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Official

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Vol 38 No 2, April 2013 ISSN 1326-1932

Inside this Issue: ACA Foundation 2013/2014 Scholarship Program C&P2013 Keynote Speakers Technical Introduction: Galvanic Corrosion and Dissimilar Metals Project Profile: Corrosion Management at the Port of Newcastle Project Profile: High Grade Coatings Keep Coastal Stadium Gleaming Technical Note: GPR Array for the Condition Assessment of Concrete Slabs & Pavements University Profile: Ian Wark Research Institute University of South Australia Professional Practice Paper: Thermal Metal Spray: Successes, Failures and Lessons Learned

www.corrosion.com.au

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Apply Now!

The ACA Foundation Limited 2013/2014 scholarship program is offering: 2 x International Travel Scholarships valued at $25,000 3 x International Conference Scholarships valued at $10,500 10 x ACA Corrosion Course Registration Scholarships valued at $20,000 3 x Post Graduates Cash Scholarships valued at $7,500 2 x Certificate III in Surface Preparation and Coating Applications Scholarships valued at $10,000 5 x Post Graduate ACA Conference Attendance Scholarships valued at $6,600

For more information on the ACA Foundation Ltd. 2013 Scholarship Program including criteria, deadlines and the application process please refer to the scholarship section of the ACA website or contact Jacquie Martin on +61 (0)3 9890 4833. p.2  CORROSION & MATERIALS


ACA 2013

Sponsored by:

W O H Options for S D A O R Materials Selection & Corrosion Management Planning for the Long-term Sustainability of Infrastructure and Plant Overview

It’s All In The Detail

All infrastructure and plant need to be designed and

It doesn’t need to be all or nothing. Economies can be made if

constructed as economically as possible, but at the same

the right decisions are taken where it is necessary. Factors to

time must be made to last, and to provide a safe and reliable

consider include:

working environment. Low capital expenditure almost

* Fitness for purpose

invariably means high operating expenditure. Materials

* Alternatives & balancing maintenance versus up-front costs

performance must be taken seriously especially when

* Projected life and life extension

materials are close to their performance limits. The risks are

* Reduced manpower and maintenance costs

significant in terms of lost production and re-engineering,

* Scrap value

not to mention the increased threat to personnel safety and

The ACA is running its annual Road Show series to tackle

the environment.

and discuss the options for materials selection & corrosion

Engineers Australia members can choose to record CPD hours for attendance at this event in their personal CPD logs. Members should refer to Engineers Australia’s CPD Policy for details of requirements and conditions.

management by taking an in-depth look into how planning for the long term sustainability of infrastructure and plant can save owners money.

Locations

Dates

Venue

Darwin

Thursday 2nd May 2013

Engineers Australia, 14 Shepherd St, Darwin

Brisbane

Tuesday 7th May 2013

Brisbane Cricket Ground (GABBA), 411 Vulture Street, East Brisbane

Sydney

Thursday 9th May 2013

North Ryde RSL, Cnr Magdala & Pittwater Roads, North Ryde

Newcastle

Friday 10th May 2013

Engineers Australia, 122 Parry Street, Newcastle West

Tasmania

Tuesday 14th May 2013

Zeps Café, 92–94 High Street, Campbell Town

Melbourne

Thursday 16th May 2013

Engineering House, 121 Bedford Street, North Melbourne

Adelaide

Tuesday 21st May 2013

Mercure Grosvenor Hotel, 125 North Terrace, Adelaide

Perth

Thursday 23rd May 2013

Fraser’s – Kings Park, Kings Park/Fraser’s Ave, West Perth

Auckland

Tuesday 28th May 2013

Novotel Auckland Ellerslie, 72-112 Greenlane East, Ellerslie

Wellington

Thursday 30th May 2013

Bolton Hotel, Corner of Bolton & Mowbray Streets, Wellington

ACA 2013

W O H S D A RO

REGISTER NOW AT WWW.CORROSION.COM.AU April 2013  www.corrosion.com.au  p.3


CONTENTS

The Australasian Corrosion Association Inc The Australasian Corrosion Association Inc (ACA) is a non-profit membership based organisation akin to a “learned society”. The ACA was established in 1955 to service the needs of Australian and New Zealand companies, organisations and individuals involved in the fight against corrosion. It is dedicated to ensuring all aspects of corrosion are responsibly managed, protecting the environment and ensuring public safety. ACA members are drawn from a wide cross section of industries united by their common interest – to reduce the impact of corrosion in Australasia.

The ACA is a founder member of the World Corrosion Organization Front Cover Photo: Phased Array Ultrasonic scanning rapidly replacing radiography for comprehensive inspection. Photo supplied by Olympus Australia.

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ISSN 1326-1932 Published by The Australasian Corrosion Association Inc. ABN: 66 214 557 257 Associate Editors Research: Bruce Hinton – Monash University bruce.hinton@monash.edu Professional Practice: Willie Mandeno – Opus International Consultants, willie.mandeno@opus.co.nz News: Ian Booth – The Australasian Corrosion Association Inc, ibooth@corrosion.com.au

6

 President’s Message

8

 Chief Executive Officer’s Message

9

Letters to the Editor

10

ACA 2013 Training Calendar

12

News

22

ACA Branch News

24

ACA Standards Update

30

 ACA Foundation Future Leaders Forum

34

 C&P2013 Keynote Speakers

36

 Coatings Group Member Profile

38

ACA Certification Program

Reviewers Andy Atrens – University of Queensland Nick Birbilis – Monash University Frederic Blin – AECOM Lex Edmond – Monash University Harvey Flitt – Queensland University of Technology Maria Forsyth – Deakin University Rob Francis – Aurecon Australia Warren Green – Vinsi Partners Doug John – Curtin University of Technology Graeme Kelly – Corrotec Services Nick Laycock – Shell Grant McAdam – Defence Science & Technology Organisation David Nicholas – Nicholas Corrosion John Robinson – Mount Townsend Solutions Paul Schweinsburg – Queensland University of Technology Raman Singh – Monash University Graham Sussex – Sussex Material Solutions Tony Trueman – Defence Science & Technology Organisation Geoffrey Will – Queensland University of Technology David Young – University of New South Wales

Advertising Sales Wesley Fawaz – The Australasian Corrosion Association Inc, wesley.fawaz@corrosion.com.au Ph: 61 3 9890 4833, Fax: 61 3 9890 7866 Subscriptions Print Version: ISSN 1326-1932 Subscription rates: Within Australia: AU$72.60, incl GST Outside Australia: AU$77, excl GST posted airmail The views expressed in Corrosion & Materials are those of the individual authors and are not necessarily those of the ACA. Publication of advertisements does not imply endorsement by the ACA. Copyright of all published materials is retained by the ACA but it may be quoted with due reference. The Australasian Corrosion Association Inc PO Box 112, Kerrimuir, Victoria 3129, Australia Ph: 61 3 9890 4833, Fax: 61 3 9890 7866 Email: aca@corrosion.com.au Internet: www.corrosion.com.au


CONTENTS

40

Technical Introduction: Galvanic Corrosion and Dissimilar Metals

44

 Project Profile: Corrosion Management at the Port of Newcastle

48

 Project Profile: High Grade Coatings Keep Coastal Stadium Gleaming

50

Technical Note: GPR Array for the Condition Assessment of Concrete Slabs & Pavements

48

 University Profile: Ian Wark Research Institute University of South Australia

54

 Professional Practice Paper: Thermal Metal Spray: Successes, Failures and Lessons Learned

61

 Suppliers and Consultants

Corrosion & Materials Corrosion & Materials is the official publication of The Australasian Corrosion Association Inc (ACA). Published bi-monthly, Corrosion & Materials has a distribution of 2,500 to ACA members and other interested parties. Each issue features a range of news, information, articles, profiles and peer reviewed technical papers. Corrosion & Materials publishes original, previously unpublished papers under the categories “Research” and “Professional Practice”. All papers are peer reviewed by at least two anonymous referees prior to publication and qualify for inclusion in the list which an author and his or her institution can submit for the ARC “Excellence in Research Australia” list of recognised research publications. Please refer to the Author Guidelines at www.corrosion.com.au before you submit a paper to Wesley Fawaz at wesley.fawaz@corrosion.com.au with a copy to bruce.hinton@monash.edu ACA also welcomes short articles (technical notes, practical pieces, project profiles, etc) between 500 – 1,500 words with high resolution photos for editorial review. Please refer to the Article Guidelines at www.corrosion.com.au before you submit a paper to Wesley Fawaz at wesley.fawaz@corrosion.com.au

ACA Operations Board President: Allan Sterling

ACA Branches & Divisions Auckland Division: Grant Chamberlain

64 21 245 9038

ACA Technical Groups Cathodic Protection: Bruce Ackland

61 3 9890 3096

Coatings: Matthew O'Keeffe

61 437 935 969

Chief Executive Officer: Ian Booth

Newcastle: Karen Swain

Operations Chairman: Paul Vince

New South Wales: Denis Jean-Baptiste 61 0 404 646 272

Senior Vice President: Andrew Hargrave

Queensland: Cathy Sterling

Junior Vice President: Mohammad Ali

South Australia: Erwin Gamboa

Immediate Past President: Peter Dove

Tasmania: Grant Weatherburn

61 0 418 120 550

Directors: Graham Carlisle Matthew Dafter Brad Dockrill John Duncan Fred Salome Graham Sussex Dean Wall Geoffrey Will

Taranaki Division: Ron Berry

64 27 671 2278

Research: TBA

Victoria: John Tanti

61 3 9885 5305

Water & Water Teatment: Matthew Dafter 61 419 816 783

Wellington Division: Monika Ko Western Australia: Gary Bennett

61 0 418 854 902

61 7 3821 0202 61 8 8303 5473

64 4 978 6630 61 0 408 413 811

Concrete Structures & Buildings: Frédéric Blin

61 3 9653 8406

Mining Industry: Ted Riding

61 3 9314 0722

Petroleum & Chemical Processing Industry: Fikry Barouky 61 402 684 165

Young Corrosion Group: Erwin Gamboa

61 403 523 771

*all the above information is accurate at the time of this issue going to press.


PRESIDENT’S MESSAGE

What is the NACE Conference all about? Well, in basic terms the entire conference is big. The exhibition is huge and the number of papers, presentations and meetings is extremely high. There were over 600 exhibition spaces (375 exhibitors) covering a massive area (8,000 m2). The main point of difference I observed was the lack of dominance of coatings companies. All major coatings companies still exhibit, however there were many smaller engineering and supplier companies providing a more diverse feel to the exhibition.

Allan Sterling President Hi All I recently had the pleasure of attending my first NACE Conference in Orlando, Florida at the invitation of NACE International. The NACE conference certainly provided a different perspective compared to our ACA conference, although they seem to want to copy our Sydney Opera House (see picture). Thank you to Kevin Garrity and Tushar Jhaveri (NACE outgoing and incoming Presidents) for their hospitality. While in Orlando, myself and others in the ACA executive had meetings with NACE International and attended their Annual Awards Dinner. We were made to feel very welcome and I look forward to reciprocating the warm welcome to various NACE members including President Tushar Jhaveri at our conference in Brisbane in November.

p.6  CORROSION & MATERIALS

In February I attended my first official Board meeting in Adelaide. It was good to catch up with the full ACA Board, with many issues discussed and resolved. The meeting notes have been distributed to Branches for those who want an update. Our next Board meeting will be in mid June. Prior to the next Board meeting, the Association will be conducting its annual Road Show event. I am hoping

to be able to attend selected events around the various Branches without disrupting my work commitments. If a Branch has a specific event that they would like me to attend as ACA President, please contact myself or Wesley Fawaz and we will see what we can organise. This year we seem to be experiencing the full extremity of weather events (floods, fires, cyclones and tornadoes). Should we put all this down to climate change? I don’t know. I prefer not to get into that debate, but whether it is or it isn’t, we just have to deal with it. I trust all our members have not been too adversely affected by these weather events. Planning for the November conference C&P2013 “Where Theory Meets Practice” continues to move ahead. The call for papers has now closed and registrations are open. The conference will be held in the Brisbane Convention & Exhibition Centre and we look forward to seeing you all there.

The Orange County Convention Centre, location of the 2013 NACE Conference.


TECHNICAL CHAIRS

TECHNICAL The Australasian Corrosion Association Inc is seeking expressions of interest for the role of Technical Chair for the ACA Annual Conference. Three Technical Chair positions are available and are open to ACA members only.

CHAIRS ACA Annual Conference

The Technical Chairs will be responsible for the technical conceptualisation and execution of the annual conference. The scope of the roles and responsibilities is primarily focused on the theme and technical content of the conference, such as keynote speaker selection, review of submitted abstracts, scheduling the final program based on approved papers, etc. The formal and operational management of the conference will be managed by ACA staff. Applications are due by Monday 20th May 2013. Visit the conference website at www.acaconference.com.au for the expression of interest documentation.

April 2013  www.corrosion.com.au  p.7


CEO’S MESSAGE

A low rumble is turning into an unquestionable roar The ACA, in conjunction with a range of other leading industry association partners, is actively considering meaningful ways to address the increased safety and heightened risk that’s associated with the unregulated global market in steel and fabricated steelwork supply. It can be argued that Australia and New Zealand have enjoyed the benefits of global markets for their exports and that the reduction of barriers to imported products has led to wider choice at reduced costs. In pure terms, these benefits are positive. What is becoming increasingly clear is that the inherent assurances as to quality and satisfaction of standards which generally apply in Australia and New Zealand cannot be assured. Recent major failures in structural and fabricated steel products sourced from overseas suppliers who are not subject to the same quality, occupational health and safety and standards regimes as are Australian and New Zealand manufacturers and fabricators highlight some of the problems. Failures in coatings at the point of delivery and inadequate corrosion mitigation methodology given the

unique challenges of building in predominantly coastal environments appear to be common issues. Both Australia and New Zealand lack properly integrated compliance regimes. Such conformity based programs exist in many first world countries including the USA, Canada, the UK and Europe. The volume and detection of counterfeit steel construction products is increasing. A glaring example of such counterfeiting relates to one of the largest road projects in Australia where recently, substandard steel of grades lower than were specified were incorporated into the fabrication of bridge trusses. Upon erection, the trusses collapsed under their own weight, without load, and hollow sections were found to be laden with sand and water to give the impression that the overall mass indicated the correct grades of steel were in use. The coating of steel components on the same project was found to have used inadequate (sometimes none at all) surface preparation, non-specified and non-conforming coatings products, many of which had failed prior to their arrival on site.

Recently the Australian Steel Institute (ASI) posed this question: Should the Australian public be exposed to heightened levels of risk requiring a significant failure to occur involving loss of life or serious injury before we can drive regulatory change? As ASI is working closely with HERA on such issues, the question applies equally to New Zealand. ACA has been approached to support the development of a trans-Tasman regulatory regime which includes mandatory third party certification of conformity with relevant Australian and New Zealand standards, whether the standards be in design, product quality, fabrication including welding and corrosion mitigation. If such a regime delvers on its intended outcomes, the Australian and New Zealand building, engineering and contracting communities will have to re-engage with a stronger compliance regime regardless of the source of origin of steelwork to ensure quality and safety in construction. Ian Booth Chief Executive Officer ibooth@corrosion.com.au

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p.8  CORROSION & MATERIALS


THE AUSTRALASIAN CORROSION ASSOCIATION INC SEMINAR

Reinforced Concrete Performance for Water and Wastewater Assets – Sharing Experience Through Case Studies PROUDLY PRESENTED BY:

Date: Thursday 13th June 2013 • Venue: Brisbane Marriott Hotel - 515 Queen Street, Brisbane The Concrete Structures & Buildings and the Water & Water Treatment Technical Groups of the ACA have come together to produce a technical program that will appeal to all stakeholders that are affected by corrosion. This event will focus on case studies of new and existing reinforced concrete structures within the Water and Wastewater industries. The presenters will share their experience and the lessons they have learnt (both successful and unsuccessful), particularly the history of asset performance and how this has and/or could inform durability planning. To ensure this event is a success and to bring the industry together, we will have two speakers from each of the

following industry groups presenting various case studies on new and existing projects; Asset Owners Consultants Contractors

at Register now n.com.au www.corrosio

Suppliers This one day event will help bring together all stakeholders to discuss and learn about various corrosion issues across a range of projects. To end the day we will engage the audience to participate in an open forum to discuss corrosion issues with the panel of speakers.

