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Sussex Ranger’s best pubs & What’s on? 25

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MS Breakthrough & The COVID-19 vaccine 29 Activists of Brighton 22-23

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Editor-in-Chief Josh Talbot badger@sussexstudent.com Print Production Editor Ellie Doughty Online Production Editor Georgia-May Keetch Print Production Sub-Editor Gurpreet Raulia Online Production Sub-Editor Margaret Arabambi Marketing Managers Alex Norman Sarah Wong The News Team Oliver Mizzi Joshua McLaughlin Sam Kimbley Ewan Vellinga Grace Curtis badger-news@sussexstudent. com The Comment Team Issy Anthony Will Day Libby Mills Joel Renouf-Cooke badger-opinion@sussexstudent. com The Features Team Alana Harris Olly Williams Teddy Parkin Beth Pratt badgerfeatureseditor@gmail. com The Arts Team Jessica Hake Robyn Cowie badger-arts@sussexstudent.com The Books Team Jasmine Smith Eric Barrell thebadger.bookseditor@gmail. com The Music Team Alice Barradale Percy Walker-Smith thebadger.musiceditor@gmail. com The Film & Television Team Yazz James The Theatre Team Elijah Arief Harrison Fitzgerald thebadger-theatre@gmail.com The Artist Focus Team Luisa De La Concha Montes thebadger.street@gmail.com The Travel & Culture Team Hal Keelin Bryony Rule Katya Pristiyani badger.travelculture@gmail.com The Sports Team Charlie Batten Max Killham thebadger.sport@gmail.com The Science & Technology Team Isaac Hallé Eleanor Deane thebadger.science@gmail.com Events and Publicity Jess Dingle Grace Ochieng Proof Readers Yasmine Yaguer Jake Nordland

Editorial Josh Talbot Editor-in-Chief

Ellie Doughty Print Production Editor

Hello again! You're joining us for the third edition of The Badger and what an edition it is! The team and I would like to thank you for reading and wish you well this term,

Hello everyone, welcome back to the third edition of The Badger! We seem to be speeding through what is left of 2020, somehow it is already October... and Sainsbury’s are already advertising their Christmas menu. If you, like me, would like to avoid the catastrophe that is our current political, social and cultural climate for a minute then head over to our Sports section for some Formula 1 and Premier League updates, among others. Arts is also serving up a juicy selection of theatre, book,

yourself. Something that’s at times painfully obvious is that this term is just different. In Comment this edition they ask the question of whether we should be at university at all in these times of uncertainty. Afterall, where’s the fun in being locked up in your accomodation, burdened with the blame of the speading a deadly virus, on a national stage? When everything is so intense and you are battling a third year work load, with perhaps a part time job, society involvement and, most problematically, the over arching threat of COVID-19 it has become more important than ever to take plasure from the small thing. Whether that’s a microadventure or a COVIDsafe event to go to, Travel and Culture have you covered in this edition. Perhaps sitting you forget about the worldcheck out the Arts section for recomendations of, Film, TV, Books and Theatre to lose yourself in! Your time out might even involve checking in with news where you’re not- check out our News section for a look at stories relevant to you, from the local to the international. Finally, it’s possible that none of these options appeal to you quite like the prospect of writing and letting people know of your experiences at in this position, I implore you to get in contact with us! We hold a writers’ meeting weekly on a Friday at 12 and are always looking for fresh your student newspaper. As always, I hope this well. Read, relax and enjoy!

recommendations, with a seasonal Halloween twist. If you’re looking for something to occupy your Sundays, head over to Travel and Culture for some local Brighton recommendations. Of course if you’re a Badger consumer that comes here to keep up with what’s happening in the world, our Science and Tech section has some interesting reads on current COVID-19 vaccination developments and an important piece on climate change in light of International Day of Climate Action on October 24th. An incredibly important piece has been written in collaboration with the Sussex student publication BRICK for this week’s edition, in memoriam to Chadwick Boseman. I recommend anyone reading this sentence to head over to Features and check that out soon. Another feature piece on the experience of Freshers in lockdown provides a really crucial perspective on those members of our community who are really struggling, and more. The Big Debate this week asks the question of whether students should have been allowed to return / go to University, and News this week has taken a look at Facebook and its new ban on QAnon, the most recent winner of the Nobel Peace Prize, the Presidential debate, Sussex’s care packages for self isolating students and more. As always, feel free to join our weekly writers meetings to pitch any ideas you have, or drop us an email or message at any point; we love hearing from you! Enjoy...

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The Badger 19th October 2020

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important to make clear that COVID-19 was not transmitted between any members of our training sessions or socials.”

Also speaking with The Badger on whether he thought the UEG’s decision was a fair one, Sussex Men’s Rugby Club President Jake Casali commented: “All sports societies were working their hardest alongside the Students’ Union to ensure we followed guidelines and procedures, so for us to be blindsided with the decision was completely unfair and unjust.” Following three reported cases of COVID-19 within the society, Jake added: “We’ve been checking up on members who have tested positive every few days. With regards to the future, we will continue to make training sessions more safe by using temperature checkers and implementing more social distancing, however, I think it’s

“As an Executive Team, we are increasingly concerned with University management’s approach to decision making in such a turbulent time. It’s more important than ever that the student voice is taken into account and this needs to be through channels independent to the University.” As of 16 October, the number of active COVID-19 cases within the Sussex community has reached 56, with 28 students on and off campus self-isolating, respectively. within the past few days from 76 reported cases on 14 October,

when one member of staff off campus, 56 students on campus and 19 students off campus contracted the virus. Despite all society-based sports activity coming to a halt, Sussex Sport – the University’s sports service, is continuing to operate the gyms at the Sport Centre and Falmer Sports Complex and run exercise classes, sports halls, tennis courts and pitches in a COVIDsecure manner. Additionally, Active US - a joint sports collaboration between Sussex Sport and the Students’ Union, remains active. the Brighton and Sussex Medical School also remain open. Questioned by The Badger on their reasoning and position behind the suspension, Sussex has responded: “We know that many students were

disappointed that we had to temporarily suspend team sports at Sussex. We did not take this decision lightly but we have a duty to ensure the safety and wellbeing of all our community. “We appreciate all the hard work that the Students’ Union puts into sport at Sussex and, in particular, the detailed work around risk assessments to keep everybody safe. Ideally, we would have preferred to give them more notice but on this occasion we had to move at pace. “Whilst this was clearly frustrating for students, this action was necessary, and will hopefully mean that students

hopeful that team sports will resume at Sussex very soon and in a away that continues to protect the health of all our students and staff.”

courts soon, enjoying activities that are so important to both mental and physical health. “We are keeping this situation under close review and are

“Whilst this was clearly frustrating for students, this action was necessary, and will hopefully mean that students are back on the enjoying activities that are so important to both mental and physical health.” The Badger reached out to Sussex Sport for questioning and a statement on the recent suspension of sports, despite their facilities remaining open, but they have not provided a response.

Madeira Drive re-opens amidst Covid-19 travel measures Jake Nordland Staff Writer

Greens and Labour had come round on the issue. He welcomed the reversal in position, but expressed disappointment that his compromise agreement had initially been rejected by councillors in August. Support grew for the change in policy after environmental groups also backed the compromise of a one-way reopening. According to The Argus, Brighton’s Friends of the Earth described it as a ‘win, win’ that would “change Madeira Drive for the better”.

In a U-turn, the council announced the reopening of Malast week, the latest front in a debate over plans to improve Brighton’s cycle and pedestrian infrastructure amidst Covid-19. The road will allow one-way vehicle access Eastward from the Pier roundabout to Duke’s Mound. Parking bays will be removed on the south side to make way for a two-way cycling lane, but space will be kept for 13 new Blue Badge parking spots. The change in policy came after local businesses voiced concerns over a decrease in customers, with Brighton Palace Pier CEO Anne Ackford warning it may cause traders to permanently shut. Disability groups also highlighted a lack of disabled access and parking on the seafront, as Madeira Drive’s disabled parking bays were made inaccessible by the closure. The council’s Environment, Transport & Sustainability (ETS) committee voted in August to keep Madeira Drive closed, but moved to reconsider the decision in a council meeting last week after mounting pressure from local campaigners. The Argus reported last month that the permanent closure of the road would cost an estimated £1.8m per year due to the loss of parking revenue. It was also revealed in the ETS stationed at the entrance to the closed road were costing the council £382 each day. Madeira drive, which stretches along Kemptown’s seafront, was closed in April in a bid to improve exercise spaces at the

The plan, which has received almost £650,000 in funding from the Department of Transport, introduced temporary cycle lanes along the seafront and Old Shoreham Road, pavement widening

Malc McDonald start of lockdown. The U-turn comes amidst extensive council plans to improve cycle and pedestrian infrastructure across the city in response to the pandemic. The changes are part of the Green Party council’s Covid-19 Urgent Response Transport Action Plan, which implemented emergency accommodations to travel in the wake of Covid-19.

The changes are part of the Green Party council’s Covid-19 Urgent Response Transport Action Plan, which implemented emergency accommodations to travel in the wake of Covid-19. The plan, which has received almost £650,000 in funding from the Department of Transport, introduced temporary cycle lanes along the seafront and

Old Shoreham Road, pavement across the city, as well as the closure of Madeira Drive. But the Action Plan, which is said to be temporary until the Covid-19 pandemic eases, has proven to be a source of local contention. Tory councillor Lee Wares, the Conservative spokesperson for Transport, expressed concern that the council were using Covid-19 as an excuse to introduce changes that they otherwise couldn’t pass. Mr Wares was quoted in Brighton & Hove News as saying some measures are “clearly becoming wholesale structural transport network changes to which every effort will be made to make them permanent”. He went on to note that the “problem is, they are being introduced at such great speed,

any proper analysis of their impact is not being done”. Mr. Wares, who put forward the Conservative’s proposal in August to reopen Madeira drive one-way, said he was happy the

the city, as well as the closure of Madeira Drive. Debate continues over the extension of A259 and Old Shoreham Road cycle lanes and other transport changes in the city.

Judithcomm


The Badger 19th October 2020

News

4 Facebook doubles down on QAnon ban Facebook announced it will start banning all QAnon-associated accounts from its platforms.

.

“Conspiracy theories that falsely blame secret cabals or marginalized groups for society’s ills have long fueled prejudice, violence and terrorism,” said

Matteo Marchionni In a blog post, the social media giant declared that Facebook Pages, Groups, and Instagram accounts linked to the QAnon

the resolution. In a statement, Riggleman pointed out that “QAnon and the theories it promotes are a danger and a threat that has no place in our country’s politics”. But others, like the House’s Libertarian member Justin

removed. that

an

anonymous

person

ring composed of paedophiles in the media and the Democratic Party. Facebook says it is taking action against QAnon because the movement is using its presence on Zuckerberg’s platforms to fuel violence outside the online domain,

action being taken against QAnon, as they believe such actions are a threat to freedom of speech. After the resolution resolution threatens protected speech (absurd as that speech may be), and its prescriptions for addressing QAnon aren’t

and has put public safety at risk. The ban is an expansion of the social media’s already existing restrictions on the conspiracy been in place since August 19 of this year. Facebook claimed that in the policy “removed over 1,500 Pages and Groups for QAnon containing discussions of “believe these efforts need to be QAnon.” The previous version of the policy only deleted Facebook Groups, Pages, and Instagram

Anthony Quintano

discussed potential violence. In addition, it hampered the reach of QAnon-associated content to users. The latest update builds on this to ban all Facebook Groups, Pages, and Instagram accounts they contain no violent content. In order to enforce its amendment to the policy, continue to actively spot and remove QAnon content

manually through its Dangerous Organizations Operations team, instead of relying on reports by users. Facebook’s ban is part of a bigger trend of removing the pro-Trump movement from social media. Already in July of on content related to the conspiracy theory. The company claimed to ban 7000 accounts, block QAnon-related links from being shared on its platform, and remove recommendations

of QAnon-related accounts.

about them.” President Trump also voiced his opinion on QAnon in a recent

movement has also come from much about the movement besides that they like me very States House of Representatives much” and “I heard these are people that love our country.” Whether restricting QAnon’s of a bipartisan resolution against QAnon on October 2. of to be a point of discussion, but Facebook’s latest update to its sponsored by Representatives policy regarding the conspiracy theory is a clear indicator of the Jersey Democrat, and Denver company’s position on this issue. Riggleman, a Republican from Virginia. 371-18

votes

in

favour

World Food Programme wins the Noble Peace Prize

Sam Kimberly On the 9th of October the Peace Prize to the World Food Programme (WFP), for its efforts in improving access to food in

obligation to not use hunger as The Nobel Committee has

bring attention to the “threat of hunger.” The committee also applauded the organisations

The WFP is a part of the United Nations and has helped

states together to act against problems of food security.

lacked access to food across 88 countries.0

The WFP is a part of the United Nations and has helped almost 100 million people who lacked access to food across 88 countries. prize reasoned that hunger and a “vicious circle” therefor to prevent hunger and create food security is “to improve prospects

The Chief of the WFP David Beasley has said that he and the organisation were “deeply humbled” to recieve such a prize

Eun Ha Kim for stability and peace.” Nobel Committee stressed the efforts of the WFP to get the UN Security Council to unanimously

vote a resolution that “explicitly Security Council also stated that UN member states have an

the arrival of COVID-19. Beasley asked for billions more dollars in aid to help face the hunger crisis caused by COVID-19 and in the long list of Nobel Peace Barack Obama, Malala Yousafzai and Martin Luther King Jr. The

to a person or organisation that encourages “the holding and promotion of peace congresses.” this year included the literature

The Chief of the WFP David Beasley has said that he and

Glück and the medicine prize to Harvey J. Alter, Michael Houghton and Charles M. Rice for discovering the vaccine

humbled” to receive such a prize but, he also emphasised the importance of ending hunger

of Chemistry, Physics Economic Sciences.

and


The Badger 19th October 2020

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U.S Supreme Court Judge to be appointed against dying wish Ellie Doughty Print Production Editor

The Senate then debates the on the nominee. If the nominee is approved, they are appointed for life. During the hearings Ms Bar-

In light of the death of Supreme Court judge Ruth Bader Ginsberg, the Whithouse has lined up a replacement, despite pressure to honour her wish to wait until after the presidential election.

covering various issues, including voter discrimination, and has mostly declined to display a position either way, instead adopting a position of respecting precedence.

Ruth Bader Ginsburg died at home. She was the second woman ever to serve on the came a feminist icon in the legal and socio-political climate of America. In her place, President Trump

Supreme Court Justices are nominated by the President, Committee holds a hearing on the nominee.

Amy Coney Barret, in a controversial move that is set to give majority. Ms Barrett is a hardline Conservative; a devout Catholic who opposes both abortion and eunocent life”. Her political stance can be described as an ‘originalist’ concerning issues such as gun rights, as she is a hardline Constitutionalist, and also shares Trump’s policies on issues such as immigration. It was an obituary published by friend of Ginsburg and well Nina Totenberg that included

largely Republican panel recently approved Senator Lindsey Graham’s motion to move forward with her nomination. The vote on the nomination is set

The Whitehouse the dying wish Ginsburg dictated to her granddaughter Clara Spera: “My most fervent wish is that I will not be replaced until a new president is installed” his democratic opponents were in fact behind this dying declathat, or was that written out by

Adam Schiff, Schumer or Pelosi - I would be more inclined to the second, it sounds so beautiful. deal or maybe a Pelosi or shifty Schiff. So that ... came out of the wind - Let’s see, I mean, maybe she did and maybe she didn’t.” After someone in that position dies, another lifelong position is made available. Supreme Court

Justices are nominated by the President, before the Senate Judiciary Committee holds a hearing on the nominee. about a month to review any necessary records in preparation for the hearings before the Judiciary Committee votes on the nomination and sends its recommendation to the Senate.

proved, the full Senate will vote days preceding the general elecSenator Mitch McConnell, the Senate majority leader told relicans “have the votes” needed that consideration would begin

Decreasing the cost of medical cannabis Eleanor Deane Science & Tech Editor

which they argue have largely medicinal use. Whilst there have been some changes in legislation, importantly, the issue of cost has remained an additional barrier.

EMMAC Life Sciences Group, Europe’s largest independent cannabis company has become medicinal cannabis supply chain. The co-founder and managing

medicinal cannabis can cost

McDermott,

and paying for treatment. In a feature from the BMJ in

moment’

for

has the

In many cases, patients end

described medical

Grow Biotech stated that of the

In an announcement to the 2020, EMMAC stated that this control of a vertically integrated cannabis more affordable. Medical cannabis consists of products derived from the cannabis plant, including THC and CBD. THC is the component that causes the ‘high’, whereas CBD is not intoxicating at typical doses. Cannabis extract and cannabidiol are both currently used medically in rare specialist

for use by specialists to control certain symptoms in multiple sclerosis. A large analysis of studies found the effectiveness in this area to be limited and use is not recommended due to poor cost-effectiveness. Cannabidiol can be prescribed by specialists in the treatment of two rare forms of childhood epilepsy. Beyond these two applications, regulatory challenges have acted as a barrier to the collation safety of medicinal cannabis.

Cannabis extract is licensed

placebo-controlled randomised controlled trials, which is the current gold-standard of evidence. However, in an article published in the British Medical Professor David Nutt and colleagues highlight that the European Medicines Agency licence many medications without this level of evidence. They suggest that a potential reason for resistance is recreational cannabis use, such

private healthcare. These high costs may partly be due to different companies being involved at each step in the supply chain, meaning costs mount progressively at each stage in the chain.

in the supply chain, removing additional expenses. EMMAC cultivating and processing to manufacture and distribution. As reported on the BBC,

one patient recounts he was

paying £40 per month for treatment through a private clinic due to the new changes from EMMAC. A 2020 report from the centre for medicinal cannabis estimates that the vast majority of the estimated

this may lead to problems with If medicinal cannabis were to be cheaper than cannabis sourced result in positive consequences for these patients. In their BMJ article published in September, Professor David Nutt and colleagues highlighted a need to conduct a full health economic analysis in order to clarify cost implications of prescriptions as quality costsaving analyses are currently these recent changes in the supply chain might impact these economic evaluations of costeffectiveness.


