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IAPE celebrates 10th anniversary at Dartmouth



The Dartmouth Staff




Joel Goldfield ’76 gives a demonstration immersion class in French to show the Rassias method.





In November 2015, Dartmouth announced the creation of a house system as part of the Moving Dartmouth Forward initiative, featuring six new house communities intended to serve as a residential life model for students. The approaching end of this summer term also marks the end of Dartmouth’s first year with housing communities and the changes these communities brought



to the environment of the College. The six houses of the College include Allen, East Wheelock, North Park, West, School and South. Astronomy professor Ryan Hickox, who is the house professor for West House, said that the house system had three main goals — intellectual engagement, community building and having a sense of continuity in the residence halls. He said that he has already seen the beginnings of a more cohesive community in West House, as well as progress towards

intellectual engagement between students through for mal talks, community dinners and receptions with faculty and staff. In terms of continuity, Hickox said that he is only starting to see its beginnings. He believes that it will become more evident as students return next year to the same set of buildings. “I’ve heard from the staff at residential education that even over the course of this year, [the house communities] have been a real benefit

when people leave and come back since it’s the same people they return to, and they can really build on these relationships instead of simply starting from scratch,” Hickox said. A demonstration of continuity was also evident in an event that occurred on the day of room draw at West House in the spring, he said. The community gathered for a reception in the lounge of Fahey, where free gear and food was available. “The main point of it was for SEE HOUSES PAGE 3

Q&A with Charlie Blatt ’18 on recent publication By ALEENA VIGODA



House system sees progress in community building

The Dartmouth Staff


Last week, over 40 teachers from across Mexico gathered at Dartmouth for a two-week program led by the InterAmerican Partnership for Education, held in partnership with the educational nonprofit WorldFund and the Rassias Center for World Languages and Culture. This year, the program celebrated the tenth anniversary of its commitment to bridging the gap between Mexico and the U.S. through education. According to the WorldFund website, IAPE trains English language educators to create educational change in

The Dartmouth

Charlie Blatt ’18, a government major and French minor, was published in the United States Army War College’s journal Parameters this June for her analysis of military strategy in the Iraq War. Charlie is a War and Peace Fellow with the Dickey Center for International Relations, a Rockefeller Leadership Fellow and the former president of College


The title of your paper is “Operational Success, S t r a t eg i c Fa i l u r e : Assessing the 2007 Iraq Troop Surge.” What made you want to write about this topic? CB: I wrote the paper originally for the class Lessons from America’s Foreign Wars with government professor Jeffrey Friedman, but prior to taking that class, I took a class called War and Peace

with government professor Ben Valentino. One of the topics that stood out to me the most in that class was on the evolution of modern warfare, and the movement towards more counter insurgent tactics as militaries evolve to deal with a shift towards civil wars. I was interested in the topic because of content I had learned in this earlier class. Last summer, I had actually talked with professor Valentino about what I might write for professor Friedman’s

class, and he had suggested that I do some research about counterinsurgency in general. That led me to the specific topic about the 2007 Iraq troop surge, which is widely cited as one of the most significant developments in U.S. military strategy in the recent past.

What kind of impact do you think the paper could have on actual policy making? CB: I know the paper has

been distributed at the Army War College and throughout military communities, as well as among policy makers in general, so I’m hoping that the paper will start some dialogue about lessons that could be learned from the surge. One of the conclusions that I come to in the paper is that the surge operationally really did produce dramatic results in Iraq and was incredibly successful at reducing violence. SEE BLATT PAGE 5




Teachers from Mexico train to employ the Rassias method FROM IAPE PAGE 1

classrooms across the country. The group offers three programs — two in Mexico that focus primarily on Spanish language development skills and one at Dartmouth that provides participants with over 130 hours of intensive workshops, training and cultural activities. Following two weeks in Hanover, participants are required to provide 100 hours of commitment to public education in Mexico, including participation in IAPE over the following three years through workshops, conferences and academic journal articles. The Hanover program focuses on teaching the Rassias method, developed by the late professor John Rassias, who taught at Dartmouth from 1965 to 2015. The Rassias method is a rigorous and interactive system based on the idea that students speak to learn rather than learn to speak, according to the WorldFund website. Since its founding, the Rassias method has been used to train more than 165,000 Peace Corps volunteers, as well as countless students and teachers throughout the world, in foreign languages. In March 2006, the program in Hanover was planned under IAPE’s current director, Jim Citron ’86, and Helene C. Rassias-Miles, the executive director of the College’s Rassias Center for World Languages and Cultures and Rassias’ daughter. From the beginning, Rassias wanted to ensure that the program would be sustainable and create an opportunity for participants to act as a support system for each other. “My dad was very adamant about not just holding workshops and getting people to come to Hanover and that being it,” Rassias-Miles said. “Eventually, we want to make this a part of a whole country-wide plan to allow people to help their colleagues.” The initial pilot in Mexico hosted 18 teachers. The first program at Dartmouth was held in July 2008. In November 2007, less than a year before the first on-campus pilot programs, Citron remembered being unhappy with his current job and wanting a change of pace. “I just remember saying I wanted to do something with a more social service mission that uses my Spanish skills, teaching skills and knowledge of Mexico,” Citron said. “One of the first things we did when I started was [to come] up with a name for the program. And we came up with IAPE, because it’s a partnership between ... WorldFund, the Rassias Center, the founding partners and the fundraising partners.”

