Page 1

Danielle Frankenthal Jeffrey Gibson Sam Gilliam Nathan Green David Hammons Katy Heinlein Charline von Heyl Felrath Hines Geoff Hippenstiel Gilbert Hsiao Rashid Johnson Jennie C. Jones Fabienne Lasserre Paul Lee Simone Leigh Daniel Levine Siobhan Liddell James Little Eva Lundsager Richard Mayhew Rodney McMillian Robert Melee Benny Merris Troy Michie Jason Middlebrook Ulrike Müller Jayson Musson Dona Nelson Floyd Newsum Angel Otero John Outterbridge

CONTEMPORARY ARTS MUSEUM HOUSTON

Jennifer Packer Joyce Pensato Gavin Perry James Phillips Jack Pierson Howardena Pindell Stephen Prina Eileen Quinlan David Reed Sam Reveles Mariah Robertson Nadine Robinson Susie Rosmarin Cordy Ryman Amy Sillman Frank Smith Leslie Smith III Shinique Smith Kianja Strobert Alma Thomas Shane Tolbert Scott Treleaven Cullen Washington Jack White Stanley Whitney Jack Whitten Pinar Yolacan Brenna Youngblood Brian Zink

CONTEMPORARY ARTS MUSEUM HOUSTON

Artists Michele Abeles Derrick Adams Richard Aldrich Candida Alvarez Tauba Auerbach David Aylsworth Romare Bearden McArthur Binion Lucas Blalock Chris Bogia Carol Bove Travis Boyer Andrew Brischler Tom Burr Sarah Cain Chris Cascio Nick Cave Leidy Churchman Joseph Cohen Kevin Cole Matt Connors Julia Dault Gabriel Dawe Abigail DeVille Cheryl Donegan Nathaniel Donnett Christian Eckart Nicole Eisenman Josh Faught Keltie Ferris Mark Flood

OUTSIDE THE LINES

Marking the Contemporary Arts Museum Houston’s sixty-fifth anniversary, Outside the Lines was a six-part exhibition series conceived as an evolving dialogue on the state of abstraction in the twenty-first century. Bringing together works by ninety-one artists, this companion volume explores contemporary approaches to painting and other mediums from multiple vantage points.

OUT SIDE THE LINES

OUTSIDE THE LINES Presented on the occasion of the Contemporary Arts Museum Houston’s sixty-fifth anniversary, Outside the Lines was a six-part exhibition series conceived as a dynamic conversation on contemporary abstraction. CAMH’s director, Bill Arning, and the museum’s two curators, Valerie Cassel Oliver and Dean Daderko, each organized two exhibitions, which united both of the museum’s galleries in a single thematic presentation for the first time. The exhibitions highlight the various discourses surrounding abstraction, including the interrogation of the history and practice of painting, the contentious nature of the two-dimensional frame, and experimental approaches that engage new languages and processes. Many of the artists featured employ nontraditional materials or oddball methodologies to create paintings and three-dimensional or multimedia works that are visually vibrant, physically unruly, and utterly surprising. This richly illustrated volume includes essays by the three curators and reproductions and installation views of nearly all the works in the exhibitions. Featuring works by ninety-one artists representing different generations and sensibilities, Outside the Lines demonstrates CAMH’s commitment to presenting the most dynamic and adventurous art being made today.

288 pages with 160 color reproductions


OUTSIDE THE LINES


UIA (Unlikely Iterations of the Abstract) Painting: A Love Story Bill Arning

Black in the Abstract Part 1: Epistrophy Part 2: Hard Edges / Soft Curves Valerie Cassel Oliver

Outside the Lines Rites of Spring Dean Daderko

CO N T E M P O RA RY A RTS M U S E U M H O U STO N

2

OUT SIDE THE LINES 3


UIA (Unlikely Iterations of the Abstract) Painting: A Love Story Bill Arning

Black in the Abstract Part 1: Epistrophy Part 2: Hard Edges / Soft Curves Valerie Cassel Oliver

Outside the Lines Rites of Spring Dean Daderko

CO N T E M P O RA RY A RTS M U S E U M H O U STO N

2

OUT SIDE THE LINES 3


Published on the occasion of the exhibition Outside the Lines, organized by Bill Arning, director; Valerie Cassel Oliver, senior curator; and Dean Daderko, curator, for the Contemporary Arts Museum Houston. Contemporary Arts Museum Houston October 31, 2013–April 15, 2014

Funding for the Museum’s operations through the Fund for the Future is made possible by generous grants from Chinhui Juhn and Eddie Allen, Anonymous, Jereann Chaney, Marita and J. B. Fairbanks, Jo and Jim Furr, Barbara and Michael Gamson, Brenda and William Goldberg, Leticia Loya, Fayez Sarofim, Robin and Andrew Schirrmeister, and David and Marion Young. The Museum’s operations and programs are made possible through the generosity of the Museum’s trustees, patrons, members, and donors. The Contemporary Arts Museum Houston receives partial operating support from The Brown Foundation, Inc.; Houston Endowment; the City of Houston through the Houston Museum District Association; the National Endowment for the Arts; the Texas Commission on the Arts, The Wortham Foundation, Inc.; and artMRKT Productions. CAMH also thanks its artist benefactors for their support, including Jules de Balincourt, Jack Early, Mark Flood, Keltie Ferris, Barnaby Furnas, Theaster Gates, Trenton Doyle Hancock, Mary Heilmann, Jim Hodges, Jennie C. Jones, Klara Lidén, Maya Lin, Robert Mangold, Melissa Miller, Marilyn Minter, Angel Otero, Enoc Perez, Rob Pruitt, Matthew Ritchie, Dario Robleto, Ed Ruscha, Rusty Scruby, Cindy Sherman, Lorna Simpson, James Surls, Sam Taylor-Johnson, and William Wegman.

Outside the Lines and CAMH’s 65th anniversary celebration are generously supported in part by Fayez Sarofim. This exhibition has been made possible by the patrons, benefactors, and donors to the Museum’s Major Exhibition Fund: Major Patrons Chinhui Juhn and Eddie Allen Fayez Sarofim Michael Zilkha Patrons Mr. and Mrs. I. H. Kempner III Ms. Louisa Stude Sarofim Benefactors George and Mary Josephine Hamman Foundation Louise D. Jamail Anne and David Kirkland KPMG, LLP Beverly and Howard Robinson Robin and Andrew Schirrmeister Leigh and Reggie Smith Yellow Cab Houston Donors A Fare Extraordinaire Bank of Texas Bergner and Johnson Design Jereann Chaney Elizabeth Howard Crowell Dillon Kyle Architecture Sara Paschall Dodd Ruth Dreessen and Thomas Van Laan Jo and Jim Furr Barbara and Michael Gamson Brenda and William Goldberg Jackson and Company King & Spalding L.L.P. Marley Lott Lauren Rottet Susan Vaughan Foundation, Inc. Karen and Harry Susman Mr. Wallace Wilson The catalogue accompanying the exhibition is made possible by a grant from The Brown Foundation, Inc.

Official Airline of the Contemporary Arts Mueseum Houston

CO N T E N TS

Bill Arning

Bill Arning

Lenders to the Exhibition

6

Foreword

7

Acknowledgments

9

UIA (Unlikely Iterations of the Abstract)

12

Other Materials, Other Processes, Other Senses, and Other Stories

Painting: A Love Story One Layer after Another Valerie Cassel Oliver

58 61

Black in the Abstract Part 1: Epistrophy Art of the Refrain

Part 2: Hard Edges / Soft Curves Reverb Dean Daderko

15

Outside the Lines Painting over the Edge

Rites of Spring Evidence of Feeling: The Figure in the Abstract

96 99 140 143 182 185 208 211

Works in the Exhibition

248

Biographies of the Artists

258


Published on the occasion of the exhibition Outside the Lines, organized by Bill Arning, director; Valerie Cassel Oliver, senior curator; and Dean Daderko, curator, for the Contemporary Arts Museum Houston. Contemporary Arts Museum Houston October 31, 2013–April 15, 2014

Funding for the Museum’s operations through the Fund for the Future is made possible by generous grants from Chinhui Juhn and Eddie Allen, Anonymous, Jereann Chaney, Marita and J. B. Fairbanks, Jo and Jim Furr, Barbara and Michael Gamson, Brenda and William Goldberg, Leticia Loya, Fayez Sarofim, Robin and Andrew Schirrmeister, and David and Marion Young. The Museum’s operations and programs are made possible through the generosity of the Museum’s trustees, patrons, members, and donors. The Contemporary Arts Museum Houston receives partial operating support from The Brown Foundation, Inc.; Houston Endowment; the City of Houston through the Houston Museum District Association; the National Endowment for the Arts; the Texas Commission on the Arts, The Wortham Foundation, Inc.; and artMRKT Productions. CAMH also thanks its artist benefactors for their support, including Jules de Balincourt, Jack Early, Mark Flood, Keltie Ferris, Barnaby Furnas, Theaster Gates, Trenton Doyle Hancock, Mary Heilmann, Jim Hodges, Jennie C. Jones, Klara Lidén, Maya Lin, Robert Mangold, Melissa Miller, Marilyn Minter, Angel Otero, Enoc Perez, Rob Pruitt, Matthew Ritchie, Dario Robleto, Ed Ruscha, Rusty Scruby, Cindy Sherman, Lorna Simpson, James Surls, Sam Taylor-Johnson, and William Wegman.

Outside the Lines and CAMH’s 65th anniversary celebration are generously supported in part by Fayez Sarofim. This exhibition has been made possible by the patrons, benefactors, and donors to the Museum’s Major Exhibition Fund: Major Patrons Chinhui Juhn and Eddie Allen Fayez Sarofim Michael Zilkha Patrons Mr. and Mrs. I. H. Kempner III Ms. Louisa Stude Sarofim Benefactors George and Mary Josephine Hamman Foundation Louise D. Jamail Anne and David Kirkland KPMG, LLP Beverly and Howard Robinson Robin and Andrew Schirrmeister Leigh and Reggie Smith Yellow Cab Houston Donors A Fare Extraordinaire Bank of Texas Bergner and Johnson Design Jereann Chaney Elizabeth Howard Crowell Dillon Kyle Architecture Sara Paschall Dodd Ruth Dreessen and Thomas Van Laan Jo and Jim Furr Barbara and Michael Gamson Brenda and William Goldberg Jackson and Company King & Spalding L.L.P. Marley Lott Lauren Rottet Susan Vaughan Foundation, Inc. Karen and Harry Susman Mr. Wallace Wilson The catalogue accompanying the exhibition is made possible by a grant from The Brown Foundation, Inc.

Official Airline of the Contemporary Arts Mueseum Houston

CO N T E N TS

Bill Arning

Bill Arning

Lenders to the Exhibition

6

Foreword

7

Acknowledgments

9

UIA (Unlikely Iterations of the Abstract)

12

Other Materials, Other Processes, Other Senses, and Other Stories

Painting: A Love Story One Layer after Another Valerie Cassel Oliver

58 61

Black in the Abstract Part 1: Epistrophy Art of the Refrain

Part 2: Hard Edges / Soft Curves Reverb Dean Daderko

15

Outside the Lines Painting over the Edge

Rites of Spring Evidence of Feeling: The Figure in the Abstract

96 99 140 143 182 185 208 211

Works in the Exhibition

248

Biographies of the Artists

258


L END ER S TO THE E X H I BI T I ON

FOREWORD

ACA Galleries, New York

Honor Fraser, Los Angeles

Michel Muylle, Houston

Alexander Gray Associates, New York

Hudgins Family, New York

The Nasher Museum of Art at Duke University

American Contemporary, New York Andrew Kreps Gallery, New York Art Palace, Houston Barbara Davis Gallery, Houston Estate of Nanette Bearden beta pictoris gallery / Maus Contemporary, Birmingham, Alabama Suzanne Deal Booth and David G. Booth, Austin Bortolami Gallery, New York Melva Bucksbaum and Raymond Learsy, Sharon, Connecticut Cheim & Read, New York Churner and Churner, New York

Scott J. Hunter, Chicago Inman Gallery, Houston Invisible-Exports, New York Jack Shainman Gallery, New York James Cohan Gallery, New York Jeff Bailey Gallery, New York Johannes Vogt Gallery, New York June Kelly Gallery, New York Kavi Gupta Gallery, Chicago Demetrio and Gianna Kerrison, Santa Ana, California Khanna Family Collection, Kutch, Gujarat, India The Ko Collection, New York Koenig & Clinton, New York

Conduit Gallery, Dallas

Dillon Kyle and Sam Lasseter, Houston

CRG Gallery, New York

Michael Ladd, Waka, Texas

Gila and Paul B. Daitz, New York

Maccarone, New York

David Shelton Gallery, Houston

David Madee, Summit, New Jersey

DC Moore Gallery, New York

Marc Straus, New York

Devin Borden Gallery, Houston

Marianne Boesky Gallery, New York

Dieu Donné, New York DODGEgallery, New York 47 Canal, New York Honor Fraser and Stavros Merjos, Los Angeles Galerie Gisela Capitain, Cologne Gallery Diet, Miami Gallery Sonja Roesch, Houston Garth Greenan Gallery, New York Gavlak Gallery, Palm Beach, Florida Cheryl Gold, New York 6

Alex Marshall, New York Frank Masi and Donna Kolb, Los Angeles Guido and Magali Maus, Birmingham, Alabama

Jill Nelson, New York Paula Cooper Gallery, New York Jesse Penridge, Brooklyn Petzel, New York Lois Plehn, New York Private collection, Houston Private collections, New York Ramiken Crucible, New York The Romanelli Collection, Los Angeles Salon 94 Bowery, New York Samsøn, Boston Carole Server and Oliver Frankel, New York Sikkema Jenkins & Co., New York Silberkuppe, Berlin Evan Snyderman and Zesty Meyers, New York Andrew Stearn The Studio Museum in Harlem, New York Susanne Vielmetter Los Angeles Projects, Culver City, California Talley Dunn Gallery, Dallas Team Gallery, New York Texas Gallery, Houston Thomas Erben Gallery, New York

McClain Gallery, Houston

Tilton Gallery, New York

Miguel Abreu Gallery, New York

Vito Schnabel, New York

Miller Yezerski Gallery, Boston

Wade Wilson Gallery, Houston

Minus Space, New York

Zach Feuer Gallery, New York

Shelly and Neil Mitchell, New York

Zadok Gallery, Miami

Mitchell-Innes & Nash, New York

T

he Contemporary Arts Museum Houston derives a significant aspect of its identity from being a noncollecting institution. In a city with two of the greatest museum collections on the planet, we have the freedom to perfect the art of the temporary exhibition. We are one of only a handful of major American museums dedicated to exhibition making as our primary mission. We were also among the first museums to employ the term contemporary in the institution’s name, keeping the focus on the now—along with imminent futures—and letting other museums present the glories of the past. As one of the longest-lasting “C” museums—be they ICAs, MCAs, MOCAs, or CAMs— we are not at our most comfortable in a retrospective mode. As we set out to mark our sixty-fifth anniversary, it was a given that we could not pull objects out of storage that the audience might remember—the “play it again, Sam” style of institutional nostalgia. And we already have three marvelous books documenting the great things that have happened at CAMH in the past, so another would be premature. It was clear that a different strategy to celebrate this significant anniversary was needed. We informally asked our supporters in the community what they love most about CAMH, and we heard that it was our great curating, with the components of scholarship, research, and scouting that allow us to identify and present the artists of tomorrow, today. We are well known in the field for being super plugged in to a diverse community of artists, many in the early stages of their careers, who are dreaming up the future, generating new ideas in art, and bringing them to the attention of the larger art world. The problem we set out to solve was how to use that strength to speak also about our illustrious history. But the only way great curating manifests itself is by causing reactions, which is what CAMH’s sixty-five years of groundbreaking shows have done in the city of Houston. It’s like the subatomic particle quarks, which cannot be seen except in the effects they leave behind when they pass through a field. So we came up with a solution that would showcase our curatorial strengths: Outside the Lines, a six-part exhibition conceived as an evolving dialogue on contemporary abstraction. From recent paintings embracing more traditional definitions of abstraction to three-dimensional works that challenge such notions, the exhibition showcases CAMH’s commitment to chronicling shifts in contemporary art practice by presenting some of the most compelling works being made today while revisiting the historical foundations on which they rest. I worked with the museum’s two curators, Valerie Cassel Oliver and Dean Daderko, and each of us organized two exhibitions. These six complete visions were mounted in two rounds. Outside the Lines was installed in both the Brown Foundation and the Zilkha Galleries, uniting the whole museum in a single thematic 7


L END ER S TO THE E X H I BI T I ON

FOREWORD

ACA Galleries, New York

Honor Fraser, Los Angeles

Michel Muylle, Houston

Alexander Gray Associates, New York

Hudgins Family, New York

The Nasher Museum of Art at Duke University

American Contemporary, New York Andrew Kreps Gallery, New York Art Palace, Houston Barbara Davis Gallery, Houston Estate of Nanette Bearden beta pictoris gallery / Maus Contemporary, Birmingham, Alabama Suzanne Deal Booth and David G. Booth, Austin Bortolami Gallery, New York Melva Bucksbaum and Raymond Learsy, Sharon, Connecticut Cheim & Read, New York Churner and Churner, New York

Scott J. Hunter, Chicago Inman Gallery, Houston Invisible-Exports, New York Jack Shainman Gallery, New York James Cohan Gallery, New York Jeff Bailey Gallery, New York Johannes Vogt Gallery, New York June Kelly Gallery, New York Kavi Gupta Gallery, Chicago Demetrio and Gianna Kerrison, Santa Ana, California Khanna Family Collection, Kutch, Gujarat, India The Ko Collection, New York Koenig & Clinton, New York

Conduit Gallery, Dallas

Dillon Kyle and Sam Lasseter, Houston

CRG Gallery, New York

Michael Ladd, Waka, Texas

Gila and Paul B. Daitz, New York

Maccarone, New York

David Shelton Gallery, Houston

David Madee, Summit, New Jersey

DC Moore Gallery, New York

Marc Straus, New York

Devin Borden Gallery, Houston

Marianne Boesky Gallery, New York

Dieu Donné, New York DODGEgallery, New York 47 Canal, New York Honor Fraser and Stavros Merjos, Los Angeles Galerie Gisela Capitain, Cologne Gallery Diet, Miami Gallery Sonja Roesch, Houston Garth Greenan Gallery, New York Gavlak Gallery, Palm Beach, Florida Cheryl Gold, New York 6

Alex Marshall, New York Frank Masi and Donna Kolb, Los Angeles Guido and Magali Maus, Birmingham, Alabama

Jill Nelson, New York Paula Cooper Gallery, New York Jesse Penridge, Brooklyn Petzel, New York Lois Plehn, New York Private collection, Houston Private collections, New York Ramiken Crucible, New York The Romanelli Collection, Los Angeles Salon 94 Bowery, New York Samsøn, Boston Carole Server and Oliver Frankel, New York Sikkema Jenkins & Co., New York Silberkuppe, Berlin Evan Snyderman and Zesty Meyers, New York Andrew Stearn The Studio Museum in Harlem, New York Susanne Vielmetter Los Angeles Projects, Culver City, California Talley Dunn Gallery, Dallas Team Gallery, New York Texas Gallery, Houston Thomas Erben Gallery, New York

McClain Gallery, Houston

Tilton Gallery, New York

Miguel Abreu Gallery, New York

Vito Schnabel, New York

Miller Yezerski Gallery, Boston

Wade Wilson Gallery, Houston

Minus Space, New York

Zach Feuer Gallery, New York

Shelly and Neil Mitchell, New York

Zadok Gallery, Miami

Mitchell-Innes & Nash, New York

T

he Contemporary Arts Museum Houston derives a significant aspect of its identity from being a noncollecting institution. In a city with two of the greatest museum collections on the planet, we have the freedom to perfect the art of the temporary exhibition. We are one of only a handful of major American museums dedicated to exhibition making as our primary mission. We were also among the first museums to employ the term contemporary in the institution’s name, keeping the focus on the now—along with imminent futures—and letting other museums present the glories of the past. As one of the longest-lasting “C” museums—be they ICAs, MCAs, MOCAs, or CAMs— we are not at our most comfortable in a retrospective mode. As we set out to mark our sixty-fifth anniversary, it was a given that we could not pull objects out of storage that the audience might remember—the “play it again, Sam” style of institutional nostalgia. And we already have three marvelous books documenting the great things that have happened at CAMH in the past, so another would be premature. It was clear that a different strategy to celebrate this significant anniversary was needed. We informally asked our supporters in the community what they love most about CAMH, and we heard that it was our great curating, with the components of scholarship, research, and scouting that allow us to identify and present the artists of tomorrow, today. We are well known in the field for being super plugged in to a diverse community of artists, many in the early stages of their careers, who are dreaming up the future, generating new ideas in art, and bringing them to the attention of the larger art world. The problem we set out to solve was how to use that strength to speak also about our illustrious history. But the only way great curating manifests itself is by causing reactions, which is what CAMH’s sixty-five years of groundbreaking shows have done in the city of Houston. It’s like the subatomic particle quarks, which cannot be seen except in the effects they leave behind when they pass through a field. So we came up with a solution that would showcase our curatorial strengths: Outside the Lines, a six-part exhibition conceived as an evolving dialogue on contemporary abstraction. From recent paintings embracing more traditional definitions of abstraction to three-dimensional works that challenge such notions, the exhibition showcases CAMH’s commitment to chronicling shifts in contemporary art practice by presenting some of the most compelling works being made today while revisiting the historical foundations on which they rest. I worked with the museum’s two curators, Valerie Cassel Oliver and Dean Daderko, and each of us organized two exhibitions. These six complete visions were mounted in two rounds. Outside the Lines was installed in both the Brown Foundation and the Zilkha Galleries, uniting the whole museum in a single thematic 7


AC K N OW L E D G M E N TS

exhibition for the first time. Constructed as a dynamic, diverse, and innovative curatorial project, the multipart exhibition offered a variety of vibrant visual experiences and perspectives on the state of abstraction in the present moment. The three of us took a great deal of lively pleasure in the overlaying of images, and we were like kids watching one another’s picks come out of the crates. There was such a rich variety of possibilities within our curatorial rubric that we all feel that we could have made several more rounds of statements before exhausting our themes. Inspired by the popular CAMH exhibition Abstract Painting, Once Removed (organized by Dana Friis-Hansen in 1998) and by the curatorial experimentation and collaboration manifested in the museum’s earlier exhibition Changing Perspectives (1995), Outside the Lines opened on October 31, 2013, with three presentations: UIA (Unlikely Iterations of the Abstract), organized by Arning; Black in the Abstract, Part 1: Epistrophy, organized by Cassel Oliver; and Outside the Lines, organized by Daderko. Staggered openings in January 2014 for the remaining three segments—Painting: A Love Story, Rites of Spring, and Black in the Abstract, Part 2—invited audiences to revisit the evolving exhibition and consider abstract painting from multiple vantage points. Although installed in dedicated spaces, the presentations were meant to converse with one another. All six are contextualized within this single catalogue. The choice of October 31, 2013, as the opening date of Outside the Lines was intended to mark the sixty-fifth anniversary of CAMH’s first exhibition, This Is Contemporary Art, which introduced Houston to the museum on October 31, 1948. The exhibition featured nearly 175 objects that were meant to be examples of art functioning as a fundamental part of life, including in the home. This philosophy—that contemporary art reflects contemporary society and as such is vital to our daily life—has not wavered. As part of its anniversary festivities, CAMH’s Cullen Education Resource Room offered a look back at the museum’s history. Organized by Daniel Atkinson, education and public programs manager, this presentation included photographs, video, and ephemera that highlight significant moments in the museum’s history. On one level, Outside the Lines was a lively survey of what is happening in the field of abstract painting today. But for those who understood that this six-part project was meant to celebrate what we have brought to the Gulf Coast for the last sixty-five years, the exhibitions had an additional dimension. —Bill Arning Director

8

O

utside the Lines was conceived as a collaborative venture, and I would like to thank Senior Curator Valerie Cassel Oliver and Curator Dean Daderko, along with the rest of the curatorial staff, for inviting me to play this game, and I hope that they enjoyed my salvos on abstraction as much as I enjoyed theirs. The whole CAMH staff helped in so many ways, especially during the period in January 2014 when we were turning over a third of the galleries every week to create different combinations of exhibitions for our most engaged painting-loving audience, so for Tim Barkley, Jeff Shore, Kenya Evans, Mike Reed, and the rest of the folks who bring the exhibition magic to fruition, the month was a blur. We know the sacrifices they made to make this happen. Every other department, from Development to Community Engagement, had a consistent stream of events as well, and while it was ridiculously fun—especially the opening party with a mayoral proclamation read by CAMH’s representative on Houston’s City Council, Ellen Cohen, and the celebrated marching band—we asked that they commit 1000 percent, and everyone delivered. I want to especially thank Shane Platt, my new assistant and office manager, who joined us at the start of this cycle and kept up our spirits with his “let’s make this happen” attitude and amazing humor. He is a welcome addition to the CAMH family. Valerie, Dean, and I would like to thank all the artists represented in the exhibitions for inspiring our curatorial endeavors. We are also grateful to the lenders to the exhibition, whose names are listed on page 6, for generously sharing works from their collections. Outside the Lines and CAMH’s sixty-fifth anniversary celebration are supported in part by Fayez Sarofim. In addition, I would like to acknowledge Marianne Boesky, Devin Borden, Stefania Bortolami, Paula Cooper, Barbara Davis, Kristen Dodge, Talley Dunn, the Golden Rule Foundation, Jay Gorney, Tim Hawkinson, Steve Henry, Patton Hindle, Sean Horton, Kerry Inman, Michael Jenkins, Alexis Johnson, Branwen Jones, Ellen Langan, Meredith Leyendecker, Michele Maccarone, Philip Martin, Robert McClain, Christine Messineo, Jason Murison, Friedrich Petzel, Patrick Reynolds, Nicole Russo, Kop Sadakuni, Vito Schnabel, Stuart Shave, David Shelton, Erin Siudzinski, Marc Strauss, Joelle Te Paske, Gordon Terry, Benjamin Tischer, Sam Tsao, Wade Wilson, Jade Yang, and Howard Yezerski. Valerie Cassel Oliver would like to thank the members of the AfriCOBRA group, including Ron Akili Anderson, Kevin Cole, Adger Cowens, Michael D. Harris, Wadsworth Jarrell, James Phillips, and Frank Smith; Emanuel Aguilar, Julia Fischbach, Joseph Rynkiewicz, and Kavi Gupta, Kavi Gupta, Chicago and Berlin; Alex Baker, Fleisher/ 9


AC K N OW L E D G M E N TS

exhibition for the first time. Constructed as a dynamic, diverse, and innovative curatorial project, the multipart exhibition offered a variety of vibrant visual experiences and perspectives on the state of abstraction in the present moment. The three of us took a great deal of lively pleasure in the overlaying of images, and we were like kids watching one another’s picks come out of the crates. There was such a rich variety of possibilities within our curatorial rubric that we all feel that we could have made several more rounds of statements before exhausting our themes. Inspired by the popular CAMH exhibition Abstract Painting, Once Removed (organized by Dana Friis-Hansen in 1998) and by the curatorial experimentation and collaboration manifested in the museum’s earlier exhibition Changing Perspectives (1995), Outside the Lines opened on October 31, 2013, with three presentations: UIA (Unlikely Iterations of the Abstract), organized by Arning; Black in the Abstract, Part 1: Epistrophy, organized by Cassel Oliver; and Outside the Lines, organized by Daderko. Staggered openings in January 2014 for the remaining three segments—Painting: A Love Story, Rites of Spring, and Black in the Abstract, Part 2—invited audiences to revisit the evolving exhibition and consider abstract painting from multiple vantage points. Although installed in dedicated spaces, the presentations were meant to converse with one another. All six are contextualized within this single catalogue. The choice of October 31, 2013, as the opening date of Outside the Lines was intended to mark the sixty-fifth anniversary of CAMH’s first exhibition, This Is Contemporary Art, which introduced Houston to the museum on October 31, 1948. The exhibition featured nearly 175 objects that were meant to be examples of art functioning as a fundamental part of life, including in the home. This philosophy—that contemporary art reflects contemporary society and as such is vital to our daily life—has not wavered. As part of its anniversary festivities, CAMH’s Cullen Education Resource Room offered a look back at the museum’s history. Organized by Daniel Atkinson, education and public programs manager, this presentation included photographs, video, and ephemera that highlight significant moments in the museum’s history. On one level, Outside the Lines was a lively survey of what is happening in the field of abstract painting today. But for those who understood that this six-part project was meant to celebrate what we have brought to the Gulf Coast for the last sixty-five years, the exhibitions had an additional dimension. —Bill Arning Director

8

O

utside the Lines was conceived as a collaborative venture, and I would like to thank Senior Curator Valerie Cassel Oliver and Curator Dean Daderko, along with the rest of the curatorial staff, for inviting me to play this game, and I hope that they enjoyed my salvos on abstraction as much as I enjoyed theirs. The whole CAMH staff helped in so many ways, especially during the period in January 2014 when we were turning over a third of the galleries every week to create different combinations of exhibitions for our most engaged painting-loving audience, so for Tim Barkley, Jeff Shore, Kenya Evans, Mike Reed, and the rest of the folks who bring the exhibition magic to fruition, the month was a blur. We know the sacrifices they made to make this happen. Every other department, from Development to Community Engagement, had a consistent stream of events as well, and while it was ridiculously fun—especially the opening party with a mayoral proclamation read by CAMH’s representative on Houston’s City Council, Ellen Cohen, and the celebrated marching band—we asked that they commit 1000 percent, and everyone delivered. I want to especially thank Shane Platt, my new assistant and office manager, who joined us at the start of this cycle and kept up our spirits with his “let’s make this happen” attitude and amazing humor. He is a welcome addition to the CAMH family. Valerie, Dean, and I would like to thank all the artists represented in the exhibitions for inspiring our curatorial endeavors. We are also grateful to the lenders to the exhibition, whose names are listed on page 6, for generously sharing works from their collections. Outside the Lines and CAMH’s sixty-fifth anniversary celebration are supported in part by Fayez Sarofim. In addition, I would like to acknowledge Marianne Boesky, Devin Borden, Stefania Bortolami, Paula Cooper, Barbara Davis, Kristen Dodge, Talley Dunn, the Golden Rule Foundation, Jay Gorney, Tim Hawkinson, Steve Henry, Patton Hindle, Sean Horton, Kerry Inman, Michael Jenkins, Alexis Johnson, Branwen Jones, Ellen Langan, Meredith Leyendecker, Michele Maccarone, Philip Martin, Robert McClain, Christine Messineo, Jason Murison, Friedrich Petzel, Patrick Reynolds, Nicole Russo, Kop Sadakuni, Vito Schnabel, Stuart Shave, David Shelton, Erin Siudzinski, Marc Strauss, Joelle Te Paske, Gordon Terry, Benjamin Tischer, Sam Tsao, Wade Wilson, Jade Yang, and Howard Yezerski. Valerie Cassel Oliver would like to thank the members of the AfriCOBRA group, including Ron Akili Anderson, Kevin Cole, Adger Cowens, Michael D. Harris, Wadsworth Jarrell, James Phillips, and Frank Smith; Emanuel Aguilar, Julia Fischbach, Joseph Rynkiewicz, and Kavi Gupta, Kavi Gupta, Chicago and Berlin; Alex Baker, Fleisher/ 9


Ollman, Philadelphia; Estate of Nanette Bearden; Dorian Bergen, ACA Galleries, New York; Michael Black; Scott Briscoe and Michael Jenkins, Sikkema Jenkins & Co., New York; William H. Burgess III; David Cabrera, Alexander Gray, Kyla McMillan, and Ursula Davila-Villa, Alexander Gray Associates, New York; Charles Carroll, Trevor Schoonmaker, and Sarah Schroth, Nasher Museum of Art at Duke University, Durham, North Carolina; Janine Cirincione, Sean Kelly Gallery, New York; James Cohan, Elyse Goldberg, and Laurie Harrison, James Cohan Gallery, New York; Dean Daderko; Amanda Evans and Susanne Vielmetter, Susanne Vielmetter Los Angeles Projects, Culver City, California; Grace Evans and Elizabeth Szancer Kujawski, Zach Feuer Gallery, New York; Joseph Everett, Stephen Frietch, Annie Gawlak, and Sam Gilliam, Sam Gilliam Studio; Ryan Frank, Melva Bucksbaum, and Raymond Learsy; Ken General and Wade Wilson, Wade Wilson Art, Houston; Thelma Golden, Thomas Lax, and Shelley Wilson, Studio Museum in Harlem, New York; Garth Greenan, Garth Greenan Gallery, New York; Tamsen Greene and Jack Shainman, Jack Shainman Gallery, New York; Paul Gray and Katlyn Hemmingsen, Richard Gray Gallery, Chicago; A. C. Hudgins; Scott J. Hunter; Steven Jones; Miriam Katzeff, Team Gallery, New York; June Kelly, June Kelly Gallery, New York; Jeffrey Kent, SubBasement Artist Studios, Baltimore; Alexis Kerin and David Kordansky, David Kordansky Gallery, Los Angeles; Demetrio and Gianna Kerrison; James Little; Bernard Lumpkin; Marsha Perry Mateyka, Marsha Mateyka Gallery, Washington, DC; Guido and Magali Maus; Guido H. Maus, Beta Pictoris Gallery, Birmingham, Alabama; Shelly and Neil Mitchell; Jill Nelson; Jesse Penridge; James Philips and Shelly Philips; Angela Robins, Honor Fraser, Los Angeles; Ralph Sessions, DC Moore Gallery, New York; Katy Siegel; Connie and Jack Tilton, Lauren Hudgins, and Ryan McKenna, Tilton Gallery, New York; Zack Tinkelman, The Kitchen, New York; Johannes Vogt, Johannes Vogt Gallery, New York; and Jessica Witkin, Salon 94, New York. Dean Daderko would like to thank Miguel Abreu, Johanna Bergmark, and Andrea Neustein, Miguel Abreu Gallery, New York; Rey Akdogan, Mike Crane, and Mark Golamco, David Reed Studio; Daniel Atkinson; Jeff Bailey, Jeff Bailey Gallery, New York; Alisa Baremboym, Eileen Quinlan Studio; Margaret Liu Clinton and Amanda Knuppel, Koenig & Clinton, New York; Lisa Cooley and Kelly Woods, Lisa Cooley, New York; Oscar Cornejo; CRG Gallery, New York; Linda Daitz; Paul and Gila Daitz; Molly Davies and Polly Motley; Matthew Dipple, American Contemporary, New York; Nancy Douthey, Ian Glennie, and Fredericka Hunter, Texas Gallery, Houston; Dominic Eichler and Michel Ziegler, Silberkuppe, Berlin; Thomas Erben, Thomas Erben Gallery, New York; Max Fields; Eve Fowler, Artist Curated Projects, Los Angeles; Photi Giovanis, Callicoon Fine Arts, New 10

York; Thelma Golden and Thomas Lax, Studio Museum in Harlem, New York; Paul Hester; Jon Hopson; Katie Hubbard; Nina Johnson-Milewski and Juan Ledesma, Gallery Diet, Miami; Alhena Katsof; Dylan Kyle and Sam Lasseter; Michael Ladd; Blaize Lehane, Ramiken Crucible, Brooklyn; Simone Leigh; Madsen Minax; MPA; Liz Mulholland, Andrew Kreps Gallery, New York; Oliver Newton, 47 Canal, New York; Nancy O’Connor; Ronny Quevedo; Angela Robins, Honor Fraser, Los Angeles; Matt Rowe; Robin and Andrew Schirrmeister; Simone Schmid, Wetterling Gallery, Stockholm; Sam Tsao, Petzel Gallery, New York; and Johannes Vogt and Nate Hitchcock, Johannes Vogt Gallery, New York. A look at the list of artists that appears on the back cover of this book and at the army of names above makes clear how many individual voices are part of this discussion today. Since Outside the Lines closed, I have read of around a dozen more museum-level exhibitions exploring the genre, so I can only imagine the multiplication of practitioners, fans, and commentators. We are pleased that you, the reader of this volume, are also part of this expanding discourse. —Bill Arning Director

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Ollman, Philadelphia; Estate of Nanette Bearden; Dorian Bergen, ACA Galleries, New York; Michael Black; Scott Briscoe and Michael Jenkins, Sikkema Jenkins & Co., New York; William H. Burgess III; David Cabrera, Alexander Gray, Kyla McMillan, and Ursula Davila-Villa, Alexander Gray Associates, New York; Charles Carroll, Trevor Schoonmaker, and Sarah Schroth, Nasher Museum of Art at Duke University, Durham, North Carolina; Janine Cirincione, Sean Kelly Gallery, New York; James Cohan, Elyse Goldberg, and Laurie Harrison, James Cohan Gallery, New York; Dean Daderko; Amanda Evans and Susanne Vielmetter, Susanne Vielmetter Los Angeles Projects, Culver City, California; Grace Evans and Elizabeth Szancer Kujawski, Zach Feuer Gallery, New York; Joseph Everett, Stephen Frietch, Annie Gawlak, and Sam Gilliam, Sam Gilliam Studio; Ryan Frank, Melva Bucksbaum, and Raymond Learsy; Ken General and Wade Wilson, Wade Wilson Art, Houston; Thelma Golden, Thomas Lax, and Shelley Wilson, Studio Museum in Harlem, New York; Garth Greenan, Garth Greenan Gallery, New York; Tamsen Greene and Jack Shainman, Jack Shainman Gallery, New York; Paul Gray and Katlyn Hemmingsen, Richard Gray Gallery, Chicago; A. C. Hudgins; Scott J. Hunter; Steven Jones; Miriam Katzeff, Team Gallery, New York; June Kelly, June Kelly Gallery, New York; Jeffrey Kent, SubBasement Artist Studios, Baltimore; Alexis Kerin and David Kordansky, David Kordansky Gallery, Los Angeles; Demetrio and Gianna Kerrison; James Little; Bernard Lumpkin; Marsha Perry Mateyka, Marsha Mateyka Gallery, Washington, DC; Guido and Magali Maus; Guido H. Maus, Beta Pictoris Gallery, Birmingham, Alabama; Shelly and Neil Mitchell; Jill Nelson; Jesse Penridge; James Philips and Shelly Philips; Angela Robins, Honor Fraser, Los Angeles; Ralph Sessions, DC Moore Gallery, New York; Katy Siegel; Connie and Jack Tilton, Lauren Hudgins, and Ryan McKenna, Tilton Gallery, New York; Zack Tinkelman, The Kitchen, New York; Johannes Vogt, Johannes Vogt Gallery, New York; and Jessica Witkin, Salon 94, New York. Dean Daderko would like to thank Miguel Abreu, Johanna Bergmark, and Andrea Neustein, Miguel Abreu Gallery, New York; Rey Akdogan, Mike Crane, and Mark Golamco, David Reed Studio; Daniel Atkinson; Jeff Bailey, Jeff Bailey Gallery, New York; Alisa Baremboym, Eileen Quinlan Studio; Margaret Liu Clinton and Amanda Knuppel, Koenig & Clinton, New York; Lisa Cooley and Kelly Woods, Lisa Cooley, New York; Oscar Cornejo; CRG Gallery, New York; Linda Daitz; Paul and Gila Daitz; Molly Davies and Polly Motley; Matthew Dipple, American Contemporary, New York; Nancy Douthey, Ian Glennie, and Fredericka Hunter, Texas Gallery, Houston; Dominic Eichler and Michel Ziegler, Silberkuppe, Berlin; Thomas Erben, Thomas Erben Gallery, New York; Max Fields; Eve Fowler, Artist Curated Projects, Los Angeles; Photi Giovanis, Callicoon Fine Arts, New 10

York; Thelma Golden and Thomas Lax, Studio Museum in Harlem, New York; Paul Hester; Jon Hopson; Katie Hubbard; Nina Johnson-Milewski and Juan Ledesma, Gallery Diet, Miami; Alhena Katsof; Dylan Kyle and Sam Lasseter; Michael Ladd; Blaize Lehane, Ramiken Crucible, Brooklyn; Simone Leigh; Madsen Minax; MPA; Liz Mulholland, Andrew Kreps Gallery, New York; Oliver Newton, 47 Canal, New York; Nancy O’Connor; Ronny Quevedo; Angela Robins, Honor Fraser, Los Angeles; Matt Rowe; Robin and Andrew Schirrmeister; Simone Schmid, Wetterling Gallery, Stockholm; Sam Tsao, Petzel Gallery, New York; and Johannes Vogt and Nate Hitchcock, Johannes Vogt Gallery, New York. A look at the list of artists that appears on the back cover of this book and at the army of names above makes clear how many individual voices are part of this discussion today. Since Outside the Lines closed, I have read of around a dozen more museum-level exhibitions exploring the genre, so I can only imagine the multiplication of practitioners, fans, and commentators. We are pleased that you, the reader of this volume, are also part of this expanding discourse. —Bill Arning Director

11


UIA (Unlikely Iterations of the Abstract)

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UIA (Unlikely Iterations of the Abstract)

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UIA (Unlikely Iterations of the Abstract) Other Materials, Other Processes, Other Senses, and Other Stories Bill Arning

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ow long can one really stay in crisis mode, and when does crisis mode reconstitute itself as a perverse vernacular? Unlikely Iterations of the Abstract (aka UIA for faux-corporate realness) looks at what became of the crisis in abstraction that was a salient part of the cultural discourse in the 1990s almost twenty years down the road. This research finds that when art makers and theoreticians welcomed the perverse effects of maintaining a crisis over too long a time period interesting and illuminating effects occur in which potential meanings multiply. Eighteen years ago, when Dana Friis-Hansen, then a curator at the Contemporary Arts Museum Houston, conceptualized Abstract Painting, Once Removed, the field of abstraction could truthfully be described as being in crisis. One generation reared on the big, unwieldy truths of Abstract Expressionism was still dominant in the field and ran most of the prestigious MFA programs in painting. The other camps, Conceptualism and postmodern image scavenging, seemed to exist in a different creative galaxy. The postmodernists’ trickster sensibility seemed much more alluring to nimble, media-savvy youths than the angst-ridden Harold Rosenbergian drama-on-canvas, the medium-based essentialism of Clement Greenberg, or even the Matissian elevated aestheticism playing out in pattern-and-decoration and in some quarters of feminist practice. Every received idea of how an art gesture should convey meaning became open to sly recodings, effectively allowing the next generation to have all the fun of those earlier modes of art making without needing to sign up for their overwrought programs. This provoked wild experimentation, a large-scale shucking of the received rules, and blasting off into new languages, materials, and processes. Running into a brick wall resulted in previously unimagined freedoms.

Pages 12—13: UIA (Unlikely Iterations of the Abstract), Contemporary Arts Museum Houston, 2013—14 (installation view) Page. 14: Tom Burr, Two Blue Night Stands, 2013 (detail) 14

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UIA (Unlikely Iterations of the Abstract) Other Materials, Other Processes, Other Senses, and Other Stories Bill Arning

H

ow long can one really stay in crisis mode, and when does crisis mode reconstitute itself as a perverse vernacular? Unlikely Iterations of the Abstract (aka UIA for faux-corporate realness) looks at what became of the crisis in abstraction that was a salient part of the cultural discourse in the 1990s almost twenty years down the road. This research finds that when art makers and theoreticians welcomed the perverse effects of maintaining a crisis over too long a time period interesting and illuminating effects occur in which potential meanings multiply. Eighteen years ago, when Dana Friis-Hansen, then a curator at the Contemporary Arts Museum Houston, conceptualized Abstract Painting, Once Removed, the field of abstraction could truthfully be described as being in crisis. One generation reared on the big, unwieldy truths of Abstract Expressionism was still dominant in the field and ran most of the prestigious MFA programs in painting. The other camps, Conceptualism and postmodern image scavenging, seemed to exist in a different creative galaxy. The postmodernists’ trickster sensibility seemed much more alluring to nimble, media-savvy youths than the angst-ridden Harold Rosenbergian drama-on-canvas, the medium-based essentialism of Clement Greenberg, or even the Matissian elevated aestheticism playing out in pattern-and-decoration and in some quarters of feminist practice. Every received idea of how an art gesture should convey meaning became open to sly recodings, effectively allowing the next generation to have all the fun of those earlier modes of art making without needing to sign up for their overwrought programs. This provoked wild experimentation, a large-scale shucking of the received rules, and blasting off into new languages, materials, and processes. Running into a brick wall resulted in previously unimagined freedoms.

Pages 12—13: UIA (Unlikely Iterations of the Abstract), Contemporary Arts Museum Houston, 2013—14 (installation view) Page. 14: Tom Burr, Two Blue Night Stands, 2013 (detail) 14

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One generation looked both at paint, a truly magical substance worthy of respect, and at the three-thousand-year history of that hallowed art form and felt a strange need to bow before its history and power. Today the rule is to look at each received notion of the laws of paint—what is in it, where it goes, how it’s used—and sub out each element systematically, employing other materials and processes, activating other senses, and telling other stories.

Other Materials Gabriel Dawe uses free-floating, richly colored threads stretched taut in space to liberate painterly effects from their support, creating a captivatingly interactive visual pleasure palace. The effect appears as if richly colored light could be frozen, and all the seductions are delivered through the eye straight to the brain’s pleasure centers. Visitors who witness Dawe’s environments are richly rewarded if they share the experience with friends, as seeing someone you love through the sumptuously colored scrim provided by his work adds layers of experiential joy. Similarly Carol Bove, whose material explorations have been startling audiences globally for the past several seasons, here shows one of her peacock feather abstractions, which deliberately teeter on the edge of the abyss of bad taste before pulling back and twisting the viewer’s arm to extract an admission that, yes, these hippie-decor tropes are legitimately beautiful. Bove and Dawe employ old materials in new ways, but several of the UIA artists focus on newer substances. From the earliest experiments in abstraction, the invention of new materials for art making has always been greeted with excitement. Christian Eckart, for example, uses anodized metals that speak of car culture and the brand of California Minimalism that embraced industrial finishes. But for this new work he has appropriated a motif from one of his earlier paintings and deconstructed it as if it were collapsing on itself, as if the effort of maintaining its geometry was just too much for it, suggesting that the moment that demanded geometric abstraction has passed. Plexiglas plays a big part in the works by Danielle Frankenthal, Julia Dault, Gavin Perry, and Brian Zink. These artists all mine for visual pleasure a “future” that is already a little hoary with age. One recalls the 1967 film The Graduate, in which the main character, Benjamin Braddock, is advised that the future will be in plastics. While that proved to be good advice, it was given before two of these artists were born. Encountering the aged works of early adopters of plastic, artists who perhaps foolishly rushed to use it as an art material in the 1960s, we are often confronted by the crackled dystopian sorrow of those who believed too fervently that the future was imminent. Far from ignoring that history, artists using plastics today cherish the layer of belief and failure built into the material’s intrinsic historical narrative. The term that insurers use to disallow claims on damaged art made from faulty materials is “intrinsic vice,” the double meaning of vice here being nothing if not alluring to these provocateurs. It is impossible to look at these four artists’ works and not luxuriate in their richly colored gleam, simultaneously knowing that, like our flesh, they will age in unpredictable ways. Zink’s crisp geometric patterns coming to sharply angled conjunctions are visually aligned with the long story of geometric and optical abstraction. The subtle colorations of these machine-cut and carefully inlaid objects have a mesmerizing effect, as subtle and seductive as any traditional painting. Yet they also seem to explicitly disallow any reference 16

to abstraction’s claim on spiritual values, being aligned as much with a fast-food countertop as with the work of Vassily Kandinsky, Piet Mondrian, or Agnes Martin. Perry’s tall, bright resin columns produce irresistible optical effects. The works were born out of a studio conversation in which the artist was chastised for the amount of wasted material that the process of making his wall works created. He built a trough and, seeing the congealed results, took great joy in the built-up layers of color. Perry sees them as stacked paintings and relates their etiology to traditional art pedagogy in which the effects of underpainting on the subtle visual effects of color are given primacy. Frankenthal and Dault both start with the pleasurable sheen of clean plastic then work though processes to mar it beautifully. Frankenthal has long made layered paintings to allow the physical shadow of paint to create interior spaces. In UIA—for the first time— she created an enterable space, two clear painted chairs, archly geometric. As with Dawe’s nearby installation, visitors could photograph themselves and their friends in and through her paintings and send the smartphone images to a nearby screen. Thus the new, unreal space of ubiquitous screens mirrors the unreal space of abstract painting and social media to create an oddly coherent architecture built from painterly effects. Dault, in contrast, creates what she calls “dirty minimalism,” in which she wrestles with materials, pulling her Plexiglas sheets in a real-time effort, her against the material, scratching both the metallic veneer and sometimes her flesh in her solo efforts. The result is loopy, reflections on top of reflections, gorgeous, ever spinning, and strapped into place. The works are titled with the duration and locations of her efforts. Finally Tom Burr grommets woolen packing blankets onto hard wooden surfaces, heavy and austere, creating somber visual effects that appear as previously unknown hybrids between Mark Rothko and BDSM playroom structures. The folds create visual effects that have something in common with interior designers’ use of meaningful draping, which always evokes skin.

Other Processes Burr conjoins two disparate processes. He employs the feminine gesture of draping in conjunction with the hypermasculine, hardware-heavy activity of riveting fabric to wood. Several of the other artists in UIA employ othering strategies to traditional painting while still obliquely referencing the history of the medium. Stephen Prina’s loopily lazy expressionist gestures repeated on three commercially produced roll-up window shades hung floor to ceiling are oddly exquisite in their color and composition despite a slapdash first impression. Prina’s choices of form, material, and process are conceptually rich. He takes shades, which are meant to hide what lies beyond, and makes them the object of contemplation. Two of the shades are hung with their hardware abutting, and the slight gap between them creates a vertical stripe of view into deeper space beyond, which becomes a significant visual event. The readymade strategy is here perverted to make the store-bought shades anything but familiar and is overlaid with a hint of Martha Stewart craft-projectness. The pair of shades hung side by side are accompanied by a third element elsewhere in the space. These, as Prina declared in an interview, “fulfill the requirements of contemporary painting.” 1 “Fulfilling the requirements” is something that many of the UIA artists aim for, and in doing so through oblique stratagems, they reveal what those unstated requirements are. Mark Flood is widely known for his lace paintings. Flood works in many different modes, 17


One generation looked both at paint, a truly magical substance worthy of respect, and at the three-thousand-year history of that hallowed art form and felt a strange need to bow before its history and power. Today the rule is to look at each received notion of the laws of paint—what is in it, where it goes, how it’s used—and sub out each element systematically, employing other materials and processes, activating other senses, and telling other stories.

Other Materials Gabriel Dawe uses free-floating, richly colored threads stretched taut in space to liberate painterly effects from their support, creating a captivatingly interactive visual pleasure palace. The effect appears as if richly colored light could be frozen, and all the seductions are delivered through the eye straight to the brain’s pleasure centers. Visitors who witness Dawe’s environments are richly rewarded if they share the experience with friends, as seeing someone you love through the sumptuously colored scrim provided by his work adds layers of experiential joy. Similarly Carol Bove, whose material explorations have been startling audiences globally for the past several seasons, here shows one of her peacock feather abstractions, which deliberately teeter on the edge of the abyss of bad taste before pulling back and twisting the viewer’s arm to extract an admission that, yes, these hippie-decor tropes are legitimately beautiful. Bove and Dawe employ old materials in new ways, but several of the UIA artists focus on newer substances. From the earliest experiments in abstraction, the invention of new materials for art making has always been greeted with excitement. Christian Eckart, for example, uses anodized metals that speak of car culture and the brand of California Minimalism that embraced industrial finishes. But for this new work he has appropriated a motif from one of his earlier paintings and deconstructed it as if it were collapsing on itself, as if the effort of maintaining its geometry was just too much for it, suggesting that the moment that demanded geometric abstraction has passed. Plexiglas plays a big part in the works by Danielle Frankenthal, Julia Dault, Gavin Perry, and Brian Zink. These artists all mine for visual pleasure a “future” that is already a little hoary with age. One recalls the 1967 film The Graduate, in which the main character, Benjamin Braddock, is advised that the future will be in plastics. While that proved to be good advice, it was given before two of these artists were born. Encountering the aged works of early adopters of plastic, artists who perhaps foolishly rushed to use it as an art material in the 1960s, we are often confronted by the crackled dystopian sorrow of those who believed too fervently that the future was imminent. Far from ignoring that history, artists using plastics today cherish the layer of belief and failure built into the material’s intrinsic historical narrative. The term that insurers use to disallow claims on damaged art made from faulty materials is “intrinsic vice,” the double meaning of vice here being nothing if not alluring to these provocateurs. It is impossible to look at these four artists’ works and not luxuriate in their richly colored gleam, simultaneously knowing that, like our flesh, they will age in unpredictable ways. Zink’s crisp geometric patterns coming to sharply angled conjunctions are visually aligned with the long story of geometric and optical abstraction. The subtle colorations of these machine-cut and carefully inlaid objects have a mesmerizing effect, as subtle and seductive as any traditional painting. Yet they also seem to explicitly disallow any reference 16

to abstraction’s claim on spiritual values, being aligned as much with a fast-food countertop as with the work of Vassily Kandinsky, Piet Mondrian, or Agnes Martin. Perry’s tall, bright resin columns produce irresistible optical effects. The works were born out of a studio conversation in which the artist was chastised for the amount of wasted material that the process of making his wall works created. He built a trough and, seeing the congealed results, took great joy in the built-up layers of color. Perry sees them as stacked paintings and relates their etiology to traditional art pedagogy in which the effects of underpainting on the subtle visual effects of color are given primacy. Frankenthal and Dault both start with the pleasurable sheen of clean plastic then work though processes to mar it beautifully. Frankenthal has long made layered paintings to allow the physical shadow of paint to create interior spaces. In UIA—for the first time— she created an enterable space, two clear painted chairs, archly geometric. As with Dawe’s nearby installation, visitors could photograph themselves and their friends in and through her paintings and send the smartphone images to a nearby screen. Thus the new, unreal space of ubiquitous screens mirrors the unreal space of abstract painting and social media to create an oddly coherent architecture built from painterly effects. Dault, in contrast, creates what she calls “dirty minimalism,” in which she wrestles with materials, pulling her Plexiglas sheets in a real-time effort, her against the material, scratching both the metallic veneer and sometimes her flesh in her solo efforts. The result is loopy, reflections on top of reflections, gorgeous, ever spinning, and strapped into place. The works are titled with the duration and locations of her efforts. Finally Tom Burr grommets woolen packing blankets onto hard wooden surfaces, heavy and austere, creating somber visual effects that appear as previously unknown hybrids between Mark Rothko and BDSM playroom structures. The folds create visual effects that have something in common with interior designers’ use of meaningful draping, which always evokes skin.

Other Processes Burr conjoins two disparate processes. He employs the feminine gesture of draping in conjunction with the hypermasculine, hardware-heavy activity of riveting fabric to wood. Several of the other artists in UIA employ othering strategies to traditional painting while still obliquely referencing the history of the medium. Stephen Prina’s loopily lazy expressionist gestures repeated on three commercially produced roll-up window shades hung floor to ceiling are oddly exquisite in their color and composition despite a slapdash first impression. Prina’s choices of form, material, and process are conceptually rich. He takes shades, which are meant to hide what lies beyond, and makes them the object of contemplation. Two of the shades are hung with their hardware abutting, and the slight gap between them creates a vertical stripe of view into deeper space beyond, which becomes a significant visual event. The readymade strategy is here perverted to make the store-bought shades anything but familiar and is overlaid with a hint of Martha Stewart craft-projectness. The pair of shades hung side by side are accompanied by a third element elsewhere in the space. These, as Prina declared in an interview, “fulfill the requirements of contemporary painting.” 1 “Fulfilling the requirements” is something that many of the UIA artists aim for, and in doing so through oblique stratagems, they reveal what those unstated requirements are. Mark Flood is widely known for his lace paintings. Flood works in many different modes, 17


some starkly aggressive, such as paintings that are harsh in language and form, along with videos and collages that reveal dark truths about culture. He has for a decade been producing hyperseductive works by layering lace onto canvas and painting on and through the material. The lace leaves a readable trace of itself, often showing ornate vegetal patterning. The fact that the result is so seductive performs an autocritique on Flood’s place in the art system. Jack Pierson has become widely celebrated for works in which letters made for store signs and marquees are redeployed in mismatched combinations to spell words of the artist’s poetic choosing. In manipulating found letters and making visual choices, he started appreciating the abstract quality of the letters, and here he uses a random selection of T ’s to create a wall composition that resembles an outsize Suprematist painting but is still redolent of these letters’ earlier lives on small-town liquor store and urban garage facades. Daniel Levine’s paintings are traditional but are created by processes and formulas that are important enough that, in the course of their making, he notes how the colors are being applied and in what order. Layers of printmaking-like techniques result in surfaces that mimic the mechanical while still being exquisitely subtle in their visual effects in the conspicuous manner of the master of white-on-white art, Robert Ryman.

Other Senses After fulfilling the requirements of painting, several of the artists in UIA conjure the wellworn but not entirely exhausted theme of abstraction and music, a dialogue that now extends over a century. Gilbert Hsiao, best known as a painter, has created a memorable manipulable black-light environment in which his paintings on seven- and twelve-inch vinyl records—their original sounds having been replaced by intense color—are remixed by engaged audience members. Nearby, Jeff Gibson makes sweet abstractions in the form of Native American drums. These paintings, installed as a free-hanging column, are enlivened by an adjacent video in which they are both painted on and played. A second UIA artist making paintings in the form of drums is Paul Lee, who frames the skin of tambourines. Unlike Gibson’s ceremonial drums, tambourines are conspicuously unserious, not quite full instruments in the band but more the accompaniment to nights dancing at a disco or for shaking above one’s head at a free festival. Framed in a dark rubber, they appear face-on as pure abstraction, but then the sound and history of the support change our perception of the delicately colored painting.

blocky mass, and Auerbach celebrates the finding that, according to some studies, female viewers, due to an evolutionary quirk, experience significantly more color possibilities than those of us hampered by being born male. Chris Bogia and Cheryl Donegan both hybridize contemporary design, fashion, and interior with abstraction. Bogia, inspired as a graduate student by the clothing designs of Todd Oldham and the ceramics of Jonathan Adler, realized that, filtered through his queer sensibility, their innovations were as meaningful as those of Gerhard Richter, Jonathan Lasker, or any of the white-hot star painters of the 1990s. Similarly Donegan started looking at patterns the way current fashion designers do, as a rich playground for meaningful visual pleasures. For less nimble practitioners this might have left the implication that they were devaluing the current state of abstraction as mere decoration, but in fact the opposite was implied. For Bogia and Donegan, there is nothing “mere” about decorative paradigms. They see that the experience of being reared on a diet of abstraction leads to an unbounded visual experience of profound pleasure through the eye, whether that is experienced in a Lanvin boutique, a Berlin designer hotel, or the Menil Collection galleries. UIA points toward a future in which the invention of abstraction one hundred years ago and the crisis in abstraction that has occurred in the last twenty years resolve into an open-ended extended playing field in which every substance and process can give new pleasures, invoke multisensory experiences, and tell myriad new stories. If only all crises resolved so nicely.

NOTES 1. Stephen Prina, in Steel Stillman, “In the Studio: Stephen Prina,” Art in America 101 (May 2013), http://www.artinamericamagazine.com/news-features/magazine/in-the-studio-stephen-prina/.