The Badger 19th October 2020

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Oliver Mizzi News Editor

Ardern Victorious Max Kilham Sports Online Editor

Hazhk


The Badger 19th October 2020

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Election candidates turn to rallies after Trump’s COVID diagnosis Kate Carrignton Staff Writer

The Commission on Presidential Debates issued their statement on the 9th October, presenting a very different image of what happened. CPD initially stated that the October 15th debate would be “conducted virtually”.

The Commission on Presidential debates (the regulatory body that runs and controls the Presidential debates) announced on the 9th October that the second Presidential debate, set to be held in Miami on the 15th October, would be cancelled after the President refused to take part in any sort of virtual or remotely held debate. The virtual plans for the debate had arisen after President Trump tested positive for Covid-19. This cancellation is the result of a 48hr ping-pong between the Commission and both campaigns, with President Trump and Joe Biden engaging in a war-of-words on social media and through campaign statenal debate, set to go ahead in Nashville on 22nd October, will of the two candidates and their policies to the American people, just twelve days before the election. Responding to the cancellation, the Trump campaign issued a statement claiming that by cancelling the debate the Commission was rushing to “Joe Bidens defence” in a “sad excuse to bail out Joe Biden”. They continue by stating that there is “no medical reason” to cancel the debate as the President

Joe Biden is still hopeful that the CPD will move the October 22nd debate so that the “President is not able to evade accountability” claiming that the “voters should have a chance to ask questions of both candidates, directly”.

Gage Skidmore will be healthy and would have posted “multiple negative tests prior to the debate”. The Trump campaign have suggested “using October 22 and October 29 which the Biden campaign have apparently refused. In replacement of the debate the Trump campaign has stated that they will have a “rally instead” with President Trump tweeting that he will be in Sanford, Florida for a “very BIG RALLY”. Unlike President Trump, the

Biden campaign stated that they were “prepared to accept the CPD’s proposal for a virtual Town Hall”. The Biden campaign claimed that President trumps refusal to accept the virtual debate was clearly due to the fact that President Trump “does not want to face questions from the voters about his failures on COVID and the economy”. A spokesman for the Biden Campaign has stated that Joe place to take questions from

voters directly on October 15th”. Joe Biden is still hopeful that the CPD will move the October 22nd debate so that the “President is not able to evade accountability” claiming that the “voters should have a chance to ask questions of both candidates, directly”. Biden calls upon historic precedent in his appeal of the Commission, stating that every Presidential candidate since 1992 has participated in a debate and that “it would be a shame if Donald

However, they go on to state that after a series of statements from both campaigns regarding “their willingness to participate in a virtual debate” both campaigns “announced alternate plans for that date” making it apparent that there will no longer be a debate on the 15th. This statement comes the day after Trump’s campaign statement of his plans to have a rally in replacement of the debate where as the Biden campaign announced their plans for alternatives the day after the announcement on the 10th October. As of yet, the debate on October 22nd is set to go ahead, with the CPD announcing that this debate will be “subject to health security considerations” including testing, social distancing and masks.

Support package announced for self-isolating students Ewan Vellinga News Online Sub-Editor Sussex students who need to self-isolate are now eligible for a support package that includes a £40 allowance for students offcampus, and a £25 allowance for students on-campus to go towards food and other essential items. The support package has been available since 12 October, with Sussex stating that it “differs for those who are living on-campus or off-campus, but is tailored to offer the support you may need.” The allowance is lower for students on campus as they will receive additional services, including a free laundry service, a package of cleaning products with disinfectant spray, bin bags and toilet rolls, and an optional meal service costing £15 per day. The optional meal service includes breakfast, lunch and a hot meal for dinner, and will be provided by SussexFood. Students that choose the option can take either 1-, 7- or 14-day meal plans costing £15, £105 or

Sussex notes that it could take several days for payments to come through, possibly even after the period of self-isolation The announcement has received criticism, with some students noting the high price of the optional meal plan. This follows earlier criticism of a food kit that Sussex offered students who were self-isolating at the beginning of term costing £25, with The Tab calculating that the contents of one kit were actually only worth £8.46.

Grace Curtis £210 respectively. Sussex has also promised a retrospective payment of £40 per week for students who were in self-isolation prior to 12 October. Anyone that has been told by the University or the NHS Covid App to self-isolate is eligible for the package. For students on campus who

have tested positive to Covid-19, Sussex will also provide a free hot meal every day, while those off-campus will be given £5 a day for a takeaway hot meal. Students will have the allowance paid into their bank accounts or as credit into their student accounts if the university does not have their bank details.

The allowance is lower for students on campus as they will receive additional services, including a free laundry service, a package of cleaning products with disinfectant spray, bin bags and toilet rolls, and an optional meal service costing £15 per day. The Metro has been similarly critical, arguing that “Sussex’s option couldn’t be further to that of Bath University, who is

offering international students that need to quarantine free meals for the duration of their time stuck indoors.” In response to The Metro, Sussex stated that “the plan is priced to cover its costs, which include preparation, packing and delivery twice a day. Each day students receive three meals, a selection of drinks and snacks – to ensure they are completely catered for.” The university also said that they are “signposting to local supermarkets with online delivery, local food delivery services, takeaways, and the Student’s Union food options, which can also be delivered.” The Residential Life Team will be in contact with students from 12 October onwards with information on how to access the support package, including the necessary form students need to complete if they have tested positive for Covid-19. Additional information on how and when to self-isolate is available on the University website.


The Badger 19th October 2020

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News Where You’re Not

Grace Curtis, News Sub-Editor, reviews some of the big stories from across the country

Glasgow – SNP MP released from hospital after recovering from brain haemorrhage Amy Callaghan, the SNP MP for East Dunbartonshire, has left hospital four months after a life-threatening brain haemorrhage. Callaghan, 28, left the Queen Elizabeth University Hospital in Glasgow on October 15th and tweeted a picture of herself triumphantly holding a crutch in the air upon her release. She said: “After 4 months in hospital, today I’ve been discharged. I’m coming home. To the miracle team at NHSGGC PDRU - now my second family - thank you, I can never, ever repay you. I was wheeled in here. Now I’m walking out. I’m just getting started too.”

Birmingham – Jonathan Browning resigns from board of the 2022 Commonwealth Games

Glasgow

Borth, Mid-Wales – Illegal zoo begins rehoming animals Last month Borth Wild Animal Kingdom, a wildlife park outside of Aberystwyth, was found to be in breach of the regulation that an armed worker must be on site every day in case of animal escape. This led to the loss of their license to keep category one carnivores. Since then, the owners of the troubled zoo have been trying to rehome their most dangerous animals: two lions and a lynx. The zoo has been closed while this process takes place and plans to open again shortly.

Jonathan Browning, a senior board member of the Birmingham 2022 Commonwealth Games organising committee has resigned from his position. According to the BBC, this was because of a “growing frustration” at “a lack of transparency”. Browning informed the government of his decision on October 5th. He is the second member of the Birmingham 2022 board to quit in recent months. In July, Dame Louise Martin stepped down from the board until concerns over a lack of diversity could be resolved. Birmingham City Council recently released the budget figures of the games, with the council’s direct contribution to the games expected to be £184 million. This makes it the most expensive sport event to be staged in the UK since the 2012 London Olympic Games.

Kent – 6-year-old boy raises £17,000 for charity

Borth Birmingham

Cornwall – Fly-tipped rubbish forces road closure

Fly-tippers have been illegally dumping building waste on Cornish road, near Camelford, for so long it has been blocked by police. A huge trail of rubbish appeared on the October 15th and, as a result, Devon and Cornwall Police closed it by 10pm. According to the BBC, Cornwall Council said that it would remove the rubbish the next day. or jail in some cases.

THE

BADGER needs you!

Hammersmith Camelford

Jacob Newson (and his dad) will walk 30 miles through Kent from RAF Manston in Ramsgate to the Battle of Britain Memorial in Folkestone on October 31st. He has already raised £17,000 for the Royal Air Force Benevolent Fund through online

as it memorialises the day the Battle of Britain ended 80 years ago. It is also Jacob’s seventh birthday.


The Badger 19th Ocotober 2020

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THE BIG DEBATE Yes Print-production Editor The question of whether we should have been sent back to university during the pandemic is a complicated and multipronged issue. There is a balancing act to be made between maintaining the safety of students wherever possible, and attempting to attain some sort of routine ‘normalcy’ to keep the universities going. I am a proponent for the choice that we have been afforded; those who are considered to be high risk have been given the choice to remain at home with their parents/guardians or work remotely from their student accommodation. This gives us the option of whether we feel as though campus is a safe enough place for us to venture once or twice a week… without forcing students to either remain at home where they may be miserable, nor to have to be here where the same eventuality is possible.

Mental health is something that has become an epidemic almost in its own right over the months of lockdown, as people navigate new levels of uncertainty, anxiety, depression, loneliness and despair. While in a situation like this, I think it’s safe to say that many students wouldn’t be happy living at home. Mental health is something that has become an epidemic almost in its own right over the months of lockdown, as people navigate new levels of uncertainty, anxiety, depression, loneliness and despair. While in a situation like this, I think it’s safe to say that many students wouldn’t be happy living at home. Not everyone has as many friends at home as they might here, not all of us have a stable or supportive home living situation, a lot of us can’t work as effectively there, and importantly some of the areas that student’s parents live could be more dangerous places to be living COVID wise than Brighton. For the sake of the mental health of students who have been lost for the last half a year, and craving something to occupy them and focus on, university is that light at the end of the tunnel. For those who feel differently, they are free to stay put. In terms of money, a lot of students all over the country have been arguing for the refunding of their tuition fees at least in part, to make up for online learning. While I understand the frustration and echo the sentiment, universities all over nancial hit during the pandemic. Some research in The Guardian suggests that UK universities are set to lose around £2.5 billion in tuition fee losses next year,

No and the Times Higher Education estimates a loss of around 30,000 jobs. Much of that money, and many of those jobs, cannot be maintained or saved by the online learning we are given the opportunity to choose. Support staff, maintenance staff, cleaning staff, catering staff, admin workers, healthcare centre staff, researchers on campus, bus drivers and many more people would lose their livelihood had the Government decided we could not go back to university. However, despite this I can appreciate that for certain students (Freshers should be going and isolating for weeks on end with little to no support, company cult. Here I must add that some of those students could have deferred a year, not all as some will have already done so in 2019, and some might be in a position where university is their only viable option. In that regard being sent back to

Comment Editor I know we’ve all heard this phrase many times, but we are living through unprecedented times, and that means that many aspects of our normal lives have had to change. Many of our parents now work from home, shopping in person is kept to a minimum, and social distancing has become the new normal. So why did students returning to university seem like an obvious decision? It shouldn’t be. The truth is, being a student during this time is actually very stressful. At any moment, you could be told your house has to go into lockdown, which we’re all at an increased risk of, given the higher number of people we live with on average compared to our family homes. Once how to get food, and also how to not go crazy being stuck in a house with people that you’ve only just moved in with. If you were living at home, this added stress would be mitigated as we’ve all spent the last few months at home anyway. I know

Should students have been sent back to University? university under these circumstances may feel more like a punishment than a privilege.

I think it is important for us all to remember that even though it’s not in the format we would have liked, we are extremely privileged to be here. Brighton is not bad in terms of COVID infection rates, we are often being given a blended learning approach with on campus facilities; many universities are not offering this, and we are able to keep studying and get our degrees. This year isn’t what anyone expected or wanted, but keeping students away from university altogether removes the autonomy of choosing where we want to live and study, maswould eradicate thousands of jobs and impact the mental health of those who need to be here. Yes, they should have sent us back.

that not everyone has an easy home life, especially at this stage in life, and by the end of lockdown we were all raring to get back to our friends and social lives. But coronavirus didn’t leave when we left for uni. In fact, with the rapidly rising rates, and university towns like Liverpool and Nottingham going into lockdown, it’s hard to not see a link. We were ushered to go back to university, and now, as many expected, the pandemic has spread. This is not students fault, though of course we will be blamed. The issue of money should also really be considered here. For many people, I know that their maintenance loan barely covers their housing, and they rely on their parents, or a job to be able to pay the rest, and then also pay for living expenses. We are currently living though an unprecedented unemployment rate, and I’ve applied for a few since I’ve been here, and saw that one coffee shop I’d applied to had had over a hundred other applicants, for a part-time job. Your chance of getting a job is incredibly slim, leaving you to rely on your parents for these additional costs. However, your parents since the beginning of the pandemic, and may not have the funds they previously had to be able to assist you. The reality for many students is that returning to

feasible.

Let’s be real: university has become a glamorised money-making scheme. While I love the subject I study and the friends I’ve made, this was not the university experience we signed up. Let’s be real: university has become a glamorised money-making scheme. While I love the subject I study and the friends I’ve made, this was not the university experience we signed up. Zoom classes, prerecorded lectures, pubs shut at 10 and we cannot visit our friend’s houses. We were all ushered to come back to uni, and it’s even worse for the freshers. While I’ve seen stories of freshers who’ve become very close with their made them bond even more, I’ve also been told of freshers at universities with far worse stories. The only meal delivered to them all day was a measly salad, and international students who weren’t until they’d arrived, and were then stuck there for two weeks. It’s hard to not feel that universities, by and large, care more about the money they get from accommodation, then the actual wellbeing of the students.

And this is not even mentioning mental health. During a global pandemic, when there is so much uncertainty and fear for the future, many students’ mental health has started to deteriorate. I know that as a fresher, I relied on knowing that if it ever got too much, I could always go home and see my parents. However, we no longer have that assurance. We now live in fear that we could bring the virus back to our vulnerable parents, and our best hope of seeing them is at Christmas, although even this is uncertain given the comments Matt Hancock made in September and the rising rates of infection. University is meant to be a time when but we’re not free, we’re trapped.


The Badger 19th October 2020

Comment Why overpopulation is an ecofacist myth

10

And why those suffering the most from the impacts of climate change and Coronavirus must not be the people who are blamed. Issy Anthony Comment Editor Now more than ever, climate change has become something we have all been thinking about. Anyone who reads the news, or even has social media, will have heard about how long we have left before climate change is irreversible (and probably panicked). We will have seen different ideas about how we can help the climate, from going vegan to boycotting companies who majorly contribute to carbon emissions. And while there is a lot of positive climate activism out there, we need to be aware of one sinister idea that has crept into view– ecofacism. What is ecofacism you ask? It was described by Mikaela Loach, cohost of The Yikes Podcast and environmental activist, as ‘an ideology that marries white supremacy with environmentalism’. Ecofacism often hides itself under the shield that it is trying to heal the planet. For example, at the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic, you may have heard or seen the phrase ‘we are the virus’. This is an example of ecofacism. The School of Public Health at Harvard reported that while there seems to be no direct link between the Coronavirus and climate change, ‘climate change alters how we relate to other species on earth and that matters to our health and our risk for infections’. Global warming means animals from sea and land are heading to the poles, meaning more intergration and a higher chance of crossover of pathogens. The increase of infectious diseases in the past few decades are largley t the reult of contact from animals to humans, showing this to be true. However, those responsible forclimate change are not the ones having to pay the price for the virus. Saying that ‘humans are the virus’ and that the ‘planet is healing’ is bad because it makes it sound like these deaths are needed, and that climate activism should be put above human rights. It shouldn’t -climate justice and human rights must go hand in hand. First of all, we have to address that environmentalism has a racist history. In America, one of servationist movement was a man called Maddison Grant. He was wealthy and educated, and dedicated time to helping to de-

Nick Wood velop areas of wildlife conservation. But his most infamous work was his book, titled ‘The Passing of the Great Race’, where he wrote that the ‘superior’ nordic race was being overtaken by the Alpine and Mediterranean races. This work was, sadly, very measures of the 1924 Immigration Act that limited immigration from eastern and southern Europe and Africa and banned any immigration from Asia and the Middle East. It was then called his ‘Bible’ by Adolf Hitler. Jedediah Purdy wrote in the New Yorker how ‘Roosevelt, in his accounts of hunting, could not say enough about the “lordly” and “noble” elk and buffalo that he and Grant helped to preserve, and loved to kill’. Their conservationism was never for the good of the planet, it was for their white, wealthy, powerful friends to be able to hunt and to show off their land. Roosevelt himself used the phrase ‘race suicide’, which he accused white women of who didn’t want to have children. Clearly, overpopulation was only a concern when the people re-

producing weren’t white. This continues to this day. On The Yikes Podcast, they explained how Metro Newspaper had run an article titled ‘Coronavirus has been really good for cutting pollution in China’. This was inspired by the photos NASA released, showing the siglevels in China. But this suggests that the tens of thousands of cases, thousands of deaths, and people having to stay in their homes for months was worth it for the climate. This is yet another example of ecofacism, that environmental issues should be improved through any means possible, even if that means loss to human life. This is why a focus on climate justice is so important, as it looks for justice for all people, ronment must be intersectional. This aside, overpopulation isn’t even really the problem! When you look at per capita emissions, the idea that overpopulation is the problem, or that the global south is to blame, just isn’t true. For example, a person in Rwanda will produce

Skolstrejk för klimatet

the same level of carbon footprint in a year as someone in the UK does in six days. If that doesn’t show how unequal our impact on the environment is, maybe this will. The Yikes Podcast points out that China is 12th per capita emissions, with the UK, the US and Australia all with higher emissions, and yet we never hear population control suggested for these countries. This doesn’t even include aviation, or any of the factory work that the UK exports to other countries. We need to realise that climate problems are largely caused by inequality, and that the UK causes many environmental problems, and yet often doesn’t have to pay the price. We should also consider who suffers the most from climate change. It’s impact has already been begun to be felt, and it’s not being felt equally. Countries who are in the global south, imoping or with poor governments are found to be the hardest hit. We need to address that the real issue is the capitalism, and the over-consumption that it encouages, and yet it will be the countries who barely contribute to the problem who will suffer the consequences. I’ve heard the argument that population control actually aims to give women reproductive liberty in countries where birth control may be harder to access. Well, Mikaela Loach spoke on The Yikes Podcast about a case study she’d learned about in Bangladesh, where women were given birth control under the guise of reproductive rights, when really it was to curb the population growth. The contraception that was given to them it was hard to remove e.g IUDs. This is forced sterilisation. There are 20 businesses be-

hind a third of all carbon emissions. And yet countries in the global south are still accused of over populating the world. I think the real question is, if people really believed overpopulation was a problem, why do they continue to have children of their own? I’m sure everyone knows who David Attenborough is. He is by and large seen as a national treasure, and many of us learned much of what we know about the enviorment from his documentaries. But most will not know that he is a patron of Population Matters, an organisation that claims the main issue for the climate is overpopulation. He has claimed we’ve ‘overun’ the planet, and yes he has had his own children. While David Attenborough has done a great many positive things to bring people’s attention to the planet who many not have otherwise become involved, we need to like him accountable, to make intersectional climate justice. Trying to claim that overpopulation has more of an effect than the capitalist corporations who only care about money over the damage they are doing to the planet is ridiculous. Climate problems are being caused by inequality, and in turn the effects are being disproportionately felt because of it. Who is to say a certain group’s life is worth less than the future of the planet, but another group’s is worth more? We need to start recognising and calling out ecofacism when we see it, so that false narratives like overpopulation aren’t spread, and so that the countries and business who are in fact at fault are held accountable. We need to listen to scientists, and also to those who care about the enviorment, and all its inhabitants. We need to realise that capitalist corporations strive when we give into to over-consumption, and the idea that we must have it all. The Earth is our home, and as the saying goes, ‘there is no planet B’. This is it, and time is running out. This is not said to scare you, but rather to encourage you to act. Make sure you vote for political parties who not only will put climate change at the forefront, but the people who are hurt most by it’s effects. We can save this planet, but we have to do it together.


