Columbia Epidemiology Department Launches Pioneering Media Project To Better Translate Emerging Public Health Science Editor Seeks To Make Clear What Epidemiologic Research Really Means for Public Health Policy “Overwhelmingly positive” and “a big draw” for students applying to graduate school is how Dana March, Assistant Professor in the Department of Epidemiology at Columbia University, describes the response the Department has had to its newly launched journalism/media initiative. Entitled “the 2x2 project”, the effort
has as its main goal to translate emerging public health science in a clear and compelling way for a lay audience. Vision For Translation According to March, who also serves as the Editor-in-Chief, the project -2x2 continued on pg 2
Boston Globe Magazine Profiles Harvard Epidemiologist Walter Willett And Controversies Surrounding His Research And Recommendations In a lengthy profile filled with revealing information, quotes, observations, and anecdotes, the Boston Globe Sunday Magazine published a profile of well-known Harvard epidemiologist Walter Willett in late July. Among the topics covered include background information about his youth and family life, his role and reputation as an influencer on nutrition topics, the controversy generated by his criticisms of a CDC study by fellow epidemiologist
communicating Katherine Flegal, the challenges of mixed messages to the public about scientific data, the value and limitations of observational studies compared to randomized clinical trials, what we have really learned about nutritional factors in disease causation, and last but not least, favorite recipes. Even the science writer and epidemiology critic Gary Taubes -Willett continues on page 8
In This Issue: -3Insights on Translational Epi
-5Marmot Keynote on Social Determinants
-11Epi News Briefs
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July – August 2013 Volume Thirty Four Numbers Seven - Eight
-2x2 continued from pg 1
“what a department of epidemiology ought to be…”
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seeks to shape the public conversation around public health topics, and in the long term to shape policy consonant with the public health science. The inspiration for the project comes from Sandro Galea, the Department Chairman, who March called “a very gifted leader with a unique vision” and one who has made translation an expressed goal and integral part of the Epidemiology Department at Columbia. Columbia As Epi Model She called Columbia “what a department of epidemiology ought to be, an exciting place, and a model for others to aspire to. And a completely unanticipated benefit of the program, says March, is the high level of interest being expressed by prospective students trying to decide which School of Public Health to attend. Fellows Training At the core of the project are the fellows hired each year to rotate through the different sections of the 2x2 project, and in so doing, get trained to become effective writers. Fellows are expected to learn to write in a clear and compelling way which engages an educated lay audience and gets them talking about the public health issues. Bike Sharing Example One example of this work is an article about New York City’s new bike-sharing program launched in May of this year. The article by PhD
candidate Kathleen Bachynski focused on the disconnect between the new program’s touted health and fitness benefits and its failure to make provisions for renters to wear proven effective bike helmets. Bachynski reviewed the epidemiologic data on both safety and biking practices, including a study which found that 81% of bike share riders rode without helmets as compared to only 49% of riders using personal bikes. Recently, bike rental companies in New York have started renting sanitized helmets for their bike share riders, according to the 2x2 project website. Celebrity Endorsements According to March, there are “many ways to stoke the conversation”. Another example is the commentary written by Abdul El-Sayeed, a social epidemiologist medical student at Columbia who wrote an open letter to Lebron James encouraging him to drop his endorsements of Coca Cola and McDonald’s so as not to contribute further to childhood obesity. The commentary was widely circulated. Training The 2x2 project trains fellows by providing didactic sessions on journalism topics as well as offering several different types of articles they can write. These types include a roundup of news items of potential interest which the fellows and staff have identified by Friday of each week, commentaries on current issues, news analyses, reviews of -2x2 continues on page 7
American Journal of Epidemiology Editor Shares Insights At Harvard On Translational Epidemiology “Knowing is not enough; we must apply. Willing is not enough; we must do.” That’s one early quote attributed to Goethe from Moyses Szklo, Professor of epidemiology at Johns Hopkins and editor of The American Journal of Epidemiology, who spoke as the 157th Cutter Lecturer at Harvard earlier this year. His talk was entitled “Semantic and Other Challenges in Translational Epidemiology”. The Goethe quote provided an early clue to Szklo’s personal views about the proper allegiances for epidemiologists, a perennial topic of discussion in the field.
perspective. He offered his own definition of translational epidemiology as the “effective transfer of new knowledge resulting from epidemiologic studies (including trials) into the planning of population-wide and individuallevel disease control programs and policies.” He further differentiated translational epidemiology from implementation science which he described as more focused on the logistics of translation than the transfer of knowledge per se.
