Issuu on Google+

 å ñí à 2 0 14

Êîðåéñêàÿ êóëüòóðà è èñêóññòâî Âå ñíà 2 0 14 Òîì 10, ¹ 1

Ãëàâíàÿ òåìà íîìåðà:

Èí÷õîí: ãëàâíûå âîðîòà Êîðåè

Èí÷õîí: ãëàâíûå âîðîòà Êîðåè

Ãîðîä, ñïëàâèâøèé âîåäèíî âíóòðåííåå è âíåøíåå

www.koreana.or.kr

Òî ì 10 , ¹ 1

ISSN 1738-8252


Èçäàòåëü

Þ Õ¸íñîê

Î ïîäïèñêå è ïî äðóãèì âîïðîñàì Âû

Èíòåðíåò-ñàéò «Êîðåàíà»

Äèðåêòîð ðåäàêöèè

×æîí Íàì÷æèí

ìîæåòå îáðàùàòüñÿ:

http://www.koreana.or.kr

Ãëàâíûé ðåäàêòîð

Êèì Õ¸íòõýê

The Korea Foundation

Àðò-äèðåêòîð

Ëè Äîêëèì

Diplomatic Center building,

Äèçàéíåð

Êèì ×æèõ¸í

2558 Nambusunhwanno,

Çàì. ãëàâíîãî ðåäàêòîðà Ëèì Ñîíãûí

Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-863, Korea

Ðåäêîëëåãèÿ:

Áý Á¸íãó

Tel: 82-2-2151-6544 Fax: 82-2-2151-6592

×îé ¨íãèí

Ýììàíóýëü Ïàñòðàéõ

Õàí ʸíãó

Êèì Õâà¸í

Êèì ¨ííà

Êî Ìèñîê

Ñîíã Õå÷æèí

Ñîíã ¨íãìàí

Îòïå÷àòàíî: Âåñíà 2014 ã.

Âåðíåð Ñàññå

Samsung Moonwha Printing Co.

Ñòîèìîñòü ãîäîâîé ïîäïèñêè íà æóðíàë: â Êîðåå — ₩18,000, â àçèàòñêîì ðåãèîíå ñ àâèàäîñòàâêîé — US$33,

© Êîðåéñêèé ôîíä ìåæäóíàðîäíûõ îáìåíîâ, 2014 Àâòîðñêèå ïðàâà îõðàíÿþòñÿ. Âîñïðîèçâåäåíèå âñåãî æóðíàëà öåëèêîì èëè ëþáîé åãî ÷àñòè çàïðåùàåòñÿ áåç ðàçðåøåíèÿ Êîðåéñêîãî ôîíäà ìåæäóíàðîäíûõ îáìåíîâ. Ìíåíèÿ àâòîðîâ ñòàòåé ìîãóò íå ñîâïàäàòü ñ îôèöèàëüíîé ïîçèöèåé

Ìàêåò è äèçàéí Kim's Communication Associates 384-13 Seogyo-dong, Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-839, Korea Tel: 82-2-335-4741 Fax: 82-2-335-4743 www.gegd.co.kr

ðåäàêöèè «Êîðåàíà» èëè Êîðåéñêîãî ôîíäà ìåæäóíàðîäíûõ îáìåíîâ. Èçäàíèå åæåêâàðòàëüíîãî æóðíàëà «Êîðåàíà» çàðåãèñòðèðîâàíî Ìèíèñòåðñòâîì êóëüòóðû è òóðèçìà Ðåñïóáëèêè Êîðåÿ. Ñâèäåòåëüñòâî î ðåãèñòðàöèè: Áa-1033 îò 08 àâãóñòà 1987. Æóðíàë âûõîäèò òàêæå íà àíãëèéñêîì, ÿïîíñêîì, êèòàéñêîì, ôðàíöóçñêîì, íåìåöêîì, èñïàíñêîì, àðàáñêîì è èíäîíåçèéñêîì ÿçûêàõ.

274-34, Seongsu-dong 2-ga, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-121, Korea

â äðóãèõ ðåãèîíàõ ìèðà ñ àâèàäîñòàâêîé — US$37. Öåíà îäíîãî ýêçåìïëÿðà â Êîðåå — ₩4,500.

Êîðåéñêàÿ êóëüòóðà è èñêóññòâî. Âåñíà 2014 ã.

http://www.koreana.or.kr

Æóðíàë èçäàåòñÿ åæåêâàðòàëüíî Êîðåéñêèì ôîíäîì ìåæäóíàðîäíûõ îáìåíîâ (The Korea Foundation, 2558 Nambusunhwanno, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-863, Republic of Korea).

Êèì ×æý¸ëü. Ïåéçàæ ñî ñõîäíÿìè. Õîëñò, àêâàðåëü. 75 õ 56 ñì. Ïîñëå îòêðûòèÿ ïîðòîâ â êîíöå XIX âåêà è âïëîòü äî 1930-õ ãã., êîãäà ïîÿâèëèñü ïàðîõîäû, ðèñ ñî âñåõ æèòíèö Êîðåè äîñòàâëÿëè íà ýòîò ïðè÷àë.

Îò ãëàâíîãî ðåäàêòîðà

Ïðîøëîå è íàñòîÿùåå Èí÷õîíà Ìû äàâíî ïðèâûêëè ê òîìó, ÷òî çà÷èíàòåëåì âñåãî íîâîãî â ñòðàíå ÿâëÿåòñÿ ñòîëèöà. Èìåííî ïîýòîìó îáû÷íî äóìàþò, ÷òî ïåðâûé â Êîðåå îòåëü çàïàäíîãî òèïà ìîã áûòü îòêðûò òîëüêî â Ñåóëå. Äî íåäàâíåãî âðåìåíè ìíîãèå áûëè óâåðåíû, ÷òî ñòîëè÷íûé îòåëü «Çîíòàã», ïîñòðîåííûé â 1902 ãîäó ïðè ïîääåðæêå êîðîëÿ Êî÷æîíà, áûë ïåðâûì òàêèì îòåëåì â Êîðåå. Îí íàõîäèëñÿ â äèïëîìàòè÷åñêîì ðàéîíå Ñåóëà ×îíäîí è áûë ïîïóëÿðíûì ìåñòîì ó èíîñòðàíöåâ è êîðåéñêîé ýëèòû òîãî âðåìåíè. Íî íà ñàìîì äåëå ïåðâûé îòåëü çàïàäíîãî òèïà, íàçûâàâøèéñÿ «Äàéáóöó», áûë îòêðûò íà 14 ëåò ðàíüøå â Èí÷õîíå.  òå äàë¸êèå âðåìåíà ïîðò Èí÷õîí ñëóæèë èíîñòðàíöàì âîðîòàìè â Êîðåþ. Ïåðåä òåì êàê îòïðàâèòüñÿ äàëüøå — â Ñåóë èëè â äðóãèå ãîðîäà, ïî äîðîãå èëè ïî ðåêå — èíîñòðàíöû îñòàíàâëèâàëèñü èìåííî â ýòîì îòåëå. Íî â 1899 ãîäó, êîãäà â Êîðåå íà÷àëà äåéñòâîâàòü ïåðâàÿ æåëåçíàÿ äîðîãà, ñâÿçàâøàÿ ñòîëèöó è Èí÷õîí, «Äàéáóöó» ðàñòåðÿë âñåõ ñâîèõ êëèåíòîâ. Ïîýòîìó âëàäåâøèé îòåëåì ÿïîíåö ïðîäàë åãî îäíîìó êèòàéöó, à òîò îòêðûë â í¸ì ðåñòîðàí. «Îòåëü — ýòî òîëüêî îäèí ïðèìåð. Èí÷õîí áûë ëèäåðîì âî ìíîãèõ èñòîðè÷åñêèõ ñîáûòèÿõ â ïåðèîä ìîäåðíèçàöèè Êîðåè»,

— ðàññêàçûâàåò ìåñòíûé èñòîðèê è æóðíàëèñò ×î Âóñîíã. Ñåé÷àñ Èí÷õîí ïûòàåòñÿ ñîâåðøèòü ïðîðûâ â ñâî¸ì äâèæåíèè âïåð¸ä. Ã-í ×î äîáàâëÿåò: «Ìû ñòðåìèìñÿ ê òîìó, ÷òîáû Èí÷õîí ñòàë âòîðûì ïî ðàçâèòèþ ãîðîäîì â Êîðåå. È ìû óâåðåíû, ÷òî â ñêîðîì áóäóùåì òàê è áóäåò». Ïðè ýòîì îí ïîä÷¸ðêèâàåò: «Ýêîíîìèêà — ýòî íå ñàìîå âàæíîå: ìû õîòèì, ÷òîáû íàø ãîðîä ñòàë ìåñòîì, ïðèâëåêàòåëüíûì è ñ òî÷êè çðåíèÿ êóëüòóðû». Èí÷õîí ïðèëàãàåò áîëüøèå óñèëèÿ äëÿ ñîõðàíåíèÿ è ðàçâèòèÿ ñâîèõ èñòîðè÷åñêèõ áîãàòñòâ.  ñâÿçè ñ ýòèì ñåé÷àñ â ãîðîäå ñîçäàíî ìíîãî òåìàòè÷åñêèõ ìóçååâ è äðóãèõ äîñòîïðèìå÷àòåëüíîñòåé, êîòîðûå ïîçâîëÿþò óâèäåòü ñàìûå ðàçíûå ñòîðîíû óíèêàëüíîé èñòîðèè ãîðîäà. È ïàññàæèðû Ìåæäóíàðîäíîãî àýðîïîðòà Èí÷õîí âïîëíå ìîãóò íàéòè âðåìÿ, ÷òîáû ïîáûâàòü â ýòèõ èíòåðåñíûõ ìåñòàõ èëè â ñâîáîäíîé ýêîíîìè÷åñêîé çîíå — äëÿ ëó÷øåãî ïîíèìàíèÿ òîãî, êàê îñóùåñòâëÿëàñü ìîäåðíèçàöèÿ Êîðåè è íà ÷òî îíà îðèåíòèðóåòñÿ â ýïîõó ãëîáàëèçàöèè. Êèì Õ¸íòõýê Ãëàâíûé ðåäàêòîð


Ãëàâíàÿ òåìà íîìåðà: «Èí÷õîí: ãëàâíûå âîðîòà Êîðåè»

04 12 16 22 28

Ãëàâíàÿ òåìà íîìåðà-1

Ãîðîä, ñïëàâèâøèé âîåäèíî âíóòðåííåå è âíåøíåå

È ×õàíãè

Ãëàâíàÿ òåìà íîìåðà-2

Èí÷õîí â ðîìàíå Ñèí øíñóê «È ×æèí»

Ïàê Õ¸íñóê

Ãëàâíàÿ òåìà íîìåðà-3

Èñòîðèÿ Èí÷õîíà, ãëàâíûõ âîðîò Êîðåè

7

×î Óñîí

Ãëàâíàÿ òåìà íîìåðà-4

Îò îòêðûòîãî ïîðòà ê àýðîïîðòó ¹1

Áåí Äæåêñîí

Ãëàâíàÿ òåìà íîìåðà-5

Æèâàÿ ýêîëîãè÷åñêàÿ ñîêðîâèùíèöà: îñòðîâà â ìîðå ïåðåä Èí÷õîíîì

Êàí ×æåþí

29

34 40

 öåíòpå âíèìàíèÿ

Îòêðûòèå Íàöèîíàëüíîãî ìóçåÿ ñîâðåìåííîãî èñêóññòâà â Ñåóëå

Êî Ìèñîê

Äîñòîïðèìå÷àòåëüíîñòè

Áàøíÿ áûâøåé ðóññêîé äèïìèññèè: çàñòûâøèé ýëåìåíò ïåéçàæà Êîðåè íîâîãî âðåìåíè Êèì Þã¸í

36

44 50

Ñ ëþáîâüþ ê Êîðåå

Íîìóðà Ìîòîþêè: «Ëþäè ×õîíãéå÷õîíà 1970-õ ãîäîâ — ýòî ó÷èòåëÿ ìîåé æèçíè»

×îí Ûíè

Êíèãè, äèñêè è äðóãîå ×àðëüç Ëà Øóý Áèáëèîòåêà êîðåéñêîé ëèòåðàòóðû äëÿ àíãëîÿçû÷íûõ ÷èòàòåëåé Èçó÷åíèå ïóòè Êîðåè â íàïðàâëåíèè ñîâðåìåííîãî ñóâåðåííîãî ãîñóäàðñòâà

42

45

52 54 58 62 66

Êîðåÿ â çåðêàëå ìîåé äóøè

Ýòà ðàçóìíàÿ, ðàçóìíàÿ, ðàçóìíàÿ ñòðàíà...

Ðàèñà Êóëüêîâà

Øîó-áèçíåñ

Àêò¸ð Õà ×æîíó: íàñòîÿùèé ìóæ÷èíà â ýïîõó «þíîøåé-öâåòîâ»

Î Äîí÷æèí

Ðàäîñòè ãóðìàíà

Ñúåäîáíûå äèêîðàñòóùèå ðàñòåíèÿ è òðàâû: âêóñíîå ñðåäñòâî îò âåñåííåãî àâèòàìèíîçà Å ×æîíñîê

Ñòèëü æèçíè

Êîðåéñêàÿ òðàäèöèîííàÿ êîñìåòîëîãèÿ: êàê ïîõîðîøåòü áåç ïëàñòèêè

È Ãûìñóê

Ïóòåøåñòâèå â êîðåéñêóþ ëèòåðàòóðó

Ò¸ïëûé âçãëÿä ïèñàòåëÿ-ïåðåâîä÷èêà ×àí Äó¸í Áîæüÿ êîðîâêà íà÷èíàåò ïîë¸ò ñ âåðøèíû. Ïàê ×õàíñóí

55

K o r e a n a ı Âåñíà 2 0 1 4

3


Ãëàâíàÿ òåìà íîìåðà-1

Ãîðîä, ñïëàâèâøèé âîåäèíî âíóòðåííåå è âíåøíåå Ñ òî÷êè çðåíèÿ øèðîêîé ïåðñïåêòèâû èñòîðèè êóëüòóðû, Èí÷õîí, íåñîìíåííî, èñïîëíåí ãëóáîêîãî ñèìâîëèçìà. «×÷à÷æàí-ì¸í» è «×àéíà-òàóí» — ýòî êëþ÷åâûå ñëîâà, êîòîðûå ïîìîãàþò ïîíÿòü çíà÷åíèå ýòîãî ìåñòà. È ×õàíãè, ëèòåðàòóðíûé êðèòèê | Ôîòîãðàôèè: Àí Õîíáîì

4

Êîðåéñêàÿ êóëüòóðà è èñêóññòâî


Á

îëüøèíñòâó èç íàñ õî÷åòñÿ âåðèòü, ÷òî ó êàæäîãî íàðîäà èçíà÷àëüíî áûëà ñâîÿ, èñêîííàÿ åäà. Íî âîïðåêè îæèäàíèþ ýòî âðÿä ëè ìîæåò ñåðü¸çíî ïîìî÷ü â äåëå ïîèñêà ñîáñòâåííîãî «ÿ». Ýòî íàïîìèíàåò ïðîöåññ, êîãäà ìû, ãîâîðÿ î ñåáå, â êàêîé-òî ìîìåíò íà÷èíàåì ãîâîðèòü î äðóãèõ ëþäÿõ, õîðîøî íàì çíàêîìûõ, îïðåäåëÿÿ òàêèì îáðàçîì ÷åðåç íèõ ñåáÿ. Ýòî ïðàâèëî ðàáîòàåò è íà óðîâíå êóëüòóð.  êà÷åñòâå èëëþñòðàöèè ïðèâåäó ñëåäóþùèå ñëîâà Êåíà Õîìà (Ken Hom), èññëåäîâàòåëÿ êóëèíàðèè, àìåðèêàíöà êèòàéñêîãî ïðîèñõîæäåíèÿ, êîòîðûé âûñòóïèë â êà÷åñòâå âåäóùåãî â äîêóìåíòàëüíîì ôèëüìå KBS «Ïóòü ëàïøè» («Íóäë ðîóä»): «Ìîæíî ñêàçàòü, ÷òî ñàìà ïî ñåáå ëàïøà — ýòî áåëûé õîëñò, à ïèùåâàÿ êóëüòóðà ðåãèîíîâ, â êîòîðûõ îíà ðàñïðîñòðàíèëàñü, — ýòî õóäîæíèê. Òîëüêî îò õóäîæíèêà çàâèñèò, êàêàÿ êàðòèíà ïîÿâèòñÿ íà õîëñòå. Òî æå ñàìîå ïðîèñõîäèò è ñ ëàïøîé.  çàâèñèìîñòè îò ïèùåâîé êóëüòóðû êîíêðåòíîãî ðåãèîíà ëàïøà ðîæäàåòñÿ çàíîâî». Òî, ÷òî çàèìñòâîâàííàÿ èç Öåíòðàëüíîé Àçèè ëàïøà ñìîãëà ïðèæèòüñÿ è äîñòè÷ü ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèÿ â Êèòàå, ïðÿìî ñâÿçàíî ñ çàðîæäåíèåì ãîðîäîâ. Ïîñëå ïàäåíèÿ äèíàñòèè Òàí è ïðèõîäà ê âëàñòè äèíàñòèè Ñóí â ðåçóëüòàòå îòìåíû ìíîãèõ îãðàíè÷åíèé òîðãîâëÿ ñòàëà ñâîáîäíåå. Òîëüêî â Áÿíüëÿíå (ñîâðåìåííûé Êàéôûí), ñòîëèöå Êèòàÿ âðåì¸í äèíàñòèè Ñóí, íàñ÷èòûâàëîñü áîëåå 70 áîëüøèõ çàâåäåíèé îáùåïèòà è áåñ÷èñëåííîå ìíîæåñòâî ìåëêèõ. Ïðîñòàÿ, áûñòðàÿ â ïðèãîòîâëåíèè è ñðàâíèòåëüíî äåø¸âàÿ ëàïøà ñòàëà èäåàëüíîé åäîé, ñîñòàâëÿþùåé ïîëíîöåííûé ïðè¸ì ïèùè, äëÿ áåäíûõ ãîðîäñêèõ ðàáî÷èõ, êîòîðûå ïî ìåðå ðîñòà áîëüøèõ ãîðîäîâ ïðèáûâàëè â íèõ èç äåðåâåíü. Òî æå ñàìîå ïðîèçîøëî ñ ïàñòîé â Íåàïîëå â ýïîõó áàðîêêî è ñ ëàïøîé «ñîáà» â Êèîòî â ýïîõó Ýäî. Àíàëîãè÷íûì îáðàçîì ëàïøà ñ ñîóñîì èç ÷¸ðíûõ áîáîâ «÷÷à÷æàí-ì¸í» âïåðâûå ïîÿâèëàñü â Èí÷õîíå â íà÷àëå 20-õ ãã., êîãäà â ñâÿçè ñ îòêðûòèåì ïîðòà íà÷àëà àêòèâíî îñóùåñòâëÿòüñÿ óðáàíèçàöèÿ. Îäíàêî æèòåëè Èí÷õîíà íå ñ÷èòàþò ýòî áëþäî ñâîåé èñêîííîé åäîé. Ñàìà ëàïøà ïîïàëà â Êîðåþ èç Êèòàÿ, êîòîðûé â ñâîþ î÷åðåäü çàèìñòâîâàë å¸ â Öåíòðàëüíîé Àçèè, à ñîóñ, êîòîðûì ïîëèâàþò ëàïøó, äåëàåòñÿ èç êèòàéñêîé ñîë¸íîé ïàñòû, ïðèãîòîâëåííîé èç çàáðîäèâøèõ ñîåâûõ áîáîâ, è êàðàìåëè, èìïîðòèðóåìîé èç Þæíîé Àìåðèêè. Äîáàâüòå ñþäà ìàðèíîâàííóþ ïî ÿïîíñêîìó ðåöåïòó æ¸ëòóþ êèñëî-ñëàäêóþ ðåäüêó äàéêîí, è âû ïîëó÷èòå «÷÷à÷æàí-ì¸í» — áëþäî, êîòîðîå ïî ñàìûì ñêðîìíûì ïîäñ÷¸òàì åæåäíåâíî ïðîäàþò â Êîðåå â êîëè÷åñòâå 7 ìèëëèîíîâ ïîðöèé. Ïîýòîìó ìåñòîì, ãäå ýòè èíãðåäèåíòû è ïèùåâûå êóëüòóðû ðàçíûõ ñòðàí ñîåäèíèëèñü â ñîîòâåòñòâèè ñ îïðåäåë¸ííîé ïîòðåáíîñòüþ, ñòàë Èí÷õîí, à òî÷íåå — ðàéîí Ñîëëèí-äîí îêðóãà ×óíãó, êîòîðûé ñåãîäíÿ íàçûâàþò ×àéíà-òàóíîì. Îí ðàñïîëîæåí ÷åðåç óëèöó îò ñòàíöèè «Èí÷õîí-¸ê», êîíå÷íîé ñòàíöèè 1-é ëèíèè ìåòðî, áåðóùåé ñâî¸ íà÷àëî â Ñåóëå. Ñ âåðøèíû õîëìà îòêðûâàåòñÿ âèä íà ×åìóëüïõî (ñåé÷àñ ýòî íå ñòàíöèÿ «×åìóëüïõî-¸ê», à çàäâîðêè ñòàíöèè «Èí÷õîí-¸ê»), êîòîðûé ñòàë ïåðâûì îòêðûòûì ïîðòîì Êîðåè. È îòêðûòèå ïîðòà ×åìóëüïõî íå òîëüêî ïîçâîëèëî ñîâðåìåííûì ñèñòåìàì è èçîáðåòåíèÿì ðàçíûõ ñòðàí õëûíóòü ïîòîêîì â «Ñòðàíó óòðåííåé ñâåæåñòè», íî òàêæå ïðèâëåêëî êîðåéöåâ, èñïûòûâàþùèõ ëþáîïûòñòâî è ñòðàñòü ê íîâûì êóëüòóðàì è ñïîñîáíîñòÿì, è ñîáðàëî â îäíîì ìåñòå ëþäåé, êîòîðûõ ðàíüøå ðàçäåëÿëè ñîñëîâíûå áàðüåðû èëè ïðèíàäëåæíîñòü ê îïðåäåë¸ííîìó ðåãèîíó.

×åìóëüïõî: ïåðâûé ñîâðåìåííûé ãîðîä Êîðåè

Ïàññàæèðñêèé òåðìèíàë ïîðòà Èí÷õîí. Îòñþäà îòïðàâëÿþòñÿ ñóäà ê îñòðîâàì ×å÷æó-äî, Ïýíí¸í-äî, ¨íïõ¸í-äî, Òîê÷îê-òî, È÷æàê-òî è Ïõóí-äî. Ñ ìîìåíòà îòêðûòèÿ â 1995 ã. ê íà÷àëó 2013 ã. óñëóãàìè òåðìèíàëà âîñïîëüçîâàëîñü áîëåå 1 ìëí. ÷åëîâåê.

K o r e a n a ı Âåñíà 2 0 1 4

 ñåðåäèíå XIX âåêà ñòðàíû Àçèè îêàçàëèñü ïîä äàâëåíèåì èìïåðèàëèñòè÷åñêèõ ñèë Çàïàäà, óæå äîáèâøèõñÿ ê òîìó âðåìåíè óñïåõà â ìîäåðíèçàöèè è òðåáîâàâøèõ îò àçèàòñêèõ ñîñåäåé «îòêðûòü äâåðè». Ïåðâûì ñäàëñÿ Êèòàé, êîòîðûé, ïðîèãðàâ â Îïèóìíîé âîéíå ñ Àíãëèåé, áûë âûíóæäåí óñòóïèòü Ãîíêîíã è îòêðûòü ïÿòü ïîðòîâ (1843 ã.), ïðåæäå âñåãî Øàíõàé. Çà íèì ïîñëåäîâàëà ßïîíèÿ, êîòîðàÿ, áóäó÷è ïîäàâëåííîé ìîùüþ «÷¸ðíûõ êîðàáëåé» àìåðèêàíñêîãî àäìèðàëà Ïåððè, îòêðûëà äâà ïîðòà — Éîêîãàìó è Íàãàñàêè (1859 ã.). Ñèòóàöèÿ â ãîñóäàðñòâå ×îñîí íå î÷åíü îòëè÷àëàñü. Íî çäåñü, ïîìèìî çàïàäíûõ äåðæàâ, â áîðüáó çà ïîëó÷åíèå âëèÿíèÿ íà Êîðåþ áûëè âîâëå÷åíû òàêæå Öèíñêèé Êèòàé è ßïîíèÿ, êîòîðûå, ïåðâûìè îòêðûâ ñâîè ïîðòû, ïóñòü è íå â îäèíàêîâûõ óñëîâèÿõ, óæå íà÷àëè ìîäåðíèçàöèþ.  òî âðåìÿ ñ òî÷êè çðåíèÿ ïîëèòè÷åñêîé ñèòóàöèè ãîñóäàðñòâî ×îñîí áûëî ðàçäåëåíî íà äâà ëàãåðÿ: ñòîðîííèêîâ «äâèæåíèÿ çà öèâèëèçàöèþ», ïîëó÷àâøèõ ôèíàíñîâóþ ïîääåðæêó îò ßïîíèè ïîñëå çàêëþ÷åíèÿ êîðåéñêî-ÿïîíñêîãî Êàíõâàñêîãî äîãîâîðà 1876 ã., è ôðàêöèþ êîíñåðâàòîðîâ, êîòîðûõ ïîääåðæèâàë Öèíñêèé Êèòàé.  êîíå÷íîì èòîãå â îáñòîÿòåëüñòâàõ äàâëåíèÿ ñî ñòîðîíû Êèòàÿ è ßïîíèè, êîòîðûå áîðîëèñü çà ïîëíîìî÷èÿ è ñôåðû âëèÿíèÿ âíóòðè Êîðåè, ãîñóäàðñòâî ×îñîí â ÿíâàðå 1883 ã. îòêðûëî ïîðò ×åìóëüïõî â Èí÷õîíå, êîòîðûé ôàêòè÷åñêè áûë âîðîòàìè â ñòîëèöó Êîðåè — Ñåóë.  ×åìóëüïõî, êîòîðûé íà ìîìåíò îòêðûòèÿ ïîðòà, áûë âñåãî ëèøü ìàëåíüêîé ãàâàíüþ, ãäå ïðîæèâàëî îêîëî ïîëóòîðà äåñÿòêà ñåìåé, îäèí çà äðóãèì ïîÿâèëèñü ñåòòëüìåíòû ýìèãðàíòîâ èç äðóãèõ ñòðàí, ñíà÷àëà ßïîíèè, ïîòîì Êèòàÿ, à çàòåì è ðàçëè÷íûõ ñòðàí Åâðîïû è ÑØÀ. Âîêðóã ýòèõ ïîñåëåíèé, â êîòîðûõ ãàðàíòèðîâàëàñü ñâîáîäà òîðãîâëè, âëàäåíèå íåäâèæèìîñòüþ è ïðàâî ýêñòåððèòîðèàëüíîñòè, ñòàëè ïðîêëàäûâàòüñÿ äîðîãè, îñíîâûâàòüñÿ áàíêè, îòêðûëàñü Ìîðñêàÿ òàìîæíÿ (Õýãâàí), ïî÷òà è ãîñòèíèöû. Òàê ×åìóïüïõî îáð¸ë îáëèê ñîâðåìåííîãî ãîðîäà. Ìóçåé

5


îòêðûòèÿ ïîðòà Èí÷õîí, â êîòîðîì âûñòàâëåíû äîêóìåíòàëüíûå ñâèäåòåëüñòâà èçìåíåíèé, ïðîèçîøåäøèõ ïîñëå îòêðûòèÿ ïîðòà, ðàçìåñòèëñÿ â áûâøåì çäàíèè Èí÷õîíñêîãî ôèëèàëà Ïåðâîãî áàíêà ßïîíèè.  ïîðòó Èí÷õîí ìîæíî áûëî âñòðåòèòü ñàìûõ ðàçíûõ ëþäåé: â ïåðâóþ î÷åðåäü èíîñòðàííûõ äèïëîìàòîâ, à òàêæå òîðãîâöåâ, èíîñòðàííûõ èíæåíåðîâ, ïðèåõàâøèõ ñòðîèòü ãîðîä, è åù¸ â áîëüøåì êîëè÷åñòâå — ðàáî÷èõ. Îäíèì èç íèõ áûë ðóññêèé àðõèòåêòîð Àôàíàñèé Èâàíîâè÷ Ñåðåäèí-Ñàáàòèí. Ïî åãî ïðîåêòó íà ãîðå Ûíáîí-ñàí, îòêóäà îòêðûâàåòñÿ âèä íà ìîðå, áûë ðàçáèò ïàðê Ìàíãóê — ïåðâûé ïàðê ñîâðåìåííîãî òèïà â Êîðåå. (Ïîñëå òîãî êàê â 1957 ã. â ïàðêå áûë óñòàíîâëåí ïàìÿòíèê ãåíåðàëó Ìàêàðòóðó, êîìàíäîâàâøåìó âûñàäêîé àìåðèêàíñêîãî äåñàíòà â Èí÷õîíå, ýòîò ïàðê ñòàë íàçûâàòüñÿ Ïàðêîì Ñâîáîäû. Çäåñü åæåäíåâíî çâó÷àëà «ïîëóäåííàÿ ñèðåíà.) Ñþäà æå â 1888 ã. ïðèáûëè äëÿ ìèññèîíåðñêîé äåÿòåëüíîñòè ÷åòûðå ìîíàøêè îðäåíà ñåñò¸ð ñâ. Ïàâëà äå Øàðòð. Îäíàêî íàèáîëüøèå èçìåíåíèÿ ïðèíåñëè ñ ñîáîé âîåííûå.

