanio Park. If approved by the City, a community ground mural will be painted on a section of the asphalt path near the entrance to the park on National Aboriginal Day. If the project is approved, local artists Joan Gentles and Cat Prevette will design a stencil for the large mandala mural and volunteers will wash and prime the 8’ by 8’ circular area. During the National Aboriginal Day celebrations, Cat Prevette will invite people to complete a stencilled area. CAC says the idea is that the mural will gently wear away over time, and that it can be renewed or added to over time—a reminder of the diversity and creativity that is alive and well in Williams Lake. The National Aboriginal Day parade

<ational Aboriginal Day in Williams Lake gives young people the opportunity to celebrate their culture with pride and enjoy local communities coming together. Photo: <orthern Shuswap Tribal Council

starts at 10:00 a.m. at the Elks Hall parking lot, proceeds down 1st Avenue onto Oliver Street, and ends in Boitanio Park. Residents and visitors line the sidewalks to cheer along the route Casey said the parade has really grown over the years. “It’s very popular—parades are just fun,” she said. “It’s a chance for First Nations

people to come out and show pride in their culture. This is a positive, joyous event that brings our communities together.” Any group interested in joining the parade or adding an event to the celebration in the park, including signing up for a free both, can contact Marg Casey at or (250) 392-7361.

June/July 2014


Loving the planet and being your most beautiful ‘you’

Health and beauty treatments go hand in hand with protecting the environment at Adorn and Beauty Naturally. The salon offers pedicures, manicures, facials, waxing, reflexology, a range of massage treatments, eyelash and eyebrow tinting, gel nails and polish, and more. What sets the salon apart, according to owner Jo-Anne Lang, is its staff and owners’ commitment to high-quality ‘green’ Canadian products with no preservatives, toxins, or harmful additives. Adorn and Beauty offers product refills to reduce waste and uses all-natural cleaners and cloths for cleaning instead of paper towels. It also features local artists, creating a beautiful, peaceful, welcoming atmosphere for clients. “You don’t have to sacrifice feeling beautiful to protect the environment. I think every woman is naturally beautiful, and it doesn’t take chemicals to look and feel your best,” explained Lang. “I don’t believe in putting the earth in peril for our own beauty: we should teach our children that you don’t have to ruin the earth to be beautiful.” She has been in the health and beauty industry for 14 years, and says that what people expect has really changed. “They know more and care more about the products they use and where they come from,” said Lang. “This is so positive and encouraging.” Adorn and Beauty Naturally is located at 240B Oliver Street, and can be reached at (250) 392-2889, at, and on Facebook.

June/July 2014

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ne hundred years ago gardening was plain, simple, hard work with the focus on filling your root cellar and pantry with healthy produce. Toda y’s tec hnolo gy adds a huge challenge to our seeds: the GMO factor or Genetically Modified Organisms. Nuclei of seed cells have been implanted with different DNA to achieve glyphosate tolerance. Even though Monsanto argues that GM techniques could deliver more yield and reduce the (absolutely unnecessary) need for pesticides, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and reduce soil erosion, their arguments have been proven false in the US. European as well as Russian and Chinese shoppers are keenly aware of GM foods encroaching on their shopping carts and they are seriously opposed to GM foods on their dinner plates. Food containing GMOs requires labelling in these countries and thus the citizens can choose what they eat. This is not the case in Canada or the US. Worse yet, the media in both countries has dropped the ball on informing the public about GMOs. Meanwhile, the European press is actively alerting its readers about the consequences and dangers of consuming of GM products. While many EU countries declare themselves GMO-free ( some have even banned the cultivation of GM crops. Most people are ready to change their diets on the spot after reading a few pages or listening to an hour-long lecture on dangers of GMOs. Here is only a teaser of what you will find: •

The only study ever conducted on GM food for humans shows that genes “jumped” from GM soy into the DNA of human intestinal bacteria and continued to function. That means that long after you stop eating GM soy, you may still have GM proteins produced continuously inside of you. (What if the pe s ti ci de -

producing “Bt” gene found in GM corn chips were also to jump? It might transform our intestinal flora into living pesticide factories, possibly for the long term.) Most offspring of mother rats fed GM soy died within three weeks (compared to a 10 per cent death rate in the non-GM soy group). Similarly, when a lab switched to rat feed with GM soy, most of the offspring at the facility died within two weeks. Studies with mice show reproductive problems. Mice fed GM soy had altered sperm cells and the DNA of their embryos acted differently. Hundreds of farm workers complained of allergic reactions when touching GM cotton. Sheep grazed on GM cotton plants after harvest and 1 in 4 died, adding up to 10,000 deaths in one region of India.