Time

Session

Speaker

8.15 – 8.45

Registration

8:45 – 8:50

Welcome and Seminar Opening

Chairpersons – Frederic Blin, Matthew Dafter & Warren Green

8.50 – 9.30

Performance of Water and Wastewater Reinforced Concrete Structures – An Asset Owners Perspective

Sheikh Uddin, Queensland Urban Utilities

9.30 – 10.10

Condition Assessment & Life Extension of Reinforced Concrete Water Reservoirs

Luke Menefy, SMEC Australia

10.10 – 10.30

Sponsors Session – Opportunity Available

10.30 – 11.00

Morning Tea

11.00 – 11.40

Case Studies of Waste Water Structure Rehabilitation – Products, Methods and Outcomes

Nicholas Critchley, SAVCOR

11.40 – 12.20

Innovative Techniques to Provide Long Term Protection of Water and Wastewater Assets

Andrew Dickinson, Parchem Construction Supplies

12.20 – 13.00

Specificity of Reinforced Concrete Structure in Bulk Water Supply – An Asset Owners Perspective

Paul Utting, SEQ Water

13.00 – 13.50

Lunch

13.50 – 14.30

Residual Life Assessment and Repair Design of Wastewater Structures

Gavin Chadbourn, GHD

14.30 – 15.10

Diagnostics – How to Determine the Health of Your Water and Wastewater Assets

Mike Rutherford, Freyssinet Australia

15.10 – 15.30

Sponsors Session – Opportunity Available

15.30 – 16.00

Afternoon Tea

16.00 – 16.40

Protection of Water and Wastewater Concrete Structures - Pitfalls & Common Site Issues Grant Dowling, Sika Australia

16.40 – 17.25

Open Floor Speakers Forum and Discussion

Forum Chairs & All Speakers

17.25 – 17.30

Seminar Close

Chairperson

17.30 – 19.00

Cocktail Function

April 2013  www.corrosion.com.au  p.9


ACA 2013 TRAINING CALENDAR

ACA 2013 Training Calendar Corrosion Technology Certificate Mbr Status

Fee

GST

Introduction to Cathodic Protection Total Fee

Mbr Status

Fee

GST

Total Fee

AU Mbr

$1922.73

$192.27

$2115.00

AU Mbr

$500.00

$50.00

$550.00

AU Non Mbr

$2254.55

$225.45

$2480.00

AU Non Mbr

$618.18

$61.82

$680.00

NZ Mbr*

$1925.00

NZ Non Mbr

$2255.00

NZ Mbr*

$455.00

NZ Non Mbr

$620.00

Brisbane

April/May

29th - 03rd

Adelaide

June

24th

Sydney

October

14th - 18th

Perth

December

09th

Introduction to Protective Coatings

Cathodic Protection Monitoring

Mbr Status

Fee

GST

Total Fee

Mbr Status

Fee

GST

Total Fee

AU Mbr

$500.00

$50.00

$550.00

AU Mbr

$1286.36

$128.64

$1415.00

AU Non Mbr

$618.18

$61.82

$680.00

AU Non Mbr

$1568.18

$156.82

$1725.00

NZ Non Mbr

NZ Non Mbr

$1570.00

NZ Mbr*

$455.00

$620.00

NZ Mbr*

$1285.00

Sydney

June

11th

Sydney

May

13th - 15th

Brisbane

September

16th

Adelaide

June

25th - 27th

Protective Coatings Quality Control

Melbourne

August

12th - 14th

Mbr Status

Fee

GST

Total Fee

Perth

December

10th - 12th

AU Mbr

$1286.36

$128.64

$1415.00

Cathodic Protection Advanced

AU Non Mbr

$1568.18

$156.82

$1725.00

Mbr Status

Fee

GST

Total Fee

NZ Mbr*

$1285.00

NZ Non Mbr

$1570.00

AU Mbr

$1922.73

$192.27

$2115.00

Sydney

June

12th - 14th

AU Non Mbr

$2254.55

$225.45

$2480.00

Brisbane

September

17th - 19th

NZ Mbr*

$1925.00

NZ Non Mbr

$2255.00

New Zealand

December

09th - 11th

Sydney

May

06th - 10th

Adelaide

June

17th - 21st

Coatings Selection and Specifications Mbr Status

Fee

GST

Total Fee

Melbourne

August

05th - 09th

AU Mbr

$1286.36

$128.64

$1415.00

Perth

December

02nd - 06th

AU Non Mbr

$1568.18

$156.82

$1725.00

Corrosion & CP of Concrete Structures

NZ Non Mbr

NZ Mbr*

$1285.00

$1570.00

Mbr Status

Fee

GST

Total Fee

Adelaide

April/May

30th - 02nd

AU Mbr

$918.18

$91.82

$1010.00

Perth

July

16th - 18th

AU Non Mbr

$1150.00

$115.00

$1265.00

Melbourne

October

01st - 03rd

NZ Mbr*

$920.00

NZ Non Mbr

$1150.00

Coatings Inspection Refresher

Brisbane

July

16th - 17th

Mbr Status

Total Fee

Tasmania

November

25th - 26th

ACA/ACRA Corrosion & Protection of Concrete Structures

Fee

GST

AU Mbr

$500.00

$50.00

$550.00

AU Non Mbr

$618.18

$61.82

$680.00

NZ Mbr*

$455.00

NZ Non Mbr

$620.00

Brisbane

November

09th

New Zealand

December

12th

All registration fees are payable in Australian Dollars. All registrations are subject to ACA’s published terms, conditions and policies which can be found at www.corrosion.com.au

p.10  CORROSION & MATERIALS

Mbr Status

Fee

GST

Total Fee

AU Mbr

$918.18

$91.82

$1010.00

AU Non Mbr

$1150.00

$115.00

$1265.00

NZ Mbr*

$920.00

NZ Non Mbr

$1150.00

Sydney

August

13th - 14th

Perth

September

19th - 20th

2013 Calendar accurate as of 25/1/2013. Refer to www.corrosion.com.au for an updated version. * All NZ courses are GST free


ACA 2013 TRAINING CALENDAR

NACE – Peer Review CIP Level 3

Electrolysis Testers Course Mbr Status

Fee

GST

Total Fee

Mbr Status

Fee

GST

Total Fee

$1271.82

$127.18

$1399.00

AU Mbr

$618.18

$61.82

$680.00

AU Mbr

AU Non Mbr

$677.27

$67.73

$745.00

AU Non Mbr

$1493.64

$149.36

$1643.00

NZ Mbr*

$550.00

NZ Non Mbr

$620.00

NZ Mbr*

$1272.00

NZ Non Mbr

$1494.00

Sydney

October

TBA

Brisbane

November

NACE - Coatings Inspection Program CIP Level 1 Mbr Status

Fee

GST

05th - 09th

Resits NACE – Coating Inspector Program Level 1 & 2

Total Fee

Mbr Status

Fee

GST

Total Fee

$863.64

$86.36

$950.00

AU Mbr

$3236.36

$323.64

$3560.00

AU Mbr

AU Non Mbr

$3700.00

$370.00

$4070.00

AU Non Mbr

$1090.91

$109.09

$1200.00

NZ Mbr*

$3235.00

NZ Non Mbr

$3715.00

NZ Mbr*

$865.00

NZ Non Mbr

$1110.00

Adelaide

May

06th - 11th

Brisbane

May

13th - 18th

Examination Tests will be conducted to coincide with scheduled programs – contact ACA for details

Perth

June

17th - 22nd

New Zealand

July/August

29th - 03rd

Sydney

August

19th - 24th

Tasmania

September

02nd - 7th

Adelaide

October

14th - 19th

Brisbane

October/November

28th - 02nd

Melbourne

November

25th - 30th

NACE - Coatings Inspection Program CIP Level 2 Mbr Status

Fee

GST

Total Fee

AU Mbr

$3236.36

$323.64

$3560.00

AU Non Mbr

$3700.00

$370.00

$4070.00

NZ Mbr*

$3235.00

NZ Non Mbr

$3715.00

Adelaide

May

13th - 18th

Perth

June

24th - 29th

New Zealand

August

05th - 10th

Sydney

August

26th - 31st

Adelaide

October

21st - 26th

Brisbane

November

04th - 09th

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING – WITHV THE STRONGEST FIBER IN THE WORLD! Melbourne December 02nd - 07th

SSPC – C7 Abrasive Blasting Certification Program Mbr Status

Fee

GST

Total Fee

AU Mbr

$1181.80

$118.20

$1300.00

AU Non Mbr

$1354.55

$135.45

$1490.00

NZ Mbr*

$1180.00

NZ Non Mbr

$1355.00

Melbourne

May

07th – 08th

Melbourne

May

20th – 21st

Melbourne

June

11th – 12th

Melbourne

June

25th – 26th

SSPC – C12 Airless Spray Basics Mbr Status

Fee

GST

Total Fee

AU Mbr

$1181.80

$118.20

$1300.00

AU Non Mbr

$1354.55

$135.45

$1490.00

NZ Mbr*

$1180.00

NZ Non Mbr

$1355.00

Melbourne

May

09th – 10th

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22nd – 23rd

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2013-03-15 11:40


NEWS

Council recognises contribution by Brian Cherry to Corrosion & Materials A significant era in the development of ACA’s communications with members and the wider industries it services has come to a close with the recent retirement of Professor Brian Cherry as Editor of Corrosion & Materials. Professor Cherry has presided over the technical content of Corrosion & Materials during a period in which both the style and content have changed significantly whilst the underlying drive to maintain a focus on technical excellence has remained unchanged, if not enhanced.

At its meeting in November 2012 ACA’s Council unreservedly and with unanimous acclamation recorded its appreciation for the sterling efforts of Professor Cherry and his editorial team during a period in which Corrosion & Materials has more than doubled in size and which has seen marked improvements in production values. The challenges of sourcing quality technical content, rigorously reviewed to ensure sound and quality scientific approaches are reported to readers are always daunting. Professor Cherry through his substantial

personal commitment to Corrosion & Materials has ensured the publication has continued to develop, meeting not only the needs of the research community but also the broader readership. Corrosion & Materials is a better publication for the contribution made by Professor Cherry. The published editions and volumes from his tenure as Editor are testament to his professionalism, pursuit of scientific rigor and personal commitment to Corrosion & Materials and ACA which are unsurpassed.

ACA Foundation Ltd – 2013/2014 scholarship program announced The ACA Foundation Ltd. is delighted to announce the following scholarship program for 2013/2014: 2 x International Travel Scholarships  x International Conference 3 Scholarships  0 x ACA Corrosion Course 1 Registration Scholarships 3 x Post Graduates Cash Scholarships  x Certificate III in Surface 2 Preparation and Coating Applications Scholarships

 x Post Graduate ACA Conference 5 Attendance Scholarships The total scholarship program for 2013/2014 is valued at almost $80,000. The President of the ACA Foundation Ltd. Dean Wall described the 2013/2014 scholarship program as “the largest ever financial commitment made to furthering professional development and academic education in our industry. The Foundation has been restructured and is now well placed to make this sort of commitment not only for 2013 but well into the future.”

In addition to the 2013 Scholarship Program, ACA Foundation Ltd. will support the Australasian lecture tour of internationally recognised corrosion expert Dr Carrol Powell, Copper Development Association, United Kingdom later in October, 2013. For more information on the ACA Foundation Ltd. 2013 Scholarship Program including criteria, deadlines and the application process please refer to the scholarship section of the ACA website or contact Jacquie Martin on +61 (0)3 9890 4833.

PCCP Accredited Contractors Painting contractors who demonstrate compliance with certain defined minimum performance standards such as quality systems, satisfied customers, skilled and experienced personnel etc are certified under the Painting Contractors Certification Program administered by the CSIRO. To view the current list of PCCP certified contractors, please follow the links under ‘Directories’ on the ACA website www.corrosion.com.au

p.12  CORROSION & MATERIALS


ACA CALENDAR OF EVENTS

ACA Calendar of Events 2013 Part of the role of the ACA is to organise events that bring together industry experts to present on new technologies, updates to standards, and share knowledge and experiences via case studies on a variety of projects. 2013 will be no different, with the events listed below scheduled in our Calendar of Events.

Event

2013 Date

Location

Options for Materials Selection & Corrosion Management RoadShow

2 May

Darwin

Options for Materials Selection & Corrosion Management RoadShow

7 May

Brisbane

Options for Materials Selection & Corrosion Management RoadShow

9 May

Sydney

Options for Materials Selection & Corrosion Management RoadShow

10 May

Newcastle

Options for Materials Selection & Corrosion Management RoadShow

14 May

Tasmania

Options for Materials Selection & Corrosion Management RoadShow

16 May

Melbourne

Options for Materials Selection & Corrosion Management RoadShow

21 May

Adelaide

Options for Materials Selection & Corrosion Management RoadShow

23 May

Perth

Options for Materials Selection & Corrosion Management RoadShow

28 May

Auckland

Options for Materials Selection & Corrosion Management RoadShow

30 May

Wellington

Reinforced Concrete Performance for Water & Wastewater Assets

13 June

Brisbane

Improving the Longevity of Protective Coatings

18-19 July

Melbourne

Cathodic Protection Technical Group / Australian Electrolysis Committee Meeting

25 July

Newcastle

Corrosion in the Mining Industry

8 August

Newcastle

Control and Manage Corrosion in the Oil & Gas Industries

29 August

Perth

Corrosion & Prevention 2013 Conference

10-13 November

Brisbane

ACA members will receive further details on each event as appropriate throughout the year, but for now, please include these in your 2013 diary. For further information on these events for 2013 please don’t hesitate to contact Brendan Pejkovic (bpejkovic@corrosion.com.au) or Katherine Webber (kwebber@corrosion.com.au) in the ACA office on +61 (0)3 9890 4833.

Branch Events

Each of the eight ACA Branches will conduct regular technical events throughout 2013. To enquire, you may contact your local Branch at the following email addresses: New South Wales: nsw@corrosion.com.au New Zealand: nz@corrosion.com.au Newcastle: ncl@corrosion.com.au Queensland: qld@corrosion.com.au South Australia: sa@corrosion.com.au Tasmania: tas@corrosion.com.au Victoria: vic@corrosion.com.au Western Australia: wa@corrosion.com.au

YCG Events

Targeting individuals under 35, new to the corrosion industry and/or interested in the corrosion industry, the ACA Young Corrosion Professionals conduct regular events. For further details email ycg@corrosion.com.au or go to www.corrosion.com.au

Please refer to www.corrosion.com.au for up to date details on all ACA activities.

April 2013  www.corrosion.com.au  p.13


NEWS

ACA conference committee applications open Three positions are available which will form the new ACA standing conference committee along with the ACA Events Director, a conference Convenor and a local Branch representative.

The Technical Chairs will be responsible for the technical conceptualisation and execution of the annual conference. The scope of the roles and responsibilities is primarily focused on the theme and technical content of the conference, such as keynote speaker selection, review of submitted abstracts, scheduling the final program based on approved papers, etc

The formal and operational management of the conference will continue to be managed by ACA staff.

Applications are open to ACA members only and are due by Monday 20th May 2013. The first meeting of the standing

The ACA Inc is seeking expressions of interest for the role of Technical Chair/s for the ACA Annual Conference.

conference committee will take place in June 2013 with the committee’s first conference to be the 2014 conference in Darwin. Interested members are encouraged to apply by downloading the expression of interest documentation at www.acaconference.com.au. If you wish to discuss the positions further, please contact Wesley Fawaz at the ACA office on +61 (3) 9890 4833.

Smart technology takes the guesswork out of water network maintenance NICTA, Australia’s leading information and communications technology (ICT) R&D organisation, has joined forces with Sydney Water to improve assessment of water pipes using technology that forecasts potential breakages in the system. Australia’s critical water mains break on average 7,000 times each year, due to age, material, soil type and other factors. Under the agreement announced recently with Sydney Water, NICTA’s machine learning capabilities will be used to more accurately identify which pipes are at risk of failure, potentially saving Australia’s water utilities and the community $700 million a year in reactive repairs and maintenance. “NICTA’s technology was trialled in Wollongong and was able to accurately

predict breaks in the following year with twice the precision of the existing technology,” said Mr Rob Fitzpatrick, Director, Infrastructure, Transport and Logistics at NICTA. “NICTA is applying advanced machine learning techniques to pipe failure data from Sydney Water. We have been working together to develop a system that will reduce the inconvenience and expense incurred by water pipe breakages.” “All water utilities with buried water pipes are faced with the issue of finding pipes that are at high-risk of failure before they fail and result in significant disruptions to the community. To do this we need accurate models to identify high-risk pipes which can cope with the differences in age, pipe material, environmental conditions and urbanisation,” said Kevin Young,

Managing Director of Sydney Water. The project is valued at more than $700,000 in cash and in-kind contributions from NICTA and Sydney Water. “Our approach draws on NICTA’s specialty in machine learning,” said Dr Fang Chen, NICTA’s Technical Lead on the project. “We have developed a new computer modelling based approach to estimate the likelihood of pipe failure. Our approach could also be applied to other infrastructure failure prediction, such as bridges.” “This is the latest example of NICTA working with industry to develop the ICT for smart infrastructure that will drive Australia’s future productivity,” said Hugh Durrant-Whyte, CEO, NICTA.

Corrosion Control Directory Are you seeking a CP consultant? Or a coating inspector or coating applicator? To search an extensive list of service providers in the corrosion prevention industry, please see the ACA Corrosion Control Directory under ‘Directories’ on the ACA website www.corrosion.com.au

p.14  CORROSION & MATERIALS


NEWS

All Over Corrosion Protection & Durability For over 100 years, Hot Dip Galvanized (HDG) steel has been an unrivalled coating that protects steel from corrosion by adding a thick, tough, metallurgically bonded zinc envelope. As well as superior corrosion protection, HDG steel provides a uniform barrier inside, outside, corners and edges providing outstanding abrasion resistance and minimal maintenance. The tightly bonded zinc coating provides three levels of corrosion resistance; steel barrier protection, cathodic protection, and zinc patina. For architects, engineers and builders, HDG steel is ideal for its durability, longevity, ease of application, turnaround speed and ease of inspection. As part of the global Valmont group, Industrial Galvanizers has the expertise and resources to handle the most demanding project, providing outstanding customer service and quality assured materials. Sydney • Newcastle • Port Kembla • Melbourne • Carole Park Pinkenba • North Queensland • Western Australia • Tasmania www.ingal.com.au

Quality ISO 9001

April 2013  www.corrosion.com.au  p.15


NEWS

Richard Clegg joins Bureau Veritas Bureau Veritas Asset Integrity and Reliability Services (AIRS) recently announced that Dr. Richard Clegg has been appointed as a Principal Consultant within the Materials Science and Engineering group. Richard will be based in the Bureau Veritas offices in Brisbane and will provide expert materials consulting and engineering failure analysis services to Queensland, National and International clients. Bureau Veritas AIRS Vice President Richard Lake says “Richard brings a wealth of knowledge and experience

to our business and his appointment will help to further strengthen our materials science and engineering services offering. This is in line with our growth aspirations in Queensland and our strategy of bringing our employees closer to our key customers – particularly those in Oil and Gas, Mining and Power Generation industries in Queensland. We are very excited to have Richard on board”. Clegg’s work involves the application of scientific and engineering understanding of the degradation of materials to the management of assets in the process industries. He also has an excellent knowledge of modern non-destructive testing techniques

and how they are applied to ensure structural integrity. Prior to this appointment at Bureau Veritas, Clegg was Professor and Director of Process Engineering and Light Metals Centre at Central Queensland University. Clegg says,“Bureau Veritas has an enviable international reputation and I am very excited to be able to work with one of the world leaders in asset integrity and reliability. I look forward to being able to use my investigative skills and technical knowledge to improve outcomes for clients and help develop a stronger presence for Bureau Veritas in the region.”