The Badger 19th October 2020

Comment

11

The true cost of fashion: Who made my clothes? sorts of costumes and feel less Inès Bussat Staff Writer

way we all eat and consume

many different second-hand shops. Most of my wardrobe is now composed of old fast-fashion

-

-

I believe there is still too little

-

Fashion is universal. We all wear

and environmental crisis caused by the fashion industry. were injured – most of them ufacture clothes for well-known This incident represents the ter in history. Its mediatisation way fashion is made and enabled to re-connect the broken ties sell and buy fashion. The activist movement Fash-

and social equity as core values within its process. The foundSomers describe sustainability

emotional and material - within

of sustainable and ethical cloth-

linked to fashion: brands release new collections every couple of weeks in order to maximcheaper and cheaper and quality lower and lower. The ‘excess’ trend of fashion – fast-fashion – has consequent destructive impacts. The lack of transparency from corporations and brands is

is projected to double. The present state of the fashion indusyet to come. I love fashion because I believe it is an art and a mean for selfexpression. It manifests cultures

It is crucial to understand sector but as a structured sys-

-

personality and opinion statements.

their job as a result of the panare concerned. For the Fashion demic proliferates the need for industry-wide and systemic

most of her own clothes with my chine. Each of her creations are unique and made with love. She teaches most of her friends to

seen. can do to alleviate the impacts the fashion industry has on the -

and chemical pollution. Social environment and for the vulnerable communities that inhabit it. In the process of fash-

ters and I used to accumulate -

protected and the ecosystems ble fashion is a holistic approach

how and by who it was made. The documentary The True

Inès Bussat

brands and retailers transparency and accountability. As Orsola

-

accessible it is. I believe in the revolution of

the attractive £10 price of my favourite pair of shoes.

and all us of can take part in the

know that it could have been

women and 90% of all workers

way’. If clothes are our ‘second

that the production and com-

navirus crisis as an illustration Similarly to the rest of the made by brands were either

tions and consciousness. Sustainable fashion is more than a

by which we can participate in

should commit to the clothes

The fashion industry needs tem is at the core of the issues

Another way to dress sustainably is to make the clothes our-

Inès Bussat

world I was so passionate about. It is from this realisation that my sisters and I discovered the joy

unique – or at least feels unique - and we can still accumulate all

the industry. If you would like to know more and read Fashionopolis written by Dana Thomas.


The Badger 19th October 2020

Comment

12 The Betrayal of a Generation

How acknowledging the past is a vital component in moving forward into the present. Libby Mills Comment Online Sub-Editor In 1926 historian and co-founder of the Association for the Study of African American Life and History, Carter Godwin Woodson, started a week in February dedicated solely to black history. By 1970, Kent State University celebrated what was recogMonth in February. As for the UK, it was Ghanaianborn Akyaaba Addai-Sebo who in 1987 was the catalyst for the which has gone on to be celebrated now for over 30 years. Catherine Ross, the National Caribbean Heritage Museum Editor of Black History Month 2020 describes the month as, ‘a time to look forward and celebrate the here and now’ but that it ‘isn’t just a month to be ticked off a calendar dominated by a white-washed version of history’. In order to move forward, and acknowledge history that hasn’t always been the basis of the mainstream UK curriculum. 2020 has been a year where spotlights on the reality of modern-day racism have been shone, and any myths of us living in a post-racial society have been fully distinguished. In fact, in the UK we only have to look to 2012 to the introduction of

Steve Eason the ‘Hostile Environment’ policies and to its devastating and cruel repercussions on the Windrush generation. Amelia Gentlemen’s investigation into the scandal, with her book The Windrush Betrayal, uncovered the extent of the thousands of law-abiding British citizens that were facing deportation due to their inaccurate illegal immigrant status. Gentlemen writes, ‘In their new determination to be tough on illegal immigration, unfolding in front of them.’ The whole scandal seemed to reveal out-of touch politicians, who were unaware of the reality of their new ‘Hostile Environment’ policies, with this likely being due to the lack of representation and diversity amongst the

individuals making such policies In order to understand the generation’s betrayal by their own government, it is necessary to acknowledge why by 1958 around 115,000 men and women from the West Indies had traveled over to England. After the Second World War, England was in desperate need of labourers, around 1,346,000 to be precise. Countries within the West Indies that had been colonised by the British empire were encouraged to refer to England as the ‘Mother Country’, with over 10,000 West Indian men and women volunteering to serve. To achieve the necessary labour increase, England recruited workers under the European

Voluntary Workers scheme, while in Jamaica, Empire Windrush tickets were advertised in newspapers. Individuals were given British passports claiming them as a ‘British subject: Citizen of the United Kingdom and Colonies’ with the statement: ‘Requests and requires in the Name of Her Majesty all those whom it may concern to allow the bearer to pass freely without let or hindrance and to afford him/her every assistance and protection of which he/she may stand in need.’ The Wining the needs of their ‘Mother Country’ just as they had dutifully done in the Second World War. Men and women were life in England, were encouraged to do so and yet were met with a racist reality. Their white european counterparts found work easier, were not charged extortionate rent by landlords and did not face segregation, while Winston Churchill’s colleague Harold Macmillan in 1955 wrote ‘PM thinks “Keep England White” a good slogan.’ Fast forward to 2012 and these very same individuals who had been encouraged to legally migrate to their ‘Mother Country’ as members of the Commonwealth to offer labour, were then only decades later faced tion. Gentlemen’s book saw the

untold stories of so many different individuals of whom for question mark over their citizen status. The undeniable dots of the slave trade, to the Windrush scandal are connected with the Runnymede Trust’s analysis: ‘“Black Caribbean” people are in Britain not only because the ship Empire Windrush arrived in June 1948. There are only “Black Caribbean” people because British slave ships transported people from Africa to the Caribbean.’ Just as Ross reminds us of the importance of history not being white-washed, Gentlemen poignantly describes this, in the case of the Windrush scandal, as ministers having ‘a total amnesia about Britain’s colonial past’. With politicians often eager to ‘clamp down’ on immigration, it is also important to acknowledge the truth behind the contributions of migrants, with a 2013 study estimating a net contribution of £25 billion since 2000. This is part of many Black British individuals’ history, and something that needs to be realised and remembered beyond Black History Month. To read Catherine Ross’ piece on Why Black History Month is more important than ever this year:https://www.blackhistorymonth.org.uk/article/section/ bhm-intros/why-black-history-month-is-more-importantthan-ever-this-year/

#ShareTheMicNow ‘It all started with a text and from a phone call turned into an Instagram takeover’ @sharethemicnow Libby Mills Comment Online Sub-Editor #ShareTheMicNow is a social movement that really does show the power of social media, when used in a way to connect, inform and transform. Founded by Bozoma Saint John (@badassboz), Luvvie Ajayi Jones (@luvvie), Glennon Doyle (@glennondoyle) and Stacey Bendet (@aliceandolivia). #ShareTheMicNow is unlike anything done before - this is the new and improved Instagram takeover with the aim to create social change. The concept? To ‘magnify Black women and the important work they are doing in order to catalyze change’ with white women sharing the mic. Recognising white privilege

said is in need of being ampliver from white women, to Black women for the online birth of #ShareTheMicNow. Glennon Doyle passed her mic to activist and #MeToo founder Tarana Burke. Hilary Swank passed her mic to actress and transgender rights activist Angelica Ross. Sarah Paulson passed her mic to author, academic and activist Rachel Cargle. Senator Elizabeth Warren passed her mic to current president of Planned Parenthood and social justice advocate Alexis McGill Johnson, with

@ShareTheMicNow allows white people to see where they can offer up their space to

communities who are often less heard, but where what is being

white women who took part in the takeover. This October Vanessa Kingori, British Vogue’s publishing director, and Stephanie Phair,

fetch, organised together the #ShareTheMicUK with the aim to ‘make Black History Month 2020 the most inspiring yet’. The UK Instagram takeover, has got some of the biggest British names involved lined up throughout the month, with October 1st being kick started with award-winning author Bernadine Evaristo taking over the account of journalist Christiane Amanpour. The work of Black women creatives, activists, artists and everything in between is something to be celebrated loudly. To see some of the best #ShareTheMicUK so far you head to The Sunday Times Style’s YouTube channel or you sharethemicuk.


The Badger 19th October 2020

Features

13

The conscious and unconscious of Fantasy Worldbuilding Features Sub-Editor Olly De Herrera dicsusses the problematic inspirations of Fantasy tropes.

B

right (2017), written by David Ayer and starring Will Smith, devised the somewhat unique concept of presenting human race and real-world racism as an allegory within a universe intersected with Fantasy. The movie was a critical failure and whilst I won’t attempt to unpack why in this article, I will consider how fantasy and race really intersect beyond worldbuilding and at the roots of the genre itself. The concept of employing wellknown fantasy races in a real-world setting seemed like an exciting opportunity to present an allegory on racism that would be purely objective to the audience. By inserting fantasy races and fantasy racism into our human world it was supposed that the audience could take an omnipotent view of a racial experience without being impeded by their own internalized, deeply entrenched prejudices and expectations that inevitably arise when viewing ‘real world’ racial commentary. This, in short, didn’t happen. Critics cited many reasons for the failure of the film, from lack of a screenwriter, to bad character set up and lack of worldbuilding that makes fantasy so rewarding to watch. However, I believe that the film failed to present it’s intended allegory on racism for the simple fact that it was founded on the concept of fantasy races being non emblematic of any real-world races. As writers and storytellers our creative abilities are invariably bound by what we experience in the world around us. And authors of the 80s may have imagined f lying cars, but only because they have experienced cars. All worldbuilding is in fact the art of appropriating and reshaping ideas from the real world, from concepts as innate as the struggle of good vs evil, to interpersonal emotional relationships and of course, race. Large way in which this has become problematic is the codified, fantasy racial groups that have become the basis for fantasy storytelling.

Orc’s had less of a popularised appearance pre-Tolkien, and their appearance in subsequent fantasy worlds owes almost entirely to Tolkien’s depiction. In the Lord of the Ring’s series, the Orc’s serve as a contrast to the Elves, with the Orc’s being historically slaves of the evil forces of Sauron. There is mention that the Orc’s are a ‘corrupted’ or ‘cursed’ race that originated as Elves or Men, this rhetoric bares resemblance to colonial racist science and anthropology which sought to classify non-white races as lesser-evolved humans, sometimes attributing that to their non practice of Christianity.

Matthew Lancaster -Flickr magical creatures. Elves were human like in form and their physical depiction ref lected the majority white population of the Germanic areas. The word “elf” itself is most widely understood by linguists to be from route dialogue Germanic , which cognates with many modern linguistic connotations of ‘lightness’ and ‘purity’, (Latin albus = white, Icelandic álpt = swan, English albino). It is thus understood that elves are greatly connoted with purity, lightness and all such connotations attached to the concept such as intelligence and righteousness. William Shakespeare’s “Twelfth Night” did much to popularize this depiction of humanoid Elves within Europe, but it was the fictional work of JR Tolkien that has ultimately become the modern fantasy standard for Elves.

This historic and deeply entrenched social prejudice of associating whiteness with that which is ‘civilized’ and ‘good’ not only actively exists within fantasy, but also is the very foundation of its design.

Tolkien’s elves ref lect much of the historic imagination of the fantasy race. They are of Aryan White appearance, pale with straight and often blonde hair. Within the Tolkien universe they are also presented as one of the most intelligent and ‘civilized’ of the fantasy races. This is ref lected to the reader/audience with images of western European style architecture and social structures within Elven soDick Thomas Johnson - ciety, which are intended to connote an intellectual and civilized authority. Elves, dwarfs, orcs and the likes have This cultural standard for Elves is become staples of the fantasy world, apparent across many fantasy medireplicated time and time again in mov- ums. In the globally popular Tableies, books, video games and roleplay- top rolepaying game Dungeons and ing. Dragons, Elves have increased stats in Along with this comes a predefined Intelligence and perception. In videoset of expectations on the aesthetics, game Skyrim, Elves known as the “Mer” organization, and behavior of these have several sub species of Elves. The fantasy races. classic aryan elves are called the “high Elves can be traced to have originat- elves” who refer to themselves as the ed in Germanic folklore as extremely “cultured ones”. The pale high elves are beautiful and ambivalent but capable

distinguished from the “dark elves”, a group of darker complexion elves who live a more tribal existence in the forest and are renowned for their worship of the Dadera/Dark magic. This historic and deeply entrenched social prejudice of associating whiteness with that which is ‘civilized’ and ‘good’ not only actively exists within fantasy, but also is the very foundation of its design. To some, this may seem like a cynical overthinking of a much-loved genre. It is hard to criticize that which is coveted so fondly in both childhood and adulthood memories. However, there is sobering evidence from Tolkien himself as to the conscious racist implications of his worldbuilding. When describing the design of Orcs, Tolkien stated these characters to be: “squat, broad, f lat-nosed, sallowskinned, with wide mouths and slant eyes: in fact degraded and repulsive versions of the (to Europeans) least lovely Mongol-types”. The colonial era in which Tolkien lived is responsible for imaging many of the enduring racial stereotypes we see today. Codified racist stereotyping was once -and often still is- an academic tool used to justify the invasion, enslavement and oppression of nonwhite, non-European groups. It is argued by many that Tolkien employing these stereotypes was part of an inherently anti-racist and somewhat satirical allegory within his work; and whilst this article is not seeking to criticize Tolkien himself, it is relevant to assess how these stereotypes perpetrate racist ideology. Orcs, like elves, had mention preexisting modern fantasy depiction. Etymologically, Orcneas appears in Latin text as an alternative name for Greek God Pluto, God of the underworld. It is understood to consist of Latin orcus = The underworld, and cognate with the Gothic nausea = corpse, and Old English dryhtné = warrior’s dead body (note – né). It can be thus interpreted that the Orcneas originated as the depiction of undead, inhabitants from the underworld.

By employing this nomadic and tribal imagery when representing savagery and evil we create a condemning representation of that which is non-European, especially when it is contrasted with a western, more associable race and structure within the same universe. Orc’s throughout fantasy storytelling play the role of ‘savages’, (contrasting to the ‘civilised’). In Dungeons and Dragons, the Orc race loses base stats for intelligence in favour of strength. In Skyrim, Orc’s are noted for being the only race without a homeland, instead they exist as a diasporic warrior group living mainly in mountain areas. A prevailing theme in the depiction of Orc’s is one of nomadic and tribal existence. Orc’s appear more as groups than individuals, with tribal identities as oppose to personal ones, their clothing is often animal skin as oppose to the European cotton clothing of humans and Elves. By employing this nomadic and tribal imagery when representing savagery and evil we create a condemning representation of that which is non-European, especially when it is contrasted with a western, more associable race and structure within the same universe. Returning to Bright, it is note-worthy that the Orc race was chosen to represent the Black community in America, experiencing segregation, police brutality and depicted with stereotypical ‘urban’ fashion and musical affiliation. Good vs Evil, or Light vs Dark is the ultimate allegory of storytelling, especially so in fantasy. It is a rewarding experience and one which exists and has existed across societies and communities in all forms. Fantasy as a genre suffers from Eurocentrism and understanding this gives us an insight into just how galvanizing the effects of institutionalised racism is on the unconscious, or conscious, bias. What I’ve said today just scratches the surface of what can be said about a European genre of storytelling that has come to be loved by people of all backgrounds.