Farmers on three continents say their livestock became sterile, sick, or died, after eating GM corn varieties. Avoiding GMOs is not easy but keeping away from fast food and sodas will have you win half the battle. Please be aware that 90 per cent of all soy products are from GMO crops. How about gardening? Choose organic seeds (organic standards do not allow GM), and save the seeds from your produce. The choice is yours and you have to live with the consequences. Inspired by Wise Traditions ( summer journal 2013) and Jeffrey Smith.

June / July Events Calendar June 5 – “Much Ado About Swarms” presentation. Diane Dunaway, local honey maven, will explain the amazing phenomenon of bee swarms. Scout Island Nature Center, 7 p.m. Free admission, donations to honey bee research are welcome. Contact (250) 3988532.

June 28 – Koster Lake – Churn Creek Protected Area, a Williams Lake Field Naturalist’s field trip. Moderate, full-day hike or bike (14 km) with Friends of Churn Creek. 7 a.m. Pre-register with Ordell Steen (250) 398-5017.

July 5 - Flea/Farmer’s Market in Horsefly. 10:30 a.m. June 6-28 – “Brushes with History: Our Cariboo to 3:30:pm. Call (250) 620-3575 for more info. Roots” art exhibition. Cariboo Art Society, Station House Gallery, Williams Lake. Contact: (250) 392- July 5-6 – Permaculture workshop with Ken Shaw, 6113 / M.Sc. The Belles Lake Resort and Wellness Centre. 9 a.m-5 p.m. For more info call (250) 620-0596. June 7 – Mount Polley Mine Tour, a Williams Lake Field Naturalist’s field trip. 8:15 a.m. Meet in a.m. for July 6 – Women’s Spirituality Circle: Joining the carpooling. Pre-register with Colleen Hughes at Gendun Drubpa Buddhist community for Pet Blessing and Children’s Day at the Buddhist Stuppa, Spokin Lake. Call Margaret-Anne at (250) 305-4426 or GenJune 7 - Flea/Farmer’s Market in Horsefly. 10:30 dun Drubpa Buddhist Centre at (778) 412-7780. a.m. to 3:30:pm. Call (250) 620-3575 for more info. July 9 – Missioner Creek (Dairy Fields) Walk, a WilJune 11 – Celebrate Rivers to Oceans Week at Scout liams Lake Field Naturalist’s field trip. History walk Island. Visit the new ocean tank creatures, and release including Secwepemc village site and burial ground, a Chinook salmon fry to begin its long journey to the HBC brigade trail, and site of the first Williams Lake. sea. 7-8:30 p.m. Contact (250) 398-8532. 7 a.m. Contact Ordell Steen at (250) 398-5017 for more info. June 11 – Women’s Spirituality Circle: Lunchtime Sharing Circle and Potluck. 12:00-1:30 p.m. at Cana- July 9 – Annual Family Street Party at the Boys and dian Mental Health Association, Williams Lake. Con- Girls Club, Williams Lake, (across from Safeway). 6tact Margaret-Anne at (250) 305-4426. 9 p.m. Free BBQ, activities, games, prizes! Everyone welcome! Contact (250) 392-5730. June 15 – Lake River Valley Birding Sunday, a Williams Lake Field Naturalist’s field trip. Learn songs July – 11-12. Arts on the Fly music festival. Horseof the many birds nesting in the valley. Contact Phil fly, BC. More info: Ranson for more info (250) 398-7110. July – 18-20. Medicine weekend workshop hosted by June 16 – Registration begins for Nature Fun summer The Belles Lake Resort and Wellness Centre. Local program for kids ages 3-13. Exploration, games, and medicines, wild crafting, gardening, and preparing art through July and August. Call (250) 398-8532 or medicines. Camping available. For more info call for more info. (250) 620-0596. June 18 – Rose Lake Paddle, a Williams Lake Field July 19 - Flea/Farmer’s Market in Horsefly. 10:30 Naturalist’s field trip. Paddle along the shore and a.m. to 3:30:pm. Call (250) 620-3575 for more info. marshes, 7 a.m. Contact Jim Sims at (250) 296-3638. July 26 – Eureka Meadows hike into alpine, a WilJune 21 - Flea/Farmer’s Market in Horsefly. 10:30 liams Lake Field Naturalist’s field trip. 7 a.m. Prea.m. to 3:30:pm. Call (250) 620-3575 for more info. register with Katharine VanSpall (250) 392-4447. June 21 – National Aboriginal Day Parade, Boitanio Park, Williams Lake. A celebration of Aboriginal heritage. 10 a.m. Contact Northern Shuswap Tribal Council at (250) 392-7361.

