THE CLIMATE ISSUE JULY 2020 | Â ISSUE 1
ECO TOP TIPS HOW TO MAKE YOUR OWN MULTI-PURPOSE CLEANER
REUSABLE STRAWS AND MESH GROCERY BAGS
ECO FRIENDLY BEAUTY PRODUCTS TO TRY
VEGAN GLUTEN-FREE DUMPLINGS
THE MANGROVE CHRONICLES WILL MANGROVES BE ABLE TO SURVIVE CLIMATE CHANGE?
"We donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t have time to sit on our hands as our planet burns" WEBSITE
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IN THIS ISSUE EDITOR'S NOTE
THE MANGROVE CHRONICLES
5 ECO FRIENDLY BEAUTY PRODUCTS
COVID-19 AND THE PROSPECTS OF A GREEN RECOVERY
SILICONE VS PLASTIC
I proudly present the first issue of my new magazine The Climate Issue! By way of introduction, my name is Sophia-Harri and for the past 5 years I have been writing articles about the impacts of climate change. From writing for my own blog, a conservation NGO and the UNICEF Youth platform, I am eager to share my views on environmental issues. Greta Thunberg once told us to panic as though our house is on fire and I really liked that analogy. Throughout our lives we are always told not to panic and stay calm in stressful situations. The truth is that there is nothing calm about climate change. Greta is right... I think we should respond to climate change with drive and urgency. After all, Planet Earth is in flames.Â I believe solving or addressing the climate issue is something every single person has to get on board with at some point in their lives. Climate action is not targeted at the rich, the poor, adults, those who like nature, or have a geography degree. There are no borders or barriers...it is a mutual issue. I stand by the fact that we can manage the effects through both adaptation and mitigation. The transition to an eco-friendly lifestyle is so simple and effective and this is something I want to emphasise in this magazine. As you flip through the pages of this issue you will come across various articles covering interesting environmental themes; from mangrove forests, the environmental impacts of Covid-19, to the Silicone vs plastic debate. I have teamed up with talented climate change enthusiasts from across the world who want to share their views and join the debate. You will find top tips and swaps which encapsulate how easy it is to become eco friendly at home! Amongst the top tips, I will share with you my favourite eco beauty products and brand recommendations. I want my readers to learn something when they finish reading each issue and endeavour to try something new as a result.Â I really hope you enjoy reading this issue with optimism and inspiration in mind. Please stay safe!
REGULARS Eco Top Tips + ECO SWAPS
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THE MANGROVE CHRONICLES By Sophia-Harri
As high surviving as mangroves are, they are being threatened by environmental change, specifically sea level rise; this poses concern as to whether they will be able to survive the effects of future climate change. Act as coastal defences Mangrove forests are sensitive to cold conditions and therefore restricted to the tropics and subtropics. The two most abundant areas in the world are The Atlantic East Pacific (coastlines of Central America), as well as the Indo West Pacific (coastlines of Madagascar, Sri Lanka and Indonesia). The tangled roots are substantially long, appearing above the water where they have been adapted to handle the rise and fall of tides twice a day. This adaptive advantage is merely a natural coastal defence mechanism; they endeavour natural flood control, acting as erosion buffers and slow the flow of water. These flood storage and erosion buffering functions are important, specifically during storm events in hurricane season, where sediment movement can be reduced by the complex network of roots. Tropical storms such as hurricanes and cyclones are widespread in mangrove locations; larger waves and high sea levels sound like bad news, but in actual fact, mangroves contribute to reducing damage.