The Badger 19th October 2020

Features

14 George Floyd: How Did We Get Here?

G

Staff writer Kate Carrington discusses the history of black racism in America.

eorge Floyd. One of the many names that we have heard over the years. A victim of the police brutality epidemic that has plagued the USA for decades. From across the pond, the solution is simple- hold the police accountable and take back control; however, in America, it is rarely this simple. So how did we get here? The story begins in 1865 with the thirteenth amendment to the United States Constitution. This amendment stated that it is unconstitutional for someone to be held as a slave which abolished slavery. You would think that the issue of racism and white supremacy would be over right? Wrong. The thirteenth amendment had one fatal f law that white supremacist south used to its limit. This f law in the 13th amendment states that slavery is unconstitutional “except as a punishment for a crime”. The Southern economy had been decimated by the abolishment of slavery, and Southern white supremacist attitudes were unlikely to change overnight, especially since the amendment did not make racism unconstitutional, that comes later on but one problem at a time. The South maximised use of this loophole. After the civil war the South began arresting former slaves in mass for minor crimes such as loitering and vagrancy. Since slavery was allowed as a “punishment for a crime” per the thirteenth amendment, the south used this forced labour to rebuild their economy. This was not the only unintended consequence of this clause, with African Americans being arrested en mass, the mythology of black criminality began to emerge and with that, the seed of black criminality was planted. Next, came the rebirth of the Ku Klux Klan (KKK). G.W.Griffith’s “The Birth of a Nation” reignited the f lames of white supremacy and the rage of the KKK. The KKK never burnt the crosses – that was a cinematic image created by Griffith- but lynching’s, unfortunately, became commonplace up until the beginning of WW2. According to the NAACP, 4,743 people were lynched in the USA between 1882-1968, 72.7% of whom were black. However, once the open and very public terrorism of the KKK became shameful, the South shifted its focus to segregation which later became known as the period of Jim Crow. The Jim Crow laws relegated African Americans to permanent second class status. This was the real-life enactment of the predictions that Griffith made in “The Birth of A Nation” about how race would operate in the USA. Griffiths predicted that blacks would be demeaned and would be seen as inferior. The Jim Crow laws existed for about 100 years until 1968 in the postcivil war era. The Civil Rights movement was the first significant black movement for rights since the 13th amendment, and those involved managed to transform criminality. Under

Kelly Lacy Jim Crow, criminality was negative, civil rights activists were portrayed as criminals, as people that were deliberately breaking segregation. However, during civil rights, for the first time, being arrested was a good thing. Civil Rights activists defined the movement around getting arrested and turned the fear of being arrested by whites upside down. For once, the idea of black criminality and inferiority that had been imposed on blacks since 1865 was a weapon to be wielded by the people instead of against the people and they used every scrap of power they could muster. The Civil Rights Act and the Voting Rights Act were the first public acknowledgement of the racism that had plagued America for centuries. It was the US Government’s ‘yep we did it’ moment, and it concreted over those seeds of black criminality and racism that were planted so long ago. The Acts were the Governments admittance that slavery did end in 1865, but ‘we’ continued to take away peoples rights and now we’re going to fix it, and now they realise that “Their cause must be our cause to” as Roosevelt put it. For the first time, equal justice and treatment was in sight.

The Civil Rights Act and the Voting Rights Act were the first public acknowledgement of the racism that had plagued America for centuries. It was the US Government’s ‘yep we did it’ moment, and it concreted over those seeds of black criminality and racism that were planted so long ago. However, despite acknowledgement and success of the civil rights movement, America was moving into an era of mass incarceration in the 1970s. The US prison population jumped from 357,292 in 1970 to 2.3 million, and in 2001 the African American prison population was 878,400. So how did this spike in the prison population happen? The simple answer: Nixon. President Nixon began what became decades of black criminalisation in America, justifying his ‘war on crime’ through what is known as dog-whistle politics which references the various political move-

ments at the time – civil rights, black power and panthers, feminism and gay liberation. Nixon’s call for law and order was extreme. Nixon’s advisor John Ehrlichman was quoted saying that Nixon’s white house had “two enemies: the antiwar left and black people… we couldn’t make it illegal to be either against the war or black but by getting the public to associate hippies with marijuana and blacks with heroin and then criminalising both heavily, we could disrupt those communities”. If that wasn’t bad enough he later admitted that “did we know we were lying about the drugs? Of course, we did”. You would think that was the end, but it was only the beginning. Ronald Reagan, continued Nixon’s war on drugs. History repeats itself when Lee Atwater, Reagan’s campaign strategist, stated that “you start out in 1954 by saying n****r… by 1968… it hurts you. It backfires. So you say stuff like… states rights … cutting taxes… and the by-product of them is blacks get hurt worse than whites”. Again, blacks in America are the innocent victims of criminalisation. Take the Central Park 5 Jogging case, for example. This was a rape case in America in which five black teenagers were jailed for 6-11 years before a DNA test proved that they were all innocent. They were arrested because of public pressure to find the rapist was so strong. For decades, the governments of the USA had educated the public that black people were criminals, so the stereotype of black criminality was quickly passed in court. The roots of black criminality had begun to break through the concrete foundation of equality that the Civil Rights Act had fought through so much to achieve. Bill Clinton continued the trend of black criminalisation and mass incarceration. Clinton presided over three crucial sentencing laws that helped cement America’s swelling prison populations, often at the expense of the black population of America. Clinton oversaw the California three strikes law which stated that after an individual’s third felony they would be sentenced to life imprisonment. He also oversaw the Mandatory Minimum sentences law which stated that there was a mandatory minimum sentence for

every crime that people had to serve. Finally, he passed the Truth sentencing law, which kept people in prison for 85% of their sentence. All of these laws ensured that more people were imprisoned and for longer. However, the image that we see in the media of American police with machine guns and brutality was not yet conceived; the 1994 Federal Crime Bill changed this. Clinton passed the $30 billion crime bill, building the infrastructure of the police and ‘militarising’ them. Both Republicans and Democrats have acknowledged that the prison system in the US has to change, but this will be incredibly difficult. CCA is the most significant private prison company in the USA. It garners a multi-billion dollar profit in the industry, and therefore reducing the number of people in their prisons is not a priority for them. However, it’s not just the prison system that needs to change97% of those locked up in the USA were the result of a plea bargain which will often get you a shorter sentence than going to trial. The ‘criminality clause’ of the 13th amendment was the loophole that allowed pre-civil war systemic racism to continue even after the Emancipation Proclamation, Civil Rights and Voting Rights Acts. Unfortunately, under the presidencies of Nixon, Reagan and Clinton this pre-civil war racism was brought into the 21st century producing a system of harsh criminal punishment that follows you for the rest of your life. Ex-convicts struggle to get jobs, student loans, private housing and they lose the right to vote; in this sense, the Jim Crow restrictions still apply for criminals. Michelle Alexander in the Netf lix documentary “13th” states that African Americans have repeatedly been controlled through “systems of racial and social control that appear to die” and are then “reborn in a new form tailored to the needs and constraints of the time”. The American system has allowed racism to survive for too long. It has gone from slavery to convict leasing to Jim Crow to mass incarceration. Bryan Stevenson states America “tried it play it off”, and because of the failure to deal with their own mistakes the “narrative of racial difference continued” and this has turned into a “presumption of dangerousness and guilt that follows every black and brown person wherever they are”. Protests and riots are nothing new: Fergusson, Rodney King riots, Detroit 1967, Harlem 1964, Newark 1967 and Watts in 1965; all of which were the result of police brutality. The difference today is the media. Videos taken on phones show the world the land of the free isn’t all that free. Memories can be forgotten; videos online are eternal and will continue to bring light to the social injustice in America until the time comes that Black Lives Matter.


The Badger 19th October 2020

Features

15

Freshers: Covid Edition

First year student and staff writer Luke Thomson walks us through a week in the life of a freshers student during a global pandemic. “It will be the best week of your life” I was told coming into Freshers, an experience to never forget and one that will surely set a tone for things to come. Of course, with the infinite difficulties that we’ve all faced with Covid and its ongoing fallout, this year the reality was never really going to match up to such great expectations. Yet, so far, I am pleased to say that in the midst of all the stress and confusion, these weeks have been both enjoyable and transformative. In fact, it seems pure madness that just a few days ago I moved in; with how well my f latmates and I have gotten on it feels like we’ve known each other for weeks. Sadly though even the day of welcome was not left unscathed by the pandemic – restrictions ensured that just one parent could join us in the car journey down, meaning my Dad had to be left behind at home with my black Labrador Zeus. I wish he could have seen me off properly, but it is what it is I suppose. Once we got here though I felt relieved, and the pent-up anticipation and nerves were soothed mightily. Everyone has been just absolutely lovely and I think the fact that all of us were and still are in the same boat of anxiousness has linked us.

Olia Danilevich has been the process of finding new friends – whereas before these weeks would have been full of in person society meet ups and stalls, almost everything now has been moved online. Whilst this is better than nothing and some of the events have definitely been worth virtually attending, it just doesn’t have the same raw social chaos

woods, and I find nothing better than to just turn off my phone and get lost in the natural surroundings. Stanmer park has been a particular favourite of mine so far; not only is there a big football pitch to walk around but it’s completely encompassed by a set of giant hills and woods – none of which I’m remotely close to fully exploring.

Once we got here though I felt relieved, and the pent-up anticipation and nerves were soothed mightily. Everyone has been just absolutely lovely and I think the fact that all of us were and still are in the same boat of anxiousness has linked us. What I’ve felt to be the biggest change from both College and Lockdown life to Uni is the sheer increase of social interaction – from going out with a couple of friends maybe twice or three times a week previously, to now seeing seven others almost all day, every day is different to say the least. It’s astonishing to think how quickly one could adapt to all of this as well, whilst at times it certainly hasn’t been easy to fit in and find my place, I feel so much more used to Uni life and the atmosphere in just one or two weeks (imagine what everyone will feel in one month!). For instance, two of the people in my f lat are heavily invested into Tarot Card readings. Initially I was pretty dismissive about it and found the whole idea quite odd. Whilst I still don’t fully click with it, I’ve grown, in just one week, to not take it so seriously and I even received a “reading” of my own which was quite fun and surprisingly accurate! That’s a very specific point but I think it highlights how quickly one can adapt, even in the midst of a global virus. Another big obstacle to me so far

Another part of why I think things have gotten so much better is because instead of simply chilling alone in my room, calling friends from home or watching Netf lix, I’ve spent almost every evening out in the kitchen or in Brighton with f latmates. Like any new situation with new people, that feeling of awkwardness and unsurity can only go away by spending more and more time with said people. Still its not perfect given the lockdown situation – three f lats in the block next to us have all had traces of Covid and are having to self-isolate. Almost feels like a matter of time before this could happen here too. Its really a massive human nature conf lict I think. Students should obviously abide by the rule of six law and not mingle with other f lats, there’s no doubt about that. Doing so would almost surely have resulted in their being far less cases than there is currently on campus. Yet, when students have been fed this idea, from social media, siblings, and let’s be honest here, universities, that Freshers week is this grand, epic week that one should be able to find themselves in and meet new people – can you really blame people for not wanting to keep to the f lat for the whole week?

Whereas before these weeks would have been full of in person society meet ups and stalls, almost everything now has been moved online. Whilst this is better than nothing and some of the events have definitely been worth virtually attending, it just doesn’t have the same raw social chaos and reward that comes with an in-person meet.

Asands - Flickr and reward that comes with an in-person meet. Of course there’s nothing to be done about this and the policies that stop us from meeting others are tremendously sensible given the situation, but this doesn’t stop a slight sense of both missing home, and general loneliness. That being said, there’s a lot to take from having time to yourself. My favourite thing to do when I feel like this is to go on a little walk around the countryside. Fortunately, my block is completely encompassed by fields and

This piece has taken me a week or two and since I started, it has certainly gotten a lot better, as most things do with enough time and effort. Personally I found the Freshers week itself too mixed with new people, choices and problems to fully enjoy and engross myself. But as the days have gone by, I’ve had ample time to adapt myself to not having parents and home around, and to improve the new relationships I’m making in and outside the f lat, which have had a time to grow and brew.

To conclude, I would say my experience as a “Fresher” would have to be said as, overall, a positive and interesting one. As I’ve mentioned it has taken some getting used to, and there is quite a lot still that I remain either worried, stressed or at least not comfortable with just yet. But just like in the lockdown in April, in these times of restrictions and limits, there is a lot of good to be taken from the little pleasures in life. For anyone who is struggling right now; just take a little walk round the campus, maybe write a few notes in a notebook about how you feel – if it’s getting really bad, give the student life centre a call. Unlike the crummy services they can give for under 18s, these guys are brilliant. Just having someone like that to listen and reassure you the feelings and worries you’ve been having are natural and nothing to be embarrassed about does wonders for your day and week. Good luck to all my fellow first years: “keep ya head up”.


The Badger 19th October 2020

Features

16

On Boseman

https://brick-sussex.co.uk/ [This article contains themes of racism and discussion of violent colonialism which may be sensetive to some readers].

Article written in collaboration with BRICK student publication

I

t is hard to make sense of celebrity deaths. Especially when someone you expected to be a constant in your life dies so unexpectedly. We often struggle to articulate why these deaths hit us so hard, perhaps because we find it difficult to admit how much of ourselves we put into our idols. I often struggle with the guilt that comes when you realise they’re occupying more space in your brain than your actual lost loved ones. Like any other form of bereavement, their deaths usually leave us assessing their role in our lives. Our relationships with celebrities are almost always parasocial. They don’t know us, and we can never truthfully know them. Some would say these relationships are not real, but even if that’s the case, it’s impossible to detach stars from the symbolic meaning we assign to them. When I see Greta Thunberg on the news, I see our generational anxieties over the inevitable climate crisis. When I see Elon Musk’s latest Twitter tirade, I’m reminded of all the complications of capitalist innovation. Taylor Swift is perhaps the best symbol for the limits and hypocrisies of white feminism everywhere. Meaning orbits stars like, well… you see where I’m going with this. It seems crass to reduce a multifaceted man with an equally varied career to simply one character he portrayed, but to me, he will always be T’Challa, crown prince of the sovereign nation of Wakanda, the Black Panther. T’Challa is a symbol.

Hannahford - Flickr breaks, but the expectations on our stars are different: they are made to navigate the twisted gumbo of Blackness’s many contrived definitions. The Black celebrity is a commodity to be sold so long as it suits the right description. As such, fame will invariably contort Black bodies into symbols, totems to be revered by some and struck down by others. He had to suit the definition of a king because we needed him to. A generation of young Simbas needed him to show the way. To remind us we are a connected people.

To me, T’Challa stands for Black excellence and all its associated meanings. He’s every bit as smart, regal and charming as the actor who portrayed him. To me, T’Challa stands for Black excellence and all its associated meanings. He’s every bit as smart, regal and charming as the actor who portrayed him. He’s the reminder we were once kings and can be again. A window to a plane where everything is red, black and green and ours once more. But I am not mourning T’Challa for T’Challa is not dead. T’Challa will live on as long as Marvel Comics does. T’Challa was never alive. I am not mourning a fictional character; I am mourning the man who embodied those of T’Challa’s qualities that meant the most to us. It almost seems crass to turn him into a symbol. But then I wasn’t the one to do so. There’s a glass ceiling on Black success and, consequently a weight laden on the few Black celebrities that make it through. All fame comes with

Consciously or not, an artist’s work draws upon their and their people’s history, their experience in society; all these artists drew from the well of slavery, colonialism and plunder to make something beautiful. On Valentine’s Day, 2018, I felt connected. Not just to him, T’Challa and the nation of Wakanda, but to the rest of my African siblings worldwide. That’s what Black artists do: connect. He, like all the others, drew upon his lineage to inform his work. The same way that when Basquiat sprayed or Jimi played or Tupac rapped or Hurston wrote or every damn time Corretta Scott King spoke they did so drawing upon the shared history of the African diaspora, connecting us. Consciously or not, an artist’s work draws upon their and their people’s history, their experience in society; all these artists drew from the well of slavery, colonialism, r*pe and plunder to make something beautiful. In doing so, they spoke for all of us, both of our pain and our majesty. We put a little bit of our soul into all of our idols. I wonder what that means for a man who spent his career embodying so many of them: James Brown, Jackie Robinson, Thurgood Marshall. How could one performer make me feel connected to such specific figures, to our broader shared history? I wonder if these legacies ever pained him. Did the stress of being a lynchpin for a nation of millions weighed him down? I wonder if that weight sat in

my life? Wakanda is a comic book. A fiction. We cannot afford to aspire to that. There is no place we can return to that hasn’t been spoiled by slavery and colonialism. So many of us are so disconnected from our heritage we don’t even know where our own families come from. What has been stolen cannot be regifted. What has been ruined cannot be un-ruined. Look at our reality: this disease targets Black people like it wears a hood. It patrols our neighbourhoods like it was given a badge and whistle. Meanwhile them in blue keep killing us and we march and march until our legs are sore and change still don’t come.

his stomach like butterf lies, but not butterf lies, like wasps that twisted his insides. Did we do this? Black Panther wasn’t long ago, but the way the days have been moving lately, it feels like a past era. Maybe it is. The King is dead after all! Enough has been said extolling the virtues of Wakanda just as enough has been said admonishing those who admire it. Admittedly, no utopia presented by the House of Mouse (Disney), can ever be a perfect one, but I’m not here to argue over a movie. It is undeniable the impact he had in the role. I imagine it was good to be King at times. It must have been a thrill to hear Jay rhyme ‘crushing the oyibo that try to bring wahala’ with ‘I put on for my nation like I’m King T’Challa’; the pleasure of seeing joy on the faces of the sick children who wore the same mask as him. Little did they know they shared an aff liction. I never knew the man, but I know what he meant to me. His success was not my success, but I felt pride in seeing him succeed anyway. That’s why it hurt so much when people used his death as an excuse to talk down to us like we’re sagging.