Liquid Coating 101 Technical Event The NSW Young Corrosion Group (YCG) committee organised their first event for 2013 on Tuesday 26th February at the Ranch Hotel, Eastwood.

coatings based on their chemistry. Emphasis on surface treatment and quality control to ensure the coating performance was also presented.

Fred Salome of CTI Consultants and Andrew Dickinson of Parchem Construction Supplies gave an interesting insight on coatings for steel and concrete surface. Both presentations touched on basics of corrosion and cathodic protection, followed by the many categories of

There was great feedback on the presentations with some attendees even requesting the presentations for future reference. In addition to the two presentations, both presenters gave a brief history of their careers and how they landed in the corrosion prevention industry.

Following the two technical presentations, two NSW bursary winners to last year’s ACA conference funded by the NSW Branch who had just returned from the recent Future Leaders Forum also gave a summary of their experience and learning’s from both events. Overall the event was a great success with some new faces and volunteers who agreed to organise future presentations or field visits.

Carboguard®690 is a proven performer in Carboline's range. This coating exhibits outstanding moisture tolerance during application and has a low temperature cure capability. Ideal for industrial or marine environments, 690 can be used in immersion service for salt water, process water and waste water treatment projects. Talk to your local Carboline representative today!

p.16  CORROSION & MATERIALS


NEWS

Sorel Award Winners 2012 The Galvanizers Association of Australia Sorel Award winner for 2012 was announced at the Association’s Annual Conference held in Auckland, New Zealand in October. The Sorel Award commemorates Stanislaus Sorel, a French civil engineer, who filed a patent on 10 May 1837 for a method of protecting iron from rust - the parent of the hot dip galvanizing process. The Award’s criteria encompass engineering, technical innovation, and market development potential within the galvanizing industry. The overall Sorel Award winner for 2012 was GB Galvanizing Service, for their work in delivering a hot-dip galvanized solution for the amazing RMIT Design Hub. GB developed a galvanizing technique that minimised touch marks and repairs, while providing a coating thickness that was 20% more than standard.

Opened in November 2012, the RMIT Design Hub is a nine-storey tower of flexible loft-like workshops cloaked by over 17,000 sequin-like 600mm glass discs each resembling a steel drum comprising a 130mm-deep galvanized steel hoop in-filled with sandblasted glass. The façade system involves a bespoke double-glazed inner skin set 700mm behind the operable veil with disks arrayed in preassembled panels comprising nine fixed and 12 operable. The operable discs open to 90 degrees pivoting on horizontal axes on the north and south elevations and vertical axes on the east and west elevations. Operations Manager of GB Galvanizing, Vince Gucciardo said “hot-dip galvanized steel has become more widely used in architectural applications where the superior life cycle costs had been recognised by architects, engineers and fabricators alike, while the tried, trusted and proven nature of the

coating provided confidence that the corrosion protection would meet the customer requirements for durability”. In addition, receiving high commendations from the judges were two outstanding solutions in public and commercial architectural applications; Hunter Galvanizers for their work on the Indoor Sports Stadium located 50 km North of Sydney on Milson Island, and a second project from GB Galvanizing Service for the Craigieburn Train Maintenance Facility in outer Melbourne, Victoria. Both of these projects have also been recognised in various other Australian and International awards within the architectural, building and steel industries. Further details on each of the award winners are available directly from the GAA at www.gaa.com.au or by phone on +61 (3) 9654 1266.

Craigieburn Train Maintenance Facility

RMIT Design Hub

Indoor Sports Stadium located 50 km North of Sydney on Milson Island

April 2013  www.corrosion.com.au  p.17


NEWS

Jotun wins Ausmarine best paint supplier award The only national magazine servicing the Australian and New Zealand commercial and government marine industry, Ausmarine (published by Baird Publications) last year launched their Annual Ausmarine Best Awards. Based on their survey completed by local ship and boat builders, Jotun Australia has been awarded Ausmarine’s Best Paint Supplier for 2012. One of the main reasons for painting a vessel is for corrosion prevention. Jotun’s Jotamastic Smartpack,

a two-pack maintenance anti-corrosive has become the on-board anticorrosive of choice for major shipping companies worldwide. Jotun’s Michael O’Malley said that “Jotun’s success is due to first class research and development, good materials, excellence in the manufacturing process, and a rigorous testing and quality assurance programme.”

choosing winners had been very difficult. “Our big ‘problem’ had been the overall high quality of what is available in the Australian commercial marine market. We have done our ‘best’ and have endeavoured to be as fair and objective as possible”.

Winners were published in the January 2013 issue and Ausmarine said that

NZTA wins international award for environmentally friendly road de-icing initiative A New Zealand Transport Agency (NZTA) chemical road de-icing initiative has received worldwide recognition for excellence in environmental mitigation. The NZTA’s Chemical De-icing Environmental Risk Management project has been selected as the winner of the 2012 International Roading Federation’s (IRF) Global Road Achievement Award in the Environmental Mitigation category. NZTA General Manager Highways and Network Operations Colin Crampton says the winning project identified an effective, environmentally-friendly chemical de-icing solution for New Zealand’s roads without compromising the protection of nearby soils, vegetation and waterways. An independent, international panel of judges with expertise in the roadway development industry selected the

NZTA initiative as the winning entry, which puts the Agency into an elite group of projects from 29 countries which have been recognised by the IRF for their excellence and innovation since the awards began in 2000.

From the first trials conducted in the Central North Island the use of the chemical de-icer was expanded to other areas and is now in common use on many state highways throughout NZ during winter.

The award entry detailed how the NZ Transport Agency set out to rigorously examine the effects of Calcium Magnesium Acetate (CMA) on the environment through a carefully planned and managed introduction with ongoing monitoring of the environment.

Monitoring carried out for over 12 years determined that the chemical has had no long term cumulative effect on the environment.

CMA was identified as a suitable alternative to salt (CMA is about as corrosive as tap water) which is universally used as a very effective deicer however its use was discontinued in NZ in the early 1980’s due to concerns for the environment and its effects on vehicles.

The project was submitted by Hamiltonbased NZTA Principal Asset Manager, Alan Burkett, who initiated the introduction of CMA into New Zealand and carried out the first trials. This has put the NZTA’s achievements in front of roading professionals worldwide.

Are you looking for your next career challenge? ACA Jobs Listings Look under ‘Directories’ on the ACA website www.corrosion.com.au p.18  CORROSION & MATERIALS


Major Sponsor:

NEWS

CORROSION & PREVENTION 2013 C O N F E R E N C E

&

Proudly Presented by:

E X H I B I T I O N

Where Theory Meets Practice Brisbane Convention & Exhibition Centre

Early Bird Registration: Register before 23rd August for the discounted conference registration fee.

10–13 November 2013 www.acaconference.com.au

Technical streams include: • Corrosion mechanisms, modelling and prediction • Protective coatings • Cathodic protection • Concrete corrosion and repair • Materials selection and design • Asset and integrity management • Corrosion prevention implementation

The conference will be integrated with an exhibition which will showcase the products and services within the corrosion mitigation industry.

• Failure analysis • Corrosion in biomedical applications • Contractor perspectives • Education and training

For further information contact The Australasian Corrosion Association Inc on +61 (0)3 9890 4833, Email: conference@corrosion.com.au or refer to www.acaconference.com.au

CORROSION & PREVENTIONp.19 2013 April 2013  www.corrosion.com.au 


NEWS

ACA welcomes new members Corporate Bronze Bowhill Engineering www.boweng.com.au Bowhill Engineering is a proud family business with a low risk profile. With safety and QA systems in place, they make sure they deliver high standards, on time. Specialising in heavy structural engineering, Bowhill Engineering have the facilities to handle larger components while contributing to high profile projects across Australia from their base in country South Australia. Jeff Hort Engineering www.jeffhort.com.au As a supplier of industrial protective coatings, Jeff Hort Engineering has

knowledge, skills and attention to detail. They use the latest, most modern equipment and materials from a large choice of manufacturers to help meet and surpass client specifications and expectations. Their slogan is ‘We don’t cut corners we paint them.’ Pipe Management Australia www.pmaus.com.au Pipe Management Australia (PMA) is a specialist industrial services contractor specialising in Asset Management, Preservation and Rehabilitation. Their core services are (but not limited to); Asset Management, Industrial Services, Corrosion Protection and Pipe Repair. PMA provides a service often in complex environments and across a

broad range of industries from Water & Wastewater, Infrastructure, Oil and Gas and Energy sectors. Quality Maritime Surveyors www.q-m-s.com.au Quality Maritime Surveyors Pty Ltd (QMS) provide a wide range of quality and commercial surveying related services to both onshore and offshore companies, Australia wide. Their services, as a group of qualified commercial marine surveyors, can maximise the life of marine equipment through NACE and ACA accredited coating and corrosion surveys, AICIP pressure vessel inspection, piping, hull, electrical and composite material inspections.

Individual/Student/Retired Members Name

Company/Institution Location

Name

Company/Institution Location

Yolanda AlbaBelzunce

ASC

SA

Stuart McLennan

Bredero Shaw

WA

Ian Anderson

Midwest Pipeline

Canada

Alan McLeod

CQUniversity Australia

QLD

Lee Anglesey

NT Govt. – Department of Infrastructure

NT

Alan Nielsen

Riverland

QLD

Mark O'Brien

Swart & Sons

SA

Alberto Austria

Fluor Roma 02 Project

QLD

Buildcheck

VIC

Kaustav Bandyopadhyay

Kalgoorlie Consolidated Gold Mines

WA

Terry O'Donoghue

Timothy Bennett

Riverside Marine

QLD

Sean Brabazon

Kulin Group

WA

Trevor Brown

Momentive Specialty Chemicals

Newcastle

Jefte Calimlim

Curtin University of Technology

WA

Kenn Carvalho

CAPE

WA

Lawrence Clarke

NSW

Nick Pavlides

QLD

Steve Pearce

Dulux Protective Coatings

WA

Tristan Rimmer

Ivorys Special Coatings

NSW

Stephen Sach

WA

Ranjit Singh

NSW

Malcolm Smith

WA

Damien Stein

QLD

Dion Collie

Pro Plastics

Wellington

Hussain Sulaiman Total E&P Yemen Abdallah

Yemen

John Davies

Hydro Tasmania - Entura

TAS

Mark Tucker

FL Smith

WA

Lee Fraser

WA

Darren Tudor

AD Engineering Design

WA

David Green

VIC QLD

Plant & Platform Consultants

Taranaki

Cameron Handley

Akash Deep Verma

Gary Jones

CBH Engineering

WA

Marek Kazmierczak

3 Colours Painting Services

NSW

Jacinta Kelly

GHD

WA

Antonin (Tony) Konecny

McDermott Australia

VIC

Lee Lacour

L and L Pipewelding

NSW

p.20  CORROSION & MATERIALS

Mark Warren

NSW

Hannah Watchman

DPTI

SA

Blake Waters

Cape Australia

WA

Tan Xingkuan

Kim Heng Marine & Oilfield

Singapore

Warren Zimmermann

Cape Australia

WA


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Sacrificial Anode CP for Concrete

Fully controllable and easily monitored either locally or remotely the Zebra systems has a coating replacement interval of 20 years and Cassette a design life of 50 years.

No wires or control systems. Ideal for almost any item where a quick, no fuss fix is required. Typically designed to meet CP protection NEWS criteria for 20 years and has 10 year proven performance.

Zebra™

ZLA™

Conductive Paint System for Buildings For building facades with decorative top coat. No weight penalty.

Surface Applied Zinc Sheet

For industrial slabs with high build wear resistant coating. No thickness penalty.

The simplest CP system ever. Peel off protective tape, press zinc with adhesive/ activation paste backing onto concrete surface, connect to reinforcement. No wires or control systems.

Roll Anode™

Rolled Zinc in Drilled Holes Anode string up to 1m long embedded in 30mm drill hole for CP of existing structures. Protect columns, beams, pile caps. Can be used in wet/seawater areas.

Cassette™

Surface Mounted Ribbon Anode for Aggressive Environments

GSC Super Anode™

Specifically designed for rapid, easy application and developed to withstand wet/splash exposures. Install to: • underside of wharf decks in splash zones • leaking basements, pools and tunnels • confined space or limited access areas

Embedded Zinc Anodes

Anode embedded in repair concrete to protect the surrounding areas. High output gives cathodic protection not just low polarisation for cathodic prevention. Use in conjunction with galvanised reinforcement in new structures for long term protection with low cover in severe exposures.

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Monitoring & Control of CP Systems

ZincTape™

Camur II™

ZincTape’s pre-applied conductive adhesive is unique and ensures continuous active corrosion protection. Applied insitu on new or old steel it provides better corrosion protection than hot dip galvanising.

The Camur II is a complete system for monitoring structures and controlling cathodic protection systems. Pre-assembled as a complete system or for use with client transformer/rectifiers. Interface can be via web site or LAN. Web hosting can be provided.

Pipelines

Tanks

Applied rapidly insitu on pipes of any diameter using the Metawrapper. Double wrap (50% overlap) for 20 year warranty.

Quickly installed in long strips and pressed down using a Metapress (strong magnetic roller).

Structural Sections

Sheet Piles

Applied in appropriate widths over complex shapes such as steel sections. Applied in conjunction with GSC Super Anodes for elements founded in concrete. Simple method to repair column bases.

Laid up on sheet piles. Steel surface can be dried and ZincTape applied between tides to enable protection to over lap with water anodes.

ERE 20™ ½ Cell

Continuity Tester

Force’s ERE 20 manganese dioxide half cell has 30 years of proven performance monitoring CP systems. No drifting of results preventing long term data comparisons.

Protector’s CM2 continuity tester is used to test reinforcement connections and continuity across the ground bed in CP applications. Test under load is essential.

CP Logger

Current Limiters

corrPRE’s 4 channel half cell potential data logger is ideal for monitoring potentials and undertaking 24hr potential decays on simple CP systems.

corrPRE’s Current Limiters avoid excessive current outputs in ICCP systems. Models 5-50, 50-500 & 2502000 mA (latter is AC powered).

April 2013  www.corrosion.com.au  p.21


BRANCH NEWS

WA Branch new members night The annual WA Branch New Members Night at the Swan Bell Tower was again well attended this year with 60 people. The evening on the 8th February was very pleasant as the venue continues to be very conducive to good networking and meeting new people involved in the corrosion industry. It was great to see older ACA members, (as in being members for longer), sharing their enthusiasm with new-comers to the WA Branch, and with some visitors who are not yet members.

Special thanks to Ian MacLeod, who after arranging a resounding performance on the carillon, which is up on the viewing deck at the top of the tower, welcomed everybody to the venue enthusiastically while explaining the history of the ‘bells’ and the ‘Bell Tower’.

effort required in order to ring a bell, but all had a lot of fun and a good night was held for everyone.

During the evening of good food, drink and camaraderie, many people had a ‘go’ at ringing bells with varying results. Some were amazed at the degree of

Newcastle Branch AGM and technical night Held at the Fort Scratchley Historical Site in Newcastle on 12th February, this year’s Newcastle Branch AGM was well attended by 35 members. Both the venue and the food were of a high standard and enjoyed by all attending.

Nicholas from Nicholas Corrosion demonstrated a failure of colourbond sheeting in a reservoir application due to rotting timber and Simon Krismer from Bureau Veritas presented on corrosion failure due to acids in pipes.

The AGM consisted of the election of a new committee as well as a brief President’s report. The outgoing committee was thanked for their tireless work in supporting the Newcastle Branch and the nominations were compiled and reported.

The night was two-fold, consisting of the Annual General Meeting combined with three short five-minute ‘show and tell’ sessions by where members discussed some interesting failure analysis work they had undertaken recently. The show and tell was combined with samples being passed around the room so those attending could see the failures first-hand. Niranda Wright from ALS presented on a failure in stainless steel piping. David

ACA Auckland Division Meeting The first ACA Auckland meeting for the year was a site visit on 27th February to Metal Spray Suppliers (NZ) Ltd (MSS) based in Grey Lynn. In 2013 MSS is celebrating its 30th year in business supplying metal spray equipment and consumables to the NZ market. MSS is the only NZ company dedicated to the thermal metal spray industry, which includes supplying the MSS-designed single-phase metal arc spray unit. The evening opened at the MSS premises with MD Jacques de Reuck describing the latest thermal spray technology to a large audience of ACA members, SCANZ members, Auckland University students and some guests.

p.22  CORROSION & MATERIALS

Jacques outlined a number of the MSS corrosion protection projects which included bridges, wind turbines, geothermal plant, pipelines and tanks in New Zealand and Pacific countries. He then demonstrated different metal components (including a Fiat Bambino car body) with thermal sprayed coatings that included zinc, aluminium, copper alloys, nickel alloy 625 and stainless steels. The attendees were then given a live demonstration of electric arc-metal spraying in the MSS mobile thermal spray training & demonstration unit which MSS moves around the country. After refreshments (provided by MSS)

the ACA Auckland Chairman Wayne Thomson passed a vote of thanks to Jacques and the MSS staff for an excellent site meeting.