Êèòàéñêèå ïðåäïðèíèìàòåëè â ×åìóëüïõî

èíòåðåñà ê ìîðñêîé òîðãîâëå èëè óïðàâëåíèþ ôëîòîì. Êèòàé áûë âïîëíå óäîâëåòâîð¸í òåì, ÷òî ïðèåõàâøèå èç-çà ìîðÿ èíîñòðàííûå êóïöû ïðèâîçèëè òîâàðû, â êîòîðûõ íóæäàëàñü ñòðàíà, è áëàãîñêëîííî ïðèíèìàë ïîäàòè, êîòîðûå ïëàòèëè èíîñòðàííûå ïðàâèòåëüñòâà, ïðèçíàâàÿ ìîùü è áîãàòñòâî Êèòàÿ. Êðîìå òîãî, ïðàâÿùàÿ òîãäà ìàíü÷æóðñêàÿ äèíàñòèÿ Öèí èñïûòûâàëà ñâîåãî ðîäà êîìïëåêñ êóëüòóðíîé íåïîëíîöåííîñòè, ïîýòîìó, ñêëîíÿÿñü ê âíåøíèì ïðîÿâëåíèÿì ÷æóñèàíñêîé ôèëîñîôèè, ñòàâèëà âî ãëàâó óãëà íåîáõîäèìîñòü çàáîòèòüñÿ î ñâîåé ñåìüå, îñòàâàÿñü íà ìàëîé ðîäèíå, òîãäà êàê ëþäè, êîòîðûå, ïîñâÿòèâ ñåáÿ òîðãîâîìó äåëó, âåëè êî÷åâîé îáðàç æèçíè, ïðåçèðàëèñü è íàõîäèëèñü ïîä ñòðîãèì êîíòðîëåì, ïîñêîëüêó ñ÷èòàëèñü îïàñíîé ñèëîé. Êèòàéñêèå ýìèãðàíòû, ðàññåëèâøèåñÿ ïî Þãî-Âîñòî÷íîé Àçèè, ñòàëè èñêëþ÷åíèåì èç ïðàâèë è äîáèëèñü óñïåõà èñêëþ÷èòåëüíî áëàãîäàðÿ ñîáñòâåííîìó äóõó àâàíòþðèçìà è íàëè÷èþ äåëîâîé æèëêè; îíè íàõîäèëèñü â äðóãèõ óñëîâèÿõ ïî ñðàâíåíèþ ñ êèòàéñêèìè òîðãîâöàìè, êîòîðûå ïåðåáðàëèñü â ×îñîí, ïîëüçóÿñü ïîêðîâèòåëüñòâîì ñîáñòâåííîãî ïðàâèòåëüñòâà. Íåîæèäàííîå ïîÿâëåíèå ÿïîíñêîé àðìèè ïðèâåëî â çàìåøàòåëüñòâî äàæå êèòàéñêèõ òîðãîâöåâ, êîòîðûõ îáû÷íî îòëè÷àëî õëàäíîêðîâèå è íåâîçìóòèìîñòü. Ïî÷óâñòâîâàâ ïðèáëèæåíèå êðèçèñà, îíè ñòàëè ñïåøíî ïîêèäàòü ×åìóëüïõî, à ïîñëåäóþùèå ñòîëêíîâåíèÿ ìåæäó àðìèÿìè äâóõ ñòðàí ïðèâåëè ê âîéíå. ×åðåç òðèñòà ëåò ïîñëå òîãî êàê Êèòàé ïîìîã Êîðåå îäåðæàòü ïîáåäó íàä ÿïîíöàìè âî âðåìÿ Èìæ÷èíñêîé âîéíû, Êèòàé è ßïîíèÿ ñíîâà ñîøëèñü â ñõâàòêå íà Êîðåéñêîì ïîëóîñòðîâå. Íî â ýòîò ðàç Êèòàé ïðîèãðàë, è îáú¸ì òîðãîâëè Êèòàÿ â Êîðåå, ñîêðàòèâøèñü, âåðíóëñÿ ê ïðåæíåìó óðîâíþ.

«[Óòðîì 21 èþíÿ 1894 ã.], åäâà ñîéäÿ ñ êîðàáëÿ, ÿ îáíàðóæèëà, ÷òî ñìåðòåëüíî ñêó÷íûé ïîðò ×åìóëüïõî ïîëíîñòüþ ïðåîáðàçèëñÿ: íà óëèöàõ ãðåìåëè øàãè ìàðøèðóþùèõ ïëîòíûì ñòðîåì ÿïîíñêèõ ñîëäàò, […] êàæäûé äîì íà ãëàâíîé óëèöå ÿïîíñêîãî ñåòòëüìåíòà ïðåâðàòèëñÿ â êàçàðìó è áûë çàïîëíåí ñîëäàòàìè, íà áàëêîíàõ áëåñòåëè âèíòîâêè è ñíàðÿæåíèå. Êîðåéöû â îøåëîìëåíèè òîëïàìè áðîäèëè ïî óëèöàì èëè, ñèäÿ íà ïðèãîðêå, îòðåø¸ííî ñìîòðåëè, êàê èõ ïîðò ïðåâðàùàåòñÿ â ëàãåðü èíîñòðàííîé àðìèè». Êîíõâà÷õóí è Ìóçåé Òàê âûãëÿäåë ×åìóëüïõî «÷÷à÷æàí-ì¸íà» ïðèìåðíî íàêàíóíå ÊèòàéñêîÂñëåä çà êèòàéñêèì ñåòòëüÿïîíñêîé âîéíû ïî îïèñàíèþ ìåíòîì â ×åìóëüïõî åñòåñòâåííî â êíèãå «Êîðåÿ è å¸ ñîñåäè» ïîÿâèëèñü êèòàéñêèå ðåñòîðàíû. (Korea and Her Neighbours), Îäíèì èç íèõ ñòàë îòêðûòûé íàïèñàííîé Èçàáåëëîé Á¸ðä â 1908 ã. «Ñàíäîí-õâåãâàí» 1 Áèøîï, êîòîðàÿ, áóäó÷è ÷ëåíîì («Øàíüäóíñêèé çàë»). Ýòîò Êîðîëåâñêîãî ãåîãðàôè÷åñêîãî ðåñòîðàí, êîòîðûé â 1911 ã., 1 Ýòà ëåñòíèöà ñëóæèò ãðàíèöåé ìåæäó êèòàéñêèì è ÿïîíñêèì îáùåñòâà Âåëèêîáðèòàíèè, êîãäà äèíàñòèþ Öèí ñìåíèëà ñåòòëüìåíòàìè. Ñëåâà âûñòðîèëèñü çäàíèÿ â êèòàéñêîì ñòèëå, ñïðàâà — â ÿïîíñêîì. 2 Ñòåíû äîìîâ íà óëèöå Ñàìãóê÷è óêðàøåíû â êîíöå XIX âåêà ÷åòûðåæäû Êèòàéñêàÿ ðåñïóáëèêà, â ÷åñòü èçîáðàæåíèÿìè ïåðñîíàæåé ñðåäíåâåêîâîãî êèòàéñêîãî ðîìàíà ïîñåòèëà Êîðåþ è îäíàæäû ýòîãî ñîáûòèÿ ñòàë íàçûâàòüñÿ «Òðîåöàðñòâèå». 90% êèòàéöåâ Èí÷õîíà — ýòî âûõîäöû èç ïðîâèíöèè çàäåðæàëàñü â ñòðàíå ïî÷òè íà «Êîíõâà÷õóí» («Âåñíà ÐåñïóØàíüäóí, èçâåñòíûì ïðåäñòàâèòåëåì êîòîðîé ÿâëÿåòñÿ Ëî Ãóàíü÷æóí, ãîä. áëèêè»), ïðîöâåòàë â êà÷åñòâå àâòîð ðîìàíà «Òðîåöàðñòâèå». 3 Óëèöà, ãäå ïðîõîäèò Ôåñòèâàëü Âñåãî çà 3 ìåñÿöà â ×åìóëüïõî ìåñòà, ãäå ïèòàëèñü è îáùàëèñü êóëüòóðû èí÷õîíñêîãî ×àéíà-òàóíà. âûñàäèëîñü 6000 ÿïîíñêèõ íå òîëüêî êèòàéñêèå ýìèãðàíòû, ñîëäàò.  ãëàçàõ Áèøîï ýòî âûãëÿäåëî òàê, ñëîâíî ÿïîíöû äàâíî íî è òîðãîâöû èç ñàìûõ ðàçíûõ ñòðàí, êîèì äîâåëîñü îêàçàòüñÿ â ãîòîâèëèñü îáåñïå÷èòü ñåáå ãîñïîäñòâî íàä ×îñîíîì ïîñðåäñòâîì ïîðòó Èí÷õîíà. Ãîâîðÿò, ÷òî â ìåíþ èìåííî ýòîãî ðåñòîðàíà âïåðâûå âîîðóæ¸ííîé ñèëû. Äîëÿ êèòàéñêîãî èìïîðòà â Êîðåå, êîòîðàÿ â 1885 ïîÿâèëàñü ëàïøà ñ ñîóñîì èç ÷¸ðíûõ ñîåâûõ áîáîâ («÷÷à÷æàí-ì¸í») ã. ñîñòàâëÿëà ëèøü 20%, ê 1893 ã., ò.å. ìåíüøå ÷åì çà äåñÿòü ëåò, ïî-èí÷õîíñêè. âûðîñëà íàñòîëüêî, ÷òî ñðàâíÿëàñü ñ äîëåé èìïîðòà èç ßïîíèè. Ïðàâî Îäíîé èç ãëàâíûõ ïðè÷èí, êîòîðàÿ ïîçâîëèëà ðåñòîðàíó íà äâèæåíèå ñóäîâ ïî âîäíûì ïóòÿì, ñîåäèíÿâøèì Ñåóë è Èí÷õîí, «Êîíâõâà÷õóí» íàñëàæäàòüñÿ ïðîöâåòàíèåì, áûëî òî, ÷òî ïîñëå òîãî, ÷òî ïîçâîëÿëî ñåðü¸çíî ñîêðàòèòü âðåìÿ è òîðãîâûå èçäåðæêè, òîæå êàê â 1910 ã. ßïîíèÿ àííåêñèðîâàëà ×îñîí, îíà ãàðàíòèðîâàëà ñâîáîäó ïåðåøëî ê êèòàéñêîìó ïðåäïðèíèìàòåëþ Òóí Øóíüòàþ. È õîòÿ ýòî êîììåð÷åñêîé äåÿòåëüíîñòè âûõîäöàì èç Êèòàÿ, êàê è ïðåäñòàâèòåëÿì ñîáûòèå ÿâèëîñü ñëåäñòâèåì äàâëåíèÿ êèòàéñêîãî ïðàâèòåëüñòâà, çàïàäíûõ ãîñóäàðñòâ. Òîâàðàìè, êîòîðûå âûçâàëè îæèâëåíèå â îñóùåñòâëÿâøåãî ïîëèòèêó âñåñòîðîííåãî ïîîùðåíèÿ ñâîèõ òîðãîâöåâ ýêîíîìèêå êèòàéñêîé äèàñïîðû, ïðåáûâàâøåé â çàñòîå ïîñëå è ïðåäñòàâëåííîãî â Êîðåå ãåíåðàëüíûì ðåçèäåíòîì Þàíü Øèêàåì, Êèòàéñêî-ÿïîíñêîé âîéíû, ñòàë ø¸ëê è êîíîïëÿíûé (ïîñêîííûé) õîëñò. äàæå ñ òî÷êè çðåíèÿ Êèòàÿ îíî áûëî áåñïðåöåäåíòíûì. Êèòàéñêàÿ òåêñòèëüíàÿ ïðîìûøëåííîñòü, äîáèâøàÿñÿ çíà÷èòåëüíîãî Íà ïðîòÿæåíèè äëèòåëüíîãî âðåìåíè Êèòàé â ñèëó ñèñòåìû ðîñòà çà ñ÷¸ò âìåøàòåëüñòâà ñèë ìåæäóíàðîäíîãî êàïèòàëèçìà, öåííîñòåé, îðèåíòèðîâàííîé íà êîíòèíåíò, íå âûêàçûâàë îñîáîãî âûéäÿ çà ïðåäåëû ðûíêà âíóòðåííåãî ñïðîñà, ïîñðåäñòâîì ðåýêñïîðòà

6

Êîðåéñêàÿ êóëüòóðà è èñêóññòâî


2

K o r e a n a ı Âåñíà 2 0 1 4

7

3


ïðîáèëàñü íà ðûíêè ñîñåäíèõ àçèàòñêèõ ñòðàí. Çà ïåðèîä ñ 1913 ïî 1920 ãã. îáú¸ì êîíîïëÿíîãî õîëñòà, êîòîðûé Êèòàé ýêñïîðòèðîâàë â Êîðåþ, ïðåâûñèë 7/10 âñåãî ýêñïîðòà êîíîïëÿíîãî õîëñòà èç Êèòàÿ. Êðîìå òîãî, åñëè â 1903 ã. Êîðåÿ èìïîðòèðîâàëà êèòàéñêîãî ø¸ëêà íà 1 ìëí. âîí, òî ê 1919 ã. ýòà ñóììà çíà÷èòåëüíî âûðîñëà è óæå ñîñòàâëÿëà 6,76 ìëí. âîí. Êèòàéñêàÿ äèàñïîðà â Êîðåå íàñëàæäàëàñü ýêîíîìè÷åñêèì ïðîöâåòàíèåì âïë��òü äî 1920-õ ãã.  òå ãîäû ëþáîé êîðååö çíàë ïîïóëÿðíóþ ïåñíþ «Ã-í Âàí, òîðãîâåö ø¸ëêîì», â êîòîðîé ïåëîñü îá èñòîðèè ëþáâè îäíîãî áîãàòîãî êèòàéñêîãî òîðãîâöà. Çà ýòî âðåìÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü êèòàéñêèõ èììèãðàíòîâ çíà÷èòåëüíî âîçðîñëà, è, âûéäÿ çà ïðåäåëû ñîáñòâåííî ïîðòà, îíè ðàññåëèëèñü ïî âñåìó ãîðîäó. Êàê ñëåäñòâèå, ïîâñþäó ïîÿâèëèñü êèòàéñêèå ðåñòîðàíû.  ÷àñòíîñòè, ñòàíîâëåíèå âíóòðè ñòðàíû ìóêîìîëüíîãî ïðîèçâîäñòâà, íà÷àòîå ïîä ðóêîâîäñòâîì ÿïîíñêèõ ïðåäïðèÿòèé, ñûãðàëî áîëüøóþ ðîëü â òîì, ÷òî ïîñðåäñòâîì æåëåçíîé äîðîãè ïøåíè÷íàÿ ìóêà äëÿ ëàïøè ñòàëà ïîñòàâëÿòüñÿ âî âñå óãîëêè ñòðàíû, â ðåçóëüòàòå ÷åãî â Êîðåå âñêîðå íå îñòàëîñü ìåñò, ãäå íå ïðîáîâàëè áû «÷÷à÷æàí-ì¸í». Ðîñò ýêîíîìè÷åñêîãî áëàãîñîñòîÿíèÿ êèòàéñêèõ òîðãîâöåâ âîñïðèíèìàëñÿ êîðåéöàìè, ñïîñîáíûìè ìûñëèòü êðèòè÷åñêè, â êîíòåêñòå äîâåðèÿ è òðóäîëþáèÿ, íî ñ òî÷êè çðåíèÿ ÿïîíñêîé èìïåðèè, êîòîðàÿ êîëîíèçèðîâàëà Êîðåþ, ýòî áûë òðåâîæàùèé ôàêòîð. Êàê ñëåäñòâèå, ÿïîíñêîå ãåíåðàë-ãóáåðíàòîðñòâî ñäåðæèâàëî èìïîðò ø¸ëêà èç Êèòàÿ, â ÷àñòíîñòè ïóò¸ì æ¸ñòêîãî êîíòðîëÿ çà êîíòðàáàíäíûì ââîçîì, à ÷òî êàñàåòñÿ èìïîðòà êîíîïëÿíîãî õîëñòà, òî, îáëîæèâ åãî âûñîêèìè ïîøëèíàìè, îíî âñêîðå çàìåíèëî åãî õîëñòîì, ïðîèçâîäèìûì â ñàìîé Êîðåå.  ðåçóëüòàòå ýòèõ ìåð ýêîíîìè÷åñêàÿ äåÿòåëüíîñòü êèòàéñêèõ ýìèãðàíòîâ îêàçàëàñü â ñîñòîÿíèè çàñòîÿ. Ïîñëå îñâîáîæäåíèÿ â òå÷åíèå êîðîòêîãî âðåìåíè íàáëþäàëàñü òåíäåíöèÿ ê âîññòàíîâëåíèþ ýêîíîìè÷åñêîé àêòèâíîñòè ñðåäè èí÷õîíñêèõ êèòàéöåâ, îäíàêî èç-çà ðàçðàçèâøåéñÿ âñêîðå Êîðåéñêîé âîéíû íàñòóïèë íîâûé êðèçèñ. Äåëî â òîì, ÷òî â õîäå âûñàäêè àìåðèêàíñêîãî äåñàíòà â Èí÷õîíå (âîåííîé îïåðàöèè, ïåðåëîìèâøåé õîä âîéíû) è â ðåçóëüòàòå áîìáîâûõ óäàðîâ Êèòàéñêèé êâàðòàë ïðåâðàòèëñÿ ôàêòè÷åñêè â âûææåííóþ çåìëþ.  òî âðåìÿ åäèíñòâåííûì âèäîì ýêîíîìè÷åñêîé äåÿòåëüíîñòè, êîòîðàÿ ïîçâîëèëà êèòàéöàì âûæèòü, áûëè ðåñòîðàíû êèòàéñêîé êóõíè, à òèïè÷íûì áëþäîì â íèõ áûë «÷÷à÷æàí-ì¸í». Íà÷èíàÿ ñ 1950-õ ãã. êîëè÷åñòâî êèòàéñêèõ ðåñòîðàíîâ ñòàëî ïîíåìíîãó ðàñòè, îäíàêî â òî âðåìÿ êóëüòóðà ïîñåùåíèÿ ðåñòîðàíîâ áûëà åù¸ íåäîñòàòî÷íî ðàçâèòà, íî óæå ê 1970-ì ãã. èõ ñòàëî òàê ìíîãî, ÷òî 8/10 âñåõ êèòàéñêèõ èììèãðàíòîâ áûëî çàíÿòî â ðåñòîðàííîì áèçíåñå. Îäíàêî îòíîøåíèå êîðåéñêîãî ïðàâèòåëüñòâà ê ýêîíîìè÷åñêîé äåÿòåëüíîñòè êèòàéöåâ íå îòëè÷àëîñü ïðèÿçíüþ, ïîýòîìó â 1961 ã. îíî ïðèíÿëî çàêîí, çàïðåùàþùèé èíîñòðàíöàì âëàäåòü çåìë¸é, îãðàíè÷èâ òåì ñàìûì ïðàâî êèòàéñêèõ èììèãðàíòîâ íà âëàäåíèå íåäâèæèìîñòüþ. Ïîñëåäîâàâøèå çàêîíîäàòåëüíûå àêòû, êîòîðûå ïðèíèìàëèñü íà ïðîòÿæåíèè 1970-õ ãã., ñåðü¸çíî çàòðóäíèëè íå òîëüêî ýêîíîìè÷åñêóþ äåÿòåëüíîñòü, íî äàæå ñàìî âûæèâàíèå êèòàéöåâ â Êîðåå.  èòîãå çíàìåíèòûé ðåñòîðàí «Êîíõâà÷õóí» â 1983 ã., ñïóñòÿ 74 ãîäà ïîñëå îñíîâàíèÿ, áûë âûíóæäåí çàêðûòüñÿ è èñ÷åçíóòü â ãëóáèíàõ èñòîðèè. Ê òîìó æå óñòàíîâëåíèå äèïîòíîøåíèé ìåæ1 äó Êîðååé è ÊÍÐ ñíîâà ïðèâíåñëî

8

àòìîñôåðó ïàíèêè â ñðåäó êèòàéñêèõ òîðãîâöåâ, ó êîòîðûõ â êàæäîì ðåñòîðàíå âèñåëà «â êðàñíîì óãëó» ôîòîãðàôèÿ ×àí Êàéøè. Óïðàâëåíèå îêðóãà ×óí-ãó ãîðîäà Èí÷õîí, âûêóïèâ çäàíèå «Êîíõâà÷õóíà» (çàðåãèñòðèðîâàííîå êàê «êóëüòóðíîå äîñòîÿíèå ¹246»), îòðåìîíòèðîâàëî åãî è â àïðåëå 2012 ã. îòêðûëî â í¸ì Ìóçåé «÷÷à÷æàí-ì¸íà», ãäå âûñòàâëåíû ðàçëè÷íûå àðòåôàêòû, èìåþùèå îòíîøåíèå ê ýòîìó áëþäó è ê ñàìîìó ðåñòîðàíó «Êîíõâà÷õóí». Ïîäîáíî òîìó êàê òêàöêàÿ ôàáðèêà â Øàíõàå, ÿâëÿâøàÿñÿ ñèìâîëîì êèòàéñêîé òåêñòèëüíîé ïðîìûøëåííîñòè, ïðåâðàòèëàñü â ïðîñòðàíñòâî òâîð÷åñòâà è èñêóññòâà ïîä èìåíåì Ì50, òàê è Ìóçåé «÷÷à÷æàí-ì¸íà» ñòàë òóðèñòè÷åñêîé äîñòîïðèìå÷àòåëüíîñòüþ Èí÷õîíà, êîòîðóþ ëèøü çà äâà ãîäà ïîñëå îòêðûòèÿ ïîñåòèëî áîëåå 300 òûñÿ÷ ïîñåòèòåëåé.