Other Stories Just as Lee’s tambourines serve as a subtle critique of grandiosity in the abstract painter’s studio, a number of the artists tell other stories through studio choices that confound standard narratives of charged creativity. Nathan Green, out of Dallas, has long used processes straight out of some manly shop class gone wrong to create abstract structures. Here he arranges green papier-mâché blobs on a trophy-like support to make a Flintstone’s work— abstraction suited to a cartoon man cave. On the opposite side of the serious/playful continuum, Tauba Auerbach—best known for her process-based sprayed and folded paintings—contributes a set of books that point to one of the primary effects of painting: exploring the impact of color on the human retina and all the joy that provokes. Every color the human eye can see is contained within their

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some starkly aggressive, such as paintings that are harsh in language and form, along with videos and collages that reveal dark truths about culture. He has for a decade been producing hyperseductive works by layering lace onto canvas and painting on and through the material. The lace leaves a readable trace of itself, often showing ornate vegetal patterning. The fact that the result is so seductive performs an autocritique on Flood’s place in the art system. Jack Pierson has become widely celebrated for works in which letters made for store signs and marquees are redeployed in mismatched combinations to spell words of the artist’s poetic choosing. In manipulating found letters and making visual choices, he started appreciating the abstract quality of the letters, and here he uses a random selection of T ’s to create a wall composition that resembles an outsize Suprematist painting but is still redolent of these letters’ earlier lives on small-town liquor store and urban garage facades. Daniel Levine’s paintings are traditional but are created by processes and formulas that are important enough that, in the course of their making, he notes how the colors are being applied and in what order. Layers of printmaking-like techniques result in surfaces that mimic the mechanical while still being exquisitely subtle in their visual effects in the conspicuous manner of the master of white-on-white art, Robert Ryman.

Other Senses After fulfilling the requirements of painting, several of the artists in UIA conjure the wellworn but not entirely exhausted theme of abstraction and music, a dialogue that now extends over a century. Gilbert Hsiao, best known as a painter, has created a memorable manipulable black-light environment in which his paintings on seven- and twelve-inch vinyl records—their original sounds having been replaced by intense color—are remixed by engaged audience members. Nearby, Jeff Gibson makes sweet abstractions in the form of Native American drums. These paintings, installed as a free-hanging column, are enlivened by an adjacent video in which they are both painted on and played. A second UIA artist making paintings in the form of drums is Paul Lee, who frames the skin of tambourines. Unlike Gibson’s ceremonial drums, tambourines are conspicuously unserious, not quite full instruments in the band but more the accompaniment to nights dancing at a disco or for shaking above one’s head at a free festival. Framed in a dark rubber, they appear face-on as pure abstraction, but then the sound and history of the support change our perception of the delicately colored painting.

blocky mass, and Auerbach celebrates the finding that, according to some studies, female viewers, due to an evolutionary quirk, experience significantly more color possibilities than those of us hampered by being born male. Chris Bogia and Cheryl Donegan both hybridize contemporary design, fashion, and interior with abstraction. Bogia, inspired as a graduate student by the clothing designs of Todd Oldham and the ceramics of Jonathan Adler, realized that, filtered through his queer sensibility, their innovations were as meaningful as those of Gerhard Richter, Jonathan Lasker, or any of the white-hot star painters of the 1990s. Similarly Donegan started looking at patterns the way current fashion designers do, as a rich playground for meaningful visual pleasures. For less nimble practitioners this might have left the implication that they were devaluing the current state of abstraction as mere decoration, but in fact the opposite was implied. For Bogia and Donegan, there is nothing “mere” about decorative paradigms. They see that the experience of being reared on a diet of abstraction leads to an unbounded visual experience of profound pleasure through the eye, whether that is experienced in a Lanvin boutique, a Berlin designer hotel, or the Menil Collection galleries. UIA points toward a future in which the invention of abstraction one hundred years ago and the crisis in abstraction that has occurred in the last twenty years resolve into an open-ended extended playing field in which every substance and process can give new pleasures, invoke multisensory experiences, and tell myriad new stories. If only all crises resolved so nicely.

NOTES 1. Stephen Prina, in Steel Stillman, “In the Studio: Stephen Prina,” Art in America 101 (May 2013), http://www.artinamericamagazine.com/news-features/magazine/in-the-studio-stephen-prina/.

Other Stories Just as Lee’s tambourines serve as a subtle critique of grandiosity in the abstract painter’s studio, a number of the artists tell other stories through studio choices that confound standard narratives of charged creativity. Nathan Green, out of Dallas, has long used processes straight out of some manly shop class gone wrong to create abstract structures. Here he arranges green papier-mâché blobs on a trophy-like support to make a Flintstone’s work— abstraction suited to a cartoon man cave. On the opposite side of the serious/playful continuum, Tauba Auerbach—best known for her process-based sprayed and folded paintings—contributes a set of books that point to one of the primary effects of painting: exploring the impact of color on the human retina and all the joy that provokes. Every color the human eye can see is contained within their

18

19


Tauba Auerbach

RGB Colorspace Atlas, 2011

20

21


Tauba Auerbach

RGB Colorspace Atlas, 2011

20

21


Chris Bogia

Contact Lens, 2013 22

Dancing Boy / Pink Moon, 2013 23


Chris Bogia

Contact Lens, 2013 22

Dancing Boy / Pink Moon, 2013 23


Carol Bove

Untitled, 2012 (with detail above) 24

25


Carol Bove

Untitled, 2012 (with detail above) 24

25


Tom Burr

On Catherine Slip, 2013 26

Two Blue Night Stands, 2013 27


Tom Burr

On Catherine Slip, 2013 26

Two Blue Night Stands, 2013 27


Julia Dault

Untitled 32, 9:45 AM–2:30 PM, October 22, 2013, 2013 (with detail above) 28

29


Julia Dault

Untitled 32, 9:45 AM–2:30 PM, October 22, 2013, 2013 (with detail above) 28

29


Gabriel Dawe

Plexus no. 24, 2013 (with detail above) 30

31


Gabriel Dawe

Plexus no. 24, 2013 (with detail above) 30

31


Cheryl Donegan

Untitled (Two Orange Ginghams), 2013 32

Untitled (Blue and Black Gingham), 2013 33


Cheryl Donegan

Untitled (Two Orange Ginghams), 2013 32

Untitled (Blue and Black Gingham), 2013 33


Christian Eckart

Sacra Conversazione Painting—Versione Follia, 2013 34

35


Christian Eckart

Sacra Conversazione Painting—Versione Follia, 2013 34

35


Mark Flood

Quetzal Feather, 2013 (with detail above) 36

37


Mark Flood

Quetzal Feather, 2013 (with detail above) 36

37


Danielle Frankenthal

See In / Be Seen, 2013 38

39


Danielle Frankenthal

See In / Be Seen, 2013 38

39


Jeffrey Gibson

Drum Column, 2012 (left) Drum Column, 2012 (detail) 40

Love Song, 2012 (back wall) 41


Jeffrey Gibson

Drum Column, 2012 (left) Drum Column, 2012 (detail) 40

Love Song, 2012 (back wall) 41


Nathan Green

Light-frame Prop. (400B/410B), 2013 (with detail above) 42

43


Nathan Green

Light-frame Prop. (400B/410B), 2013 (with detail above) 42

43


Gilbert Hsiao

Hit Parade, 2013 (details) 44

45


Gilbert Hsiao

Hit Parade, 2013 (details) 44

45


Paul Lee

Tambourine (yellow, red, pink), 2013 (top) Tambourine (yellow, grey, pink), 2013 (bottom) (with installation view of both above) 46

47


Paul Lee

Tambourine (yellow, red, pink), 2013 (top) Tambourine (yellow, grey, pink), 2013 (bottom) (with installation view of both above) 46

47


Daniel Levine

Untitled #4, 2006—12 48

Perv’s House, 2001—10 49


Daniel Levine

Untitled #4, 2006—12 48

Perv’s House, 2001—10 49


Gavin Perry

Untitled, 2013 (with detail left) 50

Untitled, 2013

51


Gavin Perry

Untitled, 2013 (with detail left) 50

Untitled, 2013

51


Jack Pierson

ABSTRACT #12, 2008 52

53


Jack Pierson

ABSTRACT #12, 2008 52

53


Stephen Prina

Blind No. 15, Fifteen-foot ceiling or lower (Primary Magenta / Phthalo Blue [Red Shade] / Hansa Yellow Opaque / Primary Yellow), 2011 (two of three panels shown, for third panel see page 13; with detail above) 54

55


Stephen Prina

Blind No. 15, Fifteen-foot ceiling or lower (Primary Magenta / Phthalo Blue [Red Shade] / Hansa Yellow Opaque / Primary Yellow), 2011 (two of three panels shown, for third panel see page 13; with detail above) 54

55


Brian Zink

Composition in 2662 Red, 2793 Red, and 3015 White, 2013 56

Composition in 3001 Gray, 2025 Black, and 3015 White, 2013 57


Brian Zink

Composition in 2662 Red, 2793 Red, and 3015 White, 2013 56

Composition in 3001 Gray, 2025 Black, and 3015 White, 2013 57


Painting: A Love Story

58

59


Painting: A Love Story

58

59


Painting: A Love Story One Layer after Another

Bill Arning

P

ainting is for most art mavens our first love, the gateway drug to our visual art habit. It is almost always the art form that calls out to us when we are young and holds us in its sway forever. We may find other forms of art equally pleasurable later, and we may even find theoretical reasons to disallow the possibility of painting, yet paint remains the original seducer into the ways of visual pleasure. Unlike the literalness of object-based sculpture, the comprehensibility of conceptual propositions, the mechanical interface of photography, or the immediacy of performance, what happens in a painter’s studio is magic in some fundamental way. As the German master painter Gerhard Richter says in the formidable documentary film Gerhard Richter Painting (2011), “painting is a secretive business anyway.” He was explaining why he regretted allowing the filmmakers into his painting space: having the camera record him actually making paintings was inhibiting and unnatural. But that is precisely why the film is so captivating. Seeing the physical efforts and process is immensely pleasurable for those of us who have found some of our most profound joys through our eyes when standing before paintings. I remember visiting a master painter’s studio when I was starting out as a curator. He chided me for the intrusiveness of my curatorial questions about how different marks were made and in what order. Attempting to be patient, he said, “Asking those things is like examining the wet spots on the sheets after I have had sex with my wife in order to learn what love means.”

Pages 58—59: Painting: A Love Story, Contemporary Arts Museum Houston, 2014 (installation view) Page 60: Sam Reveles, Karst, 2012 (detail) 60

61


Painting: A Love Story One Layer after Another

Bill Arning

P

ainting is for most art mavens our first love, the gateway drug to our visual art habit. It is almost always the art form that calls out to us when we are young and holds us in its sway forever. We may find other forms of art equally pleasurable later, and we may even find theoretical reasons to disallow the possibility of painting, yet paint remains the original seducer into the ways of visual pleasure. Unlike the literalness of object-based sculpture, the comprehensibility of conceptual propositions, the mechanical interface of photography, or the immediacy of performance, what happens in a painter’s studio is magic in some fundamental way. As the German master painter Gerhard Richter says in the formidable documentary film Gerhard Richter Painting (2011), “painting is a secretive business anyway.” He was explaining why he regretted allowing the filmmakers into his painting space: having the camera record him actually making paintings was inhibiting and unnatural. But that is precisely why the film is so captivating. Seeing the physical efforts and process is immensely pleasurable for those of us who have found some of our most profound joys through our eyes when standing before paintings. I remember visiting a master painter’s studio when I was starting out as a curator. He chided me for the intrusiveness of my curatorial questions about how different marks were made and in what order. Attempting to be patient, he said, “Asking those things is like examining the wet spots on the sheets after I have had sex with my wife in order to learn what love means.”

Pages 58—59: Painting: A Love Story, Contemporary Arts Museum Houston, 2014 (installation view) Page 60: Sam Reveles, Karst, 2012 (detail) 60

61


I am slightly embarrassed to say that I never fully stopped thinking of paintings as forensic evidence that might, when excavated properly, reveal aspects of their makers’ creative processes that were possibly unknown even to them. While there are many classic abstract “paintings” that are not handmade in any traditional sense—going back to László Moholy-Nagy’s so-called Telephone Paintings of 1923—the vast majority of paintings are still made by someone, through some physical process that starts out wet and ends dry, which means that they are all time-based, with beginning, middles, and ends of their facture. Listening attentively to what artists say about individual paintings teaches the most profound lessons in how to better see a static arrangement of pigments arranged on a support. No longer sitting mutely as a set of unmoving facts, each painting is a narrative as compelling as any Hollywood blockbuster. Painting: A Love Story proposes looking at painting as a type of love story. Narrativizing these artworks is not only appropriate but will add profoundly to one’s experience of them. In this type of painterly abstraction there are elements of seduction, risk, and romance; the potential for loss and failure; daring, untested moves; desire and denial. Each step of the process leaves a trace. And this narrative plays out well before the works ever leave the studio. In a scene from the biographical film Pollock (2000), the shadow of the artist, who is played by the actor Ed Harris, falls across a vast empty canvas. In this celebrated shot, what is at risk in a studio practice is made clear as the projection of self. While this romantic conception of the artist is out of fashion, there is nonetheless a very real romance to the existential wrestling. Joseph Cohen and Cordy Ryman do physically move around large quantities of material. Thick paint is allowed its own mass, chopped-up wooden supports are used as a painting surface, and the ideal of muscular artists lifting weight gives the delicacy of their aesthetic choices an intoxicating aura. Jason Middlebrook makes complex zigzag motifs on long wooden planks, which are beautiful in their own right before his mark making occurs. In the work of each of these three artists, there is the first gesture and then a sequence of revisions. One can imagine earlier states for each when the work could have been considered finished, but the process needed to continue until the artist was satisfied with his own artifice and craft. One can imagine the point when the works were released into the world, and the risk that, had they remained in the studio a day longer, they would have been transformed again. Cohen, Ryman, and Middlebrook each embody a masculine paradigm for imbuing the love-story narrative with an extra dose of sweat in the struggle to grapple beauty from the nothingness of raw material. The desire to make a grand, splashy gesture in the manner of a Franz Kline brushstroke is not lost on the artists of today, raised on a diet of postmodern theory and Instagram, but the sense that the stroke alone can convey meaning and philosophical profundity—that is, can be enough to justify an artwork’s existence—is likely a thing of the past. Eva Lundsager’s works appear to be straightforward, unmediated gestural compositions, but then the artist goes in and adds layer upon layer of nonintrinsic strokes, dots, and ornaments, ones that 62

rely on or contradict the process. Keltie Ferris similarly is a percolator of painterly ideas and techniques, and the resulting visual multiplication is intoxicating. The desire to catalog the sheer diversity of paint application techniques in each Ferris work will not get you nearer to where the magic is. Both Ferris and Lundsager reveal the risk of catastrophic failure in the details, which makes the confidence of their final compositions all the more thrilling. Appearing farthest from the gestural tradition at first glance is Andrew Brischler’s optical hard-edge work, but that is not in fact the case. His megagraphic optical pattern describing his initial A is covered in wacky marks, a graffiti-like desecration of the goal of hard-edge perfection. These works take on added resonance when they are presented at the Contemporary Arts Museum Houston, mere blocks from the shrine to abstraction based on handwriting, defacements, and evocative language: the Cy Twombly Gallery at the Menil Collection. And Brischler literalizes the persona of the artist as a perverse adolescent decorating textbooks with infantile sexual jokes (that speak volumes of very adult truths). Nearby hang two jewel-like works by Richard Aldrich, which in their small scale and poetic symbol systems seem to be murmuring in a private language. This artist is celebrated for the diversity of his practice, which includes music making, found objects, and exploratory paintings. His paintings on view here are closest to the tradition of the late, great Houstonarea abstractionist Forest Bess, a deliberate choice for his area debut. At first Shane Tolbert seems to speak in a private language in the Forest Bess mode as well. Although his floating orbs are on a much larger scale and therefore hark back to the mystic symbolism of Adolph Gottlieb, his recombinant methodologies lead us to question whether or not they are meant to be taken with a degree of fraught sincerity. Like the works of Brischler, Lundsager, and Ferris, they allow us the thrill of having our Ab-Ex cake and critiquing it too. Scott Treleaven’s triptych appears at first as straightforward gestural abstraction, but a little investigation reveals that there are indeed images below and that the marks on the surface are in fact erasures. Knowing that Treleaven first found fame as a filmmaker and collagist will help in locating the place where his works diverge from standard abstraction. In both film and collage the act of cutting out and suturing together what remains is where the art occurs. The unified surface is structured around black rectangles festooned with brightly colored marks that are indeed the result of a process of editing and recombining. The title of Treleaven’s Untitled (for Philip Larkin) (2012) references the family trauma described in the late Philip Larkin’s poem “This Be the Verse”: “They fuck you up, your mum and dad. / They may not mean to, but they do.” Here burying is a type of creation, manifesting a deeply held belief that the impact of something is not lessened just because it is no longer visible, combined with a faith in the erotics of repression. Altogether this reminds us that some experiences are just sweeter in the dark. In contrast to Treleaven’s fetishized black, David Aylsworth’s recent abstract compositions have been foregrounding the power of a finishing layer of angelic white. Aylsworth’s delicate color palette and jazzy angles are planted firmly in the traditional function of 63


I am slightly embarrassed to say that I never fully stopped thinking of paintings as forensic evidence that might, when excavated properly, reveal aspects of their makers’ creative processes that were possibly unknown even to them. While there are many classic abstract “paintings” that are not handmade in any traditional sense—going back to László Moholy-Nagy’s so-called Telephone Paintings of 1923—the vast majority of paintings are still made by someone, through some physical process that starts out wet and ends dry, which means that they are all time-based, with beginning, middles, and ends of their facture. Listening attentively to what artists say about individual paintings teaches the most profound lessons in how to better see a static arrangement of pigments arranged on a support. No longer sitting mutely as a set of unmoving facts, each painting is a narrative as compelling as any Hollywood blockbuster. Painting: A Love Story proposes looking at painting as a type of love story. Narrativizing these artworks is not only appropriate but will add profoundly to one’s experience of them. In this type of painterly abstraction there are elements of seduction, risk, and romance; the potential for loss and failure; daring, untested moves; desire and denial. Each step of the process leaves a trace. And this narrative plays out well before the works ever leave the studio. In a scene from the biographical film Pollock (2000), the shadow of the artist, who is played by the actor Ed Harris, falls across a vast empty canvas. In this celebrated shot, what is at risk in a studio practice is made clear as the projection of self. While this romantic conception of the artist is out of fashion, there is nonetheless a very real romance to the existential wrestling. Joseph Cohen and Cordy Ryman do physically move around large quantities of material. Thick paint is allowed its own mass, chopped-up wooden supports are used as a painting surface, and the ideal of muscular artists lifting weight gives the delicacy of their aesthetic choices an intoxicating aura. Jason Middlebrook makes complex zigzag motifs on long wooden planks, which are beautiful in their own right before his mark making occurs. In the work of each of these three artists, there is the first gesture and then a sequence of revisions. One can imagine earlier states for each when the work could have been considered finished, but the process needed to continue until the artist was satisfied with his own artifice and craft. One can imagine the point when the works were released into the world, and the risk that, had they remained in the studio a day longer, they would have been transformed again. Cohen, Ryman, and Middlebrook each embody a masculine paradigm for imbuing the love-story narrative with an extra dose of sweat in the struggle to grapple beauty from the nothingness of raw material. The desire to make a grand, splashy gesture in the manner of a Franz Kline brushstroke is not lost on the artists of today, raised on a diet of postmodern theory and Instagram, but the sense that the stroke alone can convey meaning and philosophical profundity—that is, can be enough to justify an artwork’s existence—is likely a thing of the past. Eva Lundsager’s works appear to be straightforward, unmediated gestural compositions, but then the artist goes in and adds layer upon layer of nonintrinsic strokes, dots, and ornaments, ones that 62

rely on or contradict the process. Keltie Ferris similarly is a percolator of painterly ideas and techniques, and the resulting visual multiplication is intoxicating. The desire to catalog the sheer diversity of paint application techniques in each Ferris work will not get you nearer to where the magic is. Both Ferris and Lundsager reveal the risk of catastrophic failure in the details, which makes the confidence of their final compositions all the more thrilling. Appearing farthest from the gestural tradition at first glance is Andrew Brischler’s optical hard-edge work, but that is not in fact the case. His megagraphic optical pattern describing his initial A is covered in wacky marks, a graffiti-like desecration of the goal of hard-edge perfection. These works take on added resonance when they are presented at the Contemporary Arts Museum Houston, mere blocks from the shrine to abstraction based on handwriting, defacements, and evocative language: the Cy Twombly Gallery at the Menil Collection. And Brischler literalizes the persona of the artist as a perverse adolescent decorating textbooks with infantile sexual jokes (that speak volumes of very adult truths). Nearby hang two jewel-like works by Richard Aldrich, which in their small scale and poetic symbol systems seem to be murmuring in a private language. This artist is celebrated for the diversity of his practice, which includes music making, found objects, and exploratory paintings. His paintings on view here are closest to the tradition of the late, great Houstonarea abstractionist Forest Bess, a deliberate choice for his area debut. At first Shane Tolbert seems to speak in a private language in the Forest Bess mode as well. Although his floating orbs are on a much larger scale and therefore hark back to the mystic symbolism of Adolph Gottlieb, his recombinant methodologies lead us to question whether or not they are meant to be taken with a degree of fraught sincerity. Like the works of Brischler, Lundsager, and Ferris, they allow us the thrill of having our Ab-Ex cake and critiquing it too. Scott Treleaven’s triptych appears at first as straightforward gestural abstraction, but a little investigation reveals that there are indeed images below and that the marks on the surface are in fact erasures. Knowing that Treleaven first found fame as a filmmaker and collagist will help in locating the place where his works diverge from standard abstraction. In both film and collage the act of cutting out and suturing together what remains is where the art occurs. The unified surface is structured around black rectangles festooned with brightly colored marks that are indeed the result of a process of editing and recombining. The title of Treleaven’s Untitled (for Philip Larkin) (2012) references the family trauma described in the late Philip Larkin’s poem “This Be the Verse”: “They fuck you up, your mum and dad. / They may not mean to, but they do.” Here burying is a type of creation, manifesting a deeply held belief that the impact of something is not lessened just because it is no longer visible, combined with a faith in the erotics of repression. Altogether this reminds us that some experiences are just sweeter in the dark. In contrast to Treleaven’s fetishized black, David Aylsworth’s recent abstract compositions have been foregrounding the power of a finishing layer of angelic white. Aylsworth’s delicate color palette and jazzy angles are planted firmly in the traditional function of 63


abstraction as visual music, an act to beautify the world and make the eye happy. He spends quite as much effort on his white paint erasures as on his brightly colored additions. When he adds titles from American musicals, especially those of the literary eminences Oscar Hammerstein and Stephen Sondheim, the psychological narrative of these works comes to the fore but in ways that he declares are not intended as critical commentary but rather as a record of the sounds in his ears during his studio time. Indeed there appears to be no straightforward program for how his lyrical appropriations for his titles combine with the visuals. If Aylsworth is all about doubling back on his work in the studio, revising and adding layers, Sam Reveles moves forward in a madly multiplying process of carefully calibrated additions of looping marks. Reveles’s marks appear to multiply like branches in the woods. The dark mineral tones, reminiscent of landscape hues, manifest concentrated energies. The effect is internally explosive while simultaneously as evanescent as a passing dark cloud. It is impossible to look at any work by him and not consider processes in nature like rust or tumbleweeds, the artist seeming like a wrangler of natural forces. Matt Connors’s work at first appears to be the opposite of Reveles’s: deep, brooding layers of pigment with indiscernible means of application. The effect is similar in terms of emotional timbre, yet without any clue as to process the formless elements appear totally weightless and barely bound to the concerns of the world. The show is rounded out by the work of three artists who are nearly impossible to categorize. Amy Sillman is among the most influential and revered artists working today and manages to maintain this status while never exemplifying any current mode of art practice. Her paintings have for several decades presented a sort of fugitive image world in which every abstract mark reveals itself to have a figurative base and the most cartoony gestures are carried off with a bravura worthy of Jackson Pollock. Impurity becomes an aesthetic that frees us from the safety of artistic categories and leaves us looking at each painting as an unlikely unique event worthy of attention. Geoff Hippensteil’s massive works similarly defy categorization, and his risk taking often involves crossing lines of good taste, employing gold and cake-frosting thickness with aplomb. He will begin with an art historical image and just start jousting with humankind’s greatest achievements without a safety net. When he fails, the paintings are unrecognizable, and he has been known to discard many. When he pulls off the grand gesture, as in the examples on view here, it’s the end of the opera, and the drama is vivid and intoxicating. Finally Charline von Heyl’s remarkably confident works—like those of Ferris, Hippensteil, and Sillman—stand as studies in contrasts, organic and mechanical mark making mixed together in a wild mélange. Forms seem like they just might resolve into something recognizable yet elude naming. Her palette is as crisp and clear as it is unlikely, with jangly color combinations that might have horrified Josef Albers. These large-scale paintings feel intimate in their languorous drawn quality. The lightness of her touch hides the

64

great risks that she takes in each work. As with Sillman, the depth of her achievement has recently come into sharper focus thanks to the attention of survey exhibitions that reveal a unique and well-articulated vision forged over decades. Each of the paintings in this exhibition could have failed. Indeed, if we as curators are embracing risk in the way that we celebrate these artists for doing, some viewers, given the multitude of sensibilities that the public brings to every exhibition, will identify individual paintings that they do feel fail. Paintings in which the artist walked to an edge and fell. This is a good time for painting, and a lot of avenues that may have appeared to be closed a few years back are open for exploration today. As a parting thought, consider who among these artists has arrived with a work that opens up possibilities for future exploration and who has arrived with a work that implies the end of a thought process. For every good love story asks us to decide if there will be a happily ever after, after all.

65


abstraction as visual music, an act to beautify the world and make the eye happy. He spends quite as much effort on his white paint erasures as on his brightly colored additions. When he adds titles from American musicals, especially those of the literary eminences Oscar Hammerstein and Stephen Sondheim, the psychological narrative of these works comes to the fore but in ways that he declares are not intended as critical commentary but rather as a record of the sounds in his ears during his studio time. Indeed there appears to be no straightforward program for how his lyrical appropriations for his titles combine with the visuals. If Aylsworth is all about doubling back on his work in the studio, revising and adding layers, Sam Reveles moves forward in a madly multiplying process of carefully calibrated additions of looping marks. Reveles’s marks appear to multiply like branches in the woods. The dark mineral tones, reminiscent of landscape hues, manifest concentrated energies. The effect is internally explosive while simultaneously as evanescent as a passing dark cloud. It is impossible to look at any work by him and not consider processes in nature like rust or tumbleweeds, the artist seeming like a wrangler of natural forces. Matt Connors’s work at first appears to be the opposite of Reveles’s: deep, brooding layers of pigment with indiscernible means of application. The effect is similar in terms of emotional timbre, yet without any clue as to process the formless elements appear totally weightless and barely bound to the concerns of the world. The show is rounded out by the work of three artists who are nearly impossible to categorize. Amy Sillman is among the most influential and revered artists working today and manages to maintain this status while never exemplifying any current mode of art practice. Her paintings have for several decades presented a sort of fugitive image world in which every abstract mark reveals itself to have a figurative base and the most cartoony gestures are carried off with a bravura worthy of Jackson Pollock. Impurity becomes an aesthetic that frees us from the safety of artistic categories and leaves us looking at each painting as an unlikely unique event worthy of attention. Geoff Hippensteil’s massive works similarly defy categorization, and his risk taking often involves crossing lines of good taste, employing gold and cake-frosting thickness with aplomb. He will begin with an art historical image and just start jousting with humankind’s greatest achievements without a safety net. When he fails, the paintings are unrecognizable, and he has been known to discard many. When he pulls off the grand gesture, as in the examples on view here, it’s the end of the opera, and the drama is vivid and intoxicating. Finally Charline von Heyl’s remarkably confident works—like those of Ferris, Hippensteil, and Sillman—stand as studies in contrasts, organic and mechanical mark making mixed together in a wild mélange. Forms seem like they just might resolve into something recognizable yet elude naming. Her palette is as crisp and clear as it is unlikely, with jangly color combinations that might have horrified Josef Albers. These large-scale paintings feel intimate in their languorous drawn quality. The lightness of her touch hides the

64

great risks that she takes in each work. As with Sillman, the depth of her achievement has recently come into sharper focus thanks to the attention of survey exhibitions that reveal a unique and well-articulated vision forged over decades. Each of the paintings in this exhibition could have failed. Indeed, if we as curators are embracing risk in the way that we celebrate these artists for doing, some viewers, given the multitude of sensibilities that the public brings to every exhibition, will identify individual paintings that they do feel fail. Paintings in which the artist walked to an edge and fell. This is a good time for painting, and a lot of avenues that may have appeared to be closed a few years back are open for exploration today. As a parting thought, consider who among these artists has arrived with a work that opens up possibilities for future exploration and who has arrived with a work that implies the end of a thought process. For every good love story asks us to decide if there will be a happily ever after, after all.

65


Richard Aldrich

Untitled, 2003 66

Untitled, 2012—13 67


Richard Aldrich

Untitled, 2003 66

Untitled, 2012—13 67


David Aylsworth

Immature and Incurably Green, 2013 68

69


David Aylsworth

Immature and Incurably Green, 2013 68

69


Andrew Brischler

Sacrilege, 2013 (with detail above) 70

71


Andrew Brischler

Sacrilege, 2013 (with detail above) 70

71


Joseph Cohen

Proposition 395, 2013 (with detail above) 72

73


Joseph Cohen

Proposition 395, 2013 (with detail above) 72

73


Matt Connors

VIDEO, 2012 74

75


Matt Connors

VIDEO, 2012 74

75


Keltie Ferris

Boogie Stick, 2013 76

Mister Sister, 2013 77


Keltie Ferris

Boogie Stick, 2013 76

Mister Sister, 2013 77


Charline von Heyl

Pancalist, 2012 78

Slow Tramp, 2012 79


Charline von Heyl

Pancalist, 2012 78

Slow Tramp, 2012 79


Geoff Hippenstiel

Murder Ballad, 2013 (with detail above) 80

81


Geoff Hippenstiel

Murder Ballad, 2013 (with detail above) 80

81


Eva Lundsager

Seeing Changing, 2012—13 82

83


Eva Lundsager

Seeing Changing, 2012—13 82

83


Jason Middlebrook

Breakthrough, 2012 (opposite left with detail above left) Inside Out, 2013 (opposite right with detail above right) 84

85


Jason Middlebrook

Breakthrough, 2012 (opposite left with detail above left) Inside Out, 2013 (opposite right with detail above right) 84

85


Sam Reveles

Karst, 2012 86

87


Sam Reveles

Karst, 2012 86

87


Cordy Ryman

Rafterweb Scrapwall V2, 2012—13 (with detail above) 88

89


Cordy Ryman

Rafterweb Scrapwall V2, 2012—13 (with detail above) 88

89


Amy Sillman

Feet, 2011 90

91


Amy Sillman

Feet, 2011 90

91


Shane Tolbert

Untitled, 2013 92

93


Shane Tolbert

Untitled, 2013 92

93


Scott Treleaven

Untitled (for Philip Larkin), 2012 94

95


Scott Treleaven

Untitled (for Philip Larkin), 2012 94

95


Black in the Abstract Part 1: Epistrophy

96

97


Black in the Abstract Part 1: Epistrophy

96

97


Black in the Abstract, Part 1: Epistrophy Art of the Refrain

Valerie Cassel Oliver

Certainly less discussed is the strong voice of abstraction that developed among black artists around this time in painting and sculpture, a voice created by a critical mass of practitioners committed to experimentation with structure and materials. —Kellie Jones

B

lack in the Abstract is as much about the trajectory of abstraction from the mid-twentieth century into the twenty-first century as it is about the black artists who comprise what Kellie Jones calls the “critical mass of practitioners” participating in that trajectory. Black abstract painters, as Jones has noted, have added a crucial dimension to the development of abstraction, but they have too often been overlooked. They have been omitted from the larger discourse surrounding abstraction by white scholars because their blackness has rendered them invisible or irrelevant and, ironically, by their own communities because of their choice to work with nonfigurative art, which became politically charged during the black power movement. In his essay “On Black Cultural Nationalism,” Ron Karenga wrote: “For all art must reflect and support the Black Revolution, and any art that does not discuss or contribute to the revolution is invalid, no matter how many lines and spaces are produced in proportion and symmetry and no matter how many sounds are boxed in or blown out and called music.” 1 Black artists working in abstraction were deemed nonessential as their work often engaged the essence of people, places, and events rather than their figurative and literal translation. The exhibition’s subtitle, Epistrophy, is drawn from the musical context and refers to the use of repetition and the continual reconstitution of form by the artists featured in the exhibition. Over more than three generations these artists have embraced an approach to free-form abstraction rooted in the “art of the refrain,” a repetitive yet strategic approach to mark making that I’ve tangentially associated with innovations in jazz, particularly the groundbreaking composition by Thelonious Monk and Kenny Clarke from 1942 titled “Epistrophy.” When it was first introduced, this jazz standard was lauded for its musical Pages 96—97: Black in the Abstract, Part 1: Epistrophy, Contemporary Arts Museum Houston, 2014 (installation view) Page 98: Nick Cave, Tondo, 2010 (detail)

98

99


Black in the Abstract, Part 1: Epistrophy Art of the Refrain

Valerie Cassel Oliver

Certainly less discussed is the strong voice of abstraction that developed among black artists around this time in painting and sculpture, a voice created by a critical mass of practitioners committed to experimentation with structure and materials. —Kellie Jones

B

lack in the Abstract is as much about the trajectory of abstraction from the mid-twentieth century into the twenty-first century as it is about the black artists who comprise what Kellie Jones calls the “critical mass of practitioners” participating in that trajectory. Black abstract painters, as Jones has noted, have added a crucial dimension to the development of abstraction, but they have too often been overlooked. They have been omitted from the larger discourse surrounding abstraction by white scholars because their blackness has rendered them invisible or irrelevant and, ironically, by their own communities because of their choice to work with nonfigurative art, which became politically charged during the black power movement. In his essay “On Black Cultural Nationalism,” Ron Karenga wrote: “For all art must reflect and support the Black Revolution, and any art that does not discuss or contribute to the revolution is invalid, no matter how many lines and spaces are produced in proportion and symmetry and no matter how many sounds are boxed in or blown out and called music.” 1 Black artists working in abstraction were deemed nonessential as their work often engaged the essence of people, places, and events rather than their figurative and literal translation. The exhibition’s subtitle, Epistrophy, is drawn from the musical context and refers to the use of repetition and the continual reconstitution of form by the artists featured in the exhibition. Over more than three generations these artists have embraced an approach to free-form abstraction rooted in the “art of the refrain,” a repetitive yet strategic approach to mark making that I’ve tangentially associated with innovations in jazz, particularly the groundbreaking composition by Thelonious Monk and Kenny Clarke from 1942 titled “Epistrophy.” When it was first introduced, this jazz standard was lauded for its musical Pages 96—97: Black in the Abstract, Part 1: Epistrophy, Contemporary Arts Museum Houston, 2014 (installation view) Page 98: Nick Cave, Tondo, 2010 (detail)

98

99


phrasing and improvisational mastery. Often aligned with bebop because of its relentless rephrasing and fragmentation, “Epistrophy” employs repetition to poetic and resonant effect. From the newly discovered and rare abstractions of Romare Bearden to the bodacious “coolade” colors of AfriCOBRA to the innovative works of contemporary artists such as Angel Otero, Black in the Abstract seeks to provide a glimpse into deeply impactful work of black abstract painters. While the practices of black artists working in abstraction or various gradations of representation are not well known, there are many examples. Early abstract paintings by such artists as Aaron Douglas, William H. Johnson, Lois Mailou Jones, Jacob Lawrence, and Henry O. Tanner bear testament to this. A rare abstraction by Bearden, who was also a mathematician and pianist but was best known for his intricate representational collages that capture the ethos of the black community, provides a foundation for the exhibition. I don’t think any critic has ever gone into it, but Abstract Expressionism is very close to the aesthetics of jazz. That’s the feeling you get from it—involvement, personality, improvisation, rhythm, color. —Romare Bearden2

B

earden worked in abstraction for a brief but productive period from the mid1950s to the early 1960s. Prior to this time, he worked in a semiabstract language. His compositions included intricate interiors as well as the fantastical landscapes of his series based on Homer’s Iliad. Bearden later took up biblical themes, working in both representational idioms and in his signature semiabstract style. By the late 1950s, however, he had all but abandoned figuration, creating lyrical compositions dominated by vibrant colors. The work featured in this exhibition, Strange Land (1960), is an intriguing study in abstract composition, presenting an almost ethereal abstracted landscape with only faint references to a horizon. Bearden’s title evokes a journey and a spiritual outlook, perhaps fusing his early interests in Greek mythology and biblical narrative. The arc of Bearden’s later career provides insight into the tenor of the times at the height of the civil rights and black power movements. The artist’s radical shift in the early 1960s from abstraction to his iconic collage work was heavily influenced by the political climate, and Bearden was a willing participant, stating that he wanted to “redefine the image of man in terms of the Negro experience I know best.” 3 Along with Norman Lewis, Hale Woodruff, and Charles Alston, Bearden would go on to establish the Spiral group, a collective of black artists who wanted to respond visually to the civil rights movement. Among the founding members of the collective was a young Richard Mayhew. The artists worked collectively to present imagery that responded to the dogged determination, struggle, and hopes of African Americans during this period, but their group was short-lived. Mayhew would return to the free-form lyricism of abstraction. A onetime jazz singer, he enjoyed the symbiotic relationship between mark making and sound and would liken his painting to jazz improvisation. Mayhew turned to nature and the landscape for its ability to embody the pulsation of life. Even today, at the age of ninety, he continues to produce his vibrantly colored “moodscapes.” Alma Thomas, unlike Bearden and Mayhew, remained closely allied with abstraction despite seismic shifts in the political and cultural climate. Thomas embraced abstraction 100

not as an escape from political engagement but as a means of resistance. She believed that form and color could provide a universal language to communicate ideals, beliefs, and hopes. In the early 1970s H. E. Mahal wrote of Thomas, “Through color, she sought to concentrate on beauty and happiness, rather than man’s inhumanity to man.” 4 Educated at Howard University, Thomas was the first graduate of the university’s art department. She came to art making later in life and for many years, until her retirement, was a teacher herself. Despite mandates issued by Karenga and others associated with the black power movement, Thomas remained an unapologetic abstractionist. Her practice of fragmenting form, mostly those of flowers, was innovative. While she is often mentioned in the context of the Washington Color School, her practice predates its establishment but evolved in tandem with its development. Thomas would have an impact on members of the school and on younger artists who worked in the Washington, DC, area, such as Sam Gilliam. Gilliam is a widely acclaimed artist who has often resisted notions of “black art,” instead allowing his work to function as medium and content. Although he was criticized early in his career for not embracing the aesthetic values of the black power establishment, he believed in the power of his art to make a statement, as evoked in such titles as April 4 (1969), commemorating the anniversary of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s assassination, and Three Panels for Mr. Robeson (1975), which paid homage to the talented actor, singer, and activist Paul Robeson. More than any artist of his generation, Gilliam actively interrogated the practice of painting through his experiments with the presentation of the canvas, often working without the traditional structural framework of the stretcher. Gilliam allowed the architecture of the site to become the frame for his canvases, which were draped, twisted, and knotted. His painting techniques were also revolutionary. Instead of using conventional paint on primed canvas, he began “staining” the canvas, reducing the viscosity of the paint with water and then applying the mixture to unstretched canvases. The resulting compositions are skillfully crafted yet allow space for chance markings. This process and its aesthetic power are evident in One On (1972), an early and iconic work by Gilliam that was first shown publicly in Black in the Abstract, Part 1, providing a powerful visual anchor for the exhibition. Like Gilliam, John Outterbridge is an artist whose works, whether monumental or modestly scaled, have attempted to incorporate social and political content while also stretching the boundaries of painting. Outterbridge has been a fixture on the Los Angeles art scene since the early 1960s, living through the riots that rocked the city. He is celebrated not only as an artist but also for his work as the former director of the iconic Watts Towers Arts Center. Trained as a painter, Outterbridge began experimenting with assemblage and has merged his divergent practices into monumental installations that have in recent years come to signify expansive notions of painting using the totality of space as backdrop and objects as marks and gestures. His early installations were groundbreaking in their painterly propositions, often confounding critics who wanted to categorize him as a vernacular artist. And while he did not shy away from political content, he refused to bow to the pressure of being “essentialized” by the mainstream. The small, gemlike compositions of his recent suite of paintings Rag and Bag Idiom (2012) demonstrate the artist’s mastery of form and color. Whereas older artists have often resisted being pigeonholed by their blackness, one collective of young artists established in the late 1960s embraced it. AfriCOBRA (African Commune of Bad Relevant Artists) was an outgrowth of OBAC (Organization of Black American Culture), which worked with the disenfranchised communities of Chicago and 101


phrasing and improvisational mastery. Often aligned with bebop because of its relentless rephrasing and fragmentation, “Epistrophy” employs repetition to poetic and resonant effect. From the newly discovered and rare abstractions of Romare Bearden to the bodacious “coolade” colors of AfriCOBRA to the innovative works of contemporary artists such as Angel Otero, Black in the Abstract seeks to provide a glimpse into deeply impactful work of black abstract painters. While the practices of black artists working in abstraction or various gradations of representation are not well known, there are many examples. Early abstract paintings by such artists as Aaron Douglas, William H. Johnson, Lois Mailou Jones, Jacob Lawrence, and Henry O. Tanner bear testament to this. A rare abstraction by Bearden, who was also a mathematician and pianist but was best known for his intricate representational collages that capture the ethos of the black community, provides a foundation for the exhibition. I don’t think any critic has ever gone into it, but Abstract Expressionism is very close to the aesthetics of jazz. That’s the feeling you get from it—involvement, personality, improvisation, rhythm, color. —Romare Bearden2

B

earden worked in abstraction for a brief but productive period from the mid1950s to the early 1960s. Prior to this time, he worked in a semiabstract language. His compositions included intricate interiors as well as the fantastical landscapes of his series based on Homer’s Iliad. Bearden later took up biblical themes, working in both representational idioms and in his signature semiabstract style. By the late 1950s, however, he had all but abandoned figuration, creating lyrical compositions dominated by vibrant colors. The work featured in this exhibition, Strange Land (1960), is an intriguing study in abstract composition, presenting an almost ethereal abstracted landscape with only faint references to a horizon. Bearden’s title evokes a journey and a spiritual outlook, perhaps fusing his early interests in Greek mythology and biblical narrative. The arc of Bearden’s later career provides insight into the tenor of the times at the height of the civil rights and black power movements. The artist’s radical shift in the early 1960s from abstraction to his iconic collage work was heavily influenced by the political climate, and Bearden was a willing participant, stating that he wanted to “redefine the image of man in terms of the Negro experience I know best.” 3 Along with Norman Lewis, Hale Woodruff, and Charles Alston, Bearden would go on to establish the Spiral group, a collective of black artists who wanted to respond visually to the civil rights movement. Among the founding members of the collective was a young Richard Mayhew. The artists worked collectively to present imagery that responded to the dogged determination, struggle, and hopes of African Americans during this period, but their group was short-lived. Mayhew would return to the free-form lyricism of abstraction. A onetime jazz singer, he enjoyed the symbiotic relationship between mark making and sound and would liken his painting to jazz improvisation. Mayhew turned to nature and the landscape for its ability to embody the pulsation of life. Even today, at the age of ninety, he continues to produce his vibrantly colored “moodscapes.” Alma Thomas, unlike Bearden and Mayhew, remained closely allied with abstraction despite seismic shifts in the political and cultural climate. Thomas embraced abstraction 100

not as an escape from political engagement but as a means of resistance. She believed that form and color could provide a universal language to communicate ideals, beliefs, and hopes. In the early 1970s H. E. Mahal wrote of Thomas, “Through color, she sought to concentrate on beauty and happiness, rather than man’s inhumanity to man.” 4 Educated at Howard University, Thomas was the first graduate of the university’s art department. She came to art making later in life and for many years, until her retirement, was a teacher herself. Despite mandates issued by Karenga and others associated with the black power movement, Thomas remained an unapologetic abstractionist. Her practice of fragmenting form, mostly those of flowers, was innovative. While she is often mentioned in the context of the Washington Color School, her practice predates its establishment but evolved in tandem with its development. Thomas would have an impact on members of the school and on younger artists who worked in the Washington, DC, area, such as Sam Gilliam. Gilliam is a widely acclaimed artist who has often resisted notions of “black art,” instead allowing his work to function as medium and content. Although he was criticized early in his career for not embracing the aesthetic values of the black power establishment, he believed in the power of his art to make a statement, as evoked in such titles as April 4 (1969), commemorating the anniversary of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s assassination, and Three Panels for Mr. Robeson (1975), which paid homage to the talented actor, singer, and activist Paul Robeson. More than any artist of his generation, Gilliam actively interrogated the practice of painting through his experiments with the presentation of the canvas, often working without the traditional structural framework of the stretcher. Gilliam allowed the architecture of the site to become the frame for his canvases, which were draped, twisted, and knotted. His painting techniques were also revolutionary. Instead of using conventional paint on primed canvas, he began “staining” the canvas, reducing the viscosity of the paint with water and then applying the mixture to unstretched canvases. The resulting compositions are skillfully crafted yet allow space for chance markings. This process and its aesthetic power are evident in One On (1972), an early and iconic work by Gilliam that was first shown publicly in Black in the Abstract, Part 1, providing a powerful visual anchor for the exhibition. Like Gilliam, John Outterbridge is an artist whose works, whether monumental or modestly scaled, have attempted to incorporate social and political content while also stretching the boundaries of painting. Outterbridge has been a fixture on the Los Angeles art scene since the early 1960s, living through the riots that rocked the city. He is celebrated not only as an artist but also for his work as the former director of the iconic Watts Towers Arts Center. Trained as a painter, Outterbridge began experimenting with assemblage and has merged his divergent practices into monumental installations that have in recent years come to signify expansive notions of painting using the totality of space as backdrop and objects as marks and gestures. His early installations were groundbreaking in their painterly propositions, often confounding critics who wanted to categorize him as a vernacular artist. And while he did not shy away from political content, he refused to bow to the pressure of being “essentialized” by the mainstream. The small, gemlike compositions of his recent suite of paintings Rag and Bag Idiom (2012) demonstrate the artist’s mastery of form and color. Whereas older artists have often resisted being pigeonholed by their blackness, one collective of young artists established in the late 1960s embraced it. AfriCOBRA (African Commune of Bad Relevant Artists) was an outgrowth of OBAC (Organization of Black American Culture), which worked with the disenfranchised communities of Chicago and 101


created the mural Wall of Respect (1967). AfriCOBRA emphasized the creation of artworks with certain qualities, including “the expressive awesomeness that one experiences in African art and life in the USA; symmetry that is free, repetition with change, based on African music and African music; rhythm that is easy syncopation and very human; organic looking, feeling forms. . . . We want things to shine to have the rich luster of a just-washed ‘Fro,’ of spit-shined shoes, of de-ashened elbows and knees and noses; color that shines, color that is free of rules and regulations. Color that is expressively awesome. Superreal color for Superreal images. Coolade colors for coolade images for superreal people.”5 Having now been in existence for nearly forty-five years, the collective continues its work, recruiting new members as the old ones pass on. Featured in this exhibition are original AfriCOBRA members Frank Smith and James Philips and recent recruit Kevin Cole. Like Gilliam and Outterbridge, these artists have investigated new modes of painting and presentation. Smith in particular has explored moving beyond the stretcher in works such as Sweet Sixteen Bars (c. 1995), stitching the canvas and its collaged elements to create a metered and rhythmic painting. The interplay between painting and music so evident in Smith’s work is further enhanced by the lyrical collage elements that punctuate the canvas. The use of color and imagery functions as a communal language that enables multiple entry points and interpretations. Like Smith, Floyd Newsum plays on the lyricism of personal and communal vernacular. Expressively painted planes are given a narrative weight through the artist’s use of personal icons such as the ladder, a reference to his firefighter father or the architecture of the southern shotgun house. Although he works primarily on canvas, Newsum has excised the canvas from its frame, integrating paper, photographs, and other materials into the composition, an approach that calls the very definition of painting into question. The use of unlikely materials is also seen in the seductive works of Howardena Pindell and Jack White. While White incorporates now archaic computer punch cards into his Trilogy to Connie’s Robe # II (1995), Pindell affixes bits of paper created with a hole puncher, glitter, and other materials to the surface of Untitled #20: (Dutch Wives, Circled and Squared) (1978). Pindell was trained as a painter but began incorporating elements of conceptual art practices and feminist thought into her work. While her lush work addresses the variety of materials that can be used in marking the canvas, the construction of the painting—small squares of canvas that are sewn together—speaks to notions of systems and the larger issues of domesticity and women’s work and the challenge of large-format abstract painting as male-defined and male-dominated territory. Shinique Smith, who arrived on the scene some decades later, continues the dialogue on monumental abstraction and the place of the female body as she literally inserts herself into the picture plane, making impressions of her body visible through gestural markings. Smith also pushes past the dialogue about painting through the integration of bundles of fabric, often made from clothes she has worn, which function as diaristic artifacts and three-dimensional paintings. This notion of paintings that move beyond the use of paint and the architecture of the stretcher has been readily embraced by other artists who incorporate painting into wide-ranging and varied practices that encompass performance work, installation, video, and sculpture. Nick Cave, Abigail DeVille, and Jayson Musson are featured in this exhibition because of their unapologetic use of nontraditional materials in the creation of monumental “paintings” that possess a sense of gestural movement, humor, and playfulness. Musson’s 102

painting created from deconstructed Coogi sweaters, a staple of the hip-hop elite of the 1980s as well as of the iconic character Dr. Cliff Huxtable from the Cosby Show, exemplifies these artists’ commitment to a labor-intensive practice that involves deliberate strategies for the construction of their works. Labor is also intrinsic to the practices of those painters who remain committed to the notion of traditional painting and who seek out ways to elevate the art historical and meld it with contemporary gestures, among them Candida Alvarez, Kianja Strobert, and Angel Otero. In her work featured in this exhibition, dadadahlia (2005–8), Alvarez returns to the tradition of still life. Her colors are vibrant, and her figures dissolve into painted surfaces that ebb between thickly applied paint and smooth, consistent brushstrokes. She searches for visual tropes that she then dissects and reframes, yet her thoughtful interrogation of imagery and form makes her works no less visually arresting. Strobert and Otero studied with Alvarez, and we see the same driving force in their works. Strobert’s richly textured paintings on paper, paper pulp, and other fibrous materials resemble portals into fantastic landscapes. Although Otero reframes the masters of past centuries, his method of creating his lush paintings is a twenty-first-century invention. He begins by pouring oil paint onto nonporous surfaces and then continues to build up layers of paint until, once complete, the oil painting is removed from the surface and affixed to canvas. The process of shifting the painting allows for a process of improvisation that results in an impasto surface of draped and folded paint. Otero’s strategy circles back to the concept of the refrain, a repetition that enables an ever-evolving and poetic extension of the structure. Such poetic tensions permeate the genre of abstract painting and have particular resonance in the work of black practitioners. As Hilarie M. Sheets recently observed, “The contributions of African American artists to the inventions of abstract painting have historically been overlooked, or else fraught with . . . questions.” 6 The two parts of Black in the Abstract can offer viewers only a sampling of the prolific engagement with abstraction by black artists across generations. Nevertheless, I hope that it, along with the exhibitions that have come before it, helps to put some of those questions to rest, interrogating the values that have led to the marginalization of these artists and insisting on their recognition not only as black abstract painters but as essential contributors to contemporary art and to art history.

NOTES Epigraph: Kellie Jones, “To the Max: Energy and Experimentation,” in Energy/Experimentation: Black Artists and Abstraction, 1964–1980 (New York: Studio Museum in Harlem, 2006), 14. 1. Ron Karenga, “Black Cultural Nationalism,” in The Black Aesthetic, ed. Addision Gayle (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1971), 33. 2. Romare Bearden, quoted in Calvin Tomkins, “Profiles: Putting Something over Something Else” (1977), in The Jazz Cadence of American Culture, ed. Robert G. O’Meally (New York: Columbia University Press, 1998), 236–37. 3. See Elsa Honig Fine, The Afro-American Artist: A Search for Identity (New York: Hacker Art Books, 1982), 158. 4. See Lowery Stokes Sims’s essay in Alma Thomas: Phantasmagoria; Major Paintings from the 1970s (New York: Michael Rosenfield Gallery, 2001), 11. 5. Jeff R. Donaldson, “AfriCOBRA Manifesto? ‘Ten in Search of a Nation,’” NKA Journal of Contemporary African Art 30 (Spring 2012): 81. 6. Hilarie M. Sheets, “The Changing Complex Profile of Black Abstract Painters,” Artnews.com, June 2014, http://www.artnews.com/2014/06/04/changing-complex-profile-of-black-abstract-painters/.

103


created the mural Wall of Respect (1967). AfriCOBRA emphasized the creation of artworks with certain qualities, including “the expressive awesomeness that one experiences in African art and life in the USA; symmetry that is free, repetition with change, based on African music and African music; rhythm that is easy syncopation and very human; organic looking, feeling forms. . . . We want things to shine to have the rich luster of a just-washed ‘Fro,’ of spit-shined shoes, of de-ashened elbows and knees and noses; color that shines, color that is free of rules and regulations. Color that is expressively awesome. Superreal color for Superreal images. Coolade colors for coolade images for superreal people.”5 Having now been in existence for nearly forty-five years, the collective continues its work, recruiting new members as the old ones pass on. Featured in this exhibition are original AfriCOBRA members Frank Smith and James Philips and recent recruit Kevin Cole. Like Gilliam and Outterbridge, these artists have investigated new modes of painting and presentation. Smith in particular has explored moving beyond the stretcher in works such as Sweet Sixteen Bars (c. 1995), stitching the canvas and its collaged elements to create a metered and rhythmic painting. The interplay between painting and music so evident in Smith’s work is further enhanced by the lyrical collage elements that punctuate the canvas. The use of color and imagery functions as a communal language that enables multiple entry points and interpretations. Like Smith, Floyd Newsum plays on the lyricism of personal and communal vernacular. Expressively painted planes are given a narrative weight through the artist’s use of personal icons such as the ladder, a reference to his firefighter father or the architecture of the southern shotgun house. Although he works primarily on canvas, Newsum has excised the canvas from its frame, integrating paper, photographs, and other materials into the composition, an approach that calls the very definition of painting into question. The use of unlikely materials is also seen in the seductive works of Howardena Pindell and Jack White. While White incorporates now archaic computer punch cards into his Trilogy to Connie’s Robe # II (1995), Pindell affixes bits of paper created with a hole puncher, glitter, and other materials to the surface of Untitled #20: (Dutch Wives, Circled and Squared) (1978). Pindell was trained as a painter but began incorporating elements of conceptual art practices and feminist thought into her work. While her lush work addresses the variety of materials that can be used in marking the canvas, the construction of the painting—small squares of canvas that are sewn together—speaks to notions of systems and the larger issues of domesticity and women’s work and the challenge of large-format abstract painting as male-defined and male-dominated territory. Shinique Smith, who arrived on the scene some decades later, continues the dialogue on monumental abstraction and the place of the female body as she literally inserts herself into the picture plane, making impressions of her body visible through gestural markings. Smith also pushes past the dialogue about painting through the integration of bundles of fabric, often made from clothes she has worn, which function as diaristic artifacts and three-dimensional paintings. This notion of paintings that move beyond the use of paint and the architecture of the stretcher has been readily embraced by other artists who incorporate painting into wide-ranging and varied practices that encompass performance work, installation, video, and sculpture. Nick Cave, Abigail DeVille, and Jayson Musson are featured in this exhibition because of their unapologetic use of nontraditional materials in the creation of monumental “paintings” that possess a sense of gestural movement, humor, and playfulness. Musson’s 102

painting created from deconstructed Coogi sweaters, a staple of the hip-hop elite of the 1980s as well as of the iconic character Dr. Cliff Huxtable from the Cosby Show, exemplifies these artists’ commitment to a labor-intensive practice that involves deliberate strategies for the construction of their works. Labor is also intrinsic to the practices of those painters who remain committed to the notion of traditional painting and who seek out ways to elevate the art historical and meld it with contemporary gestures, among them Candida Alvarez, Kianja Strobert, and Angel Otero. In her work featured in this exhibition, dadadahlia (2005–8), Alvarez returns to the tradition of still life. Her colors are vibrant, and her figures dissolve into painted surfaces that ebb between thickly applied paint and smooth, consistent brushstrokes. She searches for visual tropes that she then dissects and reframes, yet her thoughtful interrogation of imagery and form makes her works no less visually arresting. Strobert and Otero studied with Alvarez, and we see the same driving force in their works. Strobert’s richly textured paintings on paper, paper pulp, and other fibrous materials resemble portals into fantastic landscapes. Although Otero reframes the masters of past centuries, his method of creating his lush paintings is a twenty-first-century invention. He begins by pouring oil paint onto nonporous surfaces and then continues to build up layers of paint until, once complete, the oil painting is removed from the surface and affixed to canvas. The process of shifting the painting allows for a process of improvisation that results in an impasto surface of draped and folded paint. Otero’s strategy circles back to the concept of the refrain, a repetition that enables an ever-evolving and poetic extension of the structure. Such poetic tensions permeate the genre of abstract painting and have particular resonance in the work of black practitioners. As Hilarie M. Sheets recently observed, “The contributions of African American artists to the inventions of abstract painting have historically been overlooked, or else fraught with . . . questions.” 6 The two parts of Black in the Abstract can offer viewers only a sampling of the prolific engagement with abstraction by black artists across generations. Nevertheless, I hope that it, along with the exhibitions that have come before it, helps to put some of those questions to rest, interrogating the values that have led to the marginalization of these artists and insisting on their recognition not only as black abstract painters but as essential contributors to contemporary art and to art history.

NOTES Epigraph: Kellie Jones, “To the Max: Energy and Experimentation,” in Energy/Experimentation: Black Artists and Abstraction, 1964–1980 (New York: Studio Museum in Harlem, 2006), 14. 1. Ron Karenga, “Black Cultural Nationalism,” in The Black Aesthetic, ed. Addision Gayle (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1971), 33. 2. Romare Bearden, quoted in Calvin Tomkins, “Profiles: Putting Something over Something Else” (1977), in The Jazz Cadence of American Culture, ed. Robert G. O’Meally (New York: Columbia University Press, 1998), 236–37. 3. See Elsa Honig Fine, The Afro-American Artist: A Search for Identity (New York: Hacker Art Books, 1982), 158. 4. See Lowery Stokes Sims’s essay in Alma Thomas: Phantasmagoria; Major Paintings from the 1970s (New York: Michael Rosenfield Gallery, 2001), 11. 5. Jeff R. Donaldson, “AfriCOBRA Manifesto? ‘Ten in Search of a Nation,’” NKA Journal of Contemporary African Art 30 (Spring 2012): 81. 6. Hilarie M. Sheets, “The Changing Complex Profile of Black Abstract Painters,” Artnews.com, June 2014, http://www.artnews.com/2014/06/04/changing-complex-profile-of-black-abstract-painters/.