BRANCH NEWS

WA Branch AGM and Dinner Over 90 members and partners attended the WA Branch AGM in style at the Perth Yacht Club.

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April 2013  www.corrosion.com.au  p.23

23/01/2012 2:00:05 PM


ACA STANDARDS UPDATE

ACA Standards Update Welcome to the second corrosion related standards report for 2013 prepared by ACA Standards Officer, Arthur Austin. This Standards report focuses on: Focus 1: As previously reported the focus will be a global standards and publication focus, searching through SAIGLOBAL Publications at https:// infostore.saiglobal.com/store, for all current publications and standards relating to the ACA Technical Groups, with this editions group focus being the “Coatings” Technical Group. These results are shown in Table 1a and Table 1b. There were a total of 1,269 Publications on the key words “Coating and Corrosion” and “Paint and Corrosion” with 20 AS SA/NZS publications. Focus 2: A SAI Global search, as previously, at http://www.saiglobal. com/online/ for new standards,

amendments or drafts for AS, AS/NZS, EN, ANSI, ASTM, BSI, DIN, ETSI, JSA, NSAI and standards and amendments for ISO & IEC published from 21 January 2013 to 19 March 2013, using the key words and key word groups: ‘durability’. ‘corrosion’ or ‘corrosivity’ or ‘corrosive’; but not ‘anodizing’ or ‘anodize(d)’. ‘paint’ or ‘coating’; but not ‘anodizing’ or ‘anodize(d)’. ‘galvanize’ or ‘galvanized’ or galvanizing’.

‘corrosion’ and ‘concrete’ or ‘concrete’ and ‘coatings’. These results are shown in the Focus 2 listing below. There were 46 Documents with 1 AS Standard Update published (AS 1445-2013 Hot-dipped zinc-coated, aluminium/zinc-coated or aluminium/ zinc/magnesium-coated steel sheet — 76 mm pitch corrugated) since 21 January 2013. A copy of this report can be downloaded from the ACA’s website www.corrosion.com.au

‘electrochemical’ or ‘electrolysis’ or ‘electroplated’. ‘cathode’ or ‘cathodic’. ‘anode’ or ‘anodic’.

Table 1a. Title search by publisher with keywords ‘coating and corrosion’ – 633 publications found A total of 633 Publications were found with 18 references to AS, AS/NZS publications. Results by Publisher Ford Motor Company

70

Interstandard (Russia)

40

German Institute for Standardisation (Deutsches Institut für Normung)

38

British Standards Institution

36

Association Francaise de Normalisation

35

Polish Committee for Standardization

34

Italian Standards

31

Osterreichisches Normungsinstitut

31

Standardiserings-Kommissionen I Sverige

31

Norwegian Standards (Norges Standardiseringsforbund)

29

National Standards Authority of Ireland

28

Asociacion Espanola de Normalizacion

27

Comite Europeen de Normalisation

27

Swiss Standards

27

Nederlands Normalisatie Instituut

25

Belgian Standards

22

Standards Australia

18

International Organization for Standardization

15

Korean Standards Association

8

p.24  CORROSION & MATERIALS


ACA STANDARDS UPDATE

American Society for Testing and Materials

7

Brazilian Standards

7

Japanese Standards Association

7

South African Bureau of Standards

7

Standardization Administration of China

6

US Military Specs/Standards/Handbooks

6

NACE International

5

Bureau of Indian Standard

4

Society of Automotive Engineers

2

Wirtschafts und Verlagsgesellschaft Gas und Wasser

2

American Architectural Manufacturers Association

1

American Welding Society

1

Det Norsk Veritas

1

Energy Institute (formerly Institute of Petroleum)

1

Germanischer Lloyd

1

The Society for Protective Coatings

1

Union Internationale des Chemins de Fer

1

Verlag Stahleisen GmbH

1

Results by subject - Manufacturing engineering – 349 results Surface treatment and coating

348

Industrial automation systems

1

Results by subject - Paint and colour industries – 90 results Paints and varnishes

53

Paint coating processes

37

Results by subject - Construction materials and building – 71 results Structures of buildings

57

Construction materials

12

Elements of buildings

1

Protection of and in buildings

1

Results by subject - Metallurgy – 33 results Corrosion of metals

31

Iron and steel products

2

Results by subject - Fluid systems and components for general use – 21 results Pipeline components and pipelines

21

Results by subject - Generalities. Terminology. Standardization. Documentation – 18 results Vocabularies

18

Results by subject - Aircraft and space vehicle engineering – 16 results Fasteners for aerospace construction

12

Coatings and related processes used in aerospace industry

4

Results by subject - Precision mechanics. Jewellery – 8 results Jewellery

8

Results by subject - Testing – 4 results Environmental testing

3

Mechanical testing

1

April 2013  www.corrosion.com.au  p.25


ACA STANDARDS UPDATE

Results by subject - Chemical technology – 2 results Analytical chemistry

2

Results by subject - Mechanical systems and components for general use – 2 results Fasteners

2

Results by subject - Electrical engineering – 1 results Electrical engineering in general

1

Results by subject - Electronics – 1 results Electronic components in general

1

Results by subject - Environment. Health protection. Safety – 1 results Environmental protection

1

Results by subject - Petroleum and related technologies – 1 results Petroleum products and natural gas handling equipment

1

Results by subject - Road vehicles engineering – 1 results Road vehicle systems

1

Results by Publication AS 1247-2004

Metallic coatings - Rating of test specimens and manufactured articles subject to corrosion tests

AS 1247-2004/Amdt 1-2004

Metallic coatings - Rating of test specimens and manufactured articles subject to corrosion tests

AS 1580.481.3-2002

Paints and related materials - Methods of test - Coatings - Exposed to weathering - Degree of corrosion of coated metal substrates

AS/NZS 2312:2002

Guide to the protection of structural steel against atmospheric corrosion by the use of protective coatings

AS/NZS 2312:2002/ Amdt 1:2004

Guide to the protection of structural steel against atmospheric corrosion by use of protective coatings

AS 2331.3.1-2001

Methods of test for metallic and related coatings - Corrosion and related property tests - Neutral salt spray (NSS) test

AS 2331.3.10-2001

Methods of test for metallic and related coatings - Corrosion and related property tests - Cracks and pores in chromium

AS 2331.3.11-2004

Methods of test for metallic and related coatings - Corrosion and related property tests - Chemical residue tests

AS 2331.3.12-2006

Methods of test for metallic and related coatings - Corrosion and related property tests - Cyclic salt fog/UV exposure of organically coated metal

AS 2331.3.13-2006

Methods of test for metallic and related coatings - Corrosion and related property tests - Wet (salt fog)/dry/humidity

AS 2331.3.2-2001

Methods of test for metallic and related coatings - Corrosion and related property tests - Acetic acid salt spray test (ASS test)

AS 2331.3.3-2001

Methods of test for metallic and related coatings - Corrosion and related property tests - Copper accelerated acetic acid salt spray test (CASS test)

AS 2331.3.4-2001

Methods of test for metallic and related coatings - Corrosion and related property tests Thioacetamide anti-tarnish and porosity tests

AS 2331.3.5-2001

Methods of test for metallic and related coatings - Corrosion and related property tests - Sulfur dioxide/hydrogen sulfide porosity tests

AS 2331.3.6-2001

Methods of test for metallic and related coatings - Corrosion and related property tests Electrographic porosity test

AS 2331.3.7-2004

Methods of test for metallic and related coatings - Corrosion and related property tests - Corrodkote (Corr) test (ISO 4541:1978, MOD)

AS 2331.3.8-2001

Methods of test for metallic and related coatings - Corrosion and related property tests - Humidity test - 24 h cycle, damp heat

AS 2331.3.9-2001

Methods of test for metallic and related coatings - Corrosion and related property tests - Metallic coatings - Porosity tests - Ferroxyl test

p.26  CORROSION & MATERIALS


ACA STANDARDS UPDATE

Table 1b. Title search by publisher with keywords ‘paint and corrosion’ – 636 publications found A total of 636 Publications were found with 2 references to AS, AS/NZS publications. Results by publisher British Standards Institution

52

Association Francaise de Normalisation

49

German Institute for Standardisation (Deutsches Institut für Normung)

42

Osterreichisches Normungsinstitut

41

Nederlands Normalisatie Instituut

40

Comite Europeen de Normalisation

39

Italian Standards

39

Norwegian Standards (Norges Standardiseringsforbund)

39

Swiss Standards

39

National Standards Authority of Ireland

38

Polish Committee for Standardization

38

Standardiserings-Kommissionen I Sverige

38

Belgian Standards

28

International Organization for Standardization

25

Asociacion Espanola de Normalizacion

24

Interstandard (Russia)

16

Korean Standards Association

16

Ford Motor Company

8

South African Bureau of Standards

8

Danish Standards

3

Union Internationale des Chemins de Fer

3

Brazilian Standards

2

Society of Automotive Engineers

2

Standardization Administration of China

2

Standards Australia

2

American Society for Testing and Materials

1

Japanese Standards Association

1

Verlag Stahleisen GmbH

1

Results by subject - Paint and colour industries – 378 results Paints and varnishes

193

Paint coating processes

184

Paint coating equipment

1

Results by subject - Aircraft and space vehicle engineering – 200 results Coatings and related processes used in aerospace industry

190

Aircraft and space vehicles in general

4

Materials for aerospace construction

4

Aerospace electric equipment and systems

2

Results by subject - Construction materials and building – 77 results Structures of buildings

77

Results by subject - Manufacturing engineering – 16 results Surface treatment and coating

16

April 2013  www.corrosion.com.au  p.27


ACA STANDARDS UPDATE

Results by subject - Metallurgy – 9 results Corrosion of metals

7

Iron and steel products

2

Results by subject - Military engineering – 4 results Military engineering. Military affairs. Weapons

4

Results by subject - Road vehicles engineering – 3 results Road vehicle systems

3

Results by subject - Testing – 3 results Environmental testing

2

Mechanical testing

1

Results by subject - Railway engineering – 2 results Materials and components for railway engineering

2

Results by subject - Fluid systems and components for general use – 1 results Pipeline components and pipelines

1

Results by subject - Generalities. Terminology. Standardization. Documentation – 1 results Vocabularies

1

Results by subject - Services. Company organization, management and quality. Administration. Transport. Sociology – 1 results Company organization and management

1

Results by Publication AS 1580.452.2-2002

Paints and related materials - Methods of test - - Resistance to corrosion - Salt droplet test

AS 1580.481.3-2002

Paints and related materials - Methods of test - Coatings - Exposed to weathering - Degree of corrosion of coated metal substrates

New standards, amendments or drafts for AS, AS/NZS, EN, ANSI, ASTM, BSI, DIN, ETSI, JSA, NSAI and Standards or Amendments for ISO & IEC PUBLISHED between 21 January 2013 to 19 March 2013 Key word search on ‘durability’.- 1 non-corrosion related citations found 0 from AS AS/NZS ISO/IEC DIS 18745-1

Test methods for machine readable travel documents (MRTD) - Part 1: Physical Test Methods for Passport Books (durability)

Key word search on ‘corrosion’ or ‘corrosivity’ or ‘corrosive’; but not ‘anodizing’ or ‘anodize(d)’- 14 citations found; 0 from AS or AS/ASNZ ISO 16539:2013

Corrosion of metals and alloys - Accelerated cyclic corrosion tests with exposure to synthetic ocean water salt-deposition process - “Dry” and “wet” conditions at constant absolute humidity

ISO 7539-10:2013

Corrosion of metals and alloys - Stress corrosion testing - Part 10: Reverse U-bend method

I.S. EN 4265:2013

Aerospace Series - Bearing Spherical Plain, Metal to Metal in Corrosion Resisting Steel - Wide Series Dimensions and Loads - Inch Series

13/30280790 DC, BS EN 60068-2-60

Environmental testing. Part 2. Tests. Test Ke. Flowing mixed gas corrosion test

BS ISO 16539:2013

Corrosion of metals and alloys. Accelerated cyclic corrosion tests with exposure to synthetic ocean water salt-deposition process. "Dry" and "wet" conditions at constant absolute humidity

BS EN 4265:2013

Aerospace series. Bearing spherical plain, metal to metal in corrosion resisting steel. Wide series. Dimensions and loads. Inch series

BS EN ISO 46288:2012

Paints and varnishes. Evaluation of degradation of coatings. Designation of quantity and size of defects, and of intensity of uniform changes in appearance. Assessment of degree of delamination and corrosion around a scribe or other artificial defect

BS EN 4687:2012

Aerospace series. Paints and varnishes. Chromate free non corrosion inhibiting two components cold curing primer for military application

BS EN 62697-1:2012

Test methods for quantitative determination of corrosive sulphur compounds in unused and used insulating liquids. Test method for quantitative determination of dibenzyldisulfide (DBDS)

BS EN ISO 75391:2012

Corrosion of metals and alloys. Stress corrosion testing. General guidance on testing procedures

p.28  CORROSION & MATERIALS


ACA STANDARDS UPDATE

DIN EN 4265 (201303)

Aerospace series - Bearing spherical plain, metal to metal in corrosion resisting steel - Wide series Dimensions and loads - Inch series; German and English version EN 4265:2013

DIN EN ISO 4628-8 (2013-03)

Paints and varnishes - Evaluation of degradation of coatings - Designation of quantity and size of defects, and of intensity of uniform changes in appearance - Part 8: Assessment of degree of delamination and corrosion around a scribe or other artificial defect (ISO 4628-8:2012

API 603 Ed. 8 (2013)

Corrosion-Resistant, Bolted Bonnet Gate Valves - Flanged And Butt-Welding Ends

MIL C 11796, Revision C Notice 1 Inactivation

Corrosion Preventive Compound, Petrolatum, Hot Application - Revision C Notice 1 Inactivation

Key word search on 'paint’ and or ‘coating’; but not ‘anodizing’ or ‘anodize(d)’ or corrosion– 28 Publications found; 1 from AS. ISO 15110:2013

Paints and varnishes - Artificial weathering including acidic deposition

ISO 1524:2013

Paints, varnishes and printing inks - Determination of fineness of grind

ISO 16482-1:2013

Binders for paints and varnishes - Determination of the non-volatile-matter content of aqueous rosinresin dispersions - Part 1: Oven method

ISO 16482-2:2013

Binders for paints and varnishes - Determination of the non-volatile-matter content of aqueous rosinresin dispersions - Part 2: Microwave method

ISO 2409:2013

Paints and varnishes - Cross-cut test

13/30236314 DC BS EN ISO 4618

Paints and varnishes. Terms and definitions

BS EN ISO 15091:2012

Paints and varnishes. Determination of electrical conductivity and resistance

BS EN ISO 2409:2013

Paints and varnishes. Cross-cut test

BS EN 4594:2013

Aerospace series. Paints and varnishes. Two component cold curing polyurethane finish. Supersonic erosion resistance

BS EN 4595:2013

Aerospace series. Paints and varnishes. Two component cold curing polyurethane finish. Subsonic erosion resistance

BS EN 4687:2012

Aerospace series. Paints and varnishes. Chromate free non corrosion inhibiting two components cold curing primer for military application

DIN EN 4594 (2013-03)

Aerospace series - Paints and varnishes - Two component cold curing polyurethane finish - Supersonic erosion resistance; German and English version EN 4594:2013

DIN EN 4595 (2013-03)

Aerospace series - Paints and varnishes - Two component cold curing polyurethane finish - Subsonic erosion resistance; German and English version EN 4595:2013

UNE EN ISO 28123:2013

Paints And Varnishes - Determination Of Resistance To Liquids - Part 3: Method Using An Absorbent Medium (ISO 2812-3:2012)

UNE EN ISO 91176:2013

Paints And Varnishes - Drying Tests - Part 6: Print-Free Test (ISO 9117-6:2012)

AS 1445-2013

Hot-dipped zinc-coated, aluminium/zinc-coated or aluminium/zinc/magnesium-coated steel sheet — 76 mm pitch corrugated

ISO 28340:2013

Combined coatings on aluminium - General specifications for combined coatings of electrophoretic organic coatings and anodic oxidation coatings on aluminium

ISO/DIS 5002

Hot-rolled and cold-reduced electrolytic zinc-coated carbon steel sheet of commercial and drawing qualities

12/30258891 DC BS ISO 5002

Hot-rolled and cold-reduced electrolytic zinc-coated carbon steel sheet of commercial and drawing qualities

13/30266458 DC BS EN ISO 14373

Resistance welding. Procedure for spot welding of uncoated and coated low carbon steels

BS ISO 13826:2013

Metallic and other inorganic coatings. Determination of thermal diffusivity of thermally sprayed ceramic coatings by laser flash method

BS ISO 16145-4:2013

Ships and marine technology. Protective coatings and inspection method. Automated measuring method for the total amount of water-soluble salts

BS ISO 28340:2013

Combined coatings on aluminium. General specifications for combined coatings of electrophoretic organic coatings and anodic oxidation coatings on aluminium

