The Chic Mag -- The March Issue

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Letter from the Editor.......................... The Writers................................................... Multiracial Woman’s story.............. Mi Tita: A Profile On My Great Gran Female Role Models................................. Female Fashion Style Icons................ Top Influential Designers in Woma The Male Versus Female Gaze in Fil PHOTOS BY CAMERON RUBNER


..........................................................4-5 ..........................................................6-9 ..........................................................10-11 ndma.............................................12- 13 ..........................................................14 -17 ..........................................................18-25 an’s Fashion History..........26-27 lm and Fashion.......................30-31


Hello and welcome back to The Chic Mag. In this issue, The Chic Mag writers focused on Women’s History Month. As you read through the March issue, you will come across pieces that find their way back to the main focal point; women. Some pieces will approach it with personal anecdotes discussing how influential a woman is to their life while others may use visual pieces in order to appreciate the impact women have had on art, fashion, and culture. The history that women have created and continue to create, impacts all of us. This issue is dedicated to recognizing and appreciating the amazing women that continue to influence and inspire us all. With much anticipation and excitement, we introduce to you, the March issue of The Chic Mag. Enjoy.





joined the Chic Daily as an awkward freshman. Despite being a journalism major, I had little clue of what I wanted to do or if I really wanted to be a journalist. I was drawn to the fashion journalism club because fashion has always been a constant passion in my life and the organization was so different than anything else at Cronkite. As I joined and became more invested in the club, I started to fall in love with the fashion world and connect with those in it. I loved the community and collaboration aspect of the club, and watching FJC grow and develop has been one of the highlights of my college experience. This club helped me discover what I’m truly passionate about and introduced me to some of my favorite people ever!



’ve always had a love for fashion, beauty, and lifestyle. I think it stemmed from the fact that when I was little my mom had a subscription to People’s magazine and I found the beauty and fashion section to be extremely fascinating. With that being said, I joined TheChicDaily my freshman year, excited to be a part of that community and boy was I. As a junior and Vice President I’ve been to five Phoenix Fashion Weeks, been apart of four charity fashion shows ran by the chic, and have been able to interview really awesome designers and models. While the fashion club may provide amazing opportunities, as cheesy as it sounds, it really is more than just a club but a family and I’m forever grateful I joined my freshman year.




year ago I got my heartbroken, I moved to a big city and had Dear John on replay in my small studio apartment. I truly believed my world was ending, little did I know it was actually just starting. On a Wednesday night I walked into a lifestyle/fashion club and they had their own blog called TheChicDaily. I pitched an idea for a relationship column, totally Carrie Bradshaw style! My column took off, I was publishing an article weekly and I even started my own relationship podcast with another member. I am now editor-inchief of the club and am loving every minute of it! TheChicDaily has changed my life and opened so many doors for me, I am grateful for my journey that led me here.



ello I’m the Magazine Content Director for The Chic Daily’s monthly magazine! I decided to take on this position because I love the creative process behind projects, and doing that with a magazine like The Chic’s has been an unforgettable experience. I look forward to finding new and creative ideas and thoughts for each magazine to come.





ey there! My name is Maja Peirce and I am a journalist and creative director. I am currently majoring in Journalism and Mass Communications with a minor in Fashion at ASU. When I found The Chic Daily during my freshman year of college it was a breath of fresh air. The freedom of being able to express myself and practice journalism was something I felt I had been searching for. I have always loved fashion, particularly up-cycled and sustainable fashion. I look forward to creating this magazine with the club this year and exploring my graphic design and creative director abilities.

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ey there! My name is Ashlyn Robinette and I major in Journalism and Mass Communication and minor in Digital Audiences at the Walter Cronkite School of Journalism and Mass Communication and Barrett, The Honors College at ASU. I’ve always been passionate about writing, especially through the lens of fashion, beauty and lifestyle. Along with writing for The Chic Daily, I also write for Her Campus. I’m a member of the Delta Zeta sorority as well. After graduating, I hope to manage social media or write content for a major publication like Vogue.



ello! My name is Jessica Herrera! This is my second semester at ASU Cronkite but I’m a transfer student from a Phoenix community college where I graduated. My major is Journalism and Mass Communication. I work at a radio station in the Programming and Promotions Dept. I love being in the studio recording commercials or producing other on -air shows I would love to have my own radio show and then transition onto TV, preferably an entertainment y hobbies are listening to otography, and styling my clothes ng out with my puppy girl Bailey! My e Jenner, Jennifer Lopez, Blake Lively, n social media @jessica_jinger!