103


Candida Alvarez

dadadahlia, 2005—8 104

105


Candida Alvarez

dadadahlia, 2005—8 104

105


Romare Bearden

Strange Land, 1960 106

107


Romare Bearden

Strange Land, 1960 106

107


Nick Cave

Tondo, 2010 108

109


Nick Cave

Tondo, 2010 108

109


Kevin Cole

3am Sunrise Wings for TC, 2009 110

111


Kevin Cole

3am Sunrise Wings for TC, 2009 110

111


Abigail DeVille

Harlem World, 2011

112


Abigail DeVille

Harlem World, 2011

112


Sam Gilliam

One On, 1972 (with detail above) 114

115


Sam Gilliam

One On, 1972 (with detail above) 114

115


Richard Mayhew

Summit, 2004 116

117


Richard Mayhew

Summit, 2004 116

117


Jayson Musson

Men Committing Mad Sin, 2012 118

119


Jayson Musson

Men Committing Mad Sin, 2012 118

119


Floyd Newsum

Sirigu Purple Rain, 2012 120

121


Floyd Newsum

Sirigu Purple Rain, 2012 120

121


Angel Otero

Everything and Nothing, 2011 (with detail above) 122

123


Angel Otero

Everything and Nothing, 2011 (with detail above) 122

123


John Outterbridge

Rag and Bag Idiom III, 2012 124

Rag and Bag Idiom IV, 2012

Rag and Bag Idiom VI, 2012 125


John Outterbridge

Rag and Bag Idiom III, 2012 124

Rag and Bag Idiom IV, 2012

Rag and Bag Idiom VI, 2012 125


James Philips

Self Awareness, c. 1971 126

Untitled, c. 1972 127


James Philips

Self Awareness, c. 1971 126

Untitled, c. 1972 127


Howardena Pindell

Untitled #20: (Dutch Wives, Circled and Squared), 1978 (with detail above) 128

129


Howardena Pindell

Untitled #20: (Dutch Wives, Circled and Squared), 1978 (with detail above) 128

129


Frank Smith

Sweet Sixteen Bars, c. 1995 130

131


Frank Smith

Sweet Sixteen Bars, c. 1995 130

131


Shinique Smith

From left: Hammer, 2013 (with detail above) Kaleidoscope, 2013 Chrysanthemum, 2013 132

133


Shinique Smith

From left: Hammer, 2013 (with detail above) Kaleidoscope, 2013 Chrysanthemum, 2013 132

133


Kainja Strobert

Untitled, 2011 134

Untitled, 2011 135


Kainja Strobert

Untitled, 2011 134

Untitled, 2011 135


Alma Thomas

Untitled, 1968 136

137


Alma Thomas

Untitled, 1968 136

137


Jack White

Trilogy to Connie’s Robe # II, 1995 138

139


Jack White

Trilogy to Connie’s Robe # II, 1995 138

139


Black in the Abstract Part 2: Hard Edges / Soft Curves

140

141


Black in the Abstract Part 2: Hard Edges / Soft Curves

140

141


Black in the Abstract, Part 2: Hard Edges / Soft Curves Reverb

Valerie Cassel Oliver

Anything that is abstract . . . abstracted from something . . . is the essence of that something. It has taken those things that shape and define it, stripped away the filigree. So that’s what you’re doing . . . you’re going to the center. —Bill Dixon

I

n 2010 Ben Ratliff of the New York Times wrote in his obituary for Bill Dixon: “On records including ‘Intents and Purposes’ (1967) and the two-volume ‘Vade Mecum,’ recorded in 1993, Mr. Dixon displayed a fascination with whispered notes and the lowest, darkest ends of a band’s sound. He used delay and reverb on his trumpet, in long, floating tones and scrabbling figures; his music got closer to the ideal of pure abstraction than that of many of his colleagues.”1 This notion of floating tones and reverb and its relation to visual artists working in abstraction are laid bare in the work of the artists featured in the second part of Black in the Abstract, subtitled Hard Edges / Soft Curves. With much of the late 1950s and 1960s devoted to synergistic experimentation in music and the visual arts, attempts to trace connections between jazz and abstraction are unavoidable. While the assumption of commingling and influences may remain just that, it is no illusion that musicians such as Bill Dixon and Miles Davis were not only leading musical innovators but were also translating those impulses into visual output. Likewise, abstract painters such as Felrath Hines, who loved classical music, were intrigued and influenced by the free jazz experimentation of these icons as well as of musicians like Thelonious Monk.2 The imprint of such musical explorations on the artists of that era is undeniable. And while the direct influence of free jazz has lessened among subsequent Pages 140—41: Black in the Abstract, Part 2: Hard Edges / Soft Curves; Contemporary Arts Museum Houston, 2014 (installation view) Page 142: Brenna Youngblood, This Story Has a Great Ending, 2011 (detail)

142

143


Black in the Abstract, Part 2: Hard Edges / Soft Curves Reverb

Valerie Cassel Oliver

Anything that is abstract . . . abstracted from something . . . is the essence of that something. It has taken those things that shape and define it, stripped away the filigree. So that’s what you’re doing . . . you’re going to the center. —Bill Dixon

I

n 2010 Ben Ratliff of the New York Times wrote in his obituary for Bill Dixon: “On records including ‘Intents and Purposes’ (1967) and the two-volume ‘Vade Mecum,’ recorded in 1993, Mr. Dixon displayed a fascination with whispered notes and the lowest, darkest ends of a band’s sound. He used delay and reverb on his trumpet, in long, floating tones and scrabbling figures; his music got closer to the ideal of pure abstraction than that of many of his colleagues.”1 This notion of floating tones and reverb and its relation to visual artists working in abstraction are laid bare in the work of the artists featured in the second part of Black in the Abstract, subtitled Hard Edges / Soft Curves. With much of the late 1950s and 1960s devoted to synergistic experimentation in music and the visual arts, attempts to trace connections between jazz and abstraction are unavoidable. While the assumption of commingling and influences may remain just that, it is no illusion that musicians such as Bill Dixon and Miles Davis were not only leading musical innovators but were also translating those impulses into visual output. Likewise, abstract painters such as Felrath Hines, who loved classical music, were intrigued and influenced by the free jazz experimentation of these icons as well as of musicians like Thelonious Monk.2 The imprint of such musical explorations on the artists of that era is undeniable. And while the direct influence of free jazz has lessened among subsequent Pages 140—41: Black in the Abstract, Part 2: Hard Edges / Soft Curves; Contemporary Arts Museum Houston, 2014 (installation view) Page 142: Brenna Youngblood, This Story Has a Great Ending, 2011 (detail)

142

143


generations, it has served to underpin aspects of contemporary life and culture. This notion of reverb as a resonance or echo encased in dissonance is an apt metaphor for contemporary life. Reverb is the thing that persists and sets apart the works that make up Black in the Abstract, Part 2. While the exhibition’s premise is concretized in the notion of dynamic restraint, several thematic strains are evident. First, there is no question of the role of visual tonality in the works featured in the exhibition. One of the salient elements of many of these works is the play on pure color that begins in the works of Felrath Hines and Sam Gilliam and is later echoed in the loose grids of Stanley Whitney and Jennie C. Jones and in the shaped canvases of Leslie Smith III. These artists set up an essential framework not only of this exhibition but also of Black in the Abstract, Part 1: Epistrophy, which establishes the abstract practices of black artists as a continuous trajectory as opposed to an anomaly or a phenomenon that ebbs and flows over time. Moreover, despite their nonfigurative practices, black artists have inserted their physical and cultural presences into the work, giving it a physicality, as is evident in the contributions of McArthur Binion, Simone Leigh, and Jack Whitten. Finally black artists have played a key role in the persistent dialogue around painting, its relevance, and its inferred traditions. Foregrounding this interrogation of the medium is the conceptual artist David Hammons, whose works are in close dialogue with those of Derrick Adams, Nathaniel Donnett, Rodney McMillian, Cullen Washington, and Brenna Youngblood.

For the Love of Color. . . Felrath Hines was a colorist and a minimalist. As a painter he flirted with various modes and mannerisms of painting, including Cubism and Abstract Expressionism. What remained from his encounters during this time was the structure and geometry of composition. Geometry in fact would come to define how he would paint for the remainder of his life. Although Hines is presented in this exhibition subtitled Hard Edges / Soft Curves, Holliday T. Day wrote of his work: “This concern for the edge is not just a formal nicety or ‘trick’ for Hines; it keeps his work from being a formal exercise in color theory and composition. It is a ‘crack of light’ that gives a sense of the living to the work.”3 Hines played with the “hard” edges, allowing the edges of his paintbrush to evidence his hand. He never used tape in his work, as he revealed in an interview with the artist and scholar Floyd Coleman: “I don’t want [the painting] to be that stiff. There are a couple of ways that I soften it up, [such as] not quite getting [paint] up to the line.”4 The resulting effect is that of an echo and an implied rhythm that animate his color with volume and intensity. For most of his adult career, Hines worked as a conservator at the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. He was an active member of the Washington, DC, art scene, and while he was acquainted with artists associated with the Washington Color School, he never aligned himself or his art with them. In contrast, Sam Gilliam, whose work appears in both parts of Black in the Abstract, was associated with the Washington Color School. Taking an exploratory approach to painting, Gilliam transformed his style to engage in the dialogue surrounding the medium. In his early works he vacillated between hard edges and free-form mark making, but his hard-edge works of the 1960s and 1970s are stunning examples of the form. Gilliam enlarged the parameters of the hard-edge language by playing with the application of 144

paint on primed and unprimed canvas, allowing the paint at times to lie upon the surface of the canvas and at other times to be absorbed by it. A stellar and rarely seen work from his studio, Gesture (1966), is evidence of the artist’s mastery of such techniques. The work conveys a perceptible sense of movement, as the geometric forms appear to advance and recede within the fixed frame of the stretched canvas. Hines’s and Gilliam’s love of color and movement on the picture plane is shared by abstract painters of subsequent generations. Stanley Whitney has for decades played with the architecture of color, building tight compositions of color grids. A prolific painter, he is at ease working in a variety of formats, from small eight-inch-square canvases to their monumental counterparts. The color fields featured in his work are unique, emphasizing the endless combinations of hue, intensity, and depth that can emerge from the frame. More recently Whitney’s grids have become looser and more gestural as if to play on the expectation of the “edge.” The resulting works pulsate with sound, and even his more muted paintings trigger aural expectations. James Little has also engaged color and movement in his works. Whether in monochromatic or multihued canvases, his use of color is entrenched in polyrhythmic intonation. A masterful colorist, Little mixes his own paints using pigment and wax. The effect of the mixture’s application onto the two-dimensional support is an exercise in visual perception as the eye moves rapidly from one hard-edge strip of color to the next, then up and across competing patterns of chevrons and vertical stripes. Like Whitney, Little provides a bridge between artists such as Hines and Gilliam and a second generation of contemporaries such as Rashid Johnson, Jennie C. Jones, Leslie Smith III, and Nadine Robinson, who have forged their own pathways in minimal abstraction. Jones in particular has explored what Evelyn Hankins has called the “unexplored confluences between abstract visual artists and African-American composers and musicians.” 5 Jones’s ingenious use of acoustic materials in the construction of her paintings is her signature and indicative of her conceptual art roots. Working in painting as well as sound, she has mined the politics, culture, and aesthetic innovations of the mid-twentieth century and has emerged with sharp criticisms and astute queries that are now embedded in the work. Jones’s work challenges us to understand the frameworks of modernism, which embraced black musical forms but excluded black visual art from its canon. Like Jones, Rashid Johnson mines forgotten histories. His paintings and installations are embedded with bits of cultural memories that edge viewers closer to understanding the complex underpinnings of what it means to be a descendent of the protagonists in one of this country’s ugliest historical chapters. But Johnson’s work is not about oppression. It is about resistance, self-determination, and authorship as well as the celebration of cultural expression. His work Cosmic Slop (2008) is a nod to the commingling of jazz and funk music in the early 1970s, which resulted in the conglomeration of talented musicians under the rubric of Parliament-Funkadelic, the futuristic funk band led by George Clinton. For Johnson, the reference is apt given the unbridled use of materials in the painting, a large rhombus-shaped canvas slathered with pigment, paint, and soap. It reflects the artist’s unique desire to return to modernism through the prism of time travel, armed with the tools of an unbridled black self-determination that refuses to yield, let alone be silenced. The creation of the work requires methods of applying paint that move beyond the brush. And his process harks back to that of his former professor at Columbia College in Chicago, McArthur Binion, whose work is also featured in the exhibition. 145


generations, it has served to underpin aspects of contemporary life and culture. This notion of reverb as a resonance or echo encased in dissonance is an apt metaphor for contemporary life. Reverb is the thing that persists and sets apart the works that make up Black in the Abstract, Part 2. While the exhibition’s premise is concretized in the notion of dynamic restraint, several thematic strains are evident. First, there is no question of the role of visual tonality in the works featured in the exhibition. One of the salient elements of many of these works is the play on pure color that begins in the works of Felrath Hines and Sam Gilliam and is later echoed in the loose grids of Stanley Whitney and Jennie C. Jones and in the shaped canvases of Leslie Smith III. These artists set up an essential framework not only of this exhibition but also of Black in the Abstract, Part 1: Epistrophy, which establishes the abstract practices of black artists as a continuous trajectory as opposed to an anomaly or a phenomenon that ebbs and flows over time. Moreover, despite their nonfigurative practices, black artists have inserted their physical and cultural presences into the work, giving it a physicality, as is evident in the contributions of McArthur Binion, Simone Leigh, and Jack Whitten. Finally black artists have played a key role in the persistent dialogue around painting, its relevance, and its inferred traditions. Foregrounding this interrogation of the medium is the conceptual artist David Hammons, whose works are in close dialogue with those of Derrick Adams, Nathaniel Donnett, Rodney McMillian, Cullen Washington, and Brenna Youngblood.

For the Love of Color. . . Felrath Hines was a colorist and a minimalist. As a painter he flirted with various modes and mannerisms of painting, including Cubism and Abstract Expressionism. What remained from his encounters during this time was the structure and geometry of composition. Geometry in fact would come to define how he would paint for the remainder of his life. Although Hines is presented in this exhibition subtitled Hard Edges / Soft Curves, Holliday T. Day wrote of his work: “This concern for the edge is not just a formal nicety or ‘trick’ for Hines; it keeps his work from being a formal exercise in color theory and composition. It is a ‘crack of light’ that gives a sense of the living to the work.”3 Hines played with the “hard” edges, allowing the edges of his paintbrush to evidence his hand. He never used tape in his work, as he revealed in an interview with the artist and scholar Floyd Coleman: “I don’t want [the painting] to be that stiff. There are a couple of ways that I soften it up, [such as] not quite getting [paint] up to the line.”4 The resulting effect is that of an echo and an implied rhythm that animate his color with volume and intensity. For most of his adult career, Hines worked as a conservator at the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. He was an active member of the Washington, DC, art scene, and while he was acquainted with artists associated with the Washington Color School, he never aligned himself or his art with them. In contrast, Sam Gilliam, whose work appears in both parts of Black in the Abstract, was associated with the Washington Color School. Taking an exploratory approach to painting, Gilliam transformed his style to engage in the dialogue surrounding the medium. In his early works he vacillated between hard edges and free-form mark making, but his hard-edge works of the 1960s and 1970s are stunning examples of the form. Gilliam enlarged the parameters of the hard-edge language by playing with the application of 144

paint on primed and unprimed canvas, allowing the paint at times to lie upon the surface of the canvas and at other times to be absorbed by it. A stellar and rarely seen work from his studio, Gesture (1966), is evidence of the artist’s mastery of such techniques. The work conveys a perceptible sense of movement, as the geometric forms appear to advance and recede within the fixed frame of the stretched canvas. Hines’s and Gilliam’s love of color and movement on the picture plane is shared by abstract painters of subsequent generations. Stanley Whitney has for decades played with the architecture of color, building tight compositions of color grids. A prolific painter, he is at ease working in a variety of formats, from small eight-inch-square canvases to their monumental counterparts. The color fields featured in his work are unique, emphasizing the endless combinations of hue, intensity, and depth that can emerge from the frame. More recently Whitney’s grids have become looser and more gestural as if to play on the expectation of the “edge.” The resulting works pulsate with sound, and even his more muted paintings trigger aural expectations. James Little has also engaged color and movement in his works. Whether in monochromatic or multihued canvases, his use of color is entrenched in polyrhythmic intonation. A masterful colorist, Little mixes his own paints using pigment and wax. The effect of the mixture’s application onto the two-dimensional support is an exercise in visual perception as the eye moves rapidly from one hard-edge strip of color to the next, then up and across competing patterns of chevrons and vertical stripes. Like Whitney, Little provides a bridge between artists such as Hines and Gilliam and a second generation of contemporaries such as Rashid Johnson, Jennie C. Jones, Leslie Smith III, and Nadine Robinson, who have forged their own pathways in minimal abstraction. Jones in particular has explored what Evelyn Hankins has called the “unexplored confluences between abstract visual artists and African-American composers and musicians.” 5 Jones’s ingenious use of acoustic materials in the construction of her paintings is her signature and indicative of her conceptual art roots. Working in painting as well as sound, she has mined the politics, culture, and aesthetic innovations of the mid-twentieth century and has emerged with sharp criticisms and astute queries that are now embedded in the work. Jones’s work challenges us to understand the frameworks of modernism, which embraced black musical forms but excluded black visual art from its canon. Like Jones, Rashid Johnson mines forgotten histories. His paintings and installations are embedded with bits of cultural memories that edge viewers closer to understanding the complex underpinnings of what it means to be a descendent of the protagonists in one of this country’s ugliest historical chapters. But Johnson’s work is not about oppression. It is about resistance, self-determination, and authorship as well as the celebration of cultural expression. His work Cosmic Slop (2008) is a nod to the commingling of jazz and funk music in the early 1970s, which resulted in the conglomeration of talented musicians under the rubric of Parliament-Funkadelic, the futuristic funk band led by George Clinton. For Johnson, the reference is apt given the unbridled use of materials in the painting, a large rhombus-shaped canvas slathered with pigment, paint, and soap. It reflects the artist’s unique desire to return to modernism through the prism of time travel, armed with the tools of an unbridled black self-determination that refuses to yield, let alone be silenced. The creation of the work requires methods of applying paint that move beyond the brush. And his process harks back to that of his former professor at Columbia College in Chicago, McArthur Binion, whose work is also featured in the exhibition. 145


The Body Referenced More than monochromatic gestural paintings, Binion’s works can be regarded as residuals of the body’s physical exertion. The paintings are made by pressing wax crayons onto the surface of a wood panel. The effect is an explosion of texture and color. Binion states: “I take a wax-based crayon and build upon it. It’s a lot of hard work, but the technique is in my wrist. Over and over again. I use my wrist to layer the crayon on top of itself. I take the crayon and apply pressure with my hand—a lot of pressure. The end result is the buildup of the crayon. Over time and repeating the process, I create the texture in my work.” 6 The painting’s surface can also be read as a metaphor for the black body and its tendency toward hyperregeneration of tissue at the site of trauma, which results in keloids, or raised scar tissue. The body and its traces are also evident in the work of Jack Whitten, who instead of using the traditional brush in the application of paint has used squeegees, rakes, and even combs designed for black hair to mark the surfaces of his paintings. The artist builds up layers of paint and then scratches the symbols, lines, and forms that he calls typographies into the surface. He often refers to his painted surfaces as “matter,” capable of transference into light, sound, animated object, and even the body. His paintings are created to be emotive and in return elicit emotive responses from the viewer.7 David Hammons also seeks to stir the emotions of viewers. The work by Hammons featured in this exhibition is an extension of a suite of paintings presented in 2011 at L&M Arts in New York. Ever the consummate trickster, he pulls no punches where “high” art and expectations are concerned. The monumental and colorful gestural paintings in the 2011 show were at once obscured and enhanced by torn sheets of plastic, described as “membranes,” by a New Yorker writer, who also referred to Hammons’s paintings as Minimalist Expressionism, the “synthesis of his political animus and his aesthetic avidity.” 8 Whereas the paintings in the 2011 presentation allowed partial viewing of the canvas, in Tough Love (2013), Hammons has brazenly denied all possibility of viewing what lies beneath the fabric that hangs precariously askew from the top of the large canvas. He plays on the binary of visibility and invisibility, ultimately leaving the viewer with the paradox of the idolization of painting versus its idealized reframing. While many viewers will consider painting the apex of art, Hammons asks them instead to see beauty even in detritus found on the streets of New York, in effect evoking a democratization of the aesthetics of both gallery and street. Nathaniel Donnett, a contemporary of Hammons, also challenges the viewer to see the inherent beauty in the ordinary. His painting Absence (2013), constructed by overlaying plastic bags that have been fused by tearing into and then melting parts of them, forms an ethereal plane. His site-specific work Hairline Fracture (2014), a single line that slowly ascends the center of a temporary wall’s edge, reads as Minimalist gesture. On closer examination, however, what appears to be a vibration along the line is revealed as human hair, black hair, which has been culled from area barbershops and inserted into a trough carved into the drywall. Donnett has cited Arte Povera’s influence on the development of his visual language, which simultaneously seeks to assert its own agency about what is seen and what recedes toward the plane of invisibility. He seeks to marry the clean aesthetic of a Sol LeWitt drawing to the messy exuberance of street tagging, ostensibly using architecture as metaphor and line as political agency.9 146

Presence and absence are also palpable in the work of Rodney McMillian, whose untitled work of 2011 was made from carpeting removed from an abandoned house. On examining the carpet, he noticed markings, indentations, and worn areas as well as pristine areas that had been protected by furniture. The carpet was repurposed by the artist as a monumental painting, and it anchored the exhibition, reaching eighteen feet up the gallery wall with an additional foot of material extending onto the floor. In this work, McMillian replaced the artist’s “hand” and brush as the means and tool of mark making, instead enlisting the repetitive everyday gesture of the body walking across the carpet or that of a chair being moved around or a piece of furniture resting in place. As a conceptual gesture he asks the viewer to experience the work in relation to ordinary life and to see the material of the everyday as art. McMillian’s use of a discarded carpet as a backdrop for his painting is indicative of artistic leanings that continually seek the edges and elasticity of the medium. Even within the language of Minimalism, artists such as Derrick Adams, Simone Leigh, Nadine Robinson, Cullen Washington, and Brenna Youngblood continue to push the boundaries of abstraction through play with objects, light, and sound; the hybridization of painting and sculpture; the use of photography, paint, and paper collage; and the construction of beautiful monochromatic fields interrupted by strategically placed objects. Their works pulsate and reverberate with energy while the sound track of Nadine Robinson’s painting reminds us, “Don’t you know black, black is beautiful.”

NOTES Epigraph: Transcribed from a trailer for Bill Dixon: Going to the Center, a documentary directed by Robert O’Haire and Jeff Burns. “Bill Dixon—Going to the Center,” YouTube video, 0:57, posted by Robert O’Haire, January 25, 2009, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MPyg7VtMCUM. 1. Ben Ratliff, “Bill Dixon, Leading Edge of Avant-garde Jazz, Dies at 84,” New York Times, June 19, 2010. 2. Floyd Coleman, “Thinking and Living Color: Conversations with Abstractionist Felrath Hines,” in Felrath Hines, ed. Floyd Coleman and Holliday T. Day (Indianapolis: Indianapolis Museum of Art, 1995), 11. 3. Holliday T. Day, ”Felrath Hines,” ibid., 5. 4. Felrath Hines, quoted in Coleman, ”Thinking and Living Color,” 9. 5. Evelyn Hankins, Jennie C. Jones: Higher Resonance, exhibition brochure (Washington, DC: Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, 2013). 6. Eric Key, ed., Color Exploration: Simplicity in the Art of McArthur Binion (Adelphi: University of Maryland, University College, 2010), 9. 7. See “Jack Whitten in Conversation with Alexander Gray,” in Jack Whitten (New York: Alexander Gray Associates, 2013), 4–5. 8. “Art: David Hammons,” New Yorker, February 10, 2011, http://www.newyorker.com/goings-on-about-town /art/david-hammons-2. 9. Nathaniel Donnett, notes from lecture at the Contemporary Arts Museum Houston, March 6, 2014.

147


The Body Referenced More than monochromatic gestural paintings, Binion’s works can be regarded as residuals of the body’s physical exertion. The paintings are made by pressing wax crayons onto the surface of a wood panel. The effect is an explosion of texture and color. Binion states: “I take a wax-based crayon and build upon it. It’s a lot of hard work, but the technique is in my wrist. Over and over again. I use my wrist to layer the crayon on top of itself. I take the crayon and apply pressure with my hand—a lot of pressure. The end result is the buildup of the crayon. Over time and repeating the process, I create the texture in my work.” 6 The painting’s surface can also be read as a metaphor for the black body and its tendency toward hyperregeneration of tissue at the site of trauma, which results in keloids, or raised scar tissue. The body and its traces are also evident in the work of Jack Whitten, who instead of using the traditional brush in the application of paint has used squeegees, rakes, and even combs designed for black hair to mark the surfaces of his paintings. The artist builds up layers of paint and then scratches the symbols, lines, and forms that he calls typographies into the surface. He often refers to his painted surfaces as “matter,” capable of transference into light, sound, animated object, and even the body. His paintings are created to be emotive and in return elicit emotive responses from the viewer.7 David Hammons also seeks to stir the emotions of viewers. The work by Hammons featured in this exhibition is an extension of a suite of paintings presented in 2011 at L&M Arts in New York. Ever the consummate trickster, he pulls no punches where “high” art and expectations are concerned. The monumental and colorful gestural paintings in the 2011 show were at once obscured and enhanced by torn sheets of plastic, described as “membranes,” by a New Yorker writer, who also referred to Hammons’s paintings as Minimalist Expressionism, the “synthesis of his political animus and his aesthetic avidity.” 8 Whereas the paintings in the 2011 presentation allowed partial viewing of the canvas, in Tough Love (2013), Hammons has brazenly denied all possibility of viewing what lies beneath the fabric that hangs precariously askew from the top of the large canvas. He plays on the binary of visibility and invisibility, ultimately leaving the viewer with the paradox of the idolization of painting versus its idealized reframing. While many viewers will consider painting the apex of art, Hammons asks them instead to see beauty even in detritus found on the streets of New York, in effect evoking a democratization of the aesthetics of both gallery and street. Nathaniel Donnett, a contemporary of Hammons, also challenges the viewer to see the inherent beauty in the ordinary. His painting Absence (2013), constructed by overlaying plastic bags that have been fused by tearing into and then melting parts of them, forms an ethereal plane. His site-specific work Hairline Fracture (2014), a single line that slowly ascends the center of a temporary wall’s edge, reads as Minimalist gesture. On closer examination, however, what appears to be a vibration along the line is revealed as human hair, black hair, which has been culled from area barbershops and inserted into a trough carved into the drywall. Donnett has cited Arte Povera’s influence on the development of his visual language, which simultaneously seeks to assert its own agency about what is seen and what recedes toward the plane of invisibility. He seeks to marry the clean aesthetic of a Sol LeWitt drawing to the messy exuberance of street tagging, ostensibly using architecture as metaphor and line as political agency.9 146

Presence and absence are also palpable in the work of Rodney McMillian, whose untitled work of 2011 was made from carpeting removed from an abandoned house. On examining the carpet, he noticed markings, indentations, and worn areas as well as pristine areas that had been protected by furniture. The carpet was repurposed by the artist as a monumental painting, and it anchored the exhibition, reaching eighteen feet up the gallery wall with an additional foot of material extending onto the floor. In this work, McMillian replaced the artist’s “hand” and brush as the means and tool of mark making, instead enlisting the repetitive everyday gesture of the body walking across the carpet or that of a chair being moved around or a piece of furniture resting in place. As a conceptual gesture he asks the viewer to experience the work in relation to ordinary life and to see the material of the everyday as art. McMillian’s use of a discarded carpet as a backdrop for his painting is indicative of artistic leanings that continually seek the edges and elasticity of the medium. Even within the language of Minimalism, artists such as Derrick Adams, Simone Leigh, Nadine Robinson, Cullen Washington, and Brenna Youngblood continue to push the boundaries of abstraction through play with objects, light, and sound; the hybridization of painting and sculpture; the use of photography, paint, and paper collage; and the construction of beautiful monochromatic fields interrupted by strategically placed objects. Their works pulsate and reverberate with energy while the sound track of Nadine Robinson’s painting reminds us, “Don’t you know black, black is beautiful.”

NOTES Epigraph: Transcribed from a trailer for Bill Dixon: Going to the Center, a documentary directed by Robert O’Haire and Jeff Burns. “Bill Dixon—Going to the Center,” YouTube video, 0:57, posted by Robert O’Haire, January 25, 2009, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MPyg7VtMCUM. 1. Ben Ratliff, “Bill Dixon, Leading Edge of Avant-garde Jazz, Dies at 84,” New York Times, June 19, 2010. 2. Floyd Coleman, “Thinking and Living Color: Conversations with Abstractionist Felrath Hines,” in Felrath Hines, ed. Floyd Coleman and Holliday T. Day (Indianapolis: Indianapolis Museum of Art, 1995), 11. 3. Holliday T. Day, ”Felrath Hines,” ibid., 5. 4. Felrath Hines, quoted in Coleman, ”Thinking and Living Color,” 9. 5. Evelyn Hankins, Jennie C. Jones: Higher Resonance, exhibition brochure (Washington, DC: Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, 2013). 6. Eric Key, ed., Color Exploration: Simplicity in the Art of McArthur Binion (Adelphi: University of Maryland, University College, 2010), 9. 7. See “Jack Whitten in Conversation with Alexander Gray,” in Jack Whitten (New York: Alexander Gray Associates, 2013), 4–5. 8. “Art: David Hammons,” New Yorker, February 10, 2011, http://www.newyorker.com/goings-on-about-town /art/david-hammons-2. 9. Nathaniel Donnett, notes from lecture at the Contemporary Arts Museum Houston, March 6, 2014.

147


Derrick Adams

Neighbor Hood High Rise, 2011 (opposite left with detail above left)

The Royale, 2011 (opposite right with detail above right) Nathaniel Donnett, Absence, 2013 (partial view on wall)

148

149


Derrick Adams

Neighbor Hood High Rise, 2011 (opposite left with detail above left)

The Royale, 2011 (opposite right with detail above right) Nathaniel Donnett, Absence, 2013 (partial view on wall)

148

149


McArthur Binion

1946: Blanca, 2003 150

1946: Verde, 2003

1946: Violeta, 2003

1946: Negra, 2003

Handmade: Geometry, 1976—77 151


McArthur Binion

1946: Blanca, 2003 150

1946: Verde, 2003

1946: Violeta, 2003

1946: Negra, 2003

Handmade: Geometry, 1976—77 151


Nathaniel Donnett

Hairline Fracture, 2014 152

Absence, 2013 153


Nathaniel Donnett

Hairline Fracture, 2014 152

Absence, 2013 153


Sam Gilliam

Gesture, 1966 154

155


Sam Gilliam

Gesture, 1966 154

155


David Hammons

Tough Love, 2013 156

157


David Hammons

Tough Love, 2013 156

157


Felrath Hines

Yellow on Yellow, c. 1968 158

Kellylike, 1984 159


Felrath Hines

Yellow on Yellow, c. 1968 158

Kellylike, 1984 159


Rashid Johnson

Cosmic Slop, 2008 160

161


Rashid Johnson

Cosmic Slop, 2008 160

161


Jennie C. Jones

Dark Tone with Hidden Reverberation, 2013 162

163


Jennie C. Jones

Dark Tone with Hidden Reverberation, 2013 162

163


Simone Leigh

Koolaide, 2012 (with detail above) 164

165


Simone Leigh

Koolaide, 2012 (with detail above) 164

165


James Little

Juju Boogie Woogie, 2013 166

167


James Little

Juju Boogie Woogie, 2013 166

167


Rodney McMillian

Untitled, 2011

168

169


Rodney McMillian

Untitled, 2011

168

169


Nadine Robinson

Black, 2002 (with detail opposite) 170

171


Nadine Robinson

Black, 2002 (with detail opposite) 170

171


Leslie Smith III

Juliet’s Big City Dreams, 2013 172

Night Twitch, 2013 173


Leslie Smith III

Juliet’s Big City Dreams, 2013 172

Night Twitch, 2013 173


Cullen Washington

Untitled #4, 2012 174

175


Cullen Washington

Untitled #4, 2012 174

175


Stanley Whitney

Insideout, 2011 176

177


Stanley Whitney

Insideout, 2011 176

177


Jack Whitten

Single Loop: For Toots, 2012 178

179


Jack Whitten

Single Loop: For Toots, 2012 178

179


Brenna Youngblood

This Story Has a Great Ending, 2011 180

Untitled, 2012 181


Brenna Youngblood

This Story Has a Great Ending, 2011 180

Untitled, 2012 181


Outside the Lines

182

183


Outside the Lines

182

183


Outside the Lines Painting over the Edge

Dean Daderko

Nonspecific and removed, abstraction is often understood as a purposefully limited relation between humans and their ideas—cutting our sense of things in order to approach their complexity without a full description; disdaining legibility to open richer, multiple readings. It is as if abstract imagination seeks to allow something lost, or something too big to see at once, to creep into our daily vision. The strange thing is that when this happens successfully—we can do more than see differently—we feel differently. —Doug Ashford

A

fter a studio visit, if the art I’ve seen is “good,” I begin to look at the world a bit differently: I might step onto the sidewalk and notice a particular tint of grayish purple I saw in the studio, a material juxtaposition, or a spatial situation that feels newly familiar. While these impressions can be difficult to describe initially, they become clearer over time. I chalk this up to the fact that my experiences may not have an obvious precedent: artworks often invent new languages, and as viewers we need time to understand them. The languages I’m talking about here aren’t limited by verbalization. In such a case, the artwork itself is literally the embodiment of a new observable, theoretical model. Outside the Lines began to take shape about three years ago in response to work I was seeing in the studios of numerous painters. The paint, canvas, and stretcher bars that constituted conventional paintings were being reconfigured in ways that translated the twodimensional picture plane into a three-dimensional experience. I don’t intend to imply that Pages 182—83: Outside the Lines, Contemporary Arts Museum Houston, 2013—14 (installation view) Page 184: Dona Nelson, A Perfect Spring Day, 2009 (detail)

184

185


Outside the Lines Painting over the Edge

Dean Daderko

Nonspecific and removed, abstraction is often understood as a purposefully limited relation between humans and their ideas—cutting our sense of things in order to approach their complexity without a full description; disdaining legibility to open richer, multiple readings. It is as if abstract imagination seeks to allow something lost, or something too big to see at once, to creep into our daily vision. The strange thing is that when this happens successfully—we can do more than see differently—we feel differently. —Doug Ashford

A

fter a studio visit, if the art I’ve seen is “good,” I begin to look at the world a bit differently: I might step onto the sidewalk and notice a particular tint of grayish purple I saw in the studio, a material juxtaposition, or a spatial situation that feels newly familiar. While these impressions can be difficult to describe initially, they become clearer over time. I chalk this up to the fact that my experiences may not have an obvious precedent: artworks often invent new languages, and as viewers we need time to understand them. The languages I’m talking about here aren’t limited by verbalization. In such a case, the artwork itself is literally the embodiment of a new observable, theoretical model. Outside the Lines began to take shape about three years ago in response to work I was seeing in the studios of numerous painters. The paint, canvas, and stretcher bars that constituted conventional paintings were being reconfigured in ways that translated the twodimensional picture plane into a three-dimensional experience. I don’t intend to imply that Pages 182—83: Outside the Lines, Contemporary Arts Museum Houston, 2013—14 (installation view) Page 184: Dona Nelson, A Perfect Spring Day, 2009 (detail)

184

185


a commonly understood definition for the term painting exists or that there should or could be one. As the artist David Reed has observed, painting is extremely efficient at absorbing influences from other mediums and synthesizing them into new hybrid forms.1 In some cases, the paintings I was seeing were sculptural, and in others, painting was recognized as a performative act. Works were being made out of surprising materials; in addition to linen, canvas, stretchers, and paint, I saw plaster, steel, vinyl, and polyester fabric. This is not to say that the works I saw rejected painting’s history or its precedents; rather, the artists making these works were more likely to recognize and appreciate this history and build on it. They found new ways to address the past and present of the medium by pushing beyond its perceived limits and boundaries to explore exciting new frontiers. I have a vivid memory of the view I took in as I entered Siobhan Liddell’s exhibition Ordinary Magic at CRG Gallery.2 A series of tables painted in brightly colored enamels populated the space. It was as though the paintings had drifted off the walls and were levitating midway down. Simple constructions made of wood, paper, wire, and string animated the tables’ surfaces. The arrangements felt intentionally tenuous and had a gentle, even comedic energy, as if all the unnecessary parts had been stripped away, or as if just enough material had been pulled together to create a composition and evoke a particular energy or affect. Liddell’s works are elemental and ephemeral in this way. Two such tables are included in Outside the Lines. In Folded Painting (2013), a paper construction with pleated facets painted with stripes of black, white, red, and green sits in the center of a shiny primary-red wooden table. As one circles the work, the colored facets blend into and stand out against the tabletop’s bright enamel ground. This isn’t a painting on a table; Folded Painting is a painting as a table. A few feet away from Liddell’s tables, we see a painting that bears a resemblance to early modernist works like those of Joan Miró or Jean Arp; it shares their bright, clear colors; eccentric geometries; and lyrical linearity. It may come as a surprise when these shapes begin to move or get painted in, revealing that this image is a video projection. Leidy Churchman’s Blood (2013) transports painting into a new realm in which the medium is as much about action as it is about composition and in which the activity and chances normally taken in the privacy of the artist’s studio are rendered public. With Blood, Churchman manages to make a painting and quote the tropes of making a painting simultaneously. Shot from an angle somewhere between straight-on and overhead, the painted images being produced on the floor exist on a receding perspectival plane, yet it’s easy to see these compositions as two-dimensional. Churchman drags sticks and brushes over a white ground; covered in wet red, yellow, or black paint, these objects scuff the floor beneath them, leaving traces of color in their path. When he steps on a sea sponge atop a painting and drags it along to produce an abstract gesture, he’s creating a painting by smearing paint away. As we view Blood, it becomes increasingly clear that Churchman’s mischievous painterly acts are sincere investigations that offer an infusion of vitality to a time-honored medium by coming at it sidelong. Sarah Cain’s untitled work of 2013 was a vibrantly colored mural-scale painting wrapped over three zigzagging walls of CAMH’s Brown Foundation Gallery. Conceived for the space and painted on-site, the geometric composition camouflaged a large double door in the central wall. Two stretched canvases the size of the doorframe were installed on either side of the door on the adjoining perpendicular walls. Repeating black vertical and horizontal bands divided the surfaces into irregularly sized rectangles, reflecting a sensibility that 186

referenced both comic strips and Mondrian. These demarcated rectangular areas received different treatments: they were sprayed, splashed, rolled, and covered with layers of washes. Airbrushed orange squiggles animated one section, and more voluminous sky-blue, peach, and dusky-purple lines snaked through another. In one area, the canvas was cut away to reveal the wall behind it, and both surfaces were repainted, leaving a halo of color barely visible between the canvas and the wall itself. Thrift-shopped objects also figured into the composition: kitschy plastic leis framed holes that in actuality were painted; a beaded “southwestern” scarf and a silk scarf with a Pop art graphic softened harder edges of the architectural transitions; a smattering of press-on bows were attached, sprayed over, and selectively removed to reveal their negative image in white. Sprays of red carnations were arranged in four vases that were perched atop one canvas.3 Orangey (2011) by Dona Nelson hovered over the Brown Foundation Gallery’s floor, suspended from pipes stretching up to the twenty-two-foot-high ceiling. The artist Benny Merris smartly observed that, in floating above the floor, it “ventilated” the space. Meant to be seen in the round, Nelson’s paintings are produced by a process that involves constant negotiation and movement between its opposing faces: she slices flaps into the canvas, punctures it, and uses a power washer to force paint through it, staining both stretchers and crossbars in the process. “Front” and “back” soon become relative terms, and a side can easily be flipped around to become a top, objectifying the “plane” of painting as it twists and turns through space. A translucent red liquid poured over Orangey while it was lying facedown dripped through some punctured holes and hardened into tiny drips that poke out from the surface of the upright canvas like nipples. Nelson drew lines on the canvas with sticks of charcoal and by attaching ropey lengths of brightly dyed muslin and cheesecloth to the painting’s surface with acrylic medium. Orangey’s complementary blue and orange palette sustained a spirited hum in the space, blending into and setting itself apart from works by Travis Boyer and Katy Heinlein that emerged from the space behind and around it. Katy Heinlein strips the medium of painting down to its elemental building blocks— stretchers, canvas, and paint—and then deconstructs and reinterprets them. In As If (2013), “stretchers” are reimagined as two lengths of lumber connected at their ends by a third, shorter piece, making an angular loop. One end of this circuit rests on the floor, and the other is hoisted into the air by a complex web of ribbons sewn from baby-blue fabric tied to the roof trusses in the gallery’s ceiling. Heinlein collapses the distinction between “canvas” and “paint” by working with colored fabric. Though she uses a variety of fabrics in her work, she favors synthetics like polyester and rayon that come in a wide variety of colors and can be draped easily. Her palette is carefully calibrated. She appreciates the associative possibilities of “off ” colors—think of nude tones or the avocados and burnt oranges of 1970s North American kitchens. In As If, strips of fabric with rounded corners drape over each wooden bar. One of them is vibrant red-orange; the other has a russet tone. Both of them find a pleasant contrast in the loops of light-blue ribbon. A long strip of frosty, acidy, butter-colored dupioni silk runs over both pieces of lumber and the orange material draped over them, uniting these two elements. The silk strip dangles from the top edge of the “stretcher” and seems to flow from the bottom one. Heinlein coaxes the fabric into ripples that suggest a liquid pool. Though its constituent parts feel familiar, As If reconfigures them into an eccentric painting-object. Like her colors, the “stretchers,” “canvas,” and “paint” that Heinlein works with are “off ” in the most engaging and intriguing of ways. 187


a commonly understood definition for the term painting exists or that there should or could be one. As the artist David Reed has observed, painting is extremely efficient at absorbing influences from other mediums and synthesizing them into new hybrid forms.1 In some cases, the paintings I was seeing were sculptural, and in others, painting was recognized as a performative act. Works were being made out of surprising materials; in addition to linen, canvas, stretchers, and paint, I saw plaster, steel, vinyl, and polyester fabric. This is not to say that the works I saw rejected painting’s history or its precedents; rather, the artists making these works were more likely to recognize and appreciate this history and build on it. They found new ways to address the past and present of the medium by pushing beyond its perceived limits and boundaries to explore exciting new frontiers. I have a vivid memory of the view I took in as I entered Siobhan Liddell’s exhibition Ordinary Magic at CRG Gallery.2 A series of tables painted in brightly colored enamels populated the space. It was as though the paintings had drifted off the walls and were levitating midway down. Simple constructions made of wood, paper, wire, and string animated the tables’ surfaces. The arrangements felt intentionally tenuous and had a gentle, even comedic energy, as if all the unnecessary parts had been stripped away, or as if just enough material had been pulled together to create a composition and evoke a particular energy or affect. Liddell’s works are elemental and ephemeral in this way. Two such tables are included in Outside the Lines. In Folded Painting (2013), a paper construction with pleated facets painted with stripes of black, white, red, and green sits in the center of a shiny primary-red wooden table. As one circles the work, the colored facets blend into and stand out against the tabletop’s bright enamel ground. This isn’t a painting on a table; Folded Painting is a painting as a table. A few feet away from Liddell’s tables, we see a painting that bears a resemblance to early modernist works like those of Joan Miró or Jean Arp; it shares their bright, clear colors; eccentric geometries; and lyrical linearity. It may come as a surprise when these shapes begin to move or get painted in, revealing that this image is a video projection. Leidy Churchman’s Blood (2013) transports painting into a new realm in which the medium is as much about action as it is about composition and in which the activity and chances normally taken in the privacy of the artist’s studio are rendered public. With Blood, Churchman manages to make a painting and quote the tropes of making a painting simultaneously. Shot from an angle somewhere between straight-on and overhead, the painted images being produced on the floor exist on a receding perspectival plane, yet it’s easy to see these compositions as two-dimensional. Churchman drags sticks and brushes over a white ground; covered in wet red, yellow, or black paint, these objects scuff the floor beneath them, leaving traces of color in their path. When he steps on a sea sponge atop a painting and drags it along to produce an abstract gesture, he’s creating a painting by smearing paint away. As we view Blood, it becomes increasingly clear that Churchman’s mischievous painterly acts are sincere investigations that offer an infusion of vitality to a time-honored medium by coming at it sidelong. Sarah Cain’s untitled work of 2013 was a vibrantly colored mural-scale painting wrapped over three zigzagging walls of CAMH’s Brown Foundation Gallery. Conceived for the space and painted on-site, the geometric composition camouflaged a large double door in the central wall. Two stretched canvases the size of the doorframe were installed on either side of the door on the adjoining perpendicular walls. Repeating black vertical and horizontal bands divided the surfaces into irregularly sized rectangles, reflecting a sensibility that 186

referenced both comic strips and Mondrian. These demarcated rectangular areas received different treatments: they were sprayed, splashed, rolled, and covered with layers of washes. Airbrushed orange squiggles animated one section, and more voluminous sky-blue, peach, and dusky-purple lines snaked through another. In one area, the canvas was cut away to reveal the wall behind it, and both surfaces were repainted, leaving a halo of color barely visible between the canvas and the wall itself. Thrift-shopped objects also figured into the composition: kitschy plastic leis framed holes that in actuality were painted; a beaded “southwestern” scarf and a silk scarf with a Pop art graphic softened harder edges of the architectural transitions; a smattering of press-on bows were attached, sprayed over, and selectively removed to reveal their negative image in white. Sprays of red carnations were arranged in four vases that were perched atop one canvas.3 Orangey (2011) by Dona Nelson hovered over the Brown Foundation Gallery’s floor, suspended from pipes stretching up to the twenty-two-foot-high ceiling. The artist Benny Merris smartly observed that, in floating above the floor, it “ventilated” the space. Meant to be seen in the round, Nelson’s paintings are produced by a process that involves constant negotiation and movement between its opposing faces: she slices flaps into the canvas, punctures it, and uses a power washer to force paint through it, staining both stretchers and crossbars in the process. “Front” and “back” soon become relative terms, and a side can easily be flipped around to become a top, objectifying the “plane” of painting as it twists and turns through space. A translucent red liquid poured over Orangey while it was lying facedown dripped through some punctured holes and hardened into tiny drips that poke out from the surface of the upright canvas like nipples. Nelson drew lines on the canvas with sticks of charcoal and by attaching ropey lengths of brightly dyed muslin and cheesecloth to the painting’s surface with acrylic medium. Orangey’s complementary blue and orange palette sustained a spirited hum in the space, blending into and setting itself apart from works by Travis Boyer and Katy Heinlein that emerged from the space behind and around it. Katy Heinlein strips the medium of painting down to its elemental building blocks— stretchers, canvas, and paint—and then deconstructs and reinterprets them. In As If (2013), “stretchers” are reimagined as two lengths of lumber connected at their ends by a third, shorter piece, making an angular loop. One end of this circuit rests on the floor, and the other is hoisted into the air by a complex web of ribbons sewn from baby-blue fabric tied to the roof trusses in the gallery’s ceiling. Heinlein collapses the distinction between “canvas” and “paint” by working with colored fabric. Though she uses a variety of fabrics in her work, she favors synthetics like polyester and rayon that come in a wide variety of colors and can be draped easily. Her palette is carefully calibrated. She appreciates the associative possibilities of “off ” colors—think of nude tones or the avocados and burnt oranges of 1970s North American kitchens. In As If, strips of fabric with rounded corners drape over each wooden bar. One of them is vibrant red-orange; the other has a russet tone. Both of them find a pleasant contrast in the loops of light-blue ribbon. A long strip of frosty, acidy, butter-colored dupioni silk runs over both pieces of lumber and the orange material draped over them, uniting these two elements. The silk strip dangles from the top edge of the “stretcher” and seems to flow from the bottom one. Heinlein coaxes the fabric into ripples that suggest a liquid pool. Though its constituent parts feel familiar, As If reconfigures them into an eccentric painting-object. Like her colors, the “stretchers,” “canvas,” and “paint” that Heinlein works with are “off ” in the most engaging and intriguing of ways. 187


In his Piñata Portals series, Travis Boyer uses torn strips of hand-dyed silk to create voluminous, furry coats for architecturally scaled plywood arches that are fastened to the wall. Boyer’s works draw on his skill with and investigations of textiles, taking inspiration from the marigold-covered archways constructed in Mexico for Day of the Dead celebrations as well as from Philip Johnson’s architecture. The silk strips festooning the surfaces of both the works shown in Outside the Lines derive their color from a combination of natural and synthetic dyes. Aloha Away’s (2012) peachy pink comes from a homemade onion-skin dye, and Ballets Russes Basement (2012) gets its color primarily from natural indigo dye. At sixteen feet high, the works are impressively scaled, and the relationship between the open wall space they frame—an empty center—is balanced by the sculptural materiality of their shaggy coats. Boyer’s F-14 Air Show (2012) is a cyanotype on silk that the artist has painted with fabric dyes. The white silhouettes of belts and a dog leash captured when the treated fabric was exposed to sunlight and turned blue appear to be launching into the sky. The occasional movement of air in the gallery ripples the unstretched silk painting. A few strides away from Orangey, a second painting by Dona Nelson, titled A Perfect Spring Day (2009), sits on the floor atop a heavy blackened-steel stand. A complex web of drips is evidence that the canvas was being turned as paint ran down its surface. The canvas and wooden stretchers stained a deep phthalocyanine green offer a contrast to Liddell’s shiny red tabletop a few feet away. The vitality of green also breathes life into a series of thirteen paintings by Churchman, lined up edge to edge on a gray plinth. The raw linen surfaces of all but one of the modestly scaled canvases in Lazy River (2012) are covered with blocky, organic abstractions painted in black, white, and deep, dark green. A single canvas includes a representational image: a cawing seagull standing atop a dark pillar. Suddenly Lazy River’s other canvases acquire an unexpected nautical tenor. The previously nonobjective paintings become lighthouses, an anchor, and semaphore flags as the arbitrary boundary between abstraction and representation is erased. On the floor between Nelson’s paintings, each face of Susie Rosmarin’s Cube #1 (2006) is painted with dense and precisely measured grids of lines in alternating colors. The diagonal stripes orienting each of the five grids connect at the cube’s corners rather than its edges. Suddenly the stable, rational cube conveys an unexpectedly dynamic and crystalline impression. Approached from an oblique angle, one can sense the volume of a pink pyramid lodged inside the cube. Given Rosmarin’s careful orchestration of transitions between colors and the width and density of the lines, Cube #1 appears to emit an interior light. Though the work’s surfaces are resolutely flat, Rosmarin creates a convincing impression of depth, volume, and transparency. Turn 180 degrees to face the gallery’s outer wall, and another painting by Rosmarin, Untitled (#455) (2013)—this one devoid of color—suggests a different volume and dynamism. It situates a central black-and-white square within the larger gray square of the canvas. Thick lines originating in the center of the work become exponentially thinner as they progress toward its outer edges. Some vertically oriented lines appear to be the same gray as the background. The centralized form’s horizontal divisions are interrupted by white stripes that appear to be buried in it. The diminishing width of the lines as they expand toward the edges of the canvas conveys the convincing impression that a cylinder has been

188

embedded into this two-dimensional surface. Bulging in the middle, it even seems to rotate on its vertical axis as you move through the room. Adjacent to Rosmarin’s painting, a selection of works by Fabienne Lasserre animates a corner of the gallery. Operator (2012)—a freestanding column made of PVC, felt, steel wire, vinyl, linen, and acrylic polymer, among other materials—greets viewers at one entrance to the exhibition. Clear vinyl stretched around a coil atop the work resembles the eye of a needle, and the drips of white paint running over the vinyl seem to float in the air. The column this loop emerges from is deeply textured, built up from strips of linen and bits of wool felt that are covered with a coat of white paint; the fibers underneath peek out. The work’s base, painted cobalt blue, is kicked up by the addition of a piece of turquoise PVC pipe. Operator is joined by Unblinking (2011)—a sculpture made of similar material that also possesses animated, figural qualities—and three other works. The Actants (both 2012) are steel poles wrapped with strips of linen that are dyed in a variety of colors. Actant 2 leans against the wall, its ovoid shape resembling a circle that has started to melt or sag, and Actant 3 kicks out from the wall in a balletic arabesque. Hanging between these works is Are (White, Brown, Red, Aqua, Yellow) (2013). The twists and turns of the copper tubing that supports its face of densely colored cast paper cause the work to undulate over the surface of the wall like a warped drum skin. With titles like Our Communication, Our Sky, Our Rhythm, Our Repose, Our School, and Our Inebriation, the works of Benny Merris suggest the coming together of individuals with like minds. The two groupings of paintings presented on knee-high pedestals each become a family of sorts. Each of these works includes an elaborately painted wood panel mounted atop an equally elaborately painted piece of wood cut from the trunk and branches of a maple tree. These assemblages tilt and list in a variety of directions, like signs held above the heads of a group of protestors or like a field of wildflowers swaying in a breeze. Because they share this common construction, expressive and singular personalities emerge as we compare the individual paintings; they are excited, elegant, and mystic by turns. Adding additional layers of character, Merris balances the hard-edge geometries that he produces through processes of taping and masking with liquid washes and blended gradations of paint that feel organic and spontaneous. Though they are modestly scaled, his panel paintings imply a profound sense of depth; supported on lavishly painted logs, the works become totemic windows and portals into other dimensions. The artists represented in Outside the Lines are expanding the boundaries of abstract painting with work that explores and occupies space in new ways. Unconstrained by the flat surfaces of a canvas, their works invite us to experience painting as a complex and layered combination of image, object, architecture, and event. NOTES Epigraph: Doug Ashford, “Abstraction and Empathy,” in Writings and Conversations, ed. Krist Gruijthuijsen (Graz, Austria: Grazer Kunstverein; Milan: Mousse Publishing, 2013). 1. David Reed, conversation with the author, 2008. 2. Liddell’s exhibition Ordinary Magic was on view at CRG Gallery in New York from April 15 to June 5, 2010. See http://crggallery.com/exhibitions/siobhan-liddell-ordinary-magic/. 3. Special thanks are due to Sarah Cain, for her enthusiasm and hard work on this project, and to Jon Hopson, who acted as Cain’s assistant during the installation process.

189


In his Piñata Portals series, Travis Boyer uses torn strips of hand-dyed silk to create voluminous, furry coats for architecturally scaled plywood arches that are fastened to the wall. Boyer’s works draw on his skill with and investigations of textiles, taking inspiration from the marigold-covered archways constructed in Mexico for Day of the Dead celebrations as well as from Philip Johnson’s architecture. The silk strips festooning the surfaces of both the works shown in Outside the Lines derive their color from a combination of natural and synthetic dyes. Aloha Away’s (2012) peachy pink comes from a homemade onion-skin dye, and Ballets Russes Basement (2012) gets its color primarily from natural indigo dye. At sixteen feet high, the works are impressively scaled, and the relationship between the open wall space they frame—an empty center—is balanced by the sculptural materiality of their shaggy coats. Boyer’s F-14 Air Show (2012) is a cyanotype on silk that the artist has painted with fabric dyes. The white silhouettes of belts and a dog leash captured when the treated fabric was exposed to sunlight and turned blue appear to be launching into the sky. The occasional movement of air in the gallery ripples the unstretched silk painting. A few strides away from Orangey, a second painting by Dona Nelson, titled A Perfect Spring Day (2009), sits on the floor atop a heavy blackened-steel stand. A complex web of drips is evidence that the canvas was being turned as paint ran down its surface. The canvas and wooden stretchers stained a deep phthalocyanine green offer a contrast to Liddell’s shiny red tabletop a few feet away. The vitality of green also breathes life into a series of thirteen paintings by Churchman, lined up edge to edge on a gray plinth. The raw linen surfaces of all but one of the modestly scaled canvases in Lazy River (2012) are covered with blocky, organic abstractions painted in black, white, and deep, dark green. A single canvas includes a representational image: a cawing seagull standing atop a dark pillar. Suddenly Lazy River’s other canvases acquire an unexpected nautical tenor. The previously nonobjective paintings become lighthouses, an anchor, and semaphore flags as the arbitrary boundary between abstraction and representation is erased. On the floor between Nelson’s paintings, each face of Susie Rosmarin’s Cube #1 (2006) is painted with dense and precisely measured grids of lines in alternating colors. The diagonal stripes orienting each of the five grids connect at the cube’s corners rather than its edges. Suddenly the stable, rational cube conveys an unexpectedly dynamic and crystalline impression. Approached from an oblique angle, one can sense the volume of a pink pyramid lodged inside the cube. Given Rosmarin’s careful orchestration of transitions between colors and the width and density of the lines, Cube #1 appears to emit an interior light. Though the work’s surfaces are resolutely flat, Rosmarin creates a convincing impression of depth, volume, and transparency. Turn 180 degrees to face the gallery’s outer wall, and another painting by Rosmarin, Untitled (#455) (2013)—this one devoid of color—suggests a different volume and dynamism. It situates a central black-and-white square within the larger gray square of the canvas. Thick lines originating in the center of the work become exponentially thinner as they progress toward its outer edges. Some vertically oriented lines appear to be the same gray as the background. The centralized form’s horizontal divisions are interrupted by white stripes that appear to be buried in it. The diminishing width of the lines as they expand toward the edges of the canvas conveys the convincing impression that a cylinder has been

188

embedded into this two-dimensional surface. Bulging in the middle, it even seems to rotate on its vertical axis as you move through the room. Adjacent to Rosmarin’s painting, a selection of works by Fabienne Lasserre animates a corner of the gallery. Operator (2012)—a freestanding column made of PVC, felt, steel wire, vinyl, linen, and acrylic polymer, among other materials—greets viewers at one entrance to the exhibition. Clear vinyl stretched around a coil atop the work resembles the eye of a needle, and the drips of white paint running over the vinyl seem to float in the air. The column this loop emerges from is deeply textured, built up from strips of linen and bits of wool felt that are covered with a coat of white paint; the fibers underneath peek out. The work’s base, painted cobalt blue, is kicked up by the addition of a piece of turquoise PVC pipe. Operator is joined by Unblinking (2011)—a sculpture made of similar material that also possesses animated, figural qualities—and three other works. The Actants (both 2012) are steel poles wrapped with strips of linen that are dyed in a variety of colors. Actant 2 leans against the wall, its ovoid shape resembling a circle that has started to melt or sag, and Actant 3 kicks out from the wall in a balletic arabesque. Hanging between these works is Are (White, Brown, Red, Aqua, Yellow) (2013). The twists and turns of the copper tubing that supports its face of densely colored cast paper cause the work to undulate over the surface of the wall like a warped drum skin. With titles like Our Communication, Our Sky, Our Rhythm, Our Repose, Our School, and Our Inebriation, the works of Benny Merris suggest the coming together of individuals with like minds. The two groupings of paintings presented on knee-high pedestals each become a family of sorts. Each of these works includes an elaborately painted wood panel mounted atop an equally elaborately painted piece of wood cut from the trunk and branches of a maple tree. These assemblages tilt and list in a variety of directions, like signs held above the heads of a group of protestors or like a field of wildflowers swaying in a breeze. Because they share this common construction, expressive and singular personalities emerge as we compare the individual paintings; they are excited, elegant, and mystic by turns. Adding additional layers of character, Merris balances the hard-edge geometries that he produces through processes of taping and masking with liquid washes and blended gradations of paint that feel organic and spontaneous. Though they are modestly scaled, his panel paintings imply a profound sense of depth; supported on lavishly painted logs, the works become totemic windows and portals into other dimensions. The artists represented in Outside the Lines are expanding the boundaries of abstract painting with work that explores and occupies space in new ways. Unconstrained by the flat surfaces of a canvas, their works invite us to experience painting as a complex and layered combination of image, object, architecture, and event. NOTES Epigraph: Doug Ashford, “Abstraction and Empathy,” in Writings and Conversations, ed. Krist Gruijthuijsen (Graz, Austria: Grazer Kunstverein; Milan: Mousse Publishing, 2013). 1. David Reed, conversation with the author, 2008. 2. Liddell’s exhibition Ordinary Magic was on view at CRG Gallery in New York from April 15 to June 5, 2010. See http://crggallery.com/exhibitions/siobhan-liddell-ordinary-magic/. 3. Special thanks are due to Sarah Cain, for her enthusiasm and hard work on this project, and to Jon Hopson, who acted as Cain’s assistant during the installation process.