Dave Hogg - Flickr We roasted him because he was ours. He did so much for us just by being seen. We saw ourselves in him. If you’re not Black, your grief is valid and you have my sympathies, but his death means something different to me than it does to you. None of it was real though. Like I said, I never knew the man. Did just the one out of many great performances really make any difference in

I still need my heroes. I cannot let them go and I cannot let them die, I won’t. Not until we don’t need them anymore, but right now we have so little I cannot give them up. We have lost enough already. Why did They have to take one of ours? Is it idolatry all along? It has been in the past. But how can it truly be false to worship a man when the ground beneath his feet lights up when he walks? When the King of Pop looked in the mirror did he see the smiles of millions of Black boys who saw themselves in him or did he see the faces of those he hurt and envied? Eventually, all idols betray us. Some align with racists and anti-Semites, some hurt and abuse people. Perhaps we should kill the notion of them, tear down these villain’s statues before they can hurt us anymore. Each and every one of our idols: found dead. The Black Panther betrayed me. He said Wakanda was forever. He lied. No, that isn’t fair, he died. The reports said he didn’t know he was going until the end, that he was convinced he wasn’t going to die. So was I. I think back to his role in Spike Lee’s Da 5 Bloods, a film defined as much by his absence as his performance. Now when I revisit his movies, I feel like the old men of that one, stumbling around the haunted ground he once stood. He was ageless. I still need my heroes. I cannot let them go and I cannot let them die, I won’t. Not until we don’t need them anymore, but right now we have so little I cannot give them up. There is no promised land for our people. Every step forward is just a prologue to two steps back. And in my cynical heart of hearts I know that, but when I think of the work of Chadwick Boseman, I feel inspired. I feel hope. Hope that there’s a fairer future where we can live harmoniously, in peace and undisturbed. I’m not ready to give up on that. I do not reduce him to a symbol, I elevate him to one. Our heroes never die, they multiply.

Chadwick Boseman forever.


The Badger 19th October2020

Arts • Books

17

Seven books for every type of reader this Halloween Daisy Holbrook Staff Writer There is a book out there for everyone, regardless of preferred genre, reading style or interests. From graphic novels to memoirs, this list can provide some seasonally-spooky reading for everyone this Halloween.

For the reader in a hurry: ‘The Bloody Chamber’ by Angela Carter

A collection of short but wonderfully written Gothic Horror stories that put a nightmarish spin on some familiar fairytales. Carter takes tales such as Snow White, Beauty and The Beast, Little Red Riding Hood and Puss in Boots and strays from the canonical customs of such stories; instead, taking a feminist approach. The Bloody Chamber is full of strong, empowered and sexually aware female protagoa prince to save them. Touching upon themes of female identity, violence, sexuality, agency, ober goes against the traditional tropes of fairytales and places the women in the position of power. With some stories in the collection being only a few pages long, it is the perfect book for those without much time on their hands.

For those that prefer graphic novels: ‘My Friend Dahmer’ by John Backderf

Written and illustrated by the high-school friend of one of the world’s most infamous and Dahmer’ provides intimate insight into the time Backderf spent with Dahmer - from the ages of 12 up until their highschool graduation. Backderf acknowledges the diabolical nature of the crimes committed yet paints a particularly empathetic portrait of Dahmer, detailing the isolation, alcoholism and neglect he experienced growing up, and the adults who failed him throughout his life. Setting out to explain how a lonely highschool outcast became one of the most heinous killers to date, teresting new perspective on a well-known criminal.

For those looking for a more comedic approach: drix

-

The traditional hauntedhouse horror story we have all grown accustomed to with a wonderfully contemporary setting – an IKEA-esque furniture

superstore. Uniquely designed to look like a furniture catalog, (complete with disturbing ilthe haunting happenings of the employees that stay overnight to uncover the morbid truth. Packed full of hilarious moments, grotesque details and powerful social commentary on the modern-day workplace, creepy, quirky and unique literary experience.

For lovers of classics: ‘We Have Always Lived in The Castle’ by Shirley Jackson A bizarre and harrowing tale of isolation, familial trust and venality wrapped up in a delightful and deceptively simple

The Castle’ focuses on the lives of two sisters following a tragedy that kills half of their family and tackles issues of mental illness, agoraphobia, small-town mentality and the effects of tion of the nature of everyday evil and the fragility of the human mind through the lens of an unreliable narrator creates for a wholly claustrophobic and unnerving atmosphere that should not be missed.

For lovers of YA books: ‘Slasher Girls & Monster Boys’ by April Genevieve Tucholke Everyone’s secret guilty pleas-

no matter how many profound works of literature you may read, sometimes all you want is a break from the fancy prose and to simply indulge in the faFor those of you who can relate, is a horror anthology (spanning from body horror, gore, the paranormal and realism) by authors of our generation. Together, they have compiled a literary feast of psychological and haunting stories inspired by pop-culture classics from movies, books and even songs making for an equally fun and eerie reading.

For those that prefer ‘The Lady and Her Monsters: A Tale of Dissections, Real-Life Dr. Frankensteins, and the Creation and Mary Shelley’s Masterpiece’ by Roseanna Montillo A real life account of the grisly and grotesque experi-

ments, iconoclasts and scientists that inspired the creation explores the period of convergence between the Romantic Age and Industrial Revolution and the ideas of death and the human body that circulated at the time. With accounts of resurrection, dissection, galvanism and grave robbers, this is not the kind of book for those with a weak stomach.

For the writer: ‘On Writing: A Memoir of the Craft’ by Stephen King part memoir and part mastertessential book for all aspiring writers. Unapologetically recounting his struggles, beliefs, habits and inspirations, King seamlessly blends the experiences that shaped his writing career with straightforward (and sometimes brutally honest) advice, simultaneously encouraging, empowering and equipping the reader with the tools and tips they need to become a steeped in passion and positivity, whilst being accessible for writers of all competencies – making it the perfect addition for any writer’s toolkit.

Four Halloween book-to-movie adaptations to enjoy with friends Jasmine Smith Books Editor

hit the big screen just four years later. Directed by Rob Reiner,

As we creep our way towards the spooky season, it’s evident we won’t be able to celebrate Halloween in the same way we group costumes may be limited to six socially distanced peo-

The Turn of the Screw/The Haunting of Bly Manor

celebrating our beloved horror holiday. A horror movie night with family and friends is a great way to immerse yourself in the atmosphere of Halloween. This year, use the extra time you may have getting lost in literature before you watch the stories come to life on the screen. to movie adaptations you can enjoy getting lost in paperback alone, and then watch with friends.

Misery

Published in 1987, Stephen King’s infamous thriller novel

napping by his self-proclaimed biggest fan, Anne Wilkes. It soon becomes evident that Wilke’s motives aren’t all too kind as Sheldon is subject to her unprovoked aggression and psychotic rage.

ahead of the game. This year, the multimedia giants have released a follow up to their beloved ghost series, The Haunting of Hill House. Based on the 1898 novel, The Turn of the Screw, the second season of the supernatural horror series explores the life and mind of a governess caring for two young children at the potentially haunted estate, psychological thriller tells the story of best-selling author, Paul Sheldon, and his mysterious kid-

The Woman in Black Susan Hill’s 1983 gothic novel became a household name after the 2012 adaptation starring Daniel Radcliff. Set in a small

English town, Kipp, played by sort the affairs of his deceased client. Kipp soon discovers that the property his client has left behind conceals a terrifying village secret that plagues the village and all its inhabitants.

IT

Another

recent

adaptation

is IT. Stephen King’s whopping 1138 page novel was adapted into a two-part movie franchise, released in 2017 and 2019. The terrifying tale of seven brings your worst nightmares to life through the powers of Pennywise the clown. The evil shapeshifting clown torments the outcast children throughout their lives, feeding off of their fears. Get lost in King’s huge horror novel before settling down with friends to watch Bill Skarsgård, Finn Wolfhard, and a host of incredible actors bring the eighties horror story to life. Halloween might not look or feel like it has in previous years, but that doesn’t mean we can’t celebrate and immerse ourselves in all the spooktacular fun the season has to offer. Use this time to get lost in a good book and appreciate the hours spent Don’t forget the treats and try not to get too spooked!


The Badger 19th October 2020

Arts • Film & Television

18 What’s on

Darkness and Devotion in The Devil All the Time Saul Peck

religion, sex, and the nature of

Despite the world being thrown has certainly not been short of fascinating content for us to consume. After being treated to Tiger King and Kaufman’s I’m Thinking of Ending Things, the Time. The story focuses of which intertwine) set in and around the town of Knockemstiff, Ohio. Its dark and brooding atmosphere works effortlessly alongside some incredible performances as characters’ journeys touch on themes of

Holland successfully shows audiences that he can do more

The theme of religion is most apparent in the character of

a performance that is nastier, but also features underplayed moments, highlighting the complexities of his character. The performances of Jason

His story links the religious fanaticism imposed on him by

their scenes being some of the

and features the author as the

tinted colour palette and Lol otherwordly and mysterious feeling. The immensely talented cast also plays into this. Tom

and snake-like preacher. His the top - and crafted without a

borrows some of the cast of suffer occasionally from issues in terms of pacing particularly with a subplot concerning the character of Lee Bodecker (Sebastian Stan); this felt like a detour and didn’t add much to the dark tone making some scenes hard to watch.

is somewhat of a renaissance in his career, Pattinson builds Lighthouse,

truly

embodying

bit dour for some, but it is still a

out of the water; he sets them alight, drags them to the depths of hell and tears them into a million tiny pieces. And as the bodies rack up and the bloodshed increases, the once large, many roomed house soon becomes unbearably

in horror as recognisable as Pinhead. Summoned from the depths of hell to wreak sado-

camerawork

Hellraiser has become something of a phenomenon, inspiring countless fan-arts, cosplays, and adorning the poster of each

the poster boy is largely absent. What we are instead treated to is an epic tale of sexual temptation, dark desires, and orgiastic pain, all taking place in the most unusual of locations: a quiet, leafy middle England suburb. turned the mundanity of the seedy underbelly, but there is something wonderfully unique about the way in which Barker assaults our expectations for such a setting with an absolute setting, using it to reposition

Barker begins this assault on structure. The story follows

emphasises

the

positioning much of the action on the narrow staircase as we bounce from kitchen to loft to bedroom with barely time to catch our breath until the next Frank’s old house — initially it almost feels almost like the setup for a family melodrama. Larry is, as horror tradition dictates, a deliriously feeble

popping up in the loft as a bloody, putrid skeletal mess, barely resembling a human. Frank tells Julia that to bring him fully back to life, she must

sight of blood and being of little pride to his daughter Kirsty (Ashley Laurence). Julia by contrast is the opposite, a domineering, ice cold dominatrix whose

feed off of, and Julia, the wild cannon that she is, obliges. This

the camera are as chilling as extreme moments. Barker twists the old-fashioned (and of course demonstrably misogynist) patriarch, turning Julia into the Julia’s chillingly intimidating air is played up: we are repeatedly positioned beneath her, looking from the top of the stairs and her impenetrable stare feels straight out of the screen. With this disjointed family in place, the scene is set for all hell to break loose. In the house’s Frank isn’t in fact dead after all but has managed to escape from the clutches of Pinhead and his buddies (a.k.a the cenobites) and return back to earth. He’s not looking his best self though,

Hubie Halloween dir. Steven Brill Halloween. It stars Adam Sandler as a Halloween-obsessed, local outcast. Sandler’s character is reminiscent of his earlier work

town of Salem from an escaped

Rob Salusbury

pops up at the start to chuck some chains and disembodied limbs about and returns for the

in the mystery and trauma of its characters. All nine episodes are

that will keep your eyes peeled

The Gory Chaos of Suburban Life in Hellraiser

Pinhead (as played by Doug Bradley) surprising; the fact is that Pinhead hardly features in

The Haunting of Bly Manor

Loosely based on Henry James’ 1898 The Turn of the Screw.

comes into its own, Julia luring a series of awkward, uptight men into the house to be murdered and consumed by Frank. unassuming, mundanely decorated room until we are whisked up the stairs and into the blood coming thick and fast. Seeing this quiet, unassuming malformed creature who rips apart businessmen limb from limb is so unexpected and bizarre that it’s hard not to laugh at the sheer absurdity of the situation. When we saw the house in the opening scenes with the sound of church bells and a raucous dinner party in full swing, it’s fair to say

contained within the house too, trapping us, like the hapless businessman, within these four walls to bear witness as all hell is unleashed.

Barker doesn’t just blow our expectations for such a setting out of the water; he sets them alight, drags them to the depths of hell and tears them into a million tiny pieces. Hellraiser’s extreme body horror and rapid scattershot the idea of setting such an extreme, BDSM-infused romp into the depths of hell in a leafy, unassuming suburban home feels so bizarre and unexpected that you can’t help but sit back and simply wallow in the mayhem. Turning the old-fashioned clichés of a prim and proper English family and a quiet, their heads, Barker catches us completely off guard for the horrors that follow. There’s a reason why Stephen King the future of horror and his

Barker doesn’t just blow our expectations for such a setting

The Forty Year Old Version dir. Radha Blank

comedy, portrait of the artist and social commentary. Exploring the life of a Black woman playwright and her struggles with aging and the arts, The Forty Year Old Version calls out gatekeepers and highlights the importance of sharing your story.

The Babadook dir. Jennifer Kent

Screening at Lewes Depot on the 30th is Jennifer Kent’s debut The Babadook. The psychological horror makes bedtime stories something to fear, as a widowed titular monster.

A

Coppola

burnt-out

mother

and

Jones) re-connects with her latest. Featuring uncertainty in marriage and another paternal Murray character, the basis of the drama doesn’t seem too far cinemas now.

Cure dir. Kiyoshi Kurosawa is somewhere between a murder mystery, hypnosis thriller and

murders,

all

committed

by


The Badger 19th October 2020

Arts • Music

19 IDLES: Ultra Mono

‘Do you hear that thunder? That’s the sound of strength in numbers.’ Alice Barradale Music Editor IDLES: Ultra Mono, an album that 2020 desperately needed. The album’s restless energy and upbeat anger re-

‘strength in numbers’ insinuates the idea that the demise of the

-

-

-

Austerity, the British Empire Ivan Bandura

-

idea of mundanity and exploiAlexander Kellner

band into one of England’s best

rounding the idea of letting go -

album really means to them: are not the same but behold something together that is true: -

use of distortion and repeti-

-

engine and it goes. We hope that you feel a sense of strength and purpose from listening to

for beating around the bush,

-

-

in the band’s material. Within

-

a monster of a message, stat-

Laura Marling - ‘Song For Our Daughter’ Phil Madeley Song For Our Daughter is

From ‘bruises all end up benign’ in Only The Strong, to ‘the hardest thing to learn you lose’. This is the pain

home studio in Wales, the minimal arrangements lay bare

arrangement throughout Song For Our Daughter is as stunning

an insight into humanity and I am partly to blame for a self

inspired mostly through the eyes of men. This album on the other

suggest that there is hope for and

daughters,

and

anyone

by

Laura

Marling’s

me something different. Maybe its the isolation, but emotionally this album has hit me hard. us all an insight through the

to stem from a solid grounding

Chrysalis Records imaginary daughter, there is


The Badger 19th October 2020

Arts • Theatre

20

Theatre and the Dark Feminine Elijah Arief Theatre Co-Editor Something very transformational happens to my psyche every time the Autumn Equinox passes. The leaves on the trees begin to die, the cold outside becomes bitter and my tastes in media, theatre and clothing becomes much more macabre and is reminiscent of my old emo days of secondary school. That’s not to say that during Spring and Summer I am completely turned off by the dark and sinister, far from it, but in Autumn it is encouraged and seen as festive to want to terrify myself and others around more hidden nature of humanity. Storytelling is how humanity does this best, the most ancient method of storytelling being theatre. To get myself immersed in the season, I’ve been thoroughly enjoying streaming darker theatre at home to prep myself for the coming Brighton Fringe and Brighton Horrorfest. These archetypal characters and tropes that appear within theatre and whether they hold a place in the human subconscious, especially regarding womanhood and a woman’s role within these plays. Often, these feminine characters are extremely controversial. The psychologist Carl Jung theorised that humanity shares a collective consciousness which mostly built on archetypes which we have absorbed from stories, plays and other such media. It is often understood that when we are engaging in entertainment, we are accessing different aspects

Moise.nedjar of our consciousness through other characters who represent centauries of stereotypes and historical context. The Dark Feminine that is the archetype that we associate with Evil Queens, Witch’s, Hags and Succubae. She exists as the anti-woman, the Meretrix feminine villainy is used within theatre and other mediums

Ablakok of art to cause problems for the protagonists, and to make clear cut statements about the supposed ‘dark sides’ to womanhood. In the past these characters would be used as a method of control, to serve as a warning to other women that if they rebelled past their gender role, severe social consequences await them. If we look at The Bacchae by Euripides for example, we see a very ancient warning about the supposed dangers of unbridled femininity. Dionysus intoxicates the women of Thebes with wine that sends them into a frenzy, as a punishment to the people of the town for not worshipping him. The women drink so much that they end up committing murder and causing intense social disorder. The play serves as a warning that in not remaining pious and religious you are asking for your women to be left to their own devices, which in turn will cause mayhem and social discord. The emphasis being here that the true horror of the play is a hysterical woman. They represent a very wild aspect of the Dark Feminine, and though their characters are dripped in misogyny I believe that it can be possible to see these women as empowering. They cause so much fear and terror because of their own freedom, they are unrestricted and free. They are under a male God’s spell but represent a certain to side to femininity that is still feared in modern society today, hysteria poses a terrible threat to Patriarchal structures, and that is why the Bacchae is truly a disturbing, empowering tale of the Dark Feminine. Macbeth really is the obvious choice here if we are talking about the Dark Feminine within theatre, as the play

hits all the most common and tropes and archetypes you would expect with a female villain. The Three Witches or Sisters at the beginning set the supernatural theme and shows us that feminine wisdom and interference will be the downfall of the male characters ambitions. Their prophecy heralds Macbeths downfall which in turn indicates to us the audience that nothing good can come from Witchcraft, even though Witchcraft and Divination has been used as a feminine spiritual path for centuries. The Three Witches seem to be a warning against ‘dangerous’ feminine arts, as they can cause the destruction and downfall of the men around them. To take in the historical context, the Elizabethans where