 Èí÷õîíå íåò ×àéíà-òàóíà? Íåêîòîðûå ó÷¸íûå, ãîâîðÿ î Êîðåå, èíîãäà íàçûâàþò å¸ «åäèíñòâåííîé ñòðàíîé â ìèðå, ãäå íåò êèòàéñêèõ êâàðòàëîâ». Ïî èõ ìíåíèþ, ýêîíîìè÷åñêàÿ ìîùü êèòàéñêèõ ýìèãðàíòîâ, êîòîðûå, ñïîñîáñòâóÿ ñòðåìèòåëüíîìó ðàçâèòèþ Êèòàÿ, çàíÿëè äîìèíèðóþùåå ïîëîæåíèå â òîðãîâëå â Þãî-Âîñòî÷íîé Àçèè, íå îêàçàëà ñåðü¸çíîãî âëèÿíèÿ íà Êîðåþ, ãäå îíè âåëè òîðãîâóþ äåÿòåëüíîñòü íà ïðîòÿæåíèè 130 ëåò. Íî æèòåëè Èí÷õîíà ïðåäïî÷èòàþò âìåñòî «×àéíà-òàóí» èñïîëüçîâàòü íàçâàíèå «×õîíãâàí» (ò.å. «Öèíñêèé äîì»). Âîçìîæíî, ïîòîìó, ÷òî èìåíîâàíèå «×àéíà-òàóí» âûçûâàåò îùóùåíèå äèñêîìôîðòà, ñâÿçàííîãî ñ ÷óæåðîäíîñòüþ, êîòîðàÿ îáû÷íî àññîöèèðóåòñÿ ñ ìåñòàìè, ïîäîáíûìè ×àéíà-òàóíó â Ñàí-Ôðàíöèñêî. Ñîãëàñíî ïîñëåäíåé ñòàòèñòèêå Àññîöèàöèè êèòàéñêèõ ýìèãðàíòîâ, â Èí÷õîíå ïðîæèâàåò îêîëî 3 òûñÿ÷ êèòàéöåâ, èç íèõ áîëåå 600 (150— 200 ñåìåé) â ×àéíà-òàóíå.  Êèòàéñêîì êâàðòàëå Èí÷õîíà, íåñîìíåííî, ïðèñóòñòâóåò îñîáàÿ êóëüòóðà è ïåéçàæ, ñîçäàþùèé íåïîâòîðèìûé êèòàéñêèé êîëîðèò. Íî, ñêàæåì, ïàìÿòíèê Êîíôóöèþ, ñòîÿùèé íà äîðîãå ìåæäó ñòàðûìè ÿïîíñêèì è êèòàéñêèì ñåòòëüìåíòàìè, à òàêæå óëèöó Ñàìãóê÷è, ñòåíû äîìîâ êîòîðîé óêðàøåíû èçîáðàæåíèÿìè ïåðñîíàæåé ñðåäíåâåêîâîãî êèòàéñêîãî ðîìàíà «Òðîåöàðñòâèå», íåëüçÿ ñ÷èòàòü ÷àñòüþ êóëüòóðû îäíîãî òîëüêî Êèòàÿ, ïîäîáíî òîìó êàê Èèñóñ íå òîëüêî íàçàðåòÿíèí, à áóääèçì — áîëüøå, ÷åì ïðîñòî êóëüòóðà ðîäà Øàêüÿ, ê êîòîðîìó ïðèíàäëåæàë ïðèíö Ñèäõàðòõà. 90% êèòàéöåâ Èí÷õîíà — ýòî âûõîäöû èç ïðîâèíöèè Øàíüäóí. Íà òåððèòîðèè ýòîé ïðîâèíöèè â ýïîõó ¸ñåí è Îñåíåé âîçíèêëè ãîñóäàðñòâà Öè è Ëó, ïîýòîìó å¸ ÷àñòî íàçûâàþò «äðåâíåé ñòîëèöåé ãîñóäàðñòâ Öè è Ëó».  ãîñóäàðñòâå Ëó ðîäèëñÿ Êîíôóöèé, âûõîäöàìè èç ïðîâèíöèè Øàíüäóí òàêæå ÿâëÿþòñÿ Ìýí-öçû è Ñóíöçû. Åù¸ îäèí èçâåñòíûé ïðåäñòàâèòåëü Øàíüäóíà — Ëî Ãóàíü÷æóí, àâòîð ñðåäíåâåêîâîãî ðîìàíà «Òðîåöàðñòâèå». Ïîýòîìó òàêèå ñèìâîëè÷åñêèå îáúåêòû, êàê ïàìÿòíèê Êîíôóöèþ è óëèöà Ñàìãóê÷è ñ å¸ íàñòåííûìè èçîáðàæåíèÿìè ïåðñîíàæåé èç êëàññè÷åñêîãî êèòàéñêîãî ðîìàíà, ïîÿâèëèñü êàê âûðàæåíèå ãîðäîñòè çà ñâîþ êóëüòóðó è èñòîðè÷åñêîå íàñëåäèå, êîòîðóþ èñïûòûâàþò ïåðåñåëèâøèåñÿ â Èí÷õîí êèòàéöû.  òðàêòàòå «Ãóàíü-öçû», êîòîðûé, êàê ñ÷èòàåòñÿ, áûë íàïèñàí ïðèìåðíî â 500 ã. äî í.ý. Ãóàíü ×æóíîì, ÷èíîâíèêîì èç ãîñóäàðñòâà Öè, åñòü óïîìèíàíèÿ î òîðãîâëå ìåæäó ãîñóäàðñòâîì Öè è Äðåâíèì ×îñîíîì. Çäåñü æå, â Øàíüäóíå, ×àí Áîãî, âîåíà÷àëüíèê èç ãîñóäàðñòâà Ñèëëà, êîòîðûé ïðèìåðíî â X âåêå, çàõâàòèâ ïðåèìóùåñòâî â Êîðåéñêàÿ êóëüòóðà è èñêóññòâî


Äåòñòâî, ïðîâåä¸ííîå â Èí÷õîíå È ×õàíãè, ëèòåðàòóðíûé êðèòèê

ß

îòâåðñòèå ñòî÷íîé òðóáû çàïîëíÿëîñü âïåðâûå îêàçàëñÿ â Èí÷õîíå â ìîðñêîé âîäîé, è òîãäà ÿ âñëåä çà îòöîì 1959 ã., êîãäà îòåö, ïîëó÷èâ ìåñòî ñ áåñïîêîéñòâîì ñìîòðåë â ñòîðîíó íà îäíîì èç çàâîäîâ Èí÷õîíà, ãäå îí øëþçà.  ýòîì äîìå ìàìà ðîäèëà äâóõ íàäîëãî íå çàäåðæèòñÿ, ñî ìíîé íà ðóêàõ ìîèõ ìëàäøèõ ñåñò¸ð. ïåðååõàë ñþäà èç Ñåóëà. Ìíå òîãäà íå  äåòñêèé ñàä ïðè 5-é öåðêâè, êîòîðûé áûëî è ãîäà. íàõîäèëñÿ çà äîìîì, ÿ õîäèë ñ ìëàäøåé Ðàéîí Ñîíõ¸í-äîí, ãäå ìû âòðî¸ì ñåñòðîé, ñ êîòîðîé ó íàñ áûë ãîä ðàçîáîñíîâàëèñü â ñú¸ìíîé êîìíàòå, â íèöû. Ïîòîìó ÷òî ìû áûëè íåðàçëó÷íû. òî âðåìÿ áûë æèëûì êâàðòàëîì íà Ïî ìåðå âçðîñëåíèÿ ÿ íà÷àë áðîäèòü çàäâîðêàõ ñòàíöèè Âîñòî÷íûé Èí÷õîí, ïî îêðåñòíîñòÿì, ïîíåìíîãó ðàñøèðÿÿ òîãäà — öåíòð Èí÷õîíà, ãäå îáèòàëè çîíó îõâàòà, êîòîðàÿ òåïåðü âêëþ÷àëà ýìèãðàíòû âñåõ ñîðòîâ, âêëþ÷àÿ ðàáî÷èõ ãîñïèòàëü Êðàñíîãî Êðåñòà ñ áåëü¸ì, è áåæåíöåâ. Èçíà÷àëüíî ýòîò ðàéîí ïîëîùóùèìñÿ íà âåòðó, ãîðó Ñóäîãóêïðåäñòàâëÿë ñîáîé ïðèëèâíî-îòëèâíîé ñàí, íà êîòîðóþ ÿ ïîäíèìàëñÿ, íåñÿ íà êàíàë, êîòîðûé ãëóáîêî âäàâàëñÿ â ñóøó çàïëå÷íûõ íîñèëêàõ âåäðà ñ âîäîé, è è áûë îêðóæ¸í ãóñòûìè êàìûøîâûìè ðûíîê Ïýäàðè, ãäå âñåãäà ïîä íîãàìè çàðîñëÿìè.  êîíöå 1930-õ ãã. ÿïîíöû õëþïàëà ãðÿçü. ß äî ñèõ ïîð ïîìíþ, êàê îòâîåâàëè çåìëþ ó ìîðÿ è ðàñøèðèëè îäíàæäû, äâèæèìûé èñêëþ÷èòåëüíî ïîðòîâîå õîçÿéñòâî, ïîñòðîèâ çàâîä äóõîì àâàíòþðèçìà, îòïðàâèâøèñü è æèëóþ çîíó. Òàê ýòî ìåñòî îáðåëî âäîëü âîäíîãî ïóòè, êîòîðûé ø¸ë ïîä ñâîé íûíåøíèé îáëèê. Òàêèå ìåñòíûå 2 êðûòûì ðûíêîì Ñóìóíòõîí, ÿ áûë íàçâàíèÿ, êàê Ñóìóíòõîí (Øëþç) è èñïóãàí íåîæèäàííî âûðîñøèìè ïåðåäî Ïýäàðè (Ëîäî÷íûé ìîñò), íàïîìèíàþò î 1 Ìàÿê íà îñòðîâå Ïõàëüìè-äî. Íåáîëüøîé ìàÿê (íà ìíîþ îãðîìíûìè ïàðóñíûìè ñóäàìè ïðîøëîì ýòîãî ðàéîíà. ôîòîãðàôèè ñïðàâà) áûë ïîñòðîåí â 1903 ã. è ñòàë è çàâîäàìè, îêðóæ¸ííûìè äûìîì è Íà ýòîé çåìëå, îòâî¸âàííîé ó ìîðÿ, ïåðâûì ìàÿêîì â Êîðåå. Ðàñïîëîæåííûé íà ïóòè ñòðàøíûì ãðîõîòîì. Òîãäà æå ÿ âïåðâûå îäèí çà äðóãèì âîçíèêëè ïðîìûøëåñëåäîâàíèÿ êîðàáëåé èç þãî-çàïàäíûõ ìîðåé â Èí÷õîí, â òå÷åíèå ñòà ëåò îí âûïîëíÿë êëþ÷åâóþ ðîëü â ïîòîêå óâèäåë ìîðå ïåðåä Èí÷õîíîì 1960-õ ííûå ïðåäïðèÿòèÿ, êîòîðûå ðàíüøå ìîðñêèõ ïåðåâîçîê. Ïîñëå òîãî êàê â 2003 ã. ïðÿìî ãã., ïðîñòèðàþùååñÿ çà îáøèðíûìè áûëî òðóäíî äàæå âîîáðàçèòü: ìóêîìîëüðÿäîì ñ íèì âûðîñ íîâûé ìàÿê, îñíàù¸ííûé íîâåéøèì ëèòîðàëÿìè. íûé çàâîä, ìåòàëëóðãè÷åñêèé çàâîä è îáîðóäîâàíèåì, ñòàðûé ìàÿê îõðàíÿåòñÿ â êà÷åñòâå Îñåíüþ òîãî ãîäà, êîãäà ÿ ïîñòóïèë äðóãèå. Îäíèì èç íèõ áûë Èí÷õîíñêèé êóëüòóðíîãî íàñëåäèÿ ãîðîäà Èí÷õîíà. 2  äåðåâíå â íà÷àëüíóþ øêîëó, ìû ïåðååõàëè â ëîêîìîòèâíî-âàãîíîðåìîíòíûé çàâîä, Ïýäàðè, ãäå êîìïàêòíî æèëè êîðåéöû, âûòåñíåííûå ñþäà ïîñëå îòêðûòèÿ ïîðòà ×åìóëüïõî, çàðîäèëàñü êóëüòóðà äîì â ðàéîíå ¨íõ¸í-äîí.  îòëè÷èå îò ñòàâøèé íàñëåäíèêîì æåëåçíîäîðîæÍîâîãî âðåìåíè.  2007 ã., â ñîîòâåòñòâèè ñ ïëàíàìè Ñîíõ¸í-äîíà, ãäå äîìà ñòîÿëè âäîëü íîé êîìïàíèè «Ê¸íèí», êîòîðàÿ ïåðâîé ðàçâèòèÿ ãîðîäà, äåðåâíÿ îêàçàëàñü ïîä óãðîçîé ñíîñà, óçêèõ óëî÷åê ïðèëåïèâøèñü äðóã ê äðóãó, íà ýòîé ç��ìëå íà÷àëà âûïóñêàòü íî ïîñëå òîãî êàê îáùåñòâåííîñòü âûñêàçàëàñü ïðîòèâ ýòîò çàãîðîäíûé äîì ñòîÿë íà âûñîêîé è ðåìîíòèðîâàòü ïîåçäà. Ðÿäîì ñ òàêîãî ðåøåíèÿ, îíà íàõîäèòñÿ ïîä îõðàíîé êàê ðàéîí, èìåþùèé èñòîðè÷åñêîå çíà÷åíèå. íàñûïè, à íà îòêðûòîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå çà ýòèìè ïðîìûøëåííûìè ìîùíîñòÿìè íèì ìîæíî áûëî çàïóñêàòü áóìàæíûõ ïîÿâèëàñü Ñåâåðíàÿ ïðèáðåæíàÿ ëèíèÿ çìååâ. Ãîâîðÿò, ÷òî ýòîò äîì áûë ïîñòðîåí êàê âåäîìñòâåííîå — æåëåçíîäîðîæíàÿ âåòêà ïðîòÿæ¸ííîñòüþ áîëåå 3 êì, êîòîðàÿ æèëü¸ äëÿ áëèçëåæàùåãî Óíèâåðñèòåòà Èíõà. Ðÿäîì òàêæå æèëî ñîåäèíèëà ëèíèþ Ñåóë — Èí÷õîí ñ ïîðòîì. Âäîëü æåëåçíîé äîðîãè íåñêîëüêî èíîñòðàíöåâ. Íî ñ íà÷àëîì ñòðîèòåëüñòâà ñêîðîñòíîé âûðîñëè äîìà — íà ñàìîì äåëå ïðîñòî ëà÷óãè — è â ìîåé ïàìÿòè ñâåæè àâòîìàãèñòðàëè Ñåóë — Èí÷õîí ïîëóíàñèëüñòâåííî âûñåëåííûå ëþäè âîñïîìèíàíèÿ î òîì, ÷òî êàæäûé ðàç, êîãäà ïî ýòîé «ïåðåóëî÷íîé íà÷àëè êîëëåêòèâíî çàñåëÿòü îêðåñòíîñòè íàøåãî äîìà. Áëàãîäàðÿ æåëåçíîé äîðîãå» ïðîõîäèë î÷åðåäíîé ïîåçä, ìû ñ òðåâîãîé ñëåäèëè ýòîìó ó ìåíÿ íåîæèäàííî ïîÿâèëîñü ìíîãî äðóçåé. Ìû ëîâèëè áû÷êîâ çà íèì, îïàñàÿñü, ÷òî ìàññèâíûé ñîñòàâ ìîæåò çàäåòü êðûøè äîìîâ. íà îñòðîâå Íàê, âûêàïûâàëè êîðíè ïóýðàðèè íà Ïóïêîâîé ãîðå, íà Ìîè ïåðâûå âîñïîìèíàíèÿ îá Èí÷õîíå ñâÿçàíû ñ äîìîì â ðàéîíå Ïðàçäíèê óðîæàÿ óñòðàèâàëè ñîñòÿçàíèÿ ñ «ðåáÿòàìè ñ ðûíêà», ñòðîÿ Ñîíõ¸í-äîí. Ýòî áûë êðàñèâûé ìîäåðíèçèðîâàííûé «õàíîê» â ôîðìå áàøåíêè èç êàìíåé è ñáèâàÿ èõ ïîòîì, à çèìîé êàòàëèñü ñ ñ¸ñòðàìè íà áóêâû Ã, êîòîðûé íàõîäèëñÿ â ïåðåóëêå ðÿäîì ñ êðûòûì ðûíêîì êîíüêàõ. Òàê ÿ ïðîâ¸ë 1970-å ãã. Òåïåðü ðàéîí ¨íõ¸í-äî, âêëþ÷¸ííûé Ñóìóíòõîí. Ìîÿ ïîæèëàÿ ìàòóøêà, êîòîðîé óæå ãëóáîêî çà 80, äî â çîíó óëó÷øåíèÿ æèëîé ñðåäû, îæèäàåò ðåäåâåëîïìåíòà. Íàâåðíîå, ñèõ ïîð ñ íåæíîñòüþ âñïîìèíàåò âðåìÿ, êîãäà ìû æèëè â ýòîì äîìå. ïîñëå ýòîãî îí ñòàíåò èãðàòü ðîëü êðåïêîãî òûëà äëÿ íîâîãî ãîðîäà Êóõíÿ áûëà ðàñïîëîæåíà íåìíîãî íèæå, ÷åì ïåðåäíèé äâîð, à íàä íåþ Ñîíäî, êîòîðûé ïîñòðîèëè íà çåìëå, îòâî¸âàííîé ó ëèòîðàëè. áûë ÷åðäàê, êóäà ìîæíî áûëî çàáðàòüñÿ èç æåíñêèõ ïîêîåâ «àíáàí»,  1980-õ ãã. ÿ îêîí÷èë øêîëó è â ïîèñêàõ ðàáîòû óåõàë â Ñåóë — ÷òî äåëàëî åãî èäåàëüíîì ìåñòîì äëÿ òîãî, ÷òîáû, ñïðÿòàâøèñü, ñîâñåì êàê êîãäà-òî ìîé îòåö ïî òîé æå ïðè÷èíå ïåðååõàë èç Ñåóëà â íàáëþäàòü çà ïåðåäíèì è çàäíèì äâîðîì. Êîãäà äóë âåòåð ñ äîæä¸ì, Èí÷õîí. çàäíèé äâîð áûë ïîêðûò îïàâøèìè öâåòêàìè õóðìû. Âî âðåìÿ ïðèëèâà

K o r e a n a ı Âåñíà 2 0 1 4

9


 Êèòàéñêîì êâàðòàëå Èí÷õîíà, íåñîìíåííî, ïðèñóòñòâóåò îñîáàÿ êóëüòóðà è ïåéçàæ, ñîçäàþùèé íåïîâòîðèìûé êèòàéñêèé êîëîðèò. Íî, ñêàæåì, ïàìÿòíèê Êîíôóöèþ, ñòîÿùèé íà äîðîãå ìåæäó ñòàðûìè ÿïîíñêèì è êèòàéñêèì ñåòòëüìåíòàìè, à òàêæå óëèöó Ñàìãóê÷è, ñòåíû äîìîâ êîòîðîé óêðàøåíû îáðàçàìè ïåðñîíàæåé ñðåäíåâåêîâîãî êèòàéñêîãî ðîìàíà «Òðîåöàðñòâèå», íåâîçìîæíî ñ÷èòàòü ÷àñòüþ êóëüòóðû îäíîãî òîëüêî Êèòàÿ.

Þæíîì è Çàïàäíîì ìîðÿõ, àêòèâíî â¸ë òîðãîâëþ ñ Êèòàåì è ßïîíèåé, ñòàë îäíèì èç ìåöåíàòîâ, ïîääåðæàâøèõ ñòðîèòåëüñòâî áóääèéñêîãî õðàìîâîãî êîìïëåêñà ×èøàíü, è èãðàë ðîëü äóõîâíîãî ñòîëïà â îáùèíå ñèëëàñöåâ, æèâøèõ â òî âðåìÿ â Êèòàå. Èäåè Êîíôóöèÿ, ïåðåîñìûñëåííûå ×æó Ñè, ñòàëè ãîñóäàðñòâåííîé èäåîëîãèåé ×îñîíà íà 500 ëåò. À ðîìàí «Òðîåöàðñòâèå» è â Êîðåå äî ñèõ ïîð ÿâëÿåòñÿ îäíèì èç íàèáîëåå ÷èòàåìûõ ïðîèçâåäåíèé êëàññè÷åñêîé ëèòåðàòóðû. Åñëè ïåðåñå÷ü ìîðå íà âîñòîê îò ïðîâèíöèè Øàíüäóí, òî ïåðâûì ìåñòîì, êóäà âû ïîïàä¸òå, îêàæåòñÿ Êîðåéñêèé ïîëóîñòðîâ, à íà í¸ì — ïîðò Èí÷õîí. Ïîäîáíàÿ èñòîðèÿ îáùåíèÿ è ñõîæåñòü íàöèîíàëüíûõ êóëüòóð ÿâèëèñü îáñòîÿòåëüñòâàìè, íà ôîíå êîòîðûõ ìíîãèå âûõîäöû èç Øàíüäóíà ïåðåáðàëèñü â Èí÷õîí, à òàêæå ñòàëè ïðè÷èíîé òîãî, ÷òî èí÷õîíöû íå ðàññìàòðèâàþò ìåñòî êîìïàêòíîãî ïîñåëåíèÿ êèòàéöåâ êàê èçîëèðîâàííûé ðàéîí «ïåðåñàæåííîé» êóëüòóðû, êîòîðûé ïðèíÿòî

1

10

íàçûâàòü ×àéíà-òàóíîì.

Ïåðâàÿ îñòàíîâêà íà ïóòè ê ìîðþ, ïåðâûé ïîðò ïî äîðîãå íà ìàòåðèê  1987 ã. öåíòðàëüíîå òåëåâèäåíèå Êèòàÿ CCTV ïîêàçàëî 6ñåðèéíûé äîêóìåíòàëüíûé ôèëüì «Ñìåðòü Ƹëòîé ðåêè», âûçâàâøèé áîëüøîé îáùåñòâåííûé ðåçîíàíñ. Êîíñåðâàòèâíûå ñèëû Êèòàÿ âûñòóïèëè ñ êðèòèêîé ôèëüìà, çàÿâèâ, ÷òî îí «âûñòàâèë íàïîêàç ñðàìíûå ìåñòà Êèòàÿ», òîãäà êàê ñòîðîííèêè ðåôîðì è áîëüøèíñòâî êèòàéöåâ âîñïðèíÿëè ïðîåêò êàê ïîâîä çàäóìàòüñÿ íàä áîëåçíåííûì è îòðåçâëÿþùèì âîïðîñîì: «Êóäà æå äâèæåòñÿ Êèòàé?» Ôèëüì ïîðîäèë ìàññó èíòåðïðåòàöèé. Îäíè ðàñöåíèâàëè åãî êàê êðèòèêó è ïîïûòêó ïåðåîñìûñëåíèÿ äðåâíåé êèòàéñêîé öèâèëèçàöèè, äðóãèå — êàê ïðèçûâ èñêàòü íîâûé âûõîä, ÷òîáû äâèãàòüñÿ âïåð¸ä. Äýí Ñÿîïèí, êîòîðûé íà÷àë ïðîâîäèòü ïîëèòèêó îòêðûòîñòè Êèòàÿ â äóõå

Êîðåéñêàÿ êóëüòóðà è èñêóññòâî


ïðàãìàòèçìà, â 1997 ã. îñòàâèë çàâåùàíèå ñ óêàçàíèåì ðàçâåÿòü åãî ïðàõ íàä ìîðåì. Ìíîãèå êèòàéöû ðàññìàòðèâàþò ýòîãî êàê âûðàæåíèå åãî âåðû â òî, ÷òî áóäóùåå Êèòàÿ ëåæèò â îòêðûòîñòè âíåøíåìó ìèðó, êîòîðóþ ñèìâîëèçèðóåò ìîðå. Êîðåÿ òîæå íå ñìîãëà èçáåæàòü ïîäîáíîé ðåôëåêñèè.  1998 ã., âî âðåìÿ âàëþòíîãî êðèçèñà, íàêðûâøåãî Þãî-Âîñòî÷íóþ Àçèþ, ñ öåëüþ ïðèâëå÷åíèÿ â ñòðàíó èíîñòðàííîãî êàïèòàëà êîðåéñêîå ïðàâèòåëüñòâî ðàçðåøèëî èíîñòðàíöàì âëàäåòü çåìë¸é, à òàêæå ñóùåñòâåííî ñìÿã÷èëà ðàíåå âåñüìà ñòðîãèå óñëîâèÿ ïðåáûâàíèÿ èíîñòðàíöåâ â Êîðåå. Ýòî ïîñëóæèëî ñòèìóëîì äëÿ îáìåíà çíà÷èìûìè ìåðàìè ìåæäó Êîðååé è Êèòàåì.  2000 ã. Êèòàé ñíÿë îãðàíè÷åíèÿ íà ïîñåùåíèå ñòðàíû ãðóïïîâûìè òóðèñòàìè èç Êîðåè, à Êîðåÿ â 2001 ã. îòêðûëà Ìåæäóíàðîäíûé àýðîïîðò Èí÷õîí, ïðåòåíäóþùèé íà ðîëü êëþ÷åâîãî óçëà âîçäóøíûõ ïåðåâîçîê â Ñåâåðî-Âîñòî÷íîé Àçèè.  òîì æå ãîäó ãîðîä Èí÷õîí îáúÿâèë èñòîðè÷åñêóþ òåððèòîðèþ êèòàéñêîãî ñåòòëüìåíòà è îñòðîâ Âîëüìè-äî îñîáîé òóðèñòè÷åñêîé çîíîé.  2003 ã. â Èí÷õîíå áûëî ñîçäàíî òðè ñâîáîäíûõ ýêîíîìè÷åñêèõ çîíû. Êðîìå òîãî, â 2005 ã. â Ñåóëå âïåðâûå ïðîø¸ë Âñåìèðíûé êîíãðåññ êèòàéñêèõ ïðåäïðèíèìàòåëåé. Ñâîáîäíûå ýêîíîìè÷åñêèå çîíû Èí÷õîíà, îáùàÿ ïëîùàäü êîòîðûõ â òðè ðàçà áîëüøå ïëîùàäè îñòðîâà Ìàíõýòòåí â Íüþ-Éîðêå,

1 Ìåæäóíàðîäíûé ãîðîä Ñîíäî — ýòî öåíòð ìåæäóíàðîäíîãî áèçíåñà, ÈÒ è áèîòåõíîëîãèé ñâîáîäíîé ýêîíîìè÷åñêîé çîíû Èí÷õîíà. 2 Ìîñò Èí÷õîí, ñîåäèíÿþùèé èí÷õîíñêèé àýðîïîðò ñ ãîðîäîì Ñîíäî, ÿâëÿåòñÿ ñàìûì äëèííûì ìîñòîì â Êîðåå. Åãî äëèíà ñîñòàâëÿåò 18,38êì, à âûñîòà îïîð — 230,5 ì. Ìîñò ñïðîåêòèðîâàí òàêèì îáðàçîì, ÷òîáû ïîä íèì ìîãëè ñâîáîäíî ïðîõîäèòü êðóïíîòîííàæíûå ñóäà.

K o r e a n a ı Âåñíà 2 0 1 4

îðèåíòèðîâàíû íà ïðèâëå÷åíèå èíîñòðàííûõ èíâåñòèöèé: çîíà Ñîíäî — ýòî öåíòð ìåæäóíàðîäíîãî áèçíåñà, ÈÒ è áèîòåõíîëîãèé, â ¨í÷æîíå çàíèìàþòñÿ äâèæåíèåì òîâàðîâ è òóðèçìîì, à â çîíå ×õîííà ñîñðåäîòî÷åíà ôèíàíñîâàÿ äåÿòåëüíîñòü è ïðåäïðèÿòèÿ äîñóãà.  íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ ïðèòîê ïðÿìûõ èíîñòðàííûõ èíâåñòèöèé äîñòèãàåò 642,5 ìëí. äîë., à â îêòÿáðå ïðîøëîãî ãîäà â Ñîíäî îòêðûëñÿ îôèñ Çåë¸íîãî êëèìàòè÷åñêîãî ôîíäà. Âñåìèðíûé áàíê òîæå ïëàíèðóåò âñêîðå îòêðûòü çäåñü ñâî¸ îòäåëåíèå.  íûíåøíåì ãîäó â Èí÷õîíå ïðîéäóò ëåòíèå Àçèàòñêèå èãðû. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, Èí÷õîí, êîòîðûé äî ñåðåäèíû XX âåêà áûë ÷àñòüþ áåäíîãî, îïóñòîø¸ííîãî âîéíîé ðåãèîíà, òåïåðü äâèæåòñÿ â ñòîðîíó ìåæäóíàðîäíîé àðåíû è, êîíêóðèðóÿ ñ Ñèíãàïóðîì è Ãîíêîíãîì, íàõîäèòñÿ â ïîèñêå íîâûõ ñôåð èíäóñòðèè è ðûíêîâ äëÿ ïîêîðåíèÿ. Äæîåëü Êîòêèí, àìåðèêàíñêèé ñïåöèàëèñò ïî óðáàíèñòè÷åñêîé êóëüòóðå, â ñâîåé êíèãå «THE CITY: A Global History» â êà÷åñòâå ôàêòîðîâ, ïîçâîëÿþùèõ ðàñöâåñòè ãîðîäñêîé êóëüòóðå è äåëàþùèõ âîçìîæíûì ïðîäîëæèòåëüíîå ñóùåñòâîâàíèå ãîðîäà, íàçûâàåò «ñâÿùåííîñòü ìåñòà, ñïîñîáíîñòü îáåñïå÷èòü áåçîïàñíîñòü è ïðîåöèðîâàòü ñèëó è îæèâëÿþùóþ ðîëü êîììåðöèè». Èìåííî îíè âñ¸ ýòî âðåìÿ îïðåäåëÿëè îáùåå çäîðîâüå Èí÷õîíà. Ìàÿê íà îñòðîâå Ïõàëüìè-äî, ïåðâûé ìàÿê â Êîðåå, ïîñòðîåííûé îäíîâðåìåííî ñ îòêðûòèåì ïîðòîâ, 1 èþíÿ 2014 ã. îòìåòèò ñâî¸ 110ëåòèå. Ñòàðûé è îáâåòøàëûé, îí ïî-ïðåæíåìó ñëóæèò îðèåíòèðîì äëÿ ìíîãèõ ëþäåé, êîòîðûå áîðîçäÿò ìîðñêèå ïðîñòîðû, ëåëåÿ â äóøå ìå÷òó î ëó÷øåì áóäóùåì. È ðàçâå ýòî íå åñòü òà ñàìàÿ «ñâÿùåííîñòü ìåñòà», êîòîðóþ ñèìâîëèçèðóåò Èí÷õîí? Ýòà ñâÿùåííîñòü, âûéäÿ çà ðàìêè ëþáâè ê ìàëîé ðîäèíå, ïîäñòåãí¸ò ëþäåé ê âîññîçäàíèþ ñîöèàëüíî çíà÷èìûõ ìèôîâ.