ey guys! My name is Alexis Huerter and I am a freshman majoring in journalism and mass communications with a minor in fashion at ASU. This is my first semester with The Chic Daily and hoping for many more to come! I was beyond excited to join this team of such creative and inspiring individuals who love to share their voice. I have been in love with fashion ever since I was a little girl and knew I wanted to get more involved with it in my future. My dream is to work for a high-end fashion magazine, possibly focusing on the public relations and social media region. Other than writing, I can’t wait to explore my interests in fashion journalism and express myself through this club!



i! My name is David Ulloa (oo-yo-uh) Jr. I am a transfer student from Glendale Community College and a new member of The Chic Daily. Although my knowledge of the fashion scene is limited, I joined The Chic because of their openness to creatives. Currently, I am majoring in Journalism and Mass Communications with the end goal of becoming a photojournalist for a major news outlet. My family’s old home videos and photos inspired, and continue to inspire, me to capture life within the small moments of time we call photographs. You can find my photography on Instagram @ ulloaphotography


A Multicultural


large portion of my life has been defined by places I never fit in. It’s a strange, almost unsettling experience to have deep attachments to places and things I always identified partially with but could never blend into. As a mixed-race woman, I am blessed with an ability to see multiple perspectives, speak multiple languages, and in general have varied experiences in life. However, it is also the source of many identity crises, expectation violations, and struggle in belonging. I never know where to call my “hometown,” and I choke when people ask me where I am from. I was born in Taipei, Taiwan, a city on a small island off the coast of China. Taipei is a bustling, swirling, never-ending combination of friendly people, traffic, and food. The city is metropolitan, tall— construction tape surrounding every new sparkling glass building—but it’s also small, local, and disjointed.


Around every street corner is another shop inherited from generations past by old couples and their families. It’s a beautiful, confused type of coherency, disorganized but fast-paced and known by heart to the residents who live there. People there are friendly, unapologetic and curious. Though I was small, I remember as a toddler being constantly asked about my linguistic fluency, prodded at, admired due to my distinctly different facial features. They wonder if I speak English or Mandarin Chinese, where I’m from, who my parents are. When I go back to visit Taiwan now, the reaction is almost the same. They are sometimes confused, almost always curious, occasionally in awe. Almost everyone in Taiwan means well, but I’m still singled out by the way I look, subject to stares sometimes too prolonged for comfort. It’s part of the reason I was able to be in Taiwanese TV shows as a child, but it’s also why everyone will immediately try to speak

English when interacting with me. In Taiwan, my surface appearance separates me in a crowd. At age 6, I moved to California. Life in America is almost the opposite of life in Taiwan. Everyone in America is different-so looking the way I do isn’t too strange, and doesn’t subject me to an immediate conversation about origin. However, when people do make an effort to figure out where I’m from, I become associated with the “other,” the minority group, being Asian. As a child, the oriental button-down jackets I wore and the pungent homemade Chinese lunches I brought to school induced judgement from my peers. I was, and still am proud of my Taiwanese ethnicity, but I am not just the “Asian girl,” and their lack of recognition of my duality failed to understand how my intersectionality affects who I am as a person. Apart from others, my parents were another source of

l Woman’s Story variance from belonging. My mother had more traditionally strict, Asian rules about my behavior, wardrobe, and appearance, and the American teenage life had an entirely different set of values. I adapted to fit in with people at school in a multitude of ways: I changed the clothing I wore, attempted to catch-up by listening to pop music and watching Disney channel, but whenever I tried harder to be accepted by my peers, my parents would resist my efforts. I was battling cultural tensions at home and school. This is not uncommon for adolescents in general, but my struggles had ethnic undertones. My mother always told me that if life in America didn’t work out, I could pursue a career in entertainment in Taiwan using my looks. Their general standard of beauty (large eyes, clear pale skin, egg-shaped face) matches the way I appear, and as a woman I’m automatically praised by family and by strangers for beauty and my potential to become a model. I’ve

internalized this so much that I feel myself become more self-conscious when I visit Taiwan (quite the paradox). I subconsciously expect praises, but I am also afraid that one day I will return and no longer be beautiful to them. My self-worth is entangled in the way I appear. Am I girly, elegant, thin, graceful, and behaved? Being cognizant of this phenomenon has helped it diminish, but not entirely. I am also aware of the strange fascination that some American people (men in particular) have for Asian women, and it’s been difficult to locate the people in my life who will recognize and accept both my Caucasian and my Taiwanese ethnicities as a woman in America. Despite the pressures I face in both countries, I’ve been able to identify with ideals that feel encouraging. Feminism in America is a work-in-progress, but it reminds me that I am more than a pretty

mixed girl in Taiwan, and more than an “exotic” girl in the United States. I take the daily initiative to defend, discuss, and narrate my own perspective of my background, my race, my identity. I am speaking for myself. This, too, is a work-inprogress. Intersectionality is multifaceted, and thus is my experience. In Taiwan, I am American. In America, I am Asian. As a woman, I am an idea. As a person, I am all of those things and much more. As I reclaim my identity as a multiethnic person, I am living with a daily struggle to love myself as I am. I’m learning to understand myself not as a figure of mixed beauty or an interesting dating prospect, but as a woman with her own history, her own unique ideas, her own creativity, and her own definition of life. I am who I choose to be.