Even during severe storms, the branches of forest canopy will act to lessen wave energy. The 2017 Atlantic Hurricane season was very destructive, with 17 named storms ranking the highest number of consecutive hurricanes in history. Although the costliest on record, for some parts of the USA, mangroves were a saviour. The Everglades National Park in Florida is home to 144,000 hectares of mangroves, occupying 1,300 species and the most valuable nursery ground for fish, molluscs and birds. In response to Hurricane Irma, research shows that the stretch of mangroves in the south-west area of the National Park reduced storm surge by over a foot, protecting many lives and settlements. It’s no surprise that they are described as ‘nature’s shock absorbers’. Climate change and mangrove threat It wasn’t long before climate change crept up on this ecosystem, as it has done on most already. A serious impact is sea level rise, and of course the most certain outcome of climate change. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) have predicted a 0.26-0.9m increase in sea level by 2100. Although mangroves are ‘facultative halophytes’ (can grow in saline environments), where saltwater is an ecological requirement and freshwater is a physiological requirement, there is only so much they can take before the resilience to salinity fails. Once salinity exceeds a certain threshold, it will delay root growth. Many studies have simulated different salinity concentrations on mangrove plants and unfortunately mangrove growth was disrupted in most scenarios.
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Mangroves are commonly described as the ‘forests of the sea’ as their roots are submerged in water and adaptive nature to thrive in both freshwater and saline conditions. Due to their ability to withstand challenging conditions such as storm surges and tidal influxes, mangroves are one of the most biodiverse ecosystems. Their intricate root system supports an incredible range of unique ecological communities.
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One species of mangrove is the Agallocha plant, which is considered to be the most sensitive to changing salinity levels. In a study at the Futian Mangrove Reserve in China, salinity beyond 15 PSU (Practical Salinity Unit) delayed growth, where 25 PSU was deadly. Unfortunately, it seems probable that a 25 PSU will occur by 2100, indicative of major mortality for this mangrove plant.
In response to sea level rise, we have already seen landward migration of mangroves in low lying Pacific Islands such as Bermuda and American Samoa. This is going to be a substantial problem in all mangrove areas as the rate of sea level rise exceeds the rate of sediment build up. The greater the rate of sea level rise, the faster mangroves will encroach into other habitats and cause a biodiverse catastrophe. This is why mangrove management and restoration should not be ignored given the potential for saltwater intrusion and mangrove migration. What’s been done to save mangroves In terms of conservation value, mangroves are important to water quality through their natural filtering properties and nutrient recycling. Above all, mangrove ecosystems are important for carbon storage, emphasising the need for management. If carbon stocks are disturbed, carbon emissions will be high, exacerbating climate change further. It has recently been considered that Mangrove deforestation emits as much Carbon Dioxide as Myanmar each year! The question relating to whether mangroves can withstand climate change depends on the level of protection for the ecosystem. There have been both local and international initiatives to save mangroves. Local initiatives are focused on stabilising and restoring sediment balance to limit erosion processes; these small scale projects are simple and effective. The use of hybrid engineering approaches such as grids of permeable dam structures placed in front of the mangrove coastline can trap sediments and allow settling, thus limiting the force of erosive waves.
Something that should not be forgotten is that a healthy ecosystem is a resilient one too, so the more people involved in global mangrove conservation, the more achievement we will see in battling environmental change.
References on Page 18
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On a global scale, there are international initiatives such as The Bonn Challenge which is run by The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). It’s target is to bring 150 million hectares of the world’s degraded land into restoration by 2020. The initiative aims to restore ecological integrity, and to increase mangrove coverage by 20% by 2030. It is an ambitious goal that requires a lot of global collaboration. By the end of 2020 there will be an accurate and reliable reflection of progress from all participating pledgers.
5 ECO FRIENDLY BEAUTY PRODUCTS
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BIODEGRADABLE AND PLASTIC FREE
JULY 2020 | ISSUE 1
5 ECO FRIENDLY BEAUTY PRODUCTS The majority of global cosmetics are not recyclable and this leaves a big question mark over the sustainability of the beauty industry. However, there is a growing trend towards ditching plastic products and making beauty routines zero waste. We are looking for ways to be kinder to the planet as well as save money wherever we can. There are small, individual steps we can take at home to lessen the impact of plastic pollution and swtich to eco-friendly alternatives. Here are 5 eco friendly products.
Dental floss is commonly made of plastic that cannot be recycled. But now there are so many plant-based alternatives made from bamboo, corn straw and mulberry silk. The packaging is even plastic free and recyclable.
REUSABLE MAKE UP REMOVER PADS Reusable makeup remover pads are an easy swap out for cotton pads. They are zero-waste and environmentally conscious. You can simply use them over and over again; just pop them into a mesh bag which is often provided with the pads and put them in the washing machine with your towels.