Szklo began his talk by noting that his first thought had been to title his talk “Epidemiology for Public Health” because the concept of translation is really not a new one, he said. He noted that in earlier years many epidemiologists such as Hopkins’ Mort Levin had health officer or public health backgrounds, took for granted their interest in population health, and were proud of their public health achievements such as those surrounding the polio vaccination trials in the 1950’s. He noted that the recent resurgence of interest in social epidemiology signals a renewed interest in population-based strategies.
To frame his presentation Szklo modified a diagram proposed by Tugwell in the Journal of Chronic Diseases which identified the different steps in the cycle or loop of public health problem-solving. These are: • Describing the burden of illness and disease • Etiologic studies • Describing the burden of risk factors
Definition of Translational Epi Szklo asserted that translational epidemiology as a concept is still evolving. He presented the varying definitions of translation research as proposed by the National Institutes of Health and later by the Institute of Medicine and found fault with both of them from an epidemiologist’s
“Knowing is not enough; we must apply. Willing is not enough; we must do.”
• Determining the efficacy of intervention(s) • Determining the effectiveness if intervention(s) • Estimating cost-effectiveness • Decision analysis, including ethical considerations • Implementation of policies or programs
“He further differentiated translational epidemiology from implementation science.”
• Monitoring implementation • Reassessing the burden of disease and risk factors -Translational continued on page 4
- Translational continued from pg 3 According to Szklo, epidemiology is relevant to virtually all the steps in the cycle. Epi Concepts Related To Translation
“...and then a miracle occurs!”
An important feature of Szklo’s talk was his decision not to discuss what he called “strategies” for translation, including such activities as multidisciplinary approaches or comparative effectiveness studies, but rather to focus on a conceptualization of translation as the task of transferring knowledge. Other conceptualizations of how best to go from knowledge to action have been proposed, and Szklo jokingly referred to the famous cartoon reprinted in the Dictionary of Epidemiology which shows two persons discussing the process at a blackboard describing the critical step from knowledge to action as “and then a miracle occurs!”
"It's true," he said, "it's not causal, but it's true."
Confounding In presenting his version of the process, Szklo first elaborated on specific epidemiologic concepts such as bias and choice of analytic model to illustrate that thinking about these concepts varies depending on one’s purpose---to elucidate causality or to prevent disease. For example, confounding is something which epidemiologists interested in causality see as a threat to causal inference and thus try “to kill off” as soon as possible, said Szklo. But public health epidemiologists can greatly value
confounded associations because they can help identify high risk markers to be used for screening or other purposes. He cited the example of alcohol and lung cancer saying that persons who drink alcohol are likely to develop lung cancer more often. “It’s true,” he said, “it’s not causal, but it’s true!” Another example involves African Americans and hypertension. Such confounding information could be useful information to know. The Translation Process In focusing and elaborating on the steps in the translation of knowledge process, Szklo described the usual steps 1) to collect evidence, 2) conduct systematic reviews, 3) estimate cost-effectiveness, and 4) adopt an evidence-based policy. He expanded the tasks under 2) above (systematic review) to include 2a) assessing the level of evidence, 2b) the selecting policy or program options, 2c) conducting decision analysis, and 2d) issuing recommendations. According to Szklo, these subtasks are the ones which should draw the attention of the translational epidemiologist. Carrying out step 2a) he said is not an exact science because it enters the realm of inference and requires judgment. Carrying out step 2b) requires a consideration not only of economic factors, but also of public values, and could benefit from the input of ethicists as well as economists, said Szklo. He acknowledged to the audience that he was “inventing” the steps -Translational continued on page 10
Michael Marmot Gives Keynote Presentation At Second Annual Symposium on Social Determinants at Johns Hopkins Says Epidemiologists Must Speak Truth To Power We have the knowledge and the means, but do we have the will? That is the question which UK epidemiologist Michael Marmot posed to his audience in a keynote address at the Second Annual Symposium on the Social Determinants of Health sponsored by the Urban Institute at the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health. The theme of the conference was on “Taking Action on the Social Determinants of Health”.