JIS G 3312:2012

Prepainted hot-dip zinc-coated steel sheet and strip

JIS G 3318:2012

Prepainted hot-dip zinc - 5 % aluminium alloy-coated steel sheet and strip

April 2013  www.corrosion.com.au  p.29


ACA STANDARDS UPDATE

JIS G 3322:2012

Prepainted hot-dip 55 % aluminium-zinc alloy-coated steel sheet and strip

DIN EN 10223-1 (2013-02)

Steel wire and wire products for fencing and netting - Part 1: Zinc and zinc-alloy coated steel barbed wire

TT C 490 Revision F

Chemical Conversion Coatings And Pretreatments For Metallic Substrates (Base For Organic Coatings) - Revision F

Key word search on 'galvanize' or ‘galvanized’ or galvanizing’; 'galvanise' or ‘galvanised’ or galvanising’ – 0 Standard Publications found. Key word search on 'corrosion' and 'concrete' or ‘concrete’ and ‘coatings’ – 0 Standard Publications found Key word search on ‘cathode’ or 'cathodic' - 1 publication; 0 from AS, AS/NZS BS EN ISO 13174:2012

Cathodic protection of harbour installations

Key word search on 'anode' or ‘anodes’ or ‘anodic’ – 2 Standard Publications found – None from AS/ANZS ISO 28340:2013

Combined coatings on aluminium - General specifications for combined coatings of electrophoretic organic coatings and anodic oxidation coatings on aluminium

BS ISO 28340:2013

Combined coatings on aluminium. General specifications for combined coatings of electrophoretic organic coatings and anodic oxidation coatings on aluminium

Keyword Search on 'electrochemical' or ‘electrolysis’ or ‘electroplated’ - 2 Standard Publications found; 0 from AS, AS/ NZS BS EN ISO 13129:2012

Paints and varnishes. Electrochemical measurement of the protection provided to steel by paint coatings. Current interrupter (CI) technique, relaxation voltammetry (RV) technique and DC transient (DCT) measurements

DIN EN ISO 5814 (2013-02)

Water quality - Determination of dissolved oxygen - Electrochemical probe method (ISO 5814:2012)

Keyword Search on 'anodize' or ‘anodized’ - 0 Publications found

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p.30  CORROSION & MATERIALS

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Protective Coatings Training Coatings Selection and Specification (3 days)

Introduction to Protective Coatings (1 day)

Adelaide: April/May 30th - 02nd Perth: July 16th - 18th

Sydney: June 12th - 14

Melbourne: October 01st - 03rd

Brisbane: September

Sydney: June 11th Brisbane: September 16th This course aims to provide participants with the ability to produce a clear and technically correct protective coatings specification. The course provides theoretical and practical information on coatings selection for corrosion control, largely based on AS/NZS 2312 Guide to the Protection of Iron and Steel against exterior Atmospheric Corrosion.

Protective Coatings Quality Control (3 days)

This course provides an introduction to basic concepts of protective coatings; including the various types of coatings, the inspection requirements and considerations when selecting such products.

th

17th - 19th New Zealand: Decem ber 09th - 11th

This course aims to for malise or improve the skills of ca rrying out basic quality control tes ts associated with protective coating s projects. It uses formal lectures, demonstrations, and extensive practica l exercises as teaching methods.

From basic concepts to carrying out quality control tests and producing specifications, these short ACA courses will improve your knowledge of protective coatings. For further course details and to register, please refer to www.corrosion.com.au April 2013  www.corrosion.com.au  p.31


ACA FOUNDATION FUTURE LEADERS FORUM

ACA Foundation delivers for tomorrow’s leaders ACA Foundation Limited Chairman Dean Wall has confirmed the success of the 2013 Future Leaders Forum recently conducted by The Australasian Corrosion Association (ACA) in Adelaide, South Australia.

Name

Organisation

Location

Philip Bird

Marine & Civil Maintenance

NSW

Candice Blackney

Melbourne Water

VIC

Peter Bouzalas

Santos

SA

Brett Davis

Savcor ART

QLD

Nicholas Doblo

Anode Engineering

QLD

Glen Edwards

GHD

QLD

Agus Effendy

Melbourne Water

VIC

Joel Heath

Infracorr Consulting

VIC

The Foundation provided principal funding support for what is rapidly becoming one of the leading personal and professional development events in the corrosion industries. Further support for the Forum was also received from ACA and its South Australia Branch.

Julie-Anne Latham

AECOM

VIC

Tristen Lewis

Jotun

QLD

Alan O'Connor

Corrosion Control Engineering

NSW

Mike Oehler

Curtin University

WA

David Parravicini

Degremont

WA

The 2013 event was the second Future Leaders Forum presented by ACA. Plans are being developed to ensure Future Leaders Forums are scheduled to continue to be conducted in February each year.

Samantha Passmore

AECOM

QLD

Sarah Quirk

ExxonMobil

VIC

Sean Ryder

GHD

NZ

Richard Singleton

Denso Australia

QLD

Ryan Smyth

Hydro Tasmania

TAS

Peter Sourivong

Corrocoat Engineering

WA

Jared Still

Extrin

WA

David Sunjaya

Savcor ART

NSW

The purpose of the Forum is to assist younger members of the industries that ACA serves to develop skills which will assist in their personal and professional development. By providing support ACA is leading the way in positively contributing to the work and personal lives of those who are likely to advance to senior positions in the industry in the future.

21 young men and women listed below were successful in securing delegate spaces on the program. Competitive applications were received from all parts of Australia and New Zealand. As in 2012, the 2013 Forum was oversubscribed with substantially more applications received than there were places available.

p.32  CORROSION & MATERIALS


ACA FOUNDATION FUTURE LEADERS FORUM

Wall, who participated in the program and presented on mentoring, said “the Forum is very popular with younger members of the industry. Their employers and direct managers value the work which ACA is doing in this area with support from the Foundation”. The program for 2013’s Forum focussed on these areas: Presentation skills Chairing technical sessions  ealing with difficult personalities in D the workplace The art of leadership

 aximising associations – the benefits M of association membership I mportance of networking and how to do it  sing conferences and seminars for U personal development Mentoring, and Participating in presentations ACA provides free accommodation, travel, meals, entertainment and two days of professionally facilitated development activities for Forum participants. Geoffrey Witherow from Changing Organisations facilitated the Forum for the second year in a

row. Geoffrey’s highly developed skills and passion for working with young people so that they may fully reach their potential were well received by all Forum participants – delegates and guest presenters alike. Guest presenters for the 2013 Forum included Dean Wall from Jotun Australia, Paul Vince from SA Water, Kingsley Brown from AECOM and Dean Ferguson from GHD. Entries for the 2014 Future Leaders Forum will be open in October 2013. Further information is available from Katherine Webber at ACA +61 3 9890 4833 or kwebber@corrosion.com.au

“I loved that we were

advice/information presented in

held as discussions, so it helped

encouraged to be ourselves, and

an open forum was excellent”

us see how others in similar levels

the networking wasn’t forced

in their company would deal with

due to the good amount of time

“I feel far more confident to

together as well as the dinner”

present information to people

these issues”

and believe I have made great

“The best thing was that it really

“I found the YCG Future Leaders

like-minded friends that will stay

helped us to connect with each

Forum extremely valuable.

with me throughout my career”

other on a higher level than just

The course far and above

exchanging business cards and

exceeded all expectations. The

“The discussions on bullying in the

opportunity to meet with other

workplace and how to deal with

young corrosion professionals

the different personalities were

“Everyone was involved in a

along with the self-development

great, particularly as they were

supportive environment”

Future Leaders Forum

small-talk”

April 2013  www.corrosion.com.au  p.33


CORROSION & PREVENTION 2013 C O N F E R E N C E

&

Major Sponsor:

Proudly Presented by:

E X H I B I T I O N

Where Theory Meets Practice Brisbane Convention & Exhibition Centre

10–13 November 2013 www.acaconference.com.au

KEYNOTE SPEAKERS Arthur Austin ALS Industrial Pty Ltd Australia Arthur Austin obtained a Bachelor of Applied Science (Microbiology Strand) from the Queensland Institute of Technology (later to become The Queensland University of Technology) in 1970 and is a member of the Royal Australian Chemical Institute. With over 40 years in the industry ranging from a Coatings Chemist, through Power Station Chemist to Consulting Applied Scientist, Arthur has extensive experience in corrosion and coating issues and related failure analysis through a wide range of Australian industries as well as design and preparation of coating specifications. Arthur maintains an active interest in the corrosion related aspects of all materials from concrete, through polymers, to concrete and maintains an active role as a member of The Australasian Corrosion Association Inc where he is the ACA Standards Officer and an accredited ACA Corrosion Technologist.

Prof Graeme George Queensland University of Technology Australia Professor Graeme George has had 35 years experience in studying the properties and performance of polymers and coatings particularly when used in hostile environments. Prior to becoming an academic

p.34  CORROSION & MATERIALS

at the University of Queensland and Queensland University of Technology (QUT) he was Head of Polymer Research at Materials Research Laboratories (MRL) in the Defence Science and Technology Organization in Melbourne. At QUT he became Head of the School of Chemistry and then Executive Dean of Science, while still maintaining his research laboratory and acting as a consultant to over 80 companies, government authorities and the courts in the area of materials’ failure and forensic analysis. This research has produced over 200 refereed journal articles, book chapters and conference presentations at an international level. In this period he was awarded the Applied Research Medal and the Polymer Medal of the Royal Australian Chemical Institute and was appointed a Member of the Order of Australia. He is presently a Program Leader in the national Co-operative Research Centre for Polymers with several projects on the environmental performance and lifetime prediction of polymers. He has been on the Editorial Boards of six international polymer journals and is Editor, General Degradation for Polymer Degradation and Stability.

Prof Srdjan Nesic Ohio University USA Dr. Srdjan Nesic is a Russ Professor of Chemical Engineering at the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at Ohio University in Athens, OH, USA. Since 2002

CORROSION & PREVENTION 2013


he has also served as the Director of the Institute for Corrosion and Multiphase Flow Technology at the same university, which is one of the largest such research institutions of the kind. In his academic career, Dr. Nesic has advised over 50 MS and PhD students. He has published extensively in the field of corrosion including more than 10 articles in books, some of which are in the best known corrosion handbooks such as: Uhlig’s Corrosion Handbook and Shriers’s Corrosion, covering acid gas corrosion and erosion corrosion. He is the author of more than 70 peer reviewed journal papers, over 100 conference papers and 150 scientific reports in the field of corrosion. His publications have received over 1200 citations. He also serves on the Editorial Board of the NACE Corrosion Journal and the SPE Journal. Dr. Nesic is the recipient of numerous awards and honors such as the Best Paper award in the Corrosion Journal for 2011, H.H. Uhlig Award from NACE in 2007 and Bengough award for best paper in the British Corrosion Journal in 1998. Dr. Nesic has chaired many sessions at international conferences and has delivered numerous keynote and plenary lectures. He has extensively consulted for the industry, including some of the major litigation cases related to corrosion.

Jack Tinnea Tinnea & Associates, LLC USA Jack Tinnea is the President of Tinnea & Associates, LLC located in Seattle, Washington in the United States. Jack has over 35 years’ experience in the control of the corrosion of embedded metals in concrete and marine corrosion. His introduction to the area occurred in the early 1970s when after graduating in chemistry, he was hired by the Civil Engineering Department of his alma mater, the University of Illinois, to research cement hydration chemistry and corrosion. His commercial and public work includes the application of impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) and sacrificial (SACP) systems to protect millions of square feet of reinforced concrete and steel structures in environments ranging from arctic to the new Panama Canal currently under construction. Jack has published numerous articles on corrosion and concrete in

periodicals ranging from the Journal of the American Ceramic Society to NACE International’s Materials Performance and Corrosion Journal. Jack was also the principal author for the chapter “Highways and Bridges” that was published in 2006 as part of ASM International’s Metals Handbook Volume 13C – Corrosion. Jack received the NACE Western Area Engineer of the Year Award in 2004, and the NACE International Distinguished Service Award in 2002.

Prof Frank Witte Hannover Medical School Germany Dr. Frank Witte is an Associate Professor for Experimental Medicine (Orthopedics) at Hannover Medical School. He also keeps an Adjunct Professorship for Bioengineering at University of Pittsburgh and University of North Carolina A&T State. Furthermore, Dr. Witte is the Director of Biomaterial Research in the Laboratory for Biomechanics and Biomaterials and is also leading the Research Group on Implant Immunology at CrossBIT at the Hannover Medical School. Dr. Witte graduated from Medical School in 2000 and completed his PhD thesis in 2001. Since then he became a living Scholar in Biodegradable Metals through his numerous publications especially on the in-vivo performance of biodegradable implants. Dr Witte is the co-founder of the International Symposium on Biodegradable Metals and he has been guest editor of three special issues on Biodegradable Metals in Acta Biomaterialia and Materials Science and Engineering. His recent activities at regulatory agencies (US-FDA, DIN) and standardization organizations (ASTM, ISO and DIN) are addressing new standards for testing biodegradable metals as implant materials.

C&P 2013 Registration Registrations for Corrosion & Prevention 2013 are now open. Please refer to www.acaconference.com.au for details.

CORROSION & PREVENTIONp.35 2013 April 2013  www.corrosion.com.au 


COATINGS GROUP MEMBER PROFILE

Contract Resources Q: In what year was your company established? A: Contract Resources was established in 1989 but only really entered into industrial coatings in 2001. Q: How many employees did you employ when you first started the business? A: We started off with 2 employees working on a refinery pipeline and grew from there. Q: Do you operate from a number of locations in Australia? A: We employ over 500 people across all services. We have approximately 50 plus involved in Industrial Coatings. Q: Do you operate from a number of locations in Australia? A: We operate in Brisbane, Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide, Perth and Darwin. Q: What is your core business? (e.g. blasting and painting, rubber lining, waterjetting, laminating, insulation, flooring etc.) A: Our Industrial Coating Services offer on-site surface preparation using high and ultra-high pressure water blasting, abrasive blasting, vacuum recovery blasting, both wet and dry, track blasting and all types of coating application and passive fire protection. We operate a blast yard in Darwin. Q: What markets do you cover with your products or services? eg: oil & gas, marine, chemical process, general fabrication, tank lining, offshore etc.

p.36  CORROSION & MATERIALS

A: Our main business area is petro chemical including oil and gas (on and off shore), refineries, mining and general liquid storage facilities. In addition we also perform hazardous coating removal and coating application on road and rail bridges. Q: Is the business yard based, site based or both? A: We offer site based work throughout Australia and PNG and in addition have a blasting and painting facility in Darwin. Q: What is your monthly capacity or tonnage that you can blast and prime? A: This varies depending on projects from 250- 400 tonnes per month. Q: Do you offer any specialty services outside your core business? (eg. primary yard based but will do site touch up etc.) A: There is not much that we do not tackle. We handle all types of coating application, passive fire protection, petrolatum tape application, pile wrapping, scaffolding and encapsulation. We also do specialised acid resistant linings for floors, bund walls and containment areas. We work closely with other sectors of our business to offer multi discipline turnkey packages to our clients. Typically these would include mechanical, industrial cleaning, chemical cleaning, surface preparation and coatings.

Q: What is the most satisfying project that you have completed in the past two years and why? A: There is a high degree of satisfaction in all our projects however repainting of Herbert River Bridge near Ingham was particularly challenging. This project involved scaffolding, encapsulation, barrier protection, hazardous coating removal, rivet replacement and re-coating of an eight truss span, single track rail bridge. Our project team developed some excellent barrier systems that allowed us to work on the bridge with trains running and persevered during one of the wettest dry seasons on record to produce a quality result. Q: What positive advice can you pass on to the Coatings Group from that satisfying project or job? A: Good planning and good people will always achieve a good result. Q: Do you have an internal training scheme or do you outsource training for your employees? A: We use a mixture of resources including in-house, suppliers and external providers. In-house training covers areas such as high pressure water blasting, confined space entry, working at heights, first aid and skills assessment. More in depth coatings training is outsourced. Contract Resources Phone1300 66 11 91 Emailsales@contractresources.com Head Office 269 Edgar Street Condell Park NSW 2200


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April 2013  www.corrosion.com.au  p.37


ACA CERTIFICATION PROGRAM

ACA’s Certification Program The ACA’s Certification program for ACA Corrosion Technicians and Technologists recognises those with education and experience in the corrosion industry. A Corrosion Technician has at least 4 years work experience and has attended a number of formal training courses, whilst those awarded Corrosion Technologist have at least 10 years work experience and have obtained further training. For a more detailed explanation of the

eligibility criteria, please consult our ACA Certification Program brochure which is available on our website www.corrosion.com.au. A schedule of current ACA Corrosion Technicians and Technologists appears below and will be published in Corrosion & Materials in full each April and October and will be continuously updated on the ACA’s web site. All current ACA Technicians and Technologists have been issued a

Corrosion Technicians

wallet card with their certification number and membership details. Please note continued membership of the ACA is a requirement for certification and therefore all certified Corrosion Technicians and Technologists will have an expiry date which coincides with their ACA membership renewal date. ‘Pending’ expiry dates indicate that a membership payment is overdue.

