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2018/19 SEASON THE DIARY OF ANNE FRANK

Santa Monica Repertory Theater and The Broad Stage present

THE DIARY OF ANNE FRANK

STUDENT MATINEE

TUE OCT 9 & WED OCT 10, 2018 10:30 AM GRADES 6-8 THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

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2018/19 SEASON THE DIARY OF ANNE FRANK

Jane Deknatel Director, Performing Arts Center EDUCATION & COMMUNITY PROGRAMS STAFF

Ilaan E. Mazzini, Director of Education & Community Programs

Alisa De Los Santos, Education & Community Programs Manager Mandy Matthews, Education & Community Programs Associate Olivia Murray, Education & Community Programs Assistant Barbara Urich, Teaching Artist, Santa Monica Repertory Theater Sharon Hart, Resident Educator EDUCATION & COMMUNITY PROGRAMS Phone 310.434.3560 education@thebroadstage.org thebroadstage.org/education THE BROAD STAGE 1310 11th Street Santa Monica, CA 90401 Box Office 310.434.3200 Fax 310.434.3439 info@thebroadstage.org thebroadstage.org

Education and Community Programs at The Broad Stage is supported in part by The Herb Alpert Foundation Barbara Herman, in honor of Virginia Blywise Johnny Carson Foundation City of Santa Monica and the Santa Monica Arts Commission The Rosalinde and Arthur Gilbert Foundation Leonard M. Lipman Charitable Fund Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors through the Los Angeles County Arts Commission The Ralph M. Parsons Foundation Sidney Stern Memorial Trust Dwight Stuart Youth Fund

THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

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GREETINGS FROM THE BROAD STAGE! Dear Educators, Santa Monica Rep is thrilled to be back at the Broad Stage, bringing another staged reading to student audiences. Santa Monica Rep’s mission is to use the unique capabilities of theater to contribute to a more intelligent, inquisitive and engaged community. We have been presenting readings, productions and other events on the Westside for 8 years. At every talk-back and classroom visit, we are thrilled to hear the ripple effects of the stories we choose to share. The Diary of Anne Frank serves us as a company to frame difficult conversations about racism, immigration, resistance, and the need for upstanders in times of tragedy and every day. We hope Anne’s story serves your classroom as well. Anne started her diary before she and her family went into hiding. After a little over a year in the attic, Anne decided to go back and edit her diary herself with the intention of publication. Her insight and craftsmanship as a young writer are startling. Here and now in this age of extreme documentation on social media, without much editing or reflection, we might take Anne’s lessons to heart and mind. Anne’s process with her diary helped her get to know herself better: it helped temper her anger, develop her wit, and strengthen her powers of observation. It helped her wrestle the big questions with the clarity of persistence. We hope the diary prompts in this curriculum provide your students with a place to work out their own questions, and find their own hidden talents, in troubling times. The acting exercises included in this curriculum are intended to be experiential. It’s amazing to see the way some simple exercises can open the heart and mind. Giving students’ permission to pretend in a more sophisticated way is extremely valuable; we truly hope these exercises empower educators to make space for risk. Santa Monica Rep will be presenting The Diary of Anne Frank as a staged reading. This honors the words of the original writer; these are written words that brought us the story of a girl and her family. This means the actors and director will need to focus on the sound and feeling of the voices, and smaller facial and body movements to communicate atmosphere and events. The audience will need to listen and be in tune with the actors’ voices, the quality of the ensemble’s listening, and Anne’s words in a more intense way to appreciate the story. Please use the curriculum to prepare your students for the unique challenges and opportunities of “hearing” a play rather than simply “seeing” one. Don’t hesitate to contact the Education & Community Programs team at The Broad Stage with questions or ideas. Very best, Barbara Urich, Teaching Artist with Santa Monica Rep Sharon Hart, Lincoln Middle School, 7th Grade English Teacher, SMMUSD

THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

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CONTENTS LESSONS

LESSON 1: Framework Exercise, the Importance of Diaries..... 5 LESSON 2: Understanding the History behind Anne Frank’s Diary............................................................................................................. 7 HANDOUT 1: Basic Facts of World War II................................................... 11 HANDOUT 2: History of Anti-Semitism..................................................... 12

HANDOUT 3: More WW II Diaries: Jewish Resistance and JapaneseAmerican Internment.................................................................................. 13 HANDOUT 4: US Immigration Policies in 1938........................................... 14 HANDOUT 5: Jigsaw Organizer................................................................... 16

LESSON 3: Creating Characters Through Words and Voice.... 17 HANDOUT 6: Anne Frank Character Descriptions.................................... 21 LESSON 4: Exploring Social Justice through Small Group Staged Readings of Excerpts from “The Diary of Anne Frank”................ 22 HANDOUT 7: Staged Reading Vocabulary and Performance Organizer...................................................................................................... 26 HANDOUT 8: Excerpts from the Play......................................................... 28 HANDOUT 9: Student Reflection Questions.............................................. 30 HANDOUT 10: Staged Reading Scoring Guide.......................................... 31 HANDOUT 11: Character Collage................................................................ 32

LESSON 5: Upstanders of World War II: Explored through Reader’s Theater ...................................................................................... 33 HANDOUT 12: What Makes an Upstander?................................................ 38 HANDOUT 13: Miep Gies in Her Own Words............................................. 40 HANDOUT 14: Being An Upstander During the Holocoast..................... 42

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES GLOSSARY.................................................................................................. 48 THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

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LESSON 1: FRAMEWORK EXERCISE: THE IMPORTANCE OF DIARIES This study guide will encourage students to think critically and reflect on themes and topics, particularly the topic of social justice, in the play, The Diary of Anne Frank. The play is an adaptation of the famous diary, The Diary of a Young Girl, which Anne Frank kept while in hiding during the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands during World War II. Encourage your students to start a personal journal or diary to keep throughout their reading and discussions of the play. You can also give students time in your classroom to create personal diaries. NOTE: If students ask about the difference between a journal and a diary, several online sources state that, “a personal journal is a record of significant experiences. It is much more personal than a diary. It contains feelings, emotions, problems, and self-assurances and can be used to evaluate one’s life.” According to this definition, Anne Frank’s “diary” qualifies as more of a journal because of the deeply emotional, thoughtful, and personal nature of her entries. LESSON OBJECTIVE: Students will practice writing in a journal and learn the benefits of expressing one’s thoughts in writing. Begin by writing this quote by writer Flannery O’Connor on the board, “I don’t know what I think until I read what I say.” Give students a few minutes to write responses to this statement, and then ask them to share their responses, either in small groups or whole class discussion. Then ask students if any of them write down their thoughts, feeling, etc. and why. See if they can describe their motivations. Finally, ask if they write on a regular basis in a diary or journal and if so, ask if they would be willing to share about the experience with their classmates. (After your class sees the staged reading of The Diary of Anne Frank, come back to this question and ask students if Anne would have agreed with O’Connor’s statement about the purpose of writing or if she would have a different answer. Students should give specific evidence from the play to support what they say.)

THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

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For further insight, complete this free-write activity with your class: DAY ONE 1. Give your students two minutes to write their thoughts and feelings about someone, possibly themselves, that they both admire and get irritated with. They can begin with, “Dear Diary,” and the date. 2. Tell students no one is going to read what they write, including you. 3. Once they are finished, have them fold their papers in half, write their names and date on the outside of what they wrote, and turn them into you. Tell them you will return them unread the following week. 4. Collect the papers and put them away until the following week. DAY TWO 1. When class begins the next day, have students write another diary entry following the same routine under step one. They can write about the same person or choose another one. 2. Again, remind students that you will collect what they wrote, but you won’t read them. However, you will return them the following week. 3. Follow steps 3 and 4 from above. THE FOLLOWING WEEK Return the two diary entries to students. Tell them to reread the two entries they wrote, then have them get in groups of 2 or 3 to share answers to the following questions. Remind students to rephrase the questions at the beginning of each answer...”My diary entries were similar (different) because…” This will get students used to the idea of speaking to each other in an academic way. How were the two entries you wrote similar and/or different? What did you learn about yourself? (“I learned…”) How might your thoughts and feelings change about what you wrote in one year from now? Ten years from now? Why? (“My thoughts and feelings might change in one year because…”) Do you plan to keep a diary or journal? Why or why not? (“I plan to keep a diary because…”)

THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

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LESSON 2: UNDERSTANDING THE HISTORY BEHIND ANNE FRANK’S DIARY LESSON AT A GLANCE LESSON OBJECTIVE: In order to better understand the life and times of Anne Frank as portrayed in “The Diary of Anne Frank” staged reading, students will participate in a jigsaw activity based on four subtopics related to World War II: a. basic facts about WW II; b. history of anti-Semitism; c. more diaries: Jewish resistance and Japanese-American internment; d. the Franks and U.S. immigration policy during WWII. DURATION: 1-2 class periods of 50 minutes each MATERIALS: Depending on your class size, 8-9 each of student handouts 1, 2, 3, 4 on the subtopics of WWII; a class set of Handout 5: Jigsaw Activity organizer. STANDARDS: Common Core State Standards, Reading Standards for Literature, Grades Six thru Eighth: 1 Cite the textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. Common Core State Standards, Reading Standards for Literature, Grades Six thru Eighth: 2 Determine the central idea of a text; provide an objective summary of the text. Common Core State Standards, Writing, Grades Six thru Eighth: 3 Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to convey experiences and events. VAPA Theatre Grade Six: 3.1 Create scripts that reflect particular historical periods or cultures. Social Justice Anchor Standard: 13 Students will analyze the harmful impact of bias and injustice on the world, historically and today. Social Emotional Learning Competencies: emotional awareness, empathy, respond appropriately CONCEPTS/VOCABULARY: Collaboration - the act of working together in a joint intellectual effort. Dialogue - the conversation between actors on stage. Informal theatre - a theatrical performance that focuses on small presentations, such as one taking place in a classroom setting. Usually, it is not intended for public view. Primary Sources - immediate, first-hand accounts of an event, object, person, work of art, etc. from people who had a direct connection to the subject. Primary sources include historical and legal documents, eyewitness accounts, diaries, speeches, etc. Script - the written text of a play. Secondary Sources - documents that describe, discuss, interpret, comment upon, analyze, evaluate, summarize, and process primary sources. Secondary sources include articles in newspapers, book or movie reviews, or articles found in scholarly journals that discuss or evaluate someone else’s original research. GUIDING QUESTIONS: How does a playwright use historical facts from primary and secondary sources as well as creativity to re-create moments in time? If a play is based on actual historical events, how is the audiences’ experience enhanced by knowing something of that history? THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

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LESSON PLAN Write the words “Agree” and “Disagree” on opposite sides of the board or somewhere in front of the classroom, so that students can line up in a brief Human Barometer activity. Tell students they should form a line across the room as they decide where to stand when you say the following statements out loud. If they agree, they will stand near “Agree.” If they disagree, near “Disagree.” If they are somewhere in the middle between “Agree” and “Disagree,” then they should stand accordingly. Emphasize civil behavior as they participate. Say each of these statements slowly. After each one, wait a minute for students to decide where they want to stand. Have them observe what happens after each line is complete, so they participate in a brief discussion when the activity is over: “I know a lot about WWII.” “I believe historical events and people in history should be the subjects of theatrical plays, musicals, etc.” “I enjoy watching shows (any kind) about history and real people.” “I learn better when I see history presented in formats other than books.” “Plays and other artistic works about history can help us empathize with human suffering as well as with human achievements.” Have students sit down and lead a brief discussion about their observations. Let them share what they noticed. If you use academic language regularly in your classroom, remind them to use sentence starters like, “In my opinion…,” “I’d like to add on to what ______ said…,” etc. Tell students they are going to put into practice what they just discussed. Since they will be seeing the staged reading of “The Diary of Anne Frank,” they will learn about World War II, the setting of the play, through a Jigsaw activity. (The following is an adaptation of a lesson from the Teacher’s Toolkit website: http://www.theteachertoolkit.com/index.php/tool/jigsaw.) MAIN LESSON Preparation: For a classroom of 32 students, have eight of each of the four separate reading selections on World War II subtopics (student handouts 1, 2, 3, 4), as well as copies of the “WWII Jigsaw Notes Organizer” for every student. If you need to, plan out student groups of four ahead of time. These groups of four will be the “Home” groups of the activity. Introduction to “Home” Groups: Start the activity with students sitting in the “Home” groups. Assign each student within the “Home” group a letter, 1-4. Explain the Jigsaw strategy, the topic of study (WWII), and that this activity will enhance their understanding of the staged reading of “The Diary of Anne Frank.” Tell students that they are going to be responsible for teaching details about one WWII subtopic to the “Home” group they are sitting with at this moment. Pass out the 1-4 reading selections now or when students get into their “Expert” groups.

THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

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Break into “Expert” Groups: Students leave their “Home” groups to sit with their “Expert” groups, the eight students assigned to the same reading, 1-4. Either you or the students can decide if students should read out loud or silently, but the goal is to complete Handout 5: Jigsaw Organizer. After each group is finished reading, they should send one student from the group to you to get enough handouts of the jigsaw organizer for the group, which they then complete. Remind students that they are the only representative in their home group with that letter, so they need to participate fully. Regroup with “Home” Groups”: Student regroup with their “Home” groups. Each student is responsible for teaching their WWII topic to the “home” group using Handout 5: Jigsaw Organizer. The activity can end after the sharing and writing of notes, followed by a brief discussion of what they have learned, or have them stand on the Human Barometer again regarding their knowledge of WWII. One assessment option is to collect the organizers and give credit for the Jigsaw activity class work. Remind students that all discussion should be appropriate and sensitive to the diverse experiences of students in the classroom. The discussion could start with a question like: What did you learn about WWII that you never knew before? How can you connect what happened in WWII to world events today? How do the words bias, discrimination, and injustice pertain to WWII? How might the information you just learned have impacted the Frank family? What are the most important historical details a playwright writing about WWII should include?

TAKE IT FURTHER! If time allows, collaborate as a whole class and write a short script for an informal theatre piece featuring dialogue based on the historical details just shared in the Jigsaw activity. Students could decide on characters, perhaps borrowing from the names in the history documents. This playwriting activity could also be a small group activity or for extra credit.

THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

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Demonstration of Learning Task: Students will write individual diary entries synthesizing what they just learned about WWII and that answers the question, “How will learning more about WWII help you better appreciate the staged reading of The Diary of Anne Frank?” Assessment Criteria: As well as answering the question posed in “Task,” diary entries should include a main idea supported by two details for each of the four WWII subtopics. Purpose: This jigsaw activity will enhance students’ theatrical experience of “The Diary of Anne Frank,” since the play is based on historical facts and details, and students will understand how playwrights make history and historical figures “come alive” in their plays. Student Reflection In order to formally assess student learning and understanding, follow the instructions in the TASK. Give students class time or a homework assignment to write a one-two paragraph diary entry synthesizing the information from all four subtopics, including their own. Remind them to be creative as they answer the question and to use their Jigsaw organizers to include at least one main idea and two supporting details for each subtopic.

THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

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HANDOUT 1: BASIC FACTS OF WORLD WAR II WHAT WAS WORLD WAR II? In the 20th century there were two ‘world wars’. The first war lasted from 1914 to 1918. Though it was fought mostly in Europe, people called it the First World War (World War 1). The Second World War (World War 2) lasted from 1939 to 1945. It was fought in Europe, Russia, North Africa, and Asia. 60 million people died. 40 million were civilians or non-military, children as well as adults. WHO FOUGHT IN THE WAR? World War 2 was fought between two groups of countries. On one side were the Axis Powers, including Germany, Italy and Japan. On the other side were the Allies. They included Britain, France, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, India, the Soviet Union, China and the United States of America. Germany was ruled by Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party. Hitler wanted Germany to control Europe. Japan wanted to control Asia and the Pacific. In 1937, Japan attacked China. In 1939, Germany invaded Poland. This is how World War 2 began. THE WAR SPREADS Britain and France went to war with Germany in September 1939.They wanted to help Poland after it was invaded, but they were too late. By the summer of 1940, the Germans had conquered Holland, Belgium, France, Denmark, and Norway. Enemy planes dropped bombs on cities in Britain. Allied ships were sunk by submarines. In July 1940, German planes started bombing Britain in order to gain control of the skies in the South of England. By mid-September 1940, Germany postponed their planned land invasion of Britain as the RAF effectively fought off the German Luftwaffe. In 1941, the Soviet Union (Russia) was attacked by Germany. In 1941, America also joined the war, after Japan attacked the American naval base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. HOW DID THE WAR END? By 1943 the Allies were winning. One reason was that Allied factories were building thousands of tanks, ships, and planes. In 1944, a huge Allied army crossed from Britain to liberate France, then invaded Germany. By May 1945, the war in Europe was over. The Pacific war went on until August 1945. Finally, the Allies dropped atomic bombs on two Japanese cities, Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The damage was so terrible that Japan surrendered. World War 2 had ended. THE HOLOCAUST In 1945 Allied troops freed prisoners from Nazi concentration camps where millions of Jews and other prisoners had been killed or had died from hunger, disease and cruelty. This terrible war crime became known as the Holocaust. It’s thought 6 million Jews were killed, including Anne Frank, who left a diary of her life in hiding. She died in 1945, aged 15, at the Bergen-Belsen prison camp. www.bbc.co.uk/schools THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

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HANDOUT 2: HISTORY OF ANTI-SEMITISM The term anti-Semitism was first used in 1879 to describe hatred or hostility toward Jews. The history of anti-Semitism, however, goes back much further. In the ancient empires of Babylonia, Greece, and Rome, Jews—who originated in the ancient kingdom of Judea—were often criticized and persecuted for their efforts to remain a separate cultural group rather than taking on the religious and social customs of their conquerors. These religious attitudes were reflected in anti-Jewish economic, social and political policies that pervaded into the European Middle Ages. Many of the anti-Semitic practices seen in Nazi Germany actually have their roots in medieval Europe. In many European cities, prejudice confined Jews to certain neighborhoods called ghettos. Some countries required Jews to distinguish themselves from Christians with a yellow badge worn on their garment. (In March, 2000, the Catholic Pope, John Paul II, formally apologized for the failure of Catholic Church, which dominated life in medieval Europe, to do more to stop the persecution of Jews then and during the Holocaust.) Due to their exclusion from most medieval occupations, some Jews became prominent in banking and moneylending, since early Christianity didn’t permit moneylending for interest. This resulted in economic resentment which forced the expulsion of Jews from several European countries during the 14th and 15th centuries. Jews did not receive citizenship or gain rights, including religious freedom, throughout much of western Europe until the late 1700s and 1800s. Nazi Anti-Semitism Adolf Hitler and the Nazis rose to power in Germany in the 1930s on a platform of German nationalism, racial purity, and global expansion. Hitler was looking for a political scapegoat, and like many antiSemites in Germany, blamed the Jews unfairly for the country’s defeat in World War I, and for the social and economic problems that followed. Early on, the Nazis dismissed Jews from government jobs, seized Jewish-owned businesses, and stripped Jewish professionals, including doctors and lawyers, of their clients. In addition, Nazi propagandists had worked hard to convince the German public to accept the false belief that Jews were a separate race. According to the 1935 Nuremberg Laws, Jews were no longer German citizens and had no right to vote. Kristallnacht Jews became routine targets of persecution as a result. This culminated in a state-sponsored campaign of street violence known as Kristallnacht (the “night of broken glass”), which took place between November 9-10, 1938. More than 250 synagogues across the Reich, or German empire, were burned and 7,000 Jewish businesses looted, while the German police force stood by and watched. Holocaust Prior to Kristallnacht, Nazi policies toward Jews had been antagonistic but primarily non-violent. After the incident, conditions for Jews in Nazi Germany became progressively worse as Hitler and the Nazis began to implement their plan to exterminate the Jewish people, which they referred to as the “Final Solution.” history.com/topics/anti-semitism

THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

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HANDOUT 3: MORE WW II DIARIES: JEWISH RESISTANCE AND JAPANESE-AMERICAN INTERNMENT JEWISH RESISTANCE DURING WW II According to the United States Holocaust Museum, “Although Jews were the Nazis’ primary victims, they too resisted Nazi oppression in a variety of ways, both collectively and as individuals.” The following is from a witness to the Jewish “Girl Couriers of the Underground Movement.” May 19, 1942 The heroic girls, Chajka [Grosman], Frumke [Plotnicka] and others - theirs is a story that calls for the pen of a great writer. They are venturesome, courageous girls who travel here and there across Poland to cities and towns, carrying Aryan papers which describe them as Polish or Ukrainian. One of them even wears a cross, which she never leaves off and misses when she is in the ghetto. Day by day they face the greatest dangers...they accept the most dangerous missions and carry them out without a murmur, without a moments hesitation. If there is need for someone to travel...to smuggle in such forbidden things as illegal publications, goods, money, they do it all as though it were the most natural thing. If there are comrades to be rescued...they take the job on themselves. Nothing deters them, nothing stops them. If it is necessary to make friends with the German responsible for a train so as to travel beyond the borders...they do it quite simply, as though it were their profession...How many times did they look death in the eye? How many times were they arrested and searched? But their luck held. “Those who go on an errand of mercy will meet no evil.” With what modesty and simplicity do they deliver their reports on what they accomplished during their travels...Jewish women have written a shining page in the history of the present World War. The Chajkes and the Frumkes will take first place in this history. These girls do not know what it is to rest. JAPANESE-AMERICAN INTERNMENT DURING WW II During World War II the United States government forcibly removed over 120,000 Japanese Americans from the Pacific Coast. These individuals, two-thirds of them U.S. citizens, were sent to ten camps built throughout the western interior of the United States. Many would spend the next three years living under armed guard, behind barbed wire. Stanley Hayami (1925-1945) was a student from Los Angeles County who attended high school at the Heart Mountain Concentration Camp in Wyoming. Hayami left Heart Mountain in June 1944 to join the U.S. Army and was killed in combat in Northern Italy on April 23, 1945, while trying to help a fellow soldier. He was nineteen years old. The following is an excerpt from his diary, which is preserved among the collections of the Japanese American National Museum. January 1, 1943 Well today is the first day of the year nineteen hundred and forty-three. I wonder what it has in store for me? Wonder what it has in store for everybody? Wonder where I’ll be next year? Wonder when the war will end? Last year today, I said I hoped that the war would end in a year. Well it didn’t but this year I say again “I hope the war ends this year, but definetly”...Today in the morning I played cards, and in the afternoon I listened to football games. Well the rose bowl game came out as I expected but not as I hoped. Most people said that Georgia would smother U.C.L.A. but I said it could be pretty close. U.C.L.A. held Georgia scorless for three quarters, but Georgia poured it on in the last and won 9-0. I hoped U.C. L.A. would win, which they didn’t however. Last year at this time, I was at home in San Gabriel, Calif. And today I’m far away in a evacuation camp here in Heart Mt., Wyo. Gosh a lot happened last year. In the spring we had to work hard to sell out our stock. At Easter we quit, handed over the nursery (gardens and supplies) to Mr. Dailey...we then boarded a train and after about 3 ½ days of traveling thru Nevada, Utah, Colorado we reached this camp in Wyoming. And here I am today hoping that next year at this time, I’ll be home or someplace else outside of camp. https://americanhistory.si.edu/sites/default/files/file-uploader/StanleyHayamiDiary.pdf THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