189


Travis Boyer

F-14 Air Show, 2012 190

Ballets Russes Basement, 2012 (left)

Aloha, Away, 2012 (right) Katy Heinlein, As If, 2013 (foreground)

191


Travis Boyer

F-14 Air Show, 2012 190

Ballets Russes Basement, 2012 (left)

Aloha, Away, 2012 (right) Katy Heinlein, As If, 2013 (foreground)

191


Sarah Cain

Untitled, 2013 192

193


Sarah Cain

Untitled, 2013 192

193


Leidy Churchman

Blood, 2013 (video still and installation view) 194

195


Leidy Churchman

Blood, 2013 (video still and installation view) 194

195


Katy Heinlein

Bellows, 2008 196

As If, 2013 (foreground)

Bow-bow, 2008—9

Bellows, 2008 197


Katy Heinlein

Bellows, 2008 196

As If, 2013 (foreground)

Bow-bow, 2008—9

Bellows, 2008 197


Fabienne Lasserre

Actant 2, 2012 Operator, 2012 (foreground) 198

Are (White, Brown, Red, Aqua, Yellow), 2013

Actant 3, 2012

Unblinking, 2011 (foreground) 199


Fabienne Lasserre

Actant 2, 2012 Operator, 2012 (foreground) 198

Are (White, Brown, Red, Aqua, Yellow), 2013

Actant 3, 2012

Unblinking, 2011 (foreground) 199


Siobhan Liddell

From left, on wall: Untitled Untitled Untitled All 2013 Untitled, 2013 200

Folded Painting, 2013 (foreground) 201


Siobhan Liddell

From left, on wall: Untitled Untitled Untitled All 2013 Untitled, 2013 200

Folded Painting, 2013 (foreground) 201


Benny Merris

From left: Our Communication Our Health Our Inebriation Our Diversion Our Repose Our Dwelling Our Work All 2013

202

203


Benny Merris

From left: Our Communication Our Health Our Inebriation Our Diversion Our Repose Our Dwelling Our Work All 2013

202

203


Dona Nelson

Orangey, 2011 204

205


Dona Nelson

Orangey, 2011 204

205


Susie Rosmarin

Untitled (#455), 2013 206

Cube #4, 2010

Cube #1, 2006 207


Susie Rosmarin

Untitled (#455), 2013 206

Cube #4, 2010

Cube #1, 2006 207


Rites of Spring

208

209


Rites of Spring

208

209


Rites of Spring Evidence of Feeling: The Figure in the Abstract Dean Daderko

L

e Sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring) premiered at the Théâtre des ChampsÉlysées in Paris during the 1913 season of Sergey Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes. With music by Igor Stravinsky, choreography by Vaslav Nijinsky, and set designs and costumes by Nicholas Roerich, the ballet proved so jarring that its opening-night audience rioted. Stravinsky said the work was a paean to the mystery and surge of energy that come when the earth awakens from its winter slumber, but audience members were less sympathetic to his vision. They had seen what is reputed to be one of the first modern ballets, but without entry or reference points by which to understand it, they widely rejected it. Rites of Spring draws inspiration from its theatrical namesake in a variety of ways: it proposes new visual experiences; it’s structured around bodies, bodily presence, and gestures; it’s sexy and celebrates primal energy; and it appreciates the productive tension that can be established by situating the familiar in the unfamiliar, and vice versa. Its installation below ground level in CAMH’s Nina and Michael Zilkha Gallery seems to underline its relationship to terrestrial awakening. The presence of a figure in a composition communicates a sense of relative scale. Moreover, as a threshold between thought, feeling, and external experience, our bodies are units of measure for psychological as well as physical perceptions; we often imagine ourselves in someone else’s position. The dance between abstraction and figuration is the beating heart of artistic investigations by many modernist artists.

Pages 208—9: Rites of Spring, Contemporary Arts Museum Houston, 2013—14 (installation view) Page 210: Brenna Youngblood, 3 dollar bill (dirty money), 2013 (detail) 210

211


Rites of Spring Evidence of Feeling: The Figure in the Abstract Dean Daderko

L

e Sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring) premiered at the Théâtre des ChampsÉlysées in Paris during the 1913 season of Sergey Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes. With music by Igor Stravinsky, choreography by Vaslav Nijinsky, and set designs and costumes by Nicholas Roerich, the ballet proved so jarring that its opening-night audience rioted. Stravinsky said the work was a paean to the mystery and surge of energy that come when the earth awakens from its winter slumber, but audience members were less sympathetic to his vision. They had seen what is reputed to be one of the first modern ballets, but without entry or reference points by which to understand it, they widely rejected it. Rites of Spring draws inspiration from its theatrical namesake in a variety of ways: it proposes new visual experiences; it’s structured around bodies, bodily presence, and gestures; it’s sexy and celebrates primal energy; and it appreciates the productive tension that can be established by situating the familiar in the unfamiliar, and vice versa. Its installation below ground level in CAMH’s Nina and Michael Zilkha Gallery seems to underline its relationship to terrestrial awakening. The presence of a figure in a composition communicates a sense of relative scale. Moreover, as a threshold between thought, feeling, and external experience, our bodies are units of measure for psychological as well as physical perceptions; we often imagine ourselves in someone else’s position. The dance between abstraction and figuration is the beating heart of artistic investigations by many modernist artists.

Pages 208—9: Rites of Spring, Contemporary Arts Museum Houston, 2013—14 (installation view) Page 210: Brenna Youngblood, 3 dollar bill (dirty money), 2013 (detail) 210

211


Exhibitions are opportunities to ask questions in a public forum. Rites of Spring explores new territories that emerge from the hybridization of painting with photography. Each medium has its own particular language and terminologies. In what ways can these languages be mixed and combined? What new ideas will develop as we invent language to describe this unfamiliar position? In developing this exhibition, I thought about the common perception that “abstraction” and “representation” are opposites. Wouldn’t it be more interesting and productive to free them from this arbitrary binary relationship and consider the relativity of abstraction and representation across a more fluid and shifting spectrum? In addition, conversations about abstraction usually address its presence in painting. What about finding “the abstract” in photography, a medium long respected for its precision as a straightforwardly representational documentary form? In Single and Successful? and 3 dollar bill (dirty money) (both 2013), Brenna Youngblood collages unique photographic fragments into painterly fields. There’s something nearly hieroglyphic about the way she redeploys bits of photographs that have been torn or sliced from larger images. By situating these images in despoiled monochromatic backgrounds, Youngblood offers a poetic and even humorous counterpoint to the matter-of-factness of the photographic components of her paintings. In Jennifer Packer’s painting Lost in Translation (2013), multiple bodies, seen from above, appear to be immersed in a pool of golden liquid. The scene is erotic. Hands are clasped, and the boundaries between bodies are not entirely clear, as if they’re melting into one another; the transparency and fluidity of Packer’s deft brushwork heighten these impressions of transformation and flux. A sense of liquidity also animates 117 (2013) by Mariah Robertson. Her large-scale photographs are “painted” in the darkroom with color-developing chemicals. Crumples, creases, and tears suggest the physicality of her practice, as do the drips, pools, splashes, and bleeds that she freezes in time through her physically engaged developing process. Five works by Troy Michie are also grouped nearby. Dense layers of paint and paper are built up, scrubbed, scraped, and worn back down. The name Miguel, seemingly cut from a magazine, and a sheet of glass have been glued to the surface of a panel in one work. In another, a sliver of neck and arm sliced from what appears to be a pornographic magazine is sandwiched under broken glass that has been mended with blue vinyl tape. Michie’s work conflates geologic time and memory, with stories lodged between the layers. The surface of #275 (1989), a painting by David Reed, overflows with gestural marks suggesting folds of drapery suffused with golden light. A gray-green band pulsating with more focused waves stretches from one side of the painting to the other; here the quality of light suggests X-rays and photographic negatives. A single, sinuous yellow mark bound by a black rectangle sits atop both these passages. The extreme, seemingly photographic flatness of #275’s surface contrasts with the painting’s suggestion of volume and spatial depth. The precision of Reed’s painting is countered by the dense, chaotic materiality of Abigail DeVille’s installation Television Torus (2014). Fake wood paneling, the headboard of a bed, 212

a screen door, window shutters, bike wheels, and piles of outdated AV equipment look like they’re being sucked into a cyclone. The static hiss of televisions punctuates the scene and offers a flickering light. Drawing on DeVille’s interests in science and science fiction, astronomy, and entropy, her raucous composition of scavenged material delivers the convincing impression that space as we know it is coming apart at the seams. Felix 2009 (2009), a painting by Joyce Pensato, feels ambitiously oversize and frantic in the best of ways. Halos of spatter and spray amplify the silver and black enamel outlines of the cartoony figure, clueing us in as to how quickly he came to be. Pensato’s unlikely fusion of expressionistic painting with the simplified iconography present in cartoons may seem paradoxical at first, but both are linked by their simple and direct emotional resonances. Robert Melee’s work, like Pensato’s, revels in drama, but his is of a different and stranger order. In Clock Her (2011), a mannequin arm stretches out from the top of a deconstructed grandfather clock. This uncanny figure is enveloped by hardened folds of plaster-stiffened fabric that Melee drip-coats in a riot of bright colors. Preying Unit (2012) is a wall-mounted shelving unit whose available surfaces are crammed with cheap picture frames, beer bottle caps, candles, assorted junk, and kitschy figurines. Emerging from this chaos, a video monitor plays an endless loop of a naked man kneeling on the ground with his back to us while a swarm of wigs circles his head. If this composed mess suggests that the party’s over, it’s clear that Melee isn’t about to let it stop. He celebrates the freaky and creepy not as thoughtless acts of provocation but because we all have it in us; it’s part of who we are whether or not it’s on display. Smut Peddlers (2013–14) directs Chris Cascio’s obsession with the collection and categorization of items of interest toward a consideration of the body and the profane. For this work Cascio created a seemingly exhaustive list of sexual interests and perversions that he blew up and hand painted onto a wall. Writ large, the words become an extended frame for a print that he painstakingly produced by tiling together hundreds of advertisements clipped from the back pages of vintage porn magazines. The print perches atop two waist-high stacks of these publications. Visually and psychologically graphic, Smut Peddlers suggests the spectral range of human interactions generated by our most basic instincts. Degradation animates Eileen Quinlan’s newest photographs, albeit in a very different way. The Nothing (2013) is a black-and-white print that she developed using a compromised negative. Showing clear evidence of scratches and damage, Quinlan’s final print fixes the negative’s failure into a stable image-form. Cloudy, flaky, and nondescript, her analog image captures a moment in time while simultaneously suggesting that photographs, as material objects destined to age and decay like all others, are also subject to time. Michele Abeles and Lucas Blalock transform photographic images with digital interventions. The fundamental building block of Abeles’s practice is the ubiquitous desktop window. She creates windows and populates them with snippets of original and stock photographic images, then tiles, layers, and patches them into montaged compositions. The sense of interior light and the placeless virtuality of desktops achieve a physical form in 213


Exhibitions are opportunities to ask questions in a public forum. Rites of Spring explores new territories that emerge from the hybridization of painting with photography. Each medium has its own particular language and terminologies. In what ways can these languages be mixed and combined? What new ideas will develop as we invent language to describe this unfamiliar position? In developing this exhibition, I thought about the common perception that “abstraction” and “representation” are opposites. Wouldn’t it be more interesting and productive to free them from this arbitrary binary relationship and consider the relativity of abstraction and representation across a more fluid and shifting spectrum? In addition, conversations about abstraction usually address its presence in painting. What about finding “the abstract” in photography, a medium long respected for its precision as a straightforwardly representational documentary form? In Single and Successful? and 3 dollar bill (dirty money) (both 2013), Brenna Youngblood collages unique photographic fragments into painterly fields. There’s something nearly hieroglyphic about the way she redeploys bits of photographs that have been torn or sliced from larger images. By situating these images in despoiled monochromatic backgrounds, Youngblood offers a poetic and even humorous counterpoint to the matter-of-factness of the photographic components of her paintings. In Jennifer Packer’s painting Lost in Translation (2013), multiple bodies, seen from above, appear to be immersed in a pool of golden liquid. The scene is erotic. Hands are clasped, and the boundaries between bodies are not entirely clear, as if they’re melting into one another; the transparency and fluidity of Packer’s deft brushwork heighten these impressions of transformation and flux. A sense of liquidity also animates 117 (2013) by Mariah Robertson. Her large-scale photographs are “painted” in the darkroom with color-developing chemicals. Crumples, creases, and tears suggest the physicality of her practice, as do the drips, pools, splashes, and bleeds that she freezes in time through her physically engaged developing process. Five works by Troy Michie are also grouped nearby. Dense layers of paint and paper are built up, scrubbed, scraped, and worn back down. The name Miguel, seemingly cut from a magazine, and a sheet of glass have been glued to the surface of a panel in one work. In another, a sliver of neck and arm sliced from what appears to be a pornographic magazine is sandwiched under broken glass that has been mended with blue vinyl tape. Michie’s work conflates geologic time and memory, with stories lodged between the layers. The surface of #275 (1989), a painting by David Reed, overflows with gestural marks suggesting folds of drapery suffused with golden light. A gray-green band pulsating with more focused waves stretches from one side of the painting to the other; here the quality of light suggests X-rays and photographic negatives. A single, sinuous yellow mark bound by a black rectangle sits atop both these passages. The extreme, seemingly photographic flatness of #275’s surface contrasts with the painting’s suggestion of volume and spatial depth. The precision of Reed’s painting is countered by the dense, chaotic materiality of Abigail DeVille’s installation Television Torus (2014). Fake wood paneling, the headboard of a bed, 212

a screen door, window shutters, bike wheels, and piles of outdated AV equipment look like they’re being sucked into a cyclone. The static hiss of televisions punctuates the scene and offers a flickering light. Drawing on DeVille’s interests in science and science fiction, astronomy, and entropy, her raucous composition of scavenged material delivers the convincing impression that space as we know it is coming apart at the seams. Felix 2009 (2009), a painting by Joyce Pensato, feels ambitiously oversize and frantic in the best of ways. Halos of spatter and spray amplify the silver and black enamel outlines of the cartoony figure, clueing us in as to how quickly he came to be. Pensato’s unlikely fusion of expressionistic painting with the simplified iconography present in cartoons may seem paradoxical at first, but both are linked by their simple and direct emotional resonances. Robert Melee’s work, like Pensato’s, revels in drama, but his is of a different and stranger order. In Clock Her (2011), a mannequin arm stretches out from the top of a deconstructed grandfather clock. This uncanny figure is enveloped by hardened folds of plaster-stiffened fabric that Melee drip-coats in a riot of bright colors. Preying Unit (2012) is a wall-mounted shelving unit whose available surfaces are crammed with cheap picture frames, beer bottle caps, candles, assorted junk, and kitschy figurines. Emerging from this chaos, a video monitor plays an endless loop of a naked man kneeling on the ground with his back to us while a swarm of wigs circles his head. If this composed mess suggests that the party’s over, it’s clear that Melee isn’t about to let it stop. He celebrates the freaky and creepy not as thoughtless acts of provocation but because we all have it in us; it’s part of who we are whether or not it’s on display. Smut Peddlers (2013–14) directs Chris Cascio’s obsession with the collection and categorization of items of interest toward a consideration of the body and the profane. For this work Cascio created a seemingly exhaustive list of sexual interests and perversions that he blew up and hand painted onto a wall. Writ large, the words become an extended frame for a print that he painstakingly produced by tiling together hundreds of advertisements clipped from the back pages of vintage porn magazines. The print perches atop two waist-high stacks of these publications. Visually and psychologically graphic, Smut Peddlers suggests the spectral range of human interactions generated by our most basic instincts. Degradation animates Eileen Quinlan’s newest photographs, albeit in a very different way. The Nothing (2013) is a black-and-white print that she developed using a compromised negative. Showing clear evidence of scratches and damage, Quinlan’s final print fixes the negative’s failure into a stable image-form. Cloudy, flaky, and nondescript, her analog image captures a moment in time while simultaneously suggesting that photographs, as material objects destined to age and decay like all others, are also subject to time. Michele Abeles and Lucas Blalock transform photographic images with digital interventions. The fundamental building block of Abeles’s practice is the ubiquitous desktop window. She creates windows and populates them with snippets of original and stock photographic images, then tiles, layers, and patches them into montaged compositions. The sense of interior light and the placeless virtuality of desktops achieve a physical form in 213


her prints; they may be her fictions, but they come from a place familiar to us all. Humorous and disconcerting, Blalock’s Big Bear (2012) was created by copying, cutting, and pasting photographic details of a rustic stone chimney back atop the source image that produced them. Blalock doesn’t attempt to hide or blend his digital steps: the sharp edges of cloned segments give the image away as a constructed reality, but his composite images approach believability nonetheless. Adding to this subterfuge, the color, pattern, and scale of the masonry generate a nearly psychedelic impression that this chimney is built from hunks of marbled raw meat. Abeles and Blalock expose reality as a construction in and of itself. Ulrike Müller’s Mirrors (2013) are a group of vitreous enamel paintings on steel plates. The artist sifts powdered glass, also known as frit, onto the steel substrate and heats it in a kiln until it flows and fuses. Suggestive images emerge from the hard, glassy surface of each plate. Mirrors’ simple and severe geometries and reduced color palette operate in an ambiguous space of representation; at one moment they suggest the corporeal and the intimate, and in the next they become symbols, ciphers, and allusions. They evade simple interpretations, instead courting an array of possibilities. Paleolithic statuettes of female forms, like the well-known Woman of Willendorf (c. 28,000–25,000 BCE), inspired the untitled photographs from Pinar Yolacan’s series Like a Rock (2011). The bodies of Yolacan’s undressed female subjects are coated in a monochrome layer of nontoxic latex body paint and photographed against vibrantly colored backdrops. She crops her subjects at head and foot to establish a congruity with the ancient statuettes, but this provocative framing may also suggest darker undercurrents of female subjugation for some viewers. Like their sources of inspiration, these prints can also be seen as celebrations of the fertile and the erotic. Nicole Eisenman’s investigation of portraiture combines her deep respect for painting’s history with admirable technical facility and her singular sense of wit to challenge some of painting’s oldest and most shopworn representational habits. If painting has historically objectified women, she flays such a notion with humor and verve. In the works on view here—Sailor Guy (2010), Handsome Older Woman (2012), and Untitled (2013)—Eisenman explores a variety of printmaking methods, augmenting them with unique collaged elements and drawing. The characters and caricatures that she creates are a much-needed shot in the arm to a medium that can easily get mired in the flab of its patriarchal history. Josh Faught’s textile-dependent riffs on painting have a decidedly queer sensibility. His work eschews the overly simplified binary hierarchies of high versus low art or painting versus craft; instead he celebrates the fruitful outcomes of their interpenetration. His untitled work of 2013 is a freestanding “painting” woven from natural fibers, adorned with sequins and buttons bearing jokes and slogans and “stretched” over a trellis-like structure. With the addition of a few suggestive props—a glass of milk and a plate of cookies, a black cat, and a pair of legs with striped tights and buckled pointy shoes that emerge from under-

214

neath the painting—Faught orchestrates a mash up between Saint Nick and the Wicked Witch of the West. Humor and craft become vehicles to couch more pointed questions about socialized beliefs and individual visibility. On finishing the installation of Rites of Spring, I was struck by its visual consistency and the harmonies achieved by two distinct mediums. There’s an easy affinity between painting and photography, and they’ve been hybridized in multiple ways. Initially I wondered if representational imagery and abstraction could comfortably coexist. The works in this exhibition prove that they can and most certainly do and that the perceived boundaries between them continue to break down. Whether depicted in images or sensed through the traces of their gestures, bodies offer a stabilizing reference in abstract fields; we use them to orient ourselves and identify with the narratives and affective contexts in which we encounter them. Each of these mediums works to expand and extend the reach of the other, offering us new places in which to find ourselves.

215


her prints; they may be her fictions, but they come from a place familiar to us all. Humorous and disconcerting, Blalock’s Big Bear (2012) was created by copying, cutting, and pasting photographic details of a rustic stone chimney back atop the source image that produced them. Blalock doesn’t attempt to hide or blend his digital steps: the sharp edges of cloned segments give the image away as a constructed reality, but his composite images approach believability nonetheless. Adding to this subterfuge, the color, pattern, and scale of the masonry generate a nearly psychedelic impression that this chimney is built from hunks of marbled raw meat. Abeles and Blalock expose reality as a construction in and of itself. Ulrike Müller’s Mirrors (2013) are a group of vitreous enamel paintings on steel plates. The artist sifts powdered glass, also known as frit, onto the steel substrate and heats it in a kiln until it flows and fuses. Suggestive images emerge from the hard, glassy surface of each plate. Mirrors’ simple and severe geometries and reduced color palette operate in an ambiguous space of representation; at one moment they suggest the corporeal and the intimate, and in the next they become symbols, ciphers, and allusions. They evade simple interpretations, instead courting an array of possibilities. Paleolithic statuettes of female forms, like the well-known Woman of Willendorf (c. 28,000–25,000 BCE), inspired the untitled photographs from Pinar Yolacan’s series Like a Rock (2011). The bodies of Yolacan’s undressed female subjects are coated in a monochrome layer of nontoxic latex body paint and photographed against vibrantly colored backdrops. She crops her subjects at head and foot to establish a congruity with the ancient statuettes, but this provocative framing may also suggest darker undercurrents of female subjugation for some viewers. Like their sources of inspiration, these prints can also be seen as celebrations of the fertile and the erotic. Nicole Eisenman’s investigation of portraiture combines her deep respect for painting’s history with admirable technical facility and her singular sense of wit to challenge some of painting’s oldest and most shopworn representational habits. If painting has historically objectified women, she flays such a notion with humor and verve. In the works on view here—Sailor Guy (2010), Handsome Older Woman (2012), and Untitled (2013)—Eisenman explores a variety of printmaking methods, augmenting them with unique collaged elements and drawing. The characters and caricatures that she creates are a much-needed shot in the arm to a medium that can easily get mired in the flab of its patriarchal history. Josh Faught’s textile-dependent riffs on painting have a decidedly queer sensibility. His work eschews the overly simplified binary hierarchies of high versus low art or painting versus craft; instead he celebrates the fruitful outcomes of their interpenetration. His untitled work of 2013 is a freestanding “painting” woven from natural fibers, adorned with sequins and buttons bearing jokes and slogans and “stretched” over a trellis-like structure. With the addition of a few suggestive props—a glass of milk and a plate of cookies, a black cat, and a pair of legs with striped tights and buckled pointy shoes that emerge from under-

214

neath the painting—Faught orchestrates a mash up between Saint Nick and the Wicked Witch of the West. Humor and craft become vehicles to couch more pointed questions about socialized beliefs and individual visibility. On finishing the installation of Rites of Spring, I was struck by its visual consistency and the harmonies achieved by two distinct mediums. There’s an easy affinity between painting and photography, and they’ve been hybridized in multiple ways. Initially I wondered if representational imagery and abstraction could comfortably coexist. The works in this exhibition prove that they can and most certainly do and that the perceived boundaries between them continue to break down. Whether depicted in images or sensed through the traces of their gestures, bodies offer a stabilizing reference in abstract fields; we use them to orient ourselves and identify with the narratives and affective contexts in which we encounter them. Each of these mediums works to expand and extend the reach of the other, offering us new places in which to find ourselves.

215


Michele Abeles

2013, 2013 216

792012, 2012

Leaf, Grid, Ladder, Black, White, 2011 217


Michele Abeles

2013, 2013 216

792012, 2012

Leaf, Grid, Ladder, Black, White, 2011 217


Lucas Blalock

hands and feet, 2013 218

Big Bear, 2012 219


Lucas Blalock

hands and feet, 2013 218

Big Bear, 2012 219


Chris Cascio

Smut Peddlers, 2013—14 220

Perversions of the Flesh, 1994—2014 221


Chris Cascio

Smut Peddlers, 2013—14 220

Perversions of the Flesh, 1994—2014 221


Abigail DeVille

Television Torus, 2014 (installation views with detail above) 222

223


Abigail DeVille

Television Torus, 2014 (installation views with detail above) 222

223


Nicole Eisenman

Sailor Guy, 2010 (top and opposite) 224

Untitled, 2013

Handsome Older Woman, 2013 225


Nicole Eisenman

Sailor Guy, 2010 (top and opposite) 224

Untitled, 2013

Handsome Older Woman, 2013 225


Josh Faught

Untitled, 2013 (with detail above) 226

227


Josh Faught

Untitled, 2013 (with detail above) 226

227


Robert Melee

Preying Unit, 2012 228

Clock Her, 2011 229


Robert Melee

Preying Unit, 2012 228

Clock Her, 2011 229


Troy Michie

Clockwise from top left: Shhhhoulder, 2012 Quite-Giddy, 2012 Black Mamba, 2012 Mon Amour, 2012 Quite-Giddy, 2012 (detail) 230

Rear Window, 2012

231


Troy Michie

Clockwise from top left: Shhhhoulder, 2012 Quite-Giddy, 2012 Black Mamba, 2012 Mon Amour, 2012 Quite-Giddy, 2012 (detail) 230

Rear Window, 2012

231


Ulrike MĂźller

Mirrors, 2013 232

Mirrors, 2013 233


Ulrike MĂźller

Mirrors, 2013 232

Mirrors, 2013 233


Jennifer Packer

Ivan, 2013 234

Lost in Translation, 2013 235


Jennifer Packer

Ivan, 2013 234

Lost in Translation, 2013 235


Joyce Pensato

Felix 2009, 2009 236

237


Joyce Pensato

Felix 2009, 2009 236

237


Eileen Quinlan

The Pond, 2011 238

The Nothing, 2013 (with detail opposite)

The Rose is finished (for Kate), 2010 239


Eileen Quinlan

The Pond, 2011 238

The Nothing, 2013 (with detail opposite)

The Rose is finished (for Kate), 2010 239


David Reed

#275, 1989 (with detail opposite) 240

241


David Reed

#275, 1989 (with detail opposite) 240

241


Mariah Robertson

117, 2013 (with detail above) 242

243


Mariah Robertson

117, 2013 (with detail above) 242

243


Pinar Yolacan

Untitled, 2011 244

245


Pinar Yolacan

Untitled, 2011 244

245


Brenna Youngblood

Single and Successful?, 2013 246

3 dollar bill (dirty money), 2013 247


Brenna Youngblood

Single and Successful?, 2013 246

3 dollar bill (dirty money), 2013 247


WORKS IN THE EXHIBITION

UIA (Unlikely Iterations of the Abstract)

Outside the Lines

Tauba Auerbach RGB Colorspace Atlas, 2011

October 31, 2013– March 23, 2014

October 31, 2013–January 5, 2014 Curated by Bill Arning

Digital offset print on paper, case-bound book with airbrushed cloth cover and page edges 3 parts, 8 × 8 × 8 inches each Courtesy the artist and Paula Cooper Gallery, New York

Chris Bogia Contact Lens, 2013 Yarn on wood 52 × 42 inches Courtesy the artist

Dancing Boy / Pink Moon, 2013 Yarn on wood 52 × 42 inches Courtesy the artist

Carol Bove Untitled, 2012 Feathers on linen under Plexiglas 38 × 25 × 5 inches Courtesy Vito Schnabel, New York

Tom Burr On Catherine Slip, 2013

Wool blanket and upholstery tacks on plywood 72 × 72 × 3 inches Courtesy the artist and Bortolami Gallery, New York

Two Blue Night Stands, 2013

Wool blanket and upholstery tacks on plywood 72 × 72 × 3 inches Courtesy the artist and Bortolami Gallery, New York

Julia Dault Untitled 32, 9:45 AM—2:30 PM, October 22, 2013, 2013

Formica, Plexiglas, Everlast boxing wraps, string Dimensions variable (as installed: 88 × 66 × 38½ inches) Courtesy the artist and Marianne Boesky Gallery, New York

Gabriel Dawe Plexus no. 24, 2013

Gutermann thread, wood, hooks Dimensions variable Courtesy the artist; Conduit Gallery, Dallas; and Zadok Gallery, Miami

Cheryl Donegan Untitled (Blue and Black Gingham), 2013

Fabric on MDF board 30 × 23 inches Courtesy the artist and David Shelton Gallery, Houston

Untitled (Two Orange Ginghams), 2013

Fabric on MDF board 30 × 23 inches Courtesy the artist and David Shelton Gallery, Houston

Christian Eckart Sacra Conversazione Painting— Versione Follia, 2013

Acrylic urethane on aluminum 78 × 69 × 17 inches Courtesy the artist and McClain Gallery, Houston

Danielle Frankenthal See In / Be Seen, 2013

Paul Lee Tambourine (yellow, grey, pink),

Jeffrey Gibson Drum Column, 2012

Tambourine (yellow, red, pink),

Acrylic resin, acrylic paint, aluminum 2 parts, 56 × 36 × 48 inches each Courtesy the artist

Acrylic paint, elk hide, drums made by Jess McMann-Sparvier, rawhide lacing, artificial sinew Dimensions variable The Ko Collection, New York Courtesy Marc Straus, New York, and Samsøn, Boston

2013 Tambourine, basswood, acrylic paint 11½ × 11½ × 3⅞ inches Courtesy the artist and Maccarone, New York

2013 Tambourine, basswood, acrylic paint 11½ × 11½ × 3¾ inches Collection Alex Marshall, New York

Love Song, 2012 Video, black and white, sound 4:09 minutes Courtesy Marc Straus, New York, and Samsøn, Boston

Daniel Levine Perv’s House, 2001–10

Nathan Green Light-frame Prop. (400B/410B),

Untitled #4, 2006–12

2013 Foam core, spray insulation foam, paper, glue, latex, wood, hardware 101 × 98 × 6 inches Courtesy the artist and Art Palace, Houston

Gilbert Hsiao Hit Parade, 2013

Acrylic on vinyl, shellac recordings, turntables Dimensions variable Courtesy the artist; Gallery Sonja Roesch, Houston; and Minus Space, New York.

Oil on cotton 40 × 39½ inches Courtesy the artist and Churner and Churner, New York

Oil on cotton 22 × 21 inches Courtesy the artist and Churner and Churner, New York

Gavin Perry Untitled, 2013

Pigmented resin 72 × 9 × 9 inches Courtesy the artist and Barbara Davis Gallery, Houston

Jack Pierson ABSTRACT #12, 2008

Metal, wood, plastic 75 × 93 × 5½ inches Courtesy the artist and Cheim & Read, New York

Stephen Prina Blind No. 15, Fifteen-foot ceiling or lower (Primary Magenta / Phthalo Blue [Red Shade] / Hansa Yellow Opaque / Primary Yellow), 2011

Acrylic on linen, window-blind mechanism 3 panels, 183 × 41 inches each, installed throughout exhibition space Courtesy the artist; Petzel, New York; and Galerie Gisela Capitain, Cologne

Brian Zink Composition in 2662 Red, 2793 Red, and 3015 White, 2013 Colored Plexiglas 35 × 30 inches Courtesy the artist and Miller Yezerski Gallery, Boston

Composition in 3001 Gray, 2025 Black, and 3015 White, 2013

Colored Plexiglas 45 × 45 inches Courtesy the artist and Miller Yezerski Gallery, Boston

Untitled, 2013 Pigmented resin 96 × 12 × 12 inches Courtesy the artist and Barbara Davis Gallery, Houston

Mark Flood Quetzal Feather, 2013

Acrylic on canvas 94 × 70 inches Courtesy the artist and Zach Feuer Gallery, New York

248

249


WORKS IN THE EXHIBITION

UIA (Unlikely Iterations of the Abstract)

Outside the Lines

Tauba Auerbach RGB Colorspace Atlas, 2011

October 31, 2013– March 23, 2014

October 31, 2013–January 5, 2014 Curated by Bill Arning

Digital offset print on paper, case-bound book with airbrushed cloth cover and page edges 3 parts, 8 × 8 × 8 inches each Courtesy the artist and Paula Cooper Gallery, New York

Chris Bogia Contact Lens, 2013 Yarn on wood 52 × 42 inches Courtesy the artist

Dancing Boy / Pink Moon, 2013 Yarn on wood 52 × 42 inches Courtesy the artist

Carol Bove Untitled, 2012 Feathers on linen under Plexiglas 38 × 25 × 5 inches Courtesy Vito Schnabel, New York

Tom Burr On Catherine Slip, 2013

Wool blanket and upholstery tacks on plywood 72 × 72 × 3 inches Courtesy the artist and Bortolami Gallery, New York

Two Blue Night Stands, 2013

Wool blanket and upholstery tacks on plywood 72 × 72 × 3 inches Courtesy the artist and Bortolami Gallery, New York

Julia Dault Untitled 32, 9:45 AM—2:30 PM, October 22, 2013, 2013

Formica, Plexiglas, Everlast boxing wraps, string Dimensions variable (as installed: 88 × 66 × 38½ inches) Courtesy the artist and Marianne Boesky Gallery, New York

Gabriel Dawe Plexus no. 24, 2013

Gutermann thread, wood, hooks Dimensions variable Courtesy the artist; Conduit Gallery, Dallas; and Zadok Gallery, Miami

Cheryl Donegan Untitled (Blue and Black Gingham), 2013

Fabric on MDF board 30 × 23 inches Courtesy the artist and David Shelton Gallery, Houston

Untitled (Two Orange Ginghams), 2013

Fabric on MDF board 30 × 23 inches Courtesy the artist and David Shelton Gallery, Houston

Christian Eckart Sacra Conversazione Painting— Versione Follia, 2013

Acrylic urethane on aluminum 78 × 69 × 17 inches Courtesy the artist and McClain Gallery, Houston

Danielle Frankenthal See In / Be Seen, 2013

Paul Lee Tambourine (yellow, grey, pink),

Jeffrey Gibson Drum Column, 2012

Tambourine (yellow, red, pink),

Acrylic resin, acrylic paint, aluminum 2 parts, 56 × 36 × 48 inches each Courtesy the artist

Acrylic paint, elk hide, drums made by Jess McMann-Sparvier, rawhide lacing, artificial sinew Dimensions variable The Ko Collection, New York Courtesy Marc Straus, New York, and Samsøn, Boston

2013 Tambourine, basswood, acrylic paint 11½ × 11½ × 3⅞ inches Courtesy the artist and Maccarone, New York

2013 Tambourine, basswood, acrylic paint 11½ × 11½ × 3¾ inches Collection Alex Marshall, New York

Love Song, 2012 Video, black and white, sound 4:09 minutes Courtesy Marc Straus, New York, and Samsøn, Boston

Daniel Levine Perv’s House, 2001–10

Nathan Green Light-frame Prop. (400B/410B),

Untitled #4, 2006–12

2013 Foam core, spray insulation foam, paper, glue, latex, wood, hardware 101 × 98 × 6 inches Courtesy the artist and Art Palace, Houston

Gilbert Hsiao Hit Parade, 2013

Acrylic on vinyl, shellac recordings, turntables Dimensions variable Courtesy the artist; Gallery Sonja Roesch, Houston; and Minus Space, New York.

Oil on cotton 40 × 39½ inches Courtesy the artist and Churner and Churner, New York

Oil on cotton 22 × 21 inches Courtesy the artist and Churner and Churner, New York

Gavin Perry Untitled, 2013

Pigmented resin 72 × 9 × 9 inches Courtesy the artist and Barbara Davis Gallery, Houston

Jack Pierson ABSTRACT #12, 2008

Metal, wood, plastic 75 × 93 × 5½ inches Courtesy the artist and Cheim & Read, New York

Stephen Prina Blind No. 15, Fifteen-foot ceiling or lower (Primary Magenta / Phthalo Blue [Red Shade] / Hansa Yellow Opaque / Primary Yellow), 2011

Acrylic on linen, window-blind mechanism 3 panels, 183 × 41 inches each, installed throughout exhibition space Courtesy the artist; Petzel, New York; and Galerie Gisela Capitain, Cologne

Brian Zink Composition in 2662 Red, 2793 Red, and 3015 White, 2013 Colored Plexiglas 35 × 30 inches Courtesy the artist and Miller Yezerski Gallery, Boston

Composition in 3001 Gray, 2025 Black, and 3015 White, 2013

Colored Plexiglas 45 × 45 inches Courtesy the artist and Miller Yezerski Gallery, Boston

Untitled, 2013 Pigmented resin 96 × 12 × 12 inches Courtesy the artist and Barbara Davis Gallery, Houston

Mark Flood Quetzal Feather, 2013

Acrylic on canvas 94 × 70 inches Courtesy the artist and Zach Feuer Gallery, New York

248

249


Painting: A Love Story

Black in the Abstract Part 1: Epistrophy

January 18–March 23, 2014 Curated by Bill Arning

October 31, 2013–January 19, 2014 Curated by Valerie Cassel Oliver

Richard Aldrich Untitled, 2003

Oil and wax on board 14 × 10½ inches Courtesy the artist and Bortolami Gallery, New York

Untitled, 2012–13

Keltie Ferris Boogie Stick, 2013

Oil and acrylic on canvas Diptych: 80 × 3 inches, 60 × 4¾ inches Courtesy the artist and MitchellInnes & Nash, New York

Inside Out, 2013

Spray paint on lapacho plank 101¾ × 17½ × 1½ inches Courtesy the artist and DODGEgallery, New York

Sam Reveles Karst, 2012

Mister Sister, 2013 Oil and acrylic on canvas 80 × 80 inches Collection David Madee, Summit, New Jersey

Oil and acrylic on canvas 64 × 86½ inches Courtesy the artist and Talley Dunn Gallery, Dallas

2013 Oil on canvas 42 × 72 inches Courtesy the artist and Inman Gallery, Houston

Charline von Heyl Pancalist, 2012

Cordy Ryman Rafterweb Scrapwall V2,

Andrew Brischler Sacrilege, 2013

Slow Tramp, 2012 Oil and acrylic on canvas 82 × 72 inches Collection Evan Snyderman and Zesty Meyers, New York

Oil and wax on panel 19 × 13 inches Collection Lois Plehn, New York

David Aylsworth Immature and Incurably Green,

Acrylic, Flashe, marker, and colored pencil on canvas over panel 84 × 72 inches Courtesy the artist and Gavlak Gallery, Palm Beach, Florida

Joseph Cohen Proposition 395, 2013

Pigment, gold, iron, varnish, and resin on foam and wood 63 × 43 × 16 inches Collection Michel Muylle, Houston

Matt Connors VIDEO, 2012

Acrylic and colored pencil on canvas 44 × 34 inches The Romanelli Collection, Los Angeles

250

Oil and acrylic on canvas 82 × 78 inches Collection Suzanne Deal Booth and David G. Booth, Austin

Geoff Hippenstiel Murder Ballad, 2013

Oil on canvas 119 × 79 inches Courtesy Devin Borden Gallery, Houston

Eva Lundsager Seeing Changing, 2012–13

Oil on linen 54 × 66 inches Courtesy the artist

Jason Middlebrook Breakthrough, 2012

Acrylic on maple plank 77½ × 16½ × 1½ inches Courtesy the artist and DODGEgallery, New York

Candida Alvarez dadadahlia, 2005–8

Acrylic and oil on canvas 84 × 72 inches Courtesy the artist

Romare Bearden Strange Land, 1960

Oil on canvas 58 × 42 inches Courtesy the Estate of Nanette Bearden and DC Moore Gallery, New York

Nick Cave Tondo, 2010

2012–13 Acrylic, shellac, and enamel on wood Dimensions variable Courtesy the artist and DODGEgallery, New York

Found beaded garments, wool, wood 4 × 120 (diameter) inches Courtesy the artist and Jack Shainman Gallery, New York

Amy Sillman Feet, 2011

Kevin Cole 3am Sunrise wings for TC, 2009

Oil on canvas 51 × 49 inches Collection Carole Server and Oliver Frankel, New York

Shane Tolbert Untitled, 2013

Mixed media on wood 61 × 82 × 12 inches Collection the artist

Abigail DeVille Harlem World, 2011

Acrylic on canvas 90 × 72 inches Courtesy the artist and McClain Gallery, Houston

Found wood panels, latex, enamel, tempera, paper pulp, tape 96 × 72 inches Courtesy the artist

Scott Treleaven Untitled (for Philip Larkin), 2012

Sam Gilliam One On, 1972

Pastel, crayon, gesso, gouache, pencil, house paint, and collage on paper 50¾ × 116⅝ inches Courtesy the artist and InvisibleExports, New York

Acrylic on canvas 112 × 80 inches Courtesy the artist

Richard Mayhew Summit, 2004

James Philips Self Awareness, c. 1971

Jayson Musson Men Committing Mad Sin, 2012

Untitled, c. 1972 Acrylic on canvas 63 × 78 inches Courtesy Jill Nelson, New York

Oil on canvas 54 × 54 inches Courtesy the artist and ACA Galleries, New York

Mercerized cotton Coogi sweaters stretched on linen 81½ × 120 inches Hudgins Family, New York; courtesy Salon 94 Bowery, New York

Floyd Newsum Sirigu Purple Rain, 2012

Oil, collage 65 × 60 inches Courtesy the artist and Wade Wilson Gallery, Houston

Angel Otero Everything and Nothing, 2011

Collaged oil-paint skins on canvas 97¼ × 86 × 3½ inches Courtesy the artist and Kavi Gupta Gallery, Chicago

John Outterbridge Rag and Bag Idiom III, 2012

Mixed media 34 × 14 × 7½ inches Collection of Shelly and Neil Mitchell, New York

Rag and Bag Idiom IV, 2012

Mixed media 32 × 12 × 5¾ inches Courtesy Tilton Gallery, New York

Acrylic on canvas 40 × 30 inches Courtesy the artist

Howardena Pindell Untitled #20: (Dutch Wives, Circled and Squared), 1978

Acrylic, dye, punched papers, sequins, glitter, and powder on sewn canvas 86 × 110 inches Courtesy the artist and Garth Greenan Gallery, New York

Frank Smith Sweet Sixteen Bars, c. 1995

Acrylic, fiber, and mixed media on canvas 60 × 192 inches Courtesy the artist

Shinique Smith Chrysanthemum, 2013

Clothing, fabric, ribbon, wood 2 × 41 (diameter) inches

Hammer, 2013 Clothing, fabric, bamboo, ribbon, rope 44 × 24 × 14½ inches Kaleidoscope, 2013 Ink and acrylic on panel 96 × 96 × 2 inches All courtesy the artist and James Cohan Gallery, New York

Rag and Bag Idiom VI, 2012

Mixed media 14¾ × 12 × 6¼ inches Courtesy Tilton Gallery, New York 251


Painting: A Love Story

Black in the Abstract Part 1: Epistrophy

January 18–March 23, 2014 Curated by Bill Arning

October 31, 2013–January 19, 2014 Curated by Valerie Cassel Oliver

Richard Aldrich Untitled, 2003

Oil and wax on board 14 × 10½ inches Courtesy the artist and Bortolami Gallery, New York

Untitled, 2012–13

Keltie Ferris Boogie Stick, 2013

Oil and acrylic on canvas Diptych: 80 × 3 inches, 60 × 4¾ inches Courtesy the artist and MitchellInnes & Nash, New York

Inside Out, 2013

Spray paint on lapacho plank 101¾ × 17½ × 1½ inches Courtesy the artist and DODGEgallery, New York

Sam Reveles Karst, 2012

Mister Sister, 2013 Oil and acrylic on canvas 80 × 80 inches Collection David Madee, Summit, New Jersey

Oil and acrylic on canvas 64 × 86½ inches Courtesy the artist and Talley Dunn Gallery, Dallas

2013 Oil on canvas 42 × 72 inches Courtesy the artist and Inman Gallery, Houston

Charline von Heyl Pancalist, 2012

Cordy Ryman Rafterweb Scrapwall V2,

Andrew Brischler Sacrilege, 2013

Slow Tramp, 2012 Oil and acrylic on canvas 82 × 72 inches Collection Evan Snyderman and Zesty Meyers, New York

Oil and wax on panel 19 × 13 inches Collection Lois Plehn, New York

David Aylsworth Immature and Incurably Green,

Acrylic, Flashe, marker, and colored pencil on canvas over panel 84 × 72 inches Courtesy the artist and Gavlak Gallery, Palm Beach, Florida

Joseph Cohen Proposition 395, 2013

Pigment, gold, iron, varnish, and resin on foam and wood 63 × 43 × 16 inches Collection Michel Muylle, Houston

Matt Connors VIDEO, 2012

Acrylic and colored pencil on canvas 44 × 34 inches The Romanelli Collection, Los Angeles

250

Oil and acrylic on canvas 82 × 78 inches Collection Suzanne Deal Booth and David G. Booth, Austin

Geoff Hippenstiel Murder Ballad, 2013

Oil on canvas 119 × 79 inches Courtesy Devin Borden Gallery, Houston

Eva Lundsager Seeing Changing, 2012–13

Oil on linen 54 × 66 inches Courtesy the artist

Jason Middlebrook Breakthrough, 2012

Acrylic on maple plank 77½ × 16½ × 1½ inches Courtesy the artist and DODGEgallery, New York

Candida Alvarez dadadahlia, 2005–8

Acrylic and oil on canvas 84 × 72 inches Courtesy the artist

Romare Bearden Strange Land, 1960

Oil on canvas 58 × 42 inches Courtesy the Estate of Nanette Bearden and DC Moore Gallery, New York

Nick Cave Tondo, 2010

2012–13 Acrylic, shellac, and enamel on wood Dimensions variable Courtesy the artist and DODGEgallery, New York

Found beaded garments, wool, wood 4 × 120 (diameter) inches Courtesy the artist and Jack Shainman Gallery, New York

Amy Sillman Feet, 2011

Kevin Cole 3am Sunrise wings for TC, 2009

Oil on canvas 51 × 49 inches Collection Carole Server and Oliver Frankel, New York

Shane Tolbert Untitled, 2013

Mixed media on wood 61 × 82 × 12 inches Collection the artist

Abigail DeVille Harlem World, 2011

Acrylic on canvas 90 × 72 inches Courtesy the artist and McClain Gallery, Houston

Found wood panels, latex, enamel, tempera, paper pulp, tape 96 × 72 inches Courtesy the artist

Scott Treleaven Untitled (for Philip Larkin), 2012

Sam Gilliam One On, 1972

Pastel, crayon, gesso, gouache, pencil, house paint, and collage on paper 50¾ × 116⅝ inches Courtesy the artist and InvisibleExports, New York

Acrylic on canvas 112 × 80 inches Courtesy the artist

Richard Mayhew Summit, 2004

James Philips Self Awareness, c. 1971

Jayson Musson Men Committing Mad Sin, 2012

Untitled, c. 1972 Acrylic on canvas 63 × 78 inches Courtesy Jill Nelson, New York

Oil on canvas 54 × 54 inches Courtesy the artist and ACA Galleries, New York

Mercerized cotton Coogi sweaters stretched on linen 81½ × 120 inches Hudgins Family, New York; courtesy Salon 94 Bowery, New York

Floyd Newsum Sirigu Purple Rain, 2012

Oil, collage 65 × 60 inches Courtesy the artist and Wade Wilson Gallery, Houston

Angel Otero Everything and Nothing, 2011

Collaged oil-paint skins on canvas 97¼ × 86 × 3½ inches Courtesy the artist and Kavi Gupta Gallery, Chicago

John Outterbridge Rag and Bag Idiom III, 2012

Mixed media 34 × 14 × 7½ inches Collection of Shelly and Neil Mitchell, New York

Rag and Bag Idiom IV, 2012

Mixed media 32 × 12 × 5¾ inches Courtesy Tilton Gallery, New York

Acrylic on canvas 40 × 30 inches Courtesy the artist

Howardena Pindell Untitled #20: (Dutch Wives, Circled and Squared), 1978

Acrylic, dye, punched papers, sequins, glitter, and powder on sewn canvas 86 × 110 inches Courtesy the artist and Garth Greenan Gallery, New York

Frank Smith Sweet Sixteen Bars, c. 1995

Acrylic, fiber, and mixed media on canvas 60 × 192 inches Courtesy the artist

Shinique Smith Chrysanthemum, 2013

Clothing, fabric, ribbon, wood 2 × 41 (diameter) inches

Hammer, 2013 Clothing, fabric, bamboo, ribbon, rope 44 × 24 × 14½ inches Kaleidoscope, 2013 Ink and acrylic on panel 96 × 96 × 2 inches All courtesy the artist and James Cohan Gallery, New York

Rag and Bag Idiom VI, 2012

Mixed media 14¾ × 12 × 6¼ inches Courtesy Tilton Gallery, New York 251


Black in the Abstract Part 2: Hard Edges / Soft Curves January 25–March 23, 2014 Curated by Valerie Cassel Oliver Kianja Strobert Untitled, 2011

Derrick Adams Neighbor Hood High Rise, 2011

Untitled, 2011 Mixed media on paper 52 × 40½ inches Collection Melva Bucksbaum and Raymond Learsy, Sharon, Connecticut

The Royale, 2011

Alma Thomas Untitled, 1968

Marking crayon on canvas 32 × 24 inches

Mixed media on paper 50 × 38 inches Private collection, New York

Acrylic on canvas 37½ × 37 inches Courtesy June Kelly Gallery, New York

Jack White Trilogy to Connie’s Robe # II, 1995 Mixed media on canvas 72 × 57¼ inches Courtesy the artist

Mixed media 71 × 11 × 9 inches Courtesy the artist

Mixed media 54 × 14 × 12 inches Courtesy the artist

McArthur Binion Handmade: Geometry, 1976–77

1946: Blanca, 2003

Marking crayon on red oak plywood 46 × 19 inches

1946: Negra, 2003 Marking crayon on red oak plywood 46 × 19 inches 1946: Verde, 2003 Marking crayon on red oak plywood 46 × 19 inches 1946: Violeta, 2003 Marking crayon on red oak plywood 46 × 19 inches All courtesy the artist and Kavi Gupta Gallery, Chicago Nathaniel Donnett Absence, 2013

Plastic bags mounted on canvas 62 × 75 inches Courtesy the artist

Hairline Fracture, 2014 Hair, drywall 144 × ¼ × ¼ inches Courtesy the artist

252

Sam Gilliam Gesture, 1966

Simone Leigh Koolaide, 2012

Acrylic on canvas 92 × 98 inches Courtesy the artist

Glass, salt, wire, colored light Dimensions variable Courtesy the artist

David Hammons Tough Love, 2013

James Little Juju Boogie Woogie, 2013

Canvas, mixed media 111 × 94 inches Courtesy the artist

Felrath Hines Yellow on Yellow, c. 1968

Oil on canvas 47 × 37 inches The Nasher Museum of Art at Duke University; Gift of Dorothy Fisher, wife of the artist, 2009.9.1

Kellylike, 1984

Oil on linen 50 × 56 inches The Nasher Museum of Art at Duke University; Gift of Dorothy Fisher, wife of the artist, 2009.9.3

Rashid Johnson Cosmic Slop, 2008

Black soap and microcrystalline wax on board 70 × 70 inches Collection Jesse Penridge, Brooklyn

Jennie C. Jones Dark Tone with Hidden Reverberation, 2013

Acoustic absorber panel and acrylic paint on canvas 48 × 36 inches Courtesy the artist and Sikkema Jenkins & Co., New York

Oil and wax on canvas 72½ × 95½ inches Courtesy the artist and June Kelly Gallery, New York

Rodney McMillian Untitled, 2011

Carpet 156 × 180 × 92 inches Courtesy Susanne Vielmetter Los Angeles Projects, Culver City, California

Nadine Robinson Black, 2002

Acrylic on canvas, speaker, CD, player 42 × 41 × 7½ inches The Studio Museum in Harlem, New York; Museum purchase with funds provided by the Acquisition Committee, 02.10.15

Leslie Smith III Juliet’s Big City Dreams, 2013 Oil on canvas 27 × 27 inches Collection Guido and Magali Maus, Birmingham, Alabama

Night Twitch, 2013 Oil on canvas 42 × 42 inches Courtesy the artist and beta pictoris gallery / Maus Contemporary, Birmingham, Alabama

Cullen Washington Untitled #4, 2012

Acrylic and mixed media on canvas 84 × 90 inches Courtesy the artist

Stanley Whitney Insideout, 2011

Oil on linen 96 × 96 inches Courtesy of the artist and Team Gallery, New York

Jack Whitten Single Loop: For Toots, 2012

Acrylic on canvas 58 × 58 inches Private collection; courtesy Alexander Gray Associates, New York

Brenna Youngblood This Story Has a Great Ending, 2011 Mixed media on panel 30 × 24 inches Collection Honor Fraser and Stavros Merjos, Los Angeles

Untitled, 2012 Mixed media on canvas 48 × 36 inches Collection Scott J. Hunter, Chicago Untitled, 2012 Mixed media on panel 52 × 46 inches Collection Demetrio and Gianna Kerrison, Santa Ana, California

253


Black in the Abstract Part 2: Hard Edges / Soft Curves January 25–March 23, 2014 Curated by Valerie Cassel Oliver Kianja Strobert Untitled, 2011

Derrick Adams Neighbor Hood High Rise, 2011

Untitled, 2011 Mixed media on paper 52 × 40½ inches Collection Melva Bucksbaum and Raymond Learsy, Sharon, Connecticut

The Royale, 2011

Alma Thomas Untitled, 1968

Marking crayon on canvas 32 × 24 inches

Mixed media on paper 50 × 38 inches Private collection, New York

Acrylic on canvas 37½ × 37 inches Courtesy June Kelly Gallery, New York

Jack White Trilogy to Connie’s Robe # II, 1995 Mixed media on canvas 72 × 57¼ inches Courtesy the artist

Mixed media 71 × 11 × 9 inches Courtesy the artist

Mixed media 54 × 14 × 12 inches Courtesy the artist

McArthur Binion Handmade: Geometry, 1976–77

1946: Blanca, 2003

Marking crayon on red oak plywood 46 × 19 inches

1946: Negra, 2003 Marking crayon on red oak plywood 46 × 19 inches 1946: Verde, 2003 Marking crayon on red oak plywood 46 × 19 inches 1946: Violeta, 2003 Marking crayon on red oak plywood 46 × 19 inches All courtesy the artist and Kavi Gupta Gallery, Chicago Nathaniel Donnett Absence, 2013

Plastic bags mounted on canvas 62 × 75 inches Courtesy the artist

Hairline Fracture, 2014 Hair, drywall 144 × ¼ × ¼ inches Courtesy the artist

252

Sam Gilliam Gesture, 1966

Simone Leigh Koolaide, 2012

Acrylic on canvas 92 × 98 inches Courtesy the artist

Glass, salt, wire, colored light Dimensions variable Courtesy the artist

David Hammons Tough Love, 2013

James Little Juju Boogie Woogie, 2013

Canvas, mixed media 111 × 94 inches Courtesy the artist

Felrath Hines Yellow on Yellow, c. 1968

Oil on canvas 47 × 37 inches The Nasher Museum of Art at Duke University; Gift of Dorothy Fisher, wife of the artist, 2009.9.1

Kellylike, 1984

Oil on linen 50 × 56 inches The Nasher Museum of Art at Duke University; Gift of Dorothy Fisher, wife of the artist, 2009.9.3

Rashid Johnson Cosmic Slop, 2008

Black soap and microcrystalline wax on board 70 × 70 inches Collection Jesse Penridge, Brooklyn

Jennie C. Jones Dark Tone with Hidden Reverberation, 2013

Acoustic absorber panel and acrylic paint on canvas 48 × 36 inches Courtesy the artist and Sikkema Jenkins & Co., New York

Oil and wax on canvas 72½ × 95½ inches Courtesy the artist and June Kelly Gallery, New York

Rodney McMillian Untitled, 2011

Carpet 156 × 180 × 92 inches Courtesy Susanne Vielmetter Los Angeles Projects, Culver City, California

Nadine Robinson Black, 2002

Acrylic on canvas, speaker, CD, player 42 × 41 × 7½ inches The Studio Museum in Harlem, New York; Museum purchase with funds provided by the Acquisition Committee, 02.10.15

Leslie Smith III Juliet’s Big City Dreams, 2013 Oil on canvas 27 × 27 inches Collection Guido and Magali Maus, Birmingham, Alabama

Night Twitch, 2013 Oil on canvas 42 × 42 inches Courtesy the artist and beta pictoris gallery / Maus Contemporary, Birmingham, Alabama

Cullen Washington Untitled #4, 2012

Acrylic and mixed media on canvas 84 × 90 inches Courtesy the artist

Stanley Whitney Insideout, 2011

Oil on linen 96 × 96 inches Courtesy of the artist and Team Gallery, New York

Jack Whitten Single Loop: For Toots, 2012

Acrylic on canvas 58 × 58 inches Private collection; courtesy Alexander Gray Associates, New York

Brenna Youngblood This Story Has a Great Ending, 2011 Mixed media on panel 30 × 24 inches Collection Honor Fraser and Stavros Merjos, Los Angeles

Untitled, 2012 Mixed media on canvas 48 × 36 inches Collection Scott J. Hunter, Chicago Untitled, 2012 Mixed media on panel 52 × 46 inches Collection Demetrio and Gianna Kerrison, Santa Ana, California

253


Outside the Lines

Rites of Spring

October 31, 2013–January 12, 2014 Curated by Dean Daderko

January 11–March 9, 2014 Curated by Dean Daderko

Travis Boyer Aloha, Away, 2012

Indigo-dyed silk, wood, hardware 192 × 144 inches

Ballets Russes Basement, 2012 Indigo-dyed silk, wood, hardware 192 × 144 inches

F-14 Air Show, 2012

Cyanotype and dye on silk 108 × 84 inches All courtesy the artist and Johannes Vogt Gallery, New York

Sarah Cain face painting, 2012

Acrylic, string, beads, thread, and gouache on canvas 72 × 48 inches Collection Frank Masi and Donna Kolb, Los Angeles

Untitled, 2013

Canvas, wood, hardware, plastic leis, gift-wrap bows, scarves, beads, string, vases, carnations, acrylic, gouache 136 × 408 inches Courtesy the artist and Honor Fraser, Los Angeles

Leidy Churchman Lazy River, 2012

Oil on linen 13 parts, 37 × 185½ × 11 inches overall Khanna Family Collection, Kutch, Gujarat, India

Blood, 2013

Digital video, color, silent 10:15 minutes Courtesy the artist and Silberkuppe, Berlin

254

Katy Heinlein Bellows, 2008

Fabric, wood, hardware 52 × 48 × 36 inches

Bow-bow, 2008–9

Fabric, wood, hardware 96 × 84 × 36 inches

As If, 2013 Fabric, wood, hardware 240 × 97 × 19 inches All courtesy the artist Fabienne Lasserre Unblinking, 2011

Felt, linen, acrylic polymer, enamel paint, pigment, MDF, steel 25 × 46 × 28 inches

Actant 2, 2012

Steel wire, linen, acrylic polymer 72 × 82 × 23 inches

Actant 3, 2012

Steel wire, linen, acrylic polymer 64 × 62 × 68 inches

Operator, 2012 Felt, acrylic polymer, steel wire, vinyl, linen, acrylic paint, PVC pipe, Masonite, plywood 80 × 16 × 19 inches All courtesy the artist and Gallery Diet, Miami Are (White, Brown, Red, Aqua, Yellow), 2013