11

2


Ãëàâíàÿ òåìà íîìåðà-2

Èí÷õîí â ðîìàíå Ñèí øíñóê «È ×æèí» Â ñëåäóþùèõ îòðûâêàõ ïåðåä íàìè ïðåäñòà¸ò ïîðò Èí÷õîí, êàêèì åãî óâèäåëà ãëàâíàÿ ãåðîèíÿ ðîìàíà Ñèí øíñóê «È ×æèí».  ýòîì ðîìàíå î ëþáâè ïðèäâîðíîé òàíöîâùèöû è ôðàíöóçñêîãî äèïëîìàòà â ýïîõó ×îñîí ðàññêàçûâàåòñÿ ðåàëüíàÿ èñòîðèÿ æåíùèíû ïî èìåíè È ×æèí, êîòîðàÿ, âëþáèâøèñü â Âèêòîðà Êîëëåíà äå Ïëàíñè (Victor Collin de Plancy), ïðèáûâøåãî â Êîðåþ â êà÷åñòâå ïåðâîãî êîíñóëà Ôðàíöèè ïîñëå ïîäïèñàíèÿ â 1886 ãîäó êîðåéñêî-ôðàíöóçñêîãî äîãîâîðà, âïîñëåäñòâèè îòïðàâèëàñü âñëåä çà íèì â Ïàðèæ. Ïàê Õ¸íñóê, ïèñàòåëü-ôðèëàíñåð

12

Êîðåéñêàÿ êóëüòóðà è èñêóññòâî


Ä

îðîãà äî ïîðòà çàíÿëà ïîëíûõ òðè äíÿ. Îíè åõàëè ïî èçâèëèñòûì ãîðíûì òðîïàì, ïî íîâûì ïûëüíûì øîññå, ïî ãðàâèéíûì äîðîãàì, îòêóäà îòêðûâàëñÿ âèä íà ðåêó, ãäå íà âîäå äåðæàëîñü íåñêîëüêî äåðåâÿííûõ ëîäîê. Òåïåðü îíè åõàëè âäîëü ìåæåé ðèñîâîãî ïîëÿ ñ òîëüêî ÷òî âûñàæåííîé áëåäíî-çåë¸íîé ðàññàäîé, êîëûøóùåéñÿ íà âåòðó. Îíè åõàëè ìèìî êóñòîâ ñóìàõà, âèøí¸âûõ äåðåâüåâ, âÿçîâ, ïîòîì ìèìî öâåòóùèõ íîãîòêîâ, èðèñîâ, îäóâàí÷èêîâ è äàëüíåâîñòî÷íîé êàëèíû. Óâèäåâ äèêîðàñòóùèå ïèîíû, ñäåëàëè êîðîòêóþ îñòàíîâêó. Îíà âáèðàëà ãëàçàìè âñå äåòàëè ïåéçàæà, ìåëüêàâøåãî ñíàðóæè ïàëàíêèíà, ñïðàøèâàÿ ñåáÿ, äîâåä¸òñÿ ëè åé óâèäåòü åãî âíîâü. Âïåðâûå â æèçíè îíà óâèäåëà ïðîñòèðàþùèåñÿ áåç êîíöà è êðàÿ ëèòîðàëè ïåïåëüíîãî öâåòà. Íà íåáå íå áûëî íè îáëà÷êà, âåòåð òîæå ñòèõ. Ïîäíÿâ ãëàçà, îíà óâèäåëà âäàëåêå ãðóïïêè îñòðîâîâ, êîòîðûå, êàê âî ñíå, êîëûõàëèñü íà ïîâåðõíîñòè ñèíåé ìîðñêîé âîäû, áóäòî ïðåäâèäÿ íåñïîêîéíîå áóäóùåå ×îñîíà. Ëîäêè, ãðóæ¸ííûå äðîâàìè è äðóãèìè òîâàðàìè, êà÷àëèñü íà ïîâåðõíîñòè âîäû, ñëîâíî èõ òî òîëêàëè, òî îòïóñêàëè

íåâèäèìûå ðóêè. Ïîðò íàêðûâàë çàïàõ, èäóùèé ñî ñêëàäà âÿëåíîé ðûáû. Íà ïîäíîñàõ áûëà âûëîæåíà òîëüêî ÷òî ïîéìàííàÿ ðûáà. Áûñòðûì øàãîì ñïåøèëè òîðãîâöû ñ çàïëå÷íûìè íîñèëêàìè, äîâåðõó çàïîëíåííûìè ñîëîìåííûìè ëàïòÿìè. Íà ýòó ñöåíó, ãäå áóðëèëà æèçíåííàÿ ýíåðãèÿ ëþäåé, çàíÿòûõ ñâîèì ðåìåñëîì, ëèëèñü ñâåðõó ïðîçðà÷íûå ñîëíå÷íûå ëó÷è ðàííåãî ëåòà, ê êîòîðûì åù¸ íå ïðèñòàëà æàðà. Áóäó÷è äèïëîìàòîì, îí ïðîâîäèë ïàðó ìåñÿöåâ â ãîäó â ïëàâàíèè, íî îíà, ïðèäâîðíàÿ òàíöîâùèöà, âïåðâûå ñîáèðàëàñü ïîäíÿòüñÿ íà áîðò êîðàáëÿ. Âûñîêèé ôðàíöóç ñ óñàìè íà áåëîì ëèöå, îäåòûé â ñâîáîäíûå ïàíòàëîíû äî ùèêîëîòîê, êîðîòêèé æèëåò è íàêèíóòîå ñâåðõó äîðîæíîå ïàëüòî ñ ïîÿñîì, è êîðåÿíêà â ñòðóÿùåìñÿ âîëíàìè ñâåòëî-ãîëóáîì ïëàòüå, äåðæàâøàÿ â ðóêå øëÿïó ñ âûøèòûìè ðîçàìè è ïàëüòî, êîòîðîå ìîæíî áûëî íàêèíóòü, åñëè ïîäóåò âåòåð, — îíè ñðàçó áðîñàëèñü â ãëàçà äàæå â ïîðòîâîé òîëïå. Íå òîëüêî ñòàðèêè ñ äëèííûìè êóðèòåëüíûìè òðóáêàìè, çàæàòûìè â çóáàõ, òîðãîâöû äåðåâÿííûìè áàøìàêè, ïàðíè õóëèãàíèñòîãî âèäà è ãðÿçíûå äåòè, íî äàæå êèòàéöû, òîðãóþùèå ÷àåì â èíîñòðàííûõ ñåòòëüìåíòàõ èëè ïåðåâîçÿùèå äðîâà íà

Êèì ×æý¸ëü. Âèä íà ïîðò ×åìóëüïõî ñ ïîáåðåæüÿ. Õîëñò, àêâàðåëü. 118 x 91 ñì. K o r e a n a ı Âåñíà 2 0 1 4

13


ñâîèõ ïëîòàõ, è ÿïîíöû, ïðîäàþùèå ðèñîâóþ êðóïó íà ïðèñòàíè, ñìîòðåëè íà íèõ ñ òàêèì âèäîì, ñ êàêèì, îòêðûâ äâåðü â íåçíàêîìûé ìèð, âãëÿäûâàþòñÿ âíóòðü. Îñîáåííî íà æåíùèíó. Ÿ áëåñòÿùèå ãóñòûå âîëîñû öâåòà ýáåíîâîãî äåðåâà áûëè ïðè÷¸ñàíû è óëîæåíû ñëîÿìè íà ìàêóøêå, à íà ÷èñòîì ëèöå, ñëîâíî ÷¸ðíûå áóñèíû, ñèÿëè ãëóáîêî ïîñàæåííûå ãëàçà. È ïîñêîëüêó â òå âðåìåíà îòíþäü íå êàæäàÿ æåíùèíà íîñèëà ïðè÷¸ñêó íà çàïàäíûé ìàíåð, îíà, åñòåñòâåííî, áðîñàëàñü â ãëàçà. Ÿ ñâåòëî-ãîëóáîå ïëàòüå ñòðóèëîñü îò ïëå÷ ê ùèêîëîòêàì, îáðàçóÿ ïëàâíûé èçãèá íà ìåñòå òàëèè. Îíà ñîñòàâëÿëà åñòåñòâåííûé êîíòðàñò ñ æåíùèíàìè íà ïðè÷àëå, îäåòûìè â òðàäèöèîííûå þáêè è ðóáàøêè èç ãðóáîé õëîïêîâîé òêàíè. «Íå èíîñòðàíêà ëè? — äóìàëè îíè ñíà÷àëà, à ïðèñìîòðåâøèñü, îáíàðóæèâàëè: — Î, êîðåÿíêà!» Ïîòîì îíè ñ íåïðèêðûòûì ëþáîïûòñòâîì, îòêðîâåííî ðàçãëÿäûâàëè å¸ ëèöî, ïîñëå ÷åãî èõ âçãëÿäû ïåðåõîäèëè íà íîñ Êîëëåíà, âûãëÿäÿùèé íåñêîëüêî âûñîêîìåðíî, åãî áåëóþ êîæó è ò¸ìíî-êàøòàíîâûå êóäðè. Áûëè è òàêèå, êòî íå ìîã îòîðâàòü âçãëÿäà îò îñëåïèòåëüíî áåëûõ êðóæåâ, êîòîðûìè áûë óêðàøåí ãëóáîêèé âûðåç å¸ ïëàòüÿ íà ãðóäè. Íåêîòîðûå äåëàëè øàã íàçàä, êàê áóäòî áîÿñü íàñòóïèòü åé íà ïëàòüå, íî âî âçãëÿäàõ âñåõ ëþäåé íà ïðèñòàíè, êîòîðûå ðàññìàòðèâàëè å¸ è Êîëëåíà, ñêâîçèëî ïîäîçðåíèå — ñ ÷åãî ýòî êîðåÿíêà âûðÿäèëàñü êàê çàïàäíàÿ æåíùèíà? Íåêîòîðûå, îòòîãî ëè, ÷òî èì ïðåòèëî ýòî çðåëèùå, õìóðèëè áðîâè èëè âûïÿ÷èâàëè ãóáû â çíàê îñóæäåíèÿ. *** Îíà íå îáðàùàëà âíèìàíèÿ íà êîñûå âçãëÿäû òîëïû. Ÿ ïîõîäêà áûëà íè÷óòü íå ïîõîæà íà ìàíåðó ïåðåäâèãàòüñÿ êîðåÿíîê, êîòîðûå ïðè õîäüáå ãîðáèëèñü, áóäòî ñòàðàÿñü ñòàòü íåçàìåòíûìè, è çàêðûâàëè ëèöà äëèííûìè íàêèäêàìè. Îíà øàãàëà öåëåóñòðåìë¸ííî. Íå äåëàëà âèä, áóäòî ïðèñòàëüíî ñìîòðèò íà ìîðå âäàëåêå, è íå ïðèáåãàëà ê äðóãèì óâ¸ðòêàì, ÷òîáû èçáåæàòü ïîäîçðèòåëüíûõ âçãëÿäîâ. Îíà øëà, ðàñïðàâèâ ãðóäü, êàê áóäòî ïðîêëàäûâàÿ ñåáå äîðîãó, è ýòî ñîçäàâàëî âïå÷àòëåíèå âíóòðåííåé ñèëû, êîòîðàÿ íå ïîçâîëèò åé ïîòåðÿòü ñåáÿ ïðè ëþáûõ îáñòîÿòåëüñòâàõ. Ýòó âûçûâàþùóþ ïîõîäêó îòòåíÿëà ãëóáèíà å¸ ãëàç, õðóïêàÿ ëèíèÿ øåè è îáâîðîæèòåëüíàÿ êðàñîòà ëèöà. Âèäÿ, ÷òî îíà îñòà¸òñÿ íåïîêîëåáèìîé, íåñìîòðÿ íà êîñûå âçãëÿäû, ëþäè, êîòîðûå ïðèñòàëüíî ñìîòðåëè íà íå¸, â êàêîé-òî ìîìåíò ñàìè, èçäàâ ãëóáîêèé âçäîõ, ïåðåâîäèëè âçãëÿä íà ìîðå. Ýòà ïðåëåñòíàÿ æåíùèíà, êîòîðàÿ ñåé÷àñ ñìîòðåëà íà ïîðò, îêðóæ¸ííûé íèçêèìè ãîðàìè, íå çíàëà, ÷òî âñåãî ëèøü äåñÿòü ëåò íàçàä, äî ïîäïèñàíèÿ Äîãîâîðà î ×åìóëüïõî, ýòîò ïîðò áûë ìåñòîì, ãäå òèõî æèëî ñ äåñÿòîê òîðãîâöåâ. Íî èìåííî òîãäà, êîãäà æèçíü èëè îáñòîÿòåëüñòâà ñòàíîâÿòñÿ íåâûíîñèìûìè, ïðèõîäÿò ïåðåìåíû. Ìàëåíüêàÿ ðûáàöêàÿ äåðåâóøêà, îêðóæ¸ííàÿ âîäîé, ïîñëå çàêëþ÷åíèÿ äîãîâîðà áûñòðî èçìåíèëà ñâîé îáëèê. Ñíà÷àëà â ðàíåå òèõîé äåðåâíå ïîÿâèëñÿ ÿïîíñêèé ñåòòëüìåíò, à çà íèì âîçíèêëî ïîñåëåíèå êèòàéöåâ è èììèãðàíòîâ èç äðóãèõ ñòðàí. È òåïåðü êàæäûé äåñÿòûé æèòåëü ×åìóëüïõî áûë ÿïîíöåì èëè êèòàéöåì. Íèêòî íå çíàë, ÷òî îíè âäîõíóëè â ×åìóëüïõî — æèçíü èëè ïå÷àëü. Îíà ïîäóìàëà, ÷òî ïîãîäà èäåàëüíî ïîäõîäèò äëÿ

14

ïëàâàíèÿ íà êîðàáëå, íî ïîòîì áûñòðî îòáðîñèëà ýòó ìûñëü. Âîåííûé íàìåñòíèê, êîòîðîãî ×î Á¸íñèê, ãëàâà ñòîëè÷íîãî Îáùåãî óïðàâëåíèÿ âíåøíèìè ñíîøåíèÿìè è òîðãîâûìè äåëàìè, ïîïðîñèë ïðîâîäèòü å¸ è Êîëëåíà, âìåñòî ïðîùàíèÿ íàïóòñòâîâàë å¸ ñëîâàìè, ÷òî êîãäà ñàäèøüñÿ íà êîðàáëü íå ïðèíÿòî ãîâîðèòü, ÷òî ïîãîäà õîðîøàÿ. Íàìåêíóâ, ÷òî ýòî ìîæåò âûçâàòü âåòåð è äîæäü âî âðåìÿ ïëàâàíèÿ. Ñðåäè òåõ, êòî ïðèø¸ë èõ ïðîâîæàòü, áûëî äâà ôðàíöóçñêèõ ìèññèîíåðà, ìîæíî áûëî òàêæå óâèäåòü ÷èíîâíèêîâ ìîðñêîé òàìîæíè. Áûëî è íåñêîëüêî ìîíàõèíü, êîòîðûå ïðèáûëè èç Ôðàíöèè è òåïåðü æèëè â ×îñîíå. Äàæå ïðè ïðèñòàëüíîì îñìîòðå â îêðóãå íå áûëî âèäíî âûñîêèõ çäàíèé èëè áîëüøèõ ñóäîâ. Ýòî áûë âíåøíèé ïîðò, íî íà ïåðâûé âçãëÿä îí áûë áîëüøå ïîõîæ íà ÿêîðíóþ ñòîÿíêó. È âáëèçè, è âäàëåêå ìîðå áûëî ñïîêîéíîå. Ìåæ íèçêèõ êðûø áûëè ðàçáðîñàíû áåëûå ñòðîåíèÿ åâðîïåéñêîãî òèïà.  îòñóòñòâèå âûñîêèõ çäàíèé äîìèêè ïîä ñîëîìåííîé êðûøåé, ñòîÿâøèå â ðÿä, âûãëÿäåëè òàê, êàê áóäòî îíè îáíèìàþò äðóã äðóãà çà ïëå÷è. Ìåæäó íèìè ïðîíèêàëè ò¸ïëûå ñîëíå÷íûå ëó÷è. Îíà ïðîâåëà ñâîþ æèçíü â ãëóáèíå êîðîëåâñêîãî äâîðöà çà âûøèâàíèåì óçîðîâ â âèäå ÷åðåïàõ è òàíöàìè, ïîýòîìó òåïåðü îíà îòäàâàëàñü âñåì òåëîì ò¸ïëûì ñîëíå÷íûì ëó÷àì, êîòîðûå çàëèâàëè âåñü ïîðò. Âûñîêèå ñòðåõè äâîðöîâûõ çäàíèé ïîäõîäèëè òàê áëèçêî äðóã ê äðóãó, ÷òî ïî÷òè ñîïðèêàñàëèñü, ïîýòîìó, ïîêà îíà õîäèëà îïóñòèâ ãîëîâó, îíà âñåãäà îñòàâàëàñü â òåíè. Íà ïóòè ê ïîðòó îíà ïðîñòèëàñü ñ áåñ÷èñëåííûì êîëè÷åñòâîì âåùåé, óâèäåííûõ âïåðâûå, ñ çåìë¸é, êîòîðîé âïåðâûå êîñíóëèñü å¸ íîãè, ñ ëþäüìè, ñ êîòîðûìè åé äîâåëîñü âïåðâûå ïîâñòðå÷àòüñÿ. Ãäå ýòî áûëî?  òîò äåíü, êîãäà îíè ïîêèíóëè ñòîëèöó, èõ êîìïàíèÿ îñòàíîâèëàñü â ìåñòíîé ãîñòèíèöå. Ïðè ãîñòèíèöå çà çàáîðîì èç ñòàðûõ ì¸ðòâûõ äåðåâüåâ äåðæàëè äþæèíó íèçêîðîñëûõ ëîøàäåé. Ëîøàäè ôûðêàëè è íàòÿãèâàëè ïîâîäüÿ, êàê áóäòî õîòåëè óáåæàòü â ïîëÿ, íî ïîêà áûëè çàïåðòû â çàãîíå. Ñ íàñòóïëåíèåì íî÷è â êîìíàòó áåç îêîí äîíîñèëñÿ âîé äèêèõ çâåðåé. Èíîãäà ïðèÿòíîå ñëîâî, ïîäîáíî çåðíó, áðîøåííîìó â çåìëþ, ìîæåò ïðîáóäèòü ëþáîâü.  òîé ãîñòèíèöå â ãîðàõ áûâøàÿ ïðèäâîðíàÿ òàíöîâùèöà È ×æèí óñëûøàëà îò ôðàíöóçñêîãî êîíñóëà Êîëëåíà ñëîâà «ìîé àíãåë». È îíè áûëè ñêàçàíû íå ïîôðàíöóçñêè, à íà ÷èñòîì êîðåéñêîì ÿçûêå. Ÿ áîëüøå ïîðàçèëè íå ñàìè ñëîâà «ìîé àíãåë», à òî, êàê îí åñòåñòâåííî ïðîèçí¸ñ èõ ïî-êîðåéñêè. Êîëëåí, èñïîëüçóÿ êàæäóþ ñâîáîäíóþ ìèíóòó, ó÷èë ÿçûê, íî êîðåéñêèé, íà êîòîðîì îí ãîâîðèë, ðàñòâîðÿëñÿ â âîçäóõå, êàê áóäòî â í¸ì ÷åãî-òî íåäîñòàâàëî. Îíà îòïðàâëÿëàñü ïî ìîðþ â åãî ñòðàíó, è ýòî îçíà÷àëî, ÷òî òàì îíà áóäåò æèòü ñ ëþäüìè, êîòîðûå ãîâîðÿò ñîâñåì íà äðóãîì ÿçûêå. È, ñëîâíî ïî÷óâñòâîâàâ òî áåñïîêîéñòâî, ÷òî ïîñåëèëîñü â óãîëêå å¸ äóøè, â ýòîé ãîñòèíèöå â ×îñîíå, å¸ ðîäíîé ñòðàíå, îí âïåðâûå íà èäåàëüíîì êîðåéñêîì ñêàçàë åé «ìîé àíãåë». Êèì ×æý¸ëü. ßïîíñêîå ïîñåëåíèå è îòåëü «Äàéáóöó». Õîëñò, àêâàðåëü. 46 x 38 ñì. Òð¸õýòàæíîå êèðïè÷íîå çäàíèå ñïðàâà — ýòî îòåëü «Äàéáóöó», ïåðâûé â Êîðåå îòåëü â çàïàäíîì ñòèëå, ïîñòðîåííûé â 1899 ã. Êîðåéñêàÿ êóëüòóðà è èñêóññòâî


Êîãäà ýòè êîðåéñêèå ñëîâà ìÿãêî óïàëè ñ åãî ãóá, îíà ïîíÿëà, êàê ýòî áûâàåò, êîãäà ÿçûê ìåíÿåò ÷óâñòâà.  òîò ìîìåíò, êîãäà îíà óñëûøàëà, êàê Êîëëåí, êîòîðûé ïîêà åù¸ íå ìîã ïðàâèëüíî ïðîèçíåñòè äàæå å¸ èìåíè — È ×æèí, íà èäåàëüíîì êîðåéñêîì ñêàçàë ýòè äâà ñëîâà, å¸ ñïîêîéíîå äî ýòîãî âðåìåíè ñåðäöå çàòðåïåòàëî. Ÿ îõâàòèëî ïðèÿòíîå ÷óâñòâî, ïîäîáíîå òîìó, êîòîðîå èñïûòûâàåøü, êîãäà ïîãðóæàåøü íîãè â ò¸ïëóþ âîäó, è óñòàëîñòü îò òîãî, ÷òî âåñü äåíü òðÿñëàñü â ïàëàíêèíå, îòñòóïàåò, áóäòî ñìûòàÿ âîäîé. Èñ÷åçëî è òî æåëàíèå ñîõðàíèòü äèñòàíöèþ, êîòîðîå îíà îò÷åãî-òî èñïûòûâàëà íà÷èíàÿ ñ ïåðâîé âñòðå÷è ñ Êîëåíîì è âïëîòü äî ïîñëåäíåãî âðåìåíè, êîãäà ÷åì áîëüøå åìó õîòåëîñü áûòü ñ íåþ, òåì áîëüøå îíà îòäàëÿëàñü. Ðàñïóñòèâ ñâîè ñîáðàííûå íà çàòûëêå, ïîäîáíûå ÷¸ðíîé òó÷å âîëîñû, îíà ïðîòÿíóëà Êîëëåíó ù¸òêó è ñêàçàëà: — Ïåíå ìóà. Ãëàçà Êîëëåíà ðàñøèðèëèñü. Îí ëþáèë ðàñ÷¸ñûâàòü å¸ ÷¸ðíûå âîëîñû. Ïåðâûì ïîäàðêîì, êîòîðûé îí ñäåëàë åé ïîñëå êîëüöà, áûëà ù¸òêà, êîòîðóþ îí ïðèâ¸ç èç Ôðàíöèè. Íî, ê íåñ÷àñòüþ, îíà íå ëþáèëà, êîãäà êòî-íèáóäü êàñàëñÿ å¸ âîëîñ, çà èñêëþ÷åíèåì âäîâñòâóþùåé êîðîëåâû ×õîðèí è ã-æè Ñî â òå âðåìåíà, êîãäà îíà æèëà ïðè äâîðå. È äàæå êîãäà å¸ ïîäðóæêè-òàíöîâùèöû ñî ñìåõîì ðàñ÷¸ñûâàëè äðóã äðóãó âîëîñû, à ïîòîì, çàïëåòÿ â äâå êîñû, ñíîâà, çàêðóòèâ, ïîäíèìàëè ââåðõ è çàâÿçûâàëè ôèîëåòîâûìè ëåíòàìè, îíà, ñèäÿ îäíà â îòäàëåíèè, óïîðíî ñðàæàëàñü ñ âîëîñàìè, ïûòàÿñü ñîîðóäèòü ó ñåáÿ íà ãîëîâå ïðè÷¸ñêó â âèäå ïëàêó÷åé èâû. Ïîýòîìó êàæäûé ðàç, êîãäà ìóæ÷èíå õîòåëîñü ðàñ÷åñàòü âîëîñû ëþáèìîé, îí ñìîòðåë íà íå¸ ñ óìîëÿþùèì âûðàæåíèåì ëèöà. Íî ñåé÷àñ îíà ñàìà ðàñïóñòèëà âîëîñû è, ïðîòÿíóâ åìó ù¸òêó, íà åãî ÿçûêå

K o r e a n a ı Âåñíà 2 0 1 4

ïîïðîñèëà ðàñ÷åñàòü åé âîëîñû. Êîëëåí âçÿë ù¸òêó, êîòîðóþ îíà ïðîòÿíóëà åìó, è ñåë çà å¸ ñïèíîé. Îí è ïîìûñëèòü íå ìîã, ÷òî îíà ïîïðîñèò åãî ðàñ÷åñàòü åé âîëîñû, è íà ìèíóòó çàðûëñÿ ëèöîì â êîïíó å¸ ÷¸ðíûõ áëåñòÿùèõ âîëîñ. Íà åãî ëèöå çàèãðàëà óëûáêà. Ïîõîæåå âûðàæåíèå ïîÿâëÿëîñü íà å¸ ëèöå, êîãäà îíà, ñëûøà, êàê Êîëëåí íåëîâêî ïðîèçíîñèò å¸ èìÿ, ïûòàëàñü ñäåðæàòü ñìåõ. Êîëëåí, ïîäíÿâ ãîëîâó, íà÷àë áûëî ðàñ÷¸ñûâàòü å¸ âîëîñû, íî ïîòîì, ïðåðâàâøèñü, ïîäðàæàÿ å¸ ìàíåðå ãîâîðèòü, ñêàçàë «Ïåíå ìóà» è çàãëÿíóë ÷åðåç ïëå÷î åé â ëèöî. Îíà îáåðíóëàñü ê íåìó, è å¸ ãóñòûå ÷¸ðíûå âîëîñû çàêîëûõàëèñü êàê âîëíû. Îíà îáõâàòèëà îáåèìè ðóêàìè ëèöî Êîëëåíà, êîòîðûé, ñî ù¸òêîé â ðóêàõ, ñìåÿëñÿ, è ïðèêîñíóëàñü ê åãî ãóáàì ñâîèìè. Åãî áîðîäà êîñíóëàñü å¸ ðàçãîðÿ÷¸ííîé ùåêè. Îíà ïîãëàäèëà åãî ðóêó. Îí îïóñòèë ù¸òêó íà ïîë. Ïîñëûøàëîñü øóìíîå äûõàíèå ëîøàäè, íà êîòîðîé Êîëëåí ïðîåçäèë âåñü äåíü.  ñòîëèöå îíè íàíÿëè âìåñòå ñ âîçíèöåé òð¸õ ëîøàäåé. Äâå èç íèõ âåçëè áàãàæ. Îíè çàïëàòèëè ïî ñîòíå íÿíîâ çà êàæäûå 20 ëè ïóòè. Ó îäíîé èç òð¸õ ëîøàäåé áûëà ðàíà íà áðþõå. Ÿ, íàâåðíîå, íàêîðìèëè âìåñòå ñ íèçêîðîñëûìè ëîøàäüìè, êîòîðûõ äåðæàëè ïðè ãîñòèíèöå, è òåïåðü îíà ñïàëà, ïîãðóçèâøèñü â ãëóáîêèé ñîí. Ñëûøà, êàê âñõðàïûâàåò âî ñíå ëîøàäü, îíà ðàññòåãíóëà ðóáàøêó Êîëëåíà. Ïîêàçàëàñü åãî ïîðîçîâåâøàÿ ãðóäü. *** Ñâîþ ïîñëåäíþþ íî÷ü â Êîðåå îíà ïðîâåëà â ïîðòîâîì îòåëå «Äàéáóöó», êîòîðûé äåðæàëè ÿïîíöû, âìåñòå ñî ñâîåé ïîäðóãîé Ñîà: Êîëëåí ïîçàáîòèëñÿ î òîì, ÷òîáû îíè ñìîãëè ïîïðîùàòüñÿ.