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HANDOUT 4: US IMMIGRATION POLICIES IN 1938 NEW YORK TIMES: ANNE FRANK’S FAMILY WAS THWARTED BY U.S. IMMIGRATION RULES, RESEARCH SHOWS By Mihir Zaveri July 6, 2018 Attempts by Anne Frank’s father to escape the Nazis in Europe and travel to the United States were complicated by tight American restrictions on immigration at the time, one of a series of roadblocks that narrowed the Frank family’s options and thrust them into hiding, according to a new report released on Friday. The research, conducted jointly by the Anne Frank House in Amsterdam and the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, details the challenges faced by the Frank family and thousands of others looking to escape Europe as Nazi Germany gained strength and anti-refugee sentiment swept the United States. Otto Frank, Anne’s father, was never outright denied an immigration visa, the report concludes, but “bureaucracy, war and time” thwarted his efforts. In order to obtain a visa, Mr. Frank would have had to gather copies of family birth certificates, military records and proof of a paid ticket to America, among other documents, and be interviewed at the consulate. In one instance, an application that Mr. Frank said he submitted in 1938 languished in an American consulate in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, amid a swell of similar applications and was lost in a bombing raid in 1940. Mr. Frank wrote to a friend that the extensive papers he had gathered as part of a visa application “have been destroyed there.” In 1941, as Mr. Frank was again attempting to navigate the matrix of paperwork and sponsors necessary to immigrate, the United States government imposed a stricter review of applications for visas, grew suspicious of possible spies and saboteurs among Jewish refugees, and banned applicants with relatives in German-occupied countries. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt warned at the time that Jewish refugees could be “spying under compulsion,” and the report states that “national security took precedence over humanitarian concerns.” Mr. Frank had sought help from an influential friend, Nathan Straus Jr., who was the head of the United States Housing Authority, a friend of Eleanor Roosevelt’s and the son of a Macy’s co-owner. Despite Mr. Straus’s connections, Mr. Frank wrote to him that “all their efforts would be useless” given the immigration climate, the report states. “We wanted to learn more about the process in itself and what documentation an applicant (e.g. Otto Frank) had to produce,” said Gertjan Broek, a researcher with the Anne Frank House who worked on the latest findings. “In the report, we point out how complex and tedious the process was and how the bombing of the Rotterdam consulate disrupted things.” THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

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HANDOUT 4: US IMMIGRATION POLICIES IN 1938, CONT’D The report was released 76 years after the Frank family went into hiding on July 6, 1942. Researchers drew on dozens of pages of correspondence between Mr. Frank and friends, much of which was first made public in 2007, as well as records involving United States immigration policy. Anne Frank’s diaries describing her time in hiding gave a voice to millions who died at the hands of the Nazis. She was eventually discovered and she died in a concentration camp in 1945, when she was 15. Mr. Frank was the only member of the immediate family to survive the concentration camps. News about the Frank family continues to captivate the public, despite challenges in educating younger generations about the Holocaust. “She has allowed millions of people, maybe hundreds of millions of people, to identify with persecution at the worst level,” said Richard Breitman, a professor emeritus at American University who has written about the family’s attempts to immigrate to the United States. “Any time there is a glimmer of new information, it’s a big story.” The new research comes at a time when President Trump’s attempts to curb immigration have been likened to those in the World War II era. Mr. Trump has repeatedly sought to justify letting fewer people into the country by arguing that criminals and terrorists could be among the immigrants and refugees seeking to enter. Mr. Breitman underscored those similarities, pointing to debates over immigration policy today and after Sept. 11. Mr. Breitman said that as Mr. Frank was trying to get to the United States, the country was instituting an “extreme cutback” on immigration. “It wasn’t just extremists and wackos who believed that there was a serious threat to the security of the United States in 1940 that justified an immigration cutback,” Mr. Breitman said. “You can fill in the rest of it after 9/11 and today.” Mr. Broek said the researchers did not intend to highlight parallels. “The Anne Frank House researches into the life of Anne Frank and her family, to tell her story as accurate as possible,” Mr. Broek said. “The attempted immigration is a part of that story too.”

nytimes.com/2018/07/06/us/anne-frank-family-escape-usa.html

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HANDOUT 5: JIGSAW ORGANIZER As you read and discuss with your group, write down important facts about your topic. After you have become an expert on your own topic, you will share your findings with a group of classmates, and learn about their topics as well. Important Ideas 1. 2. 3.

Summary

Other Facts

WWII History

Anti-Semitism

Other Diaries

Immigration

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LESSON 3: CREATING CHARACTER THROUGH WORDS AND VOICE LESSON AT A GLANCE LESSON OBJECTIVE: Students understand how to create a character and the tools actors need to perform. DURATION: 50 minutes MATERIALS: Internet to view The Diary of Anne Frank Curriculum Video, Handout 6: Anne Frank Character Descriptions STANDARDS: VAPA Theatre, Grade Six: 2.2 Use effective vocal expression, gesture, facial expression, and timing to create character. VAPA Theatre, Grade Seven: 1.1 Use the vocabulary of theatre such as playwright, rehearsal, dress rehearsal, run-through, and cold reading to describe theatrical experiences. VAPA Theatre, Grade Seven: 5.2 Demonstrate projection, vocal variety, diction, gesture and confidence in an oral presentation. CONCEPTS/VOCABULARY: Articulation - The clear and precise pronunciation of words. Character - The personality or part an actor re-creates. Gesture - a physical movement that communicates a feeling or portrays an image. Pitch - The highness or lowness of the voice. Projection - The placement and delivery of volume, clarity, and distinctness of voice for communicating to an audience. Staged Reading - a form of theatre without sets or full costumes. The actors read from scripts, and may sit, stand, or incorporate minimal stage movement. Vocal Variety - using word inflection, breath and pitch to portray emotion through language. GUIDING QUESTIONS: How can an actor use his or her voice, facial expression, and gesture to tell a story? What goes into creating a character?

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LESSON PLAN PART 1: SO YOU WANT TO BE AN ACTOR? A painter has their brushes, a musician has their instrument, what tools do actors have? Ask students to think about the answer to the above question. Have students discuss with a seat partner, then share as a class. These are an actor’s only tools (apart from the script) to tell a story. Review the definition of a staged reading with your students. A staged reading is a form of theatre without sets or full costumes. The actors read from scripts, and may sit, stand, or incorporate minimal stage movement. Remind students that they will be seeing a staged reading of The Diary of Anne Frank. The actors from Santa Monica Repertory Theater need to not only tell the story, but to be seen and heard. They use their actor tools in order to perform in front of hundreds of audience members without makeup, costumes, and elaborate sets. As part of The Diary of Anne Frank Study Guide, we created a curriculum video with Santa Monica Repertory Theater actor, Barbara Urich that explores how an actor prepares for a staged reading performance. The video is interactive and ask students to follow along with Barbara. You can show students the video either before or after you engage in the following exercises. The Diary of Anne Frank Curriculum Video Link: https://youtu.be/IdPhN1tDlms Education & Community Programs YouTube Channel: ED & COM TBS Exercise #1: Vocal Roller Coasters Actors use the full expression of their voices to tell a story; voice inflection, breath and pitch create vocal variety that can tell us a lot about a character. Like an instrument, your voice can range from low to high (pitch), can vary in tone and quality (inflection) and is supported by your breath. Let’s experiment with these tools. 1. Have students use the lowest part of their vocal register on an ‘Ah’ sound all together. 2. Have students use their hand to demonstrate how low their register can go. 3. Slowly have students raise their hands and voices up their vocal register until they have reached their highest pitch. 4. With hands still raised, have students go back down their register as their hands follow, creating a ‘roller coaster’ of sorts. Repeat a few times encouraging them to go slowly and really feel each part of their voice. 5. Have students experiment with a fast and slow roller coaster and then loud and soft. Reflection: Why would a character speak in a high or low voice? Could this change for a character? Think of your favorite movie or TV show. Which characters speak slowly? Which quickly? What does it tell us about the character?

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Exercise #2: Emotional Roller Coaster Actors express hundreds of emotions throughout a play. They need to know how to communicate each emotion effectively. 1. Have students stand up near their desks. Explain that you will call out an emotion such as sad, excited, mad, jealous, scared, or happy and students will act it out. 2. With one being the least amount of emotion and ten being the most, count from one to ten and then back down as students emote. For example, if the emotion is sad, at “one” students may just have a slight frown, at “five,” they may start to cry, and at “ten” they could be on the floor wailing. 3. At ten, have students freeze. Ask them to notice any gesture (physical movement that communicates a feeling or portrays an image) they are making as well as look around the room to notice the gestures of others, then continue back down the scale. 4. When you have gone up and down the scale, tell students to “shake the emotion off,” before you start a new one. 5. Experiment with different emotions ranging from sad to happy, etc. 6. Try all the emotions with and without sound. Reflection: Did you find any natural sounds or gestures (physical movement that communicates a feeling or portrays an image) that went with each emotion? How can we convey an emotion without sound? Is it possible to be mad with a smile on your face or jealous while you laugh? Which emotions were easy to convey and which were hard? NOTE: Point out that some emotions are more comfortable to portray than others. For example, we may have an easier time portraying love than fear. When we attend the theatre (and particularly for Anne Frank, audience members may temporarily experience uncomfortable feelings. Ask students to consider the benefit of this, if any, in their minds. Exercise #3: Tongue Twisters You can’t tell a good story if no one can hear you. It is common for people to mumble, but actors must enunciate! Actors use tongue twisters to warm up their mouths and tongues so they can articulate, and say their words clearly. 1. Write, “Red Leather, Yellow Leather” on the board. Have students repeat it a few times to themselves, then ask them to say it five times in a row. 2. Repeat with “I love New York, Unique New York, you know you need unique New York,” “Toy Boat,” “She sells seashells by the seashore.” 3. Ask for volunteers to stand up and repeat one of the twisters a few times. Ask if other students can understand what their classmates are saying. 4. Have volunteers stand and say a tongue twister in their regular voice, then have them project the words as if they were saying them onstage. To do this, have students imagine filling the room with his or her voice, taking a deep breath in before they speak to support their voice 5. Now have students try the tongue twisters with emotion. Have volunteers stand up and act sad, happy, etc. while they pronounce the tongue twister. Reflection: What did you find tricky about this? Was it surprisingly difficult or easy? Was it hard to speak clearly and convey emotion? THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