Flax, pigmented linen, copper tubing 68½ × 30 × 7 inches Courtesy the artist; Dieu Donné, New York; and Jeff Bailey Gallery, New York

Siobhan Liddell Folded Painting, 2013

Wood, oil paint, paper Table: 28 × 32 × 32 inches Object: 1 × 9 × 1¾ inches

Untitled, 2013 Oil on paper 43 × 21 × 3½ inches Untitled, 2013

Oil on canvas 41 × 23 × 2 inches

Untitled, 2013 Paper, oil paint, wood 41 × 23 × 2 inches Untitled, 2013 Wood, oil paint, paper Table: 28 × 43 × 32 inches Spheres: (1) 6 × 19½ (circumference) inches; (2) 5 × 18½ (circumference) inches All courtesy the artist and CRG Gallery, New York Benny Merris Labyrinth, 2013

Acrylic on wood 49 × 45 inches All courtesy the artist

14 paintings on various-sized logs, 2013 Acrylic, rubber, sugar maple wood, panel Our Abandon, 30 × 9 × 9 inches Our Communication, 47 × 25 × 10 inches Our Diversion, 27 × 12 × 9 inches Our Dwelling, 50 × 25 × 10 inches Our Game, 36 × 11 × 10 inches Our Health, 30 × 10 × 7 inches Our Inebriation, 39 × 11 × 9 inches Our Relations, 29 × 8 × 8 inches Our Repose, 35 × 10 × 9 inches Our Rhythm, 32 × 8 × 4 inches Our School, 56 × 25 × 8 inches Our Shrinking, 35 × 13 × 9 inches Our Sky, 26 × 8 × 5 inches Our Work, 26 × 9 × 9 inches

Dona Nelson A Perfect Spring Day, 2009

Modeling paste, muslin, cheesecloth, and acrylic paint on canvas 82 × 82 inches Courtesy the artist and Thomas Erben Gallery, New York

Orangey, 2011

Acrylic mediums and dyed cheesecloth on canvas 83 × 81 inches Courtesy the artist and Thomas Erben Gallery, New York

Susie Rosmarin Cube #1, 2006

Acrylic on plywood 20 × 20 × 21 inches

Cube #4, 2010

Acrylic on paper 6 × 6 × 6 inches

Untitled (#455), 2013

Acrylic on canvas 72 × 72 inches All courtesy the artist and Texas Gallery, Houston

Michele Abeles Leaf, Grid, Ladder, Black, White, 2011 Archival pigment print 14 × 10½ inches

792012, 2012 Archival pigment print 37⅛ × 27 inches 2013, 2013

Archival pigment print and inkjet print on transparency 34⅝ × 26 inches All courtesy the artist and 47 Canal, New York

Lucas Blalock Big Bear, 2012

Archival inkjet print 44 × 35 inches

hands and feet, 2013 Archival inkjet print 27 × 23 inches Staple, 2013 Archival inkjet print 42 × 33 inches All courtesy the artist and Ramiken Crucible, New York Chris Cascio Perversions of the Flesh,

1994–2014 Laser prints and acrylic on canvas, black-and-white and color copies, sheet protectors, oil on canvas, toner transfer and acrylic on panel Dimensions variable Courtesy the artist

Smut Peddlers, 2013–14 Toner transfer on paper, magazines, acrylic Dimensions variable Courtesy the artist

Abigail DeVille Television Torus, 2014

Baby coffin, bicycle parts, carpet padding, colored chalk, doors, electronic equipment, footboard, gaffer’s tape, mirror, hardware, headboard, paint, painted wood, paneling, plaster, plastic sheeting, portable hand lamps, plywood, screen door, shutters, televisions, vinyl tape, wood palette Dimensions variable Courtesy the artist

Nicole Eisenman Sailor Guy, 2010

Etching 14⅞ × 11⅞ inches Collection Dillon Kyle and Sam Lasseter, Houston

Handsome Older Woman, 2013 Monotype and collage on paper 29½ × 22¼ inches Private collection, Houston Untitled, 2013 Monotype and collage on paper 24¼ × 18½ inches Courtesy the artist and Koenig & Clinton, New York Josh Faught Untitled, 2013

Hand-dyed, handwoven, and crocheted hemp; wool; weld flowers; cochineal; indigo; cedar; spray paint; pins; sequins; ceramic sculpture; spilled correction fluid; metal; wood; plastic 72 × 48 × 36 inches Private collection, New York

255


Outside the Lines

Rites of Spring

October 31, 2013–January 12, 2014 Curated by Dean Daderko

January 11–March 9, 2014 Curated by Dean Daderko

Travis Boyer Aloha, Away, 2012

Indigo-dyed silk, wood, hardware 192 × 144 inches

Ballets Russes Basement, 2012 Indigo-dyed silk, wood, hardware 192 × 144 inches

F-14 Air Show, 2012

Cyanotype and dye on silk 108 × 84 inches All courtesy the artist and Johannes Vogt Gallery, New York

Sarah Cain face painting, 2012

Acrylic, string, beads, thread, and gouache on canvas 72 × 48 inches Collection Frank Masi and Donna Kolb, Los Angeles

Untitled, 2013

Canvas, wood, hardware, plastic leis, gift-wrap bows, scarves, beads, string, vases, carnations, acrylic, gouache 136 × 408 inches Courtesy the artist and Honor Fraser, Los Angeles

Leidy Churchman Lazy River, 2012

Oil on linen 13 parts, 37 × 185½ × 11 inches overall Khanna Family Collection, Kutch, Gujarat, India

Blood, 2013

Digital video, color, silent 10:15 minutes Courtesy the artist and Silberkuppe, Berlin

254

Katy Heinlein Bellows, 2008

Fabric, wood, hardware 52 × 48 × 36 inches

Bow-bow, 2008–9

Fabric, wood, hardware 96 × 84 × 36 inches

As If, 2013 Fabric, wood, hardware 240 × 97 × 19 inches All courtesy the artist Fabienne Lasserre Unblinking, 2011

Felt, linen, acrylic polymer, enamel paint, pigment, MDF, steel 25 × 46 × 28 inches

Actant 2, 2012

Steel wire, linen, acrylic polymer 72 × 82 × 23 inches

Actant 3, 2012

Steel wire, linen, acrylic polymer 64 × 62 × 68 inches

Operator, 2012 Felt, acrylic polymer, steel wire, vinyl, linen, acrylic paint, PVC pipe, Masonite, plywood 80 × 16 × 19 inches All courtesy the artist and Gallery Diet, Miami Are (White, Brown, Red, Aqua, Yellow), 2013

Flax, pigmented linen, copper tubing 68½ × 30 × 7 inches Courtesy the artist; Dieu Donné, New York; and Jeff Bailey Gallery, New York

Siobhan Liddell Folded Painting, 2013

Wood, oil paint, paper Table: 28 × 32 × 32 inches Object: 1 × 9 × 1¾ inches

Untitled, 2013 Oil on paper 43 × 21 × 3½ inches Untitled, 2013

Oil on canvas 41 × 23 × 2 inches

Untitled, 2013 Paper, oil paint, wood 41 × 23 × 2 inches Untitled, 2013 Wood, oil paint, paper Table: 28 × 43 × 32 inches Spheres: (1) 6 × 19½ (circumference) inches; (2) 5 × 18½ (circumference) inches All courtesy the artist and CRG Gallery, New York Benny Merris Labyrinth, 2013

Acrylic on wood 49 × 45 inches All courtesy the artist

14 paintings on various-sized logs, 2013 Acrylic, rubber, sugar maple wood, panel Our Abandon, 30 × 9 × 9 inches Our Communication, 47 × 25 × 10 inches Our Diversion, 27 × 12 × 9 inches Our Dwelling, 50 × 25 × 10 inches Our Game, 36 × 11 × 10 inches Our Health, 30 × 10 × 7 inches Our Inebriation, 39 × 11 × 9 inches Our Relations, 29 × 8 × 8 inches Our Repose, 35 × 10 × 9 inches Our Rhythm, 32 × 8 × 4 inches Our School, 56 × 25 × 8 inches Our Shrinking, 35 × 13 × 9 inches Our Sky, 26 × 8 × 5 inches Our Work, 26 × 9 × 9 inches

Dona Nelson A Perfect Spring Day, 2009

Modeling paste, muslin, cheesecloth, and acrylic paint on canvas 82 × 82 inches Courtesy the artist and Thomas Erben Gallery, New York

Orangey, 2011

Acrylic mediums and dyed cheesecloth on canvas 83 × 81 inches Courtesy the artist and Thomas Erben Gallery, New York

Susie Rosmarin Cube #1, 2006

Acrylic on plywood 20 × 20 × 21 inches

Cube #4, 2010

Acrylic on paper 6 × 6 × 6 inches

Untitled (#455), 2013

Acrylic on canvas 72 × 72 inches All courtesy the artist and Texas Gallery, Houston

Michele Abeles Leaf, Grid, Ladder, Black, White, 2011 Archival pigment print 14 × 10½ inches

792012, 2012 Archival pigment print 37⅛ × 27 inches 2013, 2013

Archival pigment print and inkjet print on transparency 34⅝ × 26 inches All courtesy the artist and 47 Canal, New York

Lucas Blalock Big Bear, 2012

Archival inkjet print 44 × 35 inches

hands and feet, 2013 Archival inkjet print 27 × 23 inches Staple, 2013 Archival inkjet print 42 × 33 inches All courtesy the artist and Ramiken Crucible, New York Chris Cascio Perversions of the Flesh,

1994–2014 Laser prints and acrylic on canvas, black-and-white and color copies, sheet protectors, oil on canvas, toner transfer and acrylic on panel Dimensions variable Courtesy the artist

Smut Peddlers, 2013–14 Toner transfer on paper, magazines, acrylic Dimensions variable Courtesy the artist

Abigail DeVille Television Torus, 2014

Baby coffin, bicycle parts, carpet padding, colored chalk, doors, electronic equipment, footboard, gaffer’s tape, mirror, hardware, headboard, paint, painted wood, paneling, plaster, plastic sheeting, portable hand lamps, plywood, screen door, shutters, televisions, vinyl tape, wood palette Dimensions variable Courtesy the artist

Nicole Eisenman Sailor Guy, 2010

Etching 14⅞ × 11⅞ inches Collection Dillon Kyle and Sam Lasseter, Houston

Handsome Older Woman, 2013 Monotype and collage on paper 29½ × 22¼ inches Private collection, Houston Untitled, 2013 Monotype and collage on paper 24¼ × 18½ inches Courtesy the artist and Koenig & Clinton, New York Josh Faught Untitled, 2013

Hand-dyed, handwoven, and crocheted hemp; wool; weld flowers; cochineal; indigo; cedar; spray paint; pins; sequins; ceramic sculpture; spilled correction fluid; metal; wood; plastic 72 × 48 × 36 inches Private collection, New York

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Robert Melee Clock Her, 2011

Grandfather clock, enamel paint, fiberglass, wood 96 × 32 × 32 inches Courtesy the artist and Andrew Kreps Gallery, New York

Preying Unit, 2012

Wood, enamel paint, framed photos, video 54 × 24 × 24 inches Courtesy the artist and Andrew Kreps Gallery, New York

Troy Michie Black Mamba, 2012

Magazine collage on Plexiglas 12 × 9 inches

Ulrike Müller Mirrors, 2013

Vitreous enamel on steel 15½ × 12 inches

Mirrors, 2013 Vitreous enamel on steel 15½ × 12 inches Mirrors, 2013 Vitreous enamel on steel 15½ × 12 inches Mirrors, 2013

Vitreous enamel on steel 15½ × 12 inches All courtesy the artist

Jennifer Packer Ivan, 2013

Mon Amour, 2012

Oil on canvas 36 × 23 inches The Studio Museum in Harlem; museum purchase with funds provided by the Acquisitions Committee, 13.13.3

Quite-Giddy, 2012 Tape, picture frame glass, paper collage, and acrylic on wood panel 33 × 24 inches

Lost in Translation, 2013

Rear Window, 2012

Joyce Pensato Felix 2009, 2009

Coat chain, opera pin, picture frame, glass, tape, magazine collage, and acrylic on wood panel 18 × 14 inches

Paper collage, Mad magazine pin, acrylic, picture frame 14⅜ × 11¼ inches

Shhhhoulder, 2012 Newsprint, picture frame with broken glass, tape, magazine collage 14⅜ × 11¼ inches All courtesy the artist

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Oil on canvas 54 × 42 inches Courtesy the artist

Enamel on linen 90 × 72 inches Collection Cheryl Gold, New York

Eileen Quinlan The Rose is finished (for Kate),

Pinar Yolacan Untitled, 2011

2010 Chromogenic print mounted on Plexiglas 24 × 20 inches

C-print 53¼ × 40 inches Collection Michael Ladd, Waka, Texas

The Pond, 2011

Untitled, 2011 C-print 53¼ × 40 inches Collection Michael Ladd, Waka, Texas

Chromogenic print mounted on Plexiglas 16 × 24 inches

The Nothing, 2013

Gelatin silver print mounted on museum board 40 × 32 inches All courtesy the artist and Miguel Abreu Gallery, New York

David Reed #275, 1989

Oil and alkyd on linen 26¼ × 102 inches Collection Gila and Paul B. Daitz, New York

Brenna Youngblood Single and Successful?, 2013

Mixed media on panel 48 × 60 inches Collection Andrew Stearn

3 dollar bill (dirty money), 2013

Mixed media on panel 72 × 60 inches Courtesy the artist and Honor Fraser, Los Angeles

Mariah Robertson 117, 2013

Unique color print 108 × 72 inches Private collection, New York Courtesy the artist and American Contemporary, New York

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Robert Melee Clock Her, 2011

Grandfather clock, enamel paint, fiberglass, wood 96 × 32 × 32 inches Courtesy the artist and Andrew Kreps Gallery, New York

Preying Unit, 2012

Wood, enamel paint, framed photos, video 54 × 24 × 24 inches Courtesy the artist and Andrew Kreps Gallery, New York

Troy Michie Black Mamba, 2012

Magazine collage on Plexiglas 12 × 9 inches

Ulrike Müller Mirrors, 2013

Vitreous enamel on steel 15½ × 12 inches

Mirrors, 2013 Vitreous enamel on steel 15½ × 12 inches Mirrors, 2013 Vitreous enamel on steel 15½ × 12 inches Mirrors, 2013

Vitreous enamel on steel 15½ × 12 inches All courtesy the artist

Jennifer Packer Ivan, 2013

Mon Amour, 2012

Oil on canvas 36 × 23 inches The Studio Museum in Harlem; museum purchase with funds provided by the Acquisitions Committee, 13.13.3

Quite-Giddy, 2012 Tape, picture frame glass, paper collage, and acrylic on wood panel 33 × 24 inches

Lost in Translation, 2013

Rear Window, 2012

Joyce Pensato Felix 2009, 2009

Coat chain, opera pin, picture frame, glass, tape, magazine collage, and acrylic on wood panel 18 × 14 inches

Paper collage, Mad magazine pin, acrylic, picture frame 14⅜ × 11¼ inches

Shhhhoulder, 2012 Newsprint, picture frame with broken glass, tape, magazine collage 14⅜ × 11¼ inches All courtesy the artist

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Oil on canvas 54 × 42 inches Courtesy the artist

Enamel on linen 90 × 72 inches Collection Cheryl Gold, New York

Eileen Quinlan The Rose is finished (for Kate),

Pinar Yolacan Untitled, 2011

2010 Chromogenic print mounted on Plexiglas 24 × 20 inches

C-print 53¼ × 40 inches Collection Michael Ladd, Waka, Texas

The Pond, 2011

Untitled, 2011 C-print 53¼ × 40 inches Collection Michael Ladd, Waka, Texas

Chromogenic print mounted on Plexiglas 16 × 24 inches

The Nothing, 2013

Gelatin silver print mounted on museum board 40 × 32 inches All courtesy the artist and Miguel Abreu Gallery, New York

David Reed #275, 1989

Oil and alkyd on linen 26¼ × 102 inches Collection Gila and Paul B. Daitz, New York

Brenna Youngblood Single and Successful?, 2013

Mixed media on panel 48 × 60 inches Collection Andrew Stearn

3 dollar bill (dirty money), 2013

Mixed media on panel 72 × 60 inches Courtesy the artist and Honor Fraser, Los Angeles

Mariah Robertson 117, 2013

Unique color print 108 × 72 inches Private collection, New York Courtesy the artist and American Contemporary, New York

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B IOGRAPHIES OF T H E A RT I STS

Michele Abeles

Richard Aldrich

Born 1977 in New York Lives and works in New York Michele Abeles graduated from Washington University, St. Louis (BA 1999), and from Yale University, New Haven, CT (MFA 2007). She has had two solo exhibitions at 47 Canal Street in New York: English for Secretaries in 2013 and Re:Re:Re:Re:Re in 2012. Her work has also been seen in the group exhibitions Biennale de Lyon (2013; Lyon, France); Empire State (2013; Palazzo delle Esposizioni, Rome); Test Patterns (2013; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York); Looking Back: Selected by Ken Okiishi and Nick Mauss (2012; White Columns, New York); New Photography (2012; Museum of Modern Art, New York); and Vide Poche (2011; Sculpture Center, Long Island City, NY).

Born 1975 in Hampton, VA Lives and works in Brooklyn Richard Aldrich graduated from Ohio State University, Columbus (BFA 1998). His solo exhibitions include Forget Your Dreams, All You Need Is Love / A Day in the Life (2013; Bortolami Gallery, New York); Twins (2013: Misako and Rosen, Tokyo); The Words of Tuck Tuck Tuck (2013; Karma, New York); New Work: Richard Aldrich (2011; San Francisco Museum of Modern Art); Richard Aldrich and the NineteenthCentury French Painting (2011; Contemporary Art Museum St. Louis); and Slide Paintings (2010; Marc Foxx, Los Angeles). Aldrich’s work has also been included in such group exhibitions as Roving Signs (2013; Matthew Marks Gallery, New York); Why Not Live for Art? II (2013; Tokyo City Opera); Five Easy Pieces (2011; Galleria Franco Noero, Turin, Italy); Provisional Painting (2011; Stuart Shave / Modern Art, London); Time Again (2011; Sculpture Center, Long Island City, NY); 2010 Whitney Biennial (2010; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York); Collection Of (2009; White Columns, New York); Catawampus (for H.D.) (2008; Midway Contemporary Art Center, Minneapolis); Beneath the Underdog (2007; Gagosian Gallery, New York); and Richard Aldrich and Meredyth Sparks (2007; Elizabeth Dee, New York).

Derrick Adams Born 1970 in Baltimore Lives and works in New York Derrick Adams graduated from Pratt Institute, Brooklyn (BFA 1996), and Columbia University, New York (MFA 2003). His solo exhibitions and performances include Deconstruction Worker (2012; Jack Tilton Gallery, New York); Go Stand Next to the Mountain (2010; The Kitchen, New York); Anew (2005; Participant Inc., New York); I’m Smoke; You’re Mirror (2005; Participant Inc., New York); and The Big Getaway (2003; Jack Tilton Gallery, New York). His group exhibitions include The Bearden Project (2012; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); 1968: Then and Now (2008; Nathan Cummings Foundation, New York); Greater New York 2005 (2005; P.S. 1 Contemporary Art Center, Long Island City, NY); Open House: Working in Brooklyn (2004; Brooklyn Museum); and Veni Vidi Video (2003; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York).

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Candida Alvarez Born 1955 in Brooklyn Lives and works in Chicago Candida Alvarez graduated from Fordham University, New York (BA 1977), and Yale University, New Haven, CT (MFA 1997). She also studied at the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture, ME (1981). Her solo exhibitions include mambomountain (2012; Hyde Park Art Center, Chicago); Paradise (2003; Rena Bransten Gallery, San Francisco); Recent Paintings (1992; Bronx Museum of the Arts, NY); and The Hybrid Series (1983; Real Art Ways, Hartford).

Her group exhibitions include Deep Black (2011; SNO Centre, Sydney); Black Now (2006; Longwood Arts Project, Bronx, NY); All the Things We Love (2005; Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago); Splat, Boom, Pow: The Influence of Cartoons in Contemporary Art (2003; Contemporary Arts Museum Houston); Heaven: Private View (1997; P.S. 1 Contemporary Art Center, Long Island City, NY); Working on Paper: Contemporary American Drawing (1990; High Museum of Art, Atlanta); The Blues Aesthetic (1989; Washington Project for the Arts, Washington, DC); and Books Alive (1983; Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York).

Tauba Auerbach Born 1981 in San Francisco Lives and works in New York and San Francisco Tauba Auerbach graduated from Stanford University, Stanford, CA (BA 2003). Select solo exhibitions of her work include A Book Is Not an X (2011; Glenn Horowitz Bookseller, East Hampton, NY); Tetrachromat (2011; Bergen Kunsthall, Norway); Quarry (2010; Whitney Museum Construction Site Installation, New York); The W Axis (2010; Standard, Oslo); Here and Now / and Nowhere (2009; Deitch Projects, New York); Passengers (2008; CCA Wattis Institute for Contemporary Arts, San Francisco); The Answer / Wasn’t Here (2007; Jack Hanley Gallery, San Francisco); and Yes and Not Yes (2006; Deitch Projects, New York). Her group exhibitions include Book Machine (Paris) (2013; Centre Pompidou, Paris); Lifelike (2012; Walker Art Center, Minneapolis); The Painting Factory: Abstraction after Warhol (2012; Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles); Remote Control (2012; Institute of Contemporary Arts, London); Exhibition, Exhibition (2010; Castello di Rivoli Museum of Contemporary Art, Turin, Italy); Fragments of Machines (2010; Neuer Aachener Kunstverein, Aachen, Germany); Greater New York 2010 (2010; MoMA PS1, Long Island City, NY); Skin Fruit: Selections from the Dakis Joannou Collection (2010; New Museum, New York); You and Now (2010; Galerie Balice Hertling, Paris); 2010 Whitney Biennial (2010; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York); Fax (2009; Drawing Center, New York); Younger than Jesus (2009; New Museum, New York); Words Fail Me (2007; Museum of Contemporary Art Detroit); Panic Room (2006; Deste Foundation, Athens); and What’s in a Book? (2004; New Langton Arts, San Francisco).

David Aylsworth Born 1966 in Tiffin, OH Lives and works in Houston David Aylsworth graduated from Kent State University, OH (BFA, 1989), and was an artist-inresidence (Core Fellow) at the Glassell School of Art, Museum of Fine Arts, Houston (1989–91). His work has been presented in several solo exhibitions, including David Aylsworth: The Reverses Wiped Away (2012; Inman Gallery, Houston); That Thing That Makes Vines Prefer to Cling (2010; Holly Johnson Gallery, Dallas); and David Aylsworth (2008; Holly Johnson Gallery, Dallas). He has participated in such group exhibitions as Fresh Tracks: An Abstract Dialogue (2013; Beatrice M. Haggerty Gallery, University of Dallas, Irving, TX); Learning by Doing: Twenty-Five Years of the Core Program (2008; Museum of Fine Arts, Houston); The Legacy Continues, 1997–2006 (2006; Art Museum of South Texas, Corpus Christi); Texas One Hundred: Selections from the El Paso Museum of Art (2006; El Paso Museum of Art, El Paso, TX); The Armory Show (2001; Inman Gallery, New York); Organic Produce (1998; Galveston Arts Center, TX); The Texas Show (1998; ABC No Rio, New York); Buttered Side Up (1996; Hallwalls Contemporary Art Center, Buffalo, NY); The Houston Area Exhibition (1996; Blaffer Gallery, University of Houston); The Big Show (1992; Lawndale Art Center, Houston).

Romare Bearden Born 1911 in Charlotte, NC Died 1988 in New York Romare Bearden graduated from New York University (BS 1935). His solo exhibitions include Romare Bearden: A Black Odyssey (2012–15; organized by Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service); The Art of Romare Bearden (2003; National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC); Romare Bearden: The Prevalence of Ritual (1971; Museum of Modern Art, New York); Projections (1965; Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, DC); Romare Bearden: The Passion of Christ (1945; Kootz Gallery, New York); Ten Hierographic Paintings by Sgt. Romare Bearden (1944; G Place Gallery, Washington, DC); and Romare Bearden: Oils, Gouaches, Watercolors, Drawings (1937–1940) (1940; 306 West 141 Street, New York). His group exhibitions include Sculpture, Watercolors, Drawings (1951; Whitney Museum 259


B IOGRAPHIES OF T H E A RT I STS

Michele Abeles

Richard Aldrich

Born 1977 in New York Lives and works in New York Michele Abeles graduated from Washington University, St. Louis (BA 1999), and from Yale University, New Haven, CT (MFA 2007). She has had two solo exhibitions at 47 Canal Street in New York: English for Secretaries in 2013 and Re:Re:Re:Re:Re in 2012. Her work has also been seen in the group exhibitions Biennale de Lyon (2013; Lyon, France); Empire State (2013; Palazzo delle Esposizioni, Rome); Test Patterns (2013; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York); Looking Back: Selected by Ken Okiishi and Nick Mauss (2012; White Columns, New York); New Photography (2012; Museum of Modern Art, New York); and Vide Poche (2011; Sculpture Center, Long Island City, NY).

Born 1975 in Hampton, VA Lives and works in Brooklyn Richard Aldrich graduated from Ohio State University, Columbus (BFA 1998). His solo exhibitions include Forget Your Dreams, All You Need Is Love / A Day in the Life (2013; Bortolami Gallery, New York); Twins (2013: Misako and Rosen, Tokyo); The Words of Tuck Tuck Tuck (2013; Karma, New York); New Work: Richard Aldrich (2011; San Francisco Museum of Modern Art); Richard Aldrich and the NineteenthCentury French Painting (2011; Contemporary Art Museum St. Louis); and Slide Paintings (2010; Marc Foxx, Los Angeles). Aldrich’s work has also been included in such group exhibitions as Roving Signs (2013; Matthew Marks Gallery, New York); Why Not Live for Art? II (2013; Tokyo City Opera); Five Easy Pieces (2011; Galleria Franco Noero, Turin, Italy); Provisional Painting (2011; Stuart Shave / Modern Art, London); Time Again (2011; Sculpture Center, Long Island City, NY); 2010 Whitney Biennial (2010; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York); Collection Of (2009; White Columns, New York); Catawampus (for H.D.) (2008; Midway Contemporary Art Center, Minneapolis); Beneath the Underdog (2007; Gagosian Gallery, New York); and Richard Aldrich and Meredyth Sparks (2007; Elizabeth Dee, New York).

Derrick Adams Born 1970 in Baltimore Lives and works in New York Derrick Adams graduated from Pratt Institute, Brooklyn (BFA 1996), and Columbia University, New York (MFA 2003). His solo exhibitions and performances include Deconstruction Worker (2012; Jack Tilton Gallery, New York); Go Stand Next to the Mountain (2010; The Kitchen, New York); Anew (2005; Participant Inc., New York); I’m Smoke; You’re Mirror (2005; Participant Inc., New York); and The Big Getaway (2003; Jack Tilton Gallery, New York). His group exhibitions include The Bearden Project (2012; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); 1968: Then and Now (2008; Nathan Cummings Foundation, New York); Greater New York 2005 (2005; P.S. 1 Contemporary Art Center, Long Island City, NY); Open House: Working in Brooklyn (2004; Brooklyn Museum); and Veni Vidi Video (2003; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York).

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Candida Alvarez Born 1955 in Brooklyn Lives and works in Chicago Candida Alvarez graduated from Fordham University, New York (BA 1977), and Yale University, New Haven, CT (MFA 1997). She also studied at the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture, ME (1981). Her solo exhibitions include mambomountain (2012; Hyde Park Art Center, Chicago); Paradise (2003; Rena Bransten Gallery, San Francisco); Recent Paintings (1992; Bronx Museum of the Arts, NY); and The Hybrid Series (1983; Real Art Ways, Hartford).

Her group exhibitions include Deep Black (2011; SNO Centre, Sydney); Black Now (2006; Longwood Arts Project, Bronx, NY); All the Things We Love (2005; Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago); Splat, Boom, Pow: The Influence of Cartoons in Contemporary Art (2003; Contemporary Arts Museum Houston); Heaven: Private View (1997; P.S. 1 Contemporary Art Center, Long Island City, NY); Working on Paper: Contemporary American Drawing (1990; High Museum of Art, Atlanta); The Blues Aesthetic (1989; Washington Project for the Arts, Washington, DC); and Books Alive (1983; Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York).

Tauba Auerbach Born 1981 in San Francisco Lives and works in New York and San Francisco Tauba Auerbach graduated from Stanford University, Stanford, CA (BA 2003). Select solo exhibitions of her work include A Book Is Not an X (2011; Glenn Horowitz Bookseller, East Hampton, NY); Tetrachromat (2011; Bergen Kunsthall, Norway); Quarry (2010; Whitney Museum Construction Site Installation, New York); The W Axis (2010; Standard, Oslo); Here and Now / and Nowhere (2009; Deitch Projects, New York); Passengers (2008; CCA Wattis Institute for Contemporary Arts, San Francisco); The Answer / Wasn’t Here (2007; Jack Hanley Gallery, San Francisco); and Yes and Not Yes (2006; Deitch Projects, New York). Her group exhibitions include Book Machine (Paris) (2013; Centre Pompidou, Paris); Lifelike (2012; Walker Art Center, Minneapolis); The Painting Factory: Abstraction after Warhol (2012; Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles); Remote Control (2012; Institute of Contemporary Arts, London); Exhibition, Exhibition (2010; Castello di Rivoli Museum of Contemporary Art, Turin, Italy); Fragments of Machines (2010; Neuer Aachener Kunstverein, Aachen, Germany); Greater New York 2010 (2010; MoMA PS1, Long Island City, NY); Skin Fruit: Selections from the Dakis Joannou Collection (2010; New Museum, New York); You and Now (2010; Galerie Balice Hertling, Paris); 2010 Whitney Biennial (2010; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York); Fax (2009; Drawing Center, New York); Younger than Jesus (2009; New Museum, New York); Words Fail Me (2007; Museum of Contemporary Art Detroit); Panic Room (2006; Deste Foundation, Athens); and What’s in a Book? (2004; New Langton Arts, San Francisco).

David Aylsworth Born 1966 in Tiffin, OH Lives and works in Houston David Aylsworth graduated from Kent State University, OH (BFA, 1989), and was an artist-inresidence (Core Fellow) at the Glassell School of Art, Museum of Fine Arts, Houston (1989–91). His work has been presented in several solo exhibitions, including David Aylsworth: The Reverses Wiped Away (2012; Inman Gallery, Houston); That Thing That Makes Vines Prefer to Cling (2010; Holly Johnson Gallery, Dallas); and David Aylsworth (2008; Holly Johnson Gallery, Dallas). He has participated in such group exhibitions as Fresh Tracks: An Abstract Dialogue (2013; Beatrice M. Haggerty Gallery, University of Dallas, Irving, TX); Learning by Doing: Twenty-Five Years of the Core Program (2008; Museum of Fine Arts, Houston); The Legacy Continues, 1997–2006 (2006; Art Museum of South Texas, Corpus Christi); Texas One Hundred: Selections from the El Paso Museum of Art (2006; El Paso Museum of Art, El Paso, TX); The Armory Show (2001; Inman Gallery, New York); Organic Produce (1998; Galveston Arts Center, TX); The Texas Show (1998; ABC No Rio, New York); Buttered Side Up (1996; Hallwalls Contemporary Art Center, Buffalo, NY); The Houston Area Exhibition (1996; Blaffer Gallery, University of Houston); The Big Show (1992; Lawndale Art Center, Houston).

Romare Bearden Born 1911 in Charlotte, NC Died 1988 in New York Romare Bearden graduated from New York University (BS 1935). His solo exhibitions include Romare Bearden: A Black Odyssey (2012–15; organized by Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service); The Art of Romare Bearden (2003; National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC); Romare Bearden: The Prevalence of Ritual (1971; Museum of Modern Art, New York); Projections (1965; Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, DC); Romare Bearden: The Passion of Christ (1945; Kootz Gallery, New York); Ten Hierographic Paintings by Sgt. Romare Bearden (1944; G Place Gallery, Washington, DC); and Romare Bearden: Oils, Gouaches, Watercolors, Drawings (1937–1940) (1940; 306 West 141 Street, New York). His group exhibitions include Sculpture, Watercolors, Drawings (1951; Whitney Museum 259


of American Art, New York); The Negro Artist Comes of Age: A National Survey of Contemporary American Artists (1945; Albany Institute of History and Art, NY); Paintings [and] Sculptures by American Negro Artists (1943; Institute of Modern Art, Boston); Time-Life-Fortune Exhibit (1943; Dallas Museum of Fine Arts); Exhibition of the Art of the American Negro (1851 to 1940) (1940; Tanner Art Galleries, Chicago); and Exhibition of Sculpture and Paintings Presented by the Art Committee of the Labor Club (1939; Labor Club, New York).

McArthur Binion Born 1946 in Macon, MS Lives and works in Chicago McArthur Binion graduated from Wayne State University, Detroit (BFA 1971), and Cranbrook Academy of Art, Bloomfield Hills, MI (MFA 1973). His solo exhibitions include Ghost: Rhythms (2013, Kavi Gupta, Chicago); Perspectives 177: McArthur Binion (2012; Contemporary Arts Museum Houston); Color Exploration: Simplicity in the Art of McArthur Binion (2010; University College Gallery, University of Maryland, Adelphi); and Simplicism (2004; G. R. N’Namdi Gallery, Chicago). His group exhibitions include Americas Remixed (2002; Comune di Milano, Milan, Italy); T-race (1997; Randolph Street Gallery, Chicago); Affirmation of Life (1984; Kenkeleba Gallery, New York); Modernist Trends (1983; 22 Wooster Gallery, New York); and Michigan Biannual (1972; Saginaw Museum of Art).

Lucas Blalock Born 1978 in Asheville, NC Lives and works in Brooklyn Lucas Blalock graduated from Bard College, Annandale-on Hudson, NY (BA 2002), and University of California, Los Angeles (MFA 2013). His work was the focus of two solo exhibitions at Ramiken Crucible in Brooklyn: Lucas Blalock: Id, Ed, Ad, Od in 2013 and Lucas Blalock: xyz in 2011. Blalock’s other solo exhibitions include Lucas Blalock: Inside the White Cube (2013; White Cube, London); I Believe You, Liar: New Works (2009; Griffin Editions/GE2, Brooklyn); and The Uncertainty Principle (2006; Branch Gallery, Durham, NC). He has participated in a number

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of group exhibitions, including New Pictures of Common Objects (2013; MoMA PS1, Long Island City, NY); Photography Is (2012; Higher Pictures, New York); Towards a Warm Math (2012; On Stellar Rays, New York); and Win Last Don’t Care (2011; Ramiken Crucible, Brooklyn).

Chris Bogia Born 1977 in Wilmington, DE Lives and works in Queens, NY Chris Bogia graduated from New York University (BA 2000) and Yale University, New Haven, CT (MFA 2004). His group exhibitions include Queer Threads: Crafting Identity and Community (2014; Leslie Lohman Museum of Gay and Lesbian Art, New York); B-Out (2012; Andrew Edlin Gallery, New York); Queer Self-Portraits Now (2012; Fred, London); Back Room (2011; Untitled, New York); Unpunished (2011; Sue Scott Gallery, New York); and Troll (2010; Envoy Gallery, New York).

Carol Bove Born 1971 in Geneva, Switzerland Lives and works in Brooklyn Carol Bove graduated from New York University (BS 2000). Her selected solo exhibitions include Carol Bove: The Equinox (2013; Museum of Modern Art, New York); Caterpillar (2013; High Line at the Rail Yards, New York); RA, or Why is an orange like a bell? (2013; Maccarone, New York); Prix Lafayette 2009: Carol Bove, La traversée difficile (2010; Palais de Tokyo, Paris); Plants and Mammals (2009; Horticultural Society of New York); Carol Bove (2004; Kunsthalle, Zurich); and Momentum 1: Carol Bove (2004; Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston). Her work was also included in such group exhibitions as The Angel of History (2013; Palais des Beaux-Arts, Paris); Documenta 13 (2012; Kassel, Germany); El mañana ya estuvo aquí (2012; Museo Tamayo Arte Contemporáneo, Mexico City); In the Holocene (2012; List Visual Arts Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge); Painting in Space (2012; Luhring Augustine, New York); The Language of Less (Then and Now) (2011; Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago); Carol Bove, Sterling Ruby, Dana Schutz (2010; Andrea Rosen Gallery,

New York); Contemplating the Void: Interventions in the Guggenheim Museum (2010; Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York); Multiplex: Directions in Art, 1970 to Now (2007; Museum of Modern Art, New York); NeoIntegrity (2007; Derek Eller Gallery, New York); and Influence, Anxiety, and Gratitude (2003; List Visual Arts Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge).

Travis Boyer Born 1979 in Fort Worth Lives and works in New York Travis Boyer graduated from the University of North Texas, Denton (BFA 2003), and Bard College, Annandale-on-Hudson, NY (MFA 2012). Boyer’s solo exhibitions include Crocking off the Bloom (2012; Participant, Inc., New York) and Today in Me (2012; Johannes Vogt Gallery, New York). He has participated in several group shows, including Stars! (2012; Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam); Thunderbird Margarita (2012; Abrons Arts Center, New York); Flat File (2011; Artist Curated Projects, Los Angeles); and Evas Arche und der Feminist (2010; Goethe Institute, New York).

Andrew Brischler Born 1987 in Long Island, NY Lives and works in Brooklyn Andrew Brischler graduated from the State University of New York, New Paltz (BFA 2009), and the School of Visual Arts, New York (MFA 2012). His solo and two-person exhibitions include I Made It through the Wilderness (2013; Gavlak Gallery, Palm Beach, FL); NADA New York: Andrew Brischler and David Haxton (2013; Gavlak Gallery Booth, New York); Andrew Brischler: Goodbye to All That (2012; Gavlak Gallery, Palm Beach, FL, and 39 Great Jones, New York). His work has been included in several group exhibitions, including Acid Summer (2013; DCKT Contemporary, New York); All Fucking Summer (2013; Gavlak Gallery, Palm Beach, FL); and It’s a Small, Small World (2012; Family Business, New York).

Tom Burr Born 1963 in New Haven, CT Lives and works in Norfolk, CT, and New York Tom Burr graduated from the School of Visual Arts, New York (BFA 1986), and was a studio program fellow of the Whitney Museum of American Art Independent Study Program, New York (1987–88). His solo exhibitions include deep wood drive (2012; Bortolami Gallery, New York); Head Ache (2011; Stuart Shave / Modern Art, London); New York (2011; Sommer Gallery, Tel Aviv, Israel); Promiscuous Pleats (2011; Galleria Franco Noero, Turin, Italy); Bonvicini/Burr (2009; Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus und Kunstbau, Munich); Sentence (2009; Bortolami Gallery, New York); Addict—Love (2008; Sculpture Center, Long Island City, NY); Descending (2008; Galleria Franco Noero, Turin, Italy); Moods (2007; Secession, Vienna); Relapse (2006; Stuart Shave / Modern Art, London); Complete Breakdown (2005; Galerie Neu, Berlin); Our Lady of the Flowers (2004; Galleria Franco Noero, Turin, Italy); Gone, Gone (2003; American Fine Arts, New York); Deep Purple (2002; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York); and Brutalism (2001; Galerie Neu, Berlin). His work has been included in such group exhibitions as Take It or Leave It: Institution, Image, Ideology (2014; Hammer Museum, Los Angeles); Notes on Neo-Camp (2013; Office Baroque, Antwerp, Belgium); After images (2011; Jewish Museum of Belgium, Brussels); The Smithson Effect (2011; Utah Museum of Fine Arts, Salt Lake City); Twelfth Istanbul Biennial (2011); Moby Dick (2009; CCA Wattis Institute for Contemporary Arts, San Francisco); Saints and Sinners (2009; Rose Art Museum, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA); The World Is Yours (2009; Louisiana Museum, Denmark); Unmonumental: Falling to Pieces in the TwentyFirst Century (2007; New Museum, New York); 2004 Whitney Biennial (2004; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York); Parasite (1998; Drawing Center, New York); and White Room: Desire Paths (1992; White Columns, New York).

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of American Art, New York); The Negro Artist Comes of Age: A National Survey of Contemporary American Artists (1945; Albany Institute of History and Art, NY); Paintings [and] Sculptures by American Negro Artists (1943; Institute of Modern Art, Boston); Time-Life-Fortune Exhibit (1943; Dallas Museum of Fine Arts); Exhibition of the Art of the American Negro (1851 to 1940) (1940; Tanner Art Galleries, Chicago); and Exhibition of Sculpture and Paintings Presented by the Art Committee of the Labor Club (1939; Labor Club, New York).

McArthur Binion Born 1946 in Macon, MS Lives and works in Chicago McArthur Binion graduated from Wayne State University, Detroit (BFA 1971), and Cranbrook Academy of Art, Bloomfield Hills, MI (MFA 1973). His solo exhibitions include Ghost: Rhythms (2013, Kavi Gupta, Chicago); Perspectives 177: McArthur Binion (2012; Contemporary Arts Museum Houston); Color Exploration: Simplicity in the Art of McArthur Binion (2010; University College Gallery, University of Maryland, Adelphi); and Simplicism (2004; G. R. N’Namdi Gallery, Chicago). His group exhibitions include Americas Remixed (2002; Comune di Milano, Milan, Italy); T-race (1997; Randolph Street Gallery, Chicago); Affirmation of Life (1984; Kenkeleba Gallery, New York); Modernist Trends (1983; 22 Wooster Gallery, New York); and Michigan Biannual (1972; Saginaw Museum of Art).

Lucas Blalock Born 1978 in Asheville, NC Lives and works in Brooklyn Lucas Blalock graduated from Bard College, Annandale-on Hudson, NY (BA 2002), and University of California, Los Angeles (MFA 2013). His work was the focus of two solo exhibitions at Ramiken Crucible in Brooklyn: Lucas Blalock: Id, Ed, Ad, Od in 2013 and Lucas Blalock: xyz in 2011. Blalock’s other solo exhibitions include Lucas Blalock: Inside the White Cube (2013; White Cube, London); I Believe You, Liar: New Works (2009; Griffin Editions/GE2, Brooklyn); and The Uncertainty Principle (2006; Branch Gallery, Durham, NC). He has participated in a number

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of group exhibitions, including New Pictures of Common Objects (2013; MoMA PS1, Long Island City, NY); Photography Is (2012; Higher Pictures, New York); Towards a Warm Math (2012; On Stellar Rays, New York); and Win Last Don’t Care (2011; Ramiken Crucible, Brooklyn).

Chris Bogia Born 1977 in Wilmington, DE Lives and works in Queens, NY Chris Bogia graduated from New York University (BA 2000) and Yale University, New Haven, CT (MFA 2004). His group exhibitions include Queer Threads: Crafting Identity and Community (2014; Leslie Lohman Museum of Gay and Lesbian Art, New York); B-Out (2012; Andrew Edlin Gallery, New York); Queer Self-Portraits Now (2012; Fred, London); Back Room (2011; Untitled, New York); Unpunished (2011; Sue Scott Gallery, New York); and Troll (2010; Envoy Gallery, New York).

Carol Bove Born 1971 in Geneva, Switzerland Lives and works in Brooklyn Carol Bove graduated from New York University (BS 2000). Her selected solo exhibitions include Carol Bove: The Equinox (2013; Museum of Modern Art, New York); Caterpillar (2013; High Line at the Rail Yards, New York); RA, or Why is an orange like a bell? (2013; Maccarone, New York); Prix Lafayette 2009: Carol Bove, La traversée difficile (2010; Palais de Tokyo, Paris); Plants and Mammals (2009; Horticultural Society of New York); Carol Bove (2004; Kunsthalle, Zurich); and Momentum 1: Carol Bove (2004; Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston). Her work was also included in such group exhibitions as The Angel of History (2013; Palais des Beaux-Arts, Paris); Documenta 13 (2012; Kassel, Germany); El mañana ya estuvo aquí (2012; Museo Tamayo Arte Contemporáneo, Mexico City); In the Holocene (2012; List Visual Arts Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge); Painting in Space (2012; Luhring Augustine, New York); The Language of Less (Then and Now) (2011; Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago); Carol Bove, Sterling Ruby, Dana Schutz (2010; Andrea Rosen Gallery,

New York); Contemplating the Void: Interventions in the Guggenheim Museum (2010; Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York); Multiplex: Directions in Art, 1970 to Now (2007; Museum of Modern Art, New York); NeoIntegrity (2007; Derek Eller Gallery, New York); and Influence, Anxiety, and Gratitude (2003; List Visual Arts Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge).

Travis Boyer Born 1979 in Fort Worth Lives and works in New York Travis Boyer graduated from the University of North Texas, Denton (BFA 2003), and Bard College, Annandale-on-Hudson, NY (MFA 2012). Boyer’s solo exhibitions include Crocking off the Bloom (2012; Participant, Inc., New York) and Today in Me (2012; Johannes Vogt Gallery, New York). He has participated in several group shows, including Stars! (2012; Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam); Thunderbird Margarita (2012; Abrons Arts Center, New York); Flat File (2011; Artist Curated Projects, Los Angeles); and Evas Arche und der Feminist (2010; Goethe Institute, New York).

Andrew Brischler Born 1987 in Long Island, NY Lives and works in Brooklyn Andrew Brischler graduated from the State University of New York, New Paltz (BFA 2009), and the School of Visual Arts, New York (MFA 2012). His solo and two-person exhibitions include I Made It through the Wilderness (2013; Gavlak Gallery, Palm Beach, FL); NADA New York: Andrew Brischler and David Haxton (2013; Gavlak Gallery Booth, New York); Andrew Brischler: Goodbye to All That (2012; Gavlak Gallery, Palm Beach, FL, and 39 Great Jones, New York). His work has been included in several group exhibitions, including Acid Summer (2013; DCKT Contemporary, New York); All Fucking Summer (2013; Gavlak Gallery, Palm Beach, FL); and It’s a Small, Small World (2012; Family Business, New York).

Tom Burr Born 1963 in New Haven, CT Lives and works in Norfolk, CT, and New York Tom Burr graduated from the School of Visual Arts, New York (BFA 1986), and was a studio program fellow of the Whitney Museum of American Art Independent Study Program, New York (1987–88). His solo exhibitions include deep wood drive (2012; Bortolami Gallery, New York); Head Ache (2011; Stuart Shave / Modern Art, London); New York (2011; Sommer Gallery, Tel Aviv, Israel); Promiscuous Pleats (2011; Galleria Franco Noero, Turin, Italy); Bonvicini/Burr (2009; Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus und Kunstbau, Munich); Sentence (2009; Bortolami Gallery, New York); Addict—Love (2008; Sculpture Center, Long Island City, NY); Descending (2008; Galleria Franco Noero, Turin, Italy); Moods (2007; Secession, Vienna); Relapse (2006; Stuart Shave / Modern Art, London); Complete Breakdown (2005; Galerie Neu, Berlin); Our Lady of the Flowers (2004; Galleria Franco Noero, Turin, Italy); Gone, Gone (2003; American Fine Arts, New York); Deep Purple (2002; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York); and Brutalism (2001; Galerie Neu, Berlin). His work has been included in such group exhibitions as Take It or Leave It: Institution, Image, Ideology (2014; Hammer Museum, Los Angeles); Notes on Neo-Camp (2013; Office Baroque, Antwerp, Belgium); After images (2011; Jewish Museum of Belgium, Brussels); The Smithson Effect (2011; Utah Museum of Fine Arts, Salt Lake City); Twelfth Istanbul Biennial (2011); Moby Dick (2009; CCA Wattis Institute for Contemporary Arts, San Francisco); Saints and Sinners (2009; Rose Art Museum, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA); The World Is Yours (2009; Louisiana Museum, Denmark); Unmonumental: Falling to Pieces in the TwentyFirst Century (2007; New Museum, New York); 2004 Whitney Biennial (2004; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York); Parasite (1998; Drawing Center, New York); and White Room: Desire Paths (1992; White Columns, New York).

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Sarah Cain

Nick Cave

Leidy Churchman

Kevin Cole

Born 1979 in Albany, NY Lives and works in Los Angeles Sarah Cain graduated from the San Francisco Art Institute (BFA 2001) and the University of California, Berkeley (MFA 2006). She also attended the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture, ME (2006). Cain’s solo exhibitions include Burning Bush (2014; Galerie Lelong, New York); Feral (2013; Cardi Black Box, Milan, Italy); Loud Object (2013; Anthony Meier Fine Arts, San Francisco); and freedom is a prime number (2012; Honor Fraser Gallery, Los Angeles). Selected group exhibitions include Made in L.A. 2012 (2012; Hammer Museum in collaboration with LA><ART, Los Angeles); Paint Things: beyond the stretcher (2013; deCordova Museum and Sculpture Park, Lincoln, MA); Wall (2013; Columbus College of Art and Design, OH); Fifty Years of Bay Area Art: The SECA Awards (2011; San Francisco Museum of Modern Art); and Soft Math (2011; Bryan Miller Gallery, Houston).

Born 1959 in Jefferson City, MO Lives and works in Chicago Nick Cave graduated from the Kansas City Art Institute, MO (BFA 1982), and Cranbrook Academy of Art, Bloomfield Hills, MI (MFA 1989). He also studied at North Texas State University, Denton. Cave’s solo exhibitions include Nick Cave (2014; Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston); Nick Cave: The World Is My Skin (2013; Trapholt Museum, Denmark); Nick Cave: Let’s C (2011; Fabric Workshop and Museum, Philadelphia); Nick Cave: Ever-After (2011; Jack Shainman Gallery in collaboration with Mary Boone Gallery, New York); Lost-and-Found: Nick Cave (2010; Nerman Museum of Contemporary Art, Johnson County Community College, Overland Park, KS); Nick Cave: Meet Me at the Center of the Earth (2009; Yerba Buena Center for the Arts, San Francisco); Nick Cave: Soundsuits (2006; Chicago Cultural Center); Nick Cave: Reparations (1999; South Bend Museum of Art, IN); and New Work (1997; Grand Arts, Kansas City, MO). His group exhibitions include Seismic Shifts: Ten Visionaries in Contemporary Art and Architecture (2013; National Academy Museum, New York); American Dreamers: Facing or Escaping Reality in Contemporary American Art (2012; Center for Contemporary Culture at the Palazzo Strozzi, Florence, Italy); Are You a Hybrid? (2011; Museum of Arts and Design, New York); No Object Is an Island: New Dialogues with the Cranbrook Collection (2011; Cranbrook Art Museum, Bloomfield Hills, MI); Hand + Made: The Performative Impulse in Art and Craft (2010; Contemporary Arts Museum Houston); Pattern ID (2010; Akron Art Museum, OH); Undercover: Performing and Transforming Black Female Identities (2009; Spelman College Museum of Art, Atlanta); Speaking Volumes: Transforming Hate (2008; Holter Museum of Art, Helena, MT); Black Panther Rank and File (2006; Yerba Buena Center for the Arts, San Francisco); Black Alphabet: Contexts of Contemporary African-American Art (2006; Zachęta National Gallery of Art, Warsaw); Concealing and Revealing (2002; John Michael Kohler Art Center, Sheboygan, WI); Music in My Soul (2001; Portsmouth Museum, VA); and S.O.S. Scenes of Sound (2000; Frances Young Tang Teaching Museum and Art Gallery, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY).

Born 1979 in Villanova, PA Lives and works in Joshua Tree, CA Leidy Churchman graduated from Hampshire College, Amherst, MA (BA 2002), and Columbia University, New York (MFA 2010). His solo and two-person exhibitions include Leidy Churchman (2013; Boston University Art Gallery); Black Green Black (2012; Silberkuppe, Berlin); Expanded Performance: Leidy Churchman and MPA (2012; Stroom den Haag, Netherlands); Leidy Churchman (2012; Rijksakademie, Amsterdam); Painting Treatments (2010; Horton Gallery, Berlin); and Good Afternoon! (2009; Sunday L.E.S., New York). Selected group exhibitions include “Sail Away, We Must!” (2012; CDA Projects and Galerie Zilberman, Istanbul); Leidy Celeste Nicole (2011; Museum 52, New York); Greater New York 2010 (2010; MoMA PS1, Long Island City, NY); Ridykeulous Hits Bottom (2009; Leo Koenig Inc. Projekte, New York).

Born 1960 in Pine Bluff, AR Lives and works in Atlanta Kevin Cole graduated from the University of Arkansas, Pine Bluff (BS 1982); the University of Illinois, Champaign (MA 1983); and Northern Illinois University, Dekalb (MFA 1985). His work has been included in such exhibitions as Fragments of Frozen Sound (2008; Sande Webster Gallery, Philadelphia); In Context: The Language of Abstraction (2008; Abrons Arts Center, New York); AfriCOBRA Now: Contemporary American Works Rooted in Africa (2007; Hampton University Museum, VA); Kevin Cole and Alonzo Davis (2006; Old Dillard Museum, Fort Lauderdale, FL); Different Way of Seeing (2006; Noyes Museum of Art, Oceanville, NJ); and Absence of Color (2001; Philadelphia Museum of Art).

Chris Cascio Born 1976 in New Orleans Lives and works in Houston Chris Cascio graduated from the San Francisco Art Institute (BFA 1999) and the University of Houston (MFA 2013). His work has been seen in a number of solo exhibitions, including Selections from the Hoard (2013; Project Gallery, University of Houston); Chris Cascio (2012; Front Gallery, Houston); Spring Break (2012; Cardoza Fine Art, Houston); Sound Works (2011; UTSA Satellite Space, San Antonio, TX); Harmonic Spheres (2010; Lawndale Art Center, Houston); and Obsessive, Compulsive, Awesome (2008; ArtStorm, Houston). Group exhibitions that have featured his work include Three Cowboys, Two Drugs, and a Skater (2013; New Image Art, Los Angeles); and Dis, Dat, Deez, and Doz (2008; The Joanna, Houston).

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Joseph Cohen Born 1982 in Houston Lives and works in Houston Joseph Cohen graduated from Texas State University, San Marcos (BFA 2005), and the University of Texas at San Antonio (MFA 2007). His solo exhibitions include Joseph Cohen: Fatto in Italia (2012; Texas Wade Wilson Art, Houston); Ten Propositions (2012; Peveto, Houston); Joseph Cohen: Proposizioni (2011; Castello Carlo V, Lecce, Italy); Joseph Cohen: Forging the Path of the Concrete (2010; Wade Wilson Art, Houston); and Joseph Cohen (2008; Darke Gallery, Houston). His work was also included in such group exhibitions as In Plain Sight (2012; McClain Gallery, Houston); Of-White (2012; Nuartlink, Westport, CT); Transformations (2012; Deborah Colton Gallery, Houston); Truth: Sublime beyond Words (2011; Deborah Colton Gallery, Houston); The Big Show (2010; Lawndale Art Center, Houston); New American Paintings (2010; G Gallery, Houston); and The White Album (2010; Wade Wilson Art, Houston).

Matt Connors Born 1973 in Chicago Lives and works in New York Matt Connors graduated from Bennington College, VT (BFA 1995), and Yale University, New Haven, CT (MFA 2006). Solo exhibitions of his work include Matt Connors: Complaints III (2014; Cherry and Martin, Los Angeles, and Canada, New York); Matt Connors: Impressionism (2012; MoMA PS1, Long Island City, NY); Matt Connors: Line Breaks (2011; Veneklasen/Werner, Berlin); Matt Connors: Dromedary Resting (2010; Cherry and Martin, Los Angeles); Matt Connors (2010; Four Boxes Gallery at Krabbesholm, Skive, Denmark); Matt Connors: You Don’t Know (2010; Canada, New York); Enjambment (2008; Canada, New York); Pre-Echo (2007; The Breeder, Athens); and Matt Connors: Freely Espousing (2006; Jeff Bailey Gallery, New York). He has also participated in group exhibitions such as Painter, Painter (2013; Walker Art Center, Minneapolis); Matt Connors / Mark Hundley (2012; Herald St., London); Histoires de votre vie: Darren Bader, Juliette Blightman, Matt Connors (2011; Office Baroque Gallery, Antwerp, Belgium); Matt Connors, Arturo Herrera, Merlin James (2009; Sikkema Jenkins & Co., New York); Tenderloin (2007; The Breeder, Athens); and Turn the Beat Around (2006; Sikkema Jenkins & Co., New York).

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Sarah Cain

Nick Cave

Leidy Churchman

Kevin Cole

Born 1979 in Albany, NY Lives and works in Los Angeles Sarah Cain graduated from the San Francisco Art Institute (BFA 2001) and the University of California, Berkeley (MFA 2006). She also attended the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture, ME (2006). Cain’s solo exhibitions include Burning Bush (2014; Galerie Lelong, New York); Feral (2013; Cardi Black Box, Milan, Italy); Loud Object (2013; Anthony Meier Fine Arts, San Francisco); and freedom is a prime number (2012; Honor Fraser Gallery, Los Angeles). Selected group exhibitions include Made in L.A. 2012 (2012; Hammer Museum in collaboration with LA><ART, Los Angeles); Paint Things: beyond the stretcher (2013; deCordova Museum and Sculpture Park, Lincoln, MA); Wall (2013; Columbus College of Art and Design, OH); Fifty Years of Bay Area Art: The SECA Awards (2011; San Francisco Museum of Modern Art); and Soft Math (2011; Bryan Miller Gallery, Houston).

Born 1959 in Jefferson City, MO Lives and works in Chicago Nick Cave graduated from the Kansas City Art Institute, MO (BFA 1982), and Cranbrook Academy of Art, Bloomfield Hills, MI (MFA 1989). He also studied at North Texas State University, Denton. Cave’s solo exhibitions include Nick Cave (2014; Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston); Nick Cave: The World Is My Skin (2013; Trapholt Museum, Denmark); Nick Cave: Let’s C (2011; Fabric Workshop and Museum, Philadelphia); Nick Cave: Ever-After (2011; Jack Shainman Gallery in collaboration with Mary Boone Gallery, New York); Lost-and-Found: Nick Cave (2010; Nerman Museum of Contemporary Art, Johnson County Community College, Overland Park, KS); Nick Cave: Meet Me at the Center of the Earth (2009; Yerba Buena Center for the Arts, San Francisco); Nick Cave: Soundsuits (2006; Chicago Cultural Center); Nick Cave: Reparations (1999; South Bend Museum of Art, IN); and New Work (1997; Grand Arts, Kansas City, MO). His group exhibitions include Seismic Shifts: Ten Visionaries in Contemporary Art and Architecture (2013; National Academy Museum, New York); American Dreamers: Facing or Escaping Reality in Contemporary American Art (2012; Center for Contemporary Culture at the Palazzo Strozzi, Florence, Italy); Are You a Hybrid? (2011; Museum of Arts and Design, New York); No Object Is an Island: New Dialogues with the Cranbrook Collection (2011; Cranbrook Art Museum, Bloomfield Hills, MI); Hand + Made: The Performative Impulse in Art and Craft (2010; Contemporary Arts Museum Houston); Pattern ID (2010; Akron Art Museum, OH); Undercover: Performing and Transforming Black Female Identities (2009; Spelman College Museum of Art, Atlanta); Speaking Volumes: Transforming Hate (2008; Holter Museum of Art, Helena, MT); Black Panther Rank and File (2006; Yerba Buena Center for the Arts, San Francisco); Black Alphabet: Contexts of Contemporary African-American Art (2006; Zachęta National Gallery of Art, Warsaw); Concealing and Revealing (2002; John Michael Kohler Art Center, Sheboygan, WI); Music in My Soul (2001; Portsmouth Museum, VA); and S.O.S. Scenes of Sound (2000; Frances Young Tang Teaching Museum and Art Gallery, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY).