This year’s program invited 30 participants and four advanced trainers to Dartmouth. The advanced trainers had all completed the program in years past and have all previously made a significant impact in English education. “The first time we did the application process, we realized half of the participants didn’t have the English skills yet needed to complete the program,” Rassias-Miles said. “We aren’t teaching English, we are teaching them how to teach English with the Rassias program.” On campus, the program allows participants to attend lecture courses in the morning. According to Rassias-Miles, during the two-week experience, participants use what they have learned to teach their native Spanish in classrooms in Newport, New Hampshire in order to practice the Rassias method. Among the educators involved in the program, there is heavy representation of Dartmouth alumni, with volunteers coming back to campus from New York and Connecticut. “Everyone participates to do different things to help perpetuate, [be] change agents and contribute to the multiplier aspect of the program to help eventually spread learning methods,” Rassias-Miles said. According to Citron, each scholarship costs approximately 5,000 dollars to host the teacher participants on campus. In turn, each teacher impacts an average of 250 students a year for three years following the program. Instruction taught through IAPE has already impacted 2.1 million students. Recent studies suggest that professionals who speak English in Mexico, held constant by academic level and job training, earn 28 percent more during their lifetime, Citron said. In addition, there has been a recorded difference in English skills between private and public school students. “What we are trying to do is level the playing field and give advantage to the 86 percent of kids in Mexico who attend public schools,” Citron said. Abril Orozco, a teacher from Campeche, Mexico who locally coordinates the national English program, is a participant in this year’s program. Orozco said the Rassias method was particularly unique because it allows educators to teach grammar and improve their students listening skills. “Sometimes you lead a class but only visual students might learn,” Orozco said. “If you not only use visuals, but listening and audio skills, the students learn much better. If you put yourself in the place of your

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students and realize that you are learning, they will learn.” Orozco also said that one of the best parts of the program is coming to Dartmouth and being immersed into the American culture. “Here, you get to know how Americans behave and all of these influences on the American language,” Orozco said. “The life on campus is a dream, a limited and small city where you can go everywhere and do everything … it’s beautiful, peaceful, and people here are conscious about the environment.” Emir Ramírez, an advanced trainer from Chiapas who teaches teenagers ages 12 to 15, initially heard about IAPE in 2008. Ramírez described an increase in students’ participation in classes as a result of the Rassias method. “It’s more than just changing teaching styles; you are touching your students’ heart[s],” Ramírez said. Alejandra Cabrera is a university professor who is working to help engage students at the university level. Currently working at the Universidad Politénica de Yucatán that is known for being bilingual, international and sustainable, the school teaches engineering subjects in English. Each student enrolled in courses spends the first quarter, approximately 525 class hours, in English immersion courses.

This year, the university sent ten students to the U.S. and Canada to further their engineering studies. “I’m really proud because the university just opened in September, and us being able to already send students to the United States makes us happy,” Cabrera said. “Next year, I want to be able to not just send ten students, but 20, 30 or even 40, and I think the Rassias method is going to be the key to reach this goal.” Mireya Fuentes, a teacher from Sinaloa, Mexico, hopes the Rassias method will help connect her students in the classroom, especially at a politically uncertain period in her home state. “My state is facing a lot of problems right now,” Fuentes said. “The government is against us and this method is not only helpful for learning a language but will be more effective with students. If they have problems, you can bring up another technique and control the environment … I think it’s going to help us connect with other people.” Fuentes also said she believed one of the key factors of teaching is connecting with her students. “These methods have all the requirements to improve our English classes right now, and I strongly believe this is going to change many lives,” Fuentes said. “We are facing

negative global problems and I think this process will really help — for me, it has been great to be here, practice new stuff and learn from the best teachers.” Julieta Sánchez, the coordinator of admissions and external relations at WorldFund, said the process is essential for the development of overall English language skills in Mexico. “In Mexico, we have had English classes in middle school for many years, but studies show the teachers don’t actually speak English in class,” Herrera said. “Here, it’s about learning to teach others and the cultural environment to learn more about education from different aspects.” IAPE academic coordinator Raúl López gave a similar perspective. As the coordinator of the program, López highlighted the positive impact of the nontraditional approach in Mexico. “The basis of the Rassias method and philosophy is really what creates the impact in teaching … it’s uplifting the fears you have when you speak a language,” López said. “When you make mistakes it’s fine, and I think that’s the most valuable lesson the students get — that’s how they break their limitations to speak ... creating a truly bilingual country that will open doors to the world.”