July 29 – “King Corn” South Cariboo Sustainability Society film. Community Employment Centre, 808 Alpine, 100 Mile House, 7 p.m. Free admission. Info: s o ut hc a r i bo o s us ta i na bi li ty. c o m o r e ma i l

June 22 – Information Meeting and Open House for Chickadee Early Childhood and Learning Centre to Aug 1-4 – ArtsWells Festival of all Things Art. explore Waldorf-inspired education for your child. Wells/Barkerville, BC. “Expect the Unexpected!” Call (250) 296-3265, visit the website at Contact: (800) 442-2787 / or e-mail at June 22 – Rock Lake Bike and Birding, a Williams Lake Field Naturalists field trip. Easy bike ride on dirt trail and enjoy waterfowl, shorebirds, and songbirds. 8 a.m. Contact Paula Laita (778) 883-4191. June 24 – “Play Again” South Cariboo Sustainability Society film. 7 p.m. Community Employment Centre, 808 Alpine, 100 Mile House. Free admission. Info: s o ut hc a r i bo o s us ta i na bi li ty. c o m o r e ma i l June 25 – Women’s Spirituality Circle: Evening Sharing Circle and Potluck –5:30 – 7:30 p.m. at Canadian Mental Health Association, Williams Lake. Contact Margaret-Anne at (250) 305-4426. June 27-30 - 88th Annual Williams Lake Stampede. Visit for more info.

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June/July 2014


Your Green Shopping Directory

Distribution Details

The Green Collective “Thinks, Creates, or Sells Eco-Friendly Products.” Bean Counter Bistro & Coffee Bar, 250 3052326 180B 3rd Ave. North, Williams Lake Organic Coffee, Fair Trade, Local Foods

Juice Bar, atural Products, Essential Oils, Teas, Crystals, Gemstones, and more.

Potato House Sustainable Community Society 250 855-8443 or Body Health 4 All, 250-297-0089 In an age of apathy and a sense that change is all <ola Carter talk and no action, The Potato House Project is a Better health by balanc- friendly bastion of doing, sharing, learning and ing body PH. Independent Distributor of LiPH playing. Call us with your ideas and to find out Products ways to get involved. Canadian Tire, 250 392-3303 1050 South Lakeside Dr., Williams Lake Recycling Initiatives, Renewable Energy Solutions, Organic Cleaning Products: Blue Planet, Green Works, Method, ature Clean, Seventh Generation

Rona Home Centre, 250 392-7767 298 Proctor Street, Williams Lake "ECO" cleaning & gardening products, LED bulbs & energy-efficient building products. Responsible disposal available for recycling of paint, stain, CFLs, batteries, saw blades & more.

Cariboo Growers Coop, 778 412-2667 San Jose Cattle Company, 250 296-4592 3rd & Oliver St., Williams Lake. 100% atural & Clint and Karen Thompson Organic Foods, on-Profit Farmer’s Coop Sustainable Agriculture, Raised aturally/Local Beef, o antibiotics, hormones, chemical fertilizers Cleanway Supply, 1-800-663-5181 or herbicides. 275 South MacKenzie Ave., Williams Lake Organic Cleaning Products Scout Island <ature Centre & Williams Lake Field <aturalists, 250 398-8532 Dandelion Living, 778-412-9100 271 Oliver St., Williams Lake Local & Original, Reclaimed & Repurposed, 1305A Borland Rd, Williams Lake atural & Organic Products ature on the city’s doorstep. Bird sanctuary, arboretum, trails, ature House, natural history Day Spa Champagne, 250 305-1249 programs for children and adults. 124A North Second Ave., Williams Lake Quiet, relaxing, personalized atmosphere. A Zen Smashin’ Smoothies, 778-412-2112 experience. Four Types Massage, Reflexology, 102-41, 7th Ave North, Williams Lake Manicures/Pedicures & More. Juice, Smoothies & Expresso Bar Fresh, Organic, Whole Food. Debbie Irvine B.Sc. (Agr.) RH< Registered Holistic Nutritionist Sta-Well Health Foods, 250 392-7022 250-392-9418 or 79D 3rd Ave. North, Williams Lake EATIBG YOUR WAY TO EXCELLEBT Organic Foods, Water Distillers, atural MediHEALTH! cines, Emergency Freeze Dried Foods. Presenting nutritional seminars which inspire and educate to address health concerns. Williams Lake Food Policy Council 250-3025010 earthRight Solar, 1 877 925-2929 GROWIG THE SEEDS OF CHAGE! 3rd & Borland, Williams Lake foodRenewable Energy Solutions, Eco-Friendly Building a strong ucts, Composting Toilets local food economy and promoting a healthy and sustainable community Flying Coyote Ranch, 250 296-4755 Ingrid Kallman and Troy Forcier Williams Lake Water Factory, 250 398-5201 Grass-fed Angus beef Pure Bottled Water. Home & Office Delivery. No shots, no hormones, organic fertilizer 955 S. Mackenzie Ave, Williams Lake, BC. By the quarter or side, hamburger . Come see us on Toonie Tuesday! The Gecko Tree, 250 398-8983 Zed-Tech Electric, 250-267-4868 54 N. MacKenzie Ave. Williams Lake For all your residential and commercial needs. Serving healthy, local foods Joe Zombori Halls Organics, 250 398-2899 Zirnhelt Ranch, 250 243-2243 107 Falcon Rd. (North Lakeside), Williams Lake or Indoor and Outdoor Organic Gardening ucts, Alternative Traditional Products, Teas anProducers of Grassfed/Finished Beef. Pasture Herbs, Hemp Body Products Raised Pork. The Hobbit House, 250 392-7599 71 First Ave. South, Williams Lake Contact us today to list your Green business - or 250 620-3419