made what he called the “grand claim “ that if fairness became more widespread in British society, then health would improve and health inequities would diminish. In effect, the report conceived of fairness as a health intervention, and made recommendations for actions in early child development, adult education, income, environment, and in prevention and other domains.
Truth To Power
Marmot began his talk by recalling the bold assertion made in the title of the landmark WHO Commission report on social determinants of health in 2008 that the gap in health equity could be closed in a generation. He cited a 44year gap in life expectancy between women in Zimbabwe (LE 42 years) and those in Japan (LE 86 years), and an enormous difference in the risk of dying from maternal related causes of death in Afghanistan (1 in 8 women) versus those in European women (1 in 46,500). The WHO report was in effect stating, said Marmot, that the world has the knowledge and the means to close this gap if it chooses to do so.
Marmot said he came to regret the use of fairness in the title of the UK report because politicians in the UK at the time were lowering taxes on the rich, removing tax credits and benefits for the poor, and calling these policies fair. He denounced these unfair policies as “a grotesque parody of fairness” and was portrayed as “political” by the media. Marmot insisted to his audience that he is not political, but as a person with the luxury of being an independent academic, he believes one of his main tasks is to “speak truth to power”.
” We have the knowledge and the means, but do we have the will ? ”
“a grotesque parody of fairness”
Rationales Fairness As A Health Intervention Marmot described how he was invited by authorities in the UK to examine how the findings from the WHO report could be translated into action for one specific country. Marmot and his colleagues issued a UK report entitled “Fair Society, Healthy Lives” which
When invited to review the situation on social determinants for the broader European region, Marmot was keen to select social justice and empowerment as the key rationales -Marmot continues on page 6
-Marmot continued from page 5
“We want to create the conditions for people to have control of their lives,”
"go where the receptors are."
for addressing social determinants of health. “We take action not for instrumental reasons, but because avoiding health inequities is the right thing to do,” he said. Furthermore, he placed empowerment of people at the center of efforts to reduce inequities. “We want to create the conditions for people to have control of their lives,” he said. Social Gradient In discussing social determinants, Marmot took up the important concept of “social gradient” to emphasize that poverty is relative to what individuals can do in the context of their own societies. He noted that 40% of the world population lives for less than $2 per day. In that sense, “persons in the UK and the US would be fantastically wealthy,” he said. But there are still large gaps in life expectancy between different groups in these countries. He denied the accusation that he would like the rich to have poorer health in order to reduce the inequities, and he called for taking action across all socioeconomic groups. Even in countries like Sweden where the overall health level is high, there are still growing gaps in life expectancy between groups at all income levels, according to Marmot. Knowledge and Passion
In the follow up question and answer session, Marmot sought to emphasize even further the importance of being committed to a fair society. In seeking to move forward on such a goal, Marmot said he sees two key
tasks. First, there is the need to gather evidence of what works and to obtain a sound evidence base. He repeatedly emphasized the importance of having solid facts behind you. Second, there is a need to engage partners in the effort wherever you can find them. He declined to express a preference for working on social determinants at the global, national, state, or local levels, but instead urged his audience to “go where the receptors are!” Advice If he had any advice to give young persons, he said it would be “argue while staying as close as possible to solid evidence, and then have the passion to make a difference.” Videos for Marmot and Amartya Sen Videos of Marmot’s talk as well as one given at the first annual Hopkins symposium in 2012 by prize winning economist Amartya Sen are available at: http://tinyurl.com/jvoahgj and at: http://tinyurl.com/kdljfpn No Famines In Democracy In his earlier address, Sen echoed Marmot in noting the importance of empowerment for health, saying that a station in life which is one of“unfreedom”, of being “sat upon” affects one’s mental configuration, and it has a major impact on mortality. He was much less reluctant than Marmot to -Marmot continues on page 9
-2x2 continued from page 2 books and movies, and brief items about news events or interesting statistics. Some of the topics covered to date include the ongoing challenges in reducing teen pregnancy, legalized marijuana, the abuse of prescription painkillers, misleading information about the causes of autism, and the profile of public health in popular music.