BAMBOO TOOTHBRUSH The bamboo eco friendly toothbrush is a highly sustainable alternative to plastic toothbrushes. They are mostly made from Moso Bamboo which is ethically sourced. It is free from plastic packaging and features tapered slim-tip bristles which deliver deep yet gentle cleaning, And of course it's biodegradable!
BAMBOO COTTON BUDS Conventional cotton buds take an average of 600 years before they decompose and most end up at landfills or pollute the marine ecosystem. Bamboo cotton buds are eco-friendly and compostable. They are also packaged in cardboard which is recyclable. Not a single bit of plastic in sight!
NATURAL DEODORANT If you are starting your journey into eco, non-toxic living, switching to a natural deodorant is essential. The main ingredient of commercial antiperspirants is aluminium which actually blocks your pores. Natural deodorants don’t contain aluminium and allow your body to sweat out the toxins whilst neutralising any potential odours that may occur. Many of the ingredients in these natural alternatives are shea butter, olive oil and essential oils... 100% organic!
Please see Page 13 for recommendations on where to buy these products!
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COVID-19 AND THE PROSPECTS OF A GREEN RECOVERY: A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE
JULY 2020 | ISSUE 1 19
BY IAN GRANIT
Theories about Covid-19 and the future impacts on the environment are numerous. Environmentalists on social media claim that Covid-19 is nature’s ‘payback’, while others see it as its way to finally catch a break from human activities. Positive outlooks on a post-Covid-19 world see social behaviours change towards valuing nature and an increasingly minimalistic lifestyle. Reports of increasing appreciation of nature due to social-distancing rules and more time spent with family create a bright possibility for such values to gain a stronghold. The harsh reality of a severe economic recession, death, and despair does, however, suggest otherwise. The vast majority of people in the world have either become unemployed or are at risk of losing their job. A severe economic recession might not be as bad in countries where the state provides welfare payments to their citizens and where socio-economic life has been stable for decades. For people in countries where life is less secure, the crisis Covid19 creates will be much more present, and will therefore, more than likely develop incentives to neglect the climate crisis. Instead of worrying about the climate crisis, which can often feel like something in the distant future, the current economic crisis and subsequent social crisis are directly affecting people across the world and might persist for a long time.
Although pollution is down, it is not due to a sustainable change in our production and consumption patterns. Even if the environment has been able to recover to some extent during the months of worldwide lockdown, emissions this year are still estimated to be too high to reach the 1.5 degree target. To stop centuries of pollution and decades of increasingly rapid environmental degradation, a temporary stop of a few months will not do much. The socio-economic systems leading to environmental degradation must instead change on a global level, while sustainability becomes an integral part of all aspects of human activities. While some people and the media have been emphasising the positive effects of Covid-19, such as reports of wildlife re-emerging in cities, cleaner canals, and pollution dropping rapidly, politicians have been promoting green recovery packages. There are, however, two major problems that have recently become apparent. Even though the European Union promotes a green recovery plan, countries outside the EU have not shown any indication of following suit. At the same time, the vast wave of climate activism suffers from socialdistancing rules, while climate negotiations are put on hold. Reports have emerged that worldwide, US$ 509 billion aims to support the recovery of high-carbon industries, while US$ 12.3 billion will go to low-carbon industries. The journal ‘Science of The Total Environment’ mentions the effects of Covid-19 on the environment, showing that even though there have been temporary effects such as less pollution and a cleaner environment, there is an increase in waste and less recycling. Reports about air quality in China, where Covid-19 first emerged and one of the countries that restricted its spread effectively, has seen pollution bounce back to preCovid-19 levels as lockdowns have been lifted.
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The spread of Covid-19 adversely affects human life. Death, health issues, unemployment, and a severe global economic recession will last for an unforeseen time and cause disarray in our societies. One aspect of the Corona crisis leading to some positive speculations is the environmental impact. Since the spread of Covid-19, the oceans have become clearer, the air is fresher, and wildlife seems to re-appear in places where it has not been seen for decades.