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Exercise #4: Pass the Gesture

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1. Have students stand in a circle. 2. Going around the circle, have students say an emotion that is portrayed in The Diary of Anne Frank or an emotion in general (frightened, thoughtful, hopeful, anxious, etc.) while doing a gesture that goes with it. For example, a students says, ‘thoughtful’ and puts her chin in her hand. 3. Everyone in the circle repeats the word and gesture. PART 2: CREATE A CHARACTER In a staged reading when a character is introduced, the actor reads that character’s description aloud as that character. Actors are often given little more than a brief description of the character they have to portray. Actors use their tools and imagination to fill in the rest. Distribute copies of Handout: 5 Anne Frank Character Descriptions and read through each character’s description as a class. Have students pick a character based on their description. NOTE: Challenge students to pick a character who is a different age and/or gender than they are. TASK: Students will perform a character description as that chosen character from The Diary of Anne Frank using actor’s tools such as gestures, facial expressions, vocal variety and emotion. Ask students to analyze their description, similar to how Barbara did in the curriculum video, and assign actor’s tools such as gestures, facial expressions, vocal variety and emotion to key words in the description. Allow students to rehearse their description until they feel confident. Have students perform their description to a partner. After they perform, ask for students who observed to share what actor’s tools they noticed in their partner’s performance. Encourage students to use sentence starters such as, “I noticed you…” or “I thought your decision to do ___ gesture was smart…” Ask students who performed to explain why they made certain choices about gestures, facial expressions, pitch and emotion. Encourage students to use sentence starter such as, “I did __ gesture because Anne seemed angry” or “I chose to lift my eyebrows because…” Assessment Criteria: • Students demonstrate understanding of an actor’s process when preparing for a performance. • Students’ performance shows clear decisions with gestures, facial expressions, pitch and emotion. • Students can describe why they chose certain gestures, facial expressions, pitch and emotion when performing their character. Purpose: To better understand how an actor prepares for a performance and how to make certain choices when performing different characters. If a few students feel comfortable, ask for volunteers to perform their description to the class. Student Reflection After students have performed their character description to a partner and volunteers performed to the class, have students complete a quick write reflecting on the actor’s process of preparing for a show. They can reflect on their own experience or observations for other student performers related to how they used their voice, gestures and facial expressions to create a character. Who made clear character choices? What was clear about them? What hints did each actor give as to their character’s emotion? THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

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HANDOUT 6: ANNE FRANK CHARACTER DESCRIPTIONS Mr. Frank Mr. Frank comes up the stairs. He is a gentle, cultured European in his middle years. There is a trace of German accent in his speech. He is weak, ill, making a supreme effort at self-control. His clothes are threadbare. He carries a rucksack. As he reaches the top of the stairs the chimes begin to strike six o’clock. Miep Gies She is a dutch girl of about twenty-two, pregnant now. She gives one feeling of great capacity and courage. She is compassionate and protective in her attitude toward Mr. Frank. She has been stenographer and secretary in his business. She has her coat and hat on, ready to go home. A small silver cross bangs at her throat. Mrs. Van Daan Mrs. Van Daan sits on the couch, clutching her possessions, a hatbox, handbag, attractive straw carryall. A cardboard carton is above her on the couch. It is tied with heavy cord. She is a pretty woman in her early forties. She wears a fur coat. Mr. Van Daan Mr. Van Daan is a portly man in his late forties. He is pacing u. c. in the center room smoking a cigarette, and watching his wife with a nervous eye. His overcoat and suit are expensive and well cut. Peter Van Daan Peter Van Daan is standing at the window of the Right room, looking down at the street below. He is shy, awkward boy of sixteen. He wears a cap, a short overcoat, and long Dutch trousers, like “plus fours.” At his feet is a black carrier with a cat in it. Mrs. Frank Mrs. Frank is a young mother, gently bred, reserved. She, like Mr. Frank, has a slight German accent. Margot Frank Margot is eighteen, beautiful, quiet, shy. Anne Frank She is thirteen, quick in her movements, interested in everything, mercurial in her emotions. She wears a cape, long wool socks and carries a school bag. Mr. Dussel Mr. Dussel is a man in his fifties, meticulous, finicky...bewildered now. He carries a briefcase and shopping bag, stuffed full, and has a small medicine case tucked under his arm. He wears a raincoat and hat.

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LESSON 4: EXPLORING SOCIAL JUSTICE THROUGH SMALL GROUP STAGED READINGS OF EXCERPTS FROM “THE DIARY OF ANNE FRANK” LESSON AT A GLANCE OBJECTIVE: Students will participate in a collaborative Staged Reading activity to identify social injustice and to demonstrate understanding of theatrical performances and literary analysis skills. DURATION: 1-2 class periods, to be completed after lesson on “Creating Characters with Words and Voice” MATERIALS: Handout 7: Staged Reading Vocabulary and Performance Organizer, Handout 8: Excerpts from the Play, Handout 9: Student Reflection Questions, Handout 10: Staged Reading Scoring Guide, Handout 11: Character Collage STANDARDS: Common Core State Standards, Reading: Literature, Grade Six: 3 Describe how a particular story’s or drama’s plot unfolds in a series of episodes as well as how the characters respond or change as the plot moves toward a resolution. Common Core State Standards, Speaking and Listening, Grade Seven: 1 Analyze the main ideas and supporting details presented in diverse media. Common Core State Standards, Reading Standards for Literature, Grade Eight: 1 Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. VAPA Theatre, Grade Six: 2.2 Use effective vocal expression, gesture, facial expression, and timing to create character. VAPA Theatre, Grade Seven: 4.2 Identify examples of how theatre, television, and film can influence or be influenced by politics and culture. VAPA Theatre, Grade Seven: 5.2 Demonstrate projection, vocal variety, diction, gesture, and confidence in an oral presentation. Social Justice Anchor Standard: Students will analyze the harmful impact of bias and injustice on the world, historically and today. Social Justice Anchor Standard: I can recognize and describe unfairness and injustice in many forms including attitudes, speech, behaviors, practices, and laws. Social Emotional Learning Competencies: collaboration and cooperation, communication, listen with attention

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LESSON AT A GLANCE, CONT’D CONCEPTS/VOCABULARY: Collaboration - the act of working together in a joint intellectual effort. Conflict - the opposition of persons or forces giving rise to dramatic action in a play. Diction - the pronunciation of words, the choice of words, and the manner in which a person expresses himself or herself. Exposition - detailed information revealing the facts of a plot. Injustice - lack of fairness or justice. Monologue - a long speech by a single character. Motivation - a character’s reason for doing or saying things in a play. Projection - the placement and delivery of volume, clarity, and distinctiveness of voice for communicating to an audience. Protagonist - the main character of a play and the character with whom the audience identifies most strongly. Social Injustice - unfair and unjust relations between the individual and society, measured by the unequal distribution of wealth, unequal opportunities for personal activity, and unequal social privileges. Social Justice - the push towards or equal access to wealth, opportunities, and privileges within a society. Staged Reading - a form of theatre without sets or full costumes. The actors read from scripts, and may sit, stand, or incorporate minimal stage movement. Vocal Quality - the characteristics of a voice such as shrill, nasal, raspy, breathy, booming, and so forth. Positive Space - where the dancer’s body is when dancing. It is the space where people mostly look when watching dancers. Teamwork - the collective effort of a group of people. Trust - confidence and trust in the reliability of someone. GUIDING QUESTIONS: How and why can theatre be used to teach about conflict and injustice in history? How does an actor use literary analysis as well as vocal techniques, facial expressions, and gestures to convey a complex character in a staged reading? What do we learn about Anne and her writing as the play progresses?

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LESSON PLAN Warm-Up Remind students that they learned about diction, gesture, projection and vocal quality during the previous theater arts lesson. As a warm-up for the staged reading, ask each student to share how they are feeling in this moment by choosing a strong adjective and sharing it out loud with appropriate gestures (including facial expression), projection, and vocal quality. For example, one student might say, “happy” with a smile, a calm, clear voice, and a thumbs up. This can be done with everyone sharing in small groups, or with a few volunteers in front of the class, or as a whole class whip-around, with each student taking a turn. MAIN LESSON The main activity is a small group Staged Reading activity based on eight excerpts from the play, The Diary of Anne Frank. The play is divided into two acts of five scenes each. Almost every scene ends with Anne performing a monologue that is based on an actual entry from her diary. A student handout is included in this lesson plan with the eight excerpts, which gives you the freedom to create eight small groups of approximately four students each, or to create smaller or larger groups based on your class size. Introduction All of the opening/reflection questions can be done as a whole group discussion or in small groups using academic language sentence starters. 1. Use a T-chart to write or project the words “Injustice” and “Social Injustice.” Ask for volunteers to define the first term (lack of fairness or justice) and give examples. Student answers may be personal like sibling rivalry-related, which would go under the first term, or they may be larger, like racism, which would go under the second term. 2. Ask for student volunteers to then define “Social Injustice,” and see if they can explain the difference between this term and “injustice.” One definition of social injustice: unfair and unjust relations between the individual and society, measured by the unequal distribution of wealth, unequal opportunities for personal activity, and unequal social privileges. 3. Ask students for examples of social injustice to list under that side of the T-chart. Examples might be racism, anti-Semitism, sexism, slavery, genocide, the Holocaust, etc. 4. After you have enough examples, ask the question, “How can social injustice be rectified?” If no one suggests it, ask, “How could art, specifically theater, be one tool to combat social injustice?” Main Activity 1. Tell students that they are going to answer this last question by first analyzing, then performing an excerpt from the play, “The Diary of Anne Frank.” Remind students that the social injustice of the Holocaust, began with restrictions of wealth, opportunities, and rights for the Jewish people, relating back to the earlier definition of social injustice. 2. Pass out Handout 7: Staged Reading Vocabulary and Performance Organizer. Appoint one student per group to be the facilitator to keep students on track and to make sure all participate. Students should read directions, vocabulary words, and definitions out loud in their small groups. 3. Pass out the student copies of Handout 8: Excerpts from the Play, and assign each group an excerpt. THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

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4. At this point, you may need to remind students of the characters in the play: IN THE ANNEX WITH ANNE: her father Otto (Pim); her mother; her older sister, Margot; Mr. and Mrs. Van Dam and their son, Peter, who is a few years older than Anne; and Mr. Dussel; OUTSIDE OF THE ANNEX, HELPING THE FRANKS: Miep Von Gies and Mr. Kraler. 5. Give students approximately 30 minutes to answer the questions, divide up and practice their own lines, and practice as a whole group. 6. The completed Staged Readings should be presented to the class in order from A-H because the diary entries are in chronological order. You have the option of using Handout 10: Staged Reading Scoring Guide for each group or each student. 7. Once the performances are complete, have students fill out the reflection question on Handout 7: Staged Reading Vocabulary and Performance Organizer. 8. For the final assessment, provide Handout 8: Student Reflection Questions for quiet writing, or discuss the questions as a whole group. (Special note: if boys object to “playing” a girl, remind them that in Shakespeare’s time and beyond, all parts were played by boys, plus actors are versatile.) Demonstration of Learning Task: Analyze and discuss what Anne Frank is thinking, feeling, and observing in your group’s assigned monologue from the play, “The Diary of Anne Frank.” Use this analysis, as well as what you learned about diction, gesture, projection, and vocal quality to present your group’s Staged Reading. Assessment Criteria: • Each student in the group takes a turn delivering lines. • Facial expressions and gestures communicate what Anne is thinking and feeling. • Voices are projected well, and attention is paid to vocal quality. • Analysis and reflection skills are evident in completed handouts. Purpose: To deepen our understanding of how theatre can be used to educate audiences about historical injustices and their impact on individuals like Anne Frank, in order to recognize and combat injustice today. Student Reflection The questions below are on a separate student handout and can be answered by writing in class or as a homework assignment. They can also be answered in small group discussion or as a whole group discussion. What did you learn about injustice as it relates to Anne Frank during WWII? How does this knowledge make you feel? What was the strongest emotion Anne seemed to convey through her writing? What is your evidence? Could you relate to this emotion? Why or why not? Do you think a dramatic presentation of her diary entries are an effective way to understand Anne’s life? To understand history? Why or why not? Do you think that watching a play like “The Diary of Anne Frank” can help viewers recognize and combat injustice today? TAKE IT FURTHER!