by Miranda Heinrich



y great grandmother, more formally known as “Tita,” Maria Luisa Avalos Mendoza was not a famous woman, but her life impacted the lives of many individuals including myself. In an interview with my grandmother, Francisca Velasquez de López, the daughter of Maria Luisa, I learned about the life of my Tita. Around 1927, before my Tita was born, her parents were deported from the United States to Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México during what is known as the “Mexican Repatriation Drives.” According to a Time Magazine article, the United States initiated a mass deportation of Mexicans because of the false reasoning that Mexicans were taking American jobs. The dark irony of the situation is that many of the deportees, including my Tita’s parents, were in the United States legally. Maria Luisa Avalos Mendoza was born in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México on November 20, 1929. As a child, my Tita lived in Villa Ahumada, Chihuahua, México, but a series of unknown events unfolded that resulted in her father losing his business and severely affecting their livelihood. This led to her family having to move to San Francisco de Oro, another town in Chihuahua. When my Tita lived in San Francisco de Oro, her family along with many other families in the


My Tita’s father would return home with the beans so that her mother could use the beans to feed their family. As her mother would cook the beans in the pot, insects would float to the top of the pot. Once the insects and other materials floated to the top, her mother scooped them out so that her family could eat the beans. My grandmother stated that insects often get mixed in with beans when the beans have begun to decay. However, these were hard times for the family. The family was facing food insecurity. Neither my Tita nor her other family members got sick from these beans. At the age of 15, my Tita, along with her family, moved from San Francisco de Oro back to Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México. While she was attending secundaria (what high school is

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town lived below the poverty line. As a form of payment and as a means of survival, her father would accept beans for fixing metal goods. The families were so poor in this town that if they could not pay with money, they would pay with beans or other foods.

because my Tita’s family medical care. This led to give up school to take ca

Sadly, my Tita’s m with this unknown illne now responsible for taki siblings. While her othe support the family finan responsibility of caring f brothers. Due to their fi Tita would also have to brothers’ clothes.

Three years later when my Tita was 18, she would often notice a boy around her

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referred to as in México) in Juárez, my Tita received a scholarship to study art in México City.

However, her father did not allow her to leave, and her mother became extremely ill during this time. The illness was never known

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M a girlfr was a girl wh his arm while the street. One day my Tit asked him if that was hi and she learned that the his arm was his sister. Th married that same boy w grandfather, my Tito, Jo Tita changed her name t de Velasquez after she m They went on to have 11 of their children passed Nine of her children wo families of their own. I d

y could not afford the o my Tita having to are of her mother.

mother lost her battle ess, and my Tita was ing care of her younger er two sisters worked to ncially, my Tita held the for her two younger financial situation, my make her younger

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age passing by her home smoking cigarettes. My Tita believed he had riend because there ho would often hold ey walked down the ta confronted him and is girlfriend. He said no, e girl who was holding Three years later, she who was my great osé A. Velasquez. My to Maria Luisa Avalos married my Tito. 1 children. Sadly, one away as an infant. ould go on to have do not have an exact

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number on how many grandchildren my Tita had, but I have estimated with the assistance of my mother, one of her grandchildren, that the number of grandchildren my Tita had is around 30. In addition, my mother and I estimated that my Tita had around 64 great

grandchildren and 22 great great grandchildren. (This is a very rough estimate.)

Rosa Isela Ulloa, my mother, recalls that some of the earliest memories of my Tita were when she would babysit my mom and her other grandchildren. “We couldn’t have any until we finished the caldo,” my mother said. She remembers when my Tita would cook “caldo de res” (a Mexican beef soup) for her grandchildren, and my Tita did not allow them to drink their soda, which was poured in a small shot glass, until they finished their soup. My mother also remembers when my Tita would gently shake off her grandchildren with a towel after she had told them not to get dirty playing outside. In the grand scheme of things, these memories may be considered small, but I believe it’s these memories that contributed to the happy childhood for a whole generation of children. There are many more memories that can be said about my Tita.