Students engage in community events through their houses FROM HOUSES PAGE 1

“The main point of it was for students who were looking for rooms to come together and see the people who would be living around them,” he said. “We saw examples of people, including first-year students, who were looking for roommates and found roommates in that physical space.” Students can have experiences with their housing communities that are based not only on their individual interactions but also on their class year. As first year students do not live in the house itself, Hickox said he often had to extend efforts to bring them into the community through events such as community dinners, which proved successful. In contrast, many seniors enjoyed access to faculty, other members of staff and each other and also enjoyed taking advantage of what would be, for most of them, their last opportunity to be part of a scholarly environment at Dartmouth. “It was really helpful for me to see the community as a resource for what [the seniors’] next steps could be,” he said. “There was a distinction in the way the different classes interacted with the house system, but each one had their own positive way of engaging with it.” Hickox said that the ultimate

ambitions of the houses was to create an environment where students could have intellectual and cultural exchange between themselves. He said that he was struck by how individual conversations during house events indicated this intellectual exchange. This was most evident at a senior thesis dinner, where seniors presented their theses to each other and discussed their individual topics. He also mentioned a series of wine seminars, where Resident Fellows invited students who were over 21 years old to drink wine and talk to each other. “But in ter ms of overall environment of the College, there’s room for progress where students build those connections outside of the classroom,” he said. While the house system has made significant progress on its three goals over the course of its first year, these goals are not yet completed, Hickox said. “Communities don’t just emerge spontaneously; it takes time to build them up,” he said. “It’s similar with academic engagement, we have to build expectations and structure where people can engage intellectually with each other.” In terms of plans for next year, Hickox said that he has a clearer idea of how to advance with certain

events and programming based on what was successful this year. Other plans for the coming year is deliberate engagement of first-years in the community outside of the context of their residential house, as well as providing opportunities for more social events. Incoming student Evan Muscatel ’21 said that although the house communities did not play a role in his decision to apply to Dartmouth, he learned about it afterwards and felt his house community would be a good alternative social space. Hickox said that he was also anticipating having the incoming sophomore class know each other as a group. “We’re looking forward to having an event for sophomores to get to know each other and really recognize each other as being part of the same community that they’re really going to be in for the next three years,” he said. Sean Hawkins ’20, a member of East Wheelock house, said that coming into Dartmouth, he did not expect to be as involved in his house community as he ended up being because upperclassmen had told him that it would only provide an alternative social space. “But I do feel like it is a meaningful community, and I’m

friends with more people in my house than with other houses,” he said. “I do feel like it is doing what it was supposed to do.” However, Hawkins said that he felt some frustration that he could not be roommates with friends from other houses. Muscatel also said that he thought it was unfair that students might not be able to live together with friends if they belonged to different communities. Although the past year was too brief to establish significant traditions in the housing community, certain things have bonded students together, including house symbols, Hickox said. For West House, the elm tree in front of Russell Sage and Fahey was established as their house insignia. “We had a survey to update the

insignia, and students wanted to keep the elm tree,” he said. “That was something that was bonding people together just last year. We’re now in the process of working with a professional firm for insignias for all the houses, and each group providing input sees this as an opportunity to provide some cohesion for communities.” Hickox said that whether or not certain traditions are established will be based on the next few years. “I feel like a lot of students have had a good impression of what it’s like to live in a house community, and that’s the most important thing,” he said. “The best metric may not be just the attendance of the events, but that students are happy about being in the community that they’re in.”



Members of the IAPE conference dance during the farmer’s market.






Food for Thought

Learning and Leading

We all should consider changing our eating habits. Most of us sympathize with the cute baby animal photos that the Dartmouth Student app conveniently provides. Many of us understand that meat production contributes to world hunger and climate change. And yet, most of us are neither vegan nor vegetarian. Meat consumption per capita is still extortionate in America—the highest per capita in the world with the exception of Luxembourg— largely due to its ingrained nature in our economy and culture. Our society hides us from knowing where the food we eat comes from. Most of us do not live next to factory farms. This sanitizing of animal products leaves us disconnected as consumers, letting us engage in practices that, if we were more aware of them, we might deem unethical. Beyond just hiding consumers from the pain and suffering their food choices inflict on animals, a myriad of myths and misconceptions about vegetarianism helps our culture maintain its primarily meat-eating status. Many view veganism as synonymous with weakness and a holier-than-thou attitude. To them, these people all shop in the health food section and embrace diets consisting solely of Tofurkey. However, many of these vegans or vegetarians do not embrace those extreme or weak attitudes. In fact, many Americans have made the decision to consume less meat, instead focusing their meals around vegetables or whole grains. These decisions have both health and financial motives, as vegetables have become more affordable. Furthermore, people can take a degree of flexibility in choosing how they limit their meat consumption. There are several levels of vegetarianism. Pescatatarians, consuming fish, seafood, eggs, and dairy, only refrain from red meat and poultry. Pollotarians consume poultry, fowl, eggs, and dairy, but not red meat, fish, and seafood. Lacto-ovo vegetarians, consuming eggs and dairy, only refrain from meat. The list extends to ovo vegetarians who consume eggs, lacto vegetarians who consume dairy, to vegans who consume neither meat, meat by-products, nor animal by-products. Without worrying about being a “perfect” vegetarian or vegan, people have the option of becoming a “flexitarian,” a less restrictive eating habit that still can improve a person’s health, reduce their environmental footprint, and help animals. While one eats more plant-based foods, there are no rules to this lifestyle, besides trying one’s best to consume more fruits and vegetables with every meal. There are many ways to begin a flexitarian diet. Try a vegan or vegetarian meal, snack,