Have students use what they’ve learned from watching the Staged Reading performances to complete Handout 11: Character Collage. THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

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HANDOUT 7: STAGED READING VOCABULARY AND PERFORMANCE ORGANIZER VOCABULARY Collaboration - the act of working together in a joint intellectual effort. Conflict - the opposition of persons or forces giving rise to dramatic action in a play. Diction - the pronunciation of words, the choice of words, and the manner in which a person expresses himself or herself. Exposition - detailed information revealing the facts of a plot. Monologue - a long speech by a single character. Motivation - a character’s reason for doing or saying things in a play. Projection - the placement and delivery of volume, clarity, and distinctiveness of voice for communicating to an audience. Protagonist - the main character of a play and the character with whom the audience identifies most strongly. Staged Reading - a performance created by actors reading scripts rather than working from memory, Social injustice - unfair and unjust relations between the individual and society, measured by the unequal distribution of wealth, unequal opportunities for personal activity, and unequal social privileges. Vocal Quality - The characteristics of a voice such as shrill, nasal, raspy, breathy, booming, and so forth. DIRECTIONS FOR GROUP WORK You will work collaboratively in your small group to present a Staged Reading version of a monologue excerpt from the perspective of Anne Frank, the protagonist of the play, “The Diary of Anne Frank.” Every student should speak and use appropriate gestures, facial expressions, and varied vocal techniques. 1. Begin by reading the vocabulary words and definitions (listed above) out loud in your small group. 2. Then read and analyze your group’s assigned monologue excerpt by filling out the table below. Write the letter of the excerpt here (A-H): ___________. 3. Divide the lines up among your group members. Have each group member highlight or underline the lines they will perform. 4. Use the completed chart to begin rehearsing. Use your excerpt handout to perform.

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HANDOUT 7: STAGED READING VOCABULARY AND PERFORMANCE ORGANIZER, CONT’D VOCABULARY

NOTES: INCLUDE DETAILS FROM THE EXCERPT AND SUGGESTIONS FROM YOUR GROUP.

Conflict

What is the conflict(s) for Anne in this excerpt? What is your evidence?

Diction

Which words stand out in this excerpt and should be emphasized in your group’s performance? Why?

Exposition

What did your group learn about Anne’s life from this excerpt?

Social Injustice

What details are included in the excerpt that relate to social injustice?

Motivation

Why do you think Anne wrote this particular diary entry? What emotion was she probably experiencing? Why? How can you demonstrate this emotion/motivation in your Staged Reading performance, Individually and as a group?

Projection

Think about the specific lines you will say. What words do you plan to speak loudly? Softly? Most clearly? Mark them this way on your copy of the excerpt.

Vocal Quality

How will you vary your voice for dramatic effect? Mark your lines this way.

ORDER OF PERFORMERS IN YOUR GROUP 1. ______________________________ 2. ______________________________ 3. ______________________________ 4. ______________________________ SCORE YOURSELF AFTER THE PERFORMANCE Staged Reading Performance Scoring Guide 1. Student uses appropriate gestures to convey understanding of character. 2. Student uses varied vocal techniques, with strong projection and quality. 3. Student uses facial expressions in a dramatically appropriate way. 4. Student conveys underlying emotion and meaning of text. REFLECTION QUESTION What did you do well? What would you improve next time? THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

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HANDOUT 8: EXCERPTS FROM THE PLAY STUDENT DIRECTIONS: Use the Staged Reading Vocabulary/Performance Organizer handout to help your group analyze and perform a short monologue excerpt from the play, “The Diary of Anne Frank.” Deliver lines to the class in the order in which they were written within the excerpt and overall, beginning with excerpt A. A. Act I, Scene 1, Page 9 “Monday, the sixth of July, nineteen forty-two. Dear Diary, since you and I are going to be great friends, I will start by telling you about myself. My name is Anne Frank. I am thirteen years old. I was born in Germany the twelfth of June, nineteen twenty-nine. As my family is Jewish, we emigrated to Holland when Hitler came to power. My father started a business, importing spice and herbs. Things went well for us until nineteen forty. Then the war came, and the Dutch capitulation, followed by the arrival of the Germans. Then things got very bad for the Jews.” B. Act I, Scene 1, Page 10 “They forced Father out of his business. We had to wear yellow stars. I had to turn in my bike. I couldn’t go to a Dutch school any more. I couldn’t go to the movies, or ride in an automobile, or even on a streetcar, and a million other things. But somehow we children still managed to have fun. Yesterday Father told me we’re going into hiding. Where, he wouldn’t say. At five o’clock this morning Mother woke me and told me to hurry and get dressed. I was to put on as many clothes as I could. It would look too suspicious if we walked along carrying suitcases...Our hiding place was to be upstairs in the building where Father used to have his business.” C. Act I, Scene 2, Page 21 “I expect I should be describing what it feels like to go into hiding. But I really don’t know yet myself. I only know it’s funny never to be able to go outdoors . . . never to breathe fresh air . . . never to run and shout and jump. It’s the silence in the nights that frightens me most. Every time I hear a creak in the house, or a step on the street outside, I’m sure they’re coming for us. The days aren’t so bad. At least we know that Miep and Mr. Kraler are down there below us in the office. Our protectors, we call them.” D. Act I, Scene 2, Pages 21-22 “I asked Father what would happen to them if the Nazis found out they were hiding us. Pim said that they would suffer the same fate that we would . . . Imagine! They know this, and yet when they come up here, they’re always cheerful and gay as if there were nothing in the world to bother them . . . Friday, the twenty-first of August, nineteen forty-two. Today I’m going to tell you our general news. Mother is unbearable. She insists on treating me like a baby, which I loathe. Otherwise things are going better.”

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HANDOUT 8: EXCERPTS FROM THE PLAY, CONT’D E. Act I, Scene 3, Page 45 “Monday the twenty-first of September, nineteen forty-two. Mr. Dussel and I had another battle yesterday. Yes, Mr. Dussel! According to him, nothing, I repeat . . . nothing, is right about me . . . my appearance, my character, my manners. While he was going on at me I thought . . . sometime I’ll give you such a smack that you’ll fly right up to the ceiling! Why is it that every grownup thinks he knows the way to bring up children?...I keep wishing that Peter was a girl instead of a boy. Then I would have someone to talk to. Margot’s a darling, but she takes everything too seriously…” F. Act II, Scene 2, Page 85 “By this time we all know each other so well that if anyone starts to tell a story, the rest can finish if for him. We’re having to cut down still further on our meals. What makes it worse, the rats have been at work again. They’ve carried off some of our precious food. Even Mr. Dussel wishes now that Mouschi (the cat) was here. Thursday, the 20th of April, nineteen forty-dour. Invasion fever is mounting every day. Miep tells us that people outside talk of nothing else. For myself, life has become much more pleasant. I often go to Peter’s room after supper. Oh, don’t think I’m in love, because I’m not. But it does make life more bearable to have someone with whom you can exchange views…” G. Act II, Scene 3, Pages 93-94 “We’re all in better spirits these days. There’s still excellent news of the invasion. The best part about it is that I have a feeling that friends are coming. Who knows? Maybe I’ll be back in school by Fall... Wednesday, the second of July, nineteen forty-four. The invasion seems temporarily to be bogged down. Mr. Kraler has to have an operation, which looks bad. The Gestapo have found the radio that was stolen. Mr. Dussel says that they’ll trace it back to the thief, and then it’s just a matter of time ‘til they get to us.” H. Act II, Scene 3, Pages 94 “Everyone is low. Even Pim can’t raise their spirits. I have often been downcast myself...but never in despair. I can shake off everything if I write. But...and that is the great question...will I ever be able to write well? I want to so much. I want to go on living even after my death. Another birthday has gone by, so now I’m fifteen. Already I know what I want. I have a goal, an opinion...In spite of everything, I still believe people are really good at heart.”

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HANDOUT 9: STUDENT REFLECTION QUESTIONS 1. What did you learn about injustice as it relates to Anne Frank during WWII? How does this knowledge make you feel?

2. What was the strongest emotion Anne seemed to convey through her writing? What is your evidence? Could you relate to this emotion? Why or why not?

3. Do you think a dramatic presentation of her diary entries, like a Staged Reading, is an effective way to understand Anne’s life? To understand history? Why or why not?

4. Do you think that watching a play like “The Diary of Anne Frank” can help viewers recognize and combat injustice today? Why or why not?

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HANDOUT 10: STAGED READING SCORING GUIDE Staged Reading Student Scoring Guide 1. Student uses appropriate gestures to convey understanding of character. 2. Student uses varied vocal techniques, with strong projection and quality. 3. Student uses facial expressions in a dramatically appropriate way. 4. Student conveys underlying emotion and meaning of text.

yes yes yes yes

no no no no

Staged Reading Student Scoring Guide 1. Student uses appropriate gestures to convey understanding of character. 2. Student uses varied vocal techniques, with strong projection and quality. 3. Student uses facial expressions in a dramatically appropriate way. 4. Student conveys underlying emotion and meaning of text.

yes yes yes yes

no no no no

Staged Reading Student Scoring Guide 1. Student uses appropriate gestures to convey understanding of character. 2. Student uses varied vocal techniques, with strong projection and quality. 3. Student uses facial expressions in a dramatically appropriate way. 4. Student conveys underlying emotion and meaning of text.

yes yes yes yes

no no no no

Staged Reading Student Scoring Guide 1. Student uses appropriate gestures to convey understanding of character. 2. Student uses varied vocal techniques, with strong projection and quality. 3. Student uses facial expressions in a dramatically appropriate way. 4. Student conveys underlying emotion and meaning of text.

yes yes yes yes

no no no no

THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

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HANDOUT 11: CHARACTER COLLAGE Students complete the following sentences. They speak their sentence with an accompanying gesture.