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My Tita took care of many people throughout her life. At an early age, she took on the responsibility of caring for her mother and her siblings. Later on in her life, she took care of all 11 of her children; Then she helped take care of their children. The last person she cared for was her husband, my Tito. Towards the end of his life, my Tita regularly crossed the bridge that spanned the U.S.-México border to purchase my Tito’s medicines and his favorite tortas. From Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México to El Paso, Texas, my Tita walked across the border so that the last years of my Tito’s life were comfortable. I have very few memories of my Tita. However, I see the fruits of her labor in my family. She raised 10 children, with the assistance of her eldest children, who would go on to have a family of their own. I see my Tita in the stories that are told about her and the iconic red lipstick that is worn by my mother. I feel my Tita in the warm hospitality and love that is shown by her children, grandchildren, great grandchildren, and great great grandchildren. My Tita passed away when I was 17 years old, but her story lives on in my exceptionally large, tight knit family.

by David Ulloa



he female role model in my life who has continued to inspire me is my Mom (Beth Sutton). My Mom has many attributes and qualities that reflect her inner self; such as kindness, love, compassion, caring, and most importantly gratitude. I have never met a woman more driven and prideful for her family, friends, and anyone she meets. My Mom is someone I look up to and someone who I will always admire for her strength and wisdom. I don’t know what I would do without my Mom. She is my biggest cheerleader and someone who has continued to support me to wherever my life may lead me. I am beyond blessed and honored to have Beth Sutton as my Mom!



y role model is Lady Gaga because she is confident in herself and has learned to embrace all of her flaws. She admits that she still struggles with accepting her image. I appreciate that because she keeps it real about life and how it isn’t always as glamorous as we may think.



y mom is my role model because she has always made sacrifices for me and shown me what it’s like to be a true woman.




by Alexis Huerter




y female role model is Hoda Kotb. Not only is she an award-winning journalist but she’s also a part of the first female duo to host the first hour of the Today Show. Hoda is one of my favorite female role models because she is positive, strong, and inspiring. As a future journalist, she is everything I hope to be in my career and as a person.



eyoncé is my role model because her story and drive are empowering.



iley Cyrus is my role model because she doesn’t care what anyone has to say about her and I love that. She is 100% doing Miley.



y mom is my role model because she always supports me and lifts me up when I’m down or if I need someone to be there for me.



y mom and my grandma are my role models because they always go after their dreams.



y role model is my mom. She is the most hard working person I know and has done so much for my family.







aylor Swift is my role model because she has always come out stronger and stood her ground even after her character was questioned.



y female role model is Barbara Walters. She was the first woman to anchor nightly news! She changed the news industry for women and it inspires me.



y female role model is Frida Kahlo because she is a Mexican artist that is known for self-portraits with many themes of identity and reflection.


Female Fashion Style Icons


he power of women breaks boundaries, is innovative, makes history, shatters stereotypes, and makes you take a second look. Women have been known to be successful in any area they wish to be a part of and fashion is definitely one where females make bold statements. Over the years we have seen styles evolve and influence the masses. Females have been rocking the latest fashion trends all over the world whether it be on the red carpet, the catwalk, or on social media. Let’s take a look at some of the most influential female icons over the years and let’s celebrate their mark in the fashion industry!



arylin Monroe was an iconic actress, model, and singer in the ‘50s. Her platinum blonde hair was known as one of her most recognizable looks. She was popular for her sensuous and old Hollywood style. Her classic movie star appearances and charming personality captivated the eyes of many. Her look consisted of her famous blonde curls, red lipstick, and high- arched eyebrows. She typically wore halter top-dresses that showcased her curves in just the right places. The white halter dress Monroe wore in the 1955 film titled “The Seven Year Itch,” was and still is, one of the most popular American fashion pieces of all time. Today you can see artists like Madonna and Christina Aguilera rocking some of Monroe’s influences in their fashion style.


hen Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, best known as Jackie O’, became the First Lady of the United States in the ‘60s, she influenced women all over the country with her elegant style. Peacoats, gloves, oversized sunglasses, and hair perfectly styled underneath her small hats all became a trend. Her outfits were always coordinated whether she wore an elegant ball gown to an event at the White House or wore a casual outfit to vacation with her family. Women today will still wear scarves over their hair or monochrome suits to look like her. Kennedy’s style is seen in pop stars like Ariana Grande who sported many of her inspired looks in her “Positions” music video. Grande’s hair also had a very retro-chic style. She wore several different hair accessories to adorn her Kennedyinfluenced hairstyles like pillbox hats, headbands, and a beret. Grande also showcased many monochrome outfits and coats with gloves as well as pearl earrings and necklaces that were a big trend in the ‘60s.



adonna was at the peak of her career in the ‘80s where black leather jackets, denim jeans, and layered necklaces were in style. She pushed the boundaries when it came to fashion and was able to make lace, tulle, and leggings a trend. Madonna’s style has certainly evolved over the years. She has incorporated punk rock influences, hip-hop, geisha, and even western-style looks into her wardrobe. She has proved to be a chameleon when it comes to fashion and is definitely not afraid to step out of the ordinary. Her innovative style has inspired many to also get outside of their comfort zone, push the boundaries of standardized beauty and have a “just go for it” type of attitude. Her looks have always been fun and daring especially when she has worn different variations of conical bras and corsets for her onstage performances which have also inspired Lady Gaga later on in the 2000s.