Born 1979 in Villanova, PA Lives and works in Joshua Tree, CA Leidy Churchman graduated from Hampshire College, Amherst, MA (BA 2002), and Columbia University, New York (MFA 2010). His solo and two-person exhibitions include Leidy Churchman (2013; Boston University Art Gallery); Black Green Black (2012; Silberkuppe, Berlin); Expanded Performance: Leidy Churchman and MPA (2012; Stroom den Haag, Netherlands); Leidy Churchman (2012; Rijksakademie, Amsterdam); Painting Treatments (2010; Horton Gallery, Berlin); and Good Afternoon! (2009; Sunday L.E.S., New York). Selected group exhibitions include “Sail Away, We Must!” (2012; CDA Projects and Galerie Zilberman, Istanbul); Leidy Celeste Nicole (2011; Museum 52, New York); Greater New York 2010 (2010; MoMA PS1, Long Island City, NY); Ridykeulous Hits Bottom (2009; Leo Koenig Inc. Projekte, New York).

Born 1960 in Pine Bluff, AR Lives and works in Atlanta Kevin Cole graduated from the University of Arkansas, Pine Bluff (BS 1982); the University of Illinois, Champaign (MA 1983); and Northern Illinois University, Dekalb (MFA 1985). His work has been included in such exhibitions as Fragments of Frozen Sound (2008; Sande Webster Gallery, Philadelphia); In Context: The Language of Abstraction (2008; Abrons Arts Center, New York); AfriCOBRA Now: Contemporary American Works Rooted in Africa (2007; Hampton University Museum, VA); Kevin Cole and Alonzo Davis (2006; Old Dillard Museum, Fort Lauderdale, FL); Different Way of Seeing (2006; Noyes Museum of Art, Oceanville, NJ); and Absence of Color (2001; Philadelphia Museum of Art).

Chris Cascio Born 1976 in New Orleans Lives and works in Houston Chris Cascio graduated from the San Francisco Art Institute (BFA 1999) and the University of Houston (MFA 2013). His work has been seen in a number of solo exhibitions, including Selections from the Hoard (2013; Project Gallery, University of Houston); Chris Cascio (2012; Front Gallery, Houston); Spring Break (2012; Cardoza Fine Art, Houston); Sound Works (2011; UTSA Satellite Space, San Antonio, TX); Harmonic Spheres (2010; Lawndale Art Center, Houston); and Obsessive, Compulsive, Awesome (2008; ArtStorm, Houston). Group exhibitions that have featured his work include Three Cowboys, Two Drugs, and a Skater (2013; New Image Art, Los Angeles); and Dis, Dat, Deez, and Doz (2008; The Joanna, Houston).

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Joseph Cohen Born 1982 in Houston Lives and works in Houston Joseph Cohen graduated from Texas State University, San Marcos (BFA 2005), and the University of Texas at San Antonio (MFA 2007). His solo exhibitions include Joseph Cohen: Fatto in Italia (2012; Texas Wade Wilson Art, Houston); Ten Propositions (2012; Peveto, Houston); Joseph Cohen: Proposizioni (2011; Castello Carlo V, Lecce, Italy); Joseph Cohen: Forging the Path of the Concrete (2010; Wade Wilson Art, Houston); and Joseph Cohen (2008; Darke Gallery, Houston). His work was also included in such group exhibitions as In Plain Sight (2012; McClain Gallery, Houston); Of-White (2012; Nuartlink, Westport, CT); Transformations (2012; Deborah Colton Gallery, Houston); Truth: Sublime beyond Words (2011; Deborah Colton Gallery, Houston); The Big Show (2010; Lawndale Art Center, Houston); New American Paintings (2010; G Gallery, Houston); and The White Album (2010; Wade Wilson Art, Houston).

Matt Connors Born 1973 in Chicago Lives and works in New York Matt Connors graduated from Bennington College, VT (BFA 1995), and Yale University, New Haven, CT (MFA 2006). Solo exhibitions of his work include Matt Connors: Complaints III (2014; Cherry and Martin, Los Angeles, and Canada, New York); Matt Connors: Impressionism (2012; MoMA PS1, Long Island City, NY); Matt Connors: Line Breaks (2011; Veneklasen/Werner, Berlin); Matt Connors: Dromedary Resting (2010; Cherry and Martin, Los Angeles); Matt Connors (2010; Four Boxes Gallery at Krabbesholm, Skive, Denmark); Matt Connors: You Don’t Know (2010; Canada, New York); Enjambment (2008; Canada, New York); Pre-Echo (2007; The Breeder, Athens); and Matt Connors: Freely Espousing (2006; Jeff Bailey Gallery, New York). He has also participated in group exhibitions such as Painter, Painter (2013; Walker Art Center, Minneapolis); Matt Connors / Mark Hundley (2012; Herald St., London); Histoires de votre vie: Darren Bader, Juliette Blightman, Matt Connors (2011; Office Baroque Gallery, Antwerp, Belgium); Matt Connors, Arturo Herrera, Merlin James (2009; Sikkema Jenkins & Co., New York); Tenderloin (2007; The Breeder, Athens); and Turn the Beat Around (2006; Sikkema Jenkins & Co., New York).

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Julia Dault

Abigail DeVille

Born 1977 in Toronto Lives and works in Brooklyn Julia Dault graduated from McGill University, Montreal (BA 2001), and Parsons The New School for Design, New York (MFA 2008). Her solo exhibitions include Color Me Badd (2014; Power Plant, Toronto); Julia Dault (2014; Marianne Boesky Gallery, New York); Rhythm Nation 2014 (2014; China Art Objects, Los Angeles); Excellent Adventure (2013; Galerie Bob van Orsouw, Zurich); Julia Dault (2013; Jessica Bradley Gallery, Toronto); Inside the White Cube (2012; White Cube Bermondsey, London); and Total Picture Control (2010; Blackston Gallery, New York). Select group exhibitions include Moira Dryer Project (2014; Eleven Rivington, New York); Americana: Selections from the Collection (2013; Pérez Art Museum, Miami); Inner Journeys (2013; Maison Particulière, Brussels); In the Heart of the Country (2013; Museum of Modern Art, Warsaw); Gallery Artists Group Show (2012; Harris Lieberman, New York); Rotary Connection (2012; Casey Kaplan Gallery, New York); The Ungovernables, 2012 New Museum Triennial (2012; New Museum, New York); and Everything Must Go! (2011; Casey Kaplan Gallery, New York).

Born 1981 in New York Lives and works in New York Abigail DeVille graduated from the Fashion Institute of Technology, New York (BFA 2007), and Yale University, New Haven, CT (MFA 2011). She has also studied at Pratt Institute, Brooklyn (2000), and Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture, ME (2007). Her work has been included in such exhibitions as Marginal Utility: Abigail DeVille (2012; Institute of Contemporary Art, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia); The Ungovernables, 2012 New Museum Triennial (2012; New Museum, New York); El Museo’s Bienal: The (S) Files 2011 (2011; El Museo del Barrio, New York); Be Black Baby: Dark Star (2010; Recess Gallery, New York); Planet of Slums (2010; Mason Gross Galleries, New Brunswick, NJ); Black Gold (2009; Bronx River Art Center, New York); ArtStar (2006; Deitch Projects, New York); and Metamorphosis (2005; Fashion Institute of Technology, New York).

Gabriel Dawe Born 1973 in Mexico City Lives and works in Dallas Gabriel Dawe graduated from Universidad de las Américas, Puebla, Mexico (BA 1998), and the University of Texas, Dallas (MFA 2011). His solo exhibitions include Blinding Pain (2012; Conduit Gallery, Dallas); The Density of Light (2012; Lot 10 Gallery, Brussels); Plexus No. 15 (2012; Louisiana State University Museum, Baton Rouge); Plexus No. 8 (2011; Luminary Center for the Arts, St. Louis); Plexus No. 9 (2011; Peel Gallery, Houston); Plexus No. 10 (2011; Hub: National Centre for Craft and Design, Lincolnshire, England); Plexus No. 2: Convergence (2010; Project Room, Conduit Gallery, Dallas); Plexus No. 3 (2010; Guerillaarts, Dallas); and Plexus No. 4 (2010; Annex Gallery, Dallas Contemporary). He has participated in such group exhibitions as More and Different Flags (2012; Marlborough Gallery Chelsea, New York); Wunderkammer (2011; Conduit Gallery, Dallas); Strokes (2009; University of Texas, Dallas); and Tigersprung (2009; The Mac, Dallas). 264

Cheryl Donegan Born 1962 in New Haven, CT Lives and works in New York Cheryl Donegan graduated from Rhode Island School of Design, Providence (BFA 1984), and Hunter College, New York (MFA 1990). Select solo exhibitions of her work include Haul (2014; David Shelton Gallery, Houston); Volta NY (2014; David Shelton Gallery, New York); I still want to drown (2010; Hidde Van Seggelen Gallery, London); Project Space (2010; Galerie VidalCuglietta, Brussels); Luxury Dust (2007; Oliver Kamm / 5BE Gallery, New York); Old, Temporary (2005; Oliver Kamm / 5BE Gallery, New York); Junk Space (2003; Oliver Kamm / 5BE Gallery, New York); White Room (2001; White Columns, New York); Tent (1996; Basilico Fine Arts, New York); Cheryl Donegan (1994; Studio Guenzani, Milan, Italy); and Cheryl Donegan (1993; Elizabeth Koury Gallery, New York). Her group exhibitions include December (2011; Mitchell-Innes & Nash Gallery, New York); Multiplex: Directions in Art, 1970 to Now (2007; Museum of Modern Art, New York); Artist’s Choice (2003; Museum of Modern Art, New York); Bright Lights, Big City (2003; David Zwirner Gallery, New York); Phantom Heckler (1999; Tea Factory, Liverpool, England); I Love New York (1998; Ludwig Museum, Cologne); Rooms with a

View: Environments for Video (1998; Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York); Up Close and Personal (1996; Philadelphia Museum of Art); Young and Restless (1996; Museum of Modern Art, New York); Stereo-Tip (1995; Soros Center for Contemporary Art, Ljubljana, Slovenia); Whitney Biennial 1995 (1995; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, and Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen); Guys and Dolls (1994; Videospace, Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston); Performance behind the Curtain (1992; White Columns, New York); and Total Metal (1991; Simon Watson Gallery, New York).

Nathaniel Donnett Born 1968 in Houston Lives and works in Houston Nathaniel Donnett attended Texas Southern University, Houston (1989–92). His solo exhibitions include You Are the One (2013; Redline Milwaukee); ZZzzzzz (2012; Art League Houston); Holla If You Hear Me: The Vibrational Theory (2011; Kavi Gupta, Chicago); My Mind’s Playing Tricks on Me (2011; Jenkins Johnson Gallery, New York); and Paper or Plastic (2009; Lawndale Art Center, Houston). His group exhibitions include Coming through the Gap (2013; University Museum, Houston); Alpha’s Bet Is Not Over Yet (2011; New Museum, New York); The Talented Ten (2009; Deborah Colton Gallery, Houston); Otherwise Constricted—Round 28 (2008; Project Row Houses, Houston); American Cities Series—Houston: Contemporary Works on Paper (2006; Brandywine Workshop, Philadelphia); The Back Door Show (2006; G’s Gallery, Houston); and Future Present Series: Volume One (2006; Community Arts Collective, Houston).

Christian Eckart Born 1959 in Calgary, Canada Lives and works in Houston Christian Eckart graduated from Alberta College of Art, Calgary (BA 1984), and Hunter College, New York (MFA 1986). Eckart’s solo exhibitions include Christian Eckart: Purpose Driven (2006; McClain Gallery, Houston); and Einstein’s Toaster: New Work by Christian Eckart (2003; Galerie Thaddaeus Ropac, Salzburg, Austria).

His group exhibitions include The Shape of Colour: Excursions in Colour Field Art, 1950–2005 (2006; Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto); Universal Medium (2005; McClain Gallery, Houston); Faith: The Impact of Judeo-Christian Religion on Art at the Millennium (2000; Aldrich Contemporary Art Museum, Ridgefield, CT); Abstract/Real (1996; Museum moderner Kunst, Vienna); Painting (1994; Rhona Hoffman Gallery, Chicago); I Am the Enunciator (1993; Thread Waxing Space, New York); Psycho (1992; KunstHall, New York); After Reinhardt: The Ecstasy of Denial (1991; Tomoko Liguori Gallery, New York); The Body in Question (1991; Burden Gallery, Aperture Foundation, New York); Hybrid Abstract (1991; Bennington College, VT); and When Attitudes Become Form (1986; Bess Cutler Gallery, New York).

Nicole Eisenman Born 1965 in Verdun, France Lives and works in Brooklyn Nicole Eisenman graduated from the Rhode Island School of Design, Providence (BFA 1987). Her recent survey exhibition Dear Nemesis: Nicole Eisenman, 1993–2013 was organized by the Contemporary Art Museum St. Louis, in 2014. Other solo exhibitions include Nicole Eisenman: Matrix 248 (2013; University of California Berkeley Art Museum); Nicole Eisenman: Woodcuts, Etchings, Lithographs, and Monotypes (2012; Leo Koenig Gallery, New York); Nicole Eisenman: The Way We Weren’t (2009; Frances Young Tang Teaching Museum and Art Gallery, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY); and Nicole Eisenman (2007; Kunsthalle, Zurich). Selected group exhibitions include: NYC 1993: Experimental Jet Set, Trash, and No Star (2013; New Museum, New York); Whitney Biennial 2012 (2012; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York); and Ridykeulous: The Odds Are against Us (2008; MoMA PS1, Long Island City, NY). Her work was included in the Carnegie International (2013; Carnegie Museum of Art, Pittsburgh), for which she was awarded the Carnegie Prize.

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Julia Dault

Abigail DeVille

Born 1977 in Toronto Lives and works in Brooklyn Julia Dault graduated from McGill University, Montreal (BA 2001), and Parsons The New School for Design, New York (MFA 2008). Her solo exhibitions include Color Me Badd (2014; Power Plant, Toronto); Julia Dault (2014; Marianne Boesky Gallery, New York); Rhythm Nation 2014 (2014; China Art Objects, Los Angeles); Excellent Adventure (2013; Galerie Bob van Orsouw, Zurich); Julia Dault (2013; Jessica Bradley Gallery, Toronto); Inside the White Cube (2012; White Cube Bermondsey, London); and Total Picture Control (2010; Blackston Gallery, New York). Select group exhibitions include Moira Dryer Project (2014; Eleven Rivington, New York); Americana: Selections from the Collection (2013; Pérez Art Museum, Miami); Inner Journeys (2013; Maison Particulière, Brussels); In the Heart of the Country (2013; Museum of Modern Art, Warsaw); Gallery Artists Group Show (2012; Harris Lieberman, New York); Rotary Connection (2012; Casey Kaplan Gallery, New York); The Ungovernables, 2012 New Museum Triennial (2012; New Museum, New York); and Everything Must Go! (2011; Casey Kaplan Gallery, New York).

Born 1981 in New York Lives and works in New York Abigail DeVille graduated from the Fashion Institute of Technology, New York (BFA 2007), and Yale University, New Haven, CT (MFA 2011). She has also studied at Pratt Institute, Brooklyn (2000), and Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture, ME (2007). Her work has been included in such exhibitions as Marginal Utility: Abigail DeVille (2012; Institute of Contemporary Art, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia); The Ungovernables, 2012 New Museum Triennial (2012; New Museum, New York); El Museo’s Bienal: The (S) Files 2011 (2011; El Museo del Barrio, New York); Be Black Baby: Dark Star (2010; Recess Gallery, New York); Planet of Slums (2010; Mason Gross Galleries, New Brunswick, NJ); Black Gold (2009; Bronx River Art Center, New York); ArtStar (2006; Deitch Projects, New York); and Metamorphosis (2005; Fashion Institute of Technology, New York).

Gabriel Dawe Born 1973 in Mexico City Lives and works in Dallas Gabriel Dawe graduated from Universidad de las Américas, Puebla, Mexico (BA 1998), and the University of Texas, Dallas (MFA 2011). His solo exhibitions include Blinding Pain (2012; Conduit Gallery, Dallas); The Density of Light (2012; Lot 10 Gallery, Brussels); Plexus No. 15 (2012; Louisiana State University Museum, Baton Rouge); Plexus No. 8 (2011; Luminary Center for the Arts, St. Louis); Plexus No. 9 (2011; Peel Gallery, Houston); Plexus No. 10 (2011; Hub: National Centre for Craft and Design, Lincolnshire, England); Plexus No. 2: Convergence (2010; Project Room, Conduit Gallery, Dallas); Plexus No. 3 (2010; Guerillaarts, Dallas); and Plexus No. 4 (2010; Annex Gallery, Dallas Contemporary). He has participated in such group exhibitions as More and Different Flags (2012; Marlborough Gallery Chelsea, New York); Wunderkammer (2011; Conduit Gallery, Dallas); Strokes (2009; University of Texas, Dallas); and Tigersprung (2009; The Mac, Dallas). 264

Cheryl Donegan Born 1962 in New Haven, CT Lives and works in New York Cheryl Donegan graduated from Rhode Island School of Design, Providence (BFA 1984), and Hunter College, New York (MFA 1990). Select solo exhibitions of her work include Haul (2014; David Shelton Gallery, Houston); Volta NY (2014; David Shelton Gallery, New York); I still want to drown (2010; Hidde Van Seggelen Gallery, London); Project Space (2010; Galerie VidalCuglietta, Brussels); Luxury Dust (2007; Oliver Kamm / 5BE Gallery, New York); Old, Temporary (2005; Oliver Kamm / 5BE Gallery, New York); Junk Space (2003; Oliver Kamm / 5BE Gallery, New York); White Room (2001; White Columns, New York); Tent (1996; Basilico Fine Arts, New York); Cheryl Donegan (1994; Studio Guenzani, Milan, Italy); and Cheryl Donegan (1993; Elizabeth Koury Gallery, New York). Her group exhibitions include December (2011; Mitchell-Innes & Nash Gallery, New York); Multiplex: Directions in Art, 1970 to Now (2007; Museum of Modern Art, New York); Artist’s Choice (2003; Museum of Modern Art, New York); Bright Lights, Big City (2003; David Zwirner Gallery, New York); Phantom Heckler (1999; Tea Factory, Liverpool, England); I Love New York (1998; Ludwig Museum, Cologne); Rooms with a

View: Environments for Video (1998; Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York); Up Close and Personal (1996; Philadelphia Museum of Art); Young and Restless (1996; Museum of Modern Art, New York); Stereo-Tip (1995; Soros Center for Contemporary Art, Ljubljana, Slovenia); Whitney Biennial 1995 (1995; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, and Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen); Guys and Dolls (1994; Videospace, Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston); Performance behind the Curtain (1992; White Columns, New York); and Total Metal (1991; Simon Watson Gallery, New York).

Nathaniel Donnett Born 1968 in Houston Lives and works in Houston Nathaniel Donnett attended Texas Southern University, Houston (1989–92). His solo exhibitions include You Are the One (2013; Redline Milwaukee); ZZzzzzz (2012; Art League Houston); Holla If You Hear Me: The Vibrational Theory (2011; Kavi Gupta, Chicago); My Mind’s Playing Tricks on Me (2011; Jenkins Johnson Gallery, New York); and Paper or Plastic (2009; Lawndale Art Center, Houston). His group exhibitions include Coming through the Gap (2013; University Museum, Houston); Alpha’s Bet Is Not Over Yet (2011; New Museum, New York); The Talented Ten (2009; Deborah Colton Gallery, Houston); Otherwise Constricted—Round 28 (2008; Project Row Houses, Houston); American Cities Series—Houston: Contemporary Works on Paper (2006; Brandywine Workshop, Philadelphia); The Back Door Show (2006; G’s Gallery, Houston); and Future Present Series: Volume One (2006; Community Arts Collective, Houston).

Christian Eckart Born 1959 in Calgary, Canada Lives and works in Houston Christian Eckart graduated from Alberta College of Art, Calgary (BA 1984), and Hunter College, New York (MFA 1986). Eckart’s solo exhibitions include Christian Eckart: Purpose Driven (2006; McClain Gallery, Houston); and Einstein’s Toaster: New Work by Christian Eckart (2003; Galerie Thaddaeus Ropac, Salzburg, Austria).

His group exhibitions include The Shape of Colour: Excursions in Colour Field Art, 1950–2005 (2006; Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto); Universal Medium (2005; McClain Gallery, Houston); Faith: The Impact of Judeo-Christian Religion on Art at the Millennium (2000; Aldrich Contemporary Art Museum, Ridgefield, CT); Abstract/Real (1996; Museum moderner Kunst, Vienna); Painting (1994; Rhona Hoffman Gallery, Chicago); I Am the Enunciator (1993; Thread Waxing Space, New York); Psycho (1992; KunstHall, New York); After Reinhardt: The Ecstasy of Denial (1991; Tomoko Liguori Gallery, New York); The Body in Question (1991; Burden Gallery, Aperture Foundation, New York); Hybrid Abstract (1991; Bennington College, VT); and When Attitudes Become Form (1986; Bess Cutler Gallery, New York).

Nicole Eisenman Born 1965 in Verdun, France Lives and works in Brooklyn Nicole Eisenman graduated from the Rhode Island School of Design, Providence (BFA 1987). Her recent survey exhibition Dear Nemesis: Nicole Eisenman, 1993–2013 was organized by the Contemporary Art Museum St. Louis, in 2014. Other solo exhibitions include Nicole Eisenman: Matrix 248 (2013; University of California Berkeley Art Museum); Nicole Eisenman: Woodcuts, Etchings, Lithographs, and Monotypes (2012; Leo Koenig Gallery, New York); Nicole Eisenman: The Way We Weren’t (2009; Frances Young Tang Teaching Museum and Art Gallery, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY); and Nicole Eisenman (2007; Kunsthalle, Zurich). Selected group exhibitions include: NYC 1993: Experimental Jet Set, Trash, and No Star (2013; New Museum, New York); Whitney Biennial 2012 (2012; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York); and Ridykeulous: The Odds Are against Us (2008; MoMA PS1, Long Island City, NY). Her work was included in the Carnegie International (2013; Carnegie Museum of Art, Pittsburgh), for which she was awarded the Carnegie Prize.

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Josh Faught Born 1979 in St. Louis Lives and works in San Francisco Josh Faught graduated from Oberlin College, OH (BA 2001); Fashion Institute of Technology, New York (AAS 2004); and the Art Institute of Chicago (MFA 2006). His solo exhibitions at Lisa Cooley in New York include Longtime Companion (2012) and While the Light Lasts (2010). Other solo projects include 2012 SFMOMA SECA Art Award: Be Bold for What You Stand For, Be Careful for What You Fall For (2013; San Francisco Museum of Modern Art); Snacks, Supports, and Something to Rally Around (2013; Contemporary Art Museum St. Louis); Procedures to Reduce Contamination and Stimulate Better Living (2010; Western Bridge, Seattle); and Josh Faught: 2009 Betty Bowen Award Winner (2009; Seattle Art Museum). Recent group exhibitions include The Peacock (2013; Kunstverein, Graz, Austria) and Material Occupation (2012; University Art Museum, University of Albany, NY).

Keltie Ferris Born 1977 in Louisville, KY Lives and works in Brooklyn Keltie Ferris graduated from the Nova Scotia College of Art and Design, Halifax (BFA 2004), and Yale University, New Haven, CT (MFA 2006). Solo and two-person exhibitions of her work include Keltie Ferris: Doomsday Boogie (2014; Santa Monica Museum of Art, CA); Keltie Ferris (2012; Mitchell-Innes & Nash, New York); KF + CM 4EVER (2010; Horton Gallery, New York); Man Eaters (2009; Kemper Museum, Kansas City, MO); Dear Sir or Madame (2008; Sunday L.E.S., New York); Keltie Ferris and Molly Larkey (2008; Sunday L.E.S., New York); and Boy Genius (2007; Kinkead Contemporary, Los Angeles). Her work has been included in such group exhibitions as Spray! (2010; D’Amelio Terras, New York); Purity Is a Myth (2010; Pilar Corrias, London); Aberrant Abstraction (2009; Nerman Museum of Contemporary Art, Johnson County Community College, Overland Park, KS); Besides, With, Against, and Yet: Abstraction and the Ready-Made (2008; The Kitchen, New York); DiSoRgAnIzEd (Another Twenty-Four Hours) (2009; Museum 52, New York); There Is No There There (2008; Rivington Arms, New York); Accident

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Blackspot (2008; Freight + Volume, New York); and Some Kind of Portrait (2007; Marc Selwyn Fine Art, Los Angeles).

Mark Flood Born 1957 in Houston Lives and works in Houston Mark Flood graduated from Rice University, Houston (BA 1981). His work has been the subject of many solo and two-person exhibitions, including Mark Flood (2014; Stuart Shave / Modern Art, London); Facebook Farm (2013; Beta Pictoris, Birmingham, AL); Mark Lood Ask Officer Pepperspray (2013; Peres Projects, Berlin); Artstar (2012; Zach Feuer Gallery, New York); The Hateful Years (2012; Luxembourg & Dayan, New York); The Bitterness of the Red Pill (2011; Cardoza Fine Art Gallery, Houston); Monument to the Responsible Management of the Earth (2011; Maccarone, New York); Murk Flood (2011; Zach Feuer Gallery, New York); Bitch Moves (2010; Peres Projects, Berlin); Chelsea Whores (2009; Zach Feuer Gallery, New York); Entertainment Weakly (2008; Peres Projects, Los Angeles); Nondifference Personified (2008; Brasil, Houston); Assorted Rags (2006; Arthur Roger Gallery, New Orleans); Lace Paintings (2004; American Fine Art, New York); An Exhibition of Work by Mark Flood Organized by Rob Weiner (2000; Marfa, TX); and Billboard Alterations (1988; DiverseWorks, Houston). Flood has participated in such group exhibitions as Lame Lewd and Depressed: Lane Hagood, Mark Flood, and Jeremy DePrez (2013; Co-Lab Projects, Austin, TX); Pretty Ugly (2008; Maccarone, New York); Restless (2005; Glassell School of Art, Museum of Fine Arts, Houston); Return of the Boys in the Bubble (2005; Anton Kern Gallery, New York); City Folk (1995; Holly Solomon Gallery, New York); Avenues of Departure (1992; Contemporary Arts Center New Orleans); and Found (1987; DiverseWorks, Houston).

Danielle Frankenthal Born 1947 in New York Lives and works in Hoboken, NJ Danielle Frankenthal graduated from Brandeis University, Waltham, MA (BA 1965). She also studied at the Art Students League, New York (1969–70).

Select solo exhibitions of her work include Seeing Through (2013; J. Cacciola Gallery, New York); Chaos Contained (2011; Wade Wilson Art, Houston); Agraphages (2010; Wade Wilson Art, Houston); El Mismo Sol (2010; Museo Casa Santo Domingo, Antigua, Guatemala); and Five Tone Poems (2010; Wade Wilson Art, Houston). Her work was included in such group exhibtions as Plastic Is the New Paper (2011; Museum of Fine Arts, Houston); and Neither Model nor Muse (2010; McNay Museum of Art, San Antonio).

Jeffrey Gibson Born 1972 in Colorado Lives and works in Hudson, NY Jeffrey Gibson graduated from the School of the Art Institute of Chicago (BFA 1995) and the Royal College of Art, London (MA 1998). He has had several solo and two-person exhibitions, including Jeffrey Gibson: Love Song (2013; Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston); Jeffrey Gibson: Said the Pigeon to the Squirrel (2013; National Academy Museum, New York); Trade (2013; Cornell Fine Arts Museum, Winter Park, FL); Jeffrey Gibson (2012; Horton Gallery, Berlin); one becomes the other (2012; Participant Inc., New York); Jeffrey Gibson and Jackie Saccoccio: The Shades (2010; Samson Projects, Boston); and Totems (2009; Sala Diaz, San Antonio).

Sam Gilliam Born 1933 in Tupelo, MS Lives and works in Washington, DC Sam Gilliam graduated from the University of Louisville, KY (BA 1955; MA 1961). He received honorary doctorates of humane letters from the University of Louisville (1980) and Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (1990). His work has been included in numerous exhibitions, including Sam Gilliam: Contingencies (2012; Cornell Fine Arts Museum, Winter Park, FL); Sam Gilliam: Flour Mill (2011; Phillips Collection, Washington, DC); Sam Gilliam: New Paintings (2011; Marsha Mateyka Gallery, Washington, DC); Sam Gilliam: A Retrospective (2005; Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, DC); Forty-Fourth Biennial Exhibition of Contemporary American Painting (1995; Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, DC); Abstraction/Abstraction (1986; Carnegie-Mellon University Art Gallery,

Pittsburgh); Cut, Bend, Spindle, Fold (1974; Museum of Modern Art, New York); Venice Biennale (1972; United States Pavilion, Venice); and Whitney Annual (1969; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York).

Nathan Green Born 1980 in Houston Lives and works in Dallas Nathan Green graduated from the University of Texas, Austin (BFA 2004). His solo and two-person exhibitions include Building Pictures (2014; Art Palace Gallery, Houston); Fill the Sky (2011; Art Palace Gallery, Houston); Happy Birthday Moon (2009; Art Palace Gallery, Austin); Lasers in the Jungle (with Eric Gibbons) (2007; Art Palace Gallery, Austin); and Farewell to the Endless (2005; Art Palace Gallery, Austin). His group exhibitions include Texas Biennial (2011; 816 Congress, Austin); Construct (2010; Art Depot, Lubbock, TX); and I-35 Biennial Invitational 2008 (2008; Dunn and Brown Contemporary, Dallas).

David Hammons Born 1943 in Springfield, IL Lives and works in New York David Hammons attended the Otis Art Institute of Parsons School of Design, Los Angeles (1968–72). His solo exhibitions include David Hammons (2011; L&M Arts, New York); Sequence 1 (2007; Palazzo Grassi, Venice); Skulptur Projekte Münster 07 (2007; Münster, Germany); Media Series: David Hammons (2006; St. Louis Art Museum); David Hammons (2003; Galerie Hauser & Wirth, Zurich); David Hammons: Antipodes I (2002; White Cube, London); and Real Time (2000; Centre for Contemporary Art, Warsaw). His group exhibitions include Radical Presence: Black Performance in Contemporary Art (2012; Contemporary Arts Museum Houston); Radical Conceptual Positionen aus der Sammlung des MMK (2010; Museum für moderne Kunst, Frankfurt); NeoHooDoo: Art for a Forgotten Faith (2008; Menil Collection, Houston); New York States of Mind (2007; Queens Museum, New York); The 1980s: A Topology (2007; Serralves Museum of Contemporary Art, Porto, Portugal); Black Panther Rank and File (2006; Yerba Buena

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Josh Faught Born 1979 in St. Louis Lives and works in San Francisco Josh Faught graduated from Oberlin College, OH (BA 2001); Fashion Institute of Technology, New York (AAS 2004); and the Art Institute of Chicago (MFA 2006). His solo exhibitions at Lisa Cooley in New York include Longtime Companion (2012) and While the Light Lasts (2010). Other solo projects include 2012 SFMOMA SECA Art Award: Be Bold for What You Stand For, Be Careful for What You Fall For (2013; San Francisco Museum of Modern Art); Snacks, Supports, and Something to Rally Around (2013; Contemporary Art Museum St. Louis); Procedures to Reduce Contamination and Stimulate Better Living (2010; Western Bridge, Seattle); and Josh Faught: 2009 Betty Bowen Award Winner (2009; Seattle Art Museum). Recent group exhibitions include The Peacock (2013; Kunstverein, Graz, Austria) and Material Occupation (2012; University Art Museum, University of Albany, NY).

Keltie Ferris Born 1977 in Louisville, KY Lives and works in Brooklyn Keltie Ferris graduated from the Nova Scotia College of Art and Design, Halifax (BFA 2004), and Yale University, New Haven, CT (MFA 2006). Solo and two-person exhibitions of her work include Keltie Ferris: Doomsday Boogie (2014; Santa Monica Museum of Art, CA); Keltie Ferris (2012; Mitchell-Innes & Nash, New York); KF + CM 4EVER (2010; Horton Gallery, New York); Man Eaters (2009; Kemper Museum, Kansas City, MO); Dear Sir or Madame (2008; Sunday L.E.S., New York); Keltie Ferris and Molly Larkey (2008; Sunday L.E.S., New York); and Boy Genius (2007; Kinkead Contemporary, Los Angeles). Her work has been included in such group exhibitions as Spray! (2010; D’Amelio Terras, New York); Purity Is a Myth (2010; Pilar Corrias, London); Aberrant Abstraction (2009; Nerman Museum of Contemporary Art, Johnson County Community College, Overland Park, KS); Besides, With, Against, and Yet: Abstraction and the Ready-Made (2008; The Kitchen, New York); DiSoRgAnIzEd (Another Twenty-Four Hours) (2009; Museum 52, New York); There Is No There There (2008; Rivington Arms, New York); Accident

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Blackspot (2008; Freight + Volume, New York); and Some Kind of Portrait (2007; Marc Selwyn Fine Art, Los Angeles).

Mark Flood Born 1957 in Houston Lives and works in Houston Mark Flood graduated from Rice University, Houston (BA 1981). His work has been the subject of many solo and two-person exhibitions, including Mark Flood (2014; Stuart Shave / Modern Art, London); Facebook Farm (2013; Beta Pictoris, Birmingham, AL); Mark Lood Ask Officer Pepperspray (2013; Peres Projects, Berlin); Artstar (2012; Zach Feuer Gallery, New York); The Hateful Years (2012; Luxembourg & Dayan, New York); The Bitterness of the Red Pill (2011; Cardoza Fine Art Gallery, Houston); Monument to the Responsible Management of the Earth (2011; Maccarone, New York); Murk Flood (2011; Zach Feuer Gallery, New York); Bitch Moves (2010; Peres Projects, Berlin); Chelsea Whores (2009; Zach Feuer Gallery, New York); Entertainment Weakly (2008; Peres Projects, Los Angeles); Nondifference Personified (2008; Brasil, Houston); Assorted Rags (2006; Arthur Roger Gallery, New Orleans); Lace Paintings (2004; American Fine Art, New York); An Exhibition of Work by Mark Flood Organized by Rob Weiner (2000; Marfa, TX); and Billboard Alterations (1988; DiverseWorks, Houston). Flood has participated in such group exhibitions as Lame Lewd and Depressed: Lane Hagood, Mark Flood, and Jeremy DePrez (2013; Co-Lab Projects, Austin, TX); Pretty Ugly (2008; Maccarone, New York); Restless (2005; Glassell School of Art, Museum of Fine Arts, Houston); Return of the Boys in the Bubble (2005; Anton Kern Gallery, New York); City Folk (1995; Holly Solomon Gallery, New York); Avenues of Departure (1992; Contemporary Arts Center New Orleans); and Found (1987; DiverseWorks, Houston).

Danielle Frankenthal Born 1947 in New York Lives and works in Hoboken, NJ Danielle Frankenthal graduated from Brandeis University, Waltham, MA (BA 1965). She also studied at the Art Students League, New York (1969–70).

Select solo exhibitions of her work include Seeing Through (2013; J. Cacciola Gallery, New York); Chaos Contained (2011; Wade Wilson Art, Houston); Agraphages (2010; Wade Wilson Art, Houston); El Mismo Sol (2010; Museo Casa Santo Domingo, Antigua, Guatemala); and Five Tone Poems (2010; Wade Wilson Art, Houston). Her work was included in such group exhibtions as Plastic Is the New Paper (2011; Museum of Fine Arts, Houston); and Neither Model nor Muse (2010; McNay Museum of Art, San Antonio).

Jeffrey Gibson Born 1972 in Colorado Lives and works in Hudson, NY Jeffrey Gibson graduated from the School of the Art Institute of Chicago (BFA 1995) and the Royal College of Art, London (MA 1998). He has had several solo and two-person exhibitions, including Jeffrey Gibson: Love Song (2013; Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston); Jeffrey Gibson: Said the Pigeon to the Squirrel (2013; National Academy Museum, New York); Trade (2013; Cornell Fine Arts Museum, Winter Park, FL); Jeffrey Gibson (2012; Horton Gallery, Berlin); one becomes the other (2012; Participant Inc., New York); Jeffrey Gibson and Jackie Saccoccio: The Shades (2010; Samson Projects, Boston); and Totems (2009; Sala Diaz, San Antonio).

Sam Gilliam Born 1933 in Tupelo, MS Lives and works in Washington, DC Sam Gilliam graduated from the University of Louisville, KY (BA 1955; MA 1961). He received honorary doctorates of humane letters from the University of Louisville (1980) and Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (1990). His work has been included in numerous exhibitions, including Sam Gilliam: Contingencies (2012; Cornell Fine Arts Museum, Winter Park, FL); Sam Gilliam: Flour Mill (2011; Phillips Collection, Washington, DC); Sam Gilliam: New Paintings (2011; Marsha Mateyka Gallery, Washington, DC); Sam Gilliam: A Retrospective (2005; Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, DC); Forty-Fourth Biennial Exhibition of Contemporary American Painting (1995; Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, DC); Abstraction/Abstraction (1986; Carnegie-Mellon University Art Gallery,

Pittsburgh); Cut, Bend, Spindle, Fold (1974; Museum of Modern Art, New York); Venice Biennale (1972; United States Pavilion, Venice); and Whitney Annual (1969; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York).

Nathan Green Born 1980 in Houston Lives and works in Dallas Nathan Green graduated from the University of Texas, Austin (BFA 2004). His solo and two-person exhibitions include Building Pictures (2014; Art Palace Gallery, Houston); Fill the Sky (2011; Art Palace Gallery, Houston); Happy Birthday Moon (2009; Art Palace Gallery, Austin); Lasers in the Jungle (with Eric Gibbons) (2007; Art Palace Gallery, Austin); and Farewell to the Endless (2005; Art Palace Gallery, Austin). His group exhibitions include Texas Biennial (2011; 816 Congress, Austin); Construct (2010; Art Depot, Lubbock, TX); and I-35 Biennial Invitational 2008 (2008; Dunn and Brown Contemporary, Dallas).

David Hammons Born 1943 in Springfield, IL Lives and works in New York David Hammons attended the Otis Art Institute of Parsons School of Design, Los Angeles (1968–72). His solo exhibitions include David Hammons (2011; L&M Arts, New York); Sequence 1 (2007; Palazzo Grassi, Venice); Skulptur Projekte Münster 07 (2007; Münster, Germany); Media Series: David Hammons (2006; St. Louis Art Museum); David Hammons (2003; Galerie Hauser & Wirth, Zurich); David Hammons: Antipodes I (2002; White Cube, London); and Real Time (2000; Centre for Contemporary Art, Warsaw). His group exhibitions include Radical Presence: Black Performance in Contemporary Art (2012; Contemporary Arts Museum Houston); Radical Conceptual Positionen aus der Sammlung des MMK (2010; Museum für moderne Kunst, Frankfurt); NeoHooDoo: Art for a Forgotten Faith (2008; Menil Collection, Houston); New York States of Mind (2007; Queens Museum, New York); The 1980s: A Topology (2007; Serralves Museum of Contemporary Art, Porto, Portugal); Black Panther Rank and File (2006; Yerba Buena

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Center for the Arts, San Francisco); Double Consciousness: Black Conceptual Art since 1970 (2005; Contemporary Arts Museum Houston); Shadowland: An Exhibition as a Film (2005; Walker Art Center, Minneapolis); Seeds and Roots (2004; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); The Big Nothing (2004; Institute of Contemporary Art, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia); Dreams and Conflicts: The Dictatorship of the Viewer, Venice Biennale (2003; Arsenale, Venice); Fünf Positionen (2000; Christine König Galerie, Vienna); Hypermental: Wahnhafte Wirklichkeit, 1955–2000, von Salvador Dalí bis Jeff Koons (2000; Kunsthaus, Zurich); and Over the Edges (2000; Stedelijk Museum voor Actuele Kunst, Ghent, Belgium).

Katy Heinlein Born 1973 in Baytown, TX Lives and works in Houston Katy Heinlein graduated from the University of Mary Hardin-Baylor, Belton, Texas (BFA 1995), and Texas Tech University, Lubbock (MFA 1999). Heinlein’s solo and two-person exhibitions include If We Only Knew Now What They Knew Then: Works by Melanie Crader and Katy Heinlein (2010; Houston Art Alliance, Space 125gallery); Project Space (2009; CTRL Gallery, Houston); Katy Heinlein (2008; CTRL Gallery, Houston); and Unknown Pleasures (2008; Women and Their Work, Austin, TX). She has participated in numerous group exhibitions, including A Room in Three Movements: Katy Heinlein, Sheila Pepe, and Halsey Rodman (2011; Sue Scott Gallery, New York); Precarity and the Butter Tower (2010; CTRL Gallery, Houston); P’s and Q’s (2010; Hyde Park Art Center, Chicago); and Deconstruct + Reconstruction (2010; Visual Arts Center, University of Texas, Austin).

Charline von Heyl Born 1960 in Mainz, West Germany Lives and works in New York and Marfa, TX Charline von Heyl attended the Düsseldorf Art Academy, Germany. Solo exhibitions of her work include Charline von Heyl (2013; Friedrich Petzel Gallery, New York); Charline von Heyl: Now or Else (2012; Kunsthalle Nürnberg, Nuremberg, Germany); Charline von Heyl (2011; Institute of

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Contemporary Art, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia); and Concentrations 48: Charline von Heyl (2005; Dallas Museum of Art) as well as solo exhibitions in 2010 (Worcester Art Museum, MA); 2006 (Friedrich Petzel Gallery, New York); 2005 (Vienna Secession; Galerie Bärbel Grässlin, Frankfurt; and Galerie Gisela Capitain, Cologne); and 1995 (Galerie Borgmann Capitain, Cologne). Her work has appeared in many group exhibitions, including 2014 Whitney Biennial (2014; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York); now I am quietly waiting for the catastrophe of my personality to seem beautiful again, and interesting, and modern (2012; Bortolami Gallery, New York); Painting in Space (2012; Luhring Augustine, New York); Phantom Limb: Approaches to Painting Today (2012; Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago); Immaterial (2010; Ballroom Marfa, TX); Oranges and Sardines: Conversations on Abstract Painting (2008; Hammer Museum, Los Angeles); Painting Now and Forever, Part II (2008; Matthew Marks Gallery and Greene Naftali Gallery, New York); Fit to Print (2007; Gagosian Gallery, New York); and Make Your Own Life: Artists In and Out of Cologne (2006; Institute of Contemporary Art, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia).

Felrath Hines Born 1913 in Indianapolis Died 1993 in Silver Spring, MD Felrath Hines attended the School of the Art Institute of Chicago (1944–46); Pratt Institute, Brooklyn (1947–48); and New York University (1953–55). His solo exhibitions include Felrath Hines: Paintings, 1960–1985 (2004; June Kelly Gallery, New York); Felrath Hines (1995; Indianapolis Museum of Art); Felrath Hines (1986; Franz Bader Gallery, Washington, DC); Felrath Hines (1979; Barbara Fielder Gallery, Washington, DC); Felrath Hines (1957; Parma Gallery, New York); and S. Felrath Hines (1951; Creative Gallery, New York). His group exhibitions include Still Working: Underknown Artists of Age in America (1994; Parsons School of Design, New York); Options: Washington 1983 (1983; Washington Project for the Arts, Washington, DC); Two Centuries of Black American Art (1976; Los Angeles County Museum of Art); Afro American Artists: New York and Boston (1970; Museum of Fine Arts, Boston); Thirty Contemporary Black Artists (1968;

Minneapolis Institute of Arts); Art of the American Negro (1966; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); The Spiral Black and White Exhibit (1965; Spiral Group, New York).

Geoff Hippenstiel Born 1974 in Santa Monica, CA Lives and works in Houston Geoff Hippenstiel graduated from the University of Houston (BFA 2006; MFA 2010). His solo exhibitions include Murder Ballad (2014; Holly Johnson Gallery, Dallas); Geoff Hippenstiel: Monochromes (2014; Volta with Makebish Gallery, New York); and Territorial Pissings (2013; Devin Borden Gallery, Houston). Select group exhibitions include Texas Biennial (2013; Blue Star Contemporary Art Museum, San Antonio) and Works on Paper (2012; Devin Borden Gallery, Houston).

Gilbert Hsiao Born 1956 in Easton, PA Lives and works in Berlin and Brooklyn Gilbert Hsiao graduated from Columbia University, New York (BA 1977), and Pratt Institute, Brooklyn (BFA 1980). Solo exhibitions of Hsiao’s work include Gilbert Hsiao: Vortex (2014; Gallery Sonja Roesch, Houston); Gilbert Hsiao: Jump and Flow (2012; Minus Space, Brooklyn); Filtered (2011; Gallery Sonja Roesch, Houston); Gilbert Hsiao: Shape/Anti-Shape (2009; Gallery Sonja Roesch, Houston); Gilbert Hsiao: Two Vinyls (2006; Minus Space, Brooklyn); and Gilbert Hsiao (1986; White Columns, New York). His work has been included in numerous group exhibitions, including An Exchange with Sol LeWitt (2011; Massachusetts Museum of Contemporary Art, North Adams); Sound and Vision (2011; McKenzie Fine Art, New York); Splendor of Dynamic Structure: Celebrating Seventy-Five Years of the American Abstract Artists (2011; Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY); Thirty: A Brooklyn Salon (2011; BRIC Rotunda Gallery, Brooklyn); Rampe (2010; Galerie Parkhaus, Berlin); Peace (2008; Sideshow Gallery, Brooklyn); Movement in Art (2005; Hudson Guild Gallery, New York); and Project Diversity (2005; Museum for Contemporary African Diasporan Arts, Brooklyn).

Rashid Johnson Born 1977 in Chicago Lives and works in Brooklyn Rashid Johnson studied in Chicago at Columbia College (BA 2000) and School of the Art Institute (MFA 2005). His solo exhibitions include New Growth (2013; Ballroom Marfa, TX); Coup d’état (2012; David Kordansky Gallery, Los Angeles); Rashid Johnson: Message to Our Folks (2012; Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago); Smoke and Mirrors (2009; Sculpture Center, Long Island City, NY); Cosmic Slops (2008; Richard Gray Gallery, Chicago); The Production of Escapism (2005; Indianapolis Museum of Contemporary Art); The Rise and Fall of a Proper Negro (2003; moniquemeloche, Chicago); and 12×12: New Artist / New Work (2002; Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago). His group exhibitions include The Angel of History (2013; Palais des Beaux-Arts, Paris); Reactivation: Ninth Shanghai Biennale (2012; Shanghai); Converging Voices, Transforming Dialogue (2011; University Museum, Texas Southern University, Houston); Illuminations, Venice Biennale (2011; Arsenale, Venice); Secret Societies: To Know, to Dare, to Will, to Keep Silence (2011; Schirn Kunsthalle, Frankfurt); For the Love of the Game: Race and Sports (2007; Amistad Center for Art and Culture at the Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art, Hartford); The Color Line, Luanda Triennial (2007; Luanda, Angola); American Identities (2006; Brooklyn Museum); A noir, e blanc, i rouge, u vert, o bleu: Colors (2006; Kunstmuseum Magdeburg, Germany); Only Skin Deep: Changing Visions of the American Self (2003; International Center of Photography, New York); The Squared Circle: Boxing in Contemporary Art (2003; Walker Art Center, Minneapolis); and Freestyle (2001; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York).

Jennie C. Jones Born 1968 in Cincinnati Lives and works in Brooklyn Jennie C. Jones graduated from the School of the Art Institute of Chicago (BFA 1991) and Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ (MFA 1996). Her solo exhibitions include Jennie C. Jones: Subtonal (2014; Contemporary Arts Museum Houston); Higher Resonance (2013; Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC); Absorb/Diffuse

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Center for the Arts, San Francisco); Double Consciousness: Black Conceptual Art since 1970 (2005; Contemporary Arts Museum Houston); Shadowland: An Exhibition as a Film (2005; Walker Art Center, Minneapolis); Seeds and Roots (2004; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); The Big Nothing (2004; Institute of Contemporary Art, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia); Dreams and Conflicts: The Dictatorship of the Viewer, Venice Biennale (2003; Arsenale, Venice); Fünf Positionen (2000; Christine König Galerie, Vienna); Hypermental: Wahnhafte Wirklichkeit, 1955–2000, von Salvador Dalí bis Jeff Koons (2000; Kunsthaus, Zurich); and Over the Edges (2000; Stedelijk Museum voor Actuele Kunst, Ghent, Belgium).

Katy Heinlein Born 1973 in Baytown, TX Lives and works in Houston Katy Heinlein graduated from the University of Mary Hardin-Baylor, Belton, Texas (BFA 1995), and Texas Tech University, Lubbock (MFA 1999). Heinlein’s solo and two-person exhibitions include If We Only Knew Now What They Knew Then: Works by Melanie Crader and Katy Heinlein (2010; Houston Art Alliance, Space 125gallery); Project Space (2009; CTRL Gallery, Houston); Katy Heinlein (2008; CTRL Gallery, Houston); and Unknown Pleasures (2008; Women and Their Work, Austin, TX). She has participated in numerous group exhibitions, including A Room in Three Movements: Katy Heinlein, Sheila Pepe, and Halsey Rodman (2011; Sue Scott Gallery, New York); Precarity and the Butter Tower (2010; CTRL Gallery, Houston); P’s and Q’s (2010; Hyde Park Art Center, Chicago); and Deconstruct + Reconstruction (2010; Visual Arts Center, University of Texas, Austin).

Charline von Heyl Born 1960 in Mainz, West Germany Lives and works in New York and Marfa, TX Charline von Heyl attended the Düsseldorf Art Academy, Germany. Solo exhibitions of her work include Charline von Heyl (2013; Friedrich Petzel Gallery, New York); Charline von Heyl: Now or Else (2012; Kunsthalle Nürnberg, Nuremberg, Germany); Charline von Heyl (2011; Institute of

268

Contemporary Art, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia); and Concentrations 48: Charline von Heyl (2005; Dallas Museum of Art) as well as solo exhibitions in 2010 (Worcester Art Museum, MA); 2006 (Friedrich Petzel Gallery, New York); 2005 (Vienna Secession; Galerie Bärbel Grässlin, Frankfurt; and Galerie Gisela Capitain, Cologne); and 1995 (Galerie Borgmann Capitain, Cologne). Her work has appeared in many group exhibitions, including 2014 Whitney Biennial (2014; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York); now I am quietly waiting for the catastrophe of my personality to seem beautiful again, and interesting, and modern (2012; Bortolami Gallery, New York); Painting in Space (2012; Luhring Augustine, New York); Phantom Limb: Approaches to Painting Today (2012; Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago); Immaterial (2010; Ballroom Marfa, TX); Oranges and Sardines: Conversations on Abstract Painting (2008; Hammer Museum, Los Angeles); Painting Now and Forever, Part II (2008; Matthew Marks Gallery and Greene Naftali Gallery, New York); Fit to Print (2007; Gagosian Gallery, New York); and Make Your Own Life: Artists In and Out of Cologne (2006; Institute of Contemporary Art, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia).

Felrath Hines Born 1913 in Indianapolis Died 1993 in Silver Spring, MD Felrath Hines attended the School of the Art Institute of Chicago (1944–46); Pratt Institute, Brooklyn (1947–48); and New York University (1953–55). His solo exhibitions include Felrath Hines: Paintings, 1960–1985 (2004; June Kelly Gallery, New York); Felrath Hines (1995; Indianapolis Museum of Art); Felrath Hines (1986; Franz Bader Gallery, Washington, DC); Felrath Hines (1979; Barbara Fielder Gallery, Washington, DC); Felrath Hines (1957; Parma Gallery, New York); and S. Felrath Hines (1951; Creative Gallery, New York). His group exhibitions include Still Working: Underknown Artists of Age in America (1994; Parsons School of Design, New York); Options: Washington 1983 (1983; Washington Project for the Arts, Washington, DC); Two Centuries of Black American Art (1976; Los Angeles County Museum of Art); Afro American Artists: New York and Boston (1970; Museum of Fine Arts, Boston); Thirty Contemporary Black Artists (1968;

Minneapolis Institute of Arts); Art of the American Negro (1966; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); The Spiral Black and White Exhibit (1965; Spiral Group, New York).

Geoff Hippenstiel Born 1974 in Santa Monica, CA Lives and works in Houston Geoff Hippenstiel graduated from the University of Houston (BFA 2006; MFA 2010). His solo exhibitions include Murder Ballad (2014; Holly Johnson Gallery, Dallas); Geoff Hippenstiel: Monochromes (2014; Volta with Makebish Gallery, New York); and Territorial Pissings (2013; Devin Borden Gallery, Houston). Select group exhibitions include Texas Biennial (2013; Blue Star Contemporary Art Museum, San Antonio) and Works on Paper (2012; Devin Borden Gallery, Houston).

Gilbert Hsiao Born 1956 in Easton, PA Lives and works in Berlin and Brooklyn Gilbert Hsiao graduated from Columbia University, New York (BA 1977), and Pratt Institute, Brooklyn (BFA 1980). Solo exhibitions of Hsiao’s work include Gilbert Hsiao: Vortex (2014; Gallery Sonja Roesch, Houston); Gilbert Hsiao: Jump and Flow (2012; Minus Space, Brooklyn); Filtered (2011; Gallery Sonja Roesch, Houston); Gilbert Hsiao: Shape/Anti-Shape (2009; Gallery Sonja Roesch, Houston); Gilbert Hsiao: Two Vinyls (2006; Minus Space, Brooklyn); and Gilbert Hsiao (1986; White Columns, New York). His work has been included in numerous group exhibitions, including An Exchange with Sol LeWitt (2011; Massachusetts Museum of Contemporary Art, North Adams); Sound and Vision (2011; McKenzie Fine Art, New York); Splendor of Dynamic Structure: Celebrating Seventy-Five Years of the American Abstract Artists (2011; Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY); Thirty: A Brooklyn Salon (2011; BRIC Rotunda Gallery, Brooklyn); Rampe (2010; Galerie Parkhaus, Berlin); Peace (2008; Sideshow Gallery, Brooklyn); Movement in Art (2005; Hudson Guild Gallery, New York); and Project Diversity (2005; Museum for Contemporary African Diasporan Arts, Brooklyn).

Rashid Johnson Born 1977 in Chicago Lives and works in Brooklyn Rashid Johnson studied in Chicago at Columbia College (BA 2000) and School of the Art Institute (MFA 2005). His solo exhibitions include New Growth (2013; Ballroom Marfa, TX); Coup d’état (2012; David Kordansky Gallery, Los Angeles); Rashid Johnson: Message to Our Folks (2012; Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago); Smoke and Mirrors (2009; Sculpture Center, Long Island City, NY); Cosmic Slops (2008; Richard Gray Gallery, Chicago); The Production of Escapism (2005; Indianapolis Museum of Contemporary Art); The Rise and Fall of a Proper Negro (2003; moniquemeloche, Chicago); and 12×12: New Artist / New Work (2002; Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago). His group exhibitions include The Angel of History (2013; Palais des Beaux-Arts, Paris); Reactivation: Ninth Shanghai Biennale (2012; Shanghai); Converging Voices, Transforming Dialogue (2011; University Museum, Texas Southern University, Houston); Illuminations, Venice Biennale (2011; Arsenale, Venice); Secret Societies: To Know, to Dare, to Will, to Keep Silence (2011; Schirn Kunsthalle, Frankfurt); For the Love of the Game: Race and Sports (2007; Amistad Center for Art and Culture at the Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art, Hartford); The Color Line, Luanda Triennial (2007; Luanda, Angola); American Identities (2006; Brooklyn Museum); A noir, e blanc, i rouge, u vert, o bleu: Colors (2006; Kunstmuseum Magdeburg, Germany); Only Skin Deep: Changing Visions of the American Self (2003; International Center of Photography, New York); The Squared Circle: Boxing in Contemporary Art (2003; Walker Art Center, Minneapolis); and Freestyle (2001; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York).

Jennie C. Jones Born 1968 in Cincinnati Lives and works in Brooklyn Jennie C. Jones graduated from the School of the Art Institute of Chicago (BFA 1991) and Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ (MFA 1996). Her solo exhibitions include Jennie C. Jones: Subtonal (2014; Contemporary Arts Museum Houston); Higher Resonance (2013; Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC); Absorb/Diffuse

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(2011; The Kitchen, New York); and Jennie C. Jones: Counterpoint (2011; Yerba Buena Center for the Arts, San Francisco). Her group exhibitions include Shift (2012; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); Silence (2012; Menil Collection, Houston); Black Sound White Cube (2011; Kunstquartier Bethanien / Studio 1, Berlin); With Hidden Noise (2011; Aspen Art Museum, CO); Electric (2010; Sikkema Jenkins & Co., New York); Thirty Seconds off an Inch (2009; The Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); Black Light / White Noise: Sound and Light in Contemporary Art (2007; Contemporary Arts Museum Houston); Double Consciousness: Black Conceptual Art since 1970 (2005; Contemporary Arts Museum Houston); AV—Audiovisual (2004; Triple Candie, New York); Freestyle (2001; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); Snap Shot (2000; Contemporary Museum, Baltimore); and Don’t Try This at Home: Performance Videos by Mike Smith, William Wegman, Guy Richards Smit, and Jennie C. Jones (1997; Knitting Factory Video Lounge, New York).

Fabienne Lasserre Born 1973 in Ottawa, Canada Lives and works in Brooklyn Fabienne Lasserre graduated from Concordia University, Montreal (BFA 1996), and Columbia University, New York (MFA 2004). Lasserre’s solo and two-person exhibitions include Here Like a Story Like a Picture and a Mirror (2013; Jeff Bailey Gallery, New York); The Us and the It (2012; Gallery Diet, Miami); For the Partner (2011; Jeff Bailey Gallery, New York); Foreign Object: Yui Kugimaya and Fabienne Lasserre (2010; Regina Rex, Queens, NY); and What Is Found There (2010; Gallery Diet, Miami). Group shows featuring her work include Building Materials (2013; Real Art Ways, Hartford); Workspace Program Exhibition Part 1: Firelei Baez and Fabienne Lasserre (2013; Dieu Donné, New York); Becoming Something Found (2011; Jolie Laide Gallery, Philadelphia); La triennale québecoise (2011; Musée d’art contemporain de Montréal); and Come Through (2010; Sikkema Jenkins & Co., New York).

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Paul Lee Born 1974 in London Lives and works in New York Paul Lee graduated from the Winchester School of Art, Southampton, England (BA 1997). Solo exhibitions of his work include Paul Lee: Emerald (2013; Maccarone, New York); Moon River (2011; Stuart Shave / Modern Art, London); Lavender (2010; Maccarone, New York); Paul Lee (2010; Stuart Shave / Modern Art, London); Arm’s Length (2008; Peres Projects, Los Angeles); Harbour (2007; Peres Projects, Berlin); Paul Lee (2007; Chinati Foundation, Marfa, TX); Paul Lee (2006; Schoolhouse Gallery, Provincetown, MA); Reservoir (2006; Massimo Audiello, New York); and The dead birds of W28th St (2003; Schoolhouse Gallery, Provincetown, MA). His group exhibitions include Notes on NeoCamp (2013; Office Baroque, Antwerp, Belgium); Absentee Landlord (2011; Walker Art Center, Minneapolis); Everynight I go to sleep (2010; Stuart Shave / Modern Art, London); Summer Camp (2010; Exile Galerie, Berlin); Between Beach Ball and Rubber Raft (2009; Contemporary Art Museum St. Louis); This Is Not Called Gay Art Now (2006; Paul Kasmin Gallery, New York); and All in the Family (2005; Texas Gallery, Houston).