Corrosion Technologists

Name

Cert No:

Expiry Date

Name

Cert No:

Expiry Date

Gary Barber

248

30/06/2013

Bruce Ackland

82

30/06/2013

Heath Boelen

306

4/05/2013

Fred Andrews-Phaedonos

153

30/06/2013

Stephen Brown

263

4/02/2014

Ross Antunovich

214

30/06/2013

Dave Charters

261

21/01/2014

Arthur Austin

106

30/06/2013

Pasquale Chiaravalloti

274

11/07/2013

Derek Avery

295

19/08/2013

Rodney Clarke

206

20/12/2013

Dinesh Bankar

264

23/02/2014

Craig Clarke

246

26/03/2014

Don Bartlett

15

29/06/2013

Venkatesh Coimbatore

192

30/06/2013

Stuart Bayliss

236

7/11/2013

Ross Darrigan

174

14/07/2013

Peter Beckford

187

Pending

Glenn Dean

280

20/01/2014

Tony Betts

74

1/01/2014

Clint Doherty

298

Pending

Rob Billing

12

30/06/2013

Raed El Sarraf

305

25/09/2013

Harvey Blackburn

10

1/01/2014

David Fairfull

179

30/06/2013

Michael Boardman

30

12/07/2014

Geoff Farrant

253

30/06/2013

Les Boulton

43

1/01/2014

Robert Gentry

114

30/06/2013

John Bristow

107

1/01/2014

Haydn George

307

23/11/2013

Gary Brockett

215

30/06/2013

David Harley

291

30/06/2013

Kingsley Brown

257

27/09/2013

Stephen Holt

207

28/02/2014

Philip Bundy

209

30/06/2013

Bradley Jones

258

18/04/2013

Wayne Burns

100

1/01/2014

Gary Martin

57

1/06/2013

Brian Byrne

27

1/01/2014

Ian McNair

163

30/06/2013

Bryan Cackett

70

30/06/2013

Terence Moore

125

9/06/2013

Robert Callant

103

30/06/2013

David Morgan

234

Pending

Neil Campbell

38

30/06/2013

Alan O'Connor

303

17/12/2013

Graham Carlisle

281

19/05/2013

David Parravicini

296

2/09/2013

Antonio Carnovale

203

30/06/2013

Rafael Pelli

164

30/06/2013

Luis Carro

260

30/06/2013

Keith Perry

139

31/01/2014

Reg Casling

11

1/01/2014

Sean Ryder

262

21/11/2013

Dylan Cawley

224

29/06/2013

Ian Saunders

251

24/06/2013

Peter Clark

80

30/06/2013

Justin Tanti

238

14/02/2014

Stan Collins

128

30/06/2013

Gavin Telford

244

30/06/2013

Geoff Cope

71

29/06/2013

John Tomlinson

53

28/02/2014

Leon Cordewener

44

30/06/2013

Ben Ward

300

16/07/2013

Robert Cox

14

30/06/2013

Mark Watson

186

3/09/2013

Peter Crampton

8

29/06/2013

Derek Whitcombe

123

30/06/2013

Kerry Dalzell

28

30/06/2013

p.38  CORROSION & MATERIALS


Roman Dankiw

208

29/06/2013

Daryl McCormick

1

17/12/2013

Rene D'Ath

197

Pending

Murry McCormick

196

28/06/2013

Robert de Graaf

154

1/01/2014

Michael McCoy

109

14/04/2013

Mike Dinon

5

30/06/2013

Brad McCoy

178

14/07/2013

Bradley Dockrill

241

15/07/2013

Bill McEwan

32

1/01/2014

Peter Dove

210

29/03/2014

Stuart McLaughlin

299

17/12/2013

Gary Doyle

294

2/08/2013

Vic McLean

237

30/06/2013

Adrian Dundas

250

1/02/2014

Jim McMonagle

56

1/01/2014

Lucas Edwards

273

11/07/2013

John Mitchell

115

30/06/2013

Bernard Egan

20

30/06/2013

Elio Monzu

159

30/06/2014

Gary Evans

271

30/06/2013

Greg Moore

97

1/01/2014

Wayne Ferguson

242

4/09/2013

Janet Morris

256

5/07/2013

Peter Ferris

195

30/06/2013

Robert Mumford

33

30/06/2013

Gavin Forrester

282

10/02/2014

Tony Murray

134

30/06/2013

Rob Francis

23

1/01/2014

David Nicholas

94

1/01/2014

Dale Franke

199

30/06/2013

Calvin Ogilvie

17

19/01/2014

Max Fraser

283

Pending

Dean Parker

108

5/07/2013

Robert Freedman

147

1/01/2014

David Pettigrew

297

17/12/2013

Jim Galanos

254

17/12/2013

Steve Richards

110

30/06/2013

Barry Gartner

2

30/06/2013

Dennis Richards

180

1/01/2014

Bill Gerritsen

18

30/06/2013

Gavin Richardson

48

30/06/2013

Ian Glover

129

30/06/2013

Tony Ridgers

36

30/06/2013

Frederick Gooder

141

30/06/2013

Geoff Robb

124

30/06/2013

Chris Hargreaves

292

28/05/2013

Bernd Rose

252

1/05/2013

Phil Harrison

145

8/05/2013

John Rudd

243

21/06/2013

Peter Hart

200

30/06/2013

Fred Salome

231

1/01/2014

Frank Hewitt

67

1/01/2014

Ian Savage

259

30/06/2013

Brian Hickinbottom

138

30/06/2013

Ron Scaddan

272

5/02/2014

Brett Hollis

88

30/06/2013

Philip Schembri

198

30/06/2013

Marshall Holmes

293

25/08/2013

David Scott

173

29/06/2013

Peter Hosford

216

1/01/2014

Mike Slade

175

7/06/2013

Peter Hunger

301

4/08/2013

Brian Smallridge

201

30/06/2013

Paul Hunter

62

30/06/2013

Jim Steele

119

17/12/2013

Jeffrey Hurst

202

30/06/2013

Alan Steinicke

9

1/06/2013

Craig Hutchinson

249

26/10/2013

Allan Sterling

191

31/03/2014

Luciano Ioan

228

11/07/2013

Gordon Stewart

68

1/01/2014

Bruce Jewell

245

30/06/2013

Ian Stewart

155

18/06/2013

Michael Johnstone

230

18/04/2014

Graham Sussex

136

30/06/2013

Michael Jukes

90

3/03/2014

Tan Swee Hain

189

30/06/2013

John Kalis

166

17/12/2013

Yongjun Tan

194

30/06/2013

Graeme Kelly

102

1/01/2014

Ronald Tan

308

30/06/2013

John Kilby

193

30/06/2013

Peter Thorpe

144

1/01/2014

Ulf Kreher

304

28/06/2013

Peter Tomlin

120

30/06/2013

Boris Krizman

169

17/12/2013

Nicholas Van Styn

229

25/02/2014

John Lane

188

20/01/2014

Peter Wade

190

Pending

Bill Lannen

111

1/01/2014

John Waters

121

30/06/2013

Harry Lee

19

1/01/2014

John Watson

239

10/06/2013

Keith Lichti

133

30/06/2013

Richard Webster

69

30/06/2013

Verne Linkhorn

39

30/06/2013

Mark Weston

149

1/01/2014

Garry Luskan

117

2/02/2014

Geoffrey White

182

1/07/2013

Willie Mandeno

13

30/06/2013

Paul Wilson

290

19/04/2013

Brian Martin

60

1/01/2014

Rodney Wubben

46

30/06/2013

William McCaffrey

142

30/06/2013

Morris Young

217

30/06/2013

John McCallum

59

30/06/2013

Nizam Yusoff

302

9/02/2014

NB: this list is current as at 25/3/2013

April 2013  www.corrosion.com.au  p.39


TECHNICAL INTRODUCTION

Galvanic Corrosion and Dissimilar Metals Introduction One of the challenges in designing steel structures or any metallic article is the problem of galvanic corrosion. Basically, this is the risk of dissimilar metals being in physical contact and bridged by an electrolyte in a corrosive environment.

ions will flow from the more active material (which becomes an anode) to the less active material (that becomes a cathode). This is then known as a metallic couple. For further information on the relative potentials of metals and their measurement, refer to AS 4036.

The design of structures utilising dissimilar metals and other materials is becoming more common. This can be commonly seen in architectural applications where the different aesthetic and physical features of varied materials add to the overall visual appeal. Also, many industrial and infrastructure applications seek to make use of the different physical properties of various materials.

The cathode and the anode can be considered as the positive and negative terminals of a battery as batteries usually work on the principle of galvanic corrosion. The current generated under the condition of a metallic couple will generally cause increased corrosion of the anodic metal and decreased corrosion of the cathodic metal.

It is not always the case that galvanic corrosion from the use of dissimilar metals is problematic. This includes inland rural areas and other environments of low corrosivity, distant from the coast or industrial pollution. Unfortunately, the seeming “success” of such applications leads to design practices and material selection that are not appropriate for more corrosive locations. An example of this can be seen in the selection and use of fasteners. Inland rural locations are forgiving of designs with little or no thought of the different materials that are used and such designs often perform satisfactorily.

The galvanic series provides an indication of which metals will become anodic or cathodic in a metallic couple. Note that a metal can be either anodic or cathodic depending on which other metal it is coupled with. For example, zinc will be anodic to most commonly used metals, but it will be cathodic to magnesium. This means that careful attention is required when a structural design incorporates different metals such as steel, zinc, stainless steel, copper, aluminium and others, either as

p.40  CORROSION & MATERIALS

It is also worth noting that galvanic corrosion can only occur if the metals are in electrical contact or “coupled”. Electrical contact means that there is a metallic pathway to allow electrons to flow from the anode to the cathode. Another requirement is that there is an electrolyte that bridges the metals to allow the flow of ions between them to complete the galvanic cell. Further, the electrolyte need not be a liquid; it can be any material that allows the current flow between the metals, such as damp soil or concrete. An example of the galvanic series from AS/NZS 2312 is shown in Table 1 below. Note that this table is far from exhaustive and does not include the numerous alloys and new metallic materials that are being developed, but it does provide an indication of the relationships between different common metals when they are coupled.

PARTIAL GALVANIC SERIES Relationship to mild steel and cast iron

While it is well known that dissimilar metals in contact can cause corrosion issues, it is worth discussing why this occurs and how to mitigate galvanic corrosion in the design process. Also, consideration must be given to the fact that galvanic corrosion in not always an undesirable phenomenon. In fact, cathodic protection and the corrosion protection properties of various engineered coating systems are based on the principle of galvanic corrosion. What is Galvanic Corrosion? Two dissimilar metals in electrical contact will generate a current when they are in the presence of an electrolyte. The electrolyte can be water or some other solution or material that is conductive. The galvanic current is generated because there is a potential difference between the metals and the negatively charged electrons or

a solid component or as a coating such as with electroplate or galvanizing. All of these common building materials can be used in a structure and their interactions can be complex.

Increasingly cathodic Increasingly anodic

Metals and alloys in galvanic series Austenitic stainles steel Nickel-chromium-iron alloys Nickel Gunmetal Monel Copper Phosphor Bronze Ferritic stainless steel Brass 60/40 Aluminium bronze Lead Chromium Tin Mild steel, cast iron Aluminium alloys Zinc Magnesium

Table 1: “Partial Galvanic Series”, Table 3.1, AS/NZS 2312.


TECHNICAL INTRODUCTION

Factors Affecting Galvanic Corrosion There are a number of factors that determine the occurrence and severity of galvanic corrosion. Some couples will cause corrosion more quickly than others depending on the materials that are coupled, the environment and the design. The further apart the coupled materials are on the galvanic series, then usually the potential difference between them will be larger and this will result in a higher current which in turn should result in more severe corrosion of the anode. This is only a broad assumption and is not always the case, but it does provide a guide to the designer of where galvanic corrosion has at least the potential to become a problem. For example, there is only a small potential between zinc and aluminium so galvanized bolts can be safely used to join structural aluminium in atmospheric and freshwater environments.

incompatible materials or incorrect procedures are used. Fasteners are always much smaller in surface area than the structures they are used for, so a fastener that is anodic to a structural metal will corrode rapidly under corrosive conditions. AS/NZS 2312 recommends that “fasteners should always be of the same metal as the structure or be cathodic to the structure.”

a consistent and effective protection of the structure, the anodes should be placed at appropriate intervals.

Environmental Considerations As with all types of corrosion, the environment of a metallic couple is very influential. The galvanic action of the metals shown in Table 2 below is indicative of measurements considering immersion in seawater (as the electrolyte) so it can be considered Related to the surface area and the use environment-specific. However, it is a of anodes for cathodic protection, is still a good guide for many applications the effectiveness of such protection where metallic couples may present an over a large area. The protection will issue. It is important to remember, that progressively decline with increasing the information in the table is a guide distance from the anode due to the only; it describes whatIN is MARINE likely to occur voltage drop associated with COMPATIBILITY OF the DISSIMILAR METALS IN CONTACT if metals are coupled. resistance of the metal. To maintain ENVIRONMENTS (IMMERSED)

The ratio of the area of the anode and the cathode can influence the rate of corrosion of the anode. This is an important characteristic in the use of cathodic methods of protection. An example of this is the use of zinc anodes to protect steel structures such as pipelines and ships. The larger the steel structure, or more importantly, the larger its uncoated surface area, then the larger the zinc anode or anodes should be to protect it effectively via galvanic corrosion or sacrificial corrosion as it is commonly called. Although this discussion deals with dissimilar metals, impressed current cathodic protection systems powered by direct current electricity can mimic this phenomenon by allowing for an increase/decrease of the applied galvanic current where active surface area can vary. A consequence of the effect of area on the galvanic corrosion is that smaller items such as fasteners are particularly prone to premature corrosion if

Figure 1 – Corrosion on a galvanized screw in a coastal location. Note the corrosion of the zinc at the point of contact with the bare steel.

Table 2: Compatibility of Dissimilar Metals in Contact in Marine Environments (Immersed), Table B1, AS 4036.

April 2013  www.corrosion.com.au  p.41


TECHNICAL INTRODUCTION

Galvanic corrosion is greatest when the bimetallic couple is immersed in a very conductive electrolyte such as seawater. Seawater has a relatively high conductivity and it allows an easier path for the ions to travel from the anode to the cathode. Immersion in an electrolyte means that the corrosion of a bimetallic couple in such an environment is generally uniform over the anode. In atmospheric environments, galvanic corrosion is greatest in coastal and marine locations due to the deposition of salt water spray. The corrosion rate of a bimetallic couple (or any structural metal for that matter) will be far greater in areas of surf and high seas rather than those adjacent to sheltered bays and estuaries. This is due to the greater availability of salt water in the air. Rural and inland environments are generally more forgiving than coastal atmospheres or areas of high urban development and industrial activity. This is because the available contaminant and electrolytes are less common. Fresh water has a significantly lower conductivity than seawater and its effect on galvanic corrosion is reduced unless contaminants are introduced which increase its conductivity. This is possible in some agricultural situations through the use of chemicals and fertilisers.

In contrast to immersion in an electrolyte, bimetallic couples in an atmospheric environment will normally have the corrosion restricted in the area close to the junction of the dissimilar metals. The electrolytes in atmospheric environments have a much greater resistance than when the dissimilar metals are fully immersed in an electrolyte such as seawater. This is because, for example with rainwater, it sits as a relatively thin layer on the surface of the metal structure. The reduced amount of electrolyte increases the resistance of the path for the transfer of current and thus the galvanic corrosion is reduced. Where moisture bridging by an electrolyte can be minimised or prevented by use of a spacer or keeping the contact surface dry, corrosion will also be minimised or eliminated. It should be noted that metals can exhibit different galvanic potentials when they are located in different electrolytes since each electrolyte has a different conductivity. This can result in a metallic couple behaving unexpectedly in comparison to what would be assumed in the in the galvanic series. For example, zinc in many forms is often used to protect mild steel because under most conditions it is anodic to mild steel. However, in different environments, the potential difference between zinc and mild steel can change and so does its sacrificial capability.

In some circumstances, an interesting condition known as “polarity reversal” can occur. Polarity reversal is known in zinc/steel and aluminium/steel couples. It occurs because the galvanic potential of the zinc or aluminium anode changes under certain conditions. The most notable example of polarity reversal between zinc and steel is in warm to hot potable water. This was first recorded in the 1930’s and has been further researched. Polarity reversal is predominately due to the potential of the zinc changing as the steel remains relatively stable. The common rule of thumb is that the polarity reversal occurs when the water is at around 60°C, although as with many issues concerning corrosion, this is by no means definitive. The conditions under which reversal occurs can depend on the composition of the water. Zinc/steel couples in hard waters reverse more easily than those in soft waters. Zinc forms a passive film in hard waters and this, coupled with a higher temperature, is one of the main reasons for the polarity reversal. Polarity reversal can be a major problem because zinc is normally used for its anodic relationship to mild steel. If polarity reversal occurs, a corrosion protection system utilising zinc is rendered useless at best, and at worst exposing the steel to accelerated corrosion and possible failure. It is understandable then that hot water tanks are no longer made of galvanized steel! Figure 2 – an insulator being used to prevent dissimilar metal corrosion between stainless steel wire and a galvanized balustrade in a coastal environment.

p.42  CORROSION & MATERIALS


TECHNICAL INTRODUCTION

Designing for the Prevention of Galvanic Corrosion Since the cause of galvanic corrosion is the generation of a galvanic current in a bimetallic couple, the most effective method of prevention is to eliminate the use of dissimilar metals in the design of structures. If this is not possible, then isolation of the dissimilar metals is then required. This can involve painting of one or both of the metals with a suitable engineered coating system or using a physical non-conductive separator (insulation) between them. For example, insulating washers should be used with stainless steel screws when fixing aluminium cladding. In many applications, total isolation of the metals from the environment or themselves is not possible or practical, either physically or economically. In such instances, designs that minimise the effects of galvanic corrosion should be considered. A good start is to check the tables in AS/NZS 2312 and AS 4036 and avoid using dissimilar metals together when they are wide apart in the galvanic series. AS 4036 also provides further advice on which types of environments will exacerbate the galvanic corrosion of particular bimetallic couples. As mentioned previously, avoid coupling small anodes and large cathodes. This will involve paying particular attention to fasteners

and other small components of structural assemblies. It is also recommended that the flow of rainfall and other potential electrolytes does not wash from a cathodic metal onto an anodic metal. AS/NZS 2312 gives the example of small amounts of copper oxidation products washing onto zinc (hot dip galvanized steel) and aluminium. This can occur with rainwater acting as both the transport medium of the metal salts and an effective electrolyte. Normally, the corrosion will be of a cosmetic or superficial nature, resulting in spotting or staining of the anodic metal, however, if allowed to continue unfettered for prolonged periods, significant corrosion may occur due to the formation of galvanic cells as metallic copper forms. Conclusion Galvanic corrosion is one of the most common corrosion issues in the design of steel structures. It is useful to have an understanding of the mechanisms behind its occurrence and also how to design structures to protect against it. Of course, an understanding of galvanic corrosion is also necessary for the utilisation of its beneficial effects. Galvanic corrosion principles are the foundation of cathodic protection systems, either using engineered protective coatings, physical sacrificial anodes or electronic systems.