15


Ãëàâíàÿ òåìà íîìåðà-3

Èñòîðèÿ Èí÷õîíà, ãëàâíûõ âîðîò Êîðåè  ñèëó çíà÷èòåëüíûõ äåìîãðàôè÷åñêèõ èçìåíåíèé Èí÷õîí ñåãîäíÿ âûðîñ â òðåòèé ïî ÷èñëåííîñòè ãîðîä Ðåñïóáëèêè Êîðåÿ. Èñòîðèÿ ïåðåñåëåíèÿ, êîòîðàÿ íà÷àëàñü áîëåå 2000 ëåò ñ ïðèíöà Ïèðþ äèíàñòèè Êîãóð¸, ïî-ïðåæíåìó îêàçûâàåò áîëüøîå âëèÿíèå íà ôîðìèðîâàíèå ñàìîèäåíòè÷íîñòè ýòîãî ãîðîäà. ×î Óñîí, ÷ëåí Ãîðîäñêîãî êîìèòåòà ïî ñîñòàâëåíèþ èñòîðèè Èí÷õîíà, ãëàâíûé ðåäàêòîð «Èí÷õîí èëüáî»

16

© Jung-gu Office, Incheon

1

Êîðåéñêàÿ êóëüòóðà è èñêóññòâî


È

ñòàòèñòèêå, îáíàðîäîâàííîé âëàñòÿìè Èí÷õîíà â ïðîøëîì ãîäó, ïëîùàäü ãîðîäà çà ïîñëåäíèå 23 ãîäà óâåëè÷èëàñü â òðè ðàçà, à íàñåëåíèå ñ ìèëëèîíà ÷åëîâåê â 1979 ãîäó âîçðîñëî äî áîëåå 2 ìëí. ÷åëîâåê â 1992 ãîäó è, ïîõîæå, â íûíåøíåì ãîäó ïðåâûñèò 3 ìëí. ÷åëîâåê. Ñðåäè âñåõ ãîðîäîâ-ìåòðîïîëèé Êîðåè ýòî ñàìûé âûñîêèé òåìï ïðèðîñòà íàñåëåíèÿ.  íà÷àëüíûé ïåðèîä ïåðåñåëåíèÿ ëþäè ðàññåëÿëèñü â îñíîâíîì âîêðóã ãîðû Ìóíõàê-ñàí, ãäå Ïèðþ îñíîâàë ñâîþ ñòîëèöó, à â ýïîõó ×îñîí ðàñïîëàãàëîñü âîåííîå íàìåñòíè÷åñòâî (Òîõîáó) Èí÷õîíà. Èçÿùíûå î÷åðòàíèÿ ãîðû Ìóíõàê-ñàí è â íàøè äíè ïðîäîëæàþò âûçûâàòü âîñõèùåíèå, îäíàêî ëó÷øåå â íåé — ýòî íå ïîäâëàñòíûé òå÷åíèþ âðåìåíè îáëèê êðåïîñòè Ìóíõàê-ñàíñîí, êàìíè êîòîðîé ïîêðûòû ïÿòíàìè ìõà ñàìîé èñòîðèè. Ïëàâíûå ëèíèè ñèëóýòà ñèãíàëüíîé áàøíè, õîëìèêîì âåí÷àþùåé âåðøèíó ãîðû, êàæåòñÿ, íàâñåãäà îñòàíåòñÿ â ëþäñêîé ïàìÿòè. Ãîâîðÿò, ÷òî åñëè ñìîòðåòü èçäàëåêà, ýòà ñèãíàëüíàÿ áàøíÿ íàïîìèíàåò ÷åëîâå÷åñêèé ïóïîê, ïîýòîìó ñ êàêîãî-òî âðåìåíè âñå èí÷õîíöû ñòàëè íàçûâàòü ýòó ãîðó Ïýêêîï-ñàí, òî åñòü Ïóïêîâàÿ ãîðà. 2000 ëåò ñïóñòÿ ïîñëå Ïèðþ Ïîäîáíî òîìó, êàê ïóïîê åñòü ñâèäåòåëüñòâî Íåñìîòðÿ íà òî ÷òî Ïèðþ, «ïåðâûé æèçíè, ïîäàðåííîé ìàòåðüþ, òàê è èí÷õîíöû, ïåðåñåëåíåö» â Èí÷õîí, òàê òðàãè÷íî âåðîÿòíî, ñ÷èòàÿ ãîðó Ìóíõàê-ñàí ñâîåé çàâåðøèë ñâîé æèçíåííûé ïóòü, åãî ïðàðîäèòåëüíèöåé, îùóùàþò èñïóñêàåìûå îáðàç è ëè÷íûé ïðèìåð ñòàë äîñòîéíûì åé òåïëî è ñïîêîéñòâèå êàê ìàòåðèíñêèå íà÷àëîì èñòîðèè ñîâðåìåííîãî Èí÷õîíà. îáúÿòèÿ. Îòêàçàâøèñü îò ñëàâû è áîãàòñòâà, Ïèðþ Îäíàêî â àïðåëå 1592 ãîäà, íà 25 ïîêèíóë ñâîþ ñòðàíó, ÷òî õàðàêòåðèçóåò ãîäó ïðàâëåíèÿ Ñîí÷æî, ãîðà Ìóíõàê-ñàí åãî êàê ñìåëîãî ÷åëîâåêà, à óãðûçåíèÿ ñîîêàçàëàñü â ýïèöåíòðå âîåííûõ äåéñòâèé â âåñòè, òåðçàâøèå ïðàâèòåëÿ, êîòîðîìó áûëî õîäå Èì÷æèíñêîé âîéíû. Ê òîìó âðåìåíè ñòûäíî çà áåäíîñòü ñâîåãî íàðîäà, âûäàþò âîñåìü ïðîâèíöèé ãîñóäàðñòâà ×îñîí óæå â í¸ì ñîâåñòëèâîãî ïîëèòèêà, êîòîðûé åù¸ ïðåâðàòèëèñü â íàñòîÿùèé àä. Âñåãî ñïóñòÿ 2000 ëåò íàçàä ïûòàëñÿ æèòü, ñîîòâåòñòâóÿ 20 äíåé ïîñëå òîãî, êàê ÿïîíöû â êîëè÷åñòâå ïðèíöèïó, êîòîðûé ñåé÷àñ ìû íàçûâàåì áîëåå 200 òûñÿ÷ ÷åëîâåê âûñàäèëèñü â noblesse oblige. Ïóñàíå, îíè äîøëè äî Èí÷õîíà, Ïóïõ¸íà è Ïîñëå Ïèðþ áûâøàÿ ñòîëèöà åãî ãîñóïîäîáíûõ ìåñò, òâîðÿ ïî ïóòè íåñëûõàííûå äàðñòâà Ìè÷õóõîëü íà ïðîòÿæåíèè ýïîõè çâåðñòâà. Òð¸õ ãîñóäàðñòâ, äèíàñòèè Êîð¸ è äèíàñòèè Ìåæäó òåì ïðàâèòåëüñòâåííûå âîéñêà ×îñîí íåîäíîêðàòíî ìåíÿëà ñâî¸ èìÿ, 2 ïðîäîëæàëè òåðïåòü ïîðàæåíèå, à êîðîëü ñ íàçûâàÿñü òî Ìýñîõîëü, òî Ñîñîíõ¸í, òî 1 Ðûáîëîâíûå ñóäà, ïðèøâàðòîâàííûå â ïîðòó ïðèáëèæåííûìè ïóñòèëñÿ â áåãà. Îñòàâàëàñü ʸíâîíãóí, òî Èí÷æó, ïîêà íàêîíåö 600 ëåò Èí÷õîí. Ïðèìåðíî âåê íàçàä ìîðå ðÿäîì îäíà íàäåæäà — íàðîä. Èìåííî íàðîäà íàçàä, â 1413 ãîäó, íà âòîðîì ãîäó ïðàâëåíèÿ ñ Èí÷õîíîì áûëî áîãàòî ðàçíîé ðûáîé — áîëüøå âñåãî áîÿëèñü ÿïîíöû, è ïîáåäà êîðîëÿ Òõý÷æîíà, â õîäå ðåîðãàíèçàöèè íà÷èíàÿ ñ æ¸ëòîãî ãîðáûëÿ, îáèòàâøåãî ó â êðåïîñòè Ìóíõàê-ñàíñîí áûëà êàê ðàç àäìèíèñòðàòèâíîé ñèñòåìû åìó áûëî ïðèîñòðîâà ¨íïõ¸í-äî, è çàêàí÷èâàÿ ìîðñêèì ñóäàêîì è ãîðáûë¸ì «ìèþé» â âîäàõ ïåðåä òàêîé íàðîäíîé ïîáåäîé. Èç ïîãðàíè÷ñâîåíî èìÿ Èí÷õîí. Èí÷õîíîì. Ïîñëå âûãðóçêè áîãàòîãî óëîâà íîãî âåäîìñòâà Ïèá¸íñà 3 äåêàáðÿ òîãî æå Âëàñòè Èí÷õîíà îáúÿâèëè 2013 ãîä ðûáàêè ñóøàò ñåòè. 2 Ïàðê Ìàíãóê (ñåé÷àñ ãîäà äîêëàäûâàëè êîðîëþ Ñîí÷æî: «Âðàã «Ãîäîì äâóõòûñÿ÷åëåòèÿ Ïèðþ è øåñòèÏàðê Ñâîáîäû), ñïðîåêòèðîâàííûé â 1888 ïîáåäîíîñíî øåñòâóåò áëàãîäàðÿ ñèëå ñîòëåòíåé ãîäîâùèíû îáðåòåíèÿ èìåíè» ã. ðóññêèì àðõèòåêòîðîì À. È. ÑåðåäèíûìÑàáàòèíûì, çàïå÷àòë¸í íà ñòàðîé îòêðûòêå. ñâîèõ ðóæåé, íî ãîðíûå êðåïîñòè ñòîÿò è ñ ðàçìàõîì îòìåòèëè ýòîò äâîéíîé Ýòî îäíà èç ñåðèè îòêðûòîê ñ âèäàìè âûñîêî â ãîðàõ, ãäå èõ íå äîñòàòü íèêàêèì þáèëåé. Ýòî ñâÿçàíî ñ òåì, ÷òî ñåé÷àñ, êîãäà äîñòîïðèìå÷àòåëüíîñòåé Èí÷õîíà, âûïóùåííûõ ïóëÿì, ïîòîìó áèòâû çà êðåïîñòè Èí÷õîí â ñèëó çíà÷èòåëüíûõ äåìîãðàôè÷åñêèõ â ïåðèîä ÿïîíñêîãî êîëîíèàëüíîãî ïðàâëåíèÿ. è Õýí÷æó óäàëîñü âûèãðàòü, èñïîëüçóÿ èçìåíåíèé Èí÷õîí âûðîñ â òðåòèé ïî îñîáåííîñòè òîïîãðàôèè, êîòîðûå ñäåëàëè ÷èñëåííîñòè ãî-ðîä Ðåñïóáëèêè Êîðåÿ, èõ íåïðèñòóïíûìè». èñòîðèÿ ïåðåñåëåíèÿ, êîòîðàÿ íà÷àëàñü áîëåå 2000 ëåò ñ ïðèíöà Ïðèïèñûâàíèå âñåõ çàñëóã çà ïîáåäó, îäåðæàííóþ â áèòâå çà Ïèðþ äèíàñòèè Êîãóð¸ ïî-ïðåæíåìó îêàçûâàåò áîëüøîå âëèÿíèå êðåïîñòü Èí÷õîíà, Êèì Ìèíñîíó, êîòîðûé â òî âðåìÿ áûë âîåííûì íà ôîðìèðîâàíèå ñàìîèäåíòè÷íîñòè ýòîãî ãîðîäà. íàìåñòíèêîì Èí÷õîíà, êàæåòñÿ äåëîì ïîñïåøíûì.  «Ïîäëèííûõ Ñî âðåì¸í Ïèðþ ñóùåñòâîâàë ôåíîìåí ìàññîâîãî ïðèòîêà çàïèñÿõ Ñîí÷æî» («Ñîí÷æî ñèëëîê») â îòðûâêå, îïèñûâàþùåì íàñåëåíèÿ â Èí÷õîí, êîòîðûé íå ïðåêðàùàåòñÿ è ïî ñåé äåíü. Èí÷õîí ñîáûòèÿ 13 íîÿáðÿ 1596 ãîäà, ìîæíî ïðî÷åñòü ñëåäóþùåå: «Íàðîä — ýòî ïî-ïðåæíåìó «ãîðîä èììèãðàíòîâ», â êîòîðûé ïðîäîëæàþò âîø¸ë â êðåïîñòü Èí÷õîí-ñàíñîí è çàùèùàë å¸, ïîýòîìó âðàã íå ïðèáûâàòü ëþäè èç ðàçíûõ óãîëêîâ ñòðàíû. Ýòî ÿâëåíèå ñîñòàâëÿåò äåðçíóë âòîðãíóòüñÿ».  ýòîì ñìûñëå ãîðà Ìóíõàê-ñàí ÿâëÿåòñÿ îñîáóþ õàðàêòåðèñòèêó Èí÷õîíà è ïðîäîëæàåò ñóùåñòâîâàòü, äàæå æèâûì ñâèäåòåëüñòâîì òîãî, ÷òî íà ïðîòÿæåíèè èñòîðèè Êîðåè ïîñëå òîãî êàê ïðèòîê íàñåëåíèÿ äâàæäû äîñòèãàë ñâîåãî àïîãåÿ, èìåííî íàðîä áûë ãëàâíîé äâèæóùåé ñèëîé, çàùèùàâøåé å¸ îò ñíà÷àëà â 1883 ãîäó ïîñëå îòêðûòèÿ ïîðòà è çàòåì ïîñëå Êîðåéñêîé âðàãîâ. âîéíû, êîãäà çäåñü îáîñíîâàëèñü áåæåíöû ñ ñåâåðà. Ñîãëàñíî í÷õîí âïåðâûå óïîìèíàåòñÿ â «Ñàìãóê ñàãè» («Èñòîðè÷åñêèå çàïèñè Òð¸õ ãîñóäàðñòâ»). Ïèðþ, ñûí ×óìîíà, îñíîâàòåëÿ Êîãóð¸, áîëåå 2000 ëåò íàçàä, âåäÿ çà ñîáîé ïðèáëèæ¸ííûõ è íàðîä, äâèíóëñÿ íà þã è, ïðåîäîëåâ ãîðû è ðåêè, ïðèáûë â ìåñòî ïîä íàçâàíèåì Ìè÷õóõîëü, ñîîòâåòñòâóþùåå òåððèòîðèè ðàéîíîâ Ìóíõàê-òîí è Êâàíã¸-äîí îêðóãà Íàì-ãó ñîâðåìåííîãî Èí÷õîíà. Ïèðþ îñíîâàë íîâîå ãîñóäàðñòâî ñî ñòîëèöåé â Ìè÷õóõîëå è ñòðåìèëñÿ ïðåâðàòèòü åãî â ìîãó÷óþ ñèëó, îäíàêî, óçíàâ, ÷òî íàðîä íå ìîæåò çàíèìàòüñÿ ñåëüñêèì õîçÿéñòâîì â ñèëó ñîë¸íîñòè âîäû, ïîãðóçèëñÿ â îò÷àÿíèå. Ê òîìó æå, Ïèðþ òåðçàëè óãðûçåíèÿ ñîâåñòè: ÷òî îí çà ïðàâèòåëü, åñëè íå ìîæåò íàêîðìèòü äîñûòà ñâîé íàðîä?  ðåçóëüòàòå Ïèðþ òÿæåëî çàáîëåë è âñêîðå ïîêèíóë ýòîò ìèð. Ïîñëå ýòîãî åãî ìëàäøèé áðàò Îí÷æî, îáîñíîâàâøèéñÿ ê þãó îò ðåêè Õàí-ãàí, â þãî-âîñòî÷íîé ÷àñòè ñîâðåìåííîãî Ñåóëà, îñíîâàë òàì ãîñóäàðñòâî Ïýê÷å, òàêèì îáðàçîì ïîäãîòîâèâ ïî÷âó äëÿ ïîñëåäóþùåé ýïîõè Òð¸õ ãîñóäàðñòâ.

© Jung-gu Office, Incheon

K o r e a n a ı Âåñíà 2 0 1 4

17


Åñëè â 1883 ãîäó îòêðûòèå Êîðååé ñâîåãî ïîðòà áûëî íåèçáåæíûì ñëåäñòâèåì èñòîðè÷åñêîãî ïðîöåññà è ïðîèçîøëî ïîä âëèÿíèåì èìïåðèàëèñòè÷åñêèõ çàïàäíûõ äåðæàâ, ïðîâîäèâøèõ äèïëîìàòèþ «âîâëå÷åíèÿ» â ýïîõó ìîðåé è îêåàíîâ XIX âåêà, òî îòêðûòèå Ìåæäóíàðîäíîãî àýðîïîðòà Èí÷õîí â 2001 ãîäó îçíàìåíîâàëî ñîáîé ïîäëèííîå îòêðûòèå äâåðåé âî âíåøíèé ìèð ñîáñòâåííûìè ñèëàìè è ïî ñîáñòâåííîé âîëå â àýðîêîñìè÷åñêóþ ýïîõó XXI âåêà.

Âûñàäêà äåñàíòà â Èí÷õîíå è àýðîïîðò Èí÷õîí Ïîñëå ðÿäà èíöèäåíòîâ, ñëó÷èâøèõñÿ íà ôîíå ïîñòåïåííî óñèëèâàâøåãîñÿ äàâëåíèÿ ñî ñòîðîíû âíåøíèõ ñèë â êîíöå XIX âåêà, òàêèõ êàê íàïàäåíèå ôðàíöóçñê��é ýñêàäðû íà îñòðîâ Êàíõâà-äî â 1866 ãîäó, íàïàäåíèå íà ýòîò æå îñòðîâ àìåðèêàíñêèõ âîåííûõ ñóäîâ â 1871 ãîäó, èíöèäåíò 1875 ãîäà, êîãäà ÿïîíñêàÿ êàíîíåðñêàÿ ëîäêà «Óíú¸», êîòîðàÿ ïðèáëèçèëàñü ê êîðåéñêèì áåðåãàì, áûëà îáñòðåëÿíà

3

Êîðåéñêàÿ êóëüòóðà è èñêóññòâî

© Jung-gu Office, Incheon

18

èíôîðìàöèÿ: «Îñòðîâ íàõîäèòñÿ â 3 ëè (1,2 êì) íà çàïàä îò ïîðòà, ãäå ðàñïîëîæåíà áàçà âîåííîãî ôëîòà ×åìóëüëÿí. Åãî îêðóæíîñòü ñîñòàâëÿåò 25 ëè (9,8 êì), íà ïàñòáèùàõ îñòðîâà ïàñóòñÿ 358 ëîøàäåé, ïðèíàäëåæàùèõ ãîñóäàðñòâó. Òàêæå íà îñòðîâå æèâóò âîåííûå ìîðÿêè, ïàñòóõè è êðåñòüÿíå, çàíèìàþùèåñÿ äîáû÷åé ñîëè èç ìîðñêîé âîäû, âñåãî 30 äîìîõîçÿéñòâ». Êðîìå òîãî, èç ýòèõ æå çàïèñåé ÿâñòâåííî ñëåäóåò, 1 ÷òî îñòðîâ îáëàäàë èñêëþ÷èòåëüíîé öåííîñòüþ äëÿ êîðîëåâñêîãî äâîðà ãîñóäàðñòâà ×îñîí. Âî âðåìÿ çàñóõè çäåñü ïðîâîäèëè îáðÿä âûçûâàíèÿ äîæäÿ, òàêæå íà îñòðîâå áûë âûñòðîåí âðåìåííûé äâîðåö, ãäå êîðîëü ñ ïðèáëèæ¸ííûìè ìîã óêðûòüñÿ â ïåðèîä ÷ðåçâû÷àéíîé îáñòàíîâêè â ñòðàíå. Òàêæå íà îñòðîâå ïðîèçðàñòàëè ñîñíû, ïîäõîäÿùèå äëÿ ñòðîèòåëüñòâà âîåííûõ ñóäîâ, ïîýòîìó îí íàõîäèëñÿ ïîä îõðàíîé ãîñóäàðñòâà. Åù¸ âî âðåìåíà êîðîëÿ Ñóê÷îíà îñòðîâ ñëàâèëñÿ ñâîåé ïëîäîðîäíîé çåìë¸é è èçûñêàííûìè ïåéçàæàìè, à ìåñòíûå æèòåëè îõîòèëèñü çäåñü íà îëåíåé, êîòîðûõ çàòåì ïðåïîäíîñèëè â äàð êîðîëþ. ¨í÷æîí-äî òàêæå öåíèëñÿ è ñ âîåííîé òî÷êè çðåíèÿ. Íà 4-ì ãîäó ïðàâëåíèÿ Ñóê÷îíà òîãäàøíèé âîåííûé ìèíèñòð Êèì Ñîê÷ó óòâåðæäàë: «Þæíûé ïîðò îñòðîâà ñëóæèò âõîäîì äëÿ ãðóçîâûõ ñóäîâ, íàïðàâëÿþùèõñÿ â ñòîëèöó, ïðè ýòîì îñòðîâ ðàñïîëîæåí ðÿäîì ñ ðå÷íûìè ïóòÿìè è î÷åíü îáøèðåí ïî ïëîùàäè, ÷òî ïîçâîëÿåò óñòðîèòü òàì âîåííóþ áàçó, íå íàðóøàÿ ãðàíèö ñóùåñòâóþùèõ ïàñòáèù». À íà 34 ãîäó ïðàâëåíèÿ Ñóê÷îíà óæå äðóãîé âîåííûé ìèíèñòð, ×î Òõý÷õý, ñîâåòîâàë êîðîëþ äàòü óêàçàíèå î ñòðîèòåëüñòâå íà îñòðîâå êðåïîñòè, ãîâîðÿ, ÷òî «êðåïîñòü, ïîñòðîåííàÿ íà ýòîì îñòðîâå, ñìîæåò íåïðåìåííî îêàçàòüñÿ ïîëåçíîé â êðèòè÷åñêèé ìîìåíò».