Lords and Kings children and to look beautiful. The politics of the court and war where two areas which women should not engage in, and it was common belief that their emotional dispositions where not built for such matters. Historically speaking, this did not stop women from engaging in politics and Shakespeare uses Lady Macbeth to truly create a fear of politically ambitious women. Power hungry, motivated and matriarchal, she does not bare Macbeth any children but instead encourages him to sabotage his comrades in court and even commit murder. This would’ve unsettled an Elizabethan audience, as she at the time which makes her

villainous. Even though she is essential to the plot of the play, she remains nameless. I believe that’s because naming her would’ve given her more power and legitimised her character, giving her depth and soul. It seemed like the last thing Shakespeare wanted to do is have his audience sympathise with her. Thus, she is just ‘Lady Macbeth’ which removes her humanity and leaves her title sounding like a villain in a superhero comic. Though her ambitions eventually drive her insane and she is portrayed as evil, I do see her character as inherently feminist. She is the Dark Feminine at her very best: power driven, ambitious and hysterical. There are many other characters in so many plays that I could mention here that embody the Dark Feminine. Blanche from A Streetcar Named Desire comes to mind, as does the Duchess from The Duchess caused controversy, intrigue and trouble within their respected plays and are still being analysed and interpreted by critics today. When watching dark theatre, or just simply watching a horror movie this Halloween, I implore you to explore any evil woman that is being portrayed and to think about the Dark Feminine. Look at historical contexts and analyse her archetype. I truly believe that at the heart of these women are characters that go against patriarchal standards, and that is why they are demonised in their plays. They break conformity, and challenge what is expected of them as women, which is often the true horror of the tale.

in their eyes, Devil Worship. Any woman who did not follow social order was branded as a Witch and was most likely brutally killed. In a modern-day context, I believe it’s important to analyse the archetype of the Witch and see her as something powerful. Dark Feminine arts such as Witchcraft and Divination are entering the mainstream and as such are uplifting and providing an alternative spirituality which and empowering. Feminine wisdom is an aspect of the Dark Feminine which is now starting to be revered, rather than hated. Lady Macbeth deserves her own special mention here. To me she is the original Evil Queen. Her ambitions send her into madness and leads her to be possessed by her own paranoia. When seeing her portrayed on stage, its hard not history Queens and Ladies had a very ceremonial role, they where meant to bare their


The Badger 19th October 2020

Arts • Editors’ Choice Editors’ Choice

21

Editors’ choice is a new column in which the Arts Editors have both the platform and opportunity to share what we are engaging with from the world of the arts. We wanted to create this section so that we are not only being the Arts Editors this year but also have the chance to write as well. We hope you shall discover some up and coming events, ideas, artists, productions, musicians and texts which may peak your interest, as we share what has caught our eye as well as getting us thinking about the events, new releases and ongoalbums, magazines, social media accounts and our cultural highlights, as a way to establish this new column and also share the types of artistic media we consume and enjoy. Robyn Cowie Arts Co-Editor

In the run up to Hallowen, in a year itself which has seemed like a never ending raise my utmost concern in regards to the status of the arts. The frightening truth is that they are in danger, without immediate and much needed support,

page was awash with an array of careers for me, which no, I had never considered many of them before, but to be fair, there were over seventy-two possible careers offered to me.

yet, our government has little concern for this industry which brings not only billions into our economy but also gives us so much joy. The UK government has begun a new initiative, headed up by none other than Rishi Sunak, where you can take the new online quiz on the government website, declared that, “suggests musicians and others in the arts should retrain and back-tracked on by the Chancellor of stating, “people from all walks of life are

while this is not wrong, it is those within industries such as the arts, among several others, who are suffering most. With the government not giving them the dire support they need, meaning many simply shall not survive.

The government career page was awash with an array of careers for me, which no, I had never considered many of them before, but to be fair, there were over seventy-two possible careers offered to me. automotive engineer, stunt performer, a proofreader, online tutor or even a criminal intelligence analyst. And yet, most of them I have never thought of pursuing, furthermore, I am completely untrained for the majority of these roles. So, simply put, the government is telling people that their careers which they have pursued for years, having in-depth knowledge, and working within an industry they are passionate about, are no longer as worthy. Even if this were to be true, many people simply cannot warrant the luxury of retraining, getting the necessary ity that their own government does not consider their contribution to society as important as others.

Jessica Hake Arts Co-Editor

television, movies, books. I’m taken to a different place when the real world becomes too much.

As the pumpkins are carved and windows adorned with cobwebs, we come to the realisation that Halloween is imminent. However, unlike previous years there does not seem to be a desperate need to indulge in the ‘spooky’ and ‘scary’, 2020 has already supplied us with more than enough horror. As a writer and someone who revels in creativity, the very possible reality that sobering. Coupled with this, it makes any form of art that oh so more painful. Art itself is a form of expression; therefore, I decided that in this edition I would highlight an amazing artist and Sussex student who has managed to create a piece of poetry to convey the pain that creatives are feeling at the moment. I I performed in The Poorly-Written Play Festival and she was part of the production crew. Since meeting her I have been in awe of her talent, that being; acting, extremely talented person and it is my er for you all today. So, without further ado, I present to you ‘Where would I be

-

This Halloween, the most frightening thing, is the reality that some many people are unable to do what they love and what they are good at. And one of the most haunting tales of our current time is the very real reality of many leading artists institutions, individuals and venues never letting enjoy them ever again

Where would I be without the arts?

So, to humour myself, in an attempt to conjure any sort of amusement during

the arts have hold of my heart.

scene has ever experienced. I took the quiz. And wanted to share, as someone has gained so much from the multifaceted arts industry and as someone who hopes to work in the arts one day, I took the quiz to see what our Government thought would be an appropriate career for me. And, to put it simply, it seems I may have been wrong all along, as the career the government believes I am best suited to, is one I have simply never imagined and also am in now way trained to do. From being asked an array of standard questions, such as; if I enjoy teamwork?, am I comfortable speaking to lots of people? To the most serious question, am I able to read well? The government career

Where would I be without the arts? I really couldn’t tell you. but honestly, probably nowhere. The arts are everywhere I look, the arts run through my blood.

@savetheartsuk This Halloween, the most frightening thing, is the reality that some many people are unable to do what they love and what they are good at. And one of the most haunting tales of our current time is the very real reality of many leading artists institutions, individuals and venues never letting enjoy them ever again. It was the arts and all that it entails told us stories, gave us hope and united us. I personally dread to think what another lockdown would be like if we did not have this very important sector within our society being there to help us through it.

I’ve always loved to put on a show, the stage would call my name, and since I chose to answered her, I’ve never been the same. When I’m sad I write, then sing and play what I have made. Whatever my heart and brain would shout, my pen puts on the page. When I’m happy I dance around my room by myself or blissfully with my friends. Its never a pretty sight, but my heart feels full because the arts bring us love. When I need to escape I can,

I’m so thankful for this community that I’ve found through performing arts, for the life long friends I now know and the form of expression that it gave me. That I’ve always needed. When life seems at its worst, and the world is looking bleak, I can read a play or hear a song and even though I’m weak Hope by artists that don’t know I exist but continue to save me over and over, as their strength builds me up. Again, and again. Until I feel strong too. So to the arts, I thank you. Thank you. And I know this isn’t much and that few will see my words, but I need to stand up and speak because you saved me, and so many others. So in this moment when the world is hurting, we must remember the power of song. Whilst the theatres are closed and productions are halted, remember the magic created on the stage. You saved me. I want to save you. Save. The. Arts. Bethany Moore


To acknowledge Black History month, and to draw emphasis on the #BlackLivesMatter movements that took place after the death of George Floyd, we decided to dedicate this issue’s Artist Focus section to the activists of Brighton. The portraits that follow were taken by Percy Walker-Smith on the 19th of September at the Black Lives Matter Brighton & Hove march.

ARTIST T H E A C T I V I ST S

move beyond performative actions, and to understand the current political situation not as temporary demands, but as a movement that has come to stay and shift society to its core. In the following article, navigate and support the grassroots initiatives that are taking place within the Brighton community.

AFLO. the Poet AFLO. is a 28-year-old spoken-word artist, activist and PhD student at the University of Brighton. She uses her poetry and social media to express her lived experiences and to challenge dominant narratives. Recently, she wrote and performed a collaborative poem with Priss Nash (@prissnashpoetry) titled “Wake Up”. tality and loss of Black life. You can see the poem in the following link: https://vimeo.com/444984125 AFLO’s Instagram account:

Nick Hines Nick Hines is a 57-year-old activist who has been campaigning against racism in Britain since the 80s. Two years ago he helped set the local Stand Up to Racism branch in Brighton. As Treasurer of the Brighton and Hove branch, his daily initiatives go from every day actions like educational material about the Black experience in Brighton. Stand Up to Racism website: http://www.standuptoracism.org.uk/ Stand Up to Racism Facebook page: https://tinyurl.com/BrightonHoveStandUpToRacism

Want your work featured? Contact us at: thebadger.street@gmail.com


The Badger 19th October 2020

FOCUS

Words by: Luisa De la Concha Montes Photos by: Percy Walker-Smith (@pappedbypercy)

O F B R I G H TO N

Khanyisa Joy Khanyisa is a 26-year-old queer activist, singer and song-writer. During the #BLM protest, they talked about their own identity, and the meaning of home. You can watch an extract of their speech in the following link: https://www.instagram.com/p/CFXDdx6HA0x/ Khanyisa’s Instagram account: @_khanyisajoy

Han Senevirante Han is a 21-year-old student and founder of Mask aims to help people protest safely by providing facemasks and sanitiser to limit the spread of COVID-19. Han’s Instagram account: @hansakaseneviratne Mask Up website: https://maskupgroup.org/ Mask Up Instagram account: @maskupgroup

Brighton and Hove BLM Instagram:

Alaa Maygi Alaa is a 22-year-old activist and Global Health researcher. Her research focuses on racial constructs and gender-based disparities. She is the CEO and Co-Founder of Unite Us Enterprise, a social initiative that aims to achieve social justice, rehabilitation, empowerment and good health. Alaa’s Instagram account: @ainm.a Unite Us Enterprise Instagram account: @uniteusenterprise


The Badger 16th March 2020

Puzzles

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The Badger 19th October 2020

Travel & Culture

25 What’s on Brighton

Travel and Culture Online Sub-Editor Bryony Rule walks us through Brighton’s best events to keep you busy this fortnight. Bryony Rule T&C Online Sub-Editor

Jazz Jam for 10 years. Tables are available to be booked for 2, 4 or 6 people – gather your housemates and kick your weekend off in the right way!

It’s no secret that Brighton is full of wacky and wonderful things to try, see and do. Here’s your biweekly round-up of events this fortnight that you do not want to miss - from craft to comedy and everything in between.

Brighton’s Thrilling Throwing Experience

22 October 4.30-8.45pm North Laine Brewhouse Looking for a fun and unusual way to let off steam? North Laine Brewhouse have the solution! In this unique experience, learn how to throw an axe in true Viking style. You might even discover a hidden talent!

Brighton Fringe Festival

1-31 October https://www.brightonfringe. org/ Thankfully able to take place this year in a slightly revised format, Brighton Fringe is a true Brightonian cultural institution and the largest annual arts festival in England. With many of us missing live performance, this is the perfect opportunity to once again indulge in a wide array of theatre, cabaret, comedy, music, exhibitions and much more. Offering a combination of performances across the city and online streamed events, the festival is accessible to all.

Hip Hop Bottomless Burger Brunch

24 October 12-2pm The Bok Shop The Bok Shop puts their own twist on the classic bottomless brunch; chow down on your choice of their well-renowned chicken or vegan burgers, any side, and two hours of unlimited Prosecco or mimosas. With a backing track of strictly old school hip-hop, this is sure to be a brunch experience to remember!

The Big Surfers Against Sewage Beach Clean

24 October 10am-1pm The Peace Statue, Brighton Seafront The Big SAS Beach Clean forms part of the Generation Sea: A Plastic Protest campaign. Join volunteers at Brighton Beach to play your part in keeping our environment cleaner and safer, protect marine creatures from plastic pollution, and ensure that Brighton is looked after for all to enjoy.

Painted Plant Pots

21 October 6.30-8.30pm The Quadrant Let your creativity run wild at this relaxed and friendly pot painting workshop. Tickets are £15, which includes your terracotta pot and countless things to decorate to your heart’s desire – think paint, glitter and pom-poms! This is a great chance to get arty, have a drink, and come away with a lovely creation to brighten up your bedroom!

Full Moon Salutations & Swim or Paddle Out

31 October 4.30-5.30pm The Lawns Café Beach Celebrate Halloween in a unique way this year, by rekindling your inner energy and peace. Starting with Luna Salutations, you will be guided through a Full Moon ceremony before watching the full moon rise above you as you swim in the sea. A powerful way to relieve stress, connect to your personal power and appreciate the universe around you.

Worth the Weight Vintage Kilo Sale

Axe-

Terrarium Workshop

25 October 11am-1pm Between Two Thorns This beautiful Brighton-based plant shop offers an array of workshops that give you the

24 October 11am-5pm St Bartholomew’s Church On the hunt for some new clothes? The UK’s biggest vintage kilo sale brings tonnes of carefully selected vintage pieces to suit all tastes, including a wide range of it up with anything that catches your eye – at only £15 a kilo, this a cost-effective and sustainable way to refresh your wardrobe!

Life Drawing

Every Monday 6-8pm Twin Pines Coffee Placing mindfulness and relaxation at their core, these life drawing sessions offer an opportunity to feel inspired and creative in a welcoming space. Open to all abilities, these classes are a great way to brush up your drawing skills and unwind at the end of the day.

by your surroundings as you put pen to paper. With student tickets priced at just £3, this workshop is a great way to connect with your emotions and feel rejuvenated.

Fairtrade market

Every Thursday 12-4pm Brighthelm Centre One of the most effective ways to create positive change is being conscious with how you spend your money. Shopping Fairtrade products ensures that the people who grow and produce the goods that we consume are getting a

crafts.

The Verdict Comedy Club

24 October 7.30-10pm The Verdict Comedy Club Looking for a good laugh? Look no further than The Verdict Comedy Club! Hosting an admirable array of highly rated comedians, grab your friends for what promises to be a hilarious evening.

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24 October 11am-1pm Brunswick Pub

Rock ‘n’ Roll with Me – David Bowie Exhibition

17th October-6th June 2021 Brighton Museum and Art Gallery, Royal Pavilion Gardens Showcasing a range of photographs taken by Bowie’s close friend and travel companion Geoff MacCormack, get a glimpse into the rock ‘n’ roll lifestyle of iconic star David Bowie. The exhibition is an eclectic selection of images and footage that documents Bowie’s life on the road, featuring many images which have never been seen before.

An Evening with Jeffrey Boakye

Forest-Based Creative Writing Sessions for Women

Every Wednesday 10-11am Stanmer Park Upper Lodge Woods A unique and powerful way to connect to nature and spark your inner creativity, these writing workshops offer a truly empowering experience. Beginning with breath work and guided meditation, you will then be free to feel inspired and nurtured

At this terrarium workshop, you will get the chance to build your own garden in a bottle - your own mini ecosystem to bring nature into your home!

good and fair deal. Check out the Brighthelm Centre’s weekly Fairtrade market to browse a range of food, household supplies, beauty products and special

For a unique brunch experience, check out The Brunswick. Tuck into a delicious spread accompanied by the soundtrack of guitarist Paul Richards, host of

21 October 6pm Online Hosted by the Sussex Students’ Union, author Jeffrey Boakye will be joined by Senior Lecturer Dr Fraser Mann for an insightful and thought-provoking discussion on topics surrounding racism and social justice, including black identity within a postcolonial society and institutional racism. Register for your free tickets via the Student Union’s website.


The Badger 19th October 2020

Travel & Culture

26

Microadventuring: sorry, what !? Hal Keelin Travel & Culture Editor

state of mind”, as Alistair so kindly reminds us. With all this aside, the best aspect of the concept for me is the way it enthuses us to rediscover beauty in the present moment. On a Microadventure you can fail, be miserable for a bit and still come back with a smile, because at least you went out a bit, saw some things and came back to tell a tale. “life is now or never” Alistair urgently calls out, “it is this moment, and we need to make

Microadventuring has quietly been enjoying a steady ascent into the consciousness of outdoorsy people for a few years now, but to those not “in the circle’ it sounds like a vague vacuous buzz word for adventure snobs. I decided to do some research and to my surprise, it is anything but...

So....What is it really?

Alistair Humphrey’s, the man behind this Microadventure business, describes his concept as a “short, simple, local, cheap, yet still fun exciting challenging”. Get the idea? No, well its basically adventuring on a small scale. Either for a night, or an evening, its going out and doing something “adventurous”, in its purest form, for a short while. It turns out microadventuring is pretty wholesome.

there is little arguing with this.

The podcast: Adventurously

What do you need?

- A bivvy bag, tent, and mat - A hat, warm clothes map and a friend

Where to start:

Start looking at a map of your local area. Where does the local train stop off at that you’ve never been to before? Then, with the map spread out on your coffee table or online, look for the land that might be able to accommodate you and maybe a friend for the night.

considered productive by society within the daylight hours. Restructuring the way we think of the hours in the day can be able to see more effectively that, even while working a full week, each day we have 16-18 hours of untapped, unused golden hours. This gets right to the core of Alistair’s holistic, almost

will be fun simply because it was different. Microadventuring is all about two other key words too: Sustainability and Accessibility. Let’s explain the former. In many ways micro-adventuring is a reaction to the way of the world in the 21 st century: the noise and the confusion of the news, the ping

Why?