The above discussion is only an introduction as galvanic corrosion is a complex issue. It is suggested that interested readers reference the two standards mentioned, AS/NZS 2312 and AS 4036 for further reading and understanding. References AS/NZS 2312: 2002 Guide to the protection of structural steel against atmospheric corrosion by the use of protective coatings AS 4036: 2006 Corrosion of Metals – Dissimilar Metals in Contact in Seawater Zhang, X: Corrosion and Electrochemistry of Zinc, Plenum Press, NY, 1996 Editor’s Note PD6484:1979 Commentary on Corrosion at Bimetallic Contacts and its Alleviation, from BSI is also an excellent reference. Emmanuel Pimentel

Figure 3 – example of a large anode/ small cathode with a stainless steel fastener being successfully used on a galvanized steel bridge rail in a coastal environment.

April 2013  www.corrosion.com.au  p.43


PROJECT PROFILE

Corrosion Management at the Port of Newcastle Newcastle Port Corporation is directly responsible for the operations and maintenance of 11 multi-user berths and associated infrastructure within the Port of Newcastle. In accordance with their asset management strategy NPC commissioned a condition assessment of Berth’s 3 and 4 at the Western Basin. The berths form a total quay line of 518 meters and deck surface area of 7,379m2. They were constructed in the late 1960’s in a staged construction sequence starting with Berth No.3. The berths (shown below) are of reinforced concrete construction, comprising a cast in situ reinforced concrete deck and crane beams supported on five rows of precast (prestressed) concrete piles. An anchored steel sheet pile wall retains fill on the landside of the berths. SMEC’s Materials Technology Group was engaged to undertake a condition assessment of the berths to identify the following: (1) the cause and extent of damage (2) develop suitable repair options with priority and (3) assess the remaining life with and without repairs. The following article presents a summary of the key findings from the project. Wharf Beams History In the early 1990’s over 500m2 of delaminated concrete was noted on the seaward crane/fender beam. Sampling at the time confirmed chloride ingress

Figure 1: (a) General view of wharf.

p.44  CORROSION & MATERIALS

to be the primary cause of deterioration. This was not surprising given the low reduced level (R.L) of the beam soffit exposing the beams to splash at high tide. Another contributor to the lack of durability was the design concrete grade of 25MPa (standard practice at the time of construction) which resulted in very high chloride ion diffusion coefficients. An impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) system was installed on the front beam soffit in 1998 which comprised mesh ribbon anodes embedded in slots and within concrete repairs. This installation was one of the earliest applications of ICCP repair technology in Australia. The performance of the ICCP system has been monitored by others and overall appears to be providing a satisfactory level of protection to the majority of reinforcement on the front beam soffit. In 2001, a large scale concrete repair program was undertaken on the remaining beams of Berth 3. The works involved removal of the soffit cover concrete and spray applied concrete repairs. Cathodic protection was not incorporated in these works. Review of project documentation indicates that the application of silane was recommended for repair areas and beam soffit and side concrete surfaces (excluding the front beam) to slow the rate of corrosion and prevent further chloride ingress.

2012 Investigation Findings Overall, the majority of previous concrete repairs appeared to be performing satisfactorily after 10+years of exposure. Localised cracking and drummy areas were noted adjacent concrete repairs (figure 2 (a)) which is indicative of incipient anode activity (where the rebar corrosion shifts directly adjacent to the repairs). A significant increase in the extent of damage to parent concrete elements was noted on Berth 3 and 4 when compared to results from the 1995 investigation. The majority of damage was observed on the rear beam of the wharf, which was not unexpected given the beam soffit is exposed to more frequent splash and spray from wave action on the seawall. Chloride sampling indicated that 60% of sample locations had exceeded the corrosion activation threshold at cover depth. Interestingly, chloride content results on initial depth increments (0-30mm) for the beams were in some cases lower than those at depth. This may be due in part to carbonation and/ or application of silane during the previous concrete repair works. Half-cell potential mapping indicated moderate probability of corrosion at the beam test sites based on gradients of excess of 100mV/300mm, although only 1 out of the 5 test sites indicated potentials more negative than -250mV. Based on

(b) Plan view and location within port.


PROJECT PROFILE

0.70 B4 Beam B Soffit (T1-C1) B3 Beam D Side (T2-C1)

0.60

B4 Beam E Side (T3-C1) B4 Beam D Soffit (T4-C2) Chloride Content (% wt conc.)

0.50

B4 Deck Top Surface (T5-C1) Activation Threshold 0.06% Design Cover

0.40

Min Cover Max Cover

0.30

0.20

0.10

0.00

Figure 2: (a) Damage adjacent repair. the governing deterioration mechanism (chloride ingress), predictive modelling indicated that widespread corrosion activation could be expected within the parent concrete elements in the next 10-15 years. Repair Solutions In view of the current level of damage to the beams and forecast chloride ingress to currently sound areas, monitoring and mitigation measures (e.g. silane) were unlikely to be effective for ongoing management of the wharf. Repair options developed for the beams included extending the impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) to all remaining beams of the wharf (Option 1) and localised patch repair (with sacrificial anode CP) to the intermediate beams in combination with ICCP to the rear beam (Option 2). Whilst ICCP is the technically sound long term strategy, it requires a high capital outlay

0

10

20

30

40

50 60 Depth (mm)

70

80

90

100

110

(b) Chloride ingress profile. moderate section loss of reinforcement had occurred. Interestingly though the reinforcement (at similar cover depth) was uncorroded directly adjacent the damaged site, this is shown in Figure 3(a). Chloride ingress profiles measured at the crack location confirmed the chloride content at cover depth was well above the corrosion activation threshold (Figure 3(b)). Conversely, sampling on a sound concrete pile indicated that the chloride content at cover depth was well below the corrosion activation threshold. This finding correlated with findings of the 1994 investigation as shown in Figure 3(b) below. Half cell potential mapping on a sound concrete pile did not indicate the presence of active reinforcement corrosion occurring. Carbonation tests indicated minimal carbonation had occurred. Based on the site investigation results and low chloride diffusion coefficients measured, it was believed that the

and ongoing maintenance cost of the system. A life cycle cost comparison indicated that by implementing Option 2, considerable cost savings could be achieved over the medium term (20-30 years). However, this saving would be lost if a remaining service life of greater than 30 years is required. Wharf Piles History During the 1995 investigation, 20 piles (out of 869 piles) were noted to have cracking, rust staining and drummy concrete within 1 metre of the beam soffit. At the time, repairs were not considered to be a high priority. 2012 Investigation Findings A desktop review and site observations indicated that up to 58 piles were exhibiting cracking and rust staining as shown in Figure 3(a) below. Breakout of a cracked area confirmed that

0.65 TEL 1995 - North end, Row A TEL 1995 - North end, Row B 0.55

TEL 1995 - North end, Row C TEL 1995 - North end, Row D SMEC2011 - Pile D21-C2

Chloride Content (% wt conc.)

0.45

SMEC2011 - Pile B96-C1-Cracked Activation Threshold 0.06%

0.35

Design Cover Min Cover Max Cover

0.25

0.15

0.05

-0.05

Figure 3 (a) Rebar condition at cracked pile

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

Depth (mm)

(b) Chloride ingress profiles piles.

April 2013  www.corrosion.com.au  p.45


PROJECT PROFILE

quality of the pile concrete was sound and unlikely to be a contributing factor to the observed deterioration. The piles were precast with 2 inch (~50 mm) cover and a design concrete grade of 40 MPa (blended cement mix). Cover measurements confirmed that the cover to prestress at the cracked site was as per design, which indicated that the observed cracking was unlikely to be a function of low cover. Given the random nature of the observed damage and considerations noted above, it was believed that the cracking or micro cracking of the piles had occurred by structural action potentially during installation (pile driving), providing a direct path for chloride ingress and premature reinforcement corrosion at the crack sites. Predictive modelling indicated that widespread corrosion activation could be expected within the currently sound concrete piles in the next 40-45 years. Once corrosion is initiated it is expected that corrosion rates would be high given that the corner reinforcement of the pile is exposed to chloride ingress on two faces. Repair Solutions For the piles, localized concrete repairs (with sacrificial anode CP) appeared to be the most practical approach given the 40-45 years remaining life of the currently sound piles.

Sheetpile Wall Over the past decade accelerated low water corrosion (ALWC) has become a well-known concern around the Port of Newcastle. This posed a significant corrosion risk to the steel sheet pile wall. NPC initially managed this risk at the West Basin through a monitoring program (every 6 months) that included dive inspection and spot ultrasonic steel thickness testing at predetermined heights from the seabed to the atmospheric zone. A key objective of this commission was to develop a longer term corrosion protection strategy. This involved review of past dive inspection and steel thickness monitoring results as well as visual inspection and steel and coating thickness measurements above the water line. Considering the severity of the marine exposure the existing coating system (high build glass flake reinforced polyester coating) appeared to have provided adequate protection to the wall above low water since its application in 1997. Maintenance options such as over-coating the existing coating system were considered to be inappropriate in view of the existing coating thickness, evidence of pinhole corrosion staining, and increased likelihood of coating failure between the interface of the existing and new coating system. Technical

specifications were developed for reapplication of the coating in the tidal and atmospheric zone and installation of sacrificial anodes in the submerged zone. The protection criteria required for the CP system for the sheet piling was increased to -950 mV with respect to a copper/copper sulphate reference electrode to mitigate accelerated low water corrosion. Immersed ICCP for the sheet pile wall was not considered a viable option due to the possibility of stray currents impacting on the wharf concrete piles. Conclusions Managing existing assets affected by corrosion is an ongoing challenge faced by all major asset owners. A targeted condition assessment is often required in developing repair options that are tailored to meet the remaining economic life of the asset. This approach not only provides confidence in the deterioration state of the asset but more importantly it provides the asset owner with a technical basis for a more effective forward maintenance plan which can potentially lead to better utilisation of capital and operating funds. Dr. Luke Menefy & Dr.Kingsley Opoku, SMEC; Scott Bacon, Newcastle Port Corporation

REPAIRS NEEDED? Does your consultant, engineer, builder, contractor or materials meet the requirements of ACRA? Go to

www.acrassoc.com.au for a searchable list of Consultants, Contractors and Material Suppliers Australia wide. Australian Concrete Repair Association Ltd Setting the standards in concrete repair for 20 years! Email: info@acrassoc.com.au


PROJECT PROFILE

The NACE Coating Inspector Program (CIP) is the world’s most recognised and specified coating inspector certification program. The CIP program trains coating professionals to properly inspect the surface preparation and application of a protective coating system on a variety of structures in any industry.

Who Should Attend • Quality assurance and control inspectors and contractors • Inspectors

• Coating contractors • Inspection company employees

• Maintenance personnel

• Coating manufacturer and distributor sales representatives

• Fabricators

• Surface preparers

• Specification writers

• Blasters and paint applicators

The CIP Program is conducted throughout Australasia through The ACA Inc. For further details and to register, please go to www.corrosion.com.au

Photos courtesy of Raleigh Whitehead

April 2013  www.corrosion.com.au  p.47


PROJECT PROFILE

Image courtesy of Stadiums Queensland

High grade coatings keep coastal stadium gleaming Sports stadia present a unique combination of challenges for stemming corrosion of exposed steel sections that are mostly outdoors and border heavily trafficked areas during matches, whilst ensuring that the home team’s colours stay fast. Known as the Metricon Stadium, the $144.2 million new home ground of the Gold Coast Suns AFL football team at Cararra in Queensland, less than 10km from the breaking surf, represented a challenge in terms of both corrosion resistance and aesthetic appeal. The home team’s colours were chosen to reflect the Suns’ radiant red and yellow and the selected coating system ensured long durability and ease of both initial application and ‘touch up’ maintenance. International Paint’s systems were chosen for the job which included a high-performance two-coat system for the external steelwork consisting of a zinc-rich epoxy primer for corrosion protection, (Interzinc® 52) and acrylic polysiloxane topcoat for aesthetic appeal and

p.48  CORROSION & MATERIALS

durability, (Interfine® 979). These products were specified at the correct dry film thickness to obtain a long-term corrosion protection coating system PSL1 in a high corrosivity category as per AS/NZS 2312:2002. Protective Coating Project Manager Nigel Williams said that the design architect team established the requirements for corrosion protection for the steelwork structure, not least the stadium’s distinctive perimeter canopy, at an early project stage via a single source provider. “The International Paint offer provided the brilliant finish required as well as a high level of corrosion resistance for the job,” he said. International’s technical team offered the technical protective coating specification, Interspec™ to the stadium project to document the structures, factor in usage, durability, environmental and design considerations and define the required corrosion protection to AS/NZS 2312.

The AS/NZS 2312:2002 Standard – Guide to the protection of structural steel against atmospheric corrosionby the use of protective coatings references coating system types against environmental exposure to predict the durability of coatings in years. The Standard defines durability as years to first major maintenance. However that does not equate to protection warranty duration as that is a commercial consideration specific to the structure. Mr Williams said that for increased added value to the client, International Paint complements its long term warranties with long-term support on corrosion control via its Interplan™ (planned maintenance) service. As the protective coating system was in part of the stadium’s public areas, technical performance included requirements for improved resistance to day-to-day wear, possible vandalism (resistance to graffiti) and mechanical damage (abrasion test ASTM D4060 and impact test ASTM D2794), all whilst


PROJECT PROFILE

preserving a pristine appearance. International Paint nominated a zinc-rich primer (SSPC – Paint 20 Level 2) for cathodic protection from the metallic zinc pigment and high performance ‘polysiloxane’ high build topcoat technology. International Paint assessed the durability of the coating system with their locally-based technical service team and in conjunction with the International Standard ISO 9223to the ‘C4’ high corrosivity category after consideration of macro and micro environments in the stadium structure. They established that durability periods from 10 to 15 years could be attained before the first major maintenance refurbishment with high performance coatings appropriate to the stadium’s unique atmospheric environment.

Design considerations for the tubular steel-based canopy build required engineered planning, with Arup and Beenleigh Steel Fabrications Pty Ltd able to fabricate lifting points achieving less damage on erecting. Faying surfaces were nominated to be treated with an approved zinc-rich coating, (Interzinc® 315) which ensured the friction bolted joints remain tight as it met ASTM A490 Class B Slip coefficient. For surface preparation, International Paint recommended standard AS 1627.4 Sa 2½ - ‘near white’ cleanliness which removes all mill scale, rust and foreign particles, allowing for some grey shading (as designated in ISO 8501-1) and a sharp angular surface profile ranging between 50-75 microns, plus attention to surface defects and weld splatter which had to be filled or removed.

“In total, we coated 1400 tonnes of external and internal steelwork on the stadium, requiring 25,000 litres of paint,” Mr Williams said. “We worked closely with the applicator, Tranzblast Coating Services to ensure that the project ran smoothly and we’re happy to say that the golden yellow colour chosen by architects Populous, a notoriously difficult colour to obtain opacity was successfully applied due to high solids formulation.”

(Reprinted with ASI’s permission from March 2012 issue of Steel Australia)

Image courtesy of Stadiums Queensland

Image courtesy of Stadiums Queensland

Image courtesy of Stadiums Queensland

April 2013  www.corrosion.com.au  p.49


TECHNICAL NOTE

GPR Array for the Condition Assessment of Concrete Slabs & Pavements Introduction Concrete slabs and pavements represent a significant percentage of the built environment, they are the hardest working part of many structures, and the top surfaces are unformed and subject to negative aspects of bleed and curing. Hence it is not surprising that the highest incidence of in service concrete problems is with slabs and pavement. Overall slabs and pavements represent a high risk investment. The surface area and corresponding amount of steel reinforcing means that corrosion investigations on large slabs, bridge decks and concrete paving can be a time consuming and expensive exercise. Even with large surveys only a small proportion of the actual structure is generally investigated. (1) This article will present a recently released GPR system for use in concrete slab inspection called the Hi-Bright. Ground Penetrating Radar Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) uses radio waves to pick up changes in the dielectric properties inside a structure. This technology makes use of a transmitter and receiver, sending and receiving radio waves into the substrate. The waves are reflected where the dielectric changes (2). Dielectric constant also controls the speed at which radar waves propagate and must be known to calculate the depth of a reflection. The magnitude of the reflection is determined by the dielectric differences at the interface.