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Developing countries and emerging economies will suffer from immense set-backs, and instead of looking towards a greener future, they might resort to business as usual in fossil-fuel driven industries which many leaders have in the past seen as reliable ways of creating employment and economic growth. Mexico’s President has used the Covid19 pandemic to suspend the opening of new renewable energy plants. China, India, and other major Asian countries aim to build new coal-fired power stations. In the US, Trump has never showed any support for climate action, and is not likely to change his mind when other issues are more pressing. Even within the European Union, leaders try to use Covid-19 as an excuse to neglect the climate crisis.
Plastic Free July provides resources and ideas to help millions of people around the world reduce single-use plastic waste everyday. It is a key initiative of the Plastic Free Foundation that allows us to work towards our vision of seeing a world free of plastic waste.
While Covid-19 and the numerous socio-economic issues related to its spread gains coverage, the wave of climate activism is now taking place on social media instead. The powerful climate protest gaining presence in countries all across the globe now take place through pictures posted online, having far less impact than mass-protests of youths outside government buildings. Climate talks between major global actors and government officials have been put on hold with the rest of society. COP26 where the most critical decisions for global action on climate change were to take place has been postponed a year to November 2021, leaving negotiations for a sustainable future on hold while the climate crisis continues.
Whether you’re a beginner looking for a few single-use plastics to avoid, or someone well on their way to a plastic free life, the Plastic Free Foundation has ideas to inspire you at home, work, school, and within the community. Head over to www.plasticfreejuly.org to join the challenge this july!
However, the uncertainty about Covid-19 and the possibilities it might present for a greener future is still high. With enough public support and increasing awareness of what goes on within the geopolitical sphere, the recovery from Covid-19 might live up to its green potential. After all, politicians, even in authoritarian countries, must respond to the public will. Climate action does not mean that societies cannot develop and improve; instead, it would ensure that a similar global crisis caused by the pandemic will not re-emerge due to climate change.
Signing up to the Plastic Free July challenge is the easiest way to discover the plastic free solutions that suit you. By registering you will be counted alongside the millions of people who, collectively, are avoiding a significant amount of landfill waste and lowering the risk of plastic pollution in the environment
Covid-19 shows how fast countries can cooperate and take global action, the same must now happen concerning the climate crisis, especially at such a critical time where the possibility of societal change is more present than ever.
DID YOU KNOW? The Himalayas are visible from India for the first time in 30 years because of Covid-19 lockdown
References on Page 18
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This movement is simply about being more conscious of the single-use plastics that you use day-to-day and taking small steps to refuse them.
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ECO TOP TIPS
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+ ECO SWAPS
JULY 2020 | ISSUE 1
ECO TOP TIPS HOW TO MAKE YOUR OWN MULTI-PURPOSE CLEANER Making your own cleaning products is a great way to reduce plastic pollution and avoid harmful chemicals in your home. The cost of buying cleaning products can add up over time, as well as the amount of plastic going into landfill. Instead, you'll find that you probably have all the ingredients in your cupboards at home to make your own cleaning sprays...
A SPRAY BOTTLE
1/2 SQUEEZED LEMON
REUSE AN OLD ONE OR BUY A GLASS ONE
ECO SWAPS REUSABLE STRAWS VS PLASTIC STRAWS You'll notice that plastic straws are very rare these days which is positive. However, you might be wondering what the alternatives are..especially if you find paper straws an awful experience. You can replace the plastic ones with reusable straws that are glass, stainless steel or bamboo (definitely not soggy like the paper ones). If you’re worried about washing them, they even come with a cleaning brush!
1/4 CUP WHITE VINEGAR
REUSABLE GROCERY BAGS VS PLASTIC BAGS
WHAT YOU'LL NEED: OPTIONALESSENTIAL OILS (LAVENDER OR TEA TREE )
1 TBSP BAKING SODA 100ML WATER
METHOD: Simply add all the ingredients into a jug of 100ml of water and mix thoroughly. Pour or use a funnel to transfer into a spray bottle and give it a gentle shake. You can even add essential oils to enhance the smell! I really like to add tea tree oil. This natural formula will remove hard water stains, clean kitchen surfaces, wipe away wall smudges, and more! Caution: Do not use this acidic cleaner on granite as it will wear away the stone.
