__MAIN_TEXT__

Page 1

2018/19 SEASON AARON NIGEL SMITH: FAMILY REGGAE BASH

The Broad Stage presents

AARON NIGEL SMITH: FAMILY REGGAE BASH

STUDENT MATINEE FRI FEB 22, 2019 10 AM & 12:30 PM GRADES 3-5

THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

1


2018/19 SEASON AARON NIGEL SMITH: FAMILY REGGAE BASH

Jane Deknatel Director, Performing Arts Center EDUCATION & COMMUNITY PROGRAMS STAFF

Ilaan E. Mazzini, Director of Education & Community Programs Mandy Matthews, Education & Community Programs Manager Olivia Murray, Education & Community Programs Assistant Rebecca Wright, Resident Educator Aaron Nigel Smith Alisa De Los Santos

EDUCATION & COMMUNITY PROGRAMS Phone 310.434.3560 education@thebroadstage.org thebroadstage.org/education THE BROAD STAGE 1310 11th Street Santa Monica, CA 90401 Box Office 310.434.3200 Fax 310.434.3439 info@thebroadstage.org thebroadstage.org

Education and Community Programs at The Broad Stage is supported in part by The Herb Alpert Foundation Johnny Carson Foundation City of Santa Monica and the Santa Monica Arts Commission The Rosalinde and Arthur Gilbert Foundation Leonard M. Lipman Charitable Fund Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors through the Los Angeles County Arts Commission The Ralph M. Parsons Foundation Dwight Stuart Youth Fund

THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

2


2018/19 SEASON AARON NIGEL SMITH: FAMILY REGGAE BASH

GREETINGS FROM THE BROAD STAGE! Dear Educators, We are so excited that Aaron Nigel Smith is bringing his style of Reggae Music to The Broad Stage as part of the Family Reggae Bash Student Matinee. Aaron is a Reggae musician, singer, educator, and director of 1 World Chorus, a nonprofit with a mission on promoting peace through music. He is passionate about bringing the message of love and unity to people everywhere. In this interactive program, students will discover the African and Jamaican roots of Reggae in a journey through history, culture and music. It is our hope that students gain a greater understanding and appreciation of Reggae music as a powerful form of musical self-expression that resonates throughout the world. Aaron will perform several songs for the students including traditional folk songs, tributes to Bob Marley, and some of his own original songs in a Reggae style. His music covers a range of topics including love, peace, unity, family, nature, and his connection to Rastafari. The show will be highly interactive as he encourages the students to sing and dance along. As part of this process, students will explore elements of music that will enhance their musical literacy. Aaron’s greatest hope for this concert is that your students are “bursting with song, dance, and joy”. It is my hope that you take the time to explore the activities in this guide with your students. The guide gives context and background to the music and will provide your students with a deeper understanding and a greater appreciation for what they are going to experience. The activities are focused on arts integration utilizing both California State VAPA standards and California Common Core Standards in ELA and Math. Additionally, there are several activities that will foster social emotional learning and teamwork. I consulted with Aaron Nigel Smith on the development of each lesson. Aaron also created a curriculum video to personally introduce himself to the students and talk about the one drop riddim. We can build bridges of understanding through our connection to music and the arts. This concert creates an opportunity for an exciting collaboration between the artist Aaron Nigel Smith, the educators, and most importantly, the students. Reggae music shares a message of peace, hope and empowerment. It’s time for us to raise our voices in unity and positivity and let the youth dance and sing! Sincerely, Rebecca Wright Resident Educator, The Broad Stage

THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

3


2018/19 SEASON AARON NIGEL SMITH: FAMILY REGGAE BASH

CONTENTS LESSONS

LESSON 1: African Roots in Jamaican Music................................. 5 HANDOUT 1: “Fanga Alafia” & “Go Down Emmanuel Road” Lyrics........ 10 LESSON 2: Voice of the People, Development of Reggae....... 11 HANDOUT 2: Jamaican Sound System & Instruments used in Reggae.. 18 HANDOUT 3: Found Sound Jam................................................................. 19 LESSON 3: Bob Marley and Roots Reggae.................................... 20 HANDOUT 4: Bob Marley Synopsis by Rebecca Wright...............................24 HANDOUT 5: Rastafari Terms and Way of Life..................................................26 HANDOUT 6: Visual Thinking Chart.....................................................................27 HANDOUT 7: Close Reading Guide......................................................................28 HANDOUT 8: “Three Little Birds” Lyrics...................................................... 29 LESSON 4: Reggae to the World, Aaron Nigel Smith................ 30 HANDOUT 9: Aaron Nigel Smith Bio.......................................................... 34 HANDOUT 10: “Natty Dreadlocks” Lyrics................................................... 35 HANDOUT 11: “Copy Cat Scat” Lyrics......................................................... 36

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES GLOSSARY.................................................................................................. 37 MATH & MUSIC......................................................................................... 39

THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

4


2018/19 SEASON AARON NIGEL SMITH: FAMILY REGGAE BASH

LESSON 1: AFRICAN ROOTS IN JAMAICAN MUSIC LESSON AT A GLANCE LESSON OBJECTIVE: Students will examine the African influence in Jamaican music by exploring and building community using a traditional folksong, dance and game. Students will understand the purpose of music elements such as beat, rhythm, and tempo in creating musical structure. DURATION: 40 minutes MATERIALS: Handout 1: “Fanga Alafia” and “Go Down Emmanuel Road” Lyrics, a large open space for movement, manipulative for the game (blocks or beanbags), Internet access and playback capabilities for recordings STANDARDS: Common Core State Standards, Literacy.SL.4.1: Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions with diverse partners, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly. Common Core State Standards, Literacy.L.4.5.C: Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain specific words and phrases, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being and that are basic to a particular topic. VAPA Music, Grade Four: 3.3 Sing and play music from diverse cultures and time periods. VAPA Music, Grade Four: 5.2 Integrate several arts disciplines (dance, music, theatre, or the visual arts, into a well organized presentation or performance. Social Emotional Learning competencies: teamwork CONCEPTS/VOCABULARY: African Diaspora - Diaspora is a Greek word meaning “dispersed”. The term is used to describe the removal of people from their homelands in Africa to the Americas, Asia, and Europe. It also encompasses the people in these worldwide communities that are descended from Africa’s peoples. Musically, people brought their traditional songs and dances with them and creatively adapted them to the new conditions and cultures that they encountered. Beat - Unit of measure of rhythmic time. Most often occurring in patterns of 2, 3, or 4. Body percussion - Using any part of body to make a rhythmic sound that is often used to accompany song and dance. e.g. Clapping, stomping, snapping, patting, etc. Call and response - The interaction of two phrases of music in which the first phrase “caller” (often a soloist) sings out a musical idea. In the second phrase, the group sung “response” usually involves an answer or commentary on that idea. Improvisation - Spontaneous creation of music and/or movement. Mento - A style of Jamaican folk music that blended African and European elements. The subject matter of the songs were everyday life, work and often included social commentary on poverty and injustice. Percussion - Any instrument that is struck, shaken, or scraped to create a rhythmic sound. e.g. Drums, xylophones, tambourines, triangles, maracas, cowbell etc. Rhythm - The combination of long and short, even and uneven sounds that convey a sense of movement in time. THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

5


2018/19 SEASON AARON NIGEL SMITH: FAMILY REGGAE BASH

Ring song or game - A game played in a circle that emphasizes cooperation. Each game has a theme and purpose that often seeks to emphasize a positive character attribute and social awareness through fun and humor. Tempo - The speed of the beat. GUIDING QUESTIONS: What are some reasons that people come together to sing and dance? How do the elements of beat, rhythm, tempo work together to create a piece of music?

THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

6


2018/19 SEASON AARON NIGEL SMITH: FAMILY REGGAE BASH

LESSON PLAN Warm-Up: “Pass the Beat” Game Ask the class to make a large circle. Discuss why a circle is a good formation for everyone to stand together. Some examples include, there is no beginning or end, no one more important than another, unity, organization, can see everyone, etc. Explain the directions for the “Pass the Beat” game. First, have students practice saying this sentence: “Pass the beat a round the room (touch shoulders to indicate 1 beat of rest)” Next, each student will say one of the words/syllables, followed by the next, etc. going around the circle. The goal is to keep a steady beat while also remembering which part of the sentence they are responsible for. For the rest/silence students will touch their shoulders silently to indicate the beat. After the rest, or silent beat the sentence repeats. Any student who misses a word or their beat is out of the game. Round 2: Add a stomp to replace the word “beat.” If a student says the word instead of stomping they are out. Round 3 and beyond: Add different body movements to gradually replace the words until all students are out. PART 1: LEARN “FANGA ALAFIA” TRADITIONAL WEST AFRICAN WELCOME SONG VERSION BY AARON NIGEL SMITH Have students listen to the song, “Fanga Alafia.” While listening, encourage students to actively listen to the beats, lyrics, and instruments in the song. Active listening is when you listen to music carefully and give it your full attention. https://soundcloud.com/aaronnigelsmith/sets/broad-stage-playlist After listening, have students write down or draw any words, feelings, or thoughts that come into their mind. You could use the prompt: I Hear? I Think? I Wonder? Hold a short discussion about anything that they observed in the song or that activated their curiosity (call and response, echo, male singer and kids chorus, instruments, foreign language, meaning of the song, etc.) Review the origins of “Fanga Alafia” together. “Fanga Alafia” is a traditional welcoming song from West Africa. This song transforms the oral technique of call and response that became a song form found in many musical genres of the Diaspora (discuss the African diaspora with students). It is similar to a conversation and asks all persons to be engaged in the discussion.

THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

7


2018/19 SEASON AARON NIGEL SMITH: FAMILY REGGAE BASH

Introduce the concept of call and response by playing the opposite game. Keep a steady beat while chanting: Ex. Educator: “I say high and you say… Students: “Low” Educator: “I say fast and you say… Students: “Slow” Try to encourage students to tap their foot with a steady beat 1, 2, 3, 4 while they listen and respond to you. You could also extend this pedagogy to other subject areas, for example, mathematic equations. Display the lyrics to “Fanga Alafia” provided in Handout 1. Have them identify which part is the call and which part is the response. Fanga alafia - is the call which is a welcome, and message of peace Ashe, ashe - is the response which means my spirit greets your spirit Listen to call and response in the audio recording of “Fanga Alafia.” Go to 2:34 in the recording for a great listening example of call and response. The call and response is between the cowbell (call) and people clapping (response). In this case it is similar to an echo because the response is exactly the same rhythm. Call and responses can be echoes (or not) and can be sung or played by instruments. Have students listen to the song again with a partner. Ask the pair to identify the caller and the responder. Partner 1 will sing and move to the call, Partner 2 will sing and move to the response. While listening, ask both students to find and demonstrate the 1, 2, 3, 4 beat in their feet in the introduction with the djembe drum and cowbell. Students should notice that even while the beat stays the same throughout the song, the rhythms can change depending on the words they are singing. If time permits, play the song again and encourage the student partners to improvise movements to the lyrics of the call and response. Partners can switch their roles as caller and responder as well. For a wrap up, allow students some time to discuss any additional observations upon further listening, as a class or in small groups. PART 2: “GO DOWN EMMANUEL ROAD” A JAMAICAN MENTO SONG AND RING GAME Recordings/Videos for “Go Down Emmanuel Road”: Ainsworth Rose: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1V3htSlHjP4 Charles Welsh and Chorus: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HlWvrrT77fo Traditional example of how to play the ring game: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BOPbRcN28Rw Task: Students play a Jamaican ring game that requires teamwork, understanding of beat, and incorporation of call and response. This is a ring game played among children in Jamaica to foster teamwork and internalize the sense of beat. Sometimes it was played at school on the playground and other times it was played at home with the family (along with the singing of songs and the telling of stories) at the end of a long day. Stone passing games can be found in various African and Caribbean nations. “Go Down Emmanuel Road” was likely inspired by observing the work of laborers who were breaking rocks to pave roads.

THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

8


2018/19 SEASON AARON NIGEL SMITH: FAMILY REGGAE BASH

Pass out Handout 2: Lyrics for “Go Down Emmanuel Road” and practice the pronunciation of the lyrics with students. Ask students to get in groups of six and create a circle. Have students sit or kneel in the ring with either a beanbag or block in front of them (traditionally rocks were used). They tap out the beat of the first verse with the beanbag or block in front of them as they sing the first part of the lyrics: Jamaican Patois lyrics: Go dung ah Manuel Road gal and bwoy Fi go bruk rock stone Go dung ah Manuel Road gal and bwoy Fi go bruk rock stone

English lyrics: Go down Emanuel Road, gal and boy Got to break that stone Go down Emanuel Road, gal and boy Got to break that stone

In the next section of the music, have students start to move the stones to the partner next to them in time with the beat. Moving the stones on time is important as no one wants stones to pile up in front of them or have their finger smashed because they were behind the beat. Jamaican Patois lyrics:

(Call) Bruk dem 1 by 1 (Response) Gal and bwoy (Call) Bruk dem 2 by 2 (Response) Gal and bwoy (Call) Bruk dem 3 by 3 (Response) Gal and Bwoy (Call) Bruk dem 4 by 4 (Response) Gal and Bwoy (Call) Finga mash nuh bawl (Response) Gal and bwoy (Call) Rememba ah play wi a play

English lyrics: Break them 1 by 1 Gal and boy Break them 2 by 2 Gal and boy Break them 3 by 3 Girl and Boy Break them 4 by 4 Girl and Boy Finger mash don’t cry Gal and boy Remember it’s just a game (don’t get upset)

Assessment Criteria: • All students participate and collaborate. • All students demonstrate understanding of keeping a steady beat. • All students demonstrate the role of caller or responder. Purpose: To understand why people come together to play, sing, or dance and to make connections between elements of music like rhythm, beat, and tempo. STUDENT REFLECTION: Students write a short paragraph on what their favorite activity was in this unit and why. FUN VARIATIONS TO THE GAME:

1. Start off with a slow beat, or tempo. Each time the song repeats increase the tempo. 2. Play it like hot potato, if someone doesn’t have a stone or has more than one at the end of the song, they’re out of the game. THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

9


2018/19 SEASON AARON NIGEL SMITH: FAMILY REGGAE BASH

HANDOUT 1: “FANGA ALAFIA” & “GO DOWN EMMANUEL ROAD” LYRICS “FANGA ALAFIA” (Call) Fanga alafia (Response) Ashe, ashe

“GO DOWN EMMANUEL ROAD” Go dung ah Manuel Road gal and bwoy Fi go bruk rock stone Go dung ah Manuel Road gal and bwoy Fi go bruk rock stone

Hello, Welcome My spirit greets your spirit

Go down Emanuel Road, gal and boy Got to break that stone Go down Emanuel Road, gal and boy Got to break that stone

(Call) Bruk dem 1 by 1 Break them 1 by 1 (Response) Gal and bwoy Gal and boy (Call) Bruk dem 2 by 2 Break them 2 by 2 (Response) Gal and bwoy Gal and boy (Call) Bruk dem 3 by 3 Break them 3 by 3 (Response) Gal and Bwoy Girl and Boy (Call) Bruk dem 4 by 4 Break them 4 by 4 (Response) Gal and Bwoy Girl and Boy (Call) Finga mash nuh bawl Finger mash don’t cry (Response) Gal and bwoy Gal and boy (Call) Rememba ah play wi a play Remember it’s just a game (don’t get upset)

THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

10


2018/19 SEASON AARON NIGEL SMITH: FAMILY REGGAE BASH

LESSON 2: VOICE OF THE PEOPLE, DEVELOPMENT OF REGGAE LESSON AT A GLANCE LESSON OBJECTIVE: Students will understand the origins of the Jamaican musical styles of Ska, Rocksteady and Reggae and learn the identifying rhythmic qualities and instruments of each style, including off-beat or syncopation. Students will also understand how technology influences the development of music. DURATION: 90-120 minutes MATERIALS: Handout 2: Jamaican Sound System & Instruments Used in Reggae, Handout 3: Found Sound Jam, a large open space for movement and performance, recycled materials to create percussion instruments, Internet access and playback capabilities for recordings STANDARDS: Common Core State Standards Math, 3.NF.3bc: Explain equivalence of fractions in special cases, and compare fractions by reasoning about their size. b. Recognize and generate simple equivalent fractions, e.g., 1/2 = 2/4, 4/6 = 2/3). Explain why the fractions are equivalent, e.g., by using a visual fraction model. c. Express whole numbers as fractions, and recognize fractions that are equivalent to whole numbers. Common Core State Standards Math, 4.NF.3: Understand a fraction a/b with a>1 as a sum of fractions 1/b. VAPA Music, Grade Four: 1.3 Read, write, and perform rhythmic notation. VAPA Music, Grade Four: 2.2 Use classroom instruments to play melodies and accompaniments from a varied repertoire of music from diverse cultures, including rounds, descants, and ostinatos, by oneself and with others. CONCEPTS/VOCABULARY: Accompaniment - Vocal or instrumental parts that accompany a melody. Composition - Creation of original music by organizing sound. Usually written for others to perform. Found sounds - Any recycled material that can be turned into an instrument. Mento - A style of Jamaican folk music that blended African and European elements. The subject matter of the songs were everyday life, work and often included social commentary on poverty and injustice. Notation - Written music indicating pitch and rhythm for performance. Ostinato - A rhythmic or melodic accompaniment figure repeated continuously. Reggae - Originating in Jamaica in the late 1960’s, it features a strongly accented offbeat, evolving from ska, rocksteady, and drawing from other local variations of mento, calypso and rhythm and blues. It became widely known through the work of Bob Marley. Lyrics are greatly influenced by Rastafari ideas. Riddim - Jamaican Patois word for rhythm. The riddim is the primary building block of Jamaican popular songs. A compliment for someone who’s timing is just right is said to be riding di riddim. Rocksteady - Originating in Jamaica in the 1960’s, it an early form of reggae characterized by a strong offbeat with a slow tempo.

THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

11


2018/19 SEASON AARON NIGEL SMITH: FAMILY REGGAE BASH

Ska - Originating in Jamaica in the late 1950’s, it is a fast popular music with a strong offbeat that was greatly influenced by American jazz and rhythm and blues. Forerunner of rocksteady and reggae. Sound Systems - A group of disc jockeys, engineers, and MC’s that play music on a collection of large speakers, generators, and turntables for large street parties. A uniquely Jamaican concept that inspired generations of Jamaicans to appreciate, create, and innovate their own styles of music. Syncopation - The placement of rhythmic accents on weak beats or weak portions of beats. GUIDING QUESTIONS: How does technology and innovation work together to create new styles of music? What are the elements of music that help identify Jamaican music styles like mento, ska, rocksteady, and reggae? Why is the riddim (rhythm) so essential to music?

THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

12


2018/19 SEASON AARON NIGEL SMITH: FAMILY REGGAE BASH

LESSON PLAN Warm-Up: In small groups, have students write down all the ways they have experienced music, both live and with the use of technology. Include any influences from family, friends, and community. Examples could include playing their own music (or hearing a friend or family member), going to concerts, at church, through electronic devices such as ipod, mp3, car radio, CD players, using apps to create their own – Garageband, etc. Come back together as a class and chart their experiences. Ask students to consider what impact those listening experiences have on both their understanding of music and feelings about music. Share out together. MAIN LESSON PART 1: DEVELOPMENT OF SKA In Lesson 1, students were introduced to the Mento song, “Go Down Emmanuel Road.” As a class, actively listen to this version of “Go Down Emmanuel Road” by the Gaylads. This was one of the first vinyl recordings of the folk song. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4ouvjTKyilw After listening, have students share their observations. What instruments could you hear in this recording? (saxophone, trumpet, guitar, drums) How does this version sound different than the version by Ainsworth Rose from Lesson 1? (more emphasis on the trumpet because of the Jazz influence) Review the influences of Jazz and records on Jamaican music as a class. In the 1950’s many Jamaicans started hearing American jazz and rhythm and blues music on vinyl records. The records were brought to the island by Jamaicans who had traveled to the United States for work and visiting family. Most people didn’t own record players at the time so they gathered in public places with people who were fortunate to own one. This lead to some ingenious characters to build massive “Sound Systems” where people could gather in parks, or by the beach, or other public areas to listen to this music and dance. In the beginning, most of the music was from the United States. However, the Sound System DJ’s were always looking to have the freshest tunes, which often took a long time to find and bring them from the United States. DJ’s then started to encourage local musicians to record songs that they could use to bring in the crowds. Musicians often played the Mento songs they learned growing up, but added a jazz rhythm or blues twist. The influences of Jazz and vinyl records encouraged the creation of a new musical form, Ska.

THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

13


2018/19 SEASON AARON NIGEL SMITH: FAMILY REGGAE BASH

Innovation of Ska Ska originated in Jamaica in the late 1950’s. The music is quick and has a strong offbeat that was greatly influenced by American jazz and blues. The standard groove of playing with the emphasis on the beat was turned upside down so that the offbeat or + (and) became the dominant driving accent of the music. To feel the accented off beat of Ska, use the following chart. Write the chart on the board for students to follow. Beat 1

Beat 2

Beat 3

Beat 4

Ska

Ska

Ask students to tap and feel the steady beat 1, 2, 3, 4 in their feet, repeating the pattern. Then, start saying the Ska riddim on beats 2 & 4 while keeping the beat with the feet or gently on the legs, repeating the pattern. Try doing it again and increase the tempo gradually until you reach a fast but controlled tempo. Google has a free metronome that you can use to assist the students with the change in tempo. The accenting of these “off” beats is called syncopation. Repetition of this syncopated pattern creates a rhythmic ostinato that drives the music. This is what gives Ska music its groove. A popular Ska song called, “Simmer Down” is from a very young Bob Marley, Peter Tosh, and Bunny Wailer known at the time as the Wailing Wailers, accompanied by the famous Jamaican Ska band the Skatalites: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pTv15YHvpUs While listening, ask students to tap their foot along with the beat. Students should clearly be able to recognize and feel the off-beats played by the wind instruments such as the saxophones and trumpets. You can definitely hear the connection to Jazz music too! TAKE IT FURTHER! LEARN TO SKANK TO SKA MUSIC

Watch this video on how to do the basic steps of Skank. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CDAiQ-P7GoA Skanking is a type of dance that is done to Ska music and is considered to be a free type of dancing. Ask students to learn and follow the steps from the video. After learning the steps, have them try skanking to the full version of “Jamaican Ska” by the group Byron Lee and the Dragonaires. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XhLjOgUXut8

THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

14


2018/19 SEASON AARON NIGEL SMITH: FAMILY REGGAE BASH

PART 2: DEVELOPMENT OF ROCKSTEADY Review the origin of the Jamaican musical style called, Rocksteady together as a class. On August 6, 1962 Jamaica had finally gained its independence from British Colonial rule. Jamaicans were feeling relaxed and optimistic about their futures since they could now control their own destiny. The music also began to slow down and the style called Rocksteady began to emerge. It was less focused on instruments and more focused on singing and vocal harmonization. The subject matter was often about love and romantic things. The wind instruments still continued to play the offbeat, but more slowly and mostly in the background. Listen to this example called, “Rocksteady” by Alton Ellis. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X5UZChH_OTI While listening, encourage students to dance the Rocksteady – a much slower paced dance which is a relaxed and slow sway step from side to side, with the arms gently swaying. PART 3: DEVELOPMENT OF REGGAE Review the origins of Reggae as a class, and listen to the 1968 single by Toots and the Maytals “Do the Reggay.” This song was the first popular song to use the term Reggae to denote the next new style of Jamaican music. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1_IaoQxZMQ4 You can think of Reggae as the perfect culmination of all the music that could be found in Jamaican musical life – from African roots, to Mento, some calypso, jazz, rhythm and blues, Ska and Rocksteady. Electronic instruments such as the electric bass and organ were new technologies that emerged in Reggae. A huge influence on Reggae music emerged from Rastafari communities. Once shunned by “mainstream” Jamaican society, the Rastafari strived to embrace their African heritage and one way they did this was through music. Nyabinghi drumming and music was a style of West African drumming and song that was an essential part of Rasta fellowship. This style of drumming, and the use of the nyabinghi drums became popular in the playlist of the sound systems concurrently with the development of Reggae music. Rasta beliefs such as unity, love, and the struggle against oppression also became entwined with the lyrics of Reggae music. Youtube video resource on Nyabinghi: The Rhythm of Life https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X9-DA9V70wU There is a distinctive drum beat in Reggae called the “One drop”. There is a Bob Marley and the Wailers song called “One drop” that helped to popularize this new technique. The bass drum/kick drum of the drum kit “drops” playing on Beat 1 like most other types of popular music and plays only on Beat 3.

THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

15


2018/19 SEASON AARON NIGEL SMITH: FAMILY REGGAE BASH

Example:

Beat 1

Beat 2

Beat 3

Beat 4

BOOM (Stomp)

Add the ska beats from guitars and winds: Beat 1

Beat 2

Beat 3

Beat 4

SKA

BOOM (Stomp)

SKA

The other open beats would be filled in by the bass guitar, organ, other parts of the drum kit such as the snare and high-hat, and the vocal line. Have students listen to the song, “Dance to the Reggae Rhythm” by Aaron Nigel Smith. Start off by encouraging everyone to stomp with the Bass drum AND tap with the snare drum rim tap (thwack) which occur together on Beat 3. As the song progresses, break off a group of students to add the Ska by snapping to the guitar and piano part on Beats 2 and 4. https://soundcloud.com/aaronnigelsmith/sets/broad-stage-playlist Students may notice a style of rapping in this song. “Toasting” to music began in Jamaica in the 1960’s and 70’s when Deejay’s would improvise rhythmic speech over instrumental tracks. The idea of chanting over a drum beat is part of a long tradition stretching from African Griots to Rastafari gatherings even before entering Reggae music. These are all part of the ancestry of today’s current rap music. In this particular example, a Jamaican musician “Father Goose” is a Deejay who lays down his vocal riddims while Aaron Nigel Smith sings the melodies. Listen closely - there is even some call and response between them. Another distinct rhythm of Reggae is the double skank. It sounds like “Chuh-ka.” It occurs when beat 2 and 4 are divided into two shorter rhythms.

THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

16


2018/19 SEASON AARON NIGEL SMITH: FAMILY REGGAE BASH

Another distinct rhythm of Reggae is the double skank. It sounds like “Chuh-ka.” It occurs when beat 2 and 4 are divided into two shorter rhythms. Beat 1

Beat 2

Beat 3

Beat 4

CHUH

KA

CHUH

KA

2

+

4

+

A great example to hear the Double Skank is in the first 25 seconds of Bob Marley’s “Stir it up”: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S3UqvWk8-uw PART 4: FOUND SOUND JAM Task: FOUND SOUND JAM! Students will build their own instrument from recycled material, and compose a rhythmic ostinato in small groups. Early Jamaican musical groups, especially those playing Mento, often had to improvise and create their own instruments. They would use recycled materials to make drums, bamboo flutes, and even a unique instrument called the rhumba, which has its origins in an African instrument called mbira. Ask students to bring recycled objects to class and to create their own instrument inspired by the Jamaican musical groups. Have students name their instrument. Next, assign students into small groups of 3-5 and ask them to create a rhythmic ostinato. Pass out Handout 3 and ask students to notate the chart according to when their instruments will be played. Have students use the notational chart as they practice their rhythm. Ask for some groups to demonstrate their rhythm to the class. Make sure they are ridin’ di riddim! Assessment Criteria: • All students participate and collaborate. • All creative ideas are given consideration. • Each instrument named and notated properly in the music. • Clear beginning and end to the musical piece. Purpose: To make connections between elements of music like rhythm, beat, and tempo and to use a specific type of musical style to influence compositional technique. STUDENT REFLECTION: Students write a critique assessing their group’s composition and performance. Describe what went well, what didn’t, and how they might change something for a future performance. NOTE: STUDENTS SHOULD SAVE THEIR INSTRUMENTS AND RIDDIMS FOR USE IN LESSON 4.

THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

17


2018/19 SEASON AARON NIGEL SMITH: FAMILY REGGAE BASH

HANDOUT 2: JAMAICAN SOUND SYSTEM & INSTRUMENTS USED IN REGGAE ELECTRIC BASS

JAMAICAN SOUND SYSTEM

DJEMBE ELECTRIC KEYBOARD

ELECTRIC GUITAR DRUM KIT

THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

18


2018/19 SEASON AARON NIGEL SMITH: FAMILY REGGAE BASH

HANDOUT 3: FOUND SOUND JAM Found Sound Ostinato Jam

Title:_____________________________________

Write your Instrument and Name in the Box. If you want 1 sound on a beat draw 1 Quarter note If you want 2 sounds on a beat draw 2 Eighth notes If you don’t want a sound on a beat leave the box blank. Practice your individual pattern. Then practice together with your group. Decide how many times your group will repeat your pattern, or ostinato. Practice starting and ending your piece. Be ready to perform for the class! My Ostinato: Instrument/Name

Our Group: Instrument/Name

Beat 1

Beat 2

Beat 3

Beat 4

Beat 1

Beat 2

Beat 3

Beat 4

THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

19


2018/19 SEASON AARON NIGEL SMITH: FAMILY REGGAE BASH

LESSON 3: BOB MARLEY AND ROOTS REGGAE LESSON AT A GLANCE LESSON OBJECTIVE: Students will learn about the life, music, and impact on Reggae music of Bob Marley, analyze lyrics to examine literary devices, and write original lyrics about a topic important to them. DURATION: 90 minutes MATERIALS: A large open space for movement and performance, Handout 4: Bob Marley Synopsis by Rebecca Wright, Handout 5: Rastafari Terms and Way of Life, Handout 6: Visual Thinking Chart, Handout 7: Close Reading Guide, Handout 8: “Three Little Birds” Lyrics STANDARDS: Common Core State Standards, Literacy.RL.4.1 Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. Common Core State Standards, Literacy.RL.2 Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text; summarize the text. Common Core State Standards.ELA-Literacy.W.4.3.D Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely. VAPA Music, Grade Four: 2.1 Sing a varied repertoire of music from diverse cultures, including rounds, descants, and songs with ostinatos, alone and with others. VAPA Music, Grade Four: 3.1 Explain the relationship between music and events in history. VAPA Music Grade Four: 4.2 Describe the characteristics that make a performance a work of art. CONCEPTS/VOCABULARY: Aston Barrett - bass player, multi-instrumentalist, and composer, leader of the backing band for the Wailers. Bob Marley - Jamaican musician who helped bring reggae and Rastafari to the world. Carlton Barrett - Drummer/percussionist for the Wailers and credited with bringing “one drop” riddim to the world. I-Threes - Female singing trio that joined the Wailers in 1974. Members were also soloists in their own right. Rita Anderson, Marcia Griffiths, and Judy Mowatt. Rita also grew up in Trenchtown, where she met and married Bob, and had several children with him. Lyrics – the words of a song. Reggae - Originating in Jamaica in the late 1960’s, it features a strongly accented offbeat, evolving from ska, rocksteady, and drawing from other local variations of mento, calypso and rhythm and blues. It became widely known through the work of Bob Marley. Lyrics are greatly influenced by Rastafari ideas. The Wailers - Original singing trio of Bob Marley, Peter Tosh, and Bunny Wailer. Known initially as the “Wailing Wailers.” They grew up together and learned to play music together in the Kingston neighborhood of Trenchtown. Wailer - Slang for someone who can sing well. Also a person who cries out against injustice. GUIDING QUESTIONS: What type of influences inspire people to write songs or stories? How do singers use words or language to convey a message? What makes a song stay popular over time? THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