or substitute once a week, such as on Meatless Mondays. Reach for a piece of fruit for your snacks and add a side salad to your meals. Open your mind to alternatives: sauteed tofu and freshpressed juices are expensive; hummus, chips, and muffins are not. There are several meatless and delicious sources of protein, ranging from soy products to beans to nuts. While you are on campus, Dartmouth’s dining halls offer a variety of vegan foods, particularly at the Herbivore station in the Class of 1953 Commons. Think about your future self. Studies have shown that adopting a flexitarian diet for just four weeks drops bad cholesterol levels, also known as LDL, by approximately 15 points. Being a flexitarian is not synonymous with being lazy; exercising moderation is key for most elements of our lives. The social aspect of vegetarianism and veganism might prove most difficult, as people will have to find ways to maintain their diets when there might not always be abundant options to choose from, and some may need to be able to defend their choices to family and friends, but even then, these people should know that they share famous company in making the choice to not eat meat. From Ellen DeGeneres to Mac Danzig, celebrities are increasingly adopting vegan diets as well. With the rise of meatless meals and restaurants, veganism and vegetarianism are no longer extreme ways of living. Adopting a vegan or vegetarian diet may appear difficult, particularly during the trying economic times of our college years. At the same time, there is no better time to start. People from all backgrounds have the ability to transition to vegan or vegetarian diets as long as they take it one step at a time. Every change you make will have a positive impact not only on your health but on the planet’s as well. Above all, remember that the “perfect vegan” is nonexistent. Every person has the ability and choice to decide whether they wish to go cold Tofurkey or to try one meatless snack per day. Our dietary choices should not be treated and regarded as a fad, but rather as a lifelong lifestyle. If the health benefits stay with you for the rest of your life, so does the food itself. You do what you can do. Rather than only expressing your love for animals, do something about it. Let your actions reflect your words and your thoughts. Make yourself an agent of change. Help make the world a kinder place one bite at a time. Shah is an incoming member of the Class of 2021 and part of the leadership of the Dartmouth Animal Rights Troupe.

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People criticizing Trump should adopt more concrete frameworks. Wherever you stand on the ideological spectrum, it is hard to deny the fact that things in the White House are not quite running like “a fine-tuned machine,” as President Trump recently tweeted they were. The reason why Trump’s supporters continue to make this denial is not just because they have a different moral framework, conflicting policy priorities or even because they have a lower level of education, as many self-entitled liberals love to contend. Rather, the Left has shown an inability to criticize Trump in a meaningful way. Their sarcastic laughter and self-righteousness have failed, just like the Trump regime has. Before we keep pointing fingers, we need to establish what we really want from a President, what actually makes a good leader and how Trump has so far proved an undeniably unsuccessful one. A leader does not have to know everything. We can expect a good leader to be wrong or make mistakes from time to time. Calling Trump out for that, or even for his childish behavior, does not really threaten his legitimacy. Trump’s tweeting — the President has made almost 1,000 tweets in his first six months in office, all without signing off on a single piece of major legislation —­­can seem blameless to his followers. Despite criticizing Barack Obama for the vacations he took away from the Capitol, Trump has spent 21 out of the first 26 weekends since his inauguration playing golf, each time using massive amounts of taxpayer money for security expenses. But surely being President is a tough job, and he needs to be well-rested to stay sharp. We should grant him some leeway here. As of July 19, Trump had made 836 false and misleading claims. But what if the “fake” liberal news media really has treated Trump unfairly? And even if he is lying, 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue has not always been a bastion of truth. Trump is not the first politician to lie and he is certainly not the first to be supported in spite of it. Rather than making these hard-to-defend accusations, ones that the right wing media can easily toss out and which have up to now failed to convince Trump’s supporters of his ineffectiveness, the Left should use the most up-to-date frameworks that the top business leaders have come up with to break down exactly how Trump’s leadership abilities are not up to par, to use an analogy he might enjoy. After 25 years of research on effective leadership, the Boston Consulting Group’s Roselinde Torres formulated three criteria for defining and substantiating leadership in the 21st century. She argues that leaders should be judged by their efforts to anticipate change, the people they spend time with, the topics they focus on and their efforts to be prepared for anything that comes their way. In addition, they should be evaluated on the diversity of their network. Leaders should be able to connect and cooperate with people who are different from them in order to gain a wider range of thought and find better solutions. Finally, Torres stresses that good, modern leaders should be courageous enough to abandon the past. They should be willing to take risks and leave behind methods that may have been successful before but that are