Editorial Independence Although the 2x2 project is funded by the Department of Epidemiology, it is an editorially independent and separate entity, and the editors have “lots of latitude on what to cover”, according to March. The editors track the number of views which articles receive as well as the time spent at the site and how many persons share the content either on Facebook or on Twitter. Some of their articles have “gone viral”, and the editors are trying to be more strategic about their content by analyzing the popularity of the material presented. According to March, determining exactly what metrics to use in assessing the impact of the 2x2 project is not a straightforward matter when one considers the long term goal of the project to be shaping public health policy or action. Responsibility To Translate According to March, epidemiologists who work with colleagues both upstream on social causes of disease and more downstream on molecular mechanisms are in a unique position to translate public health science. “There is a real need to do what we are doing
which is trying to enhance the impact of our research by explaining it” she said, “and we have a responsibility to do so.” Obstacles to Adoption March told the Monitor she recognizes there are barriers to more widespread adoption of translation because the focus in academia remains on research work, on getting grant dollars, and on reputation inside as well as outside the university. “We need to shift what is valued”, she told the Monitor. She said Columbia is breaking new ground and that it opens up a whole set of challenges about how to succeed. She believes the epidemiology profession is at a critical juncture and that there is a real desire for what we are doing, for this lay translation of our work.
“...trying to enhance the impact of our research by explaining it...”
Staff and Fellows In addition to March, other persons working on the 2x2 project are Abdul El-Sayeed, Karestan Koenen the editor emerita, Jordan Lite a writer, and Elaine Meyer a journalist. The Fellows selected in the first cohort last year were Josh Brooks, Larkan Callaghan, Arti Virkud, and Lauren Weisenfluh. The new cohort includes Kathleen Bachynski, June Kim, Patches Magarro, and Chris Tait.
“We need to shift what is valued”
To read more about the 2x2 project, visit www.the2x2project.org ■
- Willett continued from pg 1
“Next to whether you smoke, the number that stares up at you from the bathroom scale is the most important measure of your future health.”
“…sees patterns that make him feel he can’t wait around for things to get sorted out.”
gets a mention in the profile making the same kind of statements he made back in 1995 in his widely read article in Science entitled “Epidemiology Faces Its Limits” and in a candid and lengthy interview with The Epidemiology Monitor. Below are notable items from the profile selected by The Epidemiology Monitor: •
The Globe calls Willett the “world’s most influential nutritionist” because he is the single-most-cited nutritionist in the world and among the top five most cited researchers in all of clinical medicine.
The controversy between himself and Flegal who reported that moderately obese persons have a lower mortality was ignited by an unusually critical comment Willett made to National Public Radio trashing the Flegal study by saying “This study is really a pile of rubbish and no one should waste their time reading it.”
The public attitude towards mixed messages from the scientific and public health communities was wellcaptured by Neil Swidey, author of the Globe’s Willett profile, who said “If scientists from Harvard and CDC can’t decide on something as basic as whether being overweight
will kill you sooner or later, who are we supposed to believe? •
A key message from a Willett book on nutrition says “Next to whether you smoke, the number that stares up at you from the bathroom scale is the most important measure of your future health.”
An editorial in Nature described in the profile criticized Willett for oversimplifying data and offering black and white pronouncements like his “rubbish” comment. It said that science is often gray.