GPR is generally used for the location of steel embedments in concrete. One feature of GPR that makes it very attractive is that it is a scanning technology capable of collecting large volumes of data quickly. Research into GPR and the related phenomenon have indicated its applicability to slab and pavement surveys. Five important phenomena are: S ophisticated radar systems with automated analysis can be used to rapidly scan and analyse S teel has a very high dielectric constant making it very easy to see reinforcement in GPR scans. Hence the spacing of top and bottom bars can generally be assessed  he dielectric of concrete can be T measured to calibrate the radar so that cover depth of the reinforcing can be estimated with acceptable accuracy for structural and durability assessments  he great difference in the T magnitude of dielectric constant between water and concrete means that even small amounts have significant effects on dielectric constant. This relationship can be used as a means of measuring the moisture levels of concrete using GPR  orrosion of steel introduces a layer C of iron oxide which has a lower dielectric constant and a rougher

surface than the steel underneath. It may also change the chemical properties of the surrounding concrete. In theory this allows the detection of corrosion by measuring wave attenuation from the reinforcing. System Overview IDS Spa in Italy has developed a radar system (hardware and software) that utilises these features to collect and analyse GPR data for concrete slabs and pavements. It is the only commercially available system designed for this application. The system is able to collect 800mm wide swaths of GPR information, enabling the one lane or 3.2m wide sections to be collected in 4-5 swaths. The system consists of a 16 x 2GHz antenna array in a trolley (see Figure 1). The image developed is based on knitting together sixteen individual scans along the survey length at 100mm centres. The whole array weighs less than 10kg and is mounted on a two wheeled trolley for easy manoeuvrability with a scanning speed of up to 6km/hr. Software Capabilities Such a large amount of information would traditionally be very time consuming to analyse manually. The HD3 software is specifically designed for antenna arrays. The software arranges the parallel scans (which essentially slice through an elevation of the slab) into a plan map (called Data Logger

Control Unit Group: 2 synchronised IDS DAD MCH Fast-Wave

Figure 1 (Left) The arrangement of the 16 channel array (Right) The GPR system fully assembled with all components.

TX RX

VV = polarisation of the antenna modules TX

HH = polarisation of the antenna modules RX

p.50  CORROSION & MATERIALS

Battery Lightweight trolley for fast and easy data collection

Array of 8 HH + 8VV antennas


TECHNICAL NOTE

C-Scans), in which the entire slab area can be viewed. The user then slices at increasing depth to uncover the reinforcing and other targets of interest. Once the C-Scan is formed the software then automatically locates every rebar and analyses the signal. It performs three processes:

Figure 2 C-Scan Showing top reinforcing mat at depth of 55mm.

7 cm

1. Firstly it forms a map of the cover thickness called the Cover Map.

The three maps and C-Scan give four independent forms of data which can be compared and used to infer a damaged region in the concrete. Case Study Sherbrook Bridge Sherbrook Bridge is a reinforced concrete bridge in rural England. The bridge is reinforced concrete in construction including concrete abutments, beams and deck. The deck is approximately 35m in length and 6m wide. Cracking and rust stains indicate that the bridge may have durability issues. Scanning was completed of the entire bridge deck using the GPR system (taking 15 minutes). Swaths were collected longitudinally, with the swaths arranged parallel and offset transversely (see Figure 3). The cover, power and moisture maps for the Sherbrook Bridge deck are shown in Figure 4, Figure 5 and Figure 6 respectively. The area highlighted by the red rectangle on the scans represents the suspended slab making up the bridge deck. For the purposes of comparison an area is highlighted with a black oval.

Figure 3 Top view of bridge with GPR System and scan direction indicated.

Y (m) 0.0 0

10

Figure 4 Sherbrook Bridge Cover Map.

20 X (m)

30

40 2 cm 1.110

4.5 Y (m)

3. The last process measures the strength of the signal received from each reinforcing bar. As discussed previously a weak signal correlates well with corrosion activity on the bar. This is referred to as the Power Map.

4.5

1.020

0.0 0

10

Figure 5 Sherbrook Bridge Power Map.

20 X (m)

30

40 0.930 1.110

4.5 Y (m)

2. Secondly the velocity of the radio wave at the reinforcing depth is analysed and plotted into a contour map, this is referred to as the Moisture Map.

1.020

0.0 0

10

Figure 6 Sherbrook Bridge Moisture Map. In figure 4 the suspended slab has much lower cover than the adjacent slab on ground. The cover of the suspended slab is as low as 20mm at some locations; in particular one is designated by the black oval. The area highlighted with a black oval in the Power Map (Figure 5) has very weak (i.e. blue) returned signal. This indicates that there could be active corrosion. The area corresponds to the area of low cover marked in Figure 5. The bridge deck appears almost uniformly wet (Moisture Map, Figure 6). There is some distinction between the bridge deck and approach slab which might be explained by the different quality concrete used in these areas. In Figure 3 it can be noted that the bridge deck is wet from rain, this surface water makes the Moisture Map impossible to interpret. Conclusions In this article an examination of the possible modes of deterioration and sources of defects for concrete slabs

20 X (m)

30

40 0.930

is presented. The focus of the paper was a new and unique GPR system for the analysis of concrete slabs for both condition and design called the Hi-Bright. It can be used on new construction as a quality assurance tool or for deterioration surveys. For in service condition survey it also provides an indication of reinforcement corrosion state (active or passive) and moisture content at rebar depth (e.g. likely corrosion rate). References 1. Hodgkinson J.R. “Concrete Floors for the Industry- Let’s Get them Right” Concrete Institute of Australia June 1990. 2. Jol, H.M. “Ground Penetrating Radar: Theory and Applications” Elsevier 2009. R Barnes1, W.Ward2, F Papworth3 & V Baroncini4 PCTE1,2, Melbourne, Australia, BCRC3 Perth, Australia & IDS4 Pisa, Italy

April 2013  www.corrosion.com.au  p.51


UNIVERSITY PROFILE

Ian Wark Research Institute University of South Australia The Ian Wark Research Institute (commonly referred to as The WarkTM) is a centre for research into chemistry and physics at interfaces and is the designated Australian Research Council (ARC) Special Research Centre for Particle and Material Interfaces. The Wark is distinctive in its creative and flexible approach to research and development in a wide range of areas including bio and polymer materials, colloids and nanostructures and minerals processing applications. At The Wark we combine academic rigour and inquiry and we are driven by industry needs. An international and national magnet for research, The Wark advances global knowledge and understanding in interface science, underpinning Australian industry via breakthrough science and technology transfer. Boasting an impressive list of research sponsors and a strong network of collaborations, The Wark is uniquely positioned to build research relevance, assist industry and enhance value to the broader community. Some current research projects include: 1. Reactive Wetting and Corrosion (Key staff: Assoc Prof Rossen Sedev and Dr Jason Connor) Standard corrosion measurements involve a large coupon and the edge effects are insignificant. In atmospheric corrosion often discrete droplets wet the surface and the droplets act as individual corrosion domains. This introduces a geometrical restriction and often a difference between the centre of the drop and its periphery. The reason is that transport of reagents, e.g. oxygen, takes time and therefore the interior of the droplet may be depleted or enriched in certain components. Thus mass transport can seriously affect the rate of corrosion or even the corrosion reaction. We aim at correlating the corrosion under small droplets with the wettability of the surface. Our research is relevant for the performance of tools and engineering structures subjected to water spraying or under condensationevaporation conditions. Wetting is related to adhesion and is also an important parameter in the effectiveness of inhibitors that must uniformly coat the surface to provide protection.

p.52  CORROSION & MATERIALS

2. Flow Accelerated Corrosion and Erosion Corrosion (Key staff: Assoc Prof Rossen Sedev and Dr Jason Connor) Large volumes of corrosive slurries are moved at high speeds in industry, e.g. alumina production, and protecting the equipment is of crucial importance. Corrosion in these cases is further affected by the flow of the corrosive liquid, often at high pressure and temperature, and by the presence of particles. Our research is aimed at understanding the relation between fluid flow, mechanical abrasion, friction and wear at the solid-liquid interface and the rate of corrosion. Our initial interest has been in flow accelerated and erosion corrosion in pipes and we are currently expanding our interests to include wear accelerated corrosion between rubbing solids which is equally relevant for machinery operating in corrosive environments. 3. Novel Mechanism to Prevent Bio-Fouling (Key staff: Prof Magnus Nydén, Prof Hans Griesser, Prof Thomas Nann, Dr Bryan Coad and Dr Mikael Larsson) Most industries who deal with water management face issues of bio-fouling and scaling. Fouling can lead to reduced product quality, process downtimes, plugging, contamination and increased energy consumption or infections. Current anti-fouling coatings on the market contain approximately 40% metal that eventually gets released into the environment over time. As metal prices are rising and environmental regulations are becoming more stringent, there is a need to develop a promising anti-fouling technology that does not emit metal into the environment but extracts metals from the water. A team of world class researchers, led by Prof Magnus Nydén, is currently developing a new recycle mechanism based on the redox reaction of metals and by extracting ions from water, reducing them and then releasing them. Naturally abundant ions will be used as a continuous biocide. Copper for instance is the most common and successful biocide used in coatings, but a range of transition metals are being investigated in this work. The

intention is that this new coating can be used in many areas including shipping and the marine environment, fresh water management and water treatment, together with the medical and manufacturing industry. 4. Novel Mechanism to Prevent Corrosion (Key staff: Prof Magnus Nydén, Prof Hans Griesser, Prof Thomas Nann, Dr Bryan Coad and Dr Mikael Larsson) Prof Magnus Nydén leads a research team at The Wark that works on new concepts to prevent corrosion. The aim of the research is to develop a “smart” and strictly non-toxic coating that prevents corrosion. The researchers are trying to implement game-changing ideas, where natural resources are being used to provide the coating with functionality in-situ. The approach does not involve toxic or sacrificial substances that gradually leach into the environment and the stability and functionality of this new coating is only limited by the stability of the coating material itself. The research team anticipates that their “smart” coating has the potential to change the way functional anti-corrosion coatings will be designed in the future. 5. Corrosion Protection via Plasma Polymer Coatings (Key Staff: Prof Hans Griesser) Plasma polymerisation is a vacuum coating process that enables deposition of thin polymeric coatings, with close control of coating thickness in the range between 10 nm and 5 µm. A unique advantage of plasma polymerisation is the dense and uniform nature of such coatings, which are more cross-linked than traditional polymer coatings; this leads to excellent barrier properties against corrosive agents such as humid warm air. The process is much less prone to coating defects than traditional solvent coating processes and is fully controllable via programmable logic; these are key reasons why for example CibaVision 30-day contact lenses are plasma coated despite the ensuing need for vacuum equipment, with the very low defect and reject rates offering distinct manufacturing advantages. Typically, plasma polymer coating requires processing times in the range of 1 to 5 minutes on our research coating


UNIVERSITY PROFILE

units, but using process engineering, continuous processes have been implemented for industrial applications. Another key advantage of this coating process is the excellent adhesion of plasma polymer coatings not only on polymeric materials but also on metals and ceramics. An illustrative example of an application is a plasma polymer coating that has been developed to protect CoNi alloys against ambient oxidative corrosion; the plasma polymer coating serves as an effective barrier to water vapour. 6. Self-healing Anticorrosive Coating (Key Staff: Prof Namita Roy Choudhury and Prof Naba Dutta) Polymer coating is a diverse field covering a wide range of disciplines such as polymer science, material science, colloid and interfacial science, rheology and surface analysis. To maintain our leadership in this field, our research activity covers both fundamental and applied research associated with new polymeric coatings, anticorrosive self-healing polymer coatings, hybrid barrier coatings, and protective coatings for metallic and non-metallic substrates. In those areas, we have conducted a number of major collaborative projects (> ~A$4M) with national and international partners, industries, and the Australian Research Council (ARC). Within the field, our research has focused on thin film coatings and surface coatings on a variety of substrates including metal, polymer, silicon and glass. Recently, the focus has been on the development of benign chemical modification and interfacial coatings for the corrosion protection of carbon steel structures used in harshly corrosive marine environments. Our current research challenge is to include self-healing properties into the polymer coating by using a state-of-the-art nanomaterial self-assembly process or a micro-container approach to address the numerous damage mechanisms that can occur at the molecular and structural levels. A significant body of work has been carried out in this field to develop anticorrosive smart coatings that mimic the simplest biological healing mechanism(s). Industry Engagement and Available Equipment (Key Staff: Dr Scott Abbott) The research sectors within The Wark are skilfully supported by Scientific Services – a team of professionals, many with industry experience, who have access to world-class facilities

and research staff. Utilising the core expertise within The Wark, the Scientific Services team offers a rapid turnaround consulting service to industry with work programs and analyses tailored to the client’s requirements. Scientific Services perform on average 50-100 short term consulting projects each year with clients including small to medium enterprises (SME’s) through to large multinational companies. Its clients come from industrial sectors such as mining and minerals, energy, government, paints and coatings, education, construction, plastics, metals, biotechnology, health and pharmaceuticals, food and beverage and consumer products. Significant capabilities and expertise in minerals processing, nanofabrication and microfluidics, polymer/rubber analysis and testing, particle and materials characterisation together with a range of surface analysis techniques are all made available to industry to aid with problem solving. The Wark has an excellent suite of research tools for surface and interfacial characterisation and also extensive preparation facilities. Apart from standard electrochemical equipment for corrosion measurements such as rotating electrodes and a suite of potentiostats capable of DC and impedance measurements, The Wark also has a range of facilities for surface characterisation including XPS, ToF-SIMS, micro-tomography, AFM, optical profilometers and access to an Environmental SEM. In addition there are a number of pieces of equipment that can be adapted for corrosion related measurements including a pin on disk tribometer, surface force apparatus, rheometers and contact angle measurement instruments. Key Staff Profiles Prof Magnus Nydén is the current Director of The Wark. He is a physical chemist with strong interests in soft matter, in particular diffusion processes. He is particularly interested in (1) Novel antifouling coatings by using nature’s own biocides, (2) Coating materials for future energy production in the sea and (3) the Development of new membrane materials for micro-metre control of liquid mass transport.

engineering and coating processes, and in surface characterisation methodologies. His work has applications for biomedical devices, adhesive bonding, membranes, thin film dielectrics and protective coatings. Dr Jason Connor is a Senior Research Fellow in Minerals Processing. He has research interests in both applied and fundamental surface science related problems. These include flow accelerated corrosion, plant based corrosion monitoring, minerals processing and surface forces. He has spent a number of years collaborating with the alumina industry studying flow accelerated corrosion in spent liquor heat exchangers. Prof Namita Roy Choudhury works at the interface of polymer science, biomaterials and sustainable materials. She has a strong background in polymer chemistry and is currently interested in hybrid polymers, nanocomposites, polymer blends, fillerpolymer interactions, surface coatings, thermal and surface analysis, adhesion and fracture, surface modification, degradation and stabilisation of polymers and biopolymers. Dr Scott Abbott coordinates a team of material characterisation professionals who provide a problem solving service to industry, both nationally and internationally. He has a strong background in organic and physical chemistry together with over 10 years of experience in materials characterisation and engagement with industry (small to large enterprises). Contact Details: Dr Scott Abbott Coordinator: Materials Characterisation (Scientific Services) Ian Wark Research Institute University of South Australia Mawson Lakes SA 5095 Australia Ph: +61 8 8302 5340 Email: scott.abbott@unisa.edu.au Web page: www.unisa.edu.au/research/ ian-wark-research-institute/

Prof Hans Griesser is Professor of Surface Science and Deputy Director of The Wark. With a physical chemistry background, he is interested in materials surface

April 2013  www.corrosion.com.au  p.53


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Committed to Professional Service, Competitive Pricing and Customer Satisfaction

Corrosion and Coating Failure Investigations Fitness for Purpose and Remnant Life Assessment Expert Witness and Litigation Support Corrosion, Materials & Mechanical Engineers Applied Scientists, Metallurgists, Coating Inspectors NDT Technicians Arthur.Austin@alsglobal.com Australia Wide +61 7 3718 0300

CORROSION SPECIALISTS Metallurgy and Materials Consulting

Corrosion Consulting

3rd Party Welding Inspection

Cathodic Protection

3rd Party Coating Inspection

Investigation and Failure Analysis

info@incospec.com.au www.incospec.com.au Toll Free Number 1300 721 029

GLOBAL CORROSION SOLUTIONS

April 2013  www.corrosion.com.au  p.63


Insist on High Purity GMA Garnet Achieve high speed blasting, low abrasive consumption, low environmental impact and a CLEANER SURFACE.

For more information, call Blastmaster on

1800 GARNET 4 2 7 6 3 8

Low Dust – Tough, durable garnet grains produce far less dust when blasting. You can see better, work cleaner and keep neighbours much happier. Fast Blasting – Each grain achieves more work, which means you move the nozzle faster and on many projects finish the job much sooner! Use Less – Low consumption means you buy less, load less, clean up less and consequently dispose of less. Clean Surface – With low impregnation and less contaminants, a superior coating adhesion is achieved.

Dirt, Bacteria, Impurities...

Garnet Shake Test Results

Did you ask for these extras? High Purity GMA Garnet

Imported Abrasive

For all your Surface Preparation and Coating requirements, contact us today. Blastmaster 1-12 Bruce Avenue, Marleston, South Australia 5033 Tel (08) 8292 2000 Fax (08) 8292 2001 Email sales@blastmaster.com.au © Blastmaster 2013

1800 882 229 • www.blastmaster.com.au

Form M1625


Corrosion and Materials April 2013