inadequate in a new time or scenario. They should also have the emotional stamina to withstand criticism and take informed but decisive action. If we use an actual framework, like Torres’, to evaluate Trump’s leadership, as opposed to only whining about the things we dislike ­­— in a manner that is embarrassingly similar to his 3:00 a.m. Twitter rants — we can formulate a much stronger argument for his inadequacy as President. Trump does not seem to anticipate change. In fact, he almost always seems frazzled by it, making impulsive and often dangerous decisions. Barely a week into his presidency, he authorized a raid on Islamic terrorists in Yemen which resulted in the death of Chief Petty Officer William Owens and 25 civilians, including women and children. Not only was his decision drastically different from the Obama administration’s reportedly deliberate, calculated process, but he also refused to assume responsibility as the chief of military command, instead blaming these casualties on the generals. His network is by no means diverse, which makes it impossible for him to really understand the people he is there to serve. Trump’s cabinet has four women and only four minorities, making it the most homogeneous in terms of age, race and sex since 1981. Finally, and perhaps most conclusively, Trump is not a man of the future, but of the past. This goes beyond his campaign slogan, which idealized some 1950s version of America that he could make our present day be like again. What made him successful in his personal past, as both a businessman and a public figure, is certainly not the same set of skills he needs to be an equally successful President in the upcoming future. Saying “you’re fired” every week on The Apprentice will not have the same effect in the White House. Surrounding himself with people he considers good advisors is also going to play out differently. As a businessman, Trump may have primarily been told things he wanted to hear. As President, he is bound to have disagreements, and putting in loyal puppets is not a wise call, as he needs people to set him straight when making the difficult decisions that he will face going forward. Trump can also no longer afford to just tell people what to do and expect them to figure it out. He needs to be there to oversee and strategize, something he does not seem to realize yet. Lastly, speaking to female news reporters and even to the wives of foreign leaders in the same way he spoke to his pageant contestants is not just sexist and misguided, but entirely inappropriate in his new role. Trump must update both his personal conduct and his executive tactics. If the Left wants to be taken seriously, it has to stop throwing around words like “childish,” “creepy,” or “clueless” and start coming up with smarter, better-founded arguments. Yes, to many people, Trump fits all of those adjectives. But none of them stopped him from doing his favorite thing, winning. We need to stop pretending like everyone will be on the same page in judging his character. We need to start being intelligent and use the best methods we have to criticize him.




Blatt publishes paper in military publication Parameters FROM BLATT PAGE 1

But we attribute so much to the surge in modern American dialogue about Iraq and the military, and I think it’s important to take a step back from that and say, “Did this operation actually achieve all of the results that it set out to achieve?” I think the answer is no, because as soon as the troops left, we realized that they didn’t actually solve any of the underlying issues that were driving the conflict, and if anything the surge may have worsened the situation. I’m hoping that in writing the paper, I’m contributing to the narrative that there is more work to be done in analyzing the root causes of conflict, and that the military needs to think more about these sorts of issues. What would you rewrite if you had the chance? CB: I would add more detail to the paper. The published paper is actually shorter than the paper that I had written originally by about 1,500 words, and I think that there are sections that I could have elaborated that would emphasize my points. I would specifically have wanted to provide more detail in the second half of my paper, where I delve into what happened after the surge and with the 2010 election and the 2011 troop withdrawal. Those are such

rich topics, but due to word count restrictions, I definitely could have added more detail to those two places. What do you think is the role of research publications with government? CB: I think they’re incredibly important. Government policy should be executed and backed up by research, and in the absence of publications like Parameters and internal government research, policy would not be as strong. I can’t emphasize enough how important the role of research publications is to the government, and it’s incredibly helpful to have strong research backing up these policies.

What do you feel made this paper different from other submitted papers? CB: In addition to being published, I won Temple University’s Edwin H. Sherman Family Prize for Undergraduate Scholarship in Force and Diplomacy. One of the comments I received from Temple University was that they really liked the interdisciplinary approach that I took to the study of the conflict. I was citing journalists, military personnel, academics, people on the ground in Iraq, among other sources, and I think that incorporating such a wide range of different kind of materials

— I know that in particular was what stood out to the award committee — may have attributed to the success of the paper in general.