The profile highlights the dilemma faced by epidemiologists trying to protect public health by noting “Yet Willett, who presides over decades worth of data on more than a quarter of a million people, sees patterns that make him feel he can’t wait around for things to get sorted out.”
Willett and co-investigator Eric Rimm state that coffee is pretty much uniformly associated with reduced risk of lots of bad stuff, including a lower risk of suicide among women who drink 2-3 cups per day.
The profile quotes Taubes about blinders that investigators such as epidemiologists can have
-Willett continues on page 9
-Willett continued from page 8 without realizing it because they believe in their methods to produce the right answers, and he cites hormone replacement therapy as the example par excellence •
Harvard’s JoAnn Manson, a Willett colleague and former student is calls Willett “critically important—a pioneer in the field”, adding that trials which have cast doubt on some of the findings from Willett’s studies does not diminish the value of his contributions.
About randomized trials of potential nutritional factors in disease prevention, Stanford’s Christopher Gardner says who has carried out nutrition-based trials such as one on the role of garlic, says “One little thing at a time never makes a difference.” On the limits of research in epidemiology and nutrition, he adds “We know about 90 percent of what we’ll ever know, and it’s not enough.”
To read the profile in its entirety, visit: http://tinyurl.com/l8zxona To read the review of the controversy and the editorial in Nature, visit: http://tinyurl.com/lfd66ya ■
-Marmot continued from page 6 acknowledge the important role of political activity in addressing the challenges associated with the social determinants of health, noting that there are no famines in a democracy! By implication, there should be no equity gaps in free societies if the gaps or the inequities could be publicized by the media as easily and effectively as famines. Sen stated that the effort on social determinants of health should include political engagement of a much wider kind. Sen also highlighted the importance of the market in supplying the state with the revenue needed for public services. He closed by reiterating how health is present in every aspect of our lives and is “a quintessentially social subject”. As such, Sen argued, “there is room” for economics and politics in the pursuit of the goals related to social determinants of health. ■
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-Translational continued from page 4
“If not considering a possible application to prevention and public health, epidemiology tends to be fairly boring…”
in the translation process at this point, and that his presentation should be considered a proposal, and is open to discussion. Readers are invited to submit their thoughts in the space provided online where this article is published. Ivory Tower vs The Field In concluding his presentation, Szklo contrasted what he called “academic” epidemiology and translational epidemiology. Because the purposes associated with these two roles differ, some of the key concepts in epidemiology are viewed differently. (see table published separately along with this article).
Epi is Boring… The talk ended more provocatively than it began with a quote from the late Hopkins epidemiologist George Comstock who told the speaker that “If not considering a possible application to prevention and public health, epidemiology tends to be fairly boring…” While he was quick to identify this statement as just one person’s view, it became clear in the question and answer period, as it had been suggested by the quote from Goethe at the beginning of the talk, that Szklo is fundamentally in agreement with Comstock because he told the audience that in his personal view “it is terribly important for epidemiologists to get involved in policy.” ■
Table Contrasting Purposes and Concerns of “Academic” Epidemiology and Translational Epidemiology Academic Epidemiology
Etiology and mechanisms
Ratio based measures of association
Absolute differences (attributable fraction, efficacy and effectiveness)
Multiplicative interaction model
Additive interaction model
Confounded association= biased association
Confounded association=not biased association
Epi News Briefs August 12, 2013 More On Epidemiology and Zombies Anyone on the lookout for new applications of epidemiology will want to take note of a new classroom activity for middle and high school students involving zombies and concepts of disease transmission. The activity was developed under the sponsorship of Texas Instruments (TI) and the goal is to teach science and math skills by showing how Hollywood uses real-world science to make movies. The program is called “STEM behind Hollywood” and plans are to create classroom activities around zombies, forensics, space, and superheroes using TI products. The first activity on zombies is now available for free downloads of student worksheets and teacher notes. The first activity entitled Zombie Apocalypse seeks to teach students in a 45 minute classroom activity about a zombie contagion making its way through a human population. According to the website (www.stemhollywood.com), the activity gives students an insidelook at STEM careers such as epidemiology by using modeling and graphs that the World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control use to track the spread of infectious diseases.