20


2018/19 SEASON AARON NIGEL SMITH: FAMILY REGGAE BASH

LESSON PLAN Warm-Up Compare and Contrast: Lead students through two Venn diagram comparisons. The first is to compare and contrast a song and a story, the second a composer and an author. Text is all around us, spoken, written, and even sung! Songs are stories and composers are authors with stories to tell. Griots were storytellers from West Africa who shared powerful messages through stories, poetry, songs, and music. Bob Marley was a Jamaican poet and storyteller descended from this great tradition. The lyrics to his songs gave the world powerful messages. Mini-Lesson: An Introduction to Bob Marley Play the song “One Love” by Bob Marley without identifying the artist. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vdB-8eLEW8g After listening, have students share out their observations and ask if they can identify the artist. Brainstorm what students know about Bob Marley. Review Bob Marley’s story together by reading Handout 4. You can review his history as a whole class read aloud, or you can assign small groups to study a portion of his history and share back with the class. After discussing his story, discuss the legend of Bob Marley and his impact on Reggae music. An index to Rastafari terms that students may encounter in some of his music and stories about his life can be found on Handout 5. Resources on Bob Marley: • bobmarley.com/history (official site) • I and I Bob Marley by Tony Medina • The Boy From Nine Miles: The Early Life of Bob Marley by Cedella Marley • Bob Marley’s Legend Album • Bob Marley, the Wailers, and the I Threes live performance in Santa Barbara, CA in 1979: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=imfiY8ZVZ0g MAIN LESSON PART 1: ACTIVE LISTENING AND SONG LYRICS Listen to Bob Marley’s “Three Little Birds” song as a class. Listen to the song first without sharing the lyrics. “Three Little Birds” Bob Marley: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zaGUr6wzyT8 After listening, distribute Handout 6: Visible Thinking Chart “I Hear, I Think, I Wonder.” Ask students to complete the handout individually. I Hear: Name of the Song I Think: Their interpretation of the song. I Wonder: Things that you want to learn more about. THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

21


2018/19 SEASON AARON NIGEL SMITH: FAMILY REGGAE BASH

After completing, ask students to pair share their answers. Listen to “Three Little Birds” again, and ask students to listen for a literary device in the song. This could be the song’s theme, purpose or mood. Have a class discussion about their interpretation. If time permits, you can listen to the song a third time and ask students to just listen to the musical elements such as the beat, tempo, and the rhythms. Note the particular African and Jamaican elements such as call and response, syncopation/playing on off-beats and the one-drop rhythm. Listen for the conversations between the instruments such as the drumkit, bass, guitar, organ, and especially any use of the nyabinghi drums. The more you listen to the song, the more insight students will gain into the song’s message. After listening to the song a few times, distribute Handout 7: Close Reading with Song Lyrics and Handout 8: “Three Little Birds” lyrics. Have students work in pairs to complete Handout 7. Upon completion, ask pairs to share out their ideas in a class discussion. For further extension, assign the lyric analysis assignment above to multiple groups using different Bob Marley songs and then compare and contrast across the songs. PART 2: WRITING SONG LYRICS Task: Inspired from the work of Bob Marley, students will write original lyrics about something important to them. Tell students that will be writing original lyrics for a song. They will have the opportunity to share their voice just as Bob Marley did. Ask students to brainstorm moments from their lives, current topics, or issues in their community or school that are important or powerful to them in some way. They can draw, write or sketch out these ideas. Next, choose one item to focus on and ask students to write down all of the descriptive terms they can muster surrounding this moment or topic. Then have students organize their words into either a two or four line stanza. Remind students that writing lyrics is just like writing poetry. Both lyrics and poetry connect us to our feelings and imaginations. Here are a few other things to consider while writing: • Slang and informal grammar are completely acceptable. • Punctuation is not necessary. • Rhymes are optional. • Choose words not only for their meaning but especially for their sound and rhythm. (Encourage students to quietly tap a steady beat while saying the lyric they create. Ask yourself, does the lyric have a rhythmic flow that works with the steady beat?) THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

22


2018/19 SEASON AARON NIGEL SMITH: FAMILY REGGAE BASH

Edit, revise, and reorganize until students have a finished product they are satisfied with presenting to the class or partner. Assessment Criteria: • All students participate and collaborate in revision/peer editing. • All students create an original lyric. • All students recognize the underlying rhythm and beat to lyrics. • All students listen and constructively critique each other’s work. ` Purpose: To experience the process of lyrics writing and to create an original lyric that reflects student voice and experience. STUDENT REFLECTION As a class discussion or journal entry answer these questions: How do music or lyrics give a voice to people in a different way than written stories? What can we learn from Bob Marley and his lyrics? What is the message you want to give to the world?

THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

23


2018/19 SEASON AARON NIGEL SMITH: FAMILY REGGAE BASH

HANDOUT 4: BOB MARLEY SYNOPSIS BY REBECCA WRIGHT Information from Tony Medina’s book, I and I Bob Marley. Nesta Bob Marley was born on February 6th, 1945 in the village of Nine Miles in St. Ann Parish Jamaica. The legend is that three little birds were observed perched on the windowsill that sang to the baby. His mother, Cedella called him Nesta which means “messenger” and believed he was destined to do great things. (I Am the Boy From Nine Miles) Bob had a white father, Captain Marley, and a black mother, Cedella Marley. Captain Marley abandoned the family when Bob was very young. Cedella, along with Bob’s grandfather Omeriah, raised him and helped to form Bob’s connection to spirituality, music, and the land. (My Heart the Island/Palm Reader) Cedella remarried when Bob was ten. Her husband was the father of Bunny Livingston, who became one of Bob’s best friends and one of the Wailers. They moved to Trenchtown, a ghetto area of Kingston. Bob and Bunny grew up in this tough atmosphere and adjusted to their new life by exploring the dynamic music scene that was developing there. (In Kingston) At 14, Bob dropped out of school because his passion was to make music. He had a mentor, Joe Higgs who was a Rastafari and established musician who taught him how to sing in harmony and play guitar. Bob, Bunny, and another singer, Peter Tosh formed a trio known as the Wailing Wailers. They spent hours listening to and learning about the music that was being played at the time – blues, jazz, R&B, ska. They recorded singles with one of the most famous producers of Jamaican music at that time, Clement “Sir Coxsone” Dodd. Their songs were played on the radio and at sound systems throughout Jamaica. (At Fourteen/Wailing Wailers) Bob’s Journey to Rastafari began with his love of the land, was nourished by the spirituality of his mother and grandfather, and cemented by the injustices and oppression he witnessed when he moved to Trenchtown. He realized that his music could be a “voice for the voiceless” and could promote change through music. (Pitch-Black Sky) Bob met his future wife Rita Anderson in Trenchtown where they found a mutual love of music and each other. Rita was an outstanding singer and soloist and also was part of the trio I-Threes who eventually joined the Wailers (Underneath a Plum Tree) Emperor Haile Selassie I and Marcus Garvey were both important influences on Bob’s life as a Rastafari. Bob used his music and lyrics to to break the chains of a colonial past and fight continuing oppression of black people. He became known as “the voice of the people.” (I Am a Rasta Man) The Birth of Reggae Music from the other forms of Jamaican music: mento, ska, rocksteady. The Wailers first recorded in the rocksteady style popular at the time but as the members grew in their Rastafari beliefs their music shifted towards Reggae which was a more up-tempo style often with political and social commentary, Rastafari ideas, and use of Nyahbinghi drumming. Bob quote “My music fight against the system. My music defend righteousness” (Reggae)

THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

24


2018/19 SEASON AARON NIGEL SMITH: FAMILY REGGAE BASH

HANDOUT 4: BOB MARLEY SYNOPSIS, CONT’D Bob Marley and the Wailers perform at a concert called “Smile Jamaica” to unite the country in 1976. There was a lot of violence between Jamaica’s two political parties and their supporters. Bob didn’t want to be political or choose sides but he did want to promote peace among the people. Before the concert, there was an assassination attempt on Bob and his wife Rita to stop the concert. They were both hurt. Bob showed up to play the concert anyway. Bob continued to promote peace, unity, and equality both in Jamaica and around the world for the rest of his life (Music Takes Me) Bob was a huge soccer fan. He played for fun and to keep in shape between his concerts. During a pickup game in Paris, Bob injured his toe. The injury wouldn’t heal and the doctors realized it was a malignant melanoma cancer. He died from the cancer on May 11, 1981. He was only 36. (Fate Opens Up Its Hand) Bob Marley’s Home and Tuff Gong Recording Studio are located at 56 Hope Road in Kingston, Jamaica. To this day many of Bob’s children carry on his musical legacy and are renown musicians in their own right. Ziggy, Damian (Jr Gong), Julian, Ky-Mani, and Cedella (daughter) have all recorded reggae songs. (Hope Road) Bob Marley’s Legacy (Song in My Heart) Bob Marley once said, “My music will last forever.” His music has crossed oceans and continents and impacted generations of people. Even to this day his message of peace, love, and unity, are a gift to the world.

THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

25


2018/19 SEASON AARON NIGEL SMITH: FAMILY REGGAE BASH

HANDOUT 5: RASTAFARI TERMS AND WAY OF LIFE Babylon – Any system that oppresses or suppresses. Dreadlocks – Growing ones hair naturally into locks in the name of love, peace, and unity. I and I – I am you and you are me, the light in you is the light in me. Irie - A belief that everything is alright, life is good. Ital – Eating a plant based diet, food grown organically from the earth. Jah – God, whose light resides within everyone. Livity – Living as ones highest self, promoting unity and community. Understanding that the spirit or energy of Jah flows through all. Similar to “The Force” from the Star Wars movies. Nyahbinghi Issemblies – A gathering among Rastafari that features Nyabinghi drumming, singing, and chanting to promote fellowship. Ras Tasfari Makonnen (1892-1975) - Birth name of Haile Selassie I, Emperor of Ethiopia and revered by Rastafari as the returned Messiah of the Bible who brings peace and righteousness. Rastafari colors – Green, Yellow, Red - The colors are derived from the Ethiopian flag Green is the natural beauty of the land, Yellow is hope and opportunity, and Red is the struggle. Reggae - Songs dedicated to the King. Roots – Connection to African heritage. Tam – A round knit hat that protects Dreadlocks. Zion - Heaven, an eternal and sacred place of no pain and suffering.

THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

26


2018/19 SEASON AARON NIGEL SMITH: FAMILY REGGAE BASH

HANDOUT 6: VISIBLE THINKING CHART I HEAR

I THINK

I WONDER

THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

27


2018/19 SEASON AARON NIGEL SMITH: FAMILY REGGAE BASH

HANDOUT 7: CLOSE READING GUIDE TITLE: MY OBJECTIVE:

1.

2.

3.

• • • •

Read the lyrics. Think: What is this song mostly about? Discuss: Share your thoughts with a partner. Write your ideads on your Read/Think/Wonder Sheet.

• • •

Read the lyrics again. Underline key phrases in red pencil. Circle 3-5 important words in each verse.

Go back to the song again. Look for evidence that you can use to discuss the song’s objective. Highlight your text evidence and be ready to discuss.

The main idea of the song is....

After listening to this song someone should know...

THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

28


2018/19 SEASON AARON NIGEL SMITH: FAMILY REGGAE BASH

HANDOUT 8: “THREE LITTLE BIRDS” LYRICS “Three Little Birds” B is for Bob Version Bob Marley “don’t worry about a thing, ‘cause every little thing gonna be all right. singin’: “don’t worry about a thing, ‘cause every little thing gonna be all right!” Rise up this mornin’, smiled with the risin’ sun, three little birds pitch by my doorstep singin’ sweet songs of melodies pure and true, sayin’, (“this is my message to you-ou-ou:”) Singin’: “don’t worry ‘bout a thing, ‘cause every little thing gonna be all right.” singin’: “don’t worry (don’t worry) ‘bout a thing, ‘cause every little thing gonna be all right!” Rise up this mornin’, smiled with the risin’ sun, three little birds pitch by my doorstep singin’ sweet songs of melodies pure and true, sayin’, “this is my message to you-ou-ou:” Singin’: “don’t worry about a thing, worry about a thing, oh! every little thing gonna be all right. don’t worry!” singin’: “don’t worry about a thing” - i won’t worry! “’cause every little thing gonna be all right.” Singin’: “don’t worry about a thing, ‘cause every little thing gonna be all right” - i won’t worry! singin’: “don’t worry about a thing, ‘cause every little thing gonna be all right.” Singin’: “don’t worry about a thing, oh no!

THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

29


2018/19 SEASON AARON NIGEL SMITH: FAMILY REGGAE BASH

LESSON 4: REGGAE TO THE WORLD, AARON NIGEL SMITH LESSON AT A GLANCE OBJECTIVE: Students understand that there are different types of structures found in music that organize it into a Musical Form. Students identify and label Song Form. DURATION: 40 minutes MATERIALS: Handout 9: Aaron Nigel Smith bio, Handout 10: “Natty Dreadlocks” Lyrics, Handout 11: “Copy Cat Scat” Lyrics, a large open space for movement and performance, Internet access and playback capabilities for recordings, STANDARDS: Common Core State Standards, Literacy.RL.4.1 Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. Common Core State Standards, Literacy.RL.4.2 Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text; summarize the text. Common Core State Standards, Literacy.RL.4.3.D Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely. VAPA Music, Grade Four: 2.1 Sing a varied repertoire of music from diverse cultures, including rounds, descants, and songs with ostinatos, alone and with others. VAPA Music, Grade Four: 3.1 Explain the relationship between music and events in history. VAPA Music Grade Four: 4.2 Describe the characteristics that make a performance a work of art. CONCEPTS/VOCABULARY: Improvisation - Spontaneous creation of music and/or dance. Deejay (DJ) - A Jamaican musician who sings, raps or “toasts” to an instrumental riddim. Dub - A genre that grew out of reggae that allows the remixing and reshaping of recording, often to remove the vocals in order to emphasize the drum and bass. Also it can include adding effects such as echo and reverb and other short pre-recorded vocal or instrumental parts from other songs. Form - The organization and structure of a composition and the interrelationships of musical events within the overall structure. Lyrics – the words of a song. Scat - Improvised singing in which the voice is used in imitation of an instrument. Song Forms - The organization of sections of a song, represented by letters that depict similar and contrasting sections: AB, ABA, AABA, ABC, verse/chorus, etc. Toasting - The act of talking or chanting over a riddim or beat by a DJ. GUIDING QUESTIONS: What type of influences compel people to write songs/stories? How can musicians help influence or inspire others through their music? What musical elements need to be considered in creating a song?

THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

30


2018/19 SEASON AARON NIGEL SMITH: FAMILY REGGAE BASH

LESSON PLAN Mini Lesson: Learn about Aaron Nigel Smith Watch the Aaron Nigel Smith curriculum video to learn more about Aaron and Reggae music. https://youtu.be/BOHTV3YWKEs After watching, discuss these questions together. What are some common threads in Reggae music that Aaron mentions? What is the foundation of Reggae music? What count is the One Drop played in Reggae music? If time permits before the concert, introduce students to these songs by Aaron Nigel Smith and discuss their meaning. Song: “Natty Dreadlocks” featuring Ras I. https://soundcloud.com/aaronnigelsmith/sets/broad-stage-playlist Aaron, like many Rastafari, has Dreadlocks. In his song “Natty Dreadlocks” he mentions situations where young children have come up to him or look and him and say “Oh man that’s a really big hat, I wonder what’s in there? Is it a Big Brain???” For Aaron, growing dreadlocks is part of his Rastafari way of life. By growing ones hair out it is a natural way of living and harkens back to ancient times and an African heritage. It is done with love and a sense of fellowship. Sometimes locks are kept in a hat for safekeeping. The special hat is called a Tam. “Natty Dreadlocks” also uses a technique called dub. It also features a type of rapping which comes from an early reggae form called toasting. Song: “Loving and Kind” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZxDEhQPAVp4 This song has a strong gospel music influence mixed with a Reggae riddim. Gospel music has deep roots as part of the oral tradition of the African Diaspora both in the United States and Jamaica. Aaron wrote this song to remind his sons how they should treat one another. Questions for thought: In what ways do you bring love and kindness into the world? What would our world be like if we saw each other like brothers and sisters and remembered to be loving and kind to one another? Song: “Copy Cat Scat” https://soundcloud.com/aaronnigelsmith/sets/broad-stage-playlist Aaron has great love and respect for nature and it gives him inspiration for several of his songs. Aaron also loves jazz music and like many reggae artists he is influenced by the improvisatory nature of jazz music. In his song, “Copy Cat Scat”, Aaron demonstrates scat singing which is improvised singing used to imitate the sounds of instruments. THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

31


2018/19 SEASON AARON NIGEL SMITH: FAMILY REGGAE BASH

0:24 Features a call and response scat 1:10 Features a call and response between the drums and hand clapping 2:00 Features a call and response between the guitar and scat singing Song: “Oh Island in the Sun” and the “Banana Boat Song” https://soundcloud.com/aaronnigelsmith/sets/broad-stage-playlist Calypso is a type of West Indies folk music. It is similar to Mento but it originated in Trinidad and Tobago. Calypso made its way to Jamaica through records and radio and had an influence on Jamaican Mento music and later forms of Jamaican music such as Ska, Rocksteady, and Reggae. Harry Belafonte was a famous Jamaican American musician who specialized in calypso music. He is called the “King of Calypso.” One of his most famous songs is “Island in the Sun” which is about Jamaica. He also made famous traditional Jamaican Mento songs such as “Day-O (the Banana Boat song)” Aaron has recorded a version of both of these songs. The songs evoke a feeling of joy of living on the island of Jamaica and an acknowledgement of the hard work that is/was required to survive and enjoy the life there. Reggae is still popular and evolving into new forms of music. Versatile musicians like Aaron Nigel Smith pay homage to the past and also innovate the genre through creation of new musical stories. There are many different styles being performed from artists all over the world. You can hear it being combined with other musical styles such as pop, rock, hip hop, rap, and other world music. MAIN ACTIVITY PART 1: UNDERSTANDING MUSICAL FORM All songs contain some kind of underlying form, regardless of the genre of music. We have already discussed call and response as a common structural element in both African and Jamaican music. Many Reggae songs follow a verse/chorus structure. Often there is a brief instrumental introduction that quickly sets the tone and pulls attention to the song, usually with a catchy riddim. Then the song often goes into a verse. Each time the verse section returns it will usually contain the same melody or tune, but the lyrics will change. Finally, the chorus arrives and is usually the most “catchy” of all the melodies in the song. It is typically the most remembered portion of a song as both the melody and lyrics are the same for each repeat.An outro is a brief ending added to a song to wrap things up. Verse/Chorus or AB Form: A= Verse B= Chorus Example Intro - A - B - A - B - B - Outro Sometimes there is a third section within a song that presents another new melody and an additional vibe. This is called the Bridge. The bridge could contain a 3rd melody, an extended instrumental or riddim section, or even feature rapping/toasting. This form would be considered ABC: A = Verse B = Chorus C = Bridge Example Intro - A - B - A - B - C - B - Outro There are no hard and fast rules about the exact order of the sections in this type of form or how many times a part is repeated. Sometimes artists start with the Chorus and then go to the Verses. Sometimes there is a short melody that occurs after a verse that builds into the Chorus called the Prechorus. Playing around with musical form is like constructing a new building; there needs to be some kind of underlying structure to keep everything together but what it actually ends up looking like (or sounding like) can involve a lot of creativity. THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

32


2018/19 SEASON AARON NIGEL SMITH: FAMILY REGGAE BASH

Choose one of the songs from this unit and have your class analyze its musical form. Debates can and SHOULD arise. Encourage the students to defend their arguments using specific items they hear in the music as evidence: melodies, instruments, voices, rhythms, lyrics, etc. Use Handout 10: Natty Dreadlocks Lyrics as an example. PART 2: WRITE YOUR OWN SONG Task: Students will work collaboratively in small groups to create their own original song based on the elements of Jamaican music that have been covered throughout this guide. Assign students to small groups between 4-5 people. Once into groups, ask students to discuss and delegate the different roles in the group. Potential roles include: 1. Singer(s) 2. Rapper/Toaster 3. Riddim players: Beat boxing, playing found sounds, or electronic backing track 4. Choreographers/Dancers 5. Producer, Editor, Etc. be creative! For the Lyrics: Students may combine their lyrics from Lesson 3 with those created by other students with compatible themes to create a full song. Each lyric becomes a verse of the song and ask groups to aim for 2-3 verses. An especially powerful lyric that resonates with the group can be repeated between stanzas and can become the chorus or the main idea of the song. For the Accompaniment: Students either can either create their own rhythm using the instruments they created in Lesson 2, or they can research to find a backing instrumental track with a nice steady beat to use to present their song. Students can use Garage band or another app with pre-programmed loops, or there are many instrumental backing tracks of different genres available on YouTube. Assessment Criteria: • All students participate and collaborate. • All students apply their voice and skills toward fulfilling their role in the project. • All students listen and constructively critique each other’s work. ` Purpose: To understand the various elements required to create piece of music, and to connect the different learning concepts explored throughout the four lessons. Ask student groups to practice and rehearse their song for 20 minutes. This is an important process for the development of artistry. Have the student groups perform their original song to the class. Ask each group to title their song and provide some background on the development. Have students in the audience provide feedback on the songs. STUDENT REFLECTION: Discuss the experience of learning about Jamaican music as a class. What is something you learned about Jamaican music that resonated with you? How did learning about Reggae music in particular change how you listen to music in general?

THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

33


2018/19 SEASON AARON NIGEL SMITH: FAMILY REGGAE BASH

HANDOUT 9: AARON NIGEL SMITH BIO For the past 15 years Aaron Nigel Smith has worked to educate, empower and entertain to youth and families around the world. He teaches chorus & drumming in the United States, Kenya & Jamaica through 1World Chorus, The Bob Marley Foundation, Young Audiences, and the Right Brain Initiative. Aaron Nigel Smith knew he wanted to be a musician from a young age. He was a member of the American Boychoir and performed classical music with famous conductors and musicians in concert halls all over the world. When a friend of his gave him a Bob Marley tape near the end of high school, his life course as a musician was forever changed. Bob Marley’s music, reggae, the Rastafari way of life spoke to him and gave him a connection to his roots and heritage of color. He trained as a professional vocalist in college and took up the guitar and various percussion instruments. He decided that he would write music for children using his favorite music style, reggae, to convey positive messages of love and community. His goal is to bring people together of all ages and backgrounds to sing, dance, play, and learn together. Aaron has worked with many organizations to bring music and instruments to underserved communities throughout the United States, Africa, and Jamaica. Website: https://www.aaronnigelsmith.com/

THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

34


2018/19 SEASON AARON NIGEL SMITH: FAMILY REGGAE BASH

HANDOUT 10: “NATTY DREADLOCKS” LYRICS “Natty Dreadlocks” by Aaron Nigel Smith Instrumental Intro - Beginning - 0:05 Verse 1 0:06-0:29 I see the children look and smile at me With faces so full of curiosity They move a little closer to mom or dad and say Without missing a beat in their own honest way Pre-chorus 0:30-0:41 They say: Oo look at him he’s got a really big hat I wonder what’s inside that make it look like that Parent’s lookin’ down and say please don’t stare That man’s just got really long hair Chorus 0:42-0:53 Called the dreadlocks, yeah yeah You know he twists and twists his hair He’s got the dreadlocks yeah, yeah until it locks and flows everywhere Verse 2 0:54-1:17 If you really want know why I let my hair grow It was a promise I made, a long time ago To live a life of peace and unity You see the Rastaman comes to share positivity Pre-chorus 1:18-1:29 So that’s right, yes I’ve got a really big hat, It’s the locks inside that make it look like that. So when you see the natty dread don’t fear, Love is why I grow my hair. Chorus 1:30-1:41 Called the dreadlocks, yeah yeah You know I twist and twist my hair I’ve got the dreadlocks yeah, yeah until it locks and flows everywhere Bridge 1:42-2:05 Repeat Pre-chorus/Chorus 2:06-2:41 Outro 2:41-End

THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

35


2018/19 SEASON AARON NIGEL SMITH: FAMILY REGGAE BASH

HANDOUT 11: “COPY CAT SCAT” LYRICS “Copy Cat Scat” by Aaron Nigel Smith

Well, I know a kitty he’s a real cool cat This cat does not like to meow, no he don’t like to scratch, but One thing this kitty cat loves to do is Copy Cat Scat everything that I do. I say Copy Cat scat Say I can do that La di da di dee da Shoobee do wah

Copy Cat Scat I can do that La di da di dee da Shoobee do wah

I know a kitty he’s a real cool cat This cat does not like to meow, and he does not like to scratch, but One thing this kitty cat loves to do is Copy everything that the drummer can do… (ECHO DRUM CLAP) I know a kitty a real cool cat This cat does not like to meow, no does not like to scratch, but One thing this kitty cat loves to do is Copy everything that the guitar can do… (ECHO GUITAR SCAT)

THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

36


2018/19 SEASON AARON NIGEL SMITH: FAMILY REGGAE BASH

GLOSSARY Accompaniment - Vocal or instrumental parts that accompany a melody. Aston Barrett - bass player, multi-instrumentalist, and composer, leader of the backing band for the Wailers. African Diaspora - Diaspora is a Greek word meaning “dispersed”. The term is used to describe the removal of people from their homelands in Africa to the Americas, Asia, and Europe. It also encompasses the people in these worldwide communities that are descended from Africa’s peoples. Musically, people brought their traditional songs and dances with them and creatively adapted them to the new conditions and cultures that they encountered. Beat - Unit of measure of rhythmic time. Most often occurring in patterns of 2, 3, or 4. Bob Marley - Jamaican musician who helped bring reggae and Rastafari to the world. Body percussion - Using any part of body to make a rhythmic sound that is often used to accompany song and dance. e.g. Clapping, stomping, snapping, patting, etc. Call and response - The interaction of two phrases of music in which the first phrase “caller” (often a soloist) sings out a musical idea. In the second phrase, the group sung “response” usually involves an answer or commentary on that idea. Carlton Barrett - Drummer/percussionist for the Wailers and credited with bringing “one drop” riddim to the world. Composition - Creation of original music by organizing sound. Usually written for others to perform. Deejay (DJ) - A Jamaican musician who sings, raps or “toasts” to an instrumental riddim. Dub - A genre that grew out of reggae that allows the remixing and reshaping of recording, often to remove the vocals in order to emphasize the drum and bass. Also it can include adding effects such as echo and reverb and other short pre-recorded vocal or instrumental parts from other songs. Form - The organization and structure of a composition and the interrelationships of musical events within the overall structure. Found sounds - Any recycled material that can be turned into an instrument. Improvisation - Spontaneous creation of music and/or movement. I-Threes - Female singing trio that joined the Wailers in 1974. Members were also soloists in their own right. Rita Anderson, Marcia Griffiths, and Judy Mowatt. Rita also grew up in Trenchtown, where she met and married Bob, and had several children with him. Lyrics – the words of a song. Mento - A style of Jamaican folk music that blended African and European elements. The subject matter of the songs were everyday life, work and often included social commentary on poverty and injustice. Notation - Written music indicating pitch and rhythm for performance. Ostinato - A rhythmic or melodic accompaniment figure repeated continuously. Percussion - Any instrument that is struck, shaken, or scraped to create a rhythmic sound. e.g. Drums, xylophones, tambourines, triangles, maracas, cowbell etc. Reggae - Originating in Jamaica in the late 1960’s, it features a strongly accented offbeat, evolving from ska, rocksteady, and drawing from other local variations of mento, calypso and rhythm and blues. It became widely known through the work of Bob Marley. Lyrics are greatly influenced by Rastafarian ideas. THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

37


2018/19 SEASON AARON NIGEL SMITH: FAMILY REGGAE BASH

GLOSSARY, CONT’D Rhythm - The combination of long and short, even and uneven sounds that convey a sense of movement in time. Riddim - Jamaican Patois word for rhythm. The riddim is the primary building block of Jamaican popular songs. A compliment for someone who’s timing is just right is said to be riding di riddim. Ring song or game - A game played in a circle that emphasizes cooperation. Each game has a theme and purpose that often seeks to emphasize a positive character attribute and social awareness through fun and humor. Rocksteady - Originating in Jamaica in the 1960’s, it an early form of reggae characterized by a strong offbeat with a slow tempo. Scat - Improvised singing in which the voice is used in imitation of an instrument. Ska - Originating in Jamaica in the late 1950’s, it is a fast popular music with a strong offbeat that was greatly influenced by American jazz and rhythm and blues. Forerunner of rocksteady and reggae. Song Forms - The organization of sections of a song, represented by letters that depict similar and contrasting sections: AB, ABA, AABA, ABC, verse/chorus, etc. Sound Systems - A group of disc jockeys, engineers, and MC’s that play music on a collection of large speakers, generators, and turntables for large street parties. A uniquely Jamaican concept that inspired generations of Jamaicans to appreciate, create, and innovate their own styles of music. Syncopation - The placement of rhythmic accents on weak beats or weak portions of beats. Tempo - The speed of the beat. The Wailers - Original singing trio of Bob Marley, Peter Tosh, and Bunny Wailer. Known initially as the “Wailing Wailers.” They grew up together and learned to play music together in the Kingston neighborhood of Trenchtown. Toasting - The act of talking or chanting over a riddim or beat by a DJ. Wailer - Slang for someone who can sing well. Also a person who cries out against injustice.

THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

38


2018/19 SEASON AARON NIGEL SMITH: FAMILY REGGAE BASH

MATH & MUSIC Math

Music

Any Whole Number

Any Whole Measure In 4/4 time= Whole Note

¼

¼

¼

¼

¼

¼

¼

¼

Quarter Notes

⅛ ⅛ ⅛ ⅛ ⅛ ⅛ ⅛ ⅛

⅛ ⅛ ⅛ ⅛ ⅛ ⅛ ⅛ ⅛

Eighth Notes

¼

⅛ ⅛

¼

¼

⅛ ⅛

⅛ ⅛

¼

⅛ ⅛

A mixture of fractions

A mixture of notes

If the whole number = 4

In 4/4 time a ​Quarter note​ is equal to

then ​¼​ of 4 = 1

⅛​ of 4 = ​½

¼​ of a whole note (4) or 1 beat each. An ​Eighth note​ is equal to ​⅛​ of a whole note (4) or ​½​ beat each.

THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

39

Profile for The Broad Stage

Aaron Nigel Smith: Family Reggae Bash (Grades 3-5)  

Aaron Nigel Smith: Family Reggae Bash (Grades 3-5)