rincess Diana helped set the fashion trends in the ‘90s pushing many to want to dress like her. She was fearless when it came to fashion and her big smile as well as personality always shined through in her clothing designs. Her embellished gowns at galas were very carefully selected and she had the opportunity to wear some of the biggest fashion designer name brands that are still popular today such as Versace, Dior, and Chanel. She also liked to keep it casual by wearing denim jeans when out and about with comfortable blouses as well as matching belts and a pair of flats. Nowadays you can still see many young women sporting the famous Princess Diana biker shorts that she evidently loved to wear.



arah Jessica Parker (SPJ) has been fabulous for many years on her hit TV series “Sex and the City.” The show was filmed in New York city which allowed Parker to step onto the fashion scene first hand. You can spot her wearing Dior, Dolce & Gabbana as well as many custom designs by Oscar de la Renta. SJP or “Carrie Bradshaw,” as some like to call her in reference to her iconic character in the series, is often seen in the first row at big-time Fashion shows. She has always expressed her love for shoes, especially Manolo Blahniks, inspiring her to create her own self-titled SJP shoe line. The longtime fashionista has rocked her iconic looks at various red carpet events like the Met Gala, The Golden Globe Awards, and The Oscars. One amazing thing about Parker is whether she’s rocking ‘80s or ‘90s monochromatic looks or venturing off with pops of color in the 2000s, she is always looking amazing.



ritney Spears has always been the ultimate pop princess since the early ‘90s to the early 2000s. During the beginning of her career, Spears’ performance costumes included pigtails, tube tops, baggy pants and sneakers. Over the years, her onstage wardrobe evolved as she had successfully toured the world and was able to complete a sought after Las Vegas Residency. Her costumes included one- piece ensembles, mesh fabrics, knee high boots and lots of glitter. One popular trend in particular Spears was known for was displaying her belly button ring. Her MTV appearances and her music videos usually showcased the belly ring and young ladies all over the country began to wear cropped tops displaying their belly piercings as well. An unforgettable moment was when Spears wore an all denim look to the 2001 American Music Awards with her then-boyfriend Justin Timberlake. Spears wore a

patchwork denim dress with a rhinestone choker while Timberlake wore a matching denim Canadian tuxedo and cowboy hat. Katy Perry was so inspired for the 2014 VMAs that she channeled the pop princess wearing a custom Versace all denim dress as well. Another fashion forward statement Spears made was during the “I’m a Slave 4 You” performance at the 2001 VMAs when she wore an embellished top and shorts with long pieces of fabric attached to them while she belly danced with a live albino Burmese python snake in her show. Spears wore a very unique outfit that was still true to her style but still added belly dance attire influences which fthat waselt new for her and was certainly more sensuous than we had seen her up until that point. After that moment, many have tried to recreate that outfit, especially Youtuber Tana Mongeau, who brought a live snake to the 2019 VMA red carpet in Spears’ honor.



eyonce Knowles is known as one of the most respected multi-talented artists of all time. She has always claimed that her fashion sense comes from the most powerful women in her life, her mother and grandmother who loved to sew and design her clothes. Knowles attributes much of her personal success early on in her career with Destiny Child’s to her beloved family members. Her mother and uncle took on the responsibility of dressing the female singing group and made sure that the women were always well dressed for all occasions and were matching with one another while still adding each individual’s style to the designs. The group’s wardrobe usually involved several hours of work, especially when having to sew on crystals and pearls onto each of their outfits for performances or red carpet events. Knowles stated that she had always taken an interest in fashion since a young age and even helped her mother in developing their own brand by the name of House of Dereon in honor of her grandmother. The fashion line was an homage to the three generations of women working together and combining each one of their personal style into what they once described as a blend between everyday wear while still being high fashion. Nowadays, Beyonce promotes her popular and innovative IVY Park clothing line, which she named after her daughter Blue Ivy, where she recently has collaborated with Adidas to create the next level of streetwear.



obin Rhianna Fenty is a singer, songwriter, actress, fashion designer and an overall entrepreneur. She emerged on the music scene in 2005 as a young 16-yearold with her unique reggae infused sound with “The Music of the Sun” album. Her style at the time consisted of cropped tops, jeans, and sporty sneakers. As her music began to evolve so did her style. Fenty always reinvented herself by playing around with different hair cuts and colors ranging from brunette to blonde to becoming a redhead in a short amount of time. Her overall style and clothes often changed whenever she presented a new project. She was often described as fearless by many in the media and her brand definitely represented that as well when she ventured off into the world of fashion

with her Fenty clothing line. She was able to be the CEO of her own company while creating her own looks to events and shoots which shook the fashion scene. She was often spotted wearing oversized everyday wear clothing like knit sweaters, leather jackets, hoodies and denim jeans. Fenty created an expansive fashion brand that featured tops, dresses, pants, earrings, sunglasses, sneakers, sandals, heels and everything in between for all body shapes and sizes. The body positivity message behind her companies have allowed her to become one of the biggest influential women in the industry. She made sure to carry that inspiration of inclusivity to her Savage X Fenty lingerie line.