Yale University Report Concludes Cholera Outbreak In Haiti Was Caused By United Nations Troops A comprehensive review of the epidemiological and laboratory evidence and of international legal and humanitarian standards by a collaborative group of Yale University law and public health students and Haitian lawyers and jurists has concluded unequivocally that the ongoing cholera outbreak in Haiti was imported by United Nations troops present in Haiti for peacekeeping purposes. The United Nations has not taken responsibility for the outbreak, according to report, and has failed to provide any redress or compensation for the victims of the disease. Entitled “Peacekeeping Without Accountability”, the report states that the Haiti outbreak has resulted in over 600,000 cases and more than 8,000 deaths and cholera is expected to remain endemic to Haiti for many more years. According to the report, available evidence shows that the cholera outbreak was transmitted from a single point source initially. Four key findings of the epidemiologic investigations, surveys, and laboratory studies implicate the UN troops. There was no active transmission of cholera in Haiti prior to October 2010 and there had been no epidemics in the Caribbean throughout the 20th century. -Epi News Briefs continue on page 12
“The first activity on zombies is now available for free downloads of student worksheets and teacher notes.”
“…the Haiti outbreak has resulted in over 600,000 cases and more than 8,000 deaths…”
-Epi News Briefs continued from page 11
“A particular concern is the upcoming annual pilgrimage to Mecca in Saudi Arabia…”
“The outbreak is traceable to a single cholera strain…”
• The initial area affected by the epidemic encompassed the location of the base of the UN troops and took place only a few days after the arrival of troops from Nepal. •
The UN troops at the base were exposed to cholera in Nepal one month prior to their arrival in Haiti, and poor sanitation at the base allowed the troops to contaminate the water supply near the base.
The outbreak is traceable to a single cholera strain of South Asian origin found in Nepal.
The report concludes that importation of cholera by peacekeepers from Nepal is “the most scientifically plausible explanation of the origin of cholera in Haiti…” To access the report, visit: http://tinyurl.com/lhyxsfm
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Experts Say Conditions for a Public Health Emergency of International Concern Related To Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Have Not Been Met. A recent update from the World Health Organization has raised the total number of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) cases to 94 with 46 associated deaths. The high case fatality rate continues to fuel international concern about the outbreak and its potential to spread. A particular concern is the upcoming annual pilgrimage to Mecca in Saudi Arabia where millions of pilgrims are expected and have the potential to become infected or bring the infection back to their home countries. However, because the World Health Organization considers the risk of transmission to be low for individual pilgrims, WHO does not advise special screening at points of entry with regard to this event nor does it currently recommend the application of any travel or trade restrictions. At a recent meeting of an emergency committee of experts from every WHO region, the group concluded unanimously that with the information now available, the conditions for a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) have not been met. ■
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University of Nevada, Reno EPIDEMIOLOGIST GRADUATE PROGRAM IN PUBLIC HEALTH
Assistant Professor The University of Nevada, Reno, School of Community Health Sciences is seeking candidates for a full-time faculty position in Epidemiology. Research and teaching interests in Chronic Disease epidemiology are preferred but all candidates will be considered. Duties include: teaching graduate and undergraduate students, advising graduate, developing an independent program of scholarship, engaging in community and professional service appropriate for a university faculty member. For a complete position description and requirements, please go to https://www.unrsearch.com/postings/13018. Application reviews will begin November 12, 2013.