I am Anne. (Said together.) I feel . I like . I love . I dislike . I despise . Mother makes me feel . Peter makes me feel . Mr. Dussell makes me feel . I believe . I wonder about . When I grow up I’d like to be . I am Anne. (Said together.)

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LESSON 5: UPSTANDERS OF WORLD WAR II: EXPLORED THROUGH READER’S THEATER LESSON AT A GLANCE OBJECTIVE: After completing a close read and discussion of the article, “What Makes an Upstander?,” students will create small group Reader’s Theater performances based on Miep Gies’s autobiography, which explains why she was an upstander for the Frank family during WW II. DURATION: 1-2 class periods of 50 minutes each MATERIALS: Handout 12: What Makes an Upstander?, Handout 13: Miep Gies in Her Own Words, Handout 14: Being an Upstander During the Holocaust, 3” x 5” notecard for each student, Video from Facing History and Ourselves: https://www.facinghistory.org/resource-library/video/who-upstander STANDARDS: Common Core State Standards, Speaking and Listening, Grades Six thru Eighth: 6 Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. Common Core State Standards, Reading Standards for Literature, Grades Six thru Eighth: 2 Determine a theme or central idea of a text and how its conveyed through particular details. Common Core State Standards, Reading Standards for Literature, Grades Six thru Eighth: 4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings. VAPA Theatre, Grade Six: 2.2 Use effective vocal expression, gesture, facial expression, and timing to create character. VAPA Theatre, Grade Seven: 4.2 Identify examples of how theatre, television, and film can influence or be influenced by politics and culture. VAPA Theatre, Grade Eight: 2.1 Create short dramatizations in selected styles of theatre, such as melodrama, vaudeville, and musical theatre. Social Justice Anchor Standard 17: Students will recognize their own responsibility to stand up to exclusion, prejudice, and bias. Social Emotional Learning Competencies: take on new challenges, accept feedback and critique, teamwork CONCEPTS/VOCABULARY: Collaboration - The act of working together in a joint intellectual effort. Conflict - The opposition of persons or forces giving rise to dramatic action in a play. Diction - The pronunciation of words, the choice of words, and the manner in which a person expresses himself or herself. Motivation - A character’s reason for doing or saying things in a play. Projection - The placement and delivery of volume, clarity, and distinctiveness of voice for communicating to an audience. THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

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LESSON AT A GLANCE, CONT’D Reader’s Theatre - A performance created by actors as a reaction to specific text; interpretive rather than scripted. Tableau - A silent and motionless depiction of a scene created by actors, often from a picture. The plural is tableaux. Vocal Quality - The characteristics of a voice such as shrill, nasal, raspy, breathy, booming, and so forth. GUIDING QUESTIONS: How can theatre be used for the greater good of society? What motivates the people who become upstanders, sometimes at their own peril? How can their experiences be brought to life in the theatre to inspire others to do the same?

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LESSON PLAN Mini-Lesson 1. Ask students to stand up next to their desks and respond with only body language (no voices) while you read the following quote aloud, “In spite of everything, I still believe people are really good at heart.” Now, before you read the same quote aloud a second time and have students respond again with body language, tell them that Anne Frank wrote that quote in her diary before she was arrested. 2. After this brief movement exercise, conduct a short whole-group discussion with questions like, “How did your body language change once you found out the context of the quote?” “What you were thinking about when I said to use only body language?” “Did you think about facial expressions, gestures, etc.?” 3. Now switch the conversation to the content of the quote. Ask questions like, “Do you agree with the quote?” “What have you done recently or in the past that demonstrates you are ‘good at heart’? “What have you observed other people doing that indicates that they are ‘good at heart’? 4. Explain to students that Anne Frank may have been thinking of her father’s employees who went out of their way to help her, her family, and the others in the secret annex. Today we would call those people, “Upstanders.” Tell them you are going to pass out an article that explains what an upstander is and how they themselves can become one. 5. Pass out Handout 12: What Makes an Upstander? Have students number the paragraphs for a later discussion. As they read, have them underline any vocabulary they don’t know, and use the following symbols in the margins of the article: ? (I don’t understand); ! (This surprises me); and a check mark (I agree with this or I can connect to this). 6. After, pass out the class set of “academic language sentence starters” (or just write a few of the sentence starters on the board for students to use). Tell them to turn to a partner and share something from the article that they didn’t understand, that surprised them, or that they agreed with. Students should use the academic language sentence starters each time they share. 7. You can debrief their understanding of the article as a whole group or move on. If you want to show a video about upstanders from Facing History and Ourselves, here is a link: https://www. facinghistory.org/resource-library/video/who-upstander 8. Pass out the 3” x 5” cards and ask students to write down two things: a.) one act of kindness that they plan to do within the next week, and b.) one idea of how they can be an upstander in the class, at school, or in the community. 9. Tell them to hold on to their cards as a reminder of what they intend to do. 10. In a week, follow up and ask students if they performed the acts of kindness. Ask if anyone will share what they did and/or how it made them feel. Then ask if anyone tried to be an upstander and if they are willing to share about the experience: what happened, how it made them feel, etc. MAIN LESSON This activity is adapted from a teaching strategy found on the Facing History and Ourselves website (https:// www.facinghistory.org/resource-library/teaching-strategies/readers-theater). NOTE: In an activity based on this Reader’s Theater strategy, groups of students are assigned a text excerpt to present to their peers. As opposed to presenting skits of the plot, a reader’s theater asks students to create a performance that reveals a message, theme, or conflict represented by the text. As students practice this activity, they become more proficient at using the words of the text to depict concepts and ideas. This is an effective way to help students process dilemmas experienced by characters in a text. THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

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Procedure 1. Make sure you have enough copies Handout 13: Miep Gies in Her Own Words, which is divided into eight excerpts. 2. Typically, groups of four to six students are assigned different sections of a text to interpret, although it is certainly possible to have groups interpret the same excerpt. 3. Assign the excerpts to small groups, and have the students read theirs aloud in their groups. 4. After the text is read aloud, invite students to ask clarifying questions about the vocabulary, etc. That way, students can begin their group work ready to interpret their assigned scene. 5. In their small groups, students read their assigned scenes aloud again. As they read, students should now pay attention to theme, language, and tone. You might ask students to highlight or underline the words that stand out to them. Groups may choose to read their scenes two or three times and then to have a conversation about the words and phrases they have highlighted. 6. At the end of this discussion, students should agree on the words, theme, or message represented in this excerpt that they would most like to share with the class. To help structure the groups’ conversations, you might provide them with a series of questions to answer. The following are examples: What conflict is expressed in this excerpt? What theme is represented? What words or phrases are most important? What is the message of this text? What is most important or interesting about the words or ideas in this excerpt? 7. Now students are ready to prepare their performance. Students should be reminded that the goal is not to perform a skit of their scene but to use specific language (words and phrases) to represent the conflict, theme, and/or underlying message of that excerpt. Performances can be silent (students have all of the excerpts, so they can read a specific excerpt if another group chooses to share a silent performance), or they can use voice in creative ways, such as by composing a choral reading that emphasizes key phrases. Students can use movement, or they can hold their body positions to create an image frozen in time, much like a photograph. You can introduce the vocabulary word, “tableau” at this point. 8. It often helps to give students a list of guidelines or suggestions to follow when preparing their presentations, such as these: • Repeat key words, phrases, or sentences. • Read some or all of your selection as a group, as part of a group, or as individuals. Or, read none of the text and use body language to project the intent of the text. • Alter the order of the text. • Position yourselves around the room as you see fit. • You may not use props, but you can use body positioning to achieve a certain effect. • Everyone has to participate. • Review theatre vocabulary words and concepts: conflict, diction, projection, tableau, vocal quality. 9. Groups Perform. You decide if it is best to go in order. Miep does tell her story in chronological order, but it might be interesting to hear it out of order. 10. There are many ways to structure performances. Some teachers ask students to take notes while all groups perform and have them use their notes to guide their reactions to the performances. Alternatively, teachers might ask students to comment immediately after each performance. It is best if students’ comments are phrased in the form of positive feedback rather than in the form of a critique (e.g., “It would have been better if...”). Before debriefing performances, you can go over the types of comments that are appropriate and inappropriate, or you can provide students with “starters” they could use when phrasing their feedback. The following are examples of starters that frame positive feedback: THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560 36


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• • • • •

It was powerful for me when... The performance that helped me understand the text in a new way is...because... It was interesting how... One performance that stood out to me is...because... I was surprised when...because...

Demonstration of Learning Task: Students will use the text excerpts to create a Reader’s Theatre performance that helps audiences understand the concept of an upstander, in this case, Miep Gies. Assessment Criteria: • Students all participate within their group activity • Performances reveal an understanding of the text as well as the directions stated in step 8 above Purpose: Students will participate in this activity in order to understand what it means to be an upstander and how theatre can be used for the greater good. Student Reflection After presenting and debriefing performances, give students the opportunity to reflect on their learning and participation in this activity. • • • • •

How did it feel to present? To receive feedback? What would they do differently next time? What do they think of Miep Gies’s story and actions? How can theatre be used for the greater good? How can it inspire others to act in selfless or noble ways?

Students can answer these questions in their journals, or orally with partners or small groups using the academic language sentence starters. Then you can allow volunteers to share ideas or questions from what they wrote.

TAKE IT FURTHER!

Use the New York Times article (Handout 14), “Risking Torture and Death to Save Jews During the Holocaust” to create oral found poems. Assign each student or each group one of the 12 stories of upstanders discussed in the article. (Each story is separated by a horizontal line.) Have each student pick a favorite sentence, phrase, or word from their assigned upstander’s explanation of why they risked torture and death to help the Jews during the Holocaust. After students have picked the sentence, phrase, etc., do a “Quaker-style” reading where students share out, one at a time, with no comments or interruptions from each other or you. Afterwards, ask students what they noticed. Were certain sentences repeated? Certain words? What emotions were expressed? How did students feel as they listened?