verall, the fashion industry is definitely a fun way to express who you are and it’s a way to unleash your personality or to try something new. There are so many options ranging from colors, fabrics, patterns and styles. Fashion designers from all over the world are constantly creating innovative looks and pushing the envelope every season and that is very inspirational to see. The most important thing to remember is that the power of a woman is untouchable when she feels the most confident in her own skin. By Jessica Herrera


Top Influential Designers in Woman’s Fashion History


or centuries designers have emerged, bringing something new and unique to women’s fashion. From getting rid of the corset to the creation of the first mini skirt and women’s suit, designers throughout each decade have transformed the industry as a whole. With that being said, here are some of the top influential designers that have helped shape women’s fashion to what it is today.

Lady Lucile Duff-Gordon (1863- WWI and the 20’s Inspired by Poiret to design, Elsa Schiaparelli, founded 1935) The Edwardian Period her company in her apartment with the idea of creating Not only a Titanic survivor, a target in an Espionage attempt, and involved with various lovers, Lady Lucile Duff-Gordon’s designs reflected her chaotic life. Her clients included royalty, show stars, and aristocrats. She is best known for her evening and tea gowns, and, of course, lingerie. Her company was the first Haute Couture to diversify by producing the concept of ready-towear garments found in retail stores. Not only did she stage the first catwalk but was the first to employ business models into the fashion scene. She also developed a social element of shopping such as creating a private drawing-room, writing a personalized letter, providing entertainment, and serving afternoon tea. Duff-Gordon said that she made dresses to suit each woman’s personality and ultimately introduced the word “chic” and the slit skirt.

Paul Poiret (1879-1944) The Edwardian Period

Known for using vivid colors and oriental looks, Paul Poiret reigned supreme in Paris Couture and was known as the “King of Fashion” in America. During this time, corsets were commonly worn under dresses, and if you didn’t wear one it was deemed un-lady-like. Poiret broke the barriers of this notion by completely getting rid of the corset because he said that it was unnecessary to obtain an “S” body shape, something commonly emphasized during this time period. He also created the brassiere which was first worn by Mary Phelps Jacobs. A hobble skirt was created and was often worn underneath in order to prevent women from splitting their skirts. Needless to say, Paul Poiret helped start the woman fashion revolution.

Elsa Schiaparelli (1880-1973)


sportswear. Some of her most famous pieces include a wrap-around dress, plunging necklines, power suits, and the first evening dress with a jacket. She also designed silk tennis outfits that were comprised of a wrap-around skirt that allowed women the ability to freely move while playing sports. Schiaparelli also created see-through rain jackets. Her designs were so revolutionary that she was the first female fashion designer to be featured on the cover of Time Magazine. Without Schiaparelli, we also wouldn’t have the concept of designer sunglasses.

Coco Chanel (1883-1971) WWI and the 20s’

Still known to this day as one of the most iconic fashion designers to ever exist, Coco Chanel not only created the symbolic perfume Chanel No. 5 in 1922, but the first woman’s suit. The “Chanel” suit was a cropped jacket with short sleeves and a straight pleated skirt. Chanel utilized jersey fabric, something that was often used for undergarments but due to WWI, it created a fabric shortage, so she was forced to use the resources she had. She also created the classic little black dress which was the first time the color was accepted to wear not just in the mornings. Chanel was also the first fashion designer to be listed on Time’s Magazine’s list of 100 most influential people in the 20th Century. The quilted bag and two-toned pumps, often associated with Chanel were also created in 1955 and are still worn to this day.

Main Rousseau Bocher (19291976) 30’s, WWII

Originally an illustrator for Harper’s Bazaar and editor for French Vogue, Main Bocher established his fashion house in 1929 in Paris. He was the first American to work

in Paris and primarily designed for Wallis Simpson, the wife of Edward VIII, and turned her into a fashion icon. His most famous design for her was her wedding dress and it was the most photographed and copied of all time, the dress to this day can be seen at the Met Gala Institute in New York City. Bocher’s biggest contribution to women’s fashion is the creation of women’s war uniforms for the Red Cross as well as Girl Scout uniforms.

of that era by revamping them to fit Jackie Kennedy’s personality. An example of this is the pillbox hat. It was common to cover the entire head of a woman but Jackie wore it on the back of hers so it wouldn’t mess up her hairstyle, this forever changed the way women wore their hats. He also designed wedding dresses that reflected the personality of each bride and he created uniforms for flight attendants.