Simone Leigh Born 1968 in Chicago Lives and works in Brooklyn Simone Leigh graduated from Earlham College, Richmond, IN (BA 1990). Her solo and two-person exhibitions include I Always Face You Even When It Seems Otherwise (2013; Tiwani Contemporary, London); You Don’t Know Where Her Mouth Has Been (2012; The Kitchen, New York); The Gods Must Be Crazy, for In Practice (2009; Sculpture Center, Long Island City, NY); if you wan fo’ lick old woman pot, you scratch him back (2008; Rush Arts Gallery Project Space, New York); and Scratching the Surface, Vol. 1 (2008; L’appartement 22, Rabat, Morocco). Her group exhibitions include Approximately Infinite Universe (2013; Museum of Contemporary Art San Diego, La Jolla); Double Fortune, Double Trouble: Art for Twins among the Yoruba (2013; UCLA Fowler Museum, Los Angeles); March On! (2013; Brooklyn Academy of Music); Radical Presence: Black Performance in Contemporary Art (2012; Contemporary Arts Museum Houston); Unevenness (2012; National Gallery of Zimbabwe,

Harare); Weltraum/Space: Exploration and Exploitation (2011; Kunsthalle, Vienna); Rockstone and Bootheel: Contemporary West Indian Art (2009; Real Art Ways, Hartford); Thirty Seconds off an Inch (2009; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); The B-Sides (2008; Aljira: A Center for Contemporary Art, Newark); The Future as Disruption (2008; The Kitchen, New York); The Divine Body: God, Gender, and the Diversity of Early Christianity (2005; Cathedral of Saint John the Divine and LeRoy Neiman Gallery, Columbia University, New York); and Smirk: Women, Art, and Humor (2000; Firehouse Gallery, Hempstead, NY).

Galerie Hussenot, Paris); Come Through (2010; Sikkema Jenkins & Co., New York); Moovement Schmoovement (2010; La MaMa Gallery, New York); Seat-of-the-Pants: Daphne Fitzpatrick, Siobhan Liddell, Judy Linn, Jacob Robichaux, and Amy Yao (2010; Museum 52, New York); Unfurnished Room (2009; Unit B Gallery, San Antonio, TX); looking back—selected by Matthew Higgs (2006; White Columns, New York); Liz Deschenes and Siobhan Liddell (2004; Gesellschaft für Aktuelle Kunst, Bremen, Germany).

Daniel Levine

Born 1952 in Memphis Lives and works in New York James Little graduated from the Memphis Academy of Art (BFA 1974) and Syracuse University (MFA 1976). His solo exhibitions include James Little: Never Say Never (2013; June Kelly Gallery, New York); Recent Abstract Paintings (1995; Kenkeleba Gallery, New York); New Paintings (1988; June Kelly Gallery, New York); New Paintings (1987; Liz Harris Gallery, Boston); and Paintings by James Little (1976; Everson Museum of Art, Syracuse, NY). His group exhibitions include Abstract Relations: Selections from the David Driskell Center and the University of Delaware (2010; David C. Driskell Center, University of Maryland, College Park, and University of Delaware); Seeds and Roots: Selections from the Permanent Collection (2004; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); No Greater Love, Abstraction (2002; Jack Tilton / Anna Kustera Gallery, New York); Ajita: Unconquerable (2002; The Station, Houston); and Straight Painting (2000; Painting Center, New York).

Born 1959 in New York Lives and works in New York Daniel Levine graduated from the State University of New York, Buffalo (BFA 1981; MFA 1983). His solo exhibitions include Daniel Levine: The Way Around (2014; Churner and Churner, New York) and Daniel Levine: Paintings (2010; Gallery Sonja Roesch, Houston) as well as those at Julian Pretto Gallery, New York (1990, 1989), Jeffrey Neale Gallery, New York (1988); White Columns, New York (1984); and Hallways, Buffalo, NY (1981). His group exhibitions include Julian Pretto Gallery (2013; Minus Space, New York); In Substantiality (2010; Theodore:Art, Brooklyn); Toys in the Attic (2004; Lennon Weinberg, New York); Echo (1993; Lipton/Owens Gallery, New York); Painting as Paradigm (1993; Stark Gallery, New York); The Vertical Flatbed Picture Plane (1991; Turner and Byrne Gallery, Dallas); The Castle, Documenta 8 (1987; Kassel, Germany); The Glittering Prize (1987; Stux Gallery, New York); and The New Capital (1984; White Columns, New York).

Siobhan Liddell Born 1965 in Worksop, England Lives and works in upstate New York Siobhan Liddell graduated from Saint Martins School of Art, London (BFA 1986). Liddell’s solo exhibitions include Among Ancients (2013; Galerie Eric Dupont, Paris); As it is, as it isn’t (2010; Galerie Eric Dupont, Paris); Ordinary Magic (2010; CRG Gallery, New York, 2010); and Hammer Projects: Siobhan Liddell (2000; Hammer Museum, Los Angeles). Liddell has participated in the group exhibitions Undrawn Drawings: Works of Paper (2013;

James Little

Eva Lundsager Born 1960 in Buffalo, NY Lives and works in Boston Eva Lundsager graduated from the University of Maryland, College Park (BA 1984), and Hunter College, New York (MFA 1988). Her solo and two-person exhibitions include Eva Lundsager: Elsewhere (2013; Academy Art Museum, Easton, MD); Liquid Terrain: Twenty Years of Works on Paper (2012; Sheldon Art Galleries, St. Louis); And Stillness Is There and Then Some (2011; Greenberg Van Doren Gallery, New York); and Joan Nelson and Eva Lundsager (1994; Schmidt Contemporary Art, St. Louis) as 271


(2011; The Kitchen, New York); and Jennie C. Jones: Counterpoint (2011; Yerba Buena Center for the Arts, San Francisco). Her group exhibitions include Shift (2012; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); Silence (2012; Menil Collection, Houston); Black Sound White Cube (2011; Kunstquartier Bethanien / Studio 1, Berlin); With Hidden Noise (2011; Aspen Art Museum, CO); Electric (2010; Sikkema Jenkins & Co., New York); Thirty Seconds off an Inch (2009; The Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); Black Light / White Noise: Sound and Light in Contemporary Art (2007; Contemporary Arts Museum Houston); Double Consciousness: Black Conceptual Art since 1970 (2005; Contemporary Arts Museum Houston); AV—Audiovisual (2004; Triple Candie, New York); Freestyle (2001; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); Snap Shot (2000; Contemporary Museum, Baltimore); and Don’t Try This at Home: Performance Videos by Mike Smith, William Wegman, Guy Richards Smit, and Jennie C. Jones (1997; Knitting Factory Video Lounge, New York).

Fabienne Lasserre Born 1973 in Ottawa, Canada Lives and works in Brooklyn Fabienne Lasserre graduated from Concordia University, Montreal (BFA 1996), and Columbia University, New York (MFA 2004). Lasserre’s solo and two-person exhibitions include Here Like a Story Like a Picture and a Mirror (2013; Jeff Bailey Gallery, New York); The Us and the It (2012; Gallery Diet, Miami); For the Partner (2011; Jeff Bailey Gallery, New York); Foreign Object: Yui Kugimaya and Fabienne Lasserre (2010; Regina Rex, Queens, NY); and What Is Found There (2010; Gallery Diet, Miami). Group shows featuring her work include Building Materials (2013; Real Art Ways, Hartford); Workspace Program Exhibition Part 1: Firelei Baez and Fabienne Lasserre (2013; Dieu Donné, New York); Becoming Something Found (2011; Jolie Laide Gallery, Philadelphia); La triennale québecoise (2011; Musée d’art contemporain de Montréal); and Come Through (2010; Sikkema Jenkins & Co., New York).

270

Paul Lee Born 1974 in London Lives and works in New York Paul Lee graduated from the Winchester School of Art, Southampton, England (BA 1997). Solo exhibitions of his work include Paul Lee: Emerald (2013; Maccarone, New York); Moon River (2011; Stuart Shave / Modern Art, London); Lavender (2010; Maccarone, New York); Paul Lee (2010; Stuart Shave / Modern Art, London); Arm’s Length (2008; Peres Projects, Los Angeles); Harbour (2007; Peres Projects, Berlin); Paul Lee (2007; Chinati Foundation, Marfa, TX); Paul Lee (2006; Schoolhouse Gallery, Provincetown, MA); Reservoir (2006; Massimo Audiello, New York); and The dead birds of W28th St (2003; Schoolhouse Gallery, Provincetown, MA). His group exhibitions include Notes on NeoCamp (2013; Office Baroque, Antwerp, Belgium); Absentee Landlord (2011; Walker Art Center, Minneapolis); Everynight I go to sleep (2010; Stuart Shave / Modern Art, London); Summer Camp (2010; Exile Galerie, Berlin); Between Beach Ball and Rubber Raft (2009; Contemporary Art Museum St. Louis); This Is Not Called Gay Art Now (2006; Paul Kasmin Gallery, New York); and All in the Family (2005; Texas Gallery, Houston).

Simone Leigh Born 1968 in Chicago Lives and works in Brooklyn Simone Leigh graduated from Earlham College, Richmond, IN (BA 1990). Her solo and two-person exhibitions include I Always Face You Even When It Seems Otherwise (2013; Tiwani Contemporary, London); You Don’t Know Where Her Mouth Has Been (2012; The Kitchen, New York); The Gods Must Be Crazy, for In Practice (2009; Sculpture Center, Long Island City, NY); if you wan fo’ lick old woman pot, you scratch him back (2008; Rush Arts Gallery Project Space, New York); and Scratching the Surface, Vol. 1 (2008; L’appartement 22, Rabat, Morocco). Her group exhibitions include Approximately Infinite Universe (2013; Museum of Contemporary Art San Diego, La Jolla); Double Fortune, Double Trouble: Art for Twins among the Yoruba (2013; UCLA Fowler Museum, Los Angeles); March On! (2013; Brooklyn Academy of Music); Radical Presence: Black Performance in Contemporary Art (2012; Contemporary Arts Museum Houston); Unevenness (2012; National Gallery of Zimbabwe,

Harare); Weltraum/Space: Exploration and Exploitation (2011; Kunsthalle, Vienna); Rockstone and Bootheel: Contemporary West Indian Art (2009; Real Art Ways, Hartford); Thirty Seconds off an Inch (2009; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); The B-Sides (2008; Aljira: A Center for Contemporary Art, Newark); The Future as Disruption (2008; The Kitchen, New York); The Divine Body: God, Gender, and the Diversity of Early Christianity (2005; Cathedral of Saint John the Divine and LeRoy Neiman Gallery, Columbia University, New York); and Smirk: Women, Art, and Humor (2000; Firehouse Gallery, Hempstead, NY).

Galerie Hussenot, Paris); Come Through (2010; Sikkema Jenkins & Co., New York); Moovement Schmoovement (2010; La MaMa Gallery, New York); Seat-of-the-Pants: Daphne Fitzpatrick, Siobhan Liddell, Judy Linn, Jacob Robichaux, and Amy Yao (2010; Museum 52, New York); Unfurnished Room (2009; Unit B Gallery, San Antonio, TX); looking back—selected by Matthew Higgs (2006; White Columns, New York); Liz Deschenes and Siobhan Liddell (2004; Gesellschaft für Aktuelle Kunst, Bremen, Germany).

Daniel Levine

Born 1952 in Memphis Lives and works in New York James Little graduated from the Memphis Academy of Art (BFA 1974) and Syracuse University (MFA 1976). His solo exhibitions include James Little: Never Say Never (2013; June Kelly Gallery, New York); Recent Abstract Paintings (1995; Kenkeleba Gallery, New York); New Paintings (1988; June Kelly Gallery, New York); New Paintings (1987; Liz Harris Gallery, Boston); and Paintings by James Little (1976; Everson Museum of Art, Syracuse, NY). His group exhibitions include Abstract Relations: Selections from the David Driskell Center and the University of Delaware (2010; David C. Driskell Center, University of Maryland, College Park, and University of Delaware); Seeds and Roots: Selections from the Permanent Collection (2004; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); No Greater Love, Abstraction (2002; Jack Tilton / Anna Kustera Gallery, New York); Ajita: Unconquerable (2002; The Station, Houston); and Straight Painting (2000; Painting Center, New York).

Born 1959 in New York Lives and works in New York Daniel Levine graduated from the State University of New York, Buffalo (BFA 1981; MFA 1983). His solo exhibitions include Daniel Levine: The Way Around (2014; Churner and Churner, New York) and Daniel Levine: Paintings (2010; Gallery Sonja Roesch, Houston) as well as those at Julian Pretto Gallery, New York (1990, 1989), Jeffrey Neale Gallery, New York (1988); White Columns, New York (1984); and Hallways, Buffalo, NY (1981). His group exhibitions include Julian Pretto Gallery (2013; Minus Space, New York); In Substantiality (2010; Theodore:Art, Brooklyn); Toys in the Attic (2004; Lennon Weinberg, New York); Echo (1993; Lipton/Owens Gallery, New York); Painting as Paradigm (1993; Stark Gallery, New York); The Vertical Flatbed Picture Plane (1991; Turner and Byrne Gallery, Dallas); The Castle, Documenta 8 (1987; Kassel, Germany); The Glittering Prize (1987; Stux Gallery, New York); and The New Capital (1984; White Columns, New York).

Siobhan Liddell Born 1965 in Worksop, England Lives and works in upstate New York Siobhan Liddell graduated from Saint Martins School of Art, London (BFA 1986). Liddell’s solo exhibitions include Among Ancients (2013; Galerie Eric Dupont, Paris); As it is, as it isn’t (2010; Galerie Eric Dupont, Paris); Ordinary Magic (2010; CRG Gallery, New York, 2010); and Hammer Projects: Siobhan Liddell (2000; Hammer Museum, Los Angeles). Liddell has participated in the group exhibitions Undrawn Drawings: Works of Paper (2013;

James Little

Eva Lundsager Born 1960 in Buffalo, NY Lives and works in Boston Eva Lundsager graduated from the University of Maryland, College Park (BA 1984), and Hunter College, New York (MFA 1988). Her solo and two-person exhibitions include Eva Lundsager: Elsewhere (2013; Academy Art Museum, Easton, MD); Liquid Terrain: Twenty Years of Works on Paper (2012; Sheldon Art Galleries, St. Louis); And Stillness Is There and Then Some (2011; Greenberg Van Doren Gallery, New York); and Joan Nelson and Eva Lundsager (1994; Schmidt Contemporary Art, St. Louis) as 271


well as solo exhibitions in 1997 (Whanki Museum, Seoul); 1996 (Thomas von Lintel Gallery, Munich); 1995 (Jack Tilton Gallery, New York); and 1992 (Stephanie Theodore Gallery, New York). She has participated in such group exhibitions as Jim Schmidt Presents: Abstraction (2011; Philip Slein Gallery, St. Louis); Tête à Tête (2005; Greenberg Van Doren Gallery, New York); Oasis and Blur: Artists Who Rock (1997; Downtown Art Fair, New York); Fractured Seduction (1994; Artifact, Tel Aviv); Some Paintings (1994; Lipton Owens Company, New York); The Return of the Cadavre Exquis (1993; Drawing Center, New York); and Lost and Found Painting (1991; White Columns, New York).

Richard Mayhew Born 1924 in Amityville, NY Lives and works in Santa Cruz, CA Richard Mayhew studied in New York at the Art Students League, Columbia University, and Brooklyn Museum Art School. Solo exhibitions of his work include Landscape of the Spirit: Paintings by Richard Mayhew (2008; Telfair Museum of Art, Savannah); Pastoral Mystique (2001; ACA Galleries, New York); Richard Mayhew (1993; Triton Museum of Art, Santa Clara, CA); Richard Mayhew (1987; University of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne); Richard Mayhew: Recent Paintings (1983; Pennsylvania State University Art Museum, University Park); Richard Mayhew (1981; Morgan State University Art Gallery, Baltimore); Richard Mayhew: An American Abstractionist (1978; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); Richard Mayhew (1975; Montclair State College Art Gallery, NJ); and Richard Mayhew (1957; Morris Gallery, New York). His work has been included in such group exhibitions as Beyond the Veil: Art of African American Artists at Century’s End (1999; Cornell Fine Arts Museum, Rollins College, Winter Park, FL); Interludes (1999; Thomas J. Walsh Art Gallery, Fairfield University, CT); Rediscovering America: The Persistent Landscape (1988; Wilson Art Center, Rochester, NY); Black American Artists (1983; Fine Arts Museum of Long Island, Hempstead, NY); and Whitney Biennial 1969 (1969; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York).

272

Rodney McMillian Born 1969 in Columbia, SC Lives and works in Los Angeles Rodney McMillian graduated from the University of Virginia, Charlottesville (BA 1991); School of the Art Institute of Chicago (BFA 1998); and California Institute of the Arts, Valencia (MFA 2002). His solo exhibitions include Rodney McMillian: Odes (2006; Susanne Vielmetter Los Angeles Projects, Culver City, CA); Rodney McMillian: Untitled (2005; Galleria Estro, Padua, Italy); and Untitled (Ellipses) III (2005; Triple Candie, New York). His group exhibitions include Painting in Tongues (2006; Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles); Frequency (2005; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); Thing: New Sculpture from Los Angeles (2005; Hammer Museum, Los Angeles); Uncertain States of America (2005; Astrup Fearnley Museum of Art, Oslo); Currents: African American Video Art Today (2004; Cheekwood Museum of Art, Nashville); Fade: African American Artists in Los Angeles—A Survey Exhibition (2004; Luckman Gallery, California State University, Los Angeles); White Noise (2004; REDCAT, Los Angeles); Veni Vidi Video (2003; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); A Show That Will Show That a Show Is Not Only a Show (2002; The Project, Los Angeles); and Laundromat Show (2000; Butler’s Laundromat, Skowhegan, ME).

Robert Melee Born 1966 in New Jersey Lives and works in Asbury Park, NJ, and New York Robert Melee attended the School of the Visual Arts, New York (1986–90). His work has been presented in numerous solo exhibitions at Andrew Kreps in New York, including Triscuit Obfuscation (2011), Unshamelessfulnessly (2008), and In Between False Comforts (2005). He has also had solo exhibitions at David Kordansky Gallery, Los Angeles (2010); Sutton Lane Gallery, London (2005); and White Cube, London (2000). Selected group exhibitions featuring his work include Deep Cuts (2013; Anne Kustera Gallery, New York); Notes on Notes on Camp (2011; Invisible-Exports, New York); It’s All American

(2010; New Jersey Museum of Contemporary Art, Asbury Park); NY/Prague 6 (2010; Futura Centre for Contemporary Art, Prague); Bad Habits (2009; Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo); and Lover (2009; On Stellar Rays, New York).

Benny Merris Born 1978 in Iowa City Lives and works in Brooklyn Benny Merris graduated from the University of Massachusetts, Boston (BA 2002), and Glasgow School of Art, Scotland (MFA 2007). His solo shows include Benny Merris (2014; Battat Contemporary, Montreal); Benny Merris (2014; Jeff Bailey Gallery, New York); ltd los angeles presents . . . Benny Merris (2013; ltd los angeles); and Happy as an Asteroid (2010; Push Galerie, Montreal). In 2011 Merris created a site-specific painting installation for the Kunsthal Rotterdam, Netherlands. Selected group exhibitions in which his work has been featured include Elements, Rudiments, and Principles (2013; Boston University Art Gallery); Pleinairism (2013; Walter Phillips Gallery, Banff, Canada); and Way Out Is the Way Out (2009; Embassy Gallery, Edinburgh, Scotland).

Troy Michie Born 1985 in El Paso, TX Lives and works in New York Troy Michie graduated from the University of Texas, El Paso (BFA 2009), and Yale University, New Haven, CT (MFA 2011). He is a 2013–14 Fellow of the Queer/Art/Mentorship program. Michie has participated in numerous group exhibitions, including Gay (2014; Longwood Art Gallery @ Hostos, Hostos Community College, Bronx, NY); Disappearing Acts II and Disappearing Acts (2012; Anna Kustera, New York); The Bricoleurs (2012; BRIC Rotunda Gallery, Brooklyn); Bosch Young Talent Show (2011; Stedelijk Museum, ’s Hertogenbosch, Netherlands); A Proposito: Pan-Latino Dialogues (2009; John Slade Ely House, New Haven, CT); and Neighborhood Watch: A Projection Walk (2008; Mundy Park, El Paso, TX).

Jason Middlebrook Born 1966 in Jackson, MI Lives and works in Hudson, NY Jason Middlebrook graduated from the University of California, Santa Cruz (BFA 1990), and San Francisco Art Institute (MFA 1994). Middlebrook participated in the Iaspis Residency, Stockholm (2009–10), and was a studio program fellow of the Whitney Museum of American Art Independent Study Program, New York (1994–95). His solo exhibitions and projects include Jason Middlebrook: My Landscape (2013; Massachusetts Museum of Contemporary Art, North Adams); A Break from Content (2011; DODGEgallery, New York); More Art about Buildings and Food (2010; Art House, Austin, TX); With the Grain (2010; Charlotte Lund Galleri, Stockholm); Vein (2008; Sara Meltzer Gallery, New York); Past, Present, Future (2005; Margo Leavin Gallery, Los Angeles); The Provider (2005; Sara Meltzer Gallery, New York); Empire of Dirt (2003; Palazzo delle Papesse, Siena, Italy); Jason Middlebrook: Dig (2001; New Museum of Contemporary Art, New York); and Museum Storage (2001; Santa Monica Museum of Art, CA). His work has been included in numerous group exhibitions, such as Alexander Calder and Contemporary Art: Form, Balance, Joy (2010; Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago); Connectivity Lost (2010; Zilkha Gallery, Wesleyan University Center for the Arts, Middleton, CT); Lives of the Hudson (2009; Frances Young Tang Teaching Museum and Art Gallery, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY); Twice Drawn (2006; Frances Young Tang Teaching Museum and Art Gallery, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY); Wine, Women, and Wheels (2001; White Columns, New York); Tiny Shoes (1994; New Langton Arts, San Francisco); and Object (1993; Intersection for the Arts, San Francisco).

Ulrike Müller Born 1971 in Vienna Lives and works in Brooklyn Ulrike Müller attended the Academy of Fine Arts, Vienna (1991–96), and was a Studio Program Fellow of the Whitney Museum of American Art Independent Study Program, New York (2002–3). Müller’s recent solo exhibition, weather, was on view in 2014 at Callicoon Fine Arts, New York. She organized the exhibitions Herstory Inventory: One Hundred Feminist Drawings by One Hundred

273


well as solo exhibitions in 1997 (Whanki Museum, Seoul); 1996 (Thomas von Lintel Gallery, Munich); 1995 (Jack Tilton Gallery, New York); and 1992 (Stephanie Theodore Gallery, New York). She has participated in such group exhibitions as Jim Schmidt Presents: Abstraction (2011; Philip Slein Gallery, St. Louis); Tête à Tête (2005; Greenberg Van Doren Gallery, New York); Oasis and Blur: Artists Who Rock (1997; Downtown Art Fair, New York); Fractured Seduction (1994; Artifact, Tel Aviv); Some Paintings (1994; Lipton Owens Company, New York); The Return of the Cadavre Exquis (1993; Drawing Center, New York); and Lost and Found Painting (1991; White Columns, New York).

Richard Mayhew Born 1924 in Amityville, NY Lives and works in Santa Cruz, CA Richard Mayhew studied in New York at the Art Students League, Columbia University, and Brooklyn Museum Art School. Solo exhibitions of his work include Landscape of the Spirit: Paintings by Richard Mayhew (2008; Telfair Museum of Art, Savannah); Pastoral Mystique (2001; ACA Galleries, New York); Richard Mayhew (1993; Triton Museum of Art, Santa Clara, CA); Richard Mayhew (1987; University of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne); Richard Mayhew: Recent Paintings (1983; Pennsylvania State University Art Museum, University Park); Richard Mayhew (1981; Morgan State University Art Gallery, Baltimore); Richard Mayhew: An American Abstractionist (1978; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); Richard Mayhew (1975; Montclair State College Art Gallery, NJ); and Richard Mayhew (1957; Morris Gallery, New York). His work has been included in such group exhibitions as Beyond the Veil: Art of African American Artists at Century’s End (1999; Cornell Fine Arts Museum, Rollins College, Winter Park, FL); Interludes (1999; Thomas J. Walsh Art Gallery, Fairfield University, CT); Rediscovering America: The Persistent Landscape (1988; Wilson Art Center, Rochester, NY); Black American Artists (1983; Fine Arts Museum of Long Island, Hempstead, NY); and Whitney Biennial 1969 (1969; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York).

272

Rodney McMillian Born 1969 in Columbia, SC Lives and works in Los Angeles Rodney McMillian graduated from the University of Virginia, Charlottesville (BA 1991); School of the Art Institute of Chicago (BFA 1998); and California Institute of the Arts, Valencia (MFA 2002). His solo exhibitions include Rodney McMillian: Odes (2006; Susanne Vielmetter Los Angeles Projects, Culver City, CA); Rodney McMillian: Untitled (2005; Galleria Estro, Padua, Italy); and Untitled (Ellipses) III (2005; Triple Candie, New York). His group exhibitions include Painting in Tongues (2006; Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles); Frequency (2005; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); Thing: New Sculpture from Los Angeles (2005; Hammer Museum, Los Angeles); Uncertain States of America (2005; Astrup Fearnley Museum of Art, Oslo); Currents: African American Video Art Today (2004; Cheekwood Museum of Art, Nashville); Fade: African American Artists in Los Angeles—A Survey Exhibition (2004; Luckman Gallery, California State University, Los Angeles); White Noise (2004; REDCAT, Los Angeles); Veni Vidi Video (2003; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); A Show That Will Show That a Show Is Not Only a Show (2002; The Project, Los Angeles); and Laundromat Show (2000; Butler’s Laundromat, Skowhegan, ME).

Robert Melee Born 1966 in New Jersey Lives and works in Asbury Park, NJ, and New York Robert Melee attended the School of the Visual Arts, New York (1986–90). His work has been presented in numerous solo exhibitions at Andrew Kreps in New York, including Triscuit Obfuscation (2011), Unshamelessfulnessly (2008), and In Between False Comforts (2005). He has also had solo exhibitions at David Kordansky Gallery, Los Angeles (2010); Sutton Lane Gallery, London (2005); and White Cube, London (2000). Selected group exhibitions featuring his work include Deep Cuts (2013; Anne Kustera Gallery, New York); Notes on Notes on Camp (2011; Invisible-Exports, New York); It’s All American

(2010; New Jersey Museum of Contemporary Art, Asbury Park); NY/Prague 6 (2010; Futura Centre for Contemporary Art, Prague); Bad Habits (2009; Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo); and Lover (2009; On Stellar Rays, New York).

Benny Merris Born 1978 in Iowa City Lives and works in Brooklyn Benny Merris graduated from the University of Massachusetts, Boston (BA 2002), and Glasgow School of Art, Scotland (MFA 2007). His solo shows include Benny Merris (2014; Battat Contemporary, Montreal); Benny Merris (2014; Jeff Bailey Gallery, New York); ltd los angeles presents . . . Benny Merris (2013; ltd los angeles); and Happy as an Asteroid (2010; Push Galerie, Montreal). In 2011 Merris created a site-specific painting installation for the Kunsthal Rotterdam, Netherlands. Selected group exhibitions in which his work has been featured include Elements, Rudiments, and Principles (2013; Boston University Art Gallery); Pleinairism (2013; Walter Phillips Gallery, Banff, Canada); and Way Out Is the Way Out (2009; Embassy Gallery, Edinburgh, Scotland).

Troy Michie Born 1985 in El Paso, TX Lives and works in New York Troy Michie graduated from the University of Texas, El Paso (BFA 2009), and Yale University, New Haven, CT (MFA 2011). He is a 2013–14 Fellow of the Queer/Art/Mentorship program. Michie has participated in numerous group exhibitions, including Gay (2014; Longwood Art Gallery @ Hostos, Hostos Community College, Bronx, NY); Disappearing Acts II and Disappearing Acts (2012; Anna Kustera, New York); The Bricoleurs (2012; BRIC Rotunda Gallery, Brooklyn); Bosch Young Talent Show (2011; Stedelijk Museum, ’s Hertogenbosch, Netherlands); A Proposito: Pan-Latino Dialogues (2009; John Slade Ely House, New Haven, CT); and Neighborhood Watch: A Projection Walk (2008; Mundy Park, El Paso, TX).

Jason Middlebrook Born 1966 in Jackson, MI Lives and works in Hudson, NY Jason Middlebrook graduated from the University of California, Santa Cruz (BFA 1990), and San Francisco Art Institute (MFA 1994). Middlebrook participated in the Iaspis Residency, Stockholm (2009–10), and was a studio program fellow of the Whitney Museum of American Art Independent Study Program, New York (1994–95). His solo exhibitions and projects include Jason Middlebrook: My Landscape (2013; Massachusetts Museum of Contemporary Art, North Adams); A Break from Content (2011; DODGEgallery, New York); More Art about Buildings and Food (2010; Art House, Austin, TX); With the Grain (2010; Charlotte Lund Galleri, Stockholm); Vein (2008; Sara Meltzer Gallery, New York); Past, Present, Future (2005; Margo Leavin Gallery, Los Angeles); The Provider (2005; Sara Meltzer Gallery, New York); Empire of Dirt (2003; Palazzo delle Papesse, Siena, Italy); Jason Middlebrook: Dig (2001; New Museum of Contemporary Art, New York); and Museum Storage (2001; Santa Monica Museum of Art, CA). His work has been included in numerous group exhibitions, such as Alexander Calder and Contemporary Art: Form, Balance, Joy (2010; Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago); Connectivity Lost (2010; Zilkha Gallery, Wesleyan University Center for the Arts, Middleton, CT); Lives of the Hudson (2009; Frances Young Tang Teaching Museum and Art Gallery, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY); Twice Drawn (2006; Frances Young Tang Teaching Museum and Art Gallery, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY); Wine, Women, and Wheels (2001; White Columns, New York); Tiny Shoes (1994; New Langton Arts, San Francisco); and Object (1993; Intersection for the Arts, San Francisco).

Ulrike Müller Born 1971 in Vienna Lives and works in Brooklyn Ulrike Müller attended the Academy of Fine Arts, Vienna (1991–96), and was a Studio Program Fellow of the Whitney Museum of American Art Independent Study Program, New York (2002–3). Müller’s recent solo exhibition, weather, was on view in 2014 at Callicoon Fine Arts, New York. She organized the exhibitions Herstory Inventory: One Hundred Feminist Drawings by One Hundred

273


Feminist Artists (2012; Brooklyn Museum). Other shows in which her work was shown include Descartes’ Daughter (2013; Swiss Institute, New York); Dance/Draw (2011; Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston); Feminism Formalism (2010; Steinle Contemporary, Munich); Fever 103 (2010; Artpace, San Antonio); and Franza, Fever 103, and Quilts (2010; Cairo Biennial).

Jayson Musson Born 1977 in Bronx, NY Lives and works in Brooklyn Jayson Musson graduated from the University of the Arts, Philadelphia (BFA 2002), and University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (MFA 2011). He also studied at the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture, ME (2011). Musson’s solo exhibitions include Halcyon Days (2012; Salon 94, New York); A True Fiend’s Weight (2012; Fleisher/Ollman Gallery, Philadelphia); The Grand Manner (2011; Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia); Too Black for BET (2002; Space 1026, Philadelphia). His group exhibitions include First among Equals (2012; Institute of Contemporary Art, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia); Syncopation (2010; Grimmuseum, Berlin); Disinhibition: Black Art and Blue Humor (2008; Hyde Park Art Center, Chicago); and Peer Pleasure 1 (2006; Yerba Buena Center for the Arts, San Francisco).

Dona Nelson Born 1947 in Grand Island, NE Lives and works in Lansdale, PA, and New York Dona Nelson graduated from Ohio State University, Columbus (BFA 1968), and was a studio program fellow of the Whitney Museum of American Art Independent Study Program, New York (1968). She is the recipient of an Artist Legacy Foundation Award (2013) and a Foundation for Contemporary Arts grant (2011). Nelson’s solo shows include Dona Nelson (2010; Volta, New York); in situ: paintings 1973– present (2008; Thomas Erben Gallery, New York); Brain Stain (2006; Thomas Erben Gallery, New York); and Stations of the Subway (2001; Cheim & Read, New York). Selected group shows include the 2014 Whitney Biennial (2014; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York); Sadie Benning, Thomas Kovachevich, Dona Nelson (2013; Callicoon Fine Arts, New York); 274

Three in Doubles: Shanna Waddell, Kelly McCraven, Dona Nelson (2013; Fjord, Brooklyn); Texture.txt (2011; Regina Rex, Queens, New York); and Forty (2010; Texas Gallery, Houston).

Floyd Newsum Born 1950 in Memphis Lives and works in Houston Floyd Newsum graduated from the Memphis College of Art (BFA 1973) and Tyler School of Art, Temple University, Philadelphia (MFA 1975). Some of his solo and group exhibitions include African American Art since 1950: Perspectives from the David C. Driskell Center (2012; David C. Driskell Center, University of Maryland, College Park); Pensive (2012; Califia Gallery, Horažďovice, Czech Republic); Substantialis Corporis Mixti (2010; Bohemian National Hall, New York); One Person Exhibition: Fractured Landscapes (2002; Center of Fine and Performing Arts, University of Florida, Pensacola); Response Time (1999; Art Car Museum, Houston); Speaking of Art: Words and Works from Houston (1994; Museum of Fine Arts, Houston); Tribal Markings (1994; Project Row Houses, Houston); Black Creativity (1990; Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago); The Blues Aesthetic: Black Culture and Modernism (1990; Blaffer Gallery, University of Houston); Refused: Emerging Artists of the Southwest (1986; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); and Forty Texas Artists (1980; Contemporary Art Center, New Orleans).

Angel Otero Born 1981 in Santurce, Puerto Rico Lives in Brooklyn Angel Otero graduated from the School of the Art Institute of Chicago (BFA 2007; MFA 2009). He also studied at the Universidad de Puerto Rico (2004). His solo exhibitions include Material Discovery (2013; Museum of Art, Savannah College of Art and Design) and The Dangerous Ability to Fascinate Other People (2011; Kavi Gupta, Chicago). His group exhibitions include Prague Biennale (2013; Prague); Queens International 2012: Three Points Make a Triangle (2012; Queens Museum, NY); The Sound of Painting (2012; Palazzo Saluzzo Paesana, Turin, Italy); Transforming the Known (2013; Gemeentemuseum, The Hague, Netherlands); Xtraction: A Survey of New Approaches in Abstraction (2013; The Hole,

New York); American Patrons of the Tate and W Magazine (2011; Kreemart, New York); El Museo’s Bienal: The (S) Files 2011 (2011; El Museo del Barrio, New York); Constellations (2009; Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago); and Tributo a Basquiat Puerto Rico (2006; Galeria Prinardi, Hotel Normandie, San Juan, Puerto Rico).

John Outterbridge Born 1933 in Greenville, NC Lives and works in Los Angeles John Outterbridge studied at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical University, Greensboro (1952–53), and the American Academy of Art, Chicago (1956–59). He relocated to Los Angeles, where he earned a teaching credential from the State of California (1970). He was awarded an honorary doctorate of fine arts from the Otis College of Art and Design, Los Angeles (1994). His solo exhibitions include John Outterbridge: Rag Factory II (2012; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); John Outterbridge (2012; Tilton Gallery, New York); John Outterbridge: The Rag Factory (2011; LA><ART, Los Angeles); A Man Named John: John W. Outterbridge (1996; Watts Towers Art Center, Los Angeles); John Outterbridge: A Retrospective (1993; California Afro-American Museum, Los Angeles); and Outterbridge: A Solo Exhibition (1971; Brockman Gallery, Los Angeles). His group exhibitions include Now Dig This! Art and Black Los Angeles, 1960–1980 (2011; Hammer Museum, Los Angeles); Under the Big Black Sun: California Art, 1974–1981 (2011; Geffen Contemporary at MOCA, Los Angeles); Thirty Seconds off an Inch (2009; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); LA Object and David Hammons Body Prints (2006; Tilton Gallery, New York); Los Angeles, 1955–1985: Birth of an Art Capital (2006; Centre Pompidou, Paris); African Influence / Contemporary Artists (1996; National Civil Rights Museum, Memphis); The Listening Sky (1995; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); The Art of Betye Saar and John Outterbridge, TwentySecond International Bienal of São Paulo (1994; United States Pavilion, São Paulo); Ninth Annual Southern California Exhibition (1971; Long Beach Museum of Art, CA); John Outterbridge, Alonzo Davis, Dan Concholar (1968; Brockman Gallery, Los Angeles); and Ten from Los Angeles (1966; Seattle Art Museum).

Jennifer Packer Born 1984 in Philadelphia Lives and works in New York Jennifer Packer graduated from Tyler School of Art, Temple University, Philadelphia (BFA 2007), and Yale University, New Haven, CT (MFA 2012). She was artist-in-residence at the Studio Museum in Harlem, New York (2012–13). Her work has been presented in numerous group exhibitions, including Sensitive Instruments (2014; Corbett vs. Dempsey, Chicago); Corpus Americus (2013; Driscoll Babcock, New York); In Front of Strangers, I Sing (2013; Woodmere Art Museum, Philadelphia); Paint as Figure (2013; Thomas Erben Gallery, New York); Things in Themselves (2013; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); This Is the Prism the Spider Dreams of as It Weaves Its Web (2013; Signal, Brooklyn); Fore (2012; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); and Summer Exhibition (2012; Fredericks and Freiser, New York).

Joyce Pensato Born 1941 in Brooklyn Lives and works in Brooklyn Joyce Pensato attended the New York Studio School. Pensato’s traveling solo exhibition, I Killed Kenny, was organized by the Santa Monica Museum of Art in 2013. Other solo exhibitions by the artist include You Gotta Do What You Gotta Do (2012; Corbett vs. Dempsey, Chicago); Batman Returns (2012; Friedrich Petzel Gallery, New York); and Ask Joey (2010; Galerie Anne de Villepoix, Paris). Selected group exhibitions include 39 Great Jones (2013; Galerie Eva Presenhuber, Zurich); Empire State (2013; Palazzo delle Esposizioni, Rome); Interior Visions: Selections from the Collection by Alex Katz (2012; Colby College Museum of Art, Waterville, ME); and Mix/Remix (2012; Luhring Augustine, New York).

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Feminist Artists (2012; Brooklyn Museum). Other shows in which her work was shown include Descartes’ Daughter (2013; Swiss Institute, New York); Dance/Draw (2011; Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston); Feminism Formalism (2010; Steinle Contemporary, Munich); Fever 103 (2010; Artpace, San Antonio); and Franza, Fever 103, and Quilts (2010; Cairo Biennial).

Jayson Musson Born 1977 in Bronx, NY Lives and works in Brooklyn Jayson Musson graduated from the University of the Arts, Philadelphia (BFA 2002), and University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (MFA 2011). He also studied at the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture, ME (2011). Musson’s solo exhibitions include Halcyon Days (2012; Salon 94, New York); A True Fiend’s Weight (2012; Fleisher/Ollman Gallery, Philadelphia); The Grand Manner (2011; Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia); Too Black for BET (2002; Space 1026, Philadelphia). His group exhibitions include First among Equals (2012; Institute of Contemporary Art, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia); Syncopation (2010; Grimmuseum, Berlin); Disinhibition: Black Art and Blue Humor (2008; Hyde Park Art Center, Chicago); and Peer Pleasure 1 (2006; Yerba Buena Center for the Arts, San Francisco).

Dona Nelson Born 1947 in Grand Island, NE Lives and works in Lansdale, PA, and New York Dona Nelson graduated from Ohio State University, Columbus (BFA 1968), and was a studio program fellow of the Whitney Museum of American Art Independent Study Program, New York (1968). She is the recipient of an Artist Legacy Foundation Award (2013) and a Foundation for Contemporary Arts grant (2011). Nelson’s solo shows include Dona Nelson (2010; Volta, New York); in situ: paintings 1973– present (2008; Thomas Erben Gallery, New York); Brain Stain (2006; Thomas Erben Gallery, New York); and Stations of the Subway (2001; Cheim & Read, New York). Selected group shows include the 2014 Whitney Biennial (2014; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York); Sadie Benning, Thomas Kovachevich, Dona Nelson (2013; Callicoon Fine Arts, New York); 274

Three in Doubles: Shanna Waddell, Kelly McCraven, Dona Nelson (2013; Fjord, Brooklyn); Texture.txt (2011; Regina Rex, Queens, New York); and Forty (2010; Texas Gallery, Houston).

Floyd Newsum Born 1950 in Memphis Lives and works in Houston Floyd Newsum graduated from the Memphis College of Art (BFA 1973) and Tyler School of Art, Temple University, Philadelphia (MFA 1975). Some of his solo and group exhibitions include African American Art since 1950: Perspectives from the David C. Driskell Center (2012; David C. Driskell Center, University of Maryland, College Park); Pensive (2012; Califia Gallery, Horažďovice, Czech Republic); Substantialis Corporis Mixti (2010; Bohemian National Hall, New York); One Person Exhibition: Fractured Landscapes (2002; Center of Fine and Performing Arts, University of Florida, Pensacola); Response Time (1999; Art Car Museum, Houston); Speaking of Art: Words and Works from Houston (1994; Museum of Fine Arts, Houston); Tribal Markings (1994; Project Row Houses, Houston); Black Creativity (1990; Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago); The Blues Aesthetic: Black Culture and Modernism (1990; Blaffer Gallery, University of Houston); Refused: Emerging Artists of the Southwest (1986; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); and Forty Texas Artists (1980; Contemporary Art Center, New Orleans).

Angel Otero Born 1981 in Santurce, Puerto Rico Lives in Brooklyn Angel Otero graduated from the School of the Art Institute of Chicago (BFA 2007; MFA 2009). He also studied at the Universidad de Puerto Rico (2004). His solo exhibitions include Material Discovery (2013; Museum of Art, Savannah College of Art and Design) and The Dangerous Ability to Fascinate Other People (2011; Kavi Gupta, Chicago). His group exhibitions include Prague Biennale (2013; Prague); Queens International 2012: Three Points Make a Triangle (2012; Queens Museum, NY); The Sound of Painting (2012; Palazzo Saluzzo Paesana, Turin, Italy); Transforming the Known (2013; Gemeentemuseum, The Hague, Netherlands); Xtraction: A Survey of New Approaches in Abstraction (2013; The Hole,

New York); American Patrons of the Tate and W Magazine (2011; Kreemart, New York); El Museo’s Bienal: The (S) Files 2011 (2011; El Museo del Barrio, New York); Constellations (2009; Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago); and Tributo a Basquiat Puerto Rico (2006; Galeria Prinardi, Hotel Normandie, San Juan, Puerto Rico).

John Outterbridge Born 1933 in Greenville, NC Lives and works in Los Angeles John Outterbridge studied at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical University, Greensboro (1952–53), and the American Academy of Art, Chicago (1956–59). He relocated to Los Angeles, where he earned a teaching credential from the State of California (1970). He was awarded an honorary doctorate of fine arts from the Otis College of Art and Design, Los Angeles (1994). His solo exhibitions include John Outterbridge: Rag Factory II (2012; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); John Outterbridge (2012; Tilton Gallery, New York); John Outterbridge: The Rag Factory (2011; LA><ART, Los Angeles); A Man Named John: John W. Outterbridge (1996; Watts Towers Art Center, Los Angeles); John Outterbridge: A Retrospective (1993; California Afro-American Museum, Los Angeles); and Outterbridge: A Solo Exhibition (1971; Brockman Gallery, Los Angeles). His group exhibitions include Now Dig This! Art and Black Los Angeles, 1960–1980 (2011; Hammer Museum, Los Angeles); Under the Big Black Sun: California Art, 1974–1981 (2011; Geffen Contemporary at MOCA, Los Angeles); Thirty Seconds off an Inch (2009; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); LA Object and David Hammons Body Prints (2006; Tilton Gallery, New York); Los Angeles, 1955–1985: Birth of an Art Capital (2006; Centre Pompidou, Paris); African Influence / Contemporary Artists (1996; National Civil Rights Museum, Memphis); The Listening Sky (1995; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); The Art of Betye Saar and John Outterbridge, TwentySecond International Bienal of São Paulo (1994; United States Pavilion, São Paulo); Ninth Annual Southern California Exhibition (1971; Long Beach Museum of Art, CA); John Outterbridge, Alonzo Davis, Dan Concholar (1968; Brockman Gallery, Los Angeles); and Ten from Los Angeles (1966; Seattle Art Museum).

Jennifer Packer Born 1984 in Philadelphia Lives and works in New York Jennifer Packer graduated from Tyler School of Art, Temple University, Philadelphia (BFA 2007), and Yale University, New Haven, CT (MFA 2012). She was artist-in-residence at the Studio Museum in Harlem, New York (2012–13). Her work has been presented in numerous group exhibitions, including Sensitive Instruments (2014; Corbett vs. Dempsey, Chicago); Corpus Americus (2013; Driscoll Babcock, New York); In Front of Strangers, I Sing (2013; Woodmere Art Museum, Philadelphia); Paint as Figure (2013; Thomas Erben Gallery, New York); Things in Themselves (2013; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); This Is the Prism the Spider Dreams of as It Weaves Its Web (2013; Signal, Brooklyn); Fore (2012; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); and Summer Exhibition (2012; Fredericks and Freiser, New York).

Joyce Pensato Born 1941 in Brooklyn Lives and works in Brooklyn Joyce Pensato attended the New York Studio School. Pensato’s traveling solo exhibition, I Killed Kenny, was organized by the Santa Monica Museum of Art in 2013. Other solo exhibitions by the artist include You Gotta Do What You Gotta Do (2012; Corbett vs. Dempsey, Chicago); Batman Returns (2012; Friedrich Petzel Gallery, New York); and Ask Joey (2010; Galerie Anne de Villepoix, Paris). Selected group exhibitions include 39 Great Jones (2013; Galerie Eva Presenhuber, Zurich); Empire State (2013; Palazzo delle Esposizioni, Rome); Interior Visions: Selections from the Collection by Alex Katz (2012; Colby College Museum of Art, Waterville, ME); and Mix/Remix (2012; Luhring Augustine, New York).

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Gavin Perry Born 1971 in Philadelphia Lives and works in Miami Gavin Perry graduated from the Tyler School of Art, Temple University, Philadelphia (BFA 1996). Perry’s group exhibitions include End of the Line (2013; Barbara Davis Gallery, Houston); Summer Time Blues (2011; Fredric Snitzer Gallery, Miami); Summer Tossed Salad (2011; Kevin Bruk Gallery, Miami); Miami Connections (2001; Blue Star Art Space, San Antonio, TX); and Scenario (2001; Three Walls, San Antonio).

James Phillips Born 1945 in Brooklyn Lives and works in Baltimore James Phillips studied at the Fleisher Art Memorial School, Philadelphia (1960s); the Philadelphia College of Art (1964–65); and the Maryland Institute College of Art, Baltimore (MFA 1998). His solo exhibitions include Homecoming: Da-Homey Comes Home: Works by James Phillips (2012; Africa House, Lynchburg, VA); Works on Paper (1996; Parish Gallery, Washington, DC); The Awesome Image: Old and New Paintings by James Phillips (1995; Hampton University Museum, VA); James Phillips (1991; Harrison Museum of African American Culture, Roanoke, VA); and James Phillips, AfriCobra Abstractionist (1991; Hammond House, Atlanta). His group exhibitions include Rhythma-Ning: James Phillips, Charles Searles, and Frank Smith (2012; Harvey B. Gantt Center for African American Arts Culture, Charlotte, NC); AfriCOBRA and the Chicago Black Arts Movement (2010; Dittmar Memorial Gallery, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL); Beyond the Blues: Reflections on African America from the Fine Arts Collection of the Amistad Research Center (2010; New Orleans Museum of Art); AfriCOBRA Now: Contemporary American Works Rooted in Africa (2007; Hampton University Museum, VA); Silent Voices, Loud Echoes (2006; African American Historical and Cultural Museum, Philadelphia); Blackness in Color: Visual Expressions of the Black Arts Movement (2000; Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY); Locating the Spirit: Religion and Spirituality in African American Art (1999; Anacostia Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC); Black Art, Ancestral Legacy: The African Impulse in 276

African American Art (1989; Dallas Museum of Art); Tradition and Conflict, 1963–1973 (1985; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); Since the Harlem Renaissance: Fifty Years of Afro American Art (1984; Art Gallery, University of Maryland, College Park); and Directions in Afro American Art (1974; Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY).

Jack Pierson Born 1960 in Plymouth, MA Lives and works in New York and Southern California Jack Pierson graduated from the Massachusetts College of Art, Boston (BFA 1984). Solo and two-person exhibitions of his work include The End of the World (2013; Regen Projects, Los Angeles); Jack Pierson: Jesus and Nazimova (2012; Xavier Hufkens, Brussels); Go There Now and Take This with You (2010; Bortolami Gallery, New York); Jack Pierson: Abstracts (2009; Cheim & Read, New York); Jack Pierson (2008; Irish Museum of Art, Dublin); Melancholia Passing into Madness (2006; Cheim & Read, New York); Jack Pierson (2005; Albert Merola Gallery, Provincetown, MA); Early Works and Beyond—Goodbye Yellow Brick Road (2005; Daniel Reich Gallery, New York); Self-Portraits (2005; Alison Jacques Gallery, London); Jack Pierson: Recent Work (2002; Angstrom Gallery, Dallas); Jack Pierson (1999; Texas Gallery, Houston); Jack Pierson (1995; Galleri Index, Stockholm); Edward Hopper and Jack Pierson (1994; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York); and Jack Pierson (1992; White Columns, New York). His work has been included in such group exhibitions as Absentee Landlord (2011; Walker Art Center, Minneapolis); Living Live (2011; The Center [The Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual & Transgender Community Center], New York); Hide/Seek: Difference and Desire in American Portraiture (2010; National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC); From the Archives: Forty Years, Forty Projects (2009; White Columns, New York); Sympathy for the Devil: Art and Rock and Roll since 1967 (2007; Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago); The Culture of Queer (2005; Contemporary Arts Center, New Orleans); Getting Emotional (2005; Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston); 2004 Whitney Biennial (2004; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York); and 1995 Whitney Biennial (1995; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York).

Howardena Pindell Born 1943 in Philadelphia Lives and works in New York Howardena Pindell graduated from Boston University (BFA 1965) and Yale University, New Haven, CT (MFA 1967). She holds honorary doctorates from Massachusetts College of Art, Boston, and Parsons The New School for Design, New York. Her work has been shown in numerous exhibitions, including Howardena Pindell (2007; Louisiana Art and Science Museum, Baton Rouge); WACK! Art and the Feminist Revolution (2007; Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles); High Times, Hard Times: Painting in the 1970s (2006; organized by Independent Curators International); Transforming Chronologies (2006; Museum of Modern Art, New York); Bodies of Evidence: Contemporary Perspectives (2005; Rhode Island School of Design Museum, Providence); Double Consciousness: Black Conceptual Art since 1970 (2005; Contemporary Arts Museum Houston); Rhythm of Structure: The Mathematical Aesthetic (2004; Kenkeleba Gallery, New York); Bearing Witness: Contemporary Works by African American Women Artists (1999; Fort Wayne Museum of Art, IN).

Stephen Prina Born 1954 in Galesburg, IL Lives and works in Cambridge, MA, and Los Angeles Stephen Prina graduated from Carl Sandburg College, Galesburg, IL (AA 1974); Northern Illinois University, DeKalb (BFA 1977); and California Institute of the Arts, Valencia (MFA 1980). His solo exhibitions include Stephen Prina: As He Remembered It (2013; Los Angeles County Museum of Art); He was but a bad translation (2011; Kunstverein, Cologne); Modern Movie Pop (2010; Contemporary Art Museum St. Louis); The Second Sentence of Everything I Read Is You (2009; Centro Andaluz de Arte Contemporáneo, Seville, Spain); and Retrospection under Duress, Reprise (2004; Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA). He has participated in such group exhibitions as Take It or Leave It: Institution, Image, Ideology (2014; Hammer Museum, Los Angeles); The Boy Who Robbed You a Few Minutes before Arriving at the Ball (2011; Galerie Gisela Capitain, Cologne); Museum of Desire (2011; Museum moderner Kunst,

Vienna); An Unruly History of the Readymade (2008; Fundación/Collección Jumex, Ecatepec, Mexico); Time Crevasse, Yokohama 2008: International Triennale of Contemporary Art (2008; Yokohama, Japan); and Oh Girl, It’s a Boy! (2007; Kunstverein, Munich).

Eileen Quinlan Born 1972 in Boston Lives and works in Brooklyn Eileen Quinlan graduated from the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (BFA 1996), and Columbia University, New York (MFA 2005). Her solo exhibitions include Curtains (2013; Miguel Abreu Gallery, New York); Twin Peaks (2012; Campoli Presti, London); Constant Comment (2011; Overduin and Kite, Los Angeles); Highlands (2010; Sutton Lane, Paris); and Momentum 13: Eileen Quinlan; My Eyes Can Only Look at You (2009; Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston). Her group exhibitions include New Photography (2013; Museum of Modern Art, New York); Lens Drawings (2011; Marian Goodman Gallery, Paris); New York to London and Back: The Medium of Contingency (2011; Thomas Dane Gallery, London); and All of This and Nothing (2011; Hammer Museum, Los Angeles); Crystalline Architectures (2010; Andrea Rosen Gallery, New York); and Slow Movement; Or, Half and Whole (2009; Kunsthalle, Bern, Switzerland).

David Reed Born 1946 in San Diego Lives and works in New York David Reed graduated from Reed College, Portland, OR (BA 1968), and attended the New York Studio School. The exhibition David Reed: Heart of Glass, Paintings and Drawings, 1967–2012 was on view at the Kunstmuseum, Bonn, Germany, in 2012. Other solo exhibitions of his work have been shown at Haüsler Contemporary, Munich (2009); Max Protetch Gallery, New York (2007); Galerie Schmidt Maczollek, Cologne (2006); Galerie Bob Van Orsouw, Zurich (2005); and Galerie Rolf Ricke, Cologne (2003). Selected survey exhibitions include David Reed—You Look Good in Blue (2001; Kunstmuseum Sankt Gallen, Switzerland) and David Reed Paintings: Motion Pictures (1998; Museum of Contemporary Art, San Diego).

277


Gavin Perry Born 1971 in Philadelphia Lives and works in Miami Gavin Perry graduated from the Tyler School of Art, Temple University, Philadelphia (BFA 1996). Perry’s group exhibitions include End of the Line (2013; Barbara Davis Gallery, Houston); Summer Time Blues (2011; Fredric Snitzer Gallery, Miami); Summer Tossed Salad (2011; Kevin Bruk Gallery, Miami); Miami Connections (2001; Blue Star Art Space, San Antonio, TX); and Scenario (2001; Three Walls, San Antonio).

James Phillips Born 1945 in Brooklyn Lives and works in Baltimore James Phillips studied at the Fleisher Art Memorial School, Philadelphia (1960s); the Philadelphia College of Art (1964–65); and the Maryland Institute College of Art, Baltimore (MFA 1998). His solo exhibitions include Homecoming: Da-Homey Comes Home: Works by James Phillips (2012; Africa House, Lynchburg, VA); Works on Paper (1996; Parish Gallery, Washington, DC); The Awesome Image: Old and New Paintings by James Phillips (1995; Hampton University Museum, VA); James Phillips (1991; Harrison Museum of African American Culture, Roanoke, VA); and James Phillips, AfriCobra Abstractionist (1991; Hammond House, Atlanta). His group exhibitions include Rhythma-Ning: James Phillips, Charles Searles, and Frank Smith (2012; Harvey B. Gantt Center for African American Arts Culture, Charlotte, NC); AfriCOBRA and the Chicago Black Arts Movement (2010; Dittmar Memorial Gallery, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL); Beyond the Blues: Reflections on African America from the Fine Arts Collection of the Amistad Research Center (2010; New Orleans Museum of Art); AfriCOBRA Now: Contemporary American Works Rooted in Africa (2007; Hampton University Museum, VA); Silent Voices, Loud Echoes (2006; African American Historical and Cultural Museum, Philadelphia); Blackness in Color: Visual Expressions of the Black Arts Movement (2000; Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY); Locating the Spirit: Religion and Spirituality in African American Art (1999; Anacostia Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC); Black Art, Ancestral Legacy: The African Impulse in 276

African American Art (1989; Dallas Museum of Art); Tradition and Conflict, 1963–1973 (1985; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); Since the Harlem Renaissance: Fifty Years of Afro American Art (1984; Art Gallery, University of Maryland, College Park); and Directions in Afro American Art (1974; Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY).

Jack Pierson Born 1960 in Plymouth, MA Lives and works in New York and Southern California Jack Pierson graduated from the Massachusetts College of Art, Boston (BFA 1984). Solo and two-person exhibitions of his work include The End of the World (2013; Regen Projects, Los Angeles); Jack Pierson: Jesus and Nazimova (2012; Xavier Hufkens, Brussels); Go There Now and Take This with You (2010; Bortolami Gallery, New York); Jack Pierson: Abstracts (2009; Cheim & Read, New York); Jack Pierson (2008; Irish Museum of Art, Dublin); Melancholia Passing into Madness (2006; Cheim & Read, New York); Jack Pierson (2005; Albert Merola Gallery, Provincetown, MA); Early Works and Beyond—Goodbye Yellow Brick Road (2005; Daniel Reich Gallery, New York); Self-Portraits (2005; Alison Jacques Gallery, London); Jack Pierson: Recent Work (2002; Angstrom Gallery, Dallas); Jack Pierson (1999; Texas Gallery, Houston); Jack Pierson (1995; Galleri Index, Stockholm); Edward Hopper and Jack Pierson (1994; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York); and Jack Pierson (1992; White Columns, New York). His work has been included in such group exhibitions as Absentee Landlord (2011; Walker Art Center, Minneapolis); Living Live (2011; The Center [The Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual & Transgender Community Center], New York); Hide/Seek: Difference and Desire in American Portraiture (2010; National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC); From the Archives: Forty Years, Forty Projects (2009; White Columns, New York); Sympathy for the Devil: Art and Rock and Roll since 1967 (2007; Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago); The Culture of Queer (2005; Contemporary Arts Center, New Orleans); Getting Emotional (2005; Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston); 2004 Whitney Biennial (2004; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York); and 1995 Whitney Biennial (1995; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York).

Howardena Pindell Born 1943 in Philadelphia Lives and works in New York Howardena Pindell graduated from Boston University (BFA 1965) and Yale University, New Haven, CT (MFA 1967). She holds honorary doctorates from Massachusetts College of Art, Boston, and Parsons The New School for Design, New York. Her work has been shown in numerous exhibitions, including Howardena Pindell (2007; Louisiana Art and Science Museum, Baton Rouge); WACK! Art and the Feminist Revolution (2007; Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles); High Times, Hard Times: Painting in the 1970s (2006; organized by Independent Curators International); Transforming Chronologies (2006; Museum of Modern Art, New York); Bodies of Evidence: Contemporary Perspectives (2005; Rhode Island School of Design Museum, Providence); Double Consciousness: Black Conceptual Art since 1970 (2005; Contemporary Arts Museum Houston); Rhythm of Structure: The Mathematical Aesthetic (2004; Kenkeleba Gallery, New York); Bearing Witness: Contemporary Works by African American Women Artists (1999; Fort Wayne Museum of Art, IN).