Was there a reason you chose to submit the paper to Parameters? CB: I absolutely thought I was going to get rejected. professor Friedman had suggested to me that I try to submit the paper to the best journal that would possibly accept it, because that way I might get accepted for peer review and receive feedback — and then they would reject me after I had gotten the feedback. My motivation behind submitting to this particular paper was essentially so that I could use the feedback to improve it. I was truly astonished by the success that the paper had, and I am really glad that the argument is getting the sort of awareness that I had hoped to bring to it. None of this could have been possible without professor Friedman, who is truly amazing and was so helpful throughout the process. What was the process of publishing like? You said you ended up having to revise extensively — how did that feel? CB: It was really interesting. The main reason why professor Friedman advised me to publish was so that I could go through the learning process of what it was like. First, I submitted


Charlie Blatt ’18 is a War and Peace Fellow studying government and French.

the initial manuscript — which was basically just my term paper from the class. A couple days later, near the end of September, I got a response that I had been accepted for initial review. I heard from them again around Thanksgiving, when they sent me a round of peer review, which was very detailed criticism of my paper. They had sent me a “review and resubmit,” which essentially meant that they had neither rejected nor accepted my paper. I had two anonymous reviewers, one of whom had advised “accept,” and the other of whom had written “reject” and given extensive criticism of my paper. I spent quite some time over winterim revising my paper to meet the standards that the reviewer had given to Parameters. I resubmitted the paper during winterim, and heard back from them again in February, where I got a second round of comments back. In this round, the reviewer was still suggesting that they reject my paper (although he or she did say it was improved). Then, I revised it again over spring break, and after that resubmission, they told me they would publish it and sent me a copyright contract. I was convinced that it was still going to get rejected up until I saw the copyright contract. In May, they sent me line edits, and it wasn’t actually finalized and ready for print until June. Have you gotten any responses to your paper since publication? CB: I’ve gotten some pretty positive responses as a whole. I know that

a professor at a Virginia military academy tweeted about it, which was pretty cool. But in general I have not gotten any substantive academic feedback. That may be because of timing, but who knows? How do you feel like this process impacted you as a student and a writer? Do you hope to do any more publishing in the future? CB: This process has definitely impacted me a lot as a student. Since writing the paper, I have only taken seminars in the Government department because I’ve decided that I only want to write papers from now on. This process made me realize how much I enjoy sitting down and working on one thing, so I will also be writing a senior thesis, which I’m both excited and nervous about. Going through the process of writing and publishing this article very much confirmed for me that I was going to do a thesis, and also generally what topic I would write my thesis about. This process also confirmed for me that my main interest in international relations is very much in U.S. foreign policy — more specifically, current U.S. security policy. Writing this paper made me assess a lot about my beliefs and values, so it was a really interesting process to go through as a whole, and I’m really excited about diving into more research this year. This interview had been condensed and edited for clarity and length.





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Event Cinema: “Michelangelo: Love and Death,” Loew Auditorium, Black Family Visual Arts Center RELEASE DATE– Friday, August 4, 2017

Los Angeles Times Daily Crossword Puzzle Edited by Rich Norris and Joyce Nichols Lewis

ACROSS 1 Enjoy deeply 6 Verne voyager 10 Campus hangout 14 “Things are never quite as scary when you’ve got __ friend”: Bill Watterson 15 Old Roman poet 16 “Once more __ the breach”: Shak. 17 Why St. Peter owns darning needles? 20 Actor Idris __ 21 “Take this” 22 Naturally lit indoor spaces 23 CV inclusion 24 Not as goodlooking? 25 Minimalist beachwear 26 “Ah, Wilderness!” mother 28 Future D.A.’s hurdle 30 Fresno-to-L.A. dir. 31 Museum of Home Security exhibits? 35 Peanut product 36 Fraser or Douglas 37 What a shepherd sees after a snowstorm? 44 Appreciative cry 46 Sol preceder 47 “Not possible” 48 Frigga portrayer in “Thor” 51 Prefix in makeup product names 53 Feel sorry about 54 Perfumer’s ingredient 55 Red-coated security force: Abbr. 56 Diplomacy result 57 Consumer reactions to big price hikes for brownies? 60 Pointer’s cry 61 O or Jay 62 Author Calvino 63 Coastal raptors 64 Cutlass, e.g. 65 City on the Ruhr

37 Bit of suspended 43 Big hat DOWN 1 It’s in the bag decoration 44 Ancient prophet 2 Void 38 Controversial 45 Comics villain 3 Like a motormouth political since 1940 4 Org. concerned cartoonist 49 Gives the with ladder safety 39 Put up heave-ho 5 GPS datum 40 Projecting 50 Conquistador’s 6 “An ill-defined architectural treasure and disreputable features 52 Speed meas. literary banana 41 Capital NE of 56 “Chopped” array republic”: Bogotá 58 Southeast Asian Stephen King 42 Get to work, with tongue 7 High point of “down” 59 Move it, quaintly Hillary’s career 8 __ spring ANSWER TO PREVIOUS PUZZLE: 9 “__ bodkins!”: old oath 10 “The Raven” verb 11 Straighten, as one’s legs 12 Diet doctor 13 Pharmacist’s concern 18 “Now it’s clear!” 19 Didn’t rise 24 Dental procedure, for short 27 Composer Stravinsky 29 Devonshire dandy 32 “Born Free” lioness 33 Paramecium movers 34 McDonald’s founder 08/04/17

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By Jeffrey Wechsler ©2017 Tribune Content Agency, LLC





Quick Hits B y EVAN MORGAN

The Dartmouth Senior Staff

Crema signs with ECHL team On July 31, Troy Crema ’17 inked a one-year with the Orlando Solar Bears, a Toronto Maple Leafs affiliate which plays in the ECHL. This is Crema’s second stint with a professional team after a two-game stretch with the Rochester Americans of the American Hockey League. Crema goes to Orlando fresh off his best college season, in which he lead the team with 29 points and five

game-winning goals.

of other players.