Christian Dior (1946-1957) Cold War Era

Mary Quant (1930- current) 70’s

This name definitely doesn’t need an introduction because that’s how influential Christian Dior was to women’s fashion. Each of his collections had 200 outfits and for the first time ever, models were hired in different shapes and sizes because Dior believed that his models should reflect his customers. During this time, he was known as the “king of couture” due to his unique designs. One of which was called the “New Look, ‘’ which consisted of bustier-style bodices, hip padding, wasp-waisted corsets, and petticoats that made his dresses flare out from the waist giving his customers a very curvaceous form. This “New Look’’ helped reestablish Paris as the center of the fashion world and helped push women outside of their comfort zones in terms of fashion.

One creation in mind shows just how iconic Mary Quant is, mini skirts. Not only did she create one of the most prominent staple pieces in women’s fashion but she also created peter pan collars. Her signature look for dresses included simple boat necklines, child-like round pointed collars, and narrow shoulders. Quant also helped evolve the pantyhose and made it available in an assortment of colors and patterns. She also popularized hot pants and created gogo boots as well as knit stockings. She was also appointed Officer of the Order of the British Empire where she accepted the award at Buckingham Palace dressed in a mini skirt and cut-away gloves. Without Mary Quant’s designs, the world would be a different place without the mini skirt and gogo boots.

Charles James (1945-1978) Cold Yves Saint Laurent (1936-2008) War Era 70’s Charles James was unlike any designer, he was considered a compulsive perfectionist on garments; meaning a single dress could take him months to make because he would keep redoing it. However, once his design was complete it was worth the wait because his designs were unlike any other because he channeled architecture and sculpture into his work. He was the only American couture designer with no previous design experience. James created the satin jacket, influenced the puffer coat, and created the classic strapless dress called the cloverleaf gown as well as a spiral wrap. His designs were revolutionary in the sense that he designed to fit the women figure.

Oleg Cassini (1913-2006) Cold War Era

Known as the “Secretary of State’’ for his creation of the “Jackie Look” made for the First Lady Jackie Kennedy, Oleg Cassini broke barriers for women everywhere. This look is argued to have changed the world in terms of fashion because he rebelled against the normal “trends’’

As Dior’s apprentice it’s no surprise that Yves Saint Laurent made his mark on women’s fashion. After Dior passed away, he became the heir of the House of Dior where he completely transformed Dior’s designs. He removed the shoulder pads, tool, and corsets and created the trapeze dress which hung freely on women’s shoulders and had a skirt that cascaded down. What really helped women feel empowered was the creation of the women’s suit, more specifically a lady’s trouser suit. It became a staple in every collection he created. His most iconic line was the Mondrian which completely changed the fashion industry during the ’60s and 70’s due to its unique look. Plus, it failed to comply with the fashion trends during its time.


rom Dior to Yves Saint Laurent to Coco Chanel, these designers revolutionized not only the fashion industry but women’s fashion as a whole. They helped women feel empowered and fierce all through the new clothes created in each era. By Lauren Lippert





The Male Versus Female G

***may need a trigger warning for sex


f you have eyes, then you’re probably familiar with “the male gaze.” You’ve most likely seen it in advertisements, art, comics, music videos, movies, and television. Surely, you remember the misogynistic subjugation of beer commercials that treat women as servants or sex objects. Or maybe you recall the camera lingering on the body of an archetypal bimbo running in sexy-slow motion. In these instances and more, women are reduced to objects of the male gaze. “In a world ordered by sexual imbalance, pleasure in looking has been split between active/male and passive/ female,” said filmmaker and theorist Laura Mulvey, who coined and introduced the concept of the male gaze in her 1975 paper, Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema. Under the male gaze, men are the “active” do-ers while women are expected to take on a “passive” role to support the men and their goals or to serve as eye candy. The woman’s own thoughts, feelings, or sexual desires are not important. The male gaze essentially empowers men through the objectification of women. The male gaze is largely due to an overrepresentation of men in films, on and off-screen. While more women are working in film than ever, men still dominate the industry. Of the women who worked on the top 250 grossing films last year, only 30% were producers, 22% editors, 21% executive producers, 18% directors, 17% writers, and 6% cinematographers, the 2020 Celluloid Ceiling study reported. Men are mostly the ones who write and make our films, so they tend to cater and appeal towards their target audience- men. As a result, men are typically given the lead in films while women are assigned characters whose functions are limited to serving the male narrative. The public is more often than not limited to the male view. Women are written and portrayed exclusively through the perspectives of men under the male gaze, which “projects fantasy onto the female figure,” wrote Mulvey. Consequently, women are positioned as objects of heterosexual male desire. However, even if they aren’t overly sexualized, women are still treated as props. If