Incheon

2

u Office,

 1883 ãîäó, êîãäà ×åìóëüïõî, îäèí èç ïîðòîâ Èí÷õîíà, áûë îòêðûò äëÿ âíåøíåé òîðãîâëè, àäìèíèñòðàòèâíûå ñòðóêòóðû ãîðîäà ïåðååõàëè ïîáëèæå ê ïîðòó, â íûíåøíèé ðàéîí Íý-äîí îêðóãà ×óí-ãó, à óïðàâëåíèå îêðóãà ñìåíèëîñü àäìèíèñòðàöèåé ïîðòà. Ïîäîáíûå øàãè áûëè ïðåäïðèíÿòû äëÿ òîãî, ÷òîáû îáëåã÷èòü êîíòðîëü ñî ñòîðîíû ïðàâèòåëüñòâà çà ðàçëè÷íûìè ïðîöåññàìè, òàêèìè êàê èìïîðò è ýêñïîðò, ïðîöåäóðû âúåçäà è âûåçäà, à òàêæå êàðàíòèíîì. Êðîìå òîãî, ýòî áûëî ñäåëàíî ïîòîìó, ÷òî ×åìóëüïõî ñ äðåâíèõ âðåì¸í áûë âàæíûì òðàíñïîðòíûì óçëîì, îòêóäà ïðÿìàÿ äîðîãà âåëà â Ñåóë, ïîýòîìó, ïîä÷¸ðêèâàÿ åãî çíà÷åíèå, è ïðàâèòåëüñòâî, è íàðîä íàçûâàëè ×åìóëüïõî «ãîðëîì ñòîëèöû». Ïîõîæèì îáðàçîì îñòðîâ ¨í÷æîí-äî, ðàñïîëîæåííûé ñîâñåì ðÿäîì ñ ×åìóëüïõî, áóäó÷è îïëîòîì îáîðîíû ñ ìîðÿ, òàêæå âîçâûñèë ñâî¸ èìÿ â êà÷åñòâå ìåñòà, íàäåë¸ííîãî ÷óäîäåéñòâåííûìè ñâîéñòâàìè, ãäå êîðîëåâñêèé äâîð ïðîâîäèë îáðÿäû ïîìèíîâåíèÿ â ÷åñòü Íåáà.  êèòàéñêîì òðàêòàòå ïîä íàçâàíèåì «Çàðèñîâêè î Êî𸻠(«Êîð¸ òîã¸í»), íàïèñàííîì Ñþé Öçèíîì, ïîáûâàâøèì â ãîñóäàðñòâå Êîð¸ â êà÷åñòâå ïîñëàííèêà äèíàñòèè Ñóí â íà÷àëå XII ñòîëåòèÿ, ¨í÷æîíäî îïèñàí êàê ×à¸í-äî, èëè «îñòðîâ Ôèîëåòîâûõ Ëàñòî÷åê».  ñâîåé êíèãå êèòàéñêèé ñàíîâíèê ãîâîðèò, ÷òî ýòèì èìåíåì îñòðîâ, âåðîÿòíî, îáÿçàí êðàñèâîìó ïîë¸òó ëàñòî÷åê, êîòîðûå êðóæàòñÿ ñòàÿìè âîêðóã ʸíâîí÷æîíà. ʸíâîí÷æîí áûë ïîñòîÿëûì äâîðîì íà äåñÿòü êîìíàò, ãäå îñòàíàâëèâàëèñü ïîñëàííèêè, êóðñèðîâàâøèå ìåæäó äâóìÿ ñòðàíàìè, è åãî ðàçìåðû ñâèäåòåëüñòâóþò, ÷òî îñòðîâ áûë ÷àñòüþ âàæíîãî ïóòè ìîðñêîãî ñîîáùåíèÿ ìåæäó Êîðååé è Ñóíñêèì Êèòàåì. Îñòðîâ ñìåíèë èìÿ íà ¨í÷æîí-äî â ñðåäíèé ïåðèîä ýïîõè ×îñîí.  1653 ãîäó, íà 4-ì ãîäó ïðàâëåíèÿ êîðîëÿ Õ¸÷æîíà, ñþäà áûëà ïåðåíåñåíà áàçà âîåííîãî ôëîòà ¨í÷æîíïõî, ðàíåå íàõîäèâøàÿñÿ â óåçäå Íàìÿí (ñîâðåìåííûé Õâàñîí), è ïî ìåðå òîãî êàê èìÿ ýòîãî áåðåãîâîãî óêðåïëåíèÿ ñòàëî îáðåòàòü èçâåñòíîñòü, ñàì îñòðîâ òîæå ñòàëè íàçûâàòü ¨í÷æîí-äî.  ãåîãðàôè÷åñêîì ðàçäåëå «Ïîäëèííûõ çàïèñåé êîðîëÿ Ñå÷æîíà» («Ñå÷æîí ñèëëîê ÷èðè÷æè») íàðÿäó ñ óïîìèíàíèåì î òîì, ÷òî îñòðîâ ÿâëÿåòñÿ íàñåë¸ííûì, ñîäåðæèòñÿ òàêæå ñëåäóþùàÿ

© Jung-g

Îòêðûòèå ïîðòà


4

àðòèëëåðèåé îñòðîâà, Êîðåÿ â êà÷åñòâå óñòóïêè ßïîíèè â 1883 ãîäó îòêðûëà ïîðò ×åìóëüïõî è òàêèì îáðàçîì îêàçàëàñü âòÿíóòà â îðáèòó ìåæäóíàðîäíîãî êàïèòàëèñòè÷åñêîãî ðûíêà. Âïîñëåäñòâèè Èí÷õîí ïåðåæèë áåñïðåöåäåíòíûå ïåðåìåíû è âçÿë íà ñåáÿ èñòîðè÷åñêóþ ðîëü ðàñïðîñòðàíèòåëÿ íîâîé êóëüòóðû â Êîðåå. Ñðàçó ïîñëå îòêðûòèÿ ïîðòà â Èí÷õîíå íàðÿäó ñî çäàíèÿìè â çàïàäíîì ñòèëå ñòàëè îäíèì çà äðóãèì ñîçäàâàòüñÿ ðàáî÷èå ìåñòà, î êîòîðûõ â ïðîøëîì, â ýïîõó «ñòðàíû-îòøåëüíèêà» ×îñîí, ëþäè äàæå íå ñëûøàëè. Ïîòîìó ÷òî çäåñü ïåðâûå â ñòðàíå ïîÿâèëèñü ìàÿê, îòåëü, ïî÷òà, òåëåôîííàÿ ñòàíöèÿ, ðèñîî÷èñòèòåëüíàÿ ìåëüíèöà, ìåòåîðîëîãè÷åñêàÿ ñòàíöèÿ, ñïè÷å÷íàÿ ôàáðèêà, çàâîä ïî ïðîèçâîäñòâó ãàçèðîâàííîãî ëèìîíàäà, ðàçëè÷íûå êîíñóëüñòâà, èíîñòðàííûå òîðãîâûå êîìïàíèè, ïðèñòàíè è äð. Êàê ñëåäñòâèå, ñî âñåé ñòðàíû â Èí÷õîí õëûíóëè ëþäè â ïîèñêàõ ðàáîòû. Ïî ýòîé ïðè÷èíå â ãîðîäå ñôîðìèðîâàëàñü îñîáåííàÿ ñîöèàëüíàÿ àòìîñôåðà, êîãäà ïðè ïðè¸ìå ÷åëîâåêà íà ðàáîòó îáðàùàëè âíèìàíèå íà òî, ÷òî îí óìååò, à íå íà òî, îòêóäà îí ðîäîì. Äðóãèìè ñëîâàìè, îöåíèâàëè ÷åëîâåêà íå ïî åãî «ðåãèîíàëüíîé îêðàñêå», ÷òî áûëî íåïðîäóêòèâíûì ïîäõîäîì, à ïî åãî ñïîñîáíîñòÿì è ñêëàäó õàðàêòåðà. Êàê ñëåäñòâèå, â ãîðîäå ñôîðìèðîâàëàñü îáùåñòâî, êîòîðîå, íå ñòàâÿ âî ãëàâó óãëà 1 ßêîðü ðîññèéñêîé êàíîíåðñêîé ëîäêè «Êîðååö», çàòîíóâøåé âî âðåìÿ ìîðñêîãî áîÿ ïðè ×åìóëüïõî. 2 Òàê âûãëÿäåëà óëèöà ïåðåä ïîëèöåéñêèì ó÷àñòêîì Èí÷õîíà â íà÷àëå XX âåêà. 3 Ðàéîí Ñèíïõî-äîí â íà÷àëå XX âåêà. 4 Ãðóçîâîé ïðè÷àë ïîðòà Èí÷õîí. Ïîñëå îòêðûòèÿ ïîðòà âîêðóã íåãî ïîÿâèëîñü ìíîãî ñêëàäñêèõ ïîìåùåíèé, ñäàâàåìûõ â àðåíäó, è ïðåäïðèÿòèé, çàíèìàþùèõñÿ ãðóçîïåðåâîçêàìè.

K o r e a n a ı Âåñíà 2 0 1 4

ðåãèîíàëüíûå ñâÿçè, ñìîãëî ðàçâèâàòüñÿ, îáëàäàÿ äèíàìè÷íîñòüþ è òåðïèìîñòüþ, ïîäîáíî ìîðþ, êîòîðîå ïðèíèìàåò âîäó èç ðàçíûõ èñòî÷íèêîâ. È òî, ÷òî Èí÷õîí â èòîãå äîñòèã ïîäîáíîãî ðàçâèòèÿ, ñòàëî âîçìîæíûì áëàãîäàðÿ ýòîé îñîáîé, ãëóáîêî óêîðåíèâøåéñÿ ñàìîèäåíòè÷íîñòè. Èí÷õîíöû ãîðäÿòñÿ òåì, ÷òî, âûáèðàÿ ìýðà ãîðîäà, îíè íèêîãäà íå ñìîòðÿò íà òî, îòêóäà êàíäèäàòû ðîäîì. È â ýòîì àñïåêòå È÷õîí ìîæíî íàçâàòü ãîðîäîì, îáúåäèíèâøèì ëþäåé èç âñåõ ðåãèîíîâ. Îäíàêî, ê ñîæàëåíèþ, Èí÷õîí ñòàë èçâåñòåí âñåìó ìèðó íå áëàãîäàðÿ ïîäîáíûì çäîðîâûì òåíäåíöèÿì ðàçâèòèÿ, à êàê ìåñòî âåäåíèÿ áîåâûõ äåéñòâèé. Ñíà÷àëà áèòâà íà ìîðå ïðè ×åìóëüïõî, ðàçðàçèâøàÿñÿ ìåæäó ÿïîíñêèì è ðîññèéñêèì ôëîòîì â 1902 ãîäó, ñïîñîáñòâîâàëà òîìó, ÷òî â ãëàçàõ âñåãî ìèðà ýòîò ãîðîä ñòàë àññîöèèðîâàòüñÿ ñ âîéíîé. Çàòåì, ïîñëå òîãî êàê 25 èþíÿ 1950 ãîäà íà÷àëàñü Êîðåéñêàÿ âîéíà, âûñàäêà äåñàíòà â Èí÷õîíå, ñìåëî ïðåäïðèíÿòàÿ âîéñêàìè ÎÎÍ ïîä êîìàíäîâàíèåì ãåíåðàëà Ìàêàðòóðà â ñåíòÿáðå òîãî æå ãîäà, ñíîâà äàëà ïîâîä äëÿ òîãî, ÷òîáû âïèñàòü èìÿ Èí÷õîíà â èñòîðèþ ìèðîâûõ âîéí.  ñâÿçè ñ ýòèì ìîæíî ñêàçàòü, ÷òî îòêðûòèå íà îñòðîâå ¨í÷æîíäî Ìåæäóíàðîäíîãî àýðîïîðòà Èí÷õîí ñòàëî íàêîíåö òåì ñîáûòèåì, êîòîðîå ïîçâîëèëî çàãîâîðèòü îá Èí÷õîíå â ïîëîæèòåëüíîì êîíòåêñòå. Åñëè â 1883 ãîäó îòêðûòèå Êîðååé ñâîåãî ïîðòà áûëî íåèçáåæíûì ñëåäñòâèåì èñòîðè÷åñêîãî ïðîöåññà è ïðîèçîøëî ïîä âëèÿíèåì èìïåðèàëèñòè÷åñêèõ çàïàäíûõ äåðæàâ, ïðîâîäèâøèõ äèïëîìàòèþ «âîâëå÷åíèÿ» â ýïîõó ìîðåé è îêåàíîâ XIX âåêà, òî îòêðûòèå Ìåæäóíàðîäíîãî àýðîïîðòà Èí÷õîí â 2001 ãîäó îçíàìåíîâàëî ñîáîé ïîäëèííîå îòêðûòèå äâåðåé âî âíåøíèé ìèð ñîáñòâåííûìè ñèëàìè è ïî ñîáñòâåííîé âîëå â àýðîêîñìè÷åñêóþ ýïîõó XXI âåêà.

19


22

50 ïðèõîæàí öåðêâè Íýðè è áîëåå 20 ïîðòîâûõ ðàáî÷èõ ïîðòà Èí÷õîí, êîòîðûå âïîñëåäñòâèè ñîñòàâèëè ïåðâóþ ãðóïïó ýìèãðàíòîâ.  ãðóïïó âîøëî 67 æèòåëåé ×åìóëüïõî, 10 æèòåëåé Ïóïõ¸íà, 9 ïðèåçæèõ ñ îñòðîâà Êàíõâà-äî, 3 ÷åëîâåêà èç äðóãèõ ìåñò ïðîâèíöèè ʸíãè-äî è 7 èç Ñåóëà, à ýòî îçíà÷àåò, ÷òî 89 áóäóùèõ ïåðåñåëåíöåâ, ò.å. ïîäàâëÿþùåå áîëüøèíñòâî, áûëè âûõîäöàìè èç íûíåøíåãî Èí÷õîíà. Ýòî ïðèìåð ïîêàçûâàåò, ÷òî â òå âðåìåíà ýìèãðàöèîííûé áèçíåñ áûë òåñíî ñâÿçàí ñ Èí÷õîíîì. Ê òîìó æå íåêîòîðûå àêòèâíûå äåÿòåëè öåðêâè Íýðè ðàáîòàëè â ýìèãðàöèîííûõ êîìïàíèÿõ, âûñòóïàÿ â ðîëè ïåðåâîä÷èêîâ, à âïîñëåäñòâèè òàêæå ñòàëè èãðàòü âåäóùóþ ðîëü â æèçíè êîðåéñêîé äèàñïîðû íà Ãàâàéÿõ. Ñïóñòÿ äâà äíÿ íîâîÿâëåííûå ýìèãðàíòû ïðèáûëè â ïîðò Íàãàñàêè. Ïîñëå ìåäèöèíñêîãî îñìîòðà òîëüêî 104 èç íèõ (âêëþ÷àÿ 2 ïåðåâîä÷èêîâ) ñåëè íà ïàðîõîä «S.S. Gaelic» è, çàéäÿ ïî ïóòè â ïîðò Éîêîãàìà, òðè íåäåëè ñïóñòÿ, ðàííèì óòðîì 13 ÿíâàðÿ 1903 ãîäà, ïðèáûëè íà îñòðîâ Ïåñ÷àíûé, ðàñïîëîæåííûé ïðÿìî ó ïîðòà Ãîíîëóëó. Ìåñòíûå èììèãðàöèîííûå âëàñòè ñíîâà ïðîâåëè ìåäèöèíñêèé îñìîòð, â ðåçóëüòàòå êîòîðîãî 8 ìóæ÷èí, áîëüíûõ êîíúþíêòèâèòîì, à òàêæå ñîïðîâîæäàâøèå èõ æåíùèíû è äåòè íå ïîëó÷èëè ðàçðåøåíèÿ ñîéòè íà áåðåã è áûëè îòïðàâëåíû îáðàòíî â ×åìóëüïõî. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, â ñîñòàâå ïåðâîé ãðóïïû èììèãðàíòîâ îñòàëîñü òîëüêî 86 ÷åëîâåê: 48 ìóæ÷èí, 16 æåíùèí, è 22 ðåá¸íêà.  òîò æå äåíü ïîñëå ïîëóäíÿ îíè áûëè äîñòàâëåíû ïî óçêîêîëåéíîé æåëåçíîé äîðîãå íà ïëàíòàöèþ Âàÿëóà, ðàñïîëîæåííóþ íà ñåâåðíîì áåðåãó îñòðîâà Îàõó, ãäå èõ ïîñåëèëè â ëàãåðå Ìîêóëåÿ. ظë 22 äåíü ïîñëå òîãî, êàê îíè ïîêèíóëè ïîðò ×åìóëüïõî. Êîíå÷íî, ïîíà÷àëó æèçíü íà ïëàíòàöèè íå ñîîòâåòñòâîâàëà ðàäóæíîé êàðòèíå, íàðèñîâàííîé â ðåêëàìíûõ ïðîñïåêòàõ ýìèãðàöèîííûõ êîìïàíèé. Îäíàêî ýòè ëþäè, áóäó÷è ïåðâûìè ýìèãðàíòàìè, îôèöèàëüíî ïðèçíàííûìè êîðåéñêèì ïðàâèòåëüñòâîì, ñìîãëè ðàñ÷èñòèòü ïëîùàäêó äëÿ íîâîé æèçíè. Ñîãëàñíîñîîòâåòñòâóþùèìäîêóìåíòàì,êîðåé×î Óñîí, ÷ëåí Ãîðîäñêîãî êîìèòåòà ïî ñîñòàâëåíèþ èñòîðèè Èí÷õîíà, ãëàâíûé ðåäàêòîð «Èí÷õîí èëüáî» ñêèå ýìèãðàíòû æèëè îòíþäü íå â ïëàíòàòîðñêèõ äîìàõ, êàê ýòî áûëî îáåùàíî â ïðîêëàìàöèè, à â äîùàòûõ æèëèùàõ, ñêîðåå íàïîìèíàâøèõ âîåííûå áàðàêè, ïðè ýòîì èì ïðèõîäèëîñü êàæäûé äåíü ïî 10 ÷àñîâ ðàáîòîäàòåëü». ðàáîòàòü íà òðîñòíèêîâûõ ïëàíòàöèÿõ â óäóøàþùåé æàðå. Íî, Åñëè ñëåäîâàòü áóêâå íàïèñàííîãî, òî ïî òîìó âðåìåíè óñëîâèÿ íåñìîòðÿ íà âñå òÿãîòû æèçíè, îíè ñ÷èòàëè ñâîþ åæåäíåâíóþ ïëàòó ýìèãðàöèè áûëè âïîëíå ïðèåìëåìûìè. Íî, òåì íå ìåíåå, íåìíîãèå â 1 äîëëàð 25 öåíòîâ áîëüøèìè äåíüãàìè è ïðèëåæíî êîïèëè èõ èëè ðåøàëèñü ñ ë¸ãêèì ñåðäöåì íà òàêîé øàã. Äåëî â òîì, ÷òî êîðåéöû îòïðàâëÿëè íà ðîäèíó, ïûòàÿñü óòåøèòü òîñêó ïî äàë¸êîé ðîäèíå. Çà èñïûòûâàëè åñòåñòâåííûé ñòðàõ ïðè ìûñëè, ÷òî èì ïðèä¸òñÿ æèòü â ïåðèîä äî àïðåëÿ 1905 ãîäà 65 ãðóïï ýìèãðàíòîâ îáùåé ÷èñëåííîñòüþ îáùåñòâå çàïàäíûõ ëþäåé, ñ êîòîðûìè èì äî ýòîãî íå äîâîäèëîñü 7200 ÷åëîâåê ïåðåñåëèëèñü íà Ãàâàéè, ñôîðìèðîâàâ òàì êîðåéñêóþ ñòàëêèâàòüñÿ. Ïðè ýòîì, ñîãëàñíî êîíôóöèàíñêèì ïðåäñòàâëåíèÿì äèàñïîðó. òîãî âðåìåíè, ñàìî ïî ñåáå ðåøåíèå îñòàâèòü ðîäèòåëåé áåç Îäíàêî ïîñêîëüêó áîëüøèíñòâî ìóæ÷èí-ïåðåñåëåíöåâ áûëè îáåùàíèÿ êîãäà-íèáóäü âåðíóòüñÿ áûëî ðàâíîñèëüíî ïðåíåáðåæåíèþ õîëîñòÿêàìè, âñêîðå ìíîãèå èç íèõ îáðàòèëèñü ê ïüÿíñòâó è àçàðòíûì âàæíåéøåé äîáðîäåòåëüþ, êàêîâîé ÿâëÿëàñü ñûíîâüÿ ïî÷òèòåëüíîñòü. èãðàì. Ãàâàéñêèå èììèãðàöèîííûå âëàñòè, ïðèäÿ ê âûâîäó, ÷òî ê Ïî ýòèì ïðè÷èíàì, íåñìîòðÿ íà òî ÷òî ïî âñåé ñòðàíå â êðóïíûõ ïîäîáíîé æèçíè îäèíîêèõ ìóæ÷èí òîëêàåò îòñóòñòâèå ñåìüè, ñòàëè ãîðîäàõ è ïîðòàõ áûëè ðàñêëååíû ïðîêëàìàöèè, ðàñïèñûâàâøèå âñÿ÷åñêè ïîîùðÿòü îáçàâåäåíèå æ¸íàìè. Ñ ýòîé öåëüþ áûëà ââåäåíà áëàãà ýìèãðàöèè, æåëàþùèõ îòïðàâèòüñÿ â äàëüíèé ïóòü, ïî÷òè íå ñèñòåìà òàê íàçûâàåìûõ «áðàêîâ ïî ôîòîãðàôèÿì», ñîãëàñíî êîòîðîé áûëî. Âåðáîâùèê Äýâèä Â. Äåøëåð (David W. Deshler), ïîäãîíÿåìûé ïåðåñåëåíöàì ðàçðåøàëîñü ïðèãëàøàòü ñåáå íåâåñò ñ ðîäèíû, ñðîêàìè, â êîíå÷íîì èòîãå îáðàòèëñÿ ñ ïðîñüáîé î ïîìîùè ê êîòîðûõ îíè âèäåëè òîëüêî íà ôîòîêàðòî÷êå, à âëàñòè âûäàâàëè èì Äæîðäæó Õåáåðó Äæîóíñó (George H. Jones), ïàñòîðó ìåòîäèñòñêîé âèä íà æèòåëüñòâî. åïèñêîïàëüíîé öåðêâè (öåðêîâü Íýðè) â Èí÷õîíå.  ñâîþ î÷åðåäü Ïåðâîé òàêîé «íåâåñòîé ïî ôîòîãðàôèè» ñòàëà ×õâå Ñàðà, êîòîðàÿ ïàñòîð, áóäó÷è äðóãîì àìåðèêàíñêîãî ïîñëàííèêà Õîðàñà Àëëåíà ïðèáûëà â Ãîíîëóëó 28 íîÿáðÿ 1910 ãîäà è âñêîðå ñòàëà æåíîé È Íýñó. (Horace N. Allen), ê êîòîðîìó è ðàíåå óæå îáðàùàëèñü ïëàíòàòîðû Ê îêòÿáðþ 1924 ãîäà íà Ãàâàéè ïåðåñåëèëàñü 951 òàêàÿ íåâåñòà, ÷òî ñ Ãàâàéñêèõ îñòðîâîâ, îáúåäèí¸ííûå â Àññîöèàöèþ âëàäåëüöåâ ïîçâîëèëî êîðåéñêîìó ñîîáùåñòâó ñî âðåìåíåì îáðåñòè äîëæíóþ ñàõàðíûõ ïëàíòàöèé Ãàâàéåâ, ñ ïîõîæåé ïðîñüáîé ïîñîäåéñòâîâàòü ñòàáèëüíîñòü. îðãàíèçàöèè ïðèåçäà êîðåéñêèõ ðàáî÷èõ, íå ìîã îòêàçàòü â ïîìîùè. Ïðèìåðíî â ýòî æå âðåìÿ, êàê âñå è îïàñàëèñü, Êîðåéñêàÿ èìïåðèÿ Âñêîðå åìó óäàëîñü óãîâîðèòü îòïðàâèòüñÿ ê äàë¸êèì îñòðîâàì áîëåå äåêàáðÿ 1902 ãîäà â èí÷õîíñêîì ïîðòó ×åìóëüïõî ïåðâàÿ ãðóïïà êîðåéñêèõ ýìèãðàíòîâ èç 121 ÷åëîâåêà, áîëüøèíñòâî èç êîòîðûõ áûëè ïðèõîæàíàìè öåðêâè Íýðè, ïîäñòàâëÿÿ ãðóäü ïðîõëàäíîìó ìîðñêîìó âåòðó, ïîäíÿëàñü íà áîðò ïàðîõîäà «Ãåíêàé ìàðó», ÷òîáû äîáðàòüñÿ íà í¸ì äî ÿïîíñêîãî ïîðòà Íàãàñàêè è ïåðåñåñòü òàì íà àìåðèêàíñêèé òðàíñàòëàíòè÷åñêèé ïàðîõîä «S.S. Gaelic», êîòîðûé äîëæåí áûë äîñòàâèòü èõ ê êîíå÷íîìó ïóíêòó íàçíà÷åíèÿ — Ãàâàéñêèì îñòðîâàì. Íîâîÿâëåííûõ ýìèãðàíòîâ, îòïðàâëÿâøèõñÿ â äîëãèé ïóòü ïî ìîðþ, òåðçàëè ñìåøàííûå ÷óâñòâà. Ïåðåä èõ ãëàçàìè ñòîÿë èñ÷åçàþùèé èç âèäó ïî÷òè áåçëþäíûé áåðåã ðîäíîé ñòîðîíû, à èç ãîëîâû íå âûõîäèëè ìûñëè î íåñòàáèëüíîé ïîëèòè÷åñêîé ñèòóàöèè â ñòðàíå.  òî æå âðåìÿ îíè ïðîäîëæàëè ïîâòîðÿòü ïðî ñåáÿ ñòðî÷êè îôèöèàëüíîé ïðîêëàìàöèè, ðàñêëååííîé ïîâñþäó Äåïàðòàìåíòîì ýìèãðàöèè. ( òî âðåìÿ ýòîò îðãàí, íàçûâàåìûé Þìèíâîí, âîçãëàâëÿë Ìèí ¨íõâàí, êîòîðûé âïîñëåäñòâèè, â 1905 ãîäó, ïîêîí÷èë ñ ñîáîé â çíàê ïðîòåñòà ïðîòèâ ïîäïèñàíèÿ äîãîâîðà î ïðîòåêòîðàòå ßïîíèè íàä Êîðååé.) Òåêñò ïðîêëàìàöèè ãëàñèë: «Êëèìàò Ãàâàéåâ ïîäõîäèò ëþáîìó ÷åëîâåêó, çäåñü íåò íè ñèëüíîé æàðû, íè ñèëüíîãî õîëîäà. Ìåñÿ÷íàÿ çàðàáîòíàÿ ïëàòà ñîñòàâëÿåò 15 äîëëàðîâ (67 òîãäàøíèõ êîðåéñêèõ âîí). Ïðîäîëæèòåëüíîñòü ðàáî÷åãî äíÿ — 10 ÷àñîâ, âîñêðåñåíüå — âûõîäíîé äåíü. Âëàäåëüöû ïëàíòàöèé ïðåäîñòàâëÿþò æèëü¸; ðàñõîäû íà òîïëèâî, âîäó è ìåäèöèíñêîå îáåñïå÷åíèå áåð¸ò íà ñåáÿ

Ìóçåé èñòîðèè êîðåéñêîé ýìèãðàöèè â Èí÷õîíå: â ÷åñòü ïåðâûõ ýìèãðàíòîâ, îòïðàâèâøèõñÿ íà Ãàâàéè

20

Êîðåéñêàÿ êóëüòóðà è èñêóññòâî


Ýòè ôîòîãðàôèè è ëè÷íûå âåùè ïàññàæèðîâ ïàðîõîäà «S.S. Gaelic» âûñòàâëåíû â Ìóçåå èñòîðèè êîðåéñêîé ýìèãðàöèè (ïàðê Âîëüìè, îñòðîâ Âîëüìè-äî).