Stephen Prina Born 1954 in Galesburg, IL Lives and works in Cambridge, MA, and Los Angeles Stephen Prina graduated from Carl Sandburg College, Galesburg, IL (AA 1974); Northern Illinois University, DeKalb (BFA 1977); and California Institute of the Arts, Valencia (MFA 1980). His solo exhibitions include Stephen Prina: As He Remembered It (2013; Los Angeles County Museum of Art); He was but a bad translation (2011; Kunstverein, Cologne); Modern Movie Pop (2010; Contemporary Art Museum St. Louis); The Second Sentence of Everything I Read Is You (2009; Centro Andaluz de Arte Contemporáneo, Seville, Spain); and Retrospection under Duress, Reprise (2004; Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA). He has participated in such group exhibitions as Take It or Leave It: Institution, Image, Ideology (2014; Hammer Museum, Los Angeles); The Boy Who Robbed You a Few Minutes before Arriving at the Ball (2011; Galerie Gisela Capitain, Cologne); Museum of Desire (2011; Museum moderner Kunst,

Vienna); An Unruly History of the Readymade (2008; Fundación/Collección Jumex, Ecatepec, Mexico); Time Crevasse, Yokohama 2008: International Triennale of Contemporary Art (2008; Yokohama, Japan); and Oh Girl, It’s a Boy! (2007; Kunstverein, Munich).

Eileen Quinlan Born 1972 in Boston Lives and works in Brooklyn Eileen Quinlan graduated from the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (BFA 1996), and Columbia University, New York (MFA 2005). Her solo exhibitions include Curtains (2013; Miguel Abreu Gallery, New York); Twin Peaks (2012; Campoli Presti, London); Constant Comment (2011; Overduin and Kite, Los Angeles); Highlands (2010; Sutton Lane, Paris); and Momentum 13: Eileen Quinlan; My Eyes Can Only Look at You (2009; Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston). Her group exhibitions include New Photography (2013; Museum of Modern Art, New York); Lens Drawings (2011; Marian Goodman Gallery, Paris); New York to London and Back: The Medium of Contingency (2011; Thomas Dane Gallery, London); and All of This and Nothing (2011; Hammer Museum, Los Angeles); Crystalline Architectures (2010; Andrea Rosen Gallery, New York); and Slow Movement; Or, Half and Whole (2009; Kunsthalle, Bern, Switzerland).

David Reed Born 1946 in San Diego Lives and works in New York David Reed graduated from Reed College, Portland, OR (BA 1968), and attended the New York Studio School. The exhibition David Reed: Heart of Glass, Paintings and Drawings, 1967–2012 was on view at the Kunstmuseum, Bonn, Germany, in 2012. Other solo exhibitions of his work have been shown at Haüsler Contemporary, Munich (2009); Max Protetch Gallery, New York (2007); Galerie Schmidt Maczollek, Cologne (2006); Galerie Bob Van Orsouw, Zurich (2005); and Galerie Rolf Ricke, Cologne (2003). Selected survey exhibitions include David Reed—You Look Good in Blue (2001; Kunstmuseum Sankt Gallen, Switzerland) and David Reed Paintings: Motion Pictures (1998; Museum of Contemporary Art, San Diego).

277


Sam Reveles Born 1958 in El Paso, TX Lives and works in El Paso Sam Reveles graduated from the University of Texas at El Paso (BFA 1985), and Yale University, New Haven, CT (MFA 1987). His work has been the subject of many solo exhibitions, including Sam Reveles—Aran: New Paintings and Drawings (2013; Talley Dunn Gallery, Dallas); At the Pale: New Paintings and Drawings (2012; James Kelly Contemporary, Santa Fe); Sam Reveles: Juarez Paintings (2010; Dunn and Brown Contemporary, Dallas); Seedbed (2008; CRG Gallery, New York); ‘Tilth’: New Paintings (2007; CRG Gallery, New York); Recent Work by Sam Reveles: Dissolution Direction Drawing (2002; El Paso Museum of Art, TX); Sam Reveles: Recent Paintings and Drawings (1999; Contemporary Arts Museum Houston); Sam Reveles: Drawings Exhibition (1998; Saint Louis Art Museum); New Paintings and Drawings (1997; Texas Gallery, Houston); The Codex Paintings (1993; Regen Projects, Los Angeles); and Skull Rack Paintings (1992; Lisson Gallery, London). Reveles has participated in such group exhibitions as the 1995 Whitney Biennial (1995; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York); Medium Is the Medium (1993; Barbara Toll, New York); Robert Wilson, Julian Lethbridge, Sam Reveles (1992; Paula Cooper Gallery, New York); Matthew Barney, Sam Reveles, Nancy Rubins (1992; Stein Gladstone, New York); ; and New Talent / New Haven (1988; Portia Harcus Gallery, Boston).

Mariah Robertson Born 1975 in Indianapolis Lives and works in New York Mariah Robertson graduated from the University of California, Berkeley (BA 1997), and Yale University, New Haven, CT (MFA 2005). Robertson’s selected solo exhibitions include Mariah Robertson: Permanent Puberty (2013; American Contemporary, New York); Let’s Change (2012; Grand Arts, Kansas City, MO); Mariah Robertson (2011; BALTIC Centre for Contemporary Art, Gateshead, England); and Take Better Pictures (2009; Museum 52, New York). Her group exhibitions include Nineteen New Acquisitions in Photography (2013; Museum of Modern Art, New York); Out of Focus: Photography (2012; Saatchi Gallery, London); Second

278

Nature: Abstract Photography Then and Now (2012; deCordova Sculpture Park and Museum, Lincoln, MA); and Greater New York 2010 (2010; MoMA PS1, Long Island City, NY). She has presented performances at the Museum of Modern Art, New York (2012); MoMA PS1, Long Island City, NY (2011); and Guild & Greyshkul, New York (2009).

Nadine Robinson Born 1968 in London Lives and works in New York Nadine Robinson graduated from the State University of New York at Stony Brook (BA 1995) and New York University (MA 1997). Solo exhibitions of her work include Nadine Robinson: Alles Grau (2006; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); Nadine Robinson: Conclusion of the System of Things (2005; Grand Arts, Kansas City, MO); Ramp Projects: Das Hochzeitshaus (2003; Institute of Contemporary Art, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia); and Black Listing (1998; Longwood Arts Project, Bronx, NY). Her group exhibitions include Talking Pictures (2009; Site Santa Fe); Rockstone and Bootheel: Contemporary West Indian Art (2009; Real Art Ways, Hartford); Thirty Seconds off an Inch (2009; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); After 1968 (2008; High Museum of Art, Atlanta); Lucky Number Seven: The Seventh International Biennial (2008; Site Santa Fe); Prospect 1 New Orleans (2008; New Orleans); Black Light / White Noise: Sound and Light in Contemporary Art (2007; Contemporary Arts Museum Houston); African Queen (2005; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); Open House: Working in Brooklyn (2004; Brooklyn Museum); Mass Appeal: The Art Object and Hip Hop Culture (2003; Gallery 101, Ottawa, Canada); Tempo (2002; Museum of Modern Art, New York); For the Record (2001; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); Freestyle (2001; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); One Planet under a Groove: Hip Hop and Contemporary Art (2001; Bronx Museum of the Arts, NY); Rapper’s Delight: The Visual Avant-garde of Hip Hop (2001; Yerba Buena Center for the Arts, San Francisco); Greater New York 2000 (2000; P.S. 1 Contemporary Art Center, Long Island City, NY); and Stephen Vitiello, Camille Normant, Nadine Robinson (2000; The Project, New York).

Susie Rosmarin

Amy Sillman

Born 1950 in Brownsville, TX Lives and works in Houston Susie Rosmarin graduated from the University of Saint Thomas, Houston (BA 1973), and Pratt Institute, Brooklyn (MFA 1981). Rosmarin’s most recent solo exhibition with Texas Gallery, Houston, took place in 2013. Other solo shows include Susie Rosmarin: New Work (2010; Dunn and Brown Contemporary, Dallas); Susie Rosmarin (2009; Danese, New York); and two additional solo exhibitions at Texas Gallery in 2008 and 2003. Her work has also been included in the group shows Line: Works by Kate Carr, Susie Rosmarin, Susan Schwalb, James Siena, and Dan Walsh (2013; Garvey Simon Art Access, New York); Psychedelic: Optical and Visionary Art since the 1960s (2010; San Antonio Museum of Art, TX); Hovering over the Universe (2007; Honor Fraser, Los Angeles); Michelle Grabner and the Suburban (2006; Normal Division, Illinois State University, Normal); and Extreme Abstraction (2005; Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY).

Born 1955 in Detroit Lives and works in Brooklyn Amy Sillman graduated from the School of Visual Arts, New York (BFA 1979), and Bard College, Annandale-on-Hudson, NY (MFA 1995). Her solo exhibitions include Amy Sillman: One Lump or Two (2013; Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston); Draft of a Voice-over for Split Screen Video Loop (2012; castillo/corrales, Paris); Transformer ( . . . or, how many lightbulbs does it take to change a painting?) (2010; Sikkema Jenkins & Co., New York); Amy Sillman: Third Person Singular (2008; Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, DC); Amy Sillman: Person, Place, or Thing (2007; Carlier Gebauer, Berlin); Suitors and Strangers (2007; Blaffer Gallery, University of Houston); and I am curious (yellow) (2003; Brent Sikkema, New York) as well as solo exhibitions in 2000 (Brent Sikkema, New York) and 1994 (Lipton Owens Company, New York). She has participated in numerous group exhibitions, including the 2014 Whitney Biennial (2014; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York); Blues for Smoke (2012; Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles); Contemporary Painting, 1960 to the Present: Selections from the SFMOMA Collection (2012; San Francisco Museum of Modern Art); Dance/Draw (2011; Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston); Oranges and Sardines: Conversations on Abstract Painting (2008; Hammer Museum, Los Angeles); Prospect 1 New Orleans (2008); Order. Desire. Light: An Exhibition of Contemporary Drawings (2008; Irish Museum of Modern Art, Dublin); 2004 Whitney Biennial (2004; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York); Comic Release: Negotiating Identity for a New Generation (2003; Miller Gallery, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh); 718 Brooklyn (2001; Palm Beach Institute for Contemporary Art, Lake Worth, FL); Pop Surrealism (with Team SHaG) (1998; Aldrich Contemporary Art Museum, Ridgefield, CT); Imaginary Beings (1996; Exit Art, New York); Lyric: Uses of Beauty at the End of the Century (1991; White Columns Gallery, New York); and Real Democracy (1988; Four Walls at White Columns, New York).

Cordy Ryman Born 1971 in New York Lives and works in New York Cordy Ryman graduated from the School of Visual Arts, New York (BFA 1997). Select solo exhibitions of his work include Windowboxing (2011; Conner Contemporary Art, Washington, DC); Hail to the Grid (2009; Mark Moore Gallery, Santa Monica, CA); Cordy Ryman (2010; DCKT, New York); Scrapple (2010; Lora Reynolds Gallery, Austin, TX); Tempest (2010; Kavi Gupta, Chicago); and Cordy Ryman (1999; Tricia Collins Contemporary Art, New York). His work was included in such group exhibtions as Aberrant Abstraction (2009; Nerman Museum of Contemporary Art, Johnson County Community College, Overland Park, KS); Variations on a Theme (2009; Kavi Gupta, Chicago); Mark-Making: Dots, Lines, and Curves (2009; Lora Reynolds Gallery, Austin, TX); and New York’s Finest (2005; Canada, New York).

279


Sam Reveles Born 1958 in El Paso, TX Lives and works in El Paso Sam Reveles graduated from the University of Texas at El Paso (BFA 1985), and Yale University, New Haven, CT (MFA 1987). His work has been the subject of many solo exhibitions, including Sam Reveles—Aran: New Paintings and Drawings (2013; Talley Dunn Gallery, Dallas); At the Pale: New Paintings and Drawings (2012; James Kelly Contemporary, Santa Fe); Sam Reveles: Juarez Paintings (2010; Dunn and Brown Contemporary, Dallas); Seedbed (2008; CRG Gallery, New York); ‘Tilth’: New Paintings (2007; CRG Gallery, New York); Recent Work by Sam Reveles: Dissolution Direction Drawing (2002; El Paso Museum of Art, TX); Sam Reveles: Recent Paintings and Drawings (1999; Contemporary Arts Museum Houston); Sam Reveles: Drawings Exhibition (1998; Saint Louis Art Museum); New Paintings and Drawings (1997; Texas Gallery, Houston); The Codex Paintings (1993; Regen Projects, Los Angeles); and Skull Rack Paintings (1992; Lisson Gallery, London). Reveles has participated in such group exhibitions as the 1995 Whitney Biennial (1995; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York); Medium Is the Medium (1993; Barbara Toll, New York); Robert Wilson, Julian Lethbridge, Sam Reveles (1992; Paula Cooper Gallery, New York); Matthew Barney, Sam Reveles, Nancy Rubins (1992; Stein Gladstone, New York); ; and New Talent / New Haven (1988; Portia Harcus Gallery, Boston).

Mariah Robertson Born 1975 in Indianapolis Lives and works in New York Mariah Robertson graduated from the University of California, Berkeley (BA 1997), and Yale University, New Haven, CT (MFA 2005). Robertson’s selected solo exhibitions include Mariah Robertson: Permanent Puberty (2013; American Contemporary, New York); Let’s Change (2012; Grand Arts, Kansas City, MO); Mariah Robertson (2011; BALTIC Centre for Contemporary Art, Gateshead, England); and Take Better Pictures (2009; Museum 52, New York). Her group exhibitions include Nineteen New Acquisitions in Photography (2013; Museum of Modern Art, New York); Out of Focus: Photography (2012; Saatchi Gallery, London); Second

278

Nature: Abstract Photography Then and Now (2012; deCordova Sculpture Park and Museum, Lincoln, MA); and Greater New York 2010 (2010; MoMA PS1, Long Island City, NY). She has presented performances at the Museum of Modern Art, New York (2012); MoMA PS1, Long Island City, NY (2011); and Guild & Greyshkul, New York (2009).

Nadine Robinson Born 1968 in London Lives and works in New York Nadine Robinson graduated from the State University of New York at Stony Brook (BA 1995) and New York University (MA 1997). Solo exhibitions of her work include Nadine Robinson: Alles Grau (2006; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); Nadine Robinson: Conclusion of the System of Things (2005; Grand Arts, Kansas City, MO); Ramp Projects: Das Hochzeitshaus (2003; Institute of Contemporary Art, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia); and Black Listing (1998; Longwood Arts Project, Bronx, NY). Her group exhibitions include Talking Pictures (2009; Site Santa Fe); Rockstone and Bootheel: Contemporary West Indian Art (2009; Real Art Ways, Hartford); Thirty Seconds off an Inch (2009; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); After 1968 (2008; High Museum of Art, Atlanta); Lucky Number Seven: The Seventh International Biennial (2008; Site Santa Fe); Prospect 1 New Orleans (2008; New Orleans); Black Light / White Noise: Sound and Light in Contemporary Art (2007; Contemporary Arts Museum Houston); African Queen (2005; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); Open House: Working in Brooklyn (2004; Brooklyn Museum); Mass Appeal: The Art Object and Hip Hop Culture (2003; Gallery 101, Ottawa, Canada); Tempo (2002; Museum of Modern Art, New York); For the Record (2001; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); Freestyle (2001; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); One Planet under a Groove: Hip Hop and Contemporary Art (2001; Bronx Museum of the Arts, NY); Rapper’s Delight: The Visual Avant-garde of Hip Hop (2001; Yerba Buena Center for the Arts, San Francisco); Greater New York 2000 (2000; P.S. 1 Contemporary Art Center, Long Island City, NY); and Stephen Vitiello, Camille Normant, Nadine Robinson (2000; The Project, New York).

Susie Rosmarin

Amy Sillman

Born 1950 in Brownsville, TX Lives and works in Houston Susie Rosmarin graduated from the University of Saint Thomas, Houston (BA 1973), and Pratt Institute, Brooklyn (MFA 1981). Rosmarin’s most recent solo exhibition with Texas Gallery, Houston, took place in 2013. Other solo shows include Susie Rosmarin: New Work (2010; Dunn and Brown Contemporary, Dallas); Susie Rosmarin (2009; Danese, New York); and two additional solo exhibitions at Texas Gallery in 2008 and 2003. Her work has also been included in the group shows Line: Works by Kate Carr, Susie Rosmarin, Susan Schwalb, James Siena, and Dan Walsh (2013; Garvey Simon Art Access, New York); Psychedelic: Optical and Visionary Art since the 1960s (2010; San Antonio Museum of Art, TX); Hovering over the Universe (2007; Honor Fraser, Los Angeles); Michelle Grabner and the Suburban (2006; Normal Division, Illinois State University, Normal); and Extreme Abstraction (2005; Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY).

Born 1955 in Detroit Lives and works in Brooklyn Amy Sillman graduated from the School of Visual Arts, New York (BFA 1979), and Bard College, Annandale-on-Hudson, NY (MFA 1995). Her solo exhibitions include Amy Sillman: One Lump or Two (2013; Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston); Draft of a Voice-over for Split Screen Video Loop (2012; castillo/corrales, Paris); Transformer ( . . . or, how many lightbulbs does it take to change a painting?) (2010; Sikkema Jenkins & Co., New York); Amy Sillman: Third Person Singular (2008; Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, DC); Amy Sillman: Person, Place, or Thing (2007; Carlier Gebauer, Berlin); Suitors and Strangers (2007; Blaffer Gallery, University of Houston); and I am curious (yellow) (2003; Brent Sikkema, New York) as well as solo exhibitions in 2000 (Brent Sikkema, New York) and 1994 (Lipton Owens Company, New York). She has participated in numerous group exhibitions, including the 2014 Whitney Biennial (2014; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York); Blues for Smoke (2012; Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles); Contemporary Painting, 1960 to the Present: Selections from the SFMOMA Collection (2012; San Francisco Museum of Modern Art); Dance/Draw (2011; Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston); Oranges and Sardines: Conversations on Abstract Painting (2008; Hammer Museum, Los Angeles); Prospect 1 New Orleans (2008); Order. Desire. Light: An Exhibition of Contemporary Drawings (2008; Irish Museum of Modern Art, Dublin); 2004 Whitney Biennial (2004; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York); Comic Release: Negotiating Identity for a New Generation (2003; Miller Gallery, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh); 718 Brooklyn (2001; Palm Beach Institute for Contemporary Art, Lake Worth, FL); Pop Surrealism (with Team SHaG) (1998; Aldrich Contemporary Art Museum, Ridgefield, CT); Imaginary Beings (1996; Exit Art, New York); Lyric: Uses of Beauty at the End of the Century (1991; White Columns Gallery, New York); and Real Democracy (1988; Four Walls at White Columns, New York).

Cordy Ryman Born 1971 in New York Lives and works in New York Cordy Ryman graduated from the School of Visual Arts, New York (BFA 1997). Select solo exhibitions of his work include Windowboxing (2011; Conner Contemporary Art, Washington, DC); Hail to the Grid (2009; Mark Moore Gallery, Santa Monica, CA); Cordy Ryman (2010; DCKT, New York); Scrapple (2010; Lora Reynolds Gallery, Austin, TX); Tempest (2010; Kavi Gupta, Chicago); and Cordy Ryman (1999; Tricia Collins Contemporary Art, New York). His work was included in such group exhibtions as Aberrant Abstraction (2009; Nerman Museum of Contemporary Art, Johnson County Community College, Overland Park, KS); Variations on a Theme (2009; Kavi Gupta, Chicago); Mark-Making: Dots, Lines, and Curves (2009; Lora Reynolds Gallery, Austin, TX); and New York’s Finest (2005; Canada, New York).

279


Frank Smith Born 1939 in Chicago Lives and works in Rock Cave, WV Frank Smith graduated from the University of Illinois, Chicago (BFA 1958), and Howard University, Washington, DC (MFA 1972). His work has been shown in several exhibitions, including Since the Harlem Renaissance: Fifty Years of Afro-American Art (1985; Bucknell Center Gallery, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA); and AfriCOBRA: The First Twenty Years (1990; Nexus Contemporary Art Center, Atlanta).

Leslie Smith III Born 1985 in Silver Spring, MD Lives and works in Madison, WI Leslie Smith III graduated from the Maryland Institute College of Art, Baltimore (BFA 2007), and Yale University, New Haven, CT (MFA 2009). He also received a summer fellowship from the American Academy in Rome (2009). His solo exhibitions include As I Remembered (2014; Beta Pictoris Gallery / Maus Contemporary, Birmingham, AL) and I Dream Too Much (2013; Madison Museum of Contemporary Art, WI). Group exhibitions include Balls (2010; Obsidian Arts, Minneapolis).

Shinique Smith Born 1971 in Baltimore Lives and works in Brooklyn Shinique Smith graduated from the Maryland Institute College of Art, Baltimore (BFA 1992; MFA 2003), and Tufts University | School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (MAT 2000). Her solo exhibitions include Shinique Smith (2014; Museum of Fine Arts, Boston); Shinique Smith: Firsthand (2013; Los Angeles County Museum of Art); Shinique Smith: Enchantment (2011; Pinnacle Gallery, Savannah College of Art and Design); Shinique Smith (2010; Southeastern Center for Contemporary Art, Winston-Salem, NC); and Shinique Smith: Like It Like That (2009; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York). Her group exhibitions include Stretching the Limits: Fibers in Contemporary Painting (2012; Museum of Art, Savannah College of Art and Design); Threads: Textiles and Fiber in the Works

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of African American Artists (2010; EK Projects, Beijing); Thirty Seconds off an Inch (2009; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); Something from Nothing (2008; Contemporary Arts Center, New Orleans); Unmonumental: The Object in the Twenty-First Century (2007; New Museum, New York); Altered, Stitched, and Gathered (2006; MoMA PS1, Long Island City, NY); Frequency (2005; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); Neovernacular (2005; Steve Turner Contemporary, Los Angeles); Recess: Images and Objects in Formation (2005; Rush Arts Gallery, New York); and The Reality of Things (2004; Triple Candie, New York).

Kianja Strobert Born 1980 in New York Lives and works in Hudson, NY Kianja Strobert graduated from the School of the Art Institute of Chicago (BFA 2004) and Yale University, New Haven, CT (MFA 2006). She also attended the New York Studio Residency Program (2003). Her exhibitions include Fore (2012; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); Nothing to Do But Keep Going (2012; Santa Monica Museum of Art, CA); Quadruple-Consciousness (2011; Vox Populi Gallery, Philadelphia); and Thirty Seconds off an Inch (2009; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York).

Alma Thomas Born 1891 in Columbus, GA Died 1978 in Washington, DC Alma Thomas graduated from Howard University, Washington, DC (BS 1924), and Columbia University, New York (MFA 1934). She also studied at New York University (1927); American University, Washington, DC (1950–60); and Tyler School of Art, Temple University, Philadelphia (1958). Her retrospective exhibitions include Alma Thomas, Phantasmagoria: Major Paintings from the 1970s (2001; Women’s Museum: An Institute for the Future, Dallas); A Life in Art: Alma Thomas, 1891–1978 (1981; National Museum of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC); Alma W. Thomas: Retrospective Exhibition (1972; Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, DC).

Shane Tolbert Born 1985 in Corsicana, TX Lives and works in Houston Shane Tolbert graduated from the University of Houston (BFA 2008) and the University of California, Santa Barbara (MFA 2010). He has had several solo exhibitions, including Shane Tolbert: Talk of Montauk (2012; Optical Project, Houston) and Shane Tolbert: Paintings (2011; Devin Borden Hiram Butler Gallery, Houston). His work has been included in such group exhibitions as Failing Flat: Sculptural Tendencies in Painting (2013; Central Trak, Dallas); New and Greatest Hits: Texas Biennial, 2005–2011 (2013; Big Medium, Austin, TX); No Shitsky: Cody Ledvina + Shane Tolbert (2012; Domy Bookstore, Austin, TX); Prologue (2012; Skydive Art Space, Houston); Texas Biennial (2011; 816 Congress, Austin, TX); Dis, Dat, Deez, and Doz (2008, The Joanna, Houston); and The Big Show (2007; Lawndale Art Center, Houston).

Scott Treleaven Born 1972 in Toronto Lives and works in Paris and Toronto Scott Treleaven studied in Toronto at York University (1991–92), Ontario College of Art and Design (1993–96), and the University of Toronto (1998–99). Solo exhibitions of Treleaven’s work include All-Nite Cinema (2013; Invisible-Exports, New York); The Holy Man Who Drank Milk with His Penis (2011; Invisible-Exports, New York); Cimitero Drawings (2010; Marc Selwyn Fine Art, Los Angeles); The Radiant Guest (2010; Fireplace Project, East Hampton, NY); Xtul (2010; White Fish Tank, Ancona, Italy); Silver Make-Up (2009; The Breeder, Athens); Your shadow at morning striding behind you (2009; Kavi Gupta, Chicago); Where He Was Going (2008; John Connelly Presents, New York); and The Salivation Army (2004; Kavi Gupta, Chicago). His work has been included in numerous group exhibitions, including The Temptation of AA Bronson (2013; Witte de With, Rotterdam); White Petals Surround Your Yellow Heart (2013; Institute of Contemporary Art, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia); Dirty Black Summer (2010; Kavi Gupta, Berlin); Male (2010; Maureen Paley, London); To Believe (2010; Visual Aids, New York); At Home He Is a Tourist (2009; The

Breeder, Athens); Memories and Encounters (2009; Viafarini, Milan); AA Bronson’s School for Young Shamans (2008; John Connelly Presents, New York); Biennale de Montréal 2007 (2007; Parisian Laundry, Montreal); and Teenage Bedroom Show (2003; Galerie du jour agnès b, Paris | Deitch Projects, New York).

Cullen Washington Born 1972 in Alexandria, LA Lives and works in New York Cullen Washington graduated from Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge (BA 1994), and Tufts University | School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (MFA 2009). His solo and two-person exhibitions include Black Males: Heroes and Villains in the Art of Cullen Washington (2009; Museum of the National Center of Afro-American Artists, Boston); and Cullen Washington, Jr., and James Taylor (2008; Hammonds House Museum, Atlanta). His group exhibitions include Things in Themselves: Artists in Residence Program (2013; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); The Bearden Project (2012; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); 2012 deCordova Biennial (2012; deCordova Sculpture Park and Museum, Lincoln, MA); Fore (2012; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); and Paint: Black on Canvas, African American Painters of Boston (2009; Bunker Hill College, Boston).

Jack White Born 1931 in Benson, NC Lives and works in Austin, TX Jack White graduated from Morgan State University, Baltimore (BS 1958), and attended Syracuse University as a graduate fellow (1987–88). Some of his solo exhibitions include Neo Totems and Other Works (2011; Sargent Johnson Gallery, San Francisco); Jack White: From Athens to Austin (2009; George Washington Carver Museum and Cultural Center, Austin, TX); Recordings and Observations (2005; Galerie Zygos, Athens, Greece); and A Retrospective (1998; James E. Lewis Museum of Art, Morgan State University, Baltimore). His group exhibitions include Jack White / Kevin Cole / Albert Shaw: Parallels and Contrasts (2012; Museum of Geometric and MADI Art, Dallas); Celebrating Diversity (1995; Everson Museum of Art, Syracuse, NY); Black Artists 281


Frank Smith Born 1939 in Chicago Lives and works in Rock Cave, WV Frank Smith graduated from the University of Illinois, Chicago (BFA 1958), and Howard University, Washington, DC (MFA 1972). His work has been shown in several exhibitions, including Since the Harlem Renaissance: Fifty Years of Afro-American Art (1985; Bucknell Center Gallery, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA); and AfriCOBRA: The First Twenty Years (1990; Nexus Contemporary Art Center, Atlanta).

Leslie Smith III Born 1985 in Silver Spring, MD Lives and works in Madison, WI Leslie Smith III graduated from the Maryland Institute College of Art, Baltimore (BFA 2007), and Yale University, New Haven, CT (MFA 2009). He also received a summer fellowship from the American Academy in Rome (2009). His solo exhibitions include As I Remembered (2014; Beta Pictoris Gallery / Maus Contemporary, Birmingham, AL) and I Dream Too Much (2013; Madison Museum of Contemporary Art, WI). Group exhibitions include Balls (2010; Obsidian Arts, Minneapolis).

Shinique Smith Born 1971 in Baltimore Lives and works in Brooklyn Shinique Smith graduated from the Maryland Institute College of Art, Baltimore (BFA 1992; MFA 2003), and Tufts University | School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (MAT 2000). Her solo exhibitions include Shinique Smith (2014; Museum of Fine Arts, Boston); Shinique Smith: Firsthand (2013; Los Angeles County Museum of Art); Shinique Smith: Enchantment (2011; Pinnacle Gallery, Savannah College of Art and Design); Shinique Smith (2010; Southeastern Center for Contemporary Art, Winston-Salem, NC); and Shinique Smith: Like It Like That (2009; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York). Her group exhibitions include Stretching the Limits: Fibers in Contemporary Painting (2012; Museum of Art, Savannah College of Art and Design); Threads: Textiles and Fiber in the Works

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of African American Artists (2010; EK Projects, Beijing); Thirty Seconds off an Inch (2009; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); Something from Nothing (2008; Contemporary Arts Center, New Orleans); Unmonumental: The Object in the Twenty-First Century (2007; New Museum, New York); Altered, Stitched, and Gathered (2006; MoMA PS1, Long Island City, NY); Frequency (2005; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); Neovernacular (2005; Steve Turner Contemporary, Los Angeles); Recess: Images and Objects in Formation (2005; Rush Arts Gallery, New York); and The Reality of Things (2004; Triple Candie, New York).

Kianja Strobert Born 1980 in New York Lives and works in Hudson, NY Kianja Strobert graduated from the School of the Art Institute of Chicago (BFA 2004) and Yale University, New Haven, CT (MFA 2006). She also attended the New York Studio Residency Program (2003). Her exhibitions include Fore (2012; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); Nothing to Do But Keep Going (2012; Santa Monica Museum of Art, CA); Quadruple-Consciousness (2011; Vox Populi Gallery, Philadelphia); and Thirty Seconds off an Inch (2009; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York).

Alma Thomas Born 1891 in Columbus, GA Died 1978 in Washington, DC Alma Thomas graduated from Howard University, Washington, DC (BS 1924), and Columbia University, New York (MFA 1934). She also studied at New York University (1927); American University, Washington, DC (1950–60); and Tyler School of Art, Temple University, Philadelphia (1958). Her retrospective exhibitions include Alma Thomas, Phantasmagoria: Major Paintings from the 1970s (2001; Women’s Museum: An Institute for the Future, Dallas); A Life in Art: Alma Thomas, 1891–1978 (1981; National Museum of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC); Alma W. Thomas: Retrospective Exhibition (1972; Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, DC).

Shane Tolbert Born 1985 in Corsicana, TX Lives and works in Houston Shane Tolbert graduated from the University of Houston (BFA 2008) and the University of California, Santa Barbara (MFA 2010). He has had several solo exhibitions, including Shane Tolbert: Talk of Montauk (2012; Optical Project, Houston) and Shane Tolbert: Paintings (2011; Devin Borden Hiram Butler Gallery, Houston). His work has been included in such group exhibitions as Failing Flat: Sculptural Tendencies in Painting (2013; Central Trak, Dallas); New and Greatest Hits: Texas Biennial, 2005–2011 (2013; Big Medium, Austin, TX); No Shitsky: Cody Ledvina + Shane Tolbert (2012; Domy Bookstore, Austin, TX); Prologue (2012; Skydive Art Space, Houston); Texas Biennial (2011; 816 Congress, Austin, TX); Dis, Dat, Deez, and Doz (2008, The Joanna, Houston); and The Big Show (2007; Lawndale Art Center, Houston).

Scott Treleaven Born 1972 in Toronto Lives and works in Paris and Toronto Scott Treleaven studied in Toronto at York University (1991–92), Ontario College of Art and Design (1993–96), and the University of Toronto (1998–99). Solo exhibitions of Treleaven’s work include All-Nite Cinema (2013; Invisible-Exports, New York); The Holy Man Who Drank Milk with His Penis (2011; Invisible-Exports, New York); Cimitero Drawings (2010; Marc Selwyn Fine Art, Los Angeles); The Radiant Guest (2010; Fireplace Project, East Hampton, NY); Xtul (2010; White Fish Tank, Ancona, Italy); Silver Make-Up (2009; The Breeder, Athens); Your shadow at morning striding behind you (2009; Kavi Gupta, Chicago); Where He Was Going (2008; John Connelly Presents, New York); and The Salivation Army (2004; Kavi Gupta, Chicago). His work has been included in numerous group exhibitions, including The Temptation of AA Bronson (2013; Witte de With, Rotterdam); White Petals Surround Your Yellow Heart (2013; Institute of Contemporary Art, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia); Dirty Black Summer (2010; Kavi Gupta, Berlin); Male (2010; Maureen Paley, London); To Believe (2010; Visual Aids, New York); At Home He Is a Tourist (2009; The

Breeder, Athens); Memories and Encounters (2009; Viafarini, Milan); AA Bronson’s School for Young Shamans (2008; John Connelly Presents, New York); Biennale de Montréal 2007 (2007; Parisian Laundry, Montreal); and Teenage Bedroom Show (2003; Galerie du jour agnès b, Paris | Deitch Projects, New York).

Cullen Washington Born 1972 in Alexandria, LA Lives and works in New York Cullen Washington graduated from Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge (BA 1994), and Tufts University | School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (MFA 2009). His solo and two-person exhibitions include Black Males: Heroes and Villains in the Art of Cullen Washington (2009; Museum of the National Center of Afro-American Artists, Boston); and Cullen Washington, Jr., and James Taylor (2008; Hammonds House Museum, Atlanta). His group exhibitions include Things in Themselves: Artists in Residence Program (2013; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); The Bearden Project (2012; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); 2012 deCordova Biennial (2012; deCordova Sculpture Park and Museum, Lincoln, MA); Fore (2012; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); and Paint: Black on Canvas, African American Painters of Boston (2009; Bunker Hill College, Boston).

Jack White Born 1931 in Benson, NC Lives and works in Austin, TX Jack White graduated from Morgan State University, Baltimore (BS 1958), and attended Syracuse University as a graduate fellow (1987–88). Some of his solo exhibitions include Neo Totems and Other Works (2011; Sargent Johnson Gallery, San Francisco); Jack White: From Athens to Austin (2009; George Washington Carver Museum and Cultural Center, Austin, TX); Recordings and Observations (2005; Galerie Zygos, Athens, Greece); and A Retrospective (1998; James E. Lewis Museum of Art, Morgan State University, Baltimore). His group exhibitions include Jack White / Kevin Cole / Albert Shaw: Parallels and Contrasts (2012; Museum of Geometric and MADI Art, Dallas); Celebrating Diversity (1995; Everson Museum of Art, Syracuse, NY); Black Artists 281


in Historical Retrospective (1978; Schenectady Museum, NY); Artist and Texture (1976; Allentown Art Museum, PA); and Directions in Afro-American Art (1974; Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY).

Stanley Whitney Born 1946 in Philadelphia Lives and works in New York Stanley Whitney graduated from Kansas City Art Institute, MO (BFA 1968), and Yale University, New Haven, CT (MFA 1972). Solo exhibitions of his work include Other Colors I Forget (2013; Team Gallery, New York); Yellow, Noon, and Night (2012; Galerie Nordenhake, Berlin); I remember Clifford, still (2009; Christine König Galerie, Vienna); Breathing Sound (2006; Esso Gallery, New York); Stanley Whitney (2006; Galleria Carlina, Turin, Italy); and Stanley Whitney (1987; Peg Alston Gallery, New York). His group exhibitions include Reinventing Abstraction: New York Painting in the 1980s (2013; Cheim & Read, New York); Ecstatic Structure (2010; Nerman Museum of Contemporary Art, Johnson County Community College, Overland Park, KS); The Jewel Thief (2010; Frances Young Tang Teaching Museum and Art Gallery, Saratoga Springs, NY); The Color Line, Luanda Triennial (2007; Luanda, Angola); Utopia Station, Venice Biennale (2003; Arsenale, Venice); Quiet as It’s Kept (2002; Christine König Galerie, Vienna); Stanley Whitney and David Hammons (1994; Vera Vita Gioia Gallery, Naples, Italy); Painting Self-Evident: Evolution in Abstraction (1992; Piccolo Spoleto, Charleston, SC); Inaugural Exhibition (1991; Institute of Contemporary Art, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia); Master Contemporary Drawings (1985; Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond); Enroute: Six Contemporary Artists (1981; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); Post-Modernist Metaphors (1981; Alternative Museum, New York); and Contemporary Reflections (1976; Aldrich Contemporary Art Museum, Ridgefield, CT).

282

Jack Whitten

Pinar Yolacan

Born 1939 in Bessemer, AL Lives and works in Queens, NY Jack Whitten studied at Tuskegee Institute, Alabama (1959); Southern University, Baton Rouge (1960); and Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art, New York (1964). Solo exhibitions of his work include Jack Whitten: Evolver (2014; Aldrich Contemporary Art Museum, Ridgefield, CT); Light Years: Jack Whitten, 1971–1973 (2013; Rose Art Museum, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA); Jack Whitten: Erasures; Paintings from 1975–79 (2012; Savannah College of Art and Design); Jack Whitten: Memorial Paintings (2008; Atlanta Contemporary Art Center); Jack Whitten (2007; MoMA PS1, Long Island City, NY); Jack Whitten: Thirty Year Survey of Works on Paper (1993; G. R. N’Namdi Gallery, Chicago); Jack Whitten: Recent Paintings (1992; Horodner Romley Gallery, New York); Jack Whitten: Spirit and Matter (1990; Newark Museum, NJ); Jack Whitten: Ten Years, 1970–1980 (1983; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); and Jack Whitten: Paintings (1974; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York). His group exhibitions include The Encyclopedic Palace, Venice Biennale (2013; Arsenale, Venice); Blues for Smoke (2012; Geffen Contemporary at MOCA, Los Angeles); Phantom Limb: Approaches to Painting Today (2012; Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago); The Comfort of Strangers, Greater New York Rotating Gallery (2010; MoMA PS1, Long Island City, NY); Energy/ Experimentation: Black Artists and Abstraction, 1964–1980 (2006; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); High Times, Hard Times: New York Painting, 1965–1975 (2006; organized by Independent Curators International); Unbreakable (2006; Arti et Amicitiae, Amsterdam); Skin Deep (1993; New Museum, New York); Sacred Artifacts: Common Objects of Devotion (1982; Alternative Museum, New York); Radical Attitudes to the Gallery (1980; Art Net, London); Whitney Annual (1972; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York); Contemporary Reflections, 1971–1974 (1972; Aldrich Contemporary Art Museum, Ridgefield, CT); and Whitney Annual (1969; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York).

Born 1981 in Ankara, Turkey Lives and works in New York and São Paulo Pinar Yolacan graduated from the Cooper Union School of the Arts, New York (BFA 2004). Solo exhibitions of Yolacan’s work include Maria (2010; Center for Contemporary Art, Lagos, Nigeria); Maria (2008; Yapi Kredi Foundation, Istanbul); Maria (2007; Rivington Arms, New York); and Perishables (2007; Finnish Museum of Photography, Helsinki). Selected group exhibitions include Out of Focus: Photography (2012; Saatchi Gallery, London); Tahditsiz/Unbounded (2011; Proje 4L / Elgiz Museum of Contemporary Art, Istanbul); Four Minutes, Thirty-Three Seconds (2011; Legal Art, Miami); Greater New York 2010 (2010; MoMA PS1, Long Island City, NY); Localization (2010; Wetterling Gallery, Stockholm); Dress Codes: The Third ICP Triennial of Photography and Video (2009; International Center of Photography, New York); and Tracking Traces (2009; KIASMA— Museum of Contemporary Art, Helsinki).

Brenna Youngblood Born 1979 in Riverside, CA Lives and works in Los Angeles Brenna Youngblood graduated from California State University, Long Beach (BFA 2002), and the University of California, Los Angeles (MFA 2006). Solo exhibitions of her work include Brenna Youngblood (2014; Jack Tilton Gallery, New York); Activision (2013; Honor Fraser, Los Angeles); When-Win (2010; Jack Tilton Gallery, New York); Murder by the Bank (2007; Project Room, Wallspace, New York); and Hammer Projects: Brenna Youngblood (2006; Hammer Museum, Los Angeles). Her group exhibitions include The Bearden Project (2012; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); Fore (2012; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); Made in L.A. 2012 (2012; Hammer Museum in collaboration with LA><ART, Los Angeles); A Painting Show (2011; Harris Lieberman, New York); Unfinished Paintings (2011; Los Angeles Contemporary Exhibitions); Fifty Artists Photograph the Future (2010; Higher Pictures, New York); Glue, Paper, Scissors (2009; Luckman

Gallery, California State University, Los Angeles); 2008 California Biennial (2008; Orange County Museum of Art, Newport Beach, CA); Half-Life: Twenty-Five Emerging L.A. Artists (2008; Los Angeles Contemporary Exhibitions); Blacks in and out of the Box (2007; California African American Museum, Los Angeles); Effacé (2006; Steve Turner Gallery, Los Angeles); and Macrae Semans and Brenna Youngblood (2004; Hayworth Gallery, Los Angeles).

Brian Zink Born 1966 in Buffalo NY Lives and works in Cambridge, MA Brian Zink graduated from Rochester Institute of Technology, NY (BFA 1989). Zink’s solo and two-person exhibitions include Assembled (2012; Howard Yezerski Gallery, Boston); Wall Hangings (2005; Howard Yezerski Gallery, Boston); Curtis Fairman, Brian Zink (2004; Dust Gallery, Las Vegas); Brian Zink (2002; Howard Yezerski Gallery, Boston); Plastic Paintings (2001; LFL Gallery, New York); and Brian Zink (2000; Howard Yezerski Gallery, Boston). His group exhibitions include I-90 (2012; Proll Drift, Seattle); Sting XI: Object Relations (2011; The Beehive, Boston); Plastic Fantastic! (2009; Laconia Gallery, Boston); Anything-but-Paper Prayers (2004; Barbara Krakow Gallery, Boston); and Color, Material, and Method (2003; Howard Yezerski Gallery, Boston).

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in Historical Retrospective (1978; Schenectady Museum, NY); Artist and Texture (1976; Allentown Art Museum, PA); and Directions in Afro-American Art (1974; Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY).

Stanley Whitney Born 1946 in Philadelphia Lives and works in New York Stanley Whitney graduated from Kansas City Art Institute, MO (BFA 1968), and Yale University, New Haven, CT (MFA 1972). Solo exhibitions of his work include Other Colors I Forget (2013; Team Gallery, New York); Yellow, Noon, and Night (2012; Galerie Nordenhake, Berlin); I remember Clifford, still (2009; Christine König Galerie, Vienna); Breathing Sound (2006; Esso Gallery, New York); Stanley Whitney (2006; Galleria Carlina, Turin, Italy); and Stanley Whitney (1987; Peg Alston Gallery, New York). His group exhibitions include Reinventing Abstraction: New York Painting in the 1980s (2013; Cheim & Read, New York); Ecstatic Structure (2010; Nerman Museum of Contemporary Art, Johnson County Community College, Overland Park, KS); The Jewel Thief (2010; Frances Young Tang Teaching Museum and Art Gallery, Saratoga Springs, NY); The Color Line, Luanda Triennial (2007; Luanda, Angola); Utopia Station, Venice Biennale (2003; Arsenale, Venice); Quiet as It’s Kept (2002; Christine König Galerie, Vienna); Stanley Whitney and David Hammons (1994; Vera Vita Gioia Gallery, Naples, Italy); Painting Self-Evident: Evolution in Abstraction (1992; Piccolo Spoleto, Charleston, SC); Inaugural Exhibition (1991; Institute of Contemporary Art, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia); Master Contemporary Drawings (1985; Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond); Enroute: Six Contemporary Artists (1981; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); Post-Modernist Metaphors (1981; Alternative Museum, New York); and Contemporary Reflections (1976; Aldrich Contemporary Art Museum, Ridgefield, CT).

282

Jack Whitten

Pinar Yolacan

Born 1939 in Bessemer, AL Lives and works in Queens, NY Jack Whitten studied at Tuskegee Institute, Alabama (1959); Southern University, Baton Rouge (1960); and Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art, New York (1964). Solo exhibitions of his work include Jack Whitten: Evolver (2014; Aldrich Contemporary Art Museum, Ridgefield, CT); Light Years: Jack Whitten, 1971–1973 (2013; Rose Art Museum, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA); Jack Whitten: Erasures; Paintings from 1975–79 (2012; Savannah College of Art and Design); Jack Whitten: Memorial Paintings (2008; Atlanta Contemporary Art Center); Jack Whitten (2007; MoMA PS1, Long Island City, NY); Jack Whitten: Thirty Year Survey of Works on Paper (1993; G. R. N’Namdi Gallery, Chicago); Jack Whitten: Recent Paintings (1992; Horodner Romley Gallery, New York); Jack Whitten: Spirit and Matter (1990; Newark Museum, NJ); Jack Whitten: Ten Years, 1970–1980 (1983; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); and Jack Whitten: Paintings (1974; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York). His group exhibitions include The Encyclopedic Palace, Venice Biennale (2013; Arsenale, Venice); Blues for Smoke (2012; Geffen Contemporary at MOCA, Los Angeles); Phantom Limb: Approaches to Painting Today (2012; Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago); The Comfort of Strangers, Greater New York Rotating Gallery (2010; MoMA PS1, Long Island City, NY); Energy/ Experimentation: Black Artists and Abstraction, 1964–1980 (2006; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); High Times, Hard Times: New York Painting, 1965–1975 (2006; organized by Independent Curators International); Unbreakable (2006; Arti et Amicitiae, Amsterdam); Skin Deep (1993; New Museum, New York); Sacred Artifacts: Common Objects of Devotion (1982; Alternative Museum, New York); Radical Attitudes to the Gallery (1980; Art Net, London); Whitney Annual (1972; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York); Contemporary Reflections, 1971–1974 (1972; Aldrich Contemporary Art Museum, Ridgefield, CT); and Whitney Annual (1969; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York).

Born 1981 in Ankara, Turkey Lives and works in New York and São Paulo Pinar Yolacan graduated from the Cooper Union School of the Arts, New York (BFA 2004). Solo exhibitions of Yolacan’s work include Maria (2010; Center for Contemporary Art, Lagos, Nigeria); Maria (2008; Yapi Kredi Foundation, Istanbul); Maria (2007; Rivington Arms, New York); and Perishables (2007; Finnish Museum of Photography, Helsinki). Selected group exhibitions include Out of Focus: Photography (2012; Saatchi Gallery, London); Tahditsiz/Unbounded (2011; Proje 4L / Elgiz Museum of Contemporary Art, Istanbul); Four Minutes, Thirty-Three Seconds (2011; Legal Art, Miami); Greater New York 2010 (2010; MoMA PS1, Long Island City, NY); Localization (2010; Wetterling Gallery, Stockholm); Dress Codes: The Third ICP Triennial of Photography and Video (2009; International Center of Photography, New York); and Tracking Traces (2009; KIASMA— Museum of Contemporary Art, Helsinki).

Brenna Youngblood Born 1979 in Riverside, CA Lives and works in Los Angeles Brenna Youngblood graduated from California State University, Long Beach (BFA 2002), and the University of California, Los Angeles (MFA 2006). Solo exhibitions of her work include Brenna Youngblood (2014; Jack Tilton Gallery, New York); Activision (2013; Honor Fraser, Los Angeles); When-Win (2010; Jack Tilton Gallery, New York); Murder by the Bank (2007; Project Room, Wallspace, New York); and Hammer Projects: Brenna Youngblood (2006; Hammer Museum, Los Angeles). Her group exhibitions include The Bearden Project (2012; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); Fore (2012; Studio Museum in Harlem, New York); Made in L.A. 2012 (2012; Hammer Museum in collaboration with LA><ART, Los Angeles); A Painting Show (2011; Harris Lieberman, New York); Unfinished Paintings (2011; Los Angeles Contemporary Exhibitions); Fifty Artists Photograph the Future (2010; Higher Pictures, New York); Glue, Paper, Scissors (2009; Luckman

Gallery, California State University, Los Angeles); 2008 California Biennial (2008; Orange County Museum of Art, Newport Beach, CA); Half-Life: Twenty-Five Emerging L.A. Artists (2008; Los Angeles Contemporary Exhibitions); Blacks in and out of the Box (2007; California African American Museum, Los Angeles); Effacé (2006; Steve Turner Gallery, Los Angeles); and Macrae Semans and Brenna Youngblood (2004; Hayworth Gallery, Los Angeles).

Brian Zink Born 1966 in Buffalo NY Lives and works in Cambridge, MA Brian Zink graduated from Rochester Institute of Technology, NY (BFA 1989). Zink’s solo and two-person exhibitions include Assembled (2012; Howard Yezerski Gallery, Boston); Wall Hangings (2005; Howard Yezerski Gallery, Boston); Curtis Fairman, Brian Zink (2004; Dust Gallery, Las Vegas); Brian Zink (2002; Howard Yezerski Gallery, Boston); Plastic Paintings (2001; LFL Gallery, New York); and Brian Zink (2000; Howard Yezerski Gallery, Boston). His group exhibitions include I-90 (2012; Proll Drift, Seattle); Sting XI: Object Relations (2011; The Beehive, Boston); Plastic Fantastic! (2009; Laconia Gallery, Boston); Anything-but-Paper Prayers (2004; Barbara Krakow Gallery, Boston); and Color, Material, and Method (2003; Howard Yezerski Gallery, Boston).

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BOA R D O F T RU ST E ES William J. Goldberg, Chairman Jonathan B. Fairbanks, President Dillon A. Kyle, Vice President Andrew C. Schirrmeister III, Vice President Valerie Gibbs, Treasurer Louise Jamail, Secretary Edward R. Allen III Carol C. Ballard Vera Baker Jereann Chaney Susie Criner Elizabeth Crowell Sara Paschall Dodd Ruth Dreessen Gregory Fourticq James Furr, FAIA Michael Galbreth Barbara Gamson Cullen Geiselman Dan Gilbane Glen Gonzalez John Guess Lynn M. Herbert Sissy Kempner J. David Kirkland, Jr. Nancy Littlejohn Leticia Loya Libbie Masterson Elisabeth McCabe Andrew McFarland David McGee Belinda Phelps Howard Robinson James Rodriguez Lauren L. Rottet Reginald R. Smith David P. Young Elizabeth Satel Young

STAFF Bill Arning, Director Daniel Atkinson, Education and Public Programs Manager Tim Barkley, Registrar Quincy Berry, Assistant Gallery Supervisor Amanda Bredbenner, Assistant Development Director Libby Conine, Grants and Gifts Manager Geoff Smith, Grants and Gifts Manager Oscar Cornejo, Tour Programs Coordinator Sally Frater, Tour Programs Coordinator Emily Crowe, Membership Coordinator Jamal Cyrus, Education Associate Dean Daderko, Curator Kenya Evans, Gallery Supervisor Max Fields, Communications Assistant Monica Hoffman, Controller Connie McAllister, Director of Community Engagement Nancy Oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Connor, Curatorial Associate Valerie Cassel Oliver, Senior Curator Shane Platt, Assistant to the Director Sue Pruden, Director of Retail Operations Mike Reed, Deputy Director of Facilities and Risk Management Lauren Rutledge, Development Coordinator Jeff Shore, Head Preparator Amber Winsor, Deputy Director of Development and Administration

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CO N T E M P O RA RY A RTS M U S E U M H O U STO N

BOA R D O F T RU ST E ES William J. Goldberg, Chairman Jonathan B. Fairbanks, President Dillon A. Kyle, Vice President Andrew C. Schirrmeister III, Vice President Valerie Gibbs, Treasurer Louise Jamail, Secretary Edward R. Allen III Carol C. Ballard Vera Baker Jereann Chaney Susie Criner Elizabeth Crowell Sara Paschall Dodd Ruth Dreessen Gregory Fourticq James Furr, FAIA Michael Galbreth Barbara Gamson Cullen Geiselman Dan Gilbane Glen Gonzalez John Guess Lynn M. Herbert Sissy Kempner J. David Kirkland, Jr. Nancy Littlejohn Leticia Loya Libbie Masterson Elisabeth McCabe Andrew McFarland David McGee Belinda Phelps Howard Robinson James Rodriguez Lauren L. Rottet Reginald R. Smith David P. Young Elizabeth Satel Young

STAFF Bill Arning, Director Daniel Atkinson, Education and Public Programs Manager Tim Barkley, Registrar Quincy Berry, Assistant Gallery Supervisor Amanda Bredbenner, Assistant Development Director Libby Conine, Grants and Gifts Manager Geoff Smith, Grants and Gifts Manager Oscar Cornejo, Tour Programs Coordinator Sally Frater, Tour Programs Coordinator Emily Crowe, Membership Coordinator Jamal Cyrus, Education Associate Dean Daderko, Curator Kenya Evans, Gallery Supervisor Max Fields, Communications Assistant Monica Hoffman, Controller Connie McAllister, Director of Community Engagement Nancy Oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Connor, Curatorial Associate Valerie Cassel Oliver, Senior Curator Shane Platt, Assistant to the Director Sue Pruden, Director of Retail Operations Mike Reed, Deputy Director of Facilities and Risk Management Lauren Rutledge, Development Coordinator Jeff Shore, Head Preparator Amber Winsor, Deputy Director of Development and Administration

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Copyright © 2014 by the Contemporary Arts Museum Houston Unless otherwise noted, all artworks are copyright © 2014 the artists All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publisher.

Photography Credits All photographs by Paul Hester, except those listed below: Courtesy of the artists or their representatives: pp. 20–21, 22, 23, 26, 27, 43, 46 (top & bottom), 84 (left & right), 105, 108–9, 112–13, 124, 125 (top & bottom), 134, 135, 194, 218, 219, 225, 228, 232, 233, 239 Don Quaintance: pp. 24, 36, 40, 60, 242

Contemporary Arts Museum Houston 5216 Montrose Boulevard Houston, TX 77006 www.camh.org Distributed by D.A.P./Distributed Art Publishers, Inc. 155 Sixth Avenue, 2nd Floor New York, NY 10013 www.artbook.com Library of Congress Catalog Control Number: 2014951122 ISBN: 978-1-933619-46-0 For the Contemporary Arts Museum Houston: Publication coordinators: Nancy O’Connor, Sarah Schultz, and Patricia Restrepo Editor: Karen Jacobson with Kathleen Preciado Design: Don Quaintance, Public Address Design, with design/production assistant Elizabeth Frizzell Printing and color separations: Shapco Printing, Minneapolis Cover: Enlarged detail of the logo of the Contemporary Arts Museum Houston

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Copyright © 2014 by the Contemporary Arts Museum Houston Unless otherwise noted, all artworks are copyright © 2014 the artists All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publisher.

Photography Credits All photographs by Paul Hester, except those listed below: Courtesy of the artists or their representatives: pp. 20–21, 22, 23, 26, 27, 43, 46 (top & bottom), 84 (left & right), 105, 108–9, 112–13, 124, 125 (top & bottom), 134, 135, 194, 218, 219, 225, 228, 232, 233, 239 Don Quaintance: pp. 24, 36, 40, 60, 242

Contemporary Arts Museum Houston 5216 Montrose Boulevard Houston, TX 77006 www.camh.org Distributed by D.A.P./Distributed Art Publishers, Inc. 155 Sixth Avenue, 2nd Floor New York, NY 10013 www.artbook.com Library of Congress Catalog Control Number: 2014951122 ISBN: 978-1-933619-46-0 For the Contemporary Arts Museum Houston: Publication coordinators: Nancy O’Connor, Sarah Schultz, and Patricia Restrepo Editor: Karen Jacobson with Kathleen Preciado Design: Don Quaintance, Public Address Design, with design/production assistant Elizabeth Frizzell Printing and color separations: Shapco Printing, Minneapolis Cover: Enlarged detail of the logo of the Contemporary Arts Museum Houston

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Danielle Frankenthal Jeffrey Gibson Sam Gilliam Nathan Green David Hammons Katy Heinlein Charline von Heyl Felrath Hines Geoff Hippenstiel Gilbert Hsiao Rashid Johnson Jennie C. Jones Fabienne Lasserre Paul Lee Simone Leigh Daniel Levine Siobhan Liddell James Little Eva Lundsager Richard Mayhew Rodney McMillian Robert Melee Benny Merris Troy Michie Jason Middlebrook Ulrike Müller Jayson Musson Dona Nelson Floyd Newsum Angel Otero John Outterbridge

CONTEMPORARY ARTS MUSEUM HOUSTON

Jennifer Packer Joyce Pensato Gavin Perry James Phillips Jack Pierson Howardena Pindell Stephen Prina Eileen Quinlan David Reed Sam Reveles Mariah Robertson Nadine Robinson Susie Rosmarin Cordy Ryman Amy Sillman Frank Smith Leslie Smith III Shinique Smith Kianja Strobert Alma Thomas Shane Tolbert Scott Treleaven Cullen Washington Jack White Stanley Whitney Jack Whitten Pinar Yolacan Brenna Youngblood Brian Zink

CONTEMPORARY ARTS MUSEUM HOUSTON

Artists Michele Abeles Derrick Adams Richard Aldrich Candida Alvarez Tauba Auerbach David Aylsworth Romare Bearden McArthur Binion Lucas Blalock Chris Bogia Carol Bove Travis Boyer Andrew Brischler Tom Burr Sarah Cain Chris Cascio Nick Cave Leidy Churchman Joseph Cohen Kevin Cole Matt Connors Julia Dault Gabriel Dawe Abigail DeVille Cheryl Donegan Nathaniel Donnett Christian Eckart Nicole Eisenman Josh Faught Keltie Ferris Mark Flood

OUTSIDE THE LINES

Marking the Contemporary Arts Museum Houston’s sixty-fifth anniversary, Outside the Lines was a six-part exhibition series conceived as an evolving dialogue on the state of abstraction in the twenty-first century. Bringing together works by ninety-one artists, this companion volume explores contemporary approaches to painting and other mediums from multiple vantage points.

OUT SIDE THE LINES

OUTSIDE THE LINES Presented on the occasion of the Contemporary Arts Museum Houston’s sixty-fifth anniversary, Outside the Lines was a six-part exhibition series conceived as a dynamic conversation on contemporary abstraction. CAMH’s director, Bill Arning, and the museum’s two curators, Valerie Cassel Oliver and Dean Daderko, each organized two exhibitions, which united both of the museum’s galleries in a single thematic presentation for the first time. The exhibitions highlight the various discourses surrounding abstraction, including the interrogation of the history and practice of painting, the contentious nature of the two-dimensional frame, and experimental approaches that engage new languages and processes. Many of the artists featured employ nontraditional materials or oddball methodologies to create paintings and three-dimensional or multimedia works that are visually vibrant, physically unruly, and utterly surprising. This richly illustrated volume includes essays by the three curators and reproductions and installation views of nearly all the works in the exhibitions. Featuring works by ninety-one artists representing different generations and sensibilities, Outside the Lines demonstrates CAMH’s commitment to presenting the most dynamic and adventurous art being made today.

288 pages with 160 color reproductions

Outside the Lines  

Presented on the occasion of the Contemporary Arts Museum Houston's 65th anniversary, Outside the Lines is a six-part exhibition series conc...

Outside the Lines  

Presented on the occasion of the Contemporary Arts Museum Houston's 65th anniversary, Outside the Lines is a six-part exhibition series conc...

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