Instead of having to buy plastic bags when you visit the supermarket, you should bring your own reusable bags to save single-use plastic consumption. Plastic bags are sometimes only used for 20 minutes and thrown away...but did you know that plastic bags take up to 1000 years to fully decompose. Consider keeping reusable bags in your car or folding them up and keeping them in your backpack so that you are always prepared. Mesh grocery bags are really useful for carrying fruit and veg, and of course look the part! Check out Page 14 for where to buy reusable grocery bags! 10 | THE CLIMATE ISSUE
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SILICONE VS PLASTIC Current climate change news has alarmed scientists and the public alike. The planet has warmed by 1.1 degrees Celsius in the last century. Natural disasters have devastated much of the Global South more frequently than before, and air pollution has contributed to about 4.2 million deaths per year, according to WHO. Every year, some 18 billion pounds of plastic waste flows into our oceans, killing marine life and finding its way back into our food system, which is toxic for humans too. In the US alone, 25 billion Styrofoam coffee cups are thrown away every year and 2.5 million plastic beverage bottles every hour. These stark warnings have prompted people to make greener lifestyle choices. One of the most notable changes in the market is moving away from plastic, and looking to reusable products instead. The plastic carrier bag charge was introduced in England in 2015, and was already in place in other countries across the globe with people investing in reusable shopping bags. This was followed by the use of disposable cups and plastic straws in cafes and restaurants which went viral on social media. Hashtags such as #stopsucking was used nearly 90,000 times on Instagram and memes with the phrase “Yeah, if you could start using reusable coffee cups, that’d be great” started circulating. This pressured large companies into making huge changes.
McDonald’s removed plastic straws from their counters, and a shift in consumer behavior became apparent. 81 percent of US consumers said that they would choose resealable packaging over non-resealable packaging. Enter the reusable, silicone market. In recent years cafes and eateries have reusable items on sale and even offer discounts, or points for bringing your own utensils. I have a squidgy, convenient silicone coffee cup and feel dejected if I ever forget to take it out and about with me. On social media, posting colourful silicone ziplocs filled with exotic fruit has become a trend for eco-style pages and influencers. It’s become a symbol of trying to live greener and better, for ourselves, the welfare of other species, and the planet as a whole. At work (before the lockdown) my friend whipped out a fancy, reusable silicone set consisting of a bright pink knife, fork, spoon and container, to eat her lunch with. I thought it was awesome. My other friend has invested in an entirely silicone lid set instead of using clingfilm. As the amount of reusable items made of silicone increased around me, the thought crossed my mind about whether reusable silicone items are really better for the environment. It is always worth researching the new ‘it’ products as many terms used to market them can be misleading. The positives are that silicone is malleable, durable and non-toxic, so it's easy to create products with.
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By hanna Dokal
JULY 2020 | ISSUE 1
It is also relatively cheap to manufacture, so it has become the choice of material for the emerging eco-friendly market. However, these factors don't necessarily mean silicone is the best resource to use.
Greenwashing is a real issue; we should hold companies accountable as they often choose the cheapest option and highlight the pros, but never the cons, particularly for ‘environmentally-friendly’ products.
Although its chemical composition is different, Silicone is ultimately a plastic-rubber hybrid. The process by which silicone is formed is a pause for thought, as it relies on fossil fueled-derived hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbons are procured from natural gas and petroleum, which some eco-conscious consumers would want to avoid.
Has silicone proved to be a better alternative to single use plastic? Yes. Is it the magic answer to our long term mass production and waste issues? No.
The last point indirectly affects the environment, because it affects animals and removes them from their habitat, and therefore from the ecosystem. Medical Grade Silicone is tested on animals. This type of silicone is used in reusable menstrual cups and often in other reusable beauty or health products made for our body. To truly be ecoconscious, the welfare of animals must be taken into consideration, and championed.
Repurposed wood and metals, specifically tin, could also be more sustainable. Shifting entire production systems and supply chains isn't easy but there are ways to move forward to create a greener market.