áûëà àííåêñèðîâàíà ßïîíèåé. Ñðàçó ïîñëå ýòîãî ïåðâîå ïîêîëåíèå ýìèãðàíòîâ ðåøèòåëüíî ïîäíÿëîñü íà áîðüáó çà íåçàâèñèìîñòü, è ýòî îäèí èç ìîìåíòîâ, çàñëóæèâàþùèõ íàèáîëüøåãî âíèìàíèÿ â èñòîðèè êîðåéñêîé ýìèãðàöèè. Êîðåéñêàÿ äèàñïîðà íà Ãàâàéÿõ, áóäó÷è îäíèì èç çàðóáåæíûõ îïëîòîâ äâèæåíèÿ çà íåçàâèñèìîñòü Êîðåè, ñî âñåì ýíòóçèàçìîì ïðèíèìàëà ó÷àñòèå â ýòîé áîðüáå, â ÷àñòíîñòè ñîáèðàëà ñðåäñòâà äëÿ ôèíàíñîâîé ïîääåðæêè âðåìåííîãî ïðàâèòåëüñòâà â Øàíõàå ïóò¸ì âûïóñêà îáëèãàöèé. Áîëåå òîãî — ïîñëå îñâîáîæäåíèÿ ãàâàéñêèå ýìèãðàíòû ïåðâûì äåëîì îñíîâàëè â Èí÷õîíå ó÷åáíîå çàâåäåíèå. Ýòî ðåøåíèå áûëî ïðîäèêòîâàíî íàìåðåíèåì äàòü îáðàçîâàíèå ìîëîäîìó ïîêîëåíèþ, ÷òî, ïî èõ ìíåíèþ, ìîãëî ñòàòü åäèíñòâåííîé ãàðàíòèåé òîãî, ÷òî îíè ñíîâà íå ïîòåðÿþò ñâîþ ñòðàíó.  1953 ãîäó, îòìå÷àÿ 50-þ ãîäîâùèíó ýìèãðàöèè íà Ãàâàéè, êîðåéñêèå ýìèãðàíòû ñîáðàëè 150 òûñÿ÷ äîëëàðîâ è ïåðåäàëè èõ âëàñòÿì Èí÷õîíà. Íà ýòè ñðåäñòâà, äîïîëíåííûå ñóáñèäèåé ïðàâèòåëüñòâà, â 1954 ãîäó áûëî ïîñòðîåíî Òåõíè÷åñêîå ó÷èëèùå Èíõà (â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ Óíèâåðñèòåò Èíõà), â ñàìîì íàçâàíèè êîòîðîãî, ñîñòîÿùåì èç ïåðâûõ ñëîãîâ ñëîâ «Èí÷õîí» è «Hawaii» (Ãàâàéè), çàëîæåí ñìûñë êðîâíûõ ñâÿçåé ìåæäó Èí÷õîíîì è çàðóáåæíûìè ñîîòå÷åñòâåííèêàìè, ïðîæèâàþùèìè íà Ãàâàéÿõ. Ãàâàéñêîå ýìèãðàíòñêîå ñîîáùåñòâî è â íàøè äíè ïîìîãàåò äàë¸êîé ðîäèíå ðàñòèòü äîñòîéíóþ ñìåíó, ïîääåðæèâàÿ ñòèïåíäèÿìè îäàð¸ííûõ ñòóäåíòîâ. Åù¸ ïîëâåêà ñïóñòÿ ñî âðåìåíè ïåðâûõ ïåðåñåëåíöåâ, â ÿíâàðå 2003 ãîäà, êîðåéñêîå ñîîáùåñòâî â ÑØÀ, ñîñòàâëÿþùåå 2 ìèëëèîíà K o r e a n a ı Âåñíà 2 0 1 4

÷åëîâåê, øèðîêî îòìåòèëî ñòîëåòèå èììèãðàöèè. Äëÿ ó÷àñòèÿ â ïàìÿòíûõ ìåðîïðèÿòèÿõ, ïðîøåäøèõ íà Ãàâàéÿõ, áûëè ïðèãëàøåíû âèäíûå äåÿòåëè ñîîáùåñòâà Èí÷õîíà è òîãäàøíèé ìýð Èí÷õîíà ã-í Àí Ñàíñó, à âñå ñîáðàâøèåñÿ ïðîíèêëèñü îñîçíàíèåì òîãî, ÷òî Èí÷õîí, áóäó÷è îòïðàâíîé òî÷êîé êîðåéñêîé çàðóáåæíîé ýìèãðàöèè, ÿâëÿåòñÿ ðîäèíîé äóøè äëÿ ìíîãèõ ñîîòå÷åñòâåííèêîâ, æèâóùèõ çà ðóáåæîì. Ýòîò þáèëåé ñòàë ïîâîäîì çàäóìàòüñÿ î ñîçäàíèè ìóçåÿ êîðåéñêîé ýìèãðàöèè. Ê òîìó âðåìåíè â ñîîáùåñòâå Èí÷õîíà ñôîðìèðîâàëàñü ñòîéêàÿ óáåæä¸ííîñòü, ÷òî æèòåëè ýòîãî ãîðîäà, êîòîðûå ñòîëåòèå íàçàä ïåðâûìè îòïðàâèëèñü â ýìèãðàöèþ, âîïëîòèëè â æèçíü äóõ ïåðâîïðîõîäöåâ, õàðàêòåðíûé äëÿ Èí÷õîíà, è ïîýòîìó ýòîò äóõ, êîòîðûé ïîìîãàë èì äàæå â òðóäíûõ óñëîâèÿõ æèçíè áåççàâåòíî ïîñâÿùàòü ñåáÿ äåëó áîðüáû çà íåçàâèñèìîñòü, áóäó÷è ãîðäîñòüþ Èí÷õîíà, äîëæåí áûòü ïåðåäàí ïîòîìêàì íàðÿäó ñ èñòîðèåé èõ æèçíè. È âîò ïîñëå ïîäãîòîâèòåëüíîãî ýòàïà, êîòîðûé çàíÿë íåñêîëüêî ëåò, â èþíå 2008 ãîäà â ïàðêå Âîëüìè íàêîíåö îòêðûë ñâîè äâåðè Ìóçåé èñòîðèè êîðåéñêîé ýìèãðàöèè.  íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ áîëüøèíñòâî åãî ýêñïîíàòîâ ïîñâÿùåíî èñòîðèè ýìèãðàöèè êîðåéöåâ â ÑØÀ, îäíàêî â áóäóùåì ïëàíèðóåòñÿ ñîçäàòü îòäåëüíûå çàëû, ðàññêàçûâàþùèå îá ýìèãðàöèè êîðåéöåâ â Àçèþ è Åâðîïó. Ìîæíî ñ óâåðåííîñòüþ ñêàçàòü, ÷òî òîãäà Èí÷õîí ïî-íàñòîÿùåìó çàéì¸ò ñâî¸ ìåñòî â êà÷åñòâå äóõîâíîãî äîìà çàðóáåæíûõ ñîîòå÷åñòâåííèêîâ. Òàê ñïóñòÿ âåê ïîñëå íà÷àëà êîðåéñêîé ýìèãðàöèè òðóäíûå è ñëàâíûå ìîìåíòû å¸ èñòîðèè ñòàëè ìóçåéíûìè ýêñïîíàòàìè è òåïåðü áóäóò ñîõðàíÿòüñÿ è ïåðåäàâàòüñÿ áóäóùèì ïîêîëåíèÿì.

21


Ãëàâíàÿ òåìà íîìåðà-4

Îò îòêðûòîãî ïîðòà ê àýðîïîðòó ¹1 Íàâåðíîå, åñòü ñâîÿ ñïðàâåäëèâîñòü â òîì, ÷òî ãëàâíûå âîðîòà, ñîåäèíÿþùèå Êîðåþ ñ îñòàëüíûì ìèðîì, ëåæàò âñåãî â íåñêîëüêèõ ìèëÿõ îò ìåñòà, ãäå íà ðóáåæå XIX âåêà ñòîÿë îòêðûòûé ïîðò è èíîñòðàííûå ñåòòëüìåíòû ×åìóëüïõî, ñèìâîëèçèðóþùèå íà÷àëî ñîâðåìåííîé ýïîõè Êîðåè è å¸ âîâëå÷¸ííîñòè â æèçíü âíåøíåãî ìèðà. Ñ 2001 ãîäà áîëüøèíñòâî ëþäåé, ïðèáûâàþùèõ â Êîðåþ èç-çà ðóáåæà, ïåðâûì äåëîì ñòóïàþò íà ýòîò êëî÷îê çåìëè, îòâî¸âàííûé ó ìîðÿ ìåæäó äâóìÿ îñòðîâàìè, êîòîðûé ñòàë äîìîì Ìåæäóíàðîäíîìó àýðîïîðòó Èí÷õîí. Áåí Äæåêñîí, ïèñàòåëü-ôðèëàíñåð

Ìåæäóíàðîäíûé àýðîïîðò Èí÷õîí íà ïðîòÿæåíèè öåëîãî ðÿäà ëåò ïðèçíà¸òñÿ ëó÷øèì àýðîïîðòîì ìèðà â ñàìûõ ðàçëè÷íûõ íîìèíàöèÿõ è ðåéòèíãàõ.

22

Êîðåéñêàÿ êóëüòóðà è èñêóññòâî


Ò

î, ÷òî êîãäà-òî, âåðîÿòíî, ïðåäñòàâëÿëî ñîáîé óâëåêàòåëüíîå ïðèáëèæåíèå ê ïðèñòàíè ìèìî áåñ÷èñëåííûõ îñòðîâîâ è ïðèëèâíî-îòëèâíûõ êàíàëîâ, ðàñïîëîæåííûõ ó ïîáåðåæüÿ Èí÷õîíà, òåïåðü ïðåâðàòèëîñü â ïëàâíîå ñíèæåíèå íàä ñâåðêàþùèì ìîðåì, îãðîìíûìè ïðè÷àëàìè, âèäàìè ãîðîäà è íåïðàâäîïîäîáíî äëèííûìè ìîñòàìè. Ïîâñþäó âîêðóã ðàñêèíóëèñü ëèòîðàëè çàïàäíîãî ïîáåðåæüÿ Þæíîé Êîðåè, êîòîðûõ ñäåëàëà çíàìåíèòûìè âûñàäêà ìîðñêîãî äåñàíòà, èçìåíèâøàÿ õîä Êîðåéñêîé âîéíû. Âîçäóõ çäåñü ÷àñòî ñ êàêèìè-òî âçâåñÿìè, îñîáåííî âåñíîé, êîãäà ñ ñåâåðî-çàïàäà íà÷èíàåò çàäóâàòü ïå÷àëüíî èçâåñòíûé âåòåð, íàçûâàåìûé «æ¸ëòûì ïåñêîì». Ïîåçäêà íà àâòîáóñå èëè àýðîýêñïðåññå â Ñåóë îçíà÷àåò, ÷òî ïðèìåðíî â òå÷åíèå 20 ìèíóò âàì ïðèä¸òñÿ åõàòü ïî ýòîìó «ãðÿçåâîìó» ïåéçàæó, ïðåæäå ÷åì âû ïåðåñå÷¸òå ðåêó Õàíãàí è âúåäåòå â ñòîëèöó ÷åðåç å¸ çàïàäíóþ îêðàèíó. Àýðîïîðò Èí÷õîí ñàì ïî ñåáå ÿâëÿåòñÿ îäíèì èç íàèáîëåå âàæíûõ âîçäóøíûõ ïîðòîâ â Ñåâåðî-Âîñòî÷íîé Àçèè è çàíèìàåò äåâÿòîå ìåñòî â ìèðå ïî îáú¸ìó åæåãîäíîãî ïàññàæèðîïîòîêà.  2013 ãîäó áîëåå 40 ìëí. ïàññàæèðîâ, ò.å. áîëåå 113000 ÷åëîâåê åæåäíåâíî, âîñïîëüçîâàëèñü óñëóãàìè àýðîïîðòà. Ïðè ýòîì, ÷òî ãîðàçäî áîëåå çíà÷èìî äëÿ ïàññàæèðîâ, îí íà ïðîòÿæåíèè âîñüìè ëåò ïîäðÿä ïðèçíàâàëñÿ Ìåæäóíàðîäíûì ñîâåòîì àýðîïîðòîâ ëó÷øèì àýðîïîðòîì ìèðà. Åñëè íåêîòîðûå àýðîïîðòû ïðåäñòàâëÿþò ñîáîé íå áîëåå ÷åì âûçûâàþùèé ðàçäðàæåíèå áàðüåð íà ïóòè â ñòðàíó èëè èç íå¸, òî Ìåæäóíàðîäíûé àýðîïîðò Èí÷õîí íà ñàìîì äåëå âåñüìà ïðèÿòíîå ìåñòî.

Èñ÷åçíóâøåå î÷àðîâàíèå Êîãäà ìíå áûëî ëåò âîñåìü, ìîè ðîäèòåëè âîëøåáíûì îáðàçîì îðãàíèçîâàëè íàì ñ ñ¸ñòðàìè îñâîáîæäåíèå îò øêîëû íà äâå íåäåëè, ÷òîáû îòïðàâèòüñÿ âñåé ñåìü¸é â ïóòåøåñòâèå èç Àíãëèè â Ãðåöèþ. Ïî äîðîãå ñëó÷èëîñü íå÷òî, ÷òî ñåé÷àñ íåâîçìîæíî ñåáå äàæå ïðåäñòàâèòü: óëûáàþùàÿñÿ ñòþàðäåññà ïðîâåëà ìåíÿ ïî ïðîõîäó, à çàòåì ÷åðåç îòêðûòóþ äâåðü êàáèíû, ÷òîáû ÿ ìîã ïîçíàêîìèòüñÿ ñ ïèëîòàìè. Îíè ïîãîâîðèëè ñî ìíîé íåìíîãî, ïîñëå ÷åãî ÿ îòïðàâèëñÿ îáðàòíî, îõâà÷åííûé áëàãîãîâåéíûì òðåïåòîì, à ó

K o r e a n a ı Âåñíà 2 0 1 4

23


ìåíÿ â ðóêàõ áûëà êðóãëàÿ íàêëåéêà ñ èçîáðàæåíèåì óëûáàþùåãîñÿ êàðòîííîãî ñàìîë¸òèêà, êàê äîêàçàòåëüñòâî ìîåãî ïðèêëþ÷åíèÿ. Òåïåðü ïîë¸òû ñòàëè äðóãèìè. Ðåàëüíûå è âîîáðàæàåìûå òåððîðèñòè÷åñêèå óãðîçû çàêðûëè äâåðè êàáèí è óæåñòî÷èëè ïðàâèëà íà çåìëå è â âîçäóõå. Ïðåäñòàâèòåëè ðàñòóùåãî êàê ãðèáû ñðåäíåãî êëàññà íàñëàæäàþòñÿ íåäàâíî îáðåò¸ííûìè âîçìîæíîñòÿìè ïóòåøåñòâèé ïî âñåìó ìèðó, ñîçäàâàÿ íîâóþ îòðàñëü áèçíåñà è çàñòàâëÿÿ àýðîïîðòû ðàáîòàòü íà ïðåäåëå âîçìîæíîñòåé. Ìíîãèå ïèëîòû óòâåðæäàþò, ÷òî òåïåðü èõ ðàáîòà íå î÷åíü îòëè÷àåòñÿ îò òðóäîâûõ áóäíåé âîäèòåëÿ àâòîáóñà. Ïàññàæèðû ñêðèïÿò çóáàìè îò òîãî, ÷òî â ñàëîíå ýêîíîìêëàññà ñòàíîâèòñÿ âñ¸ ìåíüøå ìåñòà äëÿ íîã, ïî ìåðå òîãî êàê ïîåçäêè â ýêîíîì-êëàññå ñòàíîâÿòñÿ êàê íèêîãäà ýêîíîìè÷íûìè äëÿ ïåðåâîç÷èêîâ. Àýðîïîðòû è ñàìîë¸òû ïåðåñòàëè áûòü îêóòàíû íàë¸òîì òàèíñòâåííîñòè. Òàê ÷òî ýòî çíà÷èò — áûòü ëó÷øèì àýðîïîðòîì â ìèðå? ×òî åù¸ íóæíî ëþäÿì, êðîìå êàê äîáðàòüñÿ êàê ìîæíî áûñòðåå è óäîáíåå îò âçë¸òíîé ïîëîñû äî öåíòðà ãîðîäà, èëè îò ñòîéêè ðåãèñòðàöèè äî ñàëîíà ñàìîë¸òà? Çà÷åì êîìó-íèáóäü âîîáùå ìîæåò çàõîòåòüñÿ ïðî÷åñòü ñòàòüþ îá àýðîïîðòå?

Íåâèäèìûé àýðîïîðò Äëÿ àýðîïîðòà ñïèñîê õàðàêòåðèñòèê, íåîáõîäèìûõ äëÿ ïîääåðæàíèÿ áåñïåðåáîéíîãî è íåíàâÿç÷èâîãî ôóíêöèîíèðîâàíèÿ, áóäåò óñòðàøàþùå äëèííûì. Êëèåíòû òðåáóþò îïåðàòèâíîñòè, óäîáñòâà, âåæëèâîãî è ãðàìîòíîãî îáñëóæèâàíèÿ, íàä¸æíîñòè, ïîíÿòíîé è òî÷íîé èíôîðìàöèè. È áåçîïàñíîñòè. Êàæäàÿ äëèííàÿ î÷åðåäü, íåëþáåçíûé ñîòðóäíèê, ñëèøêîì äîòîøíàÿ ïðîâåðêà áåçîïàñíîñòè, ãðÿçíûé òóàëåò, äåçîðèåíòèðóþùèé óêàçàòåëü, ïîòåðÿííûé áàãàæ, âûòàùåííûé èç êàðìàíà êîøåë¸ê, ìèíóòà ñêóêè, îòñóòñòâèå ìåñòà, ÷òîáû ïðèñåñòü, è ðàçî÷àðîâûâàþùèé íàáîð ìàãàçèíîâ ñòàíîâÿòñÿ «ìèíóñîì» èëè ïîâîäîì äëÿ ïîñëåäóþùåãî ðàññêàçà î íåóäà÷íîì îïûòå. Ñíàðóæè, íà ïîêðûòèè èç òàðìàêàäàìà âûñîêîñêîðîñòíûå êàïñóëû, çàáèòûå ëþäüìè è ãðóçàìè, äîëæíû áûòü áåçîïàñíî äîñòàâëåíû â íåáî è îáðàòíî êàæäûå íåñêîëüêî ìèíóò áåç çàäåðæåê è áåñïîðÿäêà. Âûäà÷à áàãàæà äîëæíà ïðîèçâîäèòüñÿ îïåðàòèâíî è îáñòîÿòåëüíî. Äî öåíòðà ãîðîäà äîëæíî áûòü ëåãêî äîáðàòüñÿ. Êàæäûé íåïðåäâèäåííûé ñáîé äîëæåí áûòü óñòðàí¸í áûñòðî è ýôôåêòèâíî, ÷òîáû îí íå óñïåë ñêàçàòüñÿ íà ðàáîòå âñåãî ïðåäïðèÿòèÿ. Âîçìîæíî, ïðè÷èíà òîãî, ÷òî ÿ òàê öåíþ èí÷õîíñêèé àýðîïîðò, ñîñòîèò â òîì, ÷òî ìíå ïðèøëîñü ñòàëêèâàòüñÿ ñ íåîáúÿñíèìî ïëîõèìè àýðîïîðòàìè â ðàçâèòûõ ñòðàíàõ. È ïîýòîìó ìíå î÷åíü òÿæåëî âîñïðèíèìàòü êà÷åñòâî ðàáîòû ýòîãî àýðîïîðòà êàê íå÷òî ñàìî ñîáîé ðàçóìåþùååñÿ. Èí÷õîíñêèé àýðîïîðò òàê õîðîø âî ìíîãîì ïîòîìó, ÷òî âñ¸ çäåñü ðàáîòàåò, êàê õîðîøî îòëàæåííûé ìåõàíèçì, ìàêñèìàëüíî èçáàâëÿÿ ïóòåøåñòâåííèêîâ îò íåíóæíîé ñóåòû è «óòèðàÿ íîñ» áîëüøèíñòâó êîíêóðåíòîâ çà ðóáåæîì. Ê ïðèìåðó, àýðîïîðò Èí÷õîí ãîðäèòñÿ òåì, ÷òî â í¸ì ïðîöåäóðà ïàñïîðòíîãî êîíòðîëÿ ïðè âúåçäå è âûåçäå çàíèìàåò ñàìîå êîðîòêîå âðåìÿ â ìèðå. Ñîãëàñíî ðåêîìåíäàöèÿì Ìåæäóíàðîäíîé îðãàíèçàöèè ãðàæäàíñêîé àâèàöèè ñðåäíåå âðåìÿ ïàñïîðòíîãî êîíòðîëÿ äîëæíî ñîñòàâëÿòü 60 è 45 ìèíóò äëÿ âûåçäà è âúåçäà ñîîòâåòñòâåííî, òîãäà êàê â èí÷õîíñêîì àýðîïîðòó ýòè öèôðû ñîñòàâëÿþò 19 è 12 ìèíóò. Ïîñëå ïðîõîæäåíèÿ ïðîöåäóðû âúåçäà áàãàæ îïåðàòèâíî ïðèáûâàåò íà ëåíòû âûäà÷è. Àâòîáóñû è àýðîýêñïðåññû îòõîäÿò ðåãóëÿðíî, ïðè ýòîì â íèõ ÷èñòî, à öåíû íà áèëåòû óìåðåííûå. Âëàñòè àýðîïîðòà ñ÷èòàþò çàëîãîì óñïåõà ñâîåãî ïðåäïðèÿòèÿ õîðîøî îòëàæåííóþ êîîðäèíàöèþ è îáùåíèå ìåæäó 900 îðãàíèçàöèÿìè è ïðèìåðíî 40000 ñîòðóäíèêîâ, êîòîðûå îáåñïå÷èâàþò ôóíêöèîíèðîâàíèå àýðîïîðòà. Îíè ñ÷èòàþò, ÷òî èõ àýðîïîðòó óäà¸òñÿ óäåðæèâàòü âûñîêóþ ïëàíêó áëàãîäàðÿ ðàçäåëÿåìîìó âñåìè ñëóæàùèìè òâ¸ðäîìó íàìåðåíèþ ïðåäëîæèòü ëó÷øåå îáñëóæèâàíèå â ìèðå.  îáû÷íîå âðåìÿ ÿ âîñïðèíÿë áû ýòî êàê ìàëîçíà÷àùóþ êîðïîðàòèâíóþ áðàâàäó, íî äåëî â òîì, ÷òî çäåñü áîëüøóþ ÷àñòü âðåìåíè ýòî, êàæåòñÿ, äåéñòâèòåëüíî ðàáîòàåò. Óëûáêè è îáñëóæèâàíèå, îðèåíòèðîâàííîå íà êëèåíòîâ, òåì íå ìåíåå, íå çàìåíÿò ñîáîé êîìïåòåíòíîñòü. Àýðîïîðòó ïðåêðàñíî óäà¸òñÿ ñî÷åòàòü ëþáåçíîñòü è äðóæåëþáèå ñîòðóäíèêîâ ñî ñòàáèëüíî õîðîøèì ìåíåäæìåíòîì. È èìåííî òóò, åñëè áû ÿ ëþáèë îáîáùåíèÿ, ÿ íà÷àë áû ïðåâîçíîñèòü âñåõ êîðåéöåâ çà èõ ñïîñîáíîñòü ñî÷åòàòü ðàáîòó â èåðàðõè÷åñêîé îðãàíèçàöèè ñ îïåðàòèâíîñòüþ ìûøëåíèÿ, õîðîøèìè íàâûêàìè ðàçðåøåíèÿ ïðîáëåì, ÷óâñòâîì ëè÷íîé îòâåòñòâåííîñòè è — ÿ íå çíàþ òî÷íî, êàêèì ñëîâîì ýòî íóæíî íàçâàòü, — æåëàíèåì è óìåíèåì äîáèòüñÿ ðåçóëüòàòà. Ýòî ïðîÿâëÿåòñÿ â ìèëëèîíå ìåëî÷åé: îäèí äðóã-àìåðèêàíåö ðàññêàçàë ìíå, êàê îí áûë óäèâë¸í, êîãäà ñîòðóäíèê àýðîïîðòà ïîìîã åìó çàáðàòü åãî ìîáèëüíûé òåëåôîí, îñòàâëåííûé â ñàìîë¸òå.  ÑØÀ òàêîå áûëî áû ïðàêòè÷åñêè íåâîçìîæíî â ñèëó æ¸ñòêèõ ïðàâèë. È õîòÿ ýòî ïðîñòî ìàëåíüêèé ïðèìåð, îí ãîâîðèò îá îòíîøåíèè, êîòîðîå, áóäó÷è ïîìíîæåíî íà 40000 ÷åëîâåê, ìîæåò ñîçäàòü êóëüòóðó èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ çäðàâîãî ñìûñëà è ýôôåêòèâíîãî îáùåíèÿ, ÷òîáû îáåñïå÷èòü âûïîëíåíèå âñåõ çàäà÷, ïîääåðæèâàÿ âñþ ñèñòåìó â ïîñòîÿííîì äâèæåíèè è íå äîïóñêàÿ âîçíèêíîâåíèÿ çàòîðîâ.

Âèäèìûé àýðîïîðò Ìåæäóíàðîäíûé àýðîïîðò Èí÷õîí — ýòî íå òîëüêî ÷àñòü èíôðàñòðóêòóðû, íî è ñàì ïî ñåáå òîæå ñòðóêòóðà. Áóäó÷è èñòî÷íèêîì ïåðâîãî âïå÷àòëåíèÿ î Êîðåå äëÿ ìíîãèõ ïóòåøåñòâåííèêîâ, îí äîëæåí îáëàäàòü íåêîòîðûì ñòèëåì. Ïîäîáíî ìíîãèì äðóãèì àçèàòñêèì àýðîïîðòàì, âûñòðîåííûì çà íåñêîëüêî ïîñëåäíèõ äåñÿòèëåòèé (ê ïðèìåðó, àýðîïîðò Êàíñàé â Îñàêå, ñïðîåêòèðîâàííûé àðõèòåêòîðîì Ðåíöî Ïèàíî, è àýðîïîðò â Ãîíêîíãå, ïîñòðîåííûé ïî ïðîåêòó áþðî Foster and Partners), åìó ïîâåçëî áûòü ñîçäàííûì íà îñíîâå ýñêèçà, íà ñäåëàííîì ïîä çàêàç õîëñòå, çà îäèí ïðè¸ì.  ñðàâíåíèè ñ àýðîïîðòîì Õèòðîó â Àíãëèè, êîòîðûé, íà÷àâøèñü â 1930-õ ãîäàõ ñ âçë¸òíîé ïîëîñû íà ó÷àñòêå êîììåð÷åñêîãî îãîðîäà, ðåêâèçèðîâàííîãî ïðè ñîìíèòåëüíûõ îáñòîÿòåëüñòâàõ, è

24

1 Áëàãîäàðÿ ñèñòåìå êîìïüþòåðíîãî ïàñïîðòíîãî êîíòðîëÿ àýðîïîðò Èí÷õîí ìîæåò ãîðäèòüñÿ òåì, ÷òî â í¸ì ýòà ïðîöåäóðà (êàê ïðè âúåçäå, òàê è âûåçäå) çàíèìàåò ñàìîå êîðîòêîå âðåìÿ â ìèðå. 2  çîíå âûäà÷è áàãàæà ñïåöèàëüíî îáó÷åííûå ñîáàêè ñëóæáû êàðàíòèíà æèâîòíûõ è ôèòîêîíòðîëÿ àýðîïîðòà «îáñëåäóþò» ÷åìîäàíû è ñóìêè ïàññàæèðîâ. 3 Îáùèé âèä çîíû âûëåòà àýðîïîðòà Èí÷õîí.