Orimolade back on Rams roster Big Green defensive standout Folarin Orimolade ’17 was re-signed by the Los Angeles Rams on July 27. The 2016 Ivy League Defensive Player of the Year was signed by the Rams as an undrafted free agent in late April and attended rookie minicamp. After being waived on May 16 to make way for backup center Austin Blythe, Orimolade was picked up again most recently along with a trio

Canada defeats All-American squad featuring Big Green ruggers Canada’s under-20 women’s rugby team defeated its American counterpart 45-24 in the first match of the two-match Can-Am Series, running in seven tries to the Americans’ four. Big Green women’s rugby team members Milla Anderson ’19, Kat Ramage ’19, Becca Jane Rosko ’20 and Lilly Durbin ’21 are

part of the team representing the United States, and Dartmouth’s head coach Katie Dowty is an assistant coach. Teevens tosses first pitch at Fenway After a long wait, football head coach Buddy Teevens threw out the ceremonial first pitch at Fenway Park Monday night. Teevens had been originally scheduled to throw out the first pitch at the April 25 Red Sox-Yankees game, but the game

was posponed due to inclement weather. This time, 37,169 fans were on hand to watch the Red Sox as they downed the Cleveland Indians 6-2. Teevens was present to promote the Fenway Gridiron Series, a series of three college football tilts which will be held at the historic park this fall. Dartmouth will travel to Fenway to play Brown University on Friday, Nov. 10, the penultimate game in its 2017 season.




“We Are Policed” calls attention to police brutality


The Dartmouth Staff

To draw attention to the numerous people of color that are killed by police officers every year, Samantha Modder ’17 created an exhibit currently on display in the rotunda of the Hopkins Center for the Arts called “We Are Policed.” Through her art, Modder says she hopes to create a better understanding of issues both for herself and for others. Modder said that she had always loved to draw from a young age and was inspired by the multiple artists in her family. Although initially intending to be an engineering modified with art major, Modder said that she loved art so much she ended up taking classes every term and eventually decided to double major in studio art and engineering. Modder primarily draws focusing on using various media such as pens, sharpie and collage. “I draw people that I care about, people that inspire me, issues that bother me,” Modder said. “I try

to understand them somehow by drawing.” Studio art professor Colleen Randall, who serves as Modder’s honors advisor, said that Modder is one of the department’s strongest studio art majors. She said that Modder makes large scale portraits intriguing to the viewer. “They always embody a compelling content somehow rooted in her personal experience,” Randall said. Randall added that Modder is a talented cartoonist who is interested in the relationship between images and narrative content. This relationship, along with Modder’s personal experience, can be seen in her exhibit “We Are Policed.” Modder said she was extremely affected by the case of Philando Castile, a black man who was shot in his car after being pulled over by a police officer. A video of the shooting was live-streamed, which made the incident especially high profile. Modder wanted to express her reaction through her art. As an intern for the studio art

department this summer, she thought the publicity of the space and her message would be more interactive. Modder said that while she was brainstorming, the verdict of the Philando Castile case against the police officer who shot him was announced. Castile’s case inspired her to do more research about those killed by police officers, specifically people of color since they are killed at a higher rate. “It’s just really shocking when you’re scrolling through all these names,” Modder said. “I think that was something that really affected me, and I kind of wanted that impact [in the exhibit].” Anneliese Thomas ’19, the inclusivity chair of her sorority, Chi Delta, thought Modder accomplished her goal. She said she was simply walking to the Hopkins Center to pick up a package when she saw the exhibit and stopped in her tracks. Thomas said she went around the exhibit and read all the information because she was eager to learn more about the artist. Thomas added that she was excited

to see an exhibit displaying an issue that she personally finds to be extremely important. “I feel like a lot of people in Hanover live in a little bubble,” Thomas said. “The kind of issues that affect me or worry me don’t really seem to be of concern for other people, so I think it was something that I saw and was like, ‘Wow, it’s great to raise awareness.’” Modder chose to depict in her exhibit a representation of Castille along with the officers, his wife, and child present; however, she said it was also important for her to include the names of so many other whose lives have been taken. “Yes, [Castile’s] is a very sad case, but there are so many people who won’t make the news and won’t make trial and no one will hear about,” Modder said. In order to include all of these people in her exhibit, Modder wrote the name of each person killed by the police from January 2014 up to the present in the exhibit. Modder added that she hopes to