Micro-adventuring encourages us to do something new, unexpected and fun, to shake us up and blow away the cobwebs. If you ever feel like you need a break but without all the faff of booking places to stay and arranging travel logistics, this concept should and could become your bread and butter.

by reclaiming the term to be about fun, challenge and reward. Anyone can go on a microadventure, all you need is the will and the way.

On a Microadventure you can fail, be miserable for a bit and still come back with a smile, because at least you went out a bit, saw some things and came back to tell a tale.

The deeper why, take it from Alistair:

Micro-adventuring is a bit more than just taking a break for the sake of it. Indeed, much of the thinking is designed to provide a balance to most people’s exhausting working week. Its designed to encourage us to start revaluating the way we use time and, even, think of it. Alistair is heavily enthused by the idea of simple way of encouraging people to see that they do in fact have time for adventure after work or studies, even while still being

to trek in the Andes. It is a way of living wildly in an Anthropocene age. For Sussex students this literally means taking a trip onto the south downs or seeking out that spotyou saw from your bike. Now let’s look at accessibility. It is important in the Humphrey’s ethos to ensure that adventures are available to anyone and everyone. And therefore, part of micro-adventure’s spirit is that it is fundamentally accessible. Remember: short, cheap and simple! Typically, you may picture an adventurer as a heroic man conquering Everest or the North Pole. Microadventur-

revolutionary, idea. The idea of micro adventures gets to the core of the “What can I do with my free time” problem that so many students are familiar with. It also asks of us to say “what constitutes a good experience? This kind of thinking is a wonderful opportunity to mix up your life, do something unexpected, hardly that challenging and most importantly fun. Remember, it

or sudden vibration for a phone is escape from all this. It is you, and possibly a friend, making a conscious decision to step away and venture into the wild, or not so wild, country for a night or two. Critically, microadventures need not take place far from home. It is a challenge without air to Mount Everest base camp, or

Alistair believes that making adventure as accessible to as many people as possible is a To be an adventurer he writes “you do not need to be an elite athlete, or expertly trained or rich…”. What is adventure anyway but a pursuit one endures with the goal of stretching themselves, physically or mentally. It too can be about opening to possibility, allowing yourself to do something new. Afterall, “adventure is only a

Living

Alistair is also the host of the equally wholesome, incredibly down to earth and friendly Living Adventurously podcast. It’s a great listen for students, providing escape into insightful conversations with ordinary men and women of Yorkshire who are all “adventurous” in one form or another. As one user from Shanghai reviews “these podcasts are like putting on a pair of slippers, grabbing a mug of hot chocolate and sitting by the tales of adventure”. But the great thing about it, I think at least, is the absolute ordinariness of the people regaling their bizarre stories.

Restructuring the way we think of the hours in the day can be are able to see more effectively that, even while working a full week, each day we have 1618 hours of untapped, unused golden hours. A man describing how he’s spent the past twenty or so years ferrying a piano through the canals of Britain for example, or another story from a woman telling how she prefers to run marathons in her bare feet to feel closer to the present moment. They are wacky and hilarious tales mixed with a little bit of wisdom. While Alistair is a kind, cheerful curios yet humble host and interviewee and his guests (mostly) hold these qualities in large abundances too.

Alistair includes loads of resources on his concept of micro-adventuring in his blog and


The Badger 19th October 2020

Travel & Culture

27

What’s on our streets: Lewes Road Edition Hal Keelin Travel & Culture Editor

This is a new column where

The Lewes Road Congregational Church

“ rise.

From the Lewes Road Inn, to The Franklin Tavern, to The Franklin Arms and back to the Lewes Road Inn

From Horse Stables to The Peoples Picture Palace, to The Arcadia Cinema, to Brighton Trades and Labour Club


The Badger 19th October 2020

Travel & Culture

28 Cultural Bite

Sussex Ranger’s run down of Brighton’s best autumn pubs

A recipe for tteokbokki

Rosie Bettis As the days get shorter and the weather gets colder, it’s time to over, and autumn is well and truly upon us. In our opinion, this calls for one thing: pub lunches and boozy evenings shielded away from the winter nights. So, we thought we’d make life easy for you and offer you a rundown of our favourite Brighton pubs to visit to get you feeling autumnal.

Toppokki Food

Elm Grove Pubs

For any freshers living off of campus or second, third and postgrads who live in the Elm Grove area, you will probably be well aware of the great selection of local Hanover pubs, most of which will be just walking distance from your student house. What we love most about

@sussexranger

these locals is that each is well known for something different. The Dover Castle offers 2-4-1 burgers on Mondays while The Geese offers 2-4-£15 Bangers and Mash on Wednesday. For cheap pints try The Village, and for a cosy community beer garden you should hit up the Constant Service. That then leaves The Greys for cheering up on a Weekend with their impressive Sunday Roast.

The Dorset

Located right at the top of Brighton’s North Laine, the Dorset is always heaving and well worth the visit (but make sure you book!). They have arguably the best pub hearty burgers we’ve ever tried, there is loads of room inside. It is also in the perfect location to walk off your pints and food with a spot of shopping in the laines.

Martha Gunn

Deep within student territory, Martha Gunn’s relaxed

Toppokki Food

Main base: @sussexranger

atmosphere and outdoor heaters make it an autumnal favourite. They have a selection of great student deals such as a pint of Carling for £3.60, double house spirit and mixer for £5 or a bottle of house wine for £11.50 – it’s a no brainer!

The Joker

beer garden with heaters and a large space indoors too so there is plenty of space to safely have a boozy evening with your mates. They offer drinks deals including 3 for 2 shots of Tuaca, Sambuca and Tequila or alternatively have an authentic Thai kitchen for weekdays or roasts on Sundays.

Hare and Hounds

The Roundhill Pub is one of our favourite new Brighton discoveries and we would highly recommend for anyone looking for something that is a little different, especially for any veggie and vegan foodies. This 100% vegan, plant-based pub is situated halfway up Ditchling Road. The nature-inspired décor is vibrant and full of life (and houses so many indoor plants!).

Not only do the Joker offer a great selection of drinks deals but also some amazing offers on food from Lost Boys Chicken who take up residency in their pub kitchen. Think New York style buffalo wings and chicken burgers with a side of tater tots and curly fries. From a cheeky pint with the housemates, to a girly cocktail and burger night – The Joker has something for everyone! Right around the corner from The Joker pub on London Road, Hare and Hounds is somewhere if you’re heading out in your bubble of 6. They have a cool

The Roundhill

Check out our Instagram @ sussexranger for the full review of the pubs mentioned, and a whole load more!

30g thinly sliced onions 2tbsp gochujang 2tbsp soy sauce 1tsp gochugaru 250ml chicken stock or water 1tsp minced garlic Dash of heavy cream Toppings: 200g rice cakes Odeng or Fish cakes cut to your liking Carrots (Vegetarian option) Mushrooms (Vegetarian option) Cabbage (Vegetarian option) Garnish: Mozzarella ½ tsp roasted sesame seeds ½ tsp sesame oil ½ stalk green onion

How to: Add chosen liquid (chicken stock or water) to a pan and bring to a slow simmer Combine the gochujang, gochugaru, garlic and soy sauce in a bowl and pour it to the pan making sure it is all dissolved Once the seasoned stock starts to boil, add the rice cakes, onion and your chosen toppings to the pan. Boil for approximately 3-5 minutes and then lower the heat to let simmer for another 3 minutes As the stock simmers, add the cream and mix thoroughly for that extra creamy thick sauce Once it is to your desired thickness, turn off the heat and serve onto a plate. Add the sesame oil, sesame seeds, green onion and Tteokkbokki is best served warm, though if you just happened to have made an extra-large batch, it can be stored for up to 3 days in the refrigerator It is also handy to note that this Korean dish can be perfect to bring and your group’s liking. Make sure to leave some for yourself at home because this will be an instant crowd-pleaser. Katya Pristiyanti -


The Badger 19th October 2020

Science & Technology

29

Chickens, gonads and CRISPR Rosie Marilyn Burgess On 1 October, Liberate the Debate had the pleasure of spendTaylor on Zoom. Dr Taylor is a postdoctoral research fellow at The Francis Crick Institute in London, working for the Robin Lovell-Badge Group. The LovellBadge Group is a stem cell biology and developmental genetics laboratory, whose research focuses on how early cells make decisions about differentiation during embryo development. Their work also focuses on how structures, such as the pituitary gland of the brain, relate to stem cells and their development. is conducting research into sex determination, a process which is based upon the fact of male mammals having X and Y chromosomes and female mammals having two X chromosomes. This is in the aim of studying the effect of genes on these chromosomes, and subsequently across the whole genome to work out how they work together to form ovaries and testes. Learning about sex determination is important as it aids our understanding of what can happen when a person’s genes do not match their biological sex. At her talk, Dr Taylor spoke about how she uses chicken embryos to investigate the de-

velopment of gonads in chickens. Chickens are one of the original developmental models, having been the subject of as 1628. Discoveries resulting from such investigations include knowledge about the function of arteries, T and B lymphocytes, and veins to name just a few. The humble chicken was even Western philosophers, Aristotle, who conducted embryology using chicken embryos. Interestingly, chickens only have one ovary rather than two. Dr Taylor uses CRISPR-CAS 9, which is the system which we use to edit genomes, to edit FOXL2, a gene which codes for a forkhead transcription factor. The protein has a fork-head DNAbinding domain which plays a role in ovarian development and function. Dr Taylor is interested in this because understanding how something develops is important for understanding how things go wrong. FOXL2 also happens to be a marker for ovarian differentiation and is required for granulosa cell differentiation. Furthermore, the FOXL2 protein prevents the formation of testes by suppressing the expression of SOX9. In the adult ovary, FOXL2 regulates granulosa cell differentiation and also supports the growth of preovulatory follicles.

Waqar Ahmed Just mere weeks after a sixday pause in the Oxford-AstraZeneca trial, the race for a COVID-19 vaccine is at its peak, with more than 200 vaccines being researched and developed across the globe. These trials use a diverse range of technologies – several which haven’t been used in a licensed vaccine in the past. According to a Nature article, many of the current coronavirus vaccine trials may be announcing ‘gamechanging’ results next month. For many, the prospect of a vaccine has come to epitomise hope – the promise of a swift return to normality. For some, perhaps even the end of the pandemic. A recent report, however, warns of the key challenges that scientists face in the manufacture, evaluation and distribution of

an effective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. Scientists have also warned that the perception of a vaccine as a ‘holy grail’ – a definitive end to the pandemic, may be a dangerous one. The report, published at the beginning of this month by the Royal Society DELVE Initiative, discusses the implications of a successful vaccination programme, the research required to understand the levels of immunity required

Maria Ionova Finally, Dr Taylor spoke about CRISPR-CAS 9 in greater depth. CRISPR is a two-part process used for gene editing. In Dr CRISPR-CAS 9 to edit FOXL2 in order to produce mutant embryos, and therefore to investigate them. CRISPR works by using “spacer” sequences that are then transcribed into short RNA sequences, known as “CRISPR RNAs” or more commonly as “crRNAs”, which are capable of guiding the system to matching sequences of DNA. When a DNA target is found, CAS 9 one of the enzymes produced in the CRISPR system – binds to the DNA and then cuts it, shutting the gene off. Dr Taylor explained that there are new modyearly basis in which CAS-9 has accurate. So, what’s the use of

for protection and the issue of vaccine hesitancy in today’s society, among other factors. The fact that longterm studies will be necessary to determine the effectiveness of a COVID-19 vaccine is not a new opinion amongst scientists, and when evaluating a vaccine programme, it is important to consider herd immunity – which will not be achieved with a low-efficacy vaccine. Public trust is another crucial aspect that scientists aim to address in order to overcome vaccine hesitancy. Aside from barriers such as financial disincentives and perception or associated risks, there are a number of reasons some remain opposed to vaccination programmes. Scientists have expressed the significance of ‘convert communicators’ – individuals who have previously held strong beliefs

all this? Well, CRISPR could be used to edit the human genome to possibly eradicate diseases in the germline, such as muscular atrophy. These are single-gene disorders which are not inheritable. Not only this, but CRISPR could also be used for therapies in somatic cells.

What about areas of the world without universal healthcare, will it be only the elite that will be able to access this therapy? Dr Taylor also discussed the regulations to which these treatments must be subjected. The Gene Therapy Advisory Committee (GTAC) was set up in 1993 to regulate the use of any kind of gene therapy. Every request that is made to carry out such treatments on a human

against the use of vaccinations explaining the reasons behind the change in their attitudes, in an effort to highlight the wider repercussions of the anti-vaccination sentiment and the importance of recognising misinformation. A recent Nature article also emphasised growing concerns over politicisation of vaccine development, with fears that such meddling could lead to hasty approval of a vaccine for emergency use without enough valid evidence. AstraZeneca, Pfizer and Moderna – the three pharmaceutical companies behind the foremost phase III trials – have released documents which outline key details of their trial protocols in an effort to increase transparency and reassure the public of the safety of their vaccine trials, whilst not compromising any results.

must be approved by their ethics committee before it can go ahead. The regulation prevents any gene therapy from being used to select characteristics for non-medical purposes. If a germline gene therapy such as CRISPR-CAS 9 has the potential to eradicate a disease, perhaps reproductive diseases, then the long-term costs of treating lifelong diseases could be drastically lowered. At the post-talk discussion, important questions were raised. One such question concerned the effectiveness of such treatments; would it ever be effective enough to not need constant post-fertilisation screening of implanted embryos? Will the risk of germline therapy ever be minimal enough pre-implantation? What about areas of the world without universal healthcare, will it be only the elite that will be able to access this therapy? And on a large scale, could germline therapy result in a society that is less accepting of people who are different or have a disability? proved to be very exciting, it raised new and important ideas about the future of CRISPR and genome editing. I, and I’m sure many others, are looking forward to seeing what research her lab produces next.

Following the restart of the AZD1222 trial in the UK, Brazil, South Africa and India, the clinical trial of the vaccine has now also resumed in Japan. In the UK, a ground-breaking “challenge trial” is set to commence in January at London’s Royal Free Hospital, where patients will reportedly be vaccinated and then deliberately infected with a weakened version of SARS-CoV-2. This has been reported to be beneficial for researchers to better determine the efficacy of the vaccine in immunising against the novel coronavirus. With numerous vaccines having taken up to 15 years to develop, these clinical trials present an entirely unprecedented challenge, but research teams have shown mostly promising results thus far, despite the barriers they face.


The Badger 19th October 2020

Science & Technology

30

Multiple Sclerosis breakthrough Jerry Silvester A clinical study funded by the MS Society has proven that damage caused by the disease to myelin, which is the coating of nerves can, in fact, be repaired. The drug bexarotene, which was initially developed to treat cancer, has demonstrated that remyelination is possible in humans. This is an arguably monumental revelation that, until now, had been thought not possible. The trial involved visual tests and MRI scans, which both exhibited significant verification that Bexarotene could successfully repair myelin. At the MSvirtual2020 conference where the evidence was presented, Professor Alisdair Coles revealed that findings on brain scans showed a substantially improved speed of the signals sent from the retina to the visual cortex, something which he states is only

possible through the process of remyelination. While the drug has been ruled out as a current treatment option due to severe side effects such as high levels of fats in the blood, which critically increases the risk of strokes and heart attack, the discovery is thought to have had a seismic impact on the understanding of myelin and its potential to repair. Conventional treatments currently available to manage multiple sclerosis vary

depending on the severity of the disease and the patient’s tolerance of the side effects of such treatments. All available treatments are currently prophylactic, seeking to prevent further lesions on the brain or spinal cord but are, as of yet, unable to facilitate the repair of any damage currently existing. Most commonly diagnosed between the ages 20-50, multiple sclerosis is an immune and neurodegenerative disease of the human central nervous system, usually affecting young adults. The fatty myelin coating that protects nerve fibres is attacked within the central nervous system by MS, causing many symptoms including visual disturbances and dizziness. There are currently over 130,000 people living with multiple sclerosis in the UK. Although bexarotene has now been officially ruled out as a safe or viable option for treatment, there are currently

Sam Ashby If you do one thing for this year’s International Day of Climate Action, aside from reading this article, of course, make sure you watch David Attenborough’s new Netf lix headliner, A Life on Our Planet. As far as game-changers go, this isn’t one to miss. Attenborough, 94, dons his latest entry a “witness statement” to the environmental changes throughout his lifetime. The “most important documentary of the year”, according to Forbes’ Dani Di Placido, was released on September 28th. In 2009, the Global Monitoring Laboratory of the American National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) quantified the Earth’s carbon dioxide (CO2) tolerance. 350ppm (parts per million) of CO2 was the maximum. Now, in 2020, atmospheric CO2 is at 411.11 ppm, according to CO2.earth. The first of this long-winded, but essential, international movement occurred following the release of this research. Organised by 350.org, demonstrations called for an end to unsustainable energy sources. Environmentalists from 181 nations participated in dem-