Did you know? Silicon and Silicone are quite different. Silicon is a naturally occuring element and Silicone is a synthetic material.
References on Page 18
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After researching its efficacy in the fight against climate change, I came to find that it is also not recyclable unless you pay for a specialist industry plant to take it, which is not something the everyday person has access to, or can afford. It poses the question, what happens with it once our silicone items are unusable either due to damage, or general wear and tear? It turns out they go to the landfill like every other plastic. And, just like plastic, they will take hundreds of years to biodegrade.
Silicone (that has not been tested on animals) has still been a step in the right direction. However, fast growing sustainable alternatives such as bamboo (specially grown for manufacturing, rather than taken from habitats) or cork could provide a more long term solution for our everyday products.
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ECO FRIENDLY BEAUTY PRODUCTS WHERE CAN I BUY THEM FROM?
There are so many eco-friendly brands that exist right now so it's often difficult to pick one! You will often find that many of them sell similar products, but located in different areas or countries.
Here are a two of my favourite eco-shops which offer vegan, natural, biodegradable and sustainable essentials. I have bought from them and love the quality of their products! I like to shop as local as I can, so these are UK based...
1 WWW.GEORGANICS.COM NATURAL FLOSS BAMBOO TOOTHBRUSHES NATURAL CHEWING GUM AND MORE... (WORLDWIDE SHIPPING)
WWW.THEKINDSTOREONLINE.CO.UK NATURAL DEODORANT REUSABLE COTTON PADS MESH COTTON BAGS AND MORE... (UK AND EUROPEAN SHIPPING)
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WHICH COUNTRY AM I? Below are five facts about a country in the world. Can you guess which country it is? I am home to one of the largest volcanic eruptions
My population is nearly 300 million
My currency is called the Rupiah ORGANIC COTTON MESH GROCERY BAG SET
I am part of the Malay Archipelago
A Slice of Green produce bags are made from GOTS certified organic cotton in India. The Global Organic Textile Standard (GOTS) is the worldwide leading textile processing standard for organic fibres and means the entire textile supply chain is independently certificated including both ecological and social criteria. WWW.THEKINDSTOREONLINE.CO.UK
ANSWERS WILL BE REVEALED IN THE NEXT ISSUE GOOD LUCK!
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I have 17,500 islands
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D I S C O V E R I N G
C O M F O R T
F O O D
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VEGAN, GLUTEN FREE DUMPLINGS WITH DIPPING SAUCE INGREDIENTS
Rice paper- 5 sheets
Filling: Thumb sized piece of ginger, grated 2 handfuls Coriander, finely chopped 2 Finely chopped spring onions 60g dried shiitake mushrooms, finely chopped ¼ of a small cabbage, shredded ½ teaspoon salt 1 teaspoon Soy sauce 1 teaspoon sesame oil
Dipping Sauce (mix all ingredients together) 3-4 tablespoons Soy sauce 3 tablespoons Sesame oil 1 teaspoon fresh Ginger pieces, diced 1handful of finely chopped Coriander 1 teaspoon Chilli flakes 1 teaspoon Maple syrup 1 teaspoon Rice vinegar
PREP TIME Prep | 25 mins Cook | Steam 5mins or Oven 25-30mins
FOLLOW FOR MORE RECIPES @EVE.VEGANEATERY
METHOD Finely chop the ingredients for the filling, make sure you don’t add too much soy sauce or oil otherwise the mixture will become too wet. Mix everything together in a bowl. Soak each sheet of rice paper in hot water for 510 seconds until it becomes slightly sticky and soft enough to be pliable (fill a large dish or frying pan to do this). Be careful not to let it stick to itself. Place the sheet flat on a tray or chopping board and split it into smaller circles using a cookie cutter (medium -large size). You should be able to get two pieces from each sheet. Now that you have smaller pieces of rice paper, place a heaped teaspoon of the filling in the centre and fold over so that it forms a crescent shape, (make sure the filling doesn’t spread to the outer parts of the rice paper). Hold the sheet from the base in the palm of your hand and pinch the middle closed. Then pinch either end in between your index finger and thumb, it should create a crescent shaped dumpling. You can either steam them for 5 minutes on a high heat, or brush a small amount of oil on them and place them in the oven for 25-30 mins at 180C for a crispier dumpling.