Q&A with calligraphy professor Wen Xing

B y ANNA STAROPOLI The Dartmouth Staff

Professor Wen Xing is the director of the Dartmouth Institute for Calligraphy and Manuscript Culture in China. He teaches calligraphy courses through the College’s Asian and Middle Eastern Languages and Literature department and offered a series of workshops last winter to teach students the fundamentals of calligraphy. He created a fractal calligraphy exhibition that integrated calligraphy with mathematics. Can you explain the premise behind the fractal calligraphy exhibition? WX: Fractal calligraphy is something based on fractal geometry and the tradition of Chinese calligraphy. It’s a new form of art, and I actually envisioned and invented it here. I introduced this in my class and found that many students were very interested in it, so eventually we came up with the exhibition. Basically, we create our traditional Chinese calligraphy first, then we feed it through a software. The software will generate a piece of fractal calligraphy that includes the original calligraphy repeated again and

again. So if you zoom in, you will see all those tiny, tiny characters — that’s what fractal means.

What kind of responses did you get from this? Did it increase interest in calligraphy? WX: People were interested in it because it’s a new form of art that also combines traditional calligraphy, so even people who do not understand fractal geometry or even Chinese calligraphy are also interested in it. Some of my calligraphy students had never studied Chinese calligraphy or the Chinese language before, but could still create it. How did you come up with the idea? WX: That’s very interesting. When I first saw the fractal geometry, I saw it as something very similar to Chinese cosmology. When you zoom in, you will see all of the tiny elements; it’s endless. That’s very similar to the Chinese yin and the yang. How would you define the yin and yang? WX: In Chinese cosmology, yin and the yang are the most fundamental energies in the universe. Chinese people believe that in the beginning of the whole

universe, there was nothing. But then “somethings” develop and separate into two things — the yin and the yang. And this yin and yang begin to generate new sets of union and keep generating and generating. Then we have everything in the universe. The point is we can keep exchanging energies with each other, and we can achieve the balance. That’s how we understand the universe, that’s how we understand the human body and that’s how we understand the tradition of art.

So this surfaces in fractal calligraphy? WX: Fractal geometry is where there are mathematical ideas and images very similar to the yin and the yang. That’s how I became interested in it. It’s related to a Chinese cosmology because we believe everything consists of the yin and the yang energy. There is also the yin and the yang inside the yin and the yang themselves; its kind of endless. Calligraphy’s the same thing. We use black ink on white rice paper. Black and white is the yin and the yang. And as soon as the brush touches the paper, we have one dot of black. And if you keep writing, then the yin and the yang keep generating and at some point, it reaches balance and we can finish the

work. But we resume, and we can see endless erections of the yin and the yang in the energy. Just like the cosmos. How did you get started in calligraphy? WX: Calligraphy is part of Chinese culture. So, in China, we had a calligraphy class in primary school. When I grew up, I was very interested in it. I actually was an art history major. Later on, I became a scholar in traditional Chinese manuscripts—that’s my PhD. Why do you think this is so important for students to learn? WX: It’s very important because in modern society everything works with machines, so we don’t even need to write the characters. We just type them. It is slow to write with a brush or with a pen, but it is a very important mental exercise for us. Every time I begin to teach calligraphy, I will ask students one question, what is calligraphy? Many of them will say it is a form of art. That’s true, but traditional Chinese calligraphy is a cosmology; it is a philosophy. If you don’t understand that point, if you just think of writing characters in a beautiful way, that’s not traditional Chinese calligraphy. That is understanding of

demonstrate the ongoing nature of the problem with her exhibit. She said she still has tape on the glass where the names are written to demonstrate that she is continuing to write down more names of those killed by the police. “It doesn’t look aesthetically nice, but I’m putting it there so people know that the artist keeps coming back to write more names,” Modder said. Modder added that simply writing the names was a very reflective process for her, which she hopes people can take away from viewing the exhibit. Thomas echoed a similar perspective, and said that while she was walking by the exhibit again with a friend, her friend was also struck by the sheer number of names displayed that represent those killed by police officers. “I think it’s super awesome that people I wish had been aware at first are now becoming aware of [the issue],” Thomas said. “We Are Policed” will continue to be exhibited in the rotunda of the Hopkins Center for the Arts until August 23.

art, the universe and the human body. In Chinese culture, the human body consists of elements of the yin and the yang, so we are part of the universe. So I always say that calligraphy is a kind of meditation. Many of those traditional Chinese calligraphers and artists live a very long life. You not only learn something new or learn something old, but you are viewing our universe from a different perspective. Do you think then calligraphy is declining with technology or will it always have a place? WX: I think it will always have a place. My course has been very popular ever since I offered it, seven or eight years ago. It’s always fully enrolled with a long list, so that’s evidence. I have several students who have never studied the Chinese language before who still enjoy my class. And they are able to do a great job. Everyone’s an artist. Everyone is. You develop it in science; you develop it in technology. You forgot that you are an artist. We need it. We not only make ourselves healthier and more knowledgeable, but let ourselves enjoy life much more. This interview has been edited and condensed for clarity and length.

The Dartmouth 08/04/17  
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