they’re not there to be looked at and objectified, then the female characters exist to passively encourage the male protagonist to actively take action to achieve his goal. Women are only there to serve the man’s interests, desires, and goals. So what’s “the female gaze?” If the male gaze sexualizes women and has men dominate the storyline, then the female gaze must just do the reverse to men, right? Wrong. The female gaze does not seek to objectify men or have women overpower the story with men existing only as props. Instead, the female gaze fights patriarchal power by having females decide how they want to be portrayed. Men can no longer dictate it. Women are passive subjects to the male gaze but are active in the female. They are dynamic and assertive characters who have their own thoughts, goals, and storylines. An on-screen female perspective allows for women to reclaim ownership over their bodies. The female gaze seeks to empathize rather than objectify. It is more emotional and intimate. Rather than being entirely about what men see, the female gaze is about making the audience understand and feel what women experience. Mulvey described women as the “spectacle” and men as “the bearer of the look” in male gaze cinema. With that being said, women can still be portrayed as sexually alluring under the female gaze. For example, take Harry Styles’ “Watermelon Sugar” music video. In this video that is “dedicated to touching,” Styles is seductively eating and stroking watermelon on the beach alongside a plethora of beautiful women in bikinis. While the women show a lot of skin as this is a beach scene, they are not objectified by Styles. Instead, Styles is there to embrace them as a piece of artwork. He genuinely enjoys their company as they closely dance and eat together. No gender overshadows another, demonstrating a lack of traditional power imbalance.

Gaze in Film and Fashion

xual assault***

Even the lyrics of the song center around women’s pleasure, which is clearly reflected in the video as there are many close-ups of diverse women in states of blissful, sexual euphoria. “Watermelon Sugar” is undeniably about oral sex as Styles sings, “I just wanna taste it, I just wanna taste it,” and can’t get enough of the women surrounding him. Styles clearly enjoys himself in the video as he smiles and leans against the women. The women themselves are arguably even more satisfied as they joyfully arch their backs and open their mouths to the sky while closing their eyes in orgasm-like states. Typically in music videos, there is a heterosexist, male-driven version of sex in which women are oversexualized playthings for men. Styles and his directors could’ve taken the “Watermelon Sugar” video in that route by having Styles hype himself up about eating girls out, but they didn’t. While fighting toxic masculinity in a crocheted tank top and pink nails, Styles chose to focus the video on his shared pleasure with women. Sex was all about feeling good together. Unfortunately, sex under the male gaze in the film and music industry is usually solely concerned with male pleasure and female pleasure being secondary or nonexistent. In the status quo, men are praised for things like losing their virginity, masturbating, or having a high body count, while women are condemned for it. The male gaze encourages sexual double standards while the female gaze aims to stop it. Women should never exist to just serve a man’s story and his desires. Sadly, the male gaze’s sexualization of women and prioritization of men in media connects to real life and influences how women dress. Fashion doesn’t have to be sexual, yet the male gaze forces sexist dress requirements upon women. In superhero movies, men are covered head-to-toe in armor and weapons ready to fight, while women are usually in impractical, skin-tight, revealing attire that must show off their voluptuous figures. Just look at any type of Hallow-

een costume designed for women and compare it to the same design for men. Women are sexualized in every way and it starts at a young age. If you’re a woman reading this, then you’ve probably experienced some form of sexist dress code or slut-shaming in your life. For me and probably many other women, I was first taught to dress under the male gaze in elementary school. “You’ll distract the boys!” I was told over and over again. I couldn’t show my shoulders, anything above the knees, etc. The same rules never seemed to apply to the boys though. Educators continuously police women’s bodies so that, early on, women are taught that their needs come second to their male peers. This perpetuates the “boys will be boys” ideology. Since boys can’t control themselves, women must be controlled. If clothing causes an issue for the boys, then it is somehow always the woman’s fault. Boys are not held responsible for their behavior. This tolerance for harassment and woman-blaming leads into adulthood. Men who sexually assault women may claim that it isn’t their fault based on what the woman was wearing, that she was “asking for it.” No woman is asking to be raped, drugged, or assaulted. The male gaze is dangerous. It allows men to get away with sexual violence by not accepting accountability for their actions. In contrast, if the female gaze were implemented more then women wouldn’t have to associate clothing with something sexual. Instead, their fashion-choices would be accepted as a form of self-expression, style, and identity. Women should be able to dress for themselves, not out of fear of being judged or assaulted. Ultimately, the female gaze does not dehumanize but rather empathizes. Women do not exist for the sexist male gaze that society promotes. Female pleasure, feelings, and goals should not be secondary to those of men. There must be more representation of female perspectives in the entertainment industry and promotion of equality that can transcend into everyday life.

By Ashlyn Robinette





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