Eastern Virginia Medical School (EVMS) is seeking a faculty member in epidemiology for a full-time position in our CEPHaccredited MPH Program. Established in 1997 in collaboration with Old Dominion University (ODU), the MPH Program enrolls an average of 60 new students per year. The position involves teaching introductory and advanced courses in epidemiology to MPH and other health professions students, consultation in the Programâ€™s Epidemiology/Biostatistics Core, research, and student advising. An earned doctorate in epidemiology and ability to teach effectively in the classroom are essential qualifications. Experience as a public health practitioner, a successful researcher, and/or teaching in a CEPHaccredited school or program are highly desirable. Apply online at http://tinyurl.com/ktbk2ou Include a letter of interest, curriculum vitae, and the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of three references. Eastern Virginia Medical School is an equal opportunity / affirmative action employer / M/F/D/V / drug & tobacco free workplace.
Faculty Position in Health Management and Informatics University of Missouri
The Department of Health Management and Informatics of the School of Medicine at the University of Missouri-Columbia seeks an Associate Research Professor (non-tenure track) for a senior-level research position to promote the research/scientific use of cancer incidence, mortality, hospitalization, and behavioral risk factor data.
For a complete job description please visit: http://hrs.missouri.edu/find-a-job/academic/. â€œ The University of Missouri is an equal access, equal opportunity,affirmative action employer that is fully committed to achieving a diverse faculty and staff.
Inflexxion, Inc. is looking for an Epidemiologist Qualifications: MPH degree 3-5 years applied epidemiology/ public health experience or experience conducting public health research. Ability to apply epidemiological principles and methods to the analysis of health surveillance data, as well as evaluate and interpret epidemiological and statistical data. Experience working with large databases and surveillance data.Proficient with SAS and/or SPSS. Knowledge and experience with ArcGIS and/or SQL is a plus. For more info: www.inflexxion.com
Tenure Track Faculty Position Biostatistics Dept . of Biostatistics and Epidemiology is recruiting full-time tenure-track biostatistics faculty position at Assistant, Associate, or Full Professor level. MPH (Biostatistics and Epidemiology) and DrPH (Epidemiology) are offered. Faculty research interests include chronic disease epidemiology, including cancer and cardiovascular disease, perinatal and pediatric epidemiology, genetic epidemiology, multiple behavioral risk factors, health disparities, maternal and child health, gender-based violence, biostatistical methods, statistical genetics, and statistical methodology and modeling for public health diseases. Applicants must possess at time of employment one of the following: 1) doctoral degree in biostatistics or 2) doctoral degree in an biostatistics-related field and at least three years of substantial biostatistics professional or research experience. A candidate must have a record of peer-reviewed scholarship. A successful candidate is expected to obtain competitive extramural funding. Teaching and mentorship of students is required. Salary will be commensurate with qualifications and experience. ETSU is a public university with CEPH-accredited College of Public Health and Colleges of Medicine, Pharmacy, Nursing, and Clinical and Rehabilitative Health Sciences. College website is at: http://www.etsu.edu/cph Applicants must submit online ETSU Employment Application at eJobs, https://jobs.etsu.edu/ AA/EOE. Contact Human Resources about process at (423) 439-5890 or Rickie Carter about position at firstname.lastname@example.org. Search Committee Chair Dr. Xuefeng Liu, ETSU Department of Biostatistics and
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Assistant or Associate Professor in Epidemiology The Dalla Lana School of Public Health (DLSPH) at the University of Toronto invites applications for a tenurestream or tenured appointment at the rank of Assistant or Associate Professor in Epidemiology commencing as early as July 1st, 2014. We seek individuals with a specialization in Chronic Disease Epidemiology and strong methodological skills. The candidate will be expected to initiate and lead an independent research program of international calibre concerning risk factors for and/or the impact of recognized or emerging chronic health conditions (including but not confined to population-based outcome or mortality studies, analytic studies of potential etiologic factors, and studies relating to chronic disease prevention and control). For full details, please visit: http://www.hrandequity.utoronto.ca/careers/co.htm under â€œFaculty Opportunitiesâ€? referencing requisition ID: 1300850. Questions can be directed to email@example.com
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The Voice of Epidemiology presents the July-August 2013 issue of The Epidemiology Monitor. We provide news, job postings, event listings, a...