June/July 2014

Green Locations TheGreenGazette can be found in print at the fine locations below, as well as online, or by subscription . 100 Mile House Donex Canadian 2 for 1 Pizza Chartreuse Moose Higher Ground Nat. Foods KFC Nuthatch Books One Another Coffee House Safeway Save-On-Foods A&W 108 Mile House 108 Mile Esso 108 Mile Mall 108 Mile Supermarket Hills Health & Guest Ranch 150 Mile House 150 Mile Mall Husky Station Marshall’s 150 Mile Store Alexis Creek Alexis Creek General Store Anahim Lake Anahim Lake Trading Mclean Trading Bella Coola Coast Mountain Lodge Kopas Store Moore’s Organic Market Valley Inn & Restaurant Big Lake Big Lake General Store Clinton Clinton Coffee House Dog Creek Mount View Handy Mart Red Dog Pub/Liquor Store Hanceville Lee’s Corner Store Horsefly Clarke’s General Store Post Office Horsefly Hardware Horsefly Service Station LacLaHache Race Trac Gas & Convenience Red Crow Cafe

Redstone Kinikinik Wildwood RaceTrac Gas & Store Williams Lake A& W All-ways Travel Amanda Enterprises Barking Spider Mountain Bikes Bean Counter Bistro Beaver Valley Feeds The Book Bin CanWest Propane Cariboo Growers Coop Cariboo Ski Concrete Fitness Conservation Society CJ’s Restaurant CRD Library Creative Scissor Dairy Queen Dandelion Living Day Spa Champagne earthRight Elaine’s Natural Foods 4 Sure Bistro Factory Direct Furniture Flavours & More Good Guys Gardening Greyhound Bus Stop Haines Office World Handi-Mart Joey’s Grill KFC Halls Organics The Hobbit House Husky Restaurant Karamia’s Donairs Kornak & Hamm Pharmacy

The Laughing Loon The Legion Margetts Meats McDonalds Mohawk New World Coffee Oliver’s Bar & Grill Porky’s Deli Quality Tax Solutions Red Shred’s Bike & Board Shed Rona Home Centre Safeway Save-on-Foods SBL Liquor Store Scout Island Nature Center Senior Citizens ActivityCenter

Prince George Ava Maria Gifts and Health Foods Books and Co. University of Northern BC College of New Caledonia

Shopper’s Drug Mart Spa Bella Staples Station House Gallery Sta-Well Health Foods Subway Sutton Cariboo Realty The Gecko Tree The Open Book Tim Hortons Tourism Info Center Trattoria Pasta Shoppe TRU Tsilhqot'in National Gov`t Walmart WL Veterinary Hospital Williams Lake Water Factory

Quesnel The Green Tree Bliss Cafe Booster Juice Carryall Books Good For You Market Holistic Health Care Clinic Karin’s European Deli Granville’s Coffee Shop Quiznos Safeway

*please note that we are in the process of revamping our distribution process to better serve our clients. If TheGreenGazette is not being displayed at any of the above locations give us a call so that we may rectify the situation. 250 620-3419

Likely Lakeside Service Valley General Store McLeese Lake Deep Creek Service Station The Oasis Motel Cafe <impo Lake Nimpo Lake General Store

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June/July 2014


TheGreenGazette June / July 2014

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