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HANDOUT 12: WHAT MAKES AN UPSTANDER? An upstander is an individual, group, or institution that performs a positive action in order to aid a person or group of people who are the victims of injustice and/or are in distress. The term is most commonly associated with those who have stood up to help the victims of genocide and persecution, sometimes at great personal risk. But there are, in fact, different types of upstanders, including civil rights activists and those who help the poor and disadvantaged, among many others. What Makes an Upstander? Common tactics employed by upstanders include bringing attention to the plight of victims, advocating for government policies to help those being persecuted, and directly intervening in situations (at times risking their personal safety) in order to protect and save lives. An example of this would be the people in Germanoccupied countries during World War II who let Jews hide in their homes in order to protect them from the Nazis. This is in contrast to a bystander, who knows that someone is suffering injustice but takes no action. In more recent years, the term upstander has been employed to counter bullying, mostly in primary and secondary schools. In this case, upstanders can play a wide variety of roles, from directly challenging a bully, protecting a person or group from bullying, or promoting an atmosphere in which bullying is discouraged. Standing up to Genocide The Nazi-inspired Holocaust of the late 1930s and early 1940s spawned countless upstanders who assisted Jews in one way or another or helped hide them. There were upstanders in every nation touched by the Holocaust, and many tried to help or intervene at great peril to themselves, as most countries occupied by the Germans had passed laws that made aiding or hiding Jews a very serious crime. In some cases, the death penalty could result. Some of the more famous Holocaust upstanders, whom the world Jewish community and Israel often refer to as Righteous Gentiles, or Righteous Among the Nations, include: Miep Gies, who hid Anne Frank, her family, and several other Jews in Amsterdam between 1942 and 1944; Raoul Wallenberg, who helped rescue thousands of Jews from near certain-death in Hungary; and Oskar Schindler, who shielded some 1,200 Jews from deportation or death by employing them in his manufacturing business. Examples of upstanders who in some way intervened in other genocides include: Nicholas D. Kristof, an American journalist who helped publicize the recent genocide in Darfur; Paul Rusesabagina, a hotel manager in Kigala who shielded some 1,300 mostly Tutsi refugees during the 1994 Rwandan Genocide; Rigoberta Menchú, who wrote passionately about her experiences during the Guatemalan Genocide; and Dith Pran, a Cambodian journalist who revealed fully to the world the horrors of the genocide in Cambodia. Upstanders not tied to a genocide per se are virtually countless. They include civil and human rights activists in the United States and abroad, women’s rights activists, anti-war activists, anti-poverty activists, and even environmental activists. People involved in these activities are considered upstanders because they adopt a positive stand toward a particular wrong or problem, and are acting on behalf of others or themselves.

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HANDOUT 12: WHAT MAKES AN UPSTANDER?, CONT’D Becoming an Upstander Standing up for people who are victims of injustice is not just for those who witness the atrocities of a genocide. In recent years, upstanders have been linked with anti-bullying efforts in U.S. primary and secondary schools...Upstanders in anti-bullying programs can include students who positively defend themselves or others from bullies; individuals who report bullying to teachers, parents, or others in authority; or those who attempt to change social and cultural attitudes to ensure that bullying is discouraged or eliminated. More importantly, practicing everyday acts of kindness is the best way to be an upstander. Studies have shown that people who perform exceptional acts of altruism report having been raised in an environment where standing up for others was emphasized and that acts of kindness were part of their day-to-day existance. Build your upstander muscle by practicing an act of kindness toward someone else every day. How can you be an upstander in your community?

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HANDOUT 13: MIEP GIES IN HER OWN WORDS 1. I was born in Vienna as Hermine Santruschitz on February 15, 1909. My parents did not have the means to take proper care of me, so that was an unfortunate start. The lack of food as a result of the First World War meant that I became undernourished and was often ill. But in the autumn of 1920 I was suddenly presented the opportunity to spend three months in the Netherlands...with other malnourished Austrian and Hungarian working class children, to regain strength with a foster family in Leiden. So that was a fortunate twist, I dare say. My foster parents, heeding the doctor’s advice, then decided to make me part of their family permanently...my parents realized that I would be better off in the Netherlands than I could ever be in Austria, so they agreed. Fortune again smiled on me, and we moved from Leiden to Amsterdam, where I felt at home immediately. 2. The 1930s were difficult years for those seeking jobs, but once again, luck was on my side. An upstairs neighbor told me that a certain company she knew had a temporary vacancy for office assistant. I went there and talked to the owner of the company, a German man from Frankfurt. His name was Otto Frank. Of course, there were several candidates for the job, but again I was fortunate: my native tongue was… German! So I got the job. And what’s more, I was allowed to stay even after the sick employee that I was replacing recovered and returned to the office. 3. In 1938, my native country of Austria was annexed by Nazi Germany...Sad to say, many of my fellow countrymen supported this. On May 10, 1940, Germany invaded the Netherlands...we were occupied. A problem arose when I wanted to get married in 1941: my passport had expired and if I didn’t marry a Dutchman, I would have to return to Vienna. Even if I married a Dutchman, I had to prove my Aryan (or non-Jewish) descent, which could only be done in the town of my birth, Vienna. The Germans said that there was not enough time to satisfy all the formalities (I had refused to join a Nazi association of women and girls), and I was deliberately hindered. 4. If I hadn’t had Uncle Anton in Vienna, who moved heaven and earth to obtain an approved proof of Aryan birth… but fate again smiled on me, everything worked out and on July 16, 1941, Jan Gies and I got married. My husband became a member of a resistance group that worked alongside the National Organization to assist hiders and that arranged all manner of things for people that wanted to go into hiding or already were. He never wanted to talk about it, but he must have saved scores of people. As for me, I got actively involved in the hiding of the families Frank and Van Pels and Dr. Pfeffer in the rear annex of our office at Prinsengracht; as did my husband, by the way. 5. Following the betrayal on August 4, 1944, the annex was cleared out and a number of helpers were arrested. This was awful, since being arrested in connection with helping Jewish hiders meant deportation to a concentration camp and certain death. But then, in an incredible way, my luck turned again. The Nazi that was responsible for deporting the hiders and their helpers was named Karl Josef Silberbauer, an arrogant and yes, Austrian man from Vienna. And he just wasn’t having his day, for while interrogating Otto Frank he discovered that Mr. Frank had fought for Germany in the First World War and that he held a higher army rank than himself. Silberbauer didn’t quite salute him but he did offer to do everything calmly.

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HANDOUT 13: MIEP GIES IN HER OWN WORDS, CONT’D 6. Then it was my turn. The Austrian barked at me for helping Jews. I said that I came from Vienna, just like he. Silberbauer hesitated and stomped through the room. Finally he decided that I was allowed to stay in the office. “Out of personal sympathy,” he said. But he added that he would be coming back and warned me that fleeing was not an option. My colleague Bep Voskuijl was also allowed to stay. That was not the case for the helpers Johannes Kleinman and Victor Kugler, however. They were deported along with the eight hiders. After some time (I was afraid that the Nazis would come back), either later that same day or the next day, I can’t quite remember, I entered the Secret Annex with Bep and stockroom manager Van Maaren. There we gathered together all the loose papers and books belonging to Anne. Without reading them we stored them in the drawer of my desk, thinking we could give everything back to Anne after the war. 7. The craziest plan that we came up with after the raid on the Annex was that I, after collecting money from everyone in the company, would go to the headquarters of the Security Service to bribe the Nazis into releasing the hiders and helpers. With wobbly knees, I made my way there. In the building of the SD I met the Austrian that had supervised the arrests in the Annex, and he told me to go upstairs. On the landing I saw a door half open, and I entered. In a bare room stood a table with a radio, and around it stood a group of high-ranking Nazi soldiers. The voice that came from the radio was English; they were listening to the BBC! I should probably have been arrested right away, but they were too astonished to react, and I fled from the building as fast as I could. 8. In the spring of 1945 the war was finally over, and the waiting began for those who would return from the concentration camps. Of the eight hiders in the Secret Annex, only Otto Frank returned. As soon as it became clear that Anne had perished, I gave her father all her papers with the words, ‘This is the legacy of your daughter Anne. The rest of the story is well-known. My husband kept silent about his noble deeds, and Anne became after her death what she had wanted to become in life: a famous writer. I considered it a tremendous honor, in later years, to represent Anne in speaking at schools and fully packed auditoriums, all over the world...I have had all the luck in the world. Perhaps I was guided, I do not know, but I am anyhow very grateful.

THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

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HANDOUT 14: BEING AN UPSTANDER DURING THE HOLOCOAST NEW YORK TIMES: RISKING TORTURE AND DEATH TO SAVE JEWS DURING THE HOLOCAUST By Jonathan Blaustein July 23, 2018 In 1986, Rabbi Harold Schulweis recruited Malka Drucker, a children’s book author, and Gay Block, a fine art portrait photographer, to embark on a project documenting “Rescuers,” non-Jewish Europeans who risked torture and death to save Jews during the Holocaust. There were ceremonies for these brave souls at Yad Vashem, the Holocaust Memorial in Jerusalem, where they were honored and trees were planted. But their accomplishments were little known. “I met Malka in 1985,” Ms. Block said in a recent interview, “and in 1986 she said to me: ‘My rabbi, Harold Schulweis, from Encino, is a great, great man. He has been wanting someone to write a book about the rescuers for 25 years.’Nobody had wanted to pay attention to their stories because Holocaust survivors said that it whitewashed the Holocaust, and he had never gotten anyone to do it.” The writer and photographer began interviewing some of the rescuers who had relocated to Southern California, but they eventually traveled to Canada and Europe for 100 interviews. They worked on the project from 1986 to 1988, and in 1992 Ms. Block had a solo exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. A separate traveling show was produced by Curatorial Assistance, and traveled to 50 venues over 11 years. Ms. Drucker wrote the original text, Ms. Block made the portraits and edited the interviews, and Cynthia Ozick contributed an introduction to the resulting book, “Rescuers: Portraits of Moral Courage in the Holocaust.” Now it’s the 30th anniversary of the “Rescuers” project, and in a time replete with misinformation and unsettling incidents of racial and religious violence, Ms. Block hopes to bring the exhibit back for the 21st century. She says these stories can inspire others to stand strong in difficult times. “Each rescuer was so different; was their own person,” she said. “There wasn’t any kind of formula. But by the time we met them so many years later, they didn’t always have such an easy life. It was the biggest privilege of my life to be able to meet these people.”

Maria, Countess von Maltzan, was a veterinarian living in East Berlin at the time of her interview. She told of being raised on an 18,000-acre estate in the Silesia region of Germany, to fabulous wealth, a doting father and a cruel and unforgiving mother. Familial rebelliousness first drove her to become a member of the underground in Berlin during the war. “It was easy for me to resist Nazi authority because I had always resisted my mother’s authority,” she said. THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

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HANDOUT 14: BEING AN UPSTANDER DURING THE HOLOCOAST, CONT’D The countess hid Jews in a secret compartment in her sofa (among other places) and once dared an SS officer to shoot at it while her future husband, Hans, was still was inside. (He failed to call her bluff, thankfully.) “I was a queen on the black market all during the war,” she recalled, “but I had to be good at it because I had so many extra people to feed. I always said, no matter what came along, ‘I prefer to be in a tough situation than to go to bed with a bad conscience.’”

Gustav Mikulai was raised in a Social Democrat family in Budapest and grew up with Jewish friends and neighbors. As a budding musician, he was impressed by the Jewish students he encountered in school. “The Jews were capable and everyone was envious,” he said. “I understood that from the beginning. I couldn’t be anti-Semitic, first because I thought it would be immoral, and second because I thought well enough of myself that I didn’t need to be envious of them.” Mr. Mikulai eventually married a Jewish musician and then hid her and her parents when the Germans invaded in March 1944. From that point on, he dedicated himself to saving as many Jews as possible. Being a resistance fighter required huge sacrifice, because, as he said, “I found during this time of the Holocaust that I could kill anyone who was suspicious of me. It was a terrible time for humanity.” Mr. Mikulai was able to look back knowing that he was no bystander, watching while the world was subsumed by chaos. Reflecting from his perch in Bonn, Germany, he knew he had made a difference. “I think in all I was able to save at least 50 people, and maybe 80 or a hundred,” he said. “I’m happy about the times Iwas able to rescue children who, now married and with children of their own, who’ll not have had such a life without my help.”