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3 garlic cloves
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REVIEWS B O O K S A N D M O V I E S
WAKING THE GIANT BY BILL MCGUIRE (Oxford University)
This is an excellent documentary for those who are either not too familiar with the reality of climate change, or don't understand the severity of the issue. I think the producers aim was to appeal to a general audience which is great- after all climate change should be something we mutually address. Throughout the documentary we are taken to places directly affected by climate change, specifically the poorest countries which suffer the most. They interview not only
When I first read this book in 2014, climate change was less talked about than now, so I was amazed about the facts and predictions put forward of how a changing climate can influence tectonic activity. I re-read this book in 2019 and found it quite unbelievable to realise that some predictions had already been exceeded. It's great to see explanations of how changing sea level has affected volcanoes in the past as the Ice Age ended and how this could potentially happen again.
politicians, scientists and the Pope, but local people from the most damaged areas. The film depicts the reality of the long-term effects and is no way dramatised. However, I have to say that despite being produced during the time of the Paris Climate Agreement, it is hardly mentioned.
An insight into the past was a great way to show what this planet is capable of. This book touches upon natural drivers in a changing climate so you get a deeper understanding of the climate models and natural processes. This book is well worth reading and contains many interesting and surprising facts. I recommend it to anyone who wants to understand more about how our planet works with a basic knowledge of earth science.
BEFORE THE FLOOD DIRECTOR: FISHER STEVENS
October, 2016 Documentary
I like the fact that Leo doesn't come across as an environmental expert and shows that he is eager to learn on his journey. This is an informative and empowering documentary and I learnt a lot from it. 17 | THE CLIMATE ISSUE
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IN ORDER THEY APPEAR
THE MANGROVE CHRONICLES https://books.google.co.uk/books? id=FzKT23V1z4AC&pg=PA313&lpg=PA313&dq=everglades+144,000 &source=bl&ots=ckoGbh4GMo&sig=ACfU3U3_UiCv4xC6Qe0wPjg7hw7 gNwl7FA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiflZ7_kunpAhVPiFwKHTwJBXA Q6AEwAHoECAgQAQ#v=onepage&q=everglades%20144%2C000&f=f alse Wingard, G.L., Bergstresser, S.E., Stackhouse, B.L. et al. Impacts of Hurricane Irma on Florida Bay Islands, Everglades National Park, USA. Estuaries and Coasts 43, 1070–1089 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12237-019-00638-7
Covid-19 and the Prospects of a Green Recovery: a Global Perspective https://www.pri.org/stories/2020-04-08/connecting-nature-timecovid-19 https://www.economist.com/briefing/2020/05/23/the-world-urgentlyneeds-to-expand-its-use-of-carbon-prices https://www.bbc.com/future/article/20200326-covid-19-the-impactof-coronavirus-on-the-environment
Chen Y, Ye Y (2014) Effects of Salinity and Nutrient Addition on Mangrove Excoecaria agallocha. PLoS ONE 9(4): e93337. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0093337
Silicone vs plastic
https://www.economist.com/china/2020/05/21/a-glut-of-new-coalfired-power-stations-endangers-chinas-green-ambitions ; https://www.carbonbrief.org/mapped-worlds-coal-power-plants
https://public.wmo.int/en/media/press-release/wmo-confirms-2019second-hottest-year-record https://www.nationalgeographic.co.uk/environment-andconservation/2018/05/fast-facts-about-plastic-pollution https://www.recycleacrossamerica.org/recycling-facts
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/single-use-plasticcarrier-bags-why-were-introducing-the-charge/carrier-bags-why-theresa-5p-charge https://www.mintel.com/press-centre/food-and-drink/reduce-reuse-orrecycle-half-of-americans-prefer-to-buy-foods-with-minimalnopackaging-in-order-to-reduce-waste https://mindseteco.co/is-silicone-environmentally-friendly/ https://menstrualcups.wordpress.com/2015/02/02/animal-testing/
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