350.org onstrations, marches, rallies, bike rides, tree planting, solar panel fittings, and even ‘singa-thons’. On 17th October 2009, Mohamed Nasheed, the then-president of the Maldives, held a cabinet meeting in an unusual setting. CO2 pollution correlates to global warming and, consequently, a loss of global biodiversity.A self-explanatory concept, biodiversity relates to the diversity of biological organisms and processes. It may be used in reference to local wildlife and ecosystems, or on a global scale. Globally, biodiversity is declining at an alarming rate. The WWF’s Living Planet Report 2020 calculated a 68% reduction in extant vertebrate (that is, mammals, birds, reptiles, fish, and amphibians)

species from 1970 to 2016. We have lost over two-thirds of these species. In under 50 years. While efforts are being made to reverse this loss, they have been largely unfruitful. On Wednesday 30th September 2020, almost 150 global leaders met (albeit online) with a common agenda, “if we don’t take care of nature, we could end up in dire straits”, as the UN Environment Programme head, Inger Anderson, put it. Anderson goes on to imply the current global climate, where most nations are at the peril of Covid-19, is “because of a disease that came from our mismanagement of nature”. Ironically, it was agreed no explicit commitments would be agreed until 2021, when a more conventional conference will, hopefully, be fea-

ongoing studies looking at the performance of another drug that is commonly prescribed to diabetes patients. The stringent study is certainly controversial to some as it involves drug trials on animals, a contentious discourse amongst many. The drug Metformin has so far shown progressively promising results in a study of myelin repair in rats, and will soon be tested on 50 human participants who have relapsing-remitting MS, the most common form of the disease. Metformin appeared to return cells to a more ‘youthful state’ thus encouraging the regrowth of myelin in the rats. Speaking to the MS society about this development, Professor Robin Franklin said, “Metformin is one of the most exciting developments in myelin repair we have ever seen. Our findings last year shed light on why cells lose their ability to regenerate myelin,

and how this process might be reversed. We’re very proud to have done this work and thrilled to see our discovery taken forward so quickly”. The prodigious developments in the research of treatments for MS, and the increasingly frequent dissemination of such information, is welcomed wholeheartedly by those whose lives the advancements could impact the most. Amy Thompson, founder of leading charity for young people with MS, ‘MS Together’, said, “This breakthrough is incredibly positive for me and my community. The significant progress in the treatment of MS really does give us all hope for the future. These new advancements have also meant that more people are now talking about MS, which has been important in raising awareness and understanding of the illness”.

sible. The aim is to draw up a contract, or “biodiversity framework”, to achieve significant advances in natural recovery by 2030. The Aichi Biodiversity Targets, set in 2011, outlined ‘strategic goals’ to be met by 2020. Each group of strategic goals, groups A to group E, comprised four targets. Unfortunately, none of these strategic goals have been met. You can, therefore, be forgiven for lacking a sense of optimism regarding the latest UN ambitions. But don’t lose hope yet. This pandemic may be the final stroke to bludgeon international leaders into serious environmental action. Executive secretary of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Elizabeth Mrema, revealed: “there is more talk and action now than there ever was before, and I am more hopeful now than I have ever been”. Shortly after the UN leader’s summit, PM Boris Johnson announces the UK government are “absolutely committed” to addressing biodiversity declines. Johnson goes on to say the 2030 pledge will be “only the beginning. Just one step on a journey of many miles”. Under the remits of the 2030 pledge to biodiversity recovery, the prime minister an-

nounced a 30% increase in the amount of protected land in the UK by 2030. Though this appears to be a preventative measure, reducing the likelihood of further significant losses, it could well be “just one step” towards major environmental action. 350 emphasise the need for collective demonstration. Whereas individual choices including veganism, recycling, and eco-friendly transport are crucial in the movement towards a more sustainable future, veering away from our dependence on non-renewable fuel sources is not something an individual can achieve. Rather, 350 aim to pressure local governments and energy providers to adopt sustainable measures. The easiest way to get involved with 350’s activities is via their website, 350.org, where you can join your local demonstration group. A common theme for this year, Covid-19 has put a hold to gatherings within groups. In the meantime, you can sign up to receive information about the latest events and announcements, make contact with your local group, or, if there aren’t any groups near you, set up your own.


The Badger 19th October 2020

Sport

31 Premier League’s Pathetic Pay-Per-View

Charlie Batten & Max Kilham

is an era where fans are being forgotten about and Premier League clubs are focusing more

The Premier League have announced a new pay-per-view scheme which will see fans pay £14.95 to watch their team if they are not a part of the live scheduling. The move has been widely ridiculed across the media, but Premier League clubs voted 19-1 in favour of the scheme, with Leicester City being the only club to vote against. It is well known that the COVID-19 pandemic has

KelvinStuttard

losses across the board - from the Premier League to the bottom tiers of the Football League. Recently, there have been calls for Premier League clubs to

currently have Sky Sports or BT Sport subscriptions may be unable to watch their team play, resulting in a further payment on top of their subscriptions. You can’t fault the Premier League for trying. If the clubs are

teams to prevent mass club extinction. However, the simple truth is

standpoint, it makes sense to provide incentives to garner extra revenue in the midst of

Premier League and its clubs means it should not need a near 15-pound payment, even despite the current climate. A total of £1.26 billion was spent on transfers by Premier League clubs in the last window, an astounding amount considering

However, the fans are what makes football so special. Football just isn’t the same without them. No longer are we able to hear the fans sing ‘You’ll Never Walk Alone’ or ‘Take me Home United Road’ before a game. No longer do we hear the roar when a goal is scored or the sudden quiet when a goal is conceded. The fans have suffered long

Extorting from the fans to watch games from home seems therefore farcical. Fans who

enough during this pandemic and this announcement has served to add salt to the wound. At lower league level, clubs are implementing similar policies. For example, League 2 club Exeter City are charging £10 to watch a live match. There seems to be a slight discrepancy at play here. A club muscle is charging less to watch their games than some of the richest clubs on the planet. Yes, the quality of the product on the pitch is better in the Premier League, but clubs like support to a greater extent than those in the Premier League, that much is clear. This payper-view charge seems almost What we’re starting to see

This can be seen with the little things, such as Arsenal sacking their mascot Gunnersaurus the day after signing a player for £45 million, and can also be seen on a larger scale with Project Big Picture (PBP). PBP has been created by Liverpool and backed by Manchester United as a way of giving more power to the more established teams. As it stands each Premier League side has one vote when it comes to making changes to the game. PBP will hand more power to the clubs that have been in the league the longest, which would mean the top 6 would have more control as well as Everton, Southampton, and West Ham. It would also change how many votes are needed to pass a rule as only 6 of the established 9 teams would need to vote the same way for a proposal to pass. It also suggests lowering the league to 18 teams and 16th place having a playoff with a championship side to see who gets relegated. One of the problems with this proposal is that decisions could be made simply to make more money rather than for the good of the game. Due to the top 6 never having

to worry about relegation, they spend more time focusing on them, so if a proposal is put 14 teams in the league they can approve it all by themselves. Since the Premier League’s inception, we’ve seen football as a sport become more commercialised and money become a huge factor in how successful the game is. The pay-per-view scheme and PBP are simply another step into football selling its soul and it is paramount it doesn’t happen or football could change for the worse, forever.

Ronnie Macdonald

The twist and turns of F1’s free agency used to winning, this might not be how he wants to spend the latter part of his driving career. One option that seems likely is that he could sign a 1-year deal, ending on a high of being the greatest racer ever, and then a young driver like George Russell

Charlie Batten The 2020 F1 season has now passed the halfway mark and although it seems almost certain Hamilton will take home the glory, it is still a little unclear where he and some of his fellow racers will be next year. As it stands, nine out of the twenty seats in F1 are up for grabs and most of the seats have two or three different drivers who deputy seat to Max Verstappen open and AlphaTauri, Haas and Alfa Romeo all have both seats free. The two seats that aren’t as open are at Mercedes and Aston Martin. For Mercedes, the obvious candidate is Lewis Hamilton. To be honest it’s strange they haven’t sorted his contract out sooner to ensure he stays with the team. The 6-time World Champion has just matched Michael Schumacher’s record 91 wins and looks set to equal his 7 championships too. It seems obvious that considering he’s still the best

Morio driver and will still be in the best car next year that he’d push for an eighth title with the team, but what might be holding him back is the changes season. These changes are designed to make all teams start from scratch and make brand new cars in order to balance out the or two teams dominating the sport. For Hamilton, who’s so

have his chance at a big team. Aston Martin have probably made the best signing since Hamilton to Mercedes in 2013 by acquiring 4-time World Champion Sebastian Vettel, after Ferrari decided enough was enough with him. For Aston Martin to have an ex-champion in their debut season after rebranding from Racing Point will help them dramatically in their early years. Vettel’s partner will likely be the team owner Lawrence Stroll’s son Lance who has shown potential this season by many say it should have been Sergio Perez - who the team already announced would be leaving at the end of the year. When it comes to the remaining places it is a little

more unpredictable as to what’s going to happen next. Red Bull have the number two spot vacant as current occupant Alex Albon hasn’t been offered the seat yet, which begs the question: are they going to ask someone else? They could bring back Pierre Gasley from sister team AlphaTauri who Albon replaced after Gasley’s poor performance in the Red Bull in year has shown his potential and class. Or, they could opt for sending Albon to AlphaTauri with Gasley and instead bring in the now free Sergio Perez or Nico Hulkenburg, who both promise experience and quality in a number two seat. This idea relies on Daniil Kyvat being let go which to me seems likely as Red Bull want young drivers with lots of potential at AlphaTauri and with Kyvat now 26 it seems he’s no longer what they want. At the bottom of the pack, there is Alfa Romeo and Haas. Both have had pretty poor seasons and so far, neither have

signed a driver. Haas’ plan will likely be to have an experienced driver in either current drivers; Romain Grosjean or Kevin Magnussen, or other drivers such as Perez, Hulkenburg or Kyvat and then a new driver coming out of F2. This will likely be either Callum Ilott or Mick Schumacher, who have both dominated the F2 championship this year. Alfa Romeo will have a similar strategy to Haas when it comes to looking for drivers. Currently they have Kimi Räikkönen who at 40 has already stated he views F1 as “more of a hobby then a job” so chances are he won’t be coming back. Antonio Giovinazzi also seems destined to leave as he’s never shown any real talent in F1 and his two years at the highest level seem to be it for him. Although the future of some drivers remains uncertain, it is clear that the 2021 off season will see some big changes for F1 drivers. Red Bull look to catch Mercedes, Aston Martin look to create a new year of excellence and underachievers rebuild.


The Badger 19th October 2020

Sport

32 Rafael Nadal: The New GOAT of Men’s Tennis?

Max Kilham Sports Online Editor After matching Roger Federer’s 2 Grand Slams with his 13th win at Roland Garros, has the Spaniard overtaken his rival in the ‘Greatest Of All Time’ conversation? The Spaniard has long been considered one of the greats of the game and the ‘King of Clay.’ He now boasts a 100-2 win/loss record at the French Open, a record that is beyond belief in any context. Federer, meanwhile, is the proud owner of 20 slams himself. A man who has been widely regarded for a number of years as the greatest male player to do it, this line of thought is now under threat. Let’s look at the numbers. Despite being equal on Grand Slams, Rafa holds a 35 to 28 advantage over Federer for Masters 1000 title wins. Further-

more, Nadal leads their head to head matchup 24-16 all time. However, some context is needed for that statistic. Federer leads Nadal on grass, hard court and indoor, but Nadal’s 14-2 record on clay reverses the head to head. Nadal’s extreme success on clay may also be his downfall when it comes to the GOAT conversation. The dominance on clay means his statistics are less balanced across the board than his rivals, say Federer or Novak Djokovic. For example, although Federer has only won one French Open, he has a much more balanced breakdown of the others. Open’s and six Australian Open’s lambasts Nadal’s two, four and one at the respective tournaments. Nadal has also never won the

both times. Conversely, these arguments should be held with a pinch of salt. Nadal’s dominance at one slam should not take away from his dominance across all surfaces. The simple fact is, he has won on every surface at the highest level. There is no substitute for greatness such as this. We must also scrutinise Federer’s resume. Federer is still missing that elusive Olympic singles gold medal. Furthermore, many of his slams came about at a time when Nadal and Djokovic were not at their peak. Federer had won eight slams before he faced Nadal in the three are considered by many to be the greatest three of all of context that can’t be ignored on Federer’s resume. This is not to say that the competition for slams was at a poor level, merely that the level needed to win Grand Slams has

dal and Djokovic entered their primes. This criticism is compounded by his negative head to head record against both Nadal and Djokovic. If you want to be considered the greatest of all time, a losing record against your two greatest rivals is far from ideal. In the midst of this debate, it’s easy to overlook other candidates for the title. One prime alternative would be Novak Djokovic. Although the Serbian was thoroughly beaten by Nadal 6-0 ished at the elite level. Currently on 17 Grand Slam titles, it would not be a far cry to suggest that Federer and Nadal when it’s all said and done. Djokovic has dominated the Grand Slam tournaments over the last decade, winning 15 of his 17 in that time. He’s also closing in on Federer’s record of the

most weeks at world number one. He currently sits on 290 weeks, whilst Federer is on 310. Rule Novak out at your peril. However, it is time to take Nadal seriously. For years, Rafa has been depicted as the number 2 to Federer. Roger, quite rightly so, has been held in greater esteem on the court, with his Grand Slam win total always slightly ahead of Nadal’s. A changing of the guard is occurring. The next two Grand Slams, the Australian and French Open, are places where Djokovic and Nadal have dominated throughout their careers. Therefore, it seems likely that Nadal will reach number 21 before Federer. If this happens, the debate will go into full-swing. dog at the end of their careers, there is no doubt we are watching the three greatest men’s players of all time. We should cherish that whilst it lasts.

Messi and Ronaldo meet again in Champions League Sacha Thomas The Champions League is back. The 2020-21 group stage draw took place earlier this month, with the 32 qualifying teams being drawn into 8 groups of 4. The bookies have made Manchester City co-favourites along with reigning champions Bayern Munich. Let’s take a closer look at the groups: Group A: Bayern Munich, Atlético Madrid, RB Salzburg, Lokomotiv Moscow Let’s be honest: there’s not much debate here. The only question is which team Bayern Munich are going to put the most goals past. The defending champions are a certainty to go through to the knockout stages but, with Luis Suarez alongside Diego Costa, Atletico Madrid may not be too far behind. Based on RB Salzburg’s Champions League performances of last season, you cannot rule them out. However, they have lost key players in Erling Haaland and Takumi Minamino. Looking at the other teams, let’s prepare an early goodbye for Lokomotiv Moscow… Group B: Real Madrid, Shakhtar Donetsk, Inter Milan, Monchengladbach Group B also contains two cantly stronger than the others. Both Real Madrid and Inter Milan are expected to qualify for the knock-out stages. The La Liga champions are fa-

Jan S0L0 vourites to win the group, but Conte’s Inter Milan have made huge strides, reaching the Europa League Final last year before losing late on against Sevilla. Shakhtar Donetsk face a tough battle for third against their German counterparts Monchenglathe Bundesliga last season. It will be interesting to see who comes out top of this group. Group C: Porto, Manchester City, Olympiacos, Marseille Manchester

City

have

once

themselves in the easiest group of the competition. They should face little competition for the top spot and have an excellent chance of making the knock-out stages, where manager Pep Guardiola will ultimately be judged.

Of the remaining sides, Portuguese champions Porto look most likely to put up the best dré Villas-Boas’ Marseille closely trailing behind. Group D: Liverpool, Ajax, Atalanta, Midtjylland This is one of the most exciting groups in the competition, a group of goals. Liverpool, Ajax, and Atalanta have all been involved in some of the highest scoring matches in recent memory. Jurgen Klopp’s Liverpool are strong favourites to come out on top, although they may struggle in the absence of their “12th Man” fans. Atalanta will look to build on their mesmerising run from last year, while hoping that Gasperini’s gung-ho approach does not leave them too exposed at the back. They will face stiff competition from Ajax. No longer the nals two years ago, they are now considerably weaker after the poaching of their best players by Europe’s elite (… and ManchesGroup E: Sevilla, Chelsea, Krasnodar, Rennes For Sevilla, Group E presents a decent chance of qualifying for the knockout rounds, so we may not be seeing them in the Europa League this year. Whilst this is good news for Arsenal fans, it might not be the best outcome for the Europa League giants as they are likely

to struggle in the later stages of the Champions League. After their summer spending spree, there are high expectations for Chelsea. There is a question as to whether Frank his strongest team by the time Chelsea take on Sevilla, after the signings into the squad. French side Rennes may have to settle for the Europa League spot but it will be an interesting test for them after a fantastic Ligue 1. Krasnodar have never reached the group stage before and should be easy fodder for the other teams in this group. Group F: Zenit, Borussia Dortmund, Lazio, Club Brugge Despite being arguably the least eye-catching group in the competition, everything is to play for in Group F. Dortmund should stroll to is up for grabs, with each of the other three teams having enough quality to qualify, but gress any further into the competition. Group G: Juventus, Barcelona, Dynamo Kiev, Ferencvaros onel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo have never faced off in the Champions League group stages before. The two players, who are perhaps the two greatest players of this generation, have not faced one another since El

Classico in 2018. These two group games are tween the two heavyweight giants. The group seems a foregone conclusion as Juventus and Barcelona should easily qualify for the knockout round. Juventus appear the stronger of the two after the squad purge at Barcelona this summer. Group H: PSG, Manchester saksehir Ole Gunnar Solskjaer’s Manselves in this season’s Group of Death, joining last season’s RB Leipzig. PSG seem the favourites to to their dynamic front three. Leipzig may struggle without recent poor run of form, they should still be able to do the job and claim the second knockout space available. Turkish champions Istanbul Basaksehir are an unknown ons League group stage campaign. COVID-19 has led to the Champions League group games being played over a much tighter schedule than usual. With the absence of fans in stadiums, there may be some big upsets in the competition and it promises to be one of the most intriguing Champions League competitions yet.

Profile for The Badger

The Badger Third Edition (19/10/20)  

Have a read of the Badger's third edition of the academic year! From COVID headlines to spooky book recommendations, this edition isn't one...

The Badger Third Edition (19/10/20)  

Have a read of the Badger's third edition of the academic year! From COVID headlines to spooky book recommendations, this edition isn't one...

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