Jan Karski was a Polish spy who eventually became a professor at Georgetown University in Washington. Like a reallife James Bond, he once skied across Slovakia into Hungary on a mission and was eventually caught by the Germans before being rescued by the Polish resistance. Shortly thereafter, he was recruited by the Jewish underground to take news of the Warsaw ghetto, and the annihilation of the Jews, directly to Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt. But first, he had to visit the ghetto to see for himself. “The ghetto was macabre,” he said in his interview. “It was not a world. It was not a part of humanity. I did not belongthere. I vomited blood that night. I saw horrible, horrible things I will never forget. So I agreed to do what they asked ofme.” THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

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HANDOUT 14: BEING AN UPSTANDER DURING THE HOLOCOAST, CONT’D “The ghetto was macabre,” he said in his interview. “It was not a world. It was not a part of humanity. I did not belongthere. I vomited blood that night. I saw horrible, horrible things I will never forget. So I agreed to do what they asked of me.” Mr. Karski managed to meet with both leaders, but was disappointed to hear they were unwilling to put resources directly to stopping the Holocaust, as their focus was on the war. (“Helping Jews was no advantage to the Allied war strategy,” he said.) When he asked the president what message he should take back to Poland, Roosevelt replied: “‘You will tell them we shall win the war and the enemy will be punished for their crimes. Justice will prevail. Tell your nation that they have a friend in this house. This is what you will tell them.’”

Zofia Baniecka, from Warsaw, was visiting her friend Ruth in Staten Island when she was interviewed for the “Rescuers” project. She and her mother had been integral to the Polish resistance after her father was killed by a Russian bomb in 1941. Unlike some other rescuers, she and her mother evaded detection the entire time they fought the Nazis. “I was never interrogated or nearly caught, though I don’t know why,” she said. “I was just lucky. Luck, it was only luck, because I kept people and guns in my house from the winter of 1941 until the Polish uprising in August 1944.” She was consistent with many of her fellow rescuers, however, in stating her desire that these stories be shared well into the future. “There are many people who have saved my belief in humanity, and that is why it is important for people to know about this time, of Poland during the war, and that there were those of us who did try to save Jews,” she said. “It is necessary for the children to know that there were such people.” Aart and Johtje Vos lived in an artist colony called Laren, near Amsterdam, and their home became a reliable stop on the underground. (So much so that they once had 36 people hiding there.) “More and more people came to hide in our house,” Johtje said. “We had mattresses all over the floor, and they had to be camouflaged in case the Germans came.” The couple’s bravery ruffled feathers within the home, with one of their own children questioning the risks they were taking. It was never a question for them, though, as they couldn’t stand idly by while the Germans picked off their fellow countrymen. “Holland was like a family and part of that family was in danger,” Aart said. “In this case, the Jewish part. The Germans were threatening our family. We weren’t thinking, ‘What shall we do?’ We just did.” THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

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HANDOUT 14: BEING AN UPSTANDER DURING THE HOLOCOAST, CONT’D Helene Jacobs, who was born in Berlin, worked with a group called Confessing Church to provide false papers and identification to German Jews. Eventually, her counterfeit ring was tracked down by the Gestapo, and she was arrested in 1943. In her interview, she said: “From childhood I believed that each of us who is given the gift of life is responsible for our own life and for what and whom we decide to surround ourselves. This is why I fought Nazism.” Ms. Jacobs spent 20 months in prison for her “crimes,” and when she was released, discovered that her home had been burned. As a German who battled the Nazis, she felt it was her duty to fight. “I always knew how dangerous it was, but I did it for humanity, and because I was a patriot,” she said. “I was ashamed of what the German people were doing.” Agnieszka Budna-Widerschal was interviewed in Israel, where she lived with her second Jewish husband, Shimon. She sheltered her first Jewish husband, Motl, in Poland during the war and also saved his brothers. She described her brazen plan to sneak her brothers-in-law through the ghetto to safety: “I pretended to be drunk while the two brothers walked on either side of me, each of them holding me under my arm. There were Nazis all over the street. I knew we would surely run into one of them, and when we did he just took one look at me and said with disgust, ‘Ach, that’s just like a Pole!’ And he walked his way and we went ours!” Though her family came through World War II intact, Motl died soon after from diabetes. Worse yet, in 1954, during a period of rising anti-Semitism, Agnieszka’s daughter Bella was murdered by a gang of Polish teenagers. Agnieszka and Shimon moved to Israel a few years later.

Pieter and Joyce Miedema were interviewed in their home in Canada, where they emigrated in 1952. He had been a Presbyterian minister in Holland and was an early proponent of helping Jews in the face of the Nazi onslaught. He had a stroke late in life, and his wife spoke on his behalf. They had worked together to shelter and support Jews during the war. “He thought he should practice what he preached,” she said. “He was always one step ahead,” and told his congregants, “‘If you opt against opening your home and heart to an innocent fugitive, you have no place in the community of the just.’” THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

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HANDOUT 14: BEING AN UPSTANDER DURING THE HOLOCOAST, CONT’D Semmy Riekerk worked with her husband, Joop Woortman, to save Jews for the Dutch resistance. “My sister helped, too, but I didn’t know it at the time,” she said in her interview. “You never told anyone anything they didn’t have to know. My husband used anyone he could trust.” Beginning in 1942, they organized efforts to steal and forge papers to help Jews escape, but later focused their energies on saving children. (Ms. Riekerk adopted a refugee during the war.) When Joop Woortman was captured, and later killed in Bergen Belsen in 1944, Ms. Riekerk took up his mantle and did the work herself. “I had to carry on his work until the end of the war,” she said. “They gave me the book that listed 300 names and said: ‘These are the people who are hiding children. You have to take them ration cards and money every month.’ The banks provided money from the Dutch government-in-exile, and our organization provided the ration cards.” Johannes de Vries, a coal miner, and his wife, Janke, took two Jewish children — abrother and sister named Salomon and Eva Haringman — into their home in southern Holland in 1942. They raised them alongside their own two children, and were also foster parents for other refugees, short term, as a part of an underground railroad. Eventually, the Jewish children were reunited with their mother in Amsterdam after the war and then moved to Israel when she died in 1947. By the time Gay Block and Malka Drucker interviewed Mr. de Vries, he was living in Ontario and going by the nickname Joe. Recalling Mrs. Haringman’s original predicament, he said, “What it must have been like for that mother to give up her children to someone she didn’t know.” Stefania Podgorska Burzminski, born in a small village in Poland, was interviewed above her husband Joe’s dentist office in Massachusetts. She had saved him, and two of his brothers, by hiding a cohort of 13 Jews in a cottage she procured during the war. Joe’s parents and two of his other brothers had been taken by the Nazis, but he escaped by jumping from a train and soon showed up at Stefania’s house. “Poor Joe, he was filthy and his clothes were rags,” she recounted. “I gave him my nightgown to wear. Joe cried all night, and my sister laughed at him in my nightgown. I explained to my sister who Joe was, that he was a Jew, that Germans wanted to kill him, and that we had to help him.”

THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

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HANDOUT 14: BEING AN UPSTANDER DURING THE HOLOCOAST, CONT’D Ultimately, they survived the war, and Joe converted to Catholicism in order to marry Stefania. It was very difficult for her to discuss the past, and Ms. Block returned a year later for a second interview to better understand the story. “I work hard all day now, helping Joe in his dentist’s practice,” she told her. “Every time I have to do an interview like this, it brings back all the memories and I can’t sleep for some nights.” Alex and Mela Roslan were living in Clearwater, Fla., when “Rescuers” was shot. They were originally from Poland and lived near Bialystok during the war. Alex had a textile business and noticed his Jewish clientele were disappearing, so he put on a star and entered the ghetto. “I saw so many children, hungry and starving,” he said. “They were so skinny. The parents had been taken to ‘farms,’ but we knew what that meant. I came home and told Mela we had to do something. We decided to go to Warsaw.” The young couple took an apartment and eventually hid three young, wealthy brothers: Jacob, Sholom and David Gutgelt. Though they were never discovered, tragedy struck regardless, as Sholom died of illness, and the Roslans’ son Yurek was killed by a Nazi sniper. But Jacob and David survived the war and were eventually reunited with their father in Israel. Alex and Mela moved to America, and they all lost contact for years. In 1980, though, David moved to America to study at the University of California, Berkeley, and was reunited with the family that saved his life. “At first I didn’t recognize him,” Alex said. “I hadn’t seen him in so long, and he had a beard. But then he threw his arms around me. David is a mathematician, and Jacob is a nuclear scientist.”

nytimes.com/2018/07/23/lens/holocaust-jews-rescuers.html

THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

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GLOSSARY Articulation - The clear and precise pronunciation of words. Character - The personality or part an actor re-creates. Collaboration - the act of working together in a joint intellectual effort. Conflict - the opposition of persons or forces giving rise to dramatic action in a play. Dialogue - the conversation between actors on stage. Diction - the pronunciation of words, the choice of words, and the manner in which a person expresses himself or herself. Exposition - detailed information revealing the facts of a plot. Gesture - a physical movement that communicates a feeling or portrays an image. Informal theatre - a theatrical performance that focuses on small presentations, such as one taking place in a classroom setting. Usually, it is not intended for public view. Injustice - lack of fairness or justice. Monologue - a long speech by a single character. Motivation - a character’s reason for doing or saying things in a play. Pitch - The highness or lowness of the voice. Positive Space - where the dancer’s body is when dancing. It is the space where people mostly look when watching dancers. Primary Sources - immediate, first-hand accounts of an event, object, person, work of art, etc. from people who had a direct connection to the subject. Primary sources include historical and legal documents, eyewitness accounts, diaries, speeches, etc. Projection - The placement and delivery of volume, clarity, and distinctness of voice for communicating to an audience. Protagonist - the main character of a play and the character with whom the audience identifies most strongly. Reader’s Theatre - A performance created by actors as a reaction to specific text; interpretive rather than scripted. Script - the written text of a play. Secondary Sources - documents that describe, discuss, interpret, comment upon, analyze, evaluate, summarize, and process primary sources. Secondary sources include articles in newspapers, book or movie reviews, or articles found in scholarly journals that discuss or evaluate someone else’s original research. Social Injustice - unfair and unjust relations between the individual and society, measured by the unequal distribution of wealth, unequal opportunities for personal activity, and unequal social privileges. Social Justice - the push towards or equal access to wealth, opportunities, and privileges within a society. Staged Reading - a form of theatre without sets or full costumes. The actors read from scripts, and may sit, stand, or incorporate minimal stage movement. Tableau - A silent and motionless depiction of a scene created by actors, often from a picture. The plural is tableaux. Teamwork - the collective effort of a group of people. Trust - confidence and trust in the reliability of someone. Vocal Variety - using word inflection, breath and pitch to portray emotion through language. Vocal Quality - the characteristics of a voice such as shrill, nasal, raspy, breathy, booming, and so forth. THE BROAD STAGE AT THE SANTA MONICA COLLEGE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER THEBROADSTAGE.ORG/EDUCATION 1310 11TH ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90401 / 310.434.3560

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The Diary of Anne Frank 18/19 (Grades 6-8)  
The Diary of Anne Frank 18/19 (Grades 6-8)