Êîðåéñêàÿ êóëüòóðà è èñêóññòâî


1 2

Âëàñòè àýðîïîðòà ñ÷èòàþò çàëîãîì óñïåõà ñâîåãî ïðåäïðèÿòèÿ õîðîøî îòëàæåííóþ êîîðäèíàöèþ è îáùåíèå ìåæäó 900 îðãàíèçàöèÿìè è ïðèìåðíî 40000 ñîòðóäíèêîâ, êîòîðûå îáåñïå÷èâàþò ôóíêöèîíèðîâàíèå àýðîïîðòà. Îíè ñ÷èòàþò, ÷òî èõ àýðîïîðòó óäà¸òñÿ óäåðæèâàòü âûñîêóþ ïëàíêó áëàãîäàðÿ ðàçäåëÿåìîìó âñåìè ñëóæàùèìè òâ¸ðäîìó íàìåðåíèþ ïðåäëîæèòü ëó÷øåå îáñëóæèâàíèå â ìèðå.

3

K o r e a n a ı Âåñíà 2 0 1 4

25


íåñêîëüêèõ ïàëàòîê â êà÷åñòâå çäàíèé àýðîïîðòà, òåïåðü ðàçðîññÿ äî ñâàëåííûõ â îäíó êó÷ó ïÿòè òåðìèíàëîâ, ýòîò ôàêò îïðåäåë¸ííî íå ñëåäóåò íåäîîöåíèâàòü. Åñëè îñòàâèòü â ñòîðîíå ñïîðíûå ìîìåíòû ñ òî÷êè çðåíèÿ çàùèòû îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäû, øèðîêèé ó÷àñòîê çåìëè, îòâî¸âàííûé ó ìîðÿ, ïîçâîëèë íå òîëüêî ïîñòðîèòü óçíàâàåìûé òåðìèíàë â ôîðìå âûòÿíóòîãî ïîëóìåñÿöà, â êîòîðîì ðàñïîëîæèëàñü çîíà ïðèë¸òà, çîíà âûëåòà è ðàçíîîáðàçíàÿ èíôðàñòðóêòóðà äëÿ îòäûõà è äîñóãà, íî òàêæå ñäåëàë âîçìîæíûìè ïëàíû ðàñøèðåíèÿ â äîëãîñðî÷íîé ïåðñïåêòèâå. Åñëè íà ìîìåíò îòêðûòèÿ â 2001 ãîäó àýðîïîðò áûë îáîðóäîâàí äâóìÿ âçë¸òíî-ïîñàäî÷íûìè ïîëîñàìè, òî òåïåðü èõ òðè è â êîíå÷íîì èòîãå ìîæåò ñòàòü öåëûõ ïÿòü. Íåäàâíî íà÷àëîñü ñòðîèòåëüñòâî âòîðîãî òåðìèíàëà, êîòîðûé äîëæåí áûòü ñäàí â ýêñïëóàòàöèþ â 2017 ãîäó, ÷òîáû ñïðàâèòüñÿ ñî ñòàáèëüíî ðàñòóùèì ïîòîêîì ïàññàæèðîâ è ãðóçîâ. Âîçìîæíîñòü òâîðèòü ñ áåëîãî ëèñòà â ñî÷åòàíèè ñ òåì, ÷òî âûãëÿäèò êàê àêòèâíàÿ ïîääåðæêà ïðàâèòåëüñòâà ñ öåëüþ ïðåâðàòèòü àýðîïîðò â ðåãèîíàëüíûé «ìåãààýðîóçåë», äà¸ò äèçàéíåðàì øàíñ ñîçäàòü íå÷òî ïî-íàñòîÿùåìó âåëèêîå.  îáëèê íûíåøíåãî òåðìèíàëà, ñïðîåêòèðîâàííîãî áþðî Fentress Architects, óäàëîñü äåëèêàòíî âêëþ÷èòü íåñêîëüêî ýëåìåíòîâ êóëüòóðíîãî íàñëåäèÿ Êîðåè, òàêèõ êàê ïëàâíûå ëèíèè êðûøè è èñïîëüçîâàíèå ìåñòíîé ðàñòèòåëüíîñòè, â ÷àñòíîñòè êðàñíûõ ñîñåí, êë¸íîâ è àçàëèé (ìíîãèå èç íèõ âíóòðè ïîìåùåíèÿ). Ê ñ÷àñòüþ, äèçàéíåðàì óäàëîñü ñäåëàòü ýòî îáîéäÿñü áåç êëèøå è ñîõðàíèâ ïðè ýòîì âåðíîñòü ôóíêöèîíàëüíîñòè çäàíèÿ ïðè ïîìîùè ñäåðæàííîãî ñî÷åòàíèÿ áåòîíà, ñòàëè è ñòåêëà.  êîíñòðóêöèè òåðìèíàëà íåò íè÷åãî îøåëîìëÿþùåãî èëè ìîíóìåíòàëüíîãî, íî â íåé åñòü óðàâíîâåøåííîñòü è ìàññà íåäîîöåí¸ííîé ýëåãàíòíîñòè, ñîçäàþùåé èäåàëüíîå ñî÷åòàíèå âèäèìîñòè, òî åñòü âíåøíåãî âïå÷àòëåíèÿ, è íåâèäèìîñòè, ñîñòîÿùåé â òîì, ÷òîáû ïîääåðæèâàòü âñå ôóíêöèè àýðîïîðòà è íå ìåøàòü íè îäíîé èç íèõ.  ñòðåìëåíèè ñîõðàíèòü ñâî¸ ìåñòî ñðåäè ëó÷øèõ àýðîïîðòîâ ìèðà â ñèòóàöèè îáîñòðèâøåéñÿ êîíêóðåíöèè àýðîïîðò Èí÷õîí ïðåäëàãàåò ñâîèì êëèåíòàì îãðîìíûé íàáîð ïðèÿòíûõ óäîáñòâ, òàêèõ êàê ìóçåè, öåíòðû çíàêîìñòâà ñ êóëüòóðîé, âíóòðåííèå ñàäû, áîëüøîå êîëè÷åñòâî ìàãàçèíîâ è ðåñòîðàíîâ, êèíîçàë, ëåäîâûé êàòîê, ñïà-öåíòð ñ êîìíàòàìè äëÿ ñíà è ò.ä. Ñóäÿ ïî âñåìó, ýòî ïðèøëîñü îñîáåííî ïî äóøå òðàíçèòíûì ïàññàæèðàì, êîòîðûå ïðèçâàíû ñûãðàòü êëþ÷åâóþ ðîëü â òîì, ÷òîáû àýðîïîðò ñòàë âàæíûì òðàíñïîðòíûì óçëîì. Òåðìèíàë 2, ñïðîåêòèðîâàííûé êîíñîðöèóìîì, â ñîñòàâ êîòîðîãî ïîìèìî ïðî÷èõ âîøëè àðõèòåêòóðíûå áþðî Heerim Architects è Gensler, ñîãëàñíî âåá-ñàéòó Gensler, äîëæåí ñòàòü «ìèðîâûì ýòàëîíîì â äåëå îáåñïå÷åíèÿ ë¸ãêîãî, êîìôîðòíîãî è ïðèÿòíîãî ïóòåøåñòâèÿ áëàãîäàðÿ îáøèðíûì âíóòðåííèì ñàäàì, ìàãàçèíàì êëàññà

1 Íà òåððèòîðèè àýðîïîðòà Èí÷õîí ïîñòîÿííî ïðîâîäÿò ðàçíîîáðàçíûå êóëüòóðíûå ìåðîïðèÿòèÿ äëÿ ïàññàæèðîâ è îáû÷íûõ ïîñåòèòåëåé. 2 Àýðîïîðò Èí÷õîí çàíèìàåò äåâÿòîå ìåñòî â ìèðå ïî îáú¸ìó åæåãîäíîãî ïàññàæèðîïîòîêà.  2013 ã. áîëåå 40 ìëí. ïàññàæèðîâ âîñïîëüçîâàëèñü óñëóãàìè ýòîãî àýðîïîðòà.

1

26

Êîðåéñêàÿ êóëüòóðà è èñêóññòâî


“ëþêñ” è âñåãî 13 ìèíóòàì âðåìåíè, êîòîðîå ïîòðåáóåòñÿ íà ïóòü îò ïîåçäà äî âûõîäà íà ïîñàäêó». Îáå ñòîðîíû, êàê êëèåíò â ëèöå àýðîïîðòà, òàê è èñïîëíèòåëü â ëèöå äèçàéíåðîâ, ïîä÷¸ðêèâàþò ýêîëîãè÷åñêè ÷èñòûé õàðàêòåð íîâîãî òåðìèíàëà, õîòÿ â ñâåòå îãðîìíîãî îáú¸ìà ñàìîë¸òíûõ âûõëîïîâ, ñîçäàþùèõ ïàðíèêîâûé ýôôåêò, ýòî, íàâåðíîå, íå èìååò áîëüøîãî çíà÷åíèÿ.

Áóäóùåå Ëþäè, ïîìåøàííûå íà èíôðàñòðóêòóðå, íàâåðíîå, áóäóò ðàçî÷àðîâàíû òåì, ÷òî â ýôôåêòíûõ èçãèáàõ òðàíñïîðòíîãî öåíòðà àýðîïîðòà, êîòîðûå îòäàþò ôóòóðîëîãèåé îáðàçöà 1960-õ ãîäîâ, íå ïðèòàèëàñü ñòàíöèÿ äëÿ ïîåçäà íà ìàãíèòíîé ïîäâåñêå, ãîòîâîãî ðâàíóòü ñòðåëîé ê ñåðäöó Ñåóëà. Ìåíÿ íåñêîëüêî óäèâèëî, ÷òî Êîðåþ, èçâåñòíóþ ñâîèì äóõîì ñîðåâíîâàíèÿ, íå ïîäñòåãíóëî ïîÿâëåíèå â Øàíõàå â äåêàáðå 2002 ãîäà òàêîãî ïîåçäà, êîòîðîìó òðåáóåòñÿ âñåãî 8 ìèíóò, ÷òîáû äîñòàâèòü ñâîèõ ïàññàæèðîâ äî îáû÷íîãî ãîðîäñêîãî ìåòðî. Íî íåëüçÿ èìåòü âñ¸. Ïîêà ïàññàæèðû ìîãóò íàäåÿòüñÿ íà áóäóùåå ðàñøèðåíèå ñåòè âûñîêîñêîðîñòíûõ ïîåçäîâ KTX äî àýðîïîðòà, õîòÿ â ñèëó ñïåöèôèêè ñàìèõ æ/ä ïóòåé âðåìÿ â ïóòè âðÿä ëè áóäåò íàìíîãî êîðî÷å, ÷åì íûíåøíèå 40 ìèíóò íà àýðîýêñïðåññå. Ñïîðíûå ïëàíû î ïðèâàòèçàöèè àýðîïîðòà âèòàþò â âîçäóõå â ðàçíûõ âàðèàöèÿõ íà ïðîòÿæåíèè íåñêîëüêèõ ëåò. Âëàñòè àýðîïîðòà îòêàçûâàþòñÿ îòâå÷àòü íà âîïðîñû îá ýòîì — êòî çíàåò, ÷òî ïðèíåñ¸ò ïðèâàòèçàöèÿ, åñëè îíà âñå-òàêè ïðîèçîéä¸ò? Îíà çàêîí÷èëàñü ïëà÷åâíî äëÿ íåñêîëüêèõ åâðîïåéñêèõ æåëåçíîäîðîæíûõ êîðïîðàöèé, íî ñòîðîííèêè ïðèâàòèçàöèè óêàçûâàþò, ÷òî â ñëó÷àå àýðîïîðòîâ ðåçóëüòàòû ãîðàçäî áîëåå îáíàä¸æèâàþùèå. È ïîêà áóäóò ïðèëàãàòüñÿ âñå âîçìîæíûå óñèëèÿ äëÿ òîãî, ÷òîáû ñîõðàíèòü ìåñòî â ÷èñëå ëó÷øèõ àýðîïîðòîâ ìèðà è ðåïóòàöèþ àýðîïîðòà ñ ïðåâîñõîäíûì îáñëóæèâàíèåì, âîçìîæíî, ïàññàæèðû íè÷åãî íå ïîòåðÿþò, äàæå åñëè àýðîïîðò ïåðåéä¸ò â ÷àñòíûå ðóêè. Åñëè òîëüêî ÷åëîâå÷åñòâî íå ðåøèò âåðíóòüñÿ ê ïîë¸òàì íà äèðèæàáëÿõ, ïîòåðÿ ðîìàíòèêè, ê êîòîðîé ïðèâåëè ïóòåøåñòâèÿ ïî âîçäóõó, âåðîÿòíî, áóäåò íåîáðàòèìîé.  ýòèõ îáñòîÿòåëüñòâàõ âñ¸, ÷òî ìîæåò ïðåäëîæèòü àýðîïîðò, — ýòî óäîáñòâî, ìèíèìóì ñóåòû, ïðèÿòíàÿ ñðåäà è øàíñ ïî-íàñòîÿùåìó ðàññëàáèòüñÿ, ïðèïðàâëåííûå ïîòðåáèòåëüñêîé ýéôîðèåé îò íàáåãà íà ìàãàçèíû «äüþòè-ôðè». Ìåæäóíàðîäíûé àýðîïîðò Èí÷õîí îáåñïå÷èâàåò âñ¸ ýòî íà âûñøåì óðîâíå. È ýòî òî, ÷òî ìíå â í¸ì íðàâèòñÿ. À åñëè âû æàæäåòå ðîìàíòè÷åñêîé ïîåçäêè, òî âñåãäà ìîæíî îòïðàâèòüñÿ íà ïðè÷àë è ñïëàâàòü íà êîðàáëå â Êèòàé èëè ê îäíîìó èç ïðèáðåæíûõ îñòðîâîâ.

2

K o r e a n a ı Âåñíà 2 0 1 4

27


Ãëàâíàÿ òåìà íîìåðà-5

Æèâàÿ ýêîëîãè÷åñêàÿ ñîêðîâèùíèöà: îñòðîâà â ìîðå ïåðåä Èí÷õîíîì  ìîðå ïåðåä Èí÷õîíîì íàõîäèòñÿ áîëåå 130 áîëüøèõ è ìàëûõ îñòðîâ. Áîëåå ìèëëèîíà ÷åëîâåê â ãîä îòïðàâëÿþòñÿ èç èí÷õîíñêîãî ïîðòà ê ýòèì îñòðîâàì. Òàì ñîõðàíèëàñü ïåðâîçäàííàÿ ïðèðîäà è àðõåòèï ÷åëîâå÷åñêîé æèçíè, êîòîðóþ ìû ïîòåðÿëè. Ïîýòîìó ýòè îñòðîâà ïåðåä Èí÷õîíîì åñòü «ñòàðîå áóäóùåå» ýòîãî ãîðîäà. Êàí ×æåþí, ïîýò, äèðåêòîð Îñòðîâíîé øêîëû Èíñòèòóòà Pressian Humanities | Ôîòîãðàôèè: Àí Õîíáîì, Õà ×æèíãâîí, Êâîí Òõýãþí

1

28

Êîðåéñêàÿ êóëüòóðà è èñêóññòâî


Ð

àçâå ìîæíî â äâóõ ñëîâàõ ïåðåñêàçàòü âñå èñòîðèè, êîòîðûå õðàíÿò ìíîãî÷èñëåííûå îñòðîâà ó ïîáåðåæüÿ Èí÷õîíà? Ïîýòîìó ÿ íà÷íó ñî ñòèõîòâîðåíèÿ. Íà ïîáåðåæüå Êîìûííàí îñòðîâà Òý÷õîí-äî äîðîãà èä¸ò âäîëü ñêàëû ïðÿìî â íåáî, Ñòàðèê, êîòîðûé ñàì ñêîðî îòïðàâèòñÿ íà íåáî, Âûõîäèò, ÷òîáû ðàçäîáûòü åäû äëÿ ñâîåé ïîñëåäíåé çåìíîé òðàïåçû. Îí ñîáèðàåò óñòðèöû, êîòîðûå ãóñòî îáëåïèëè ñêàëó. Êîãäà ëóíà ïîëíàÿ, óñòðèöû îáðàñòàþò ìÿñîì, êîãäà ëóíà íà èñõîäå — òîùàþò. Òàê è îñòðîâèòÿíå, ïîäîáíî óñòðèöàì, òî òîëñòåþò, òî õóäåþò. Îñòðîâèòÿíå — ïîòîìêè Ëóíû. Ëóíà, òî ïðèòÿãèâàÿ, òî îòïóñêàÿ ìîðñêóþ âîäó, âûðàùèâàåò â ìîðå ðàçíûå âåùè. À ëþäè, âûéäÿ â ìîðå, ëîâÿò ðûáó, ñîáèðàþò óñòðèöû è ìîëëþñêè — òåì è æèâóò. (Êàí ×æåþí. Ïîòîìêè ëóíû)

íåîáû÷íîãî ðàñòèòåëüíîãî ñîîáùåñòâà, â êîòîðîì ñîñóùåñòâóþò ðàñòåíèÿ ñóáòðîïèêîâ è ñóáàðêòè÷åñêîãî (ïðåäïîëÿðíîãî) ïîÿñà. Ïîáåðåæüå Êóðîï-òî ñàìî ïî ñåáå åñòü æèâîé ó÷åáíèê ãåîãðàôèè.  ÷àñòíîñòè, ðàñïîëîæåííûé ïðÿìî ïåðåä Êóðîï-òî ìàëåíüêèé íåîáèòàåìûé Êðîëè÷èé îñòðîâ, êîòîðûé ñîåäèíÿåòñÿ ñ Êóðîï-òî âî âðåìÿ îòëèâà, ñ÷èòàåòñÿ ìåñòîì ñ íàñòîëüêî âûñîêîé öåííîñòüþ ñîõðàíåíèÿ, ÷òî Àäìèíèñòðàöèÿ êóëüòóðíîãî íàñëåäèÿ îöåíèëà åãî êàê «æåì÷óæèíó òîïîãðàôèè áåðåãîâîé çîíû, ïîäîáíóþ êîòîðîé òðóäíî óâèäåòü ãäå-ëèáî âíóòðè ñòðàíû». Íà ýòîì îñòðîâå, êîòîðûé ñòàëè íàçûâàòü Êðîëè÷üèì, òàê êàê îäíî âðåìÿ ìåñòíûå æèòåëè ðàçâîäèëè íà í¸ì êðîëèêîâ, ñòîÿò ïðèáðåæíûå ñêàëû âûñîòîé â 20 ìåòðîâ, îòìå÷åííûå òîííåëÿìè, êîòîðûå âäàþòñÿ â ãëóáèíó íà 3-5 ìåòðîâ. Íî ïðîêîïàíû ýòè òîííåëè íå ýêñêàâàòîðàìè, à ñîëüþ, ñîäåðæàùåéñÿ â ìîðñêîé âîäå. Ýòî ñàìûå áîëüøèå â Êîðåå òîííåëè ïîäîáíîãî ðîäà. Îíè âîçíèêàþò â ðåçóëüòàòå äëèòåëüíîãî âîçäåéñòâèÿ íà ïðèáðåæíûå ñêàëû ñîë¸íîé ìîðñêîé âîäû, êîòîðàÿ, ðàñòâîðÿÿ ñêàëüíóþ ïîðîäó, âûìûâàåò â íåé ãëóáîêèå è óçêèå êàíàâû. È ñ ýòîé òî÷êè çðåíèÿ îñòðîâ Êóðîï-òî — ýòî èäåàëüíûé ñàä ñêóëüïòóð, ñîçäàííûõ ñàìîé ïðèðîäîé.

Ëåãåíäàðíûé ðûáíûé ðûíîê ¨íïõ¸í-äî Âóëêàíè÷åñêèé îñòðîâ Êóðîï-òî «Êàê ñîéä¸òå íà îñòðîâ — îñìîòðèòåñü âîêðóã. È âû óâèäèòå ïåéçàæ, êîòîðûé èçìåíÿëñÿ íà ïðîòÿæåíèè äåñÿòêà òûñÿ÷ ëåò, è ïîâñþäó — âûñòðîèâøèåñÿ â ðÿä ñêóëüïòóðû, âûòî÷åííûå âåòðîì, âîëíàìè, òóìàíîì è ñîë¸íîé ìîðñêîé âîäîé. Ëþäè âåäü êàê: åñëè ÷òî-òî ñäåëàíî èìè, òî (ïóñòü ýòîìó âñåãî êàêèõ-òî ñòî ëåò èñïîëíèëîñü) îáúÿâëÿþò ñâîèì êóëüòóðíûì íàñëåäèåì, à âîò ýòè ñêóëüïòóðû, êîòîðûå ïðèðîäà ñîçäàâàëà íà ïðîòÿæåíèè íåñêîëüêèõ ìèëëèàðäîâ ëåò, ñ÷èòàþò íèê÷¸ìíûìè. È ïîä ïðåäëîãîì ðàçâèòèÿ áåçäóìíî ðàçðóøàþò». Ýòè ãëóáîêîìûñëåííûå ñëîâà, ñêàçàííûå êàïèòàíîì ïàññàæèðñêîãî ñóäíà, êîòîðîå õîäèò äî îñòðîâà Êóðîï-òî, çàïàëè ìíå â äóøó. Îñòðîâ Êóðîï-òî, êîòîðûé îòíîñèòñÿ ê ïîñ¸ëêó Òîê÷îí-ì¸í (Òîê÷îê-ì¸í) óåçäà Îí÷æèí-ãóí ãîðîäà Èí÷õîí, ñîñòîèò èç òóôà, âîçíèêøåãî â ðåçóëüòàòå âóëêàíè÷åñêîé äåÿòåëüíîñòè â êîíöå ìåëîâîãî ïåðèîäà, òî÷íåå, â ìåçîçîéñêóþ ýðó, 90 ìëí. ëåò íàçàä. Ïåïåë, ïîäíÿâøèéñÿ â âîçäóõ ïîñëå âçðûâà âóëêàíà, çàòåì îñåë è èç åãî ìíîãî÷èñëåííûõ ñëî¸â ïîÿâèëñÿ íà ñâåò îñòðîâ. Ïîýòîìó åãî áåðåãà õðàíÿò èñòîðèþ ýðîçèè è ñëåäû âóëêàíè÷åñêîé äåÿòåëüíîñòè, êîãäà ñêàëû, ðàñêîëîâøèñü, ðàññûïàëèñü è ðàñòâîðÿëèñü â âîäå.  ýòîì ìåñòå îáèòàþò ìíîãèå âèäû ôàóíû, â ÷àñòíîñòè íàõîäÿùèéñÿ íà ãðàíè âûìèðàíèÿ äàëüíåâîñòî÷íûé êóëèêñîðîêà, êîòîðîãî îñòàëîñü ïðèìåðíî 10 òûñÿ÷ îñîáåé âî âñåì ìèðå, ñîêîë-ñàïñàí, âõîäÿùèé â Ñïèñîê ïðèðîäíûõ ïàìÿòíèêîâ Êîðåè ïîä íîìåðîì 323, ÷åðíîêëþâûé áåëûé àèñò (äàëüíåâîñòî÷íûé àèñò), ðàçíûå âèäû àìóðñêîãî ïîëîçà. Êðîìå òîãî, îñòðîâ îòëè÷àåò íàëè÷èå

Îñòðîâ ¨íïõ¸í-äî, ðàñïîëîæåííûé ðÿäîì ñ Ñåâåðíîé ðàçãðàíè÷èòåëüíîé ëèíèåé, ÿâëÿþùåéñÿ ìîðñêîé ãðàíèöåé ìåæäó äâóìÿ Êîðåÿìè, â ïîñëåäíåå âðåìÿ îáð¸ë øèðîêóþ èçâåñòíîñòü êàê îïàñíàÿ ñïîðíàÿ òåððèòîðèÿ ïîñëå äâóõ èíöèäåíòîâ íà ìîðå, ñëó÷èâøèõñÿ â 1999 è 2002 ãîäàõ, è àðòîáñòðåëà â 2010 ãîäó. È åñëè îò Èí÷õîíà äî íåãî äîâîëüíî äàëåêî — 122 êì, òî îò ñåâåðîêîðåéñêîãî ãîðîäà Õý÷æó îñòðîâ îòäåëÿåò â÷åòâåðî ìåíüøåå ðàññòîÿíèå — îêîëî 30 êì. ¨íïõ¸í-äî, áóäó÷è ìåñòîì îáèòàíèÿ æ¸ëòîãî ãîðáûëÿ, êîòîðîãî ïîêîðåéñêè íàçûâàþò «÷îãè», âñ¸ ýòî âðåìÿ ñ÷èòàëñÿ îäíèì èç âàæíåéøèõ îñòðîâîâ â èñòîðèè êîðåéñêîé ðûáîëîâíîé ïðîìûøëåííîñòè. Êîãäà ê îñòðîâó êîñÿêàìè ïðèïëûâàëè äåñÿòêè ìèëëèàðäîâ ãîðáûëÿ, ¨íïõ¸íäî ñòàíîâèëñÿ áóêâàëüíî çîëîòîé æèëîé äëÿ ðûáíîãî ïðîìûñëà. Ãîâîðèëè, ÷òî â òàêîå âðåìÿ â ìåñòíûõ ìîðñêèõ âîäàõ «íà êîâø âîäû ïðèõîäèëñÿ êîâø ãîðáûëÿ». Êàæäûé ãîä ñ íàñòóïëåíèåì ìàÿ æèòåëè ¨íïõ¸í-äî ïðîñûïàëèñü ïî íî÷àì îò «êâàêàíüÿ» êîñÿêîâ ãîðáûëÿ. Ñ íàñòóïëåíèåì ñåçîíà âûëîâà ýòîé ðûáû íà ¨íïõ¸í-äî îòêðûâàëñÿ ðûíîê «ïõàñè», ÷òî áóêâàëüíî îçíà÷àåò «ðûíîê íà âîëíàõ». Ïîäîáíûå ðûíêè, êîòîðûå ìèãðèðîâàëè âñëåä çà ïåðåìåùåíèåì êîñÿêîâ ðûáû, âðåìåííî îòêðûâàëèñü íà îñòðîâàõ èëè ïðÿìî â ìîðå.  òàêîå âðåìÿ ê îñòðîâó ïðèïëûâàëè òûñÿ÷è ðûáîëîâåöêèõ è òîðãîâûõ ñóäîâ, ïîýòîìó ãîâîðèëè, ÷òî ìîæíî «âçîéäÿ íà îäíî ñóäíî, ïðîéòèñü ïî òûñÿ÷è ñóäîâ, íå çàìî÷èâ íîã» — ïðîñòî ïåðåõîäÿ ñ ïàëóáû íà ïàëóáó. Ñ îòêðûòèåì ðûíêà «ïõàñè» ýòîò ìàëåíüêèé áåçëþäíûé îñòðîâ ïðåâðàùàëñÿ â

1 Áåðåãà îñòðîâà Êóðîïòî õðàíÿò èñòîðèþ ýðîçèè è ñëåäû âóëêàíè÷åñêîé äåÿòåëüíîñòè, êîãäà ñêàëû, ðàñêîëîâøèñü, ðàññûïàëèñü è ðàñòâîðÿëèñü â âîäå. 2 Ïîáåðåæüå Êýìîðè îñòðîâà Êóðîï-òî. Ðàíüøå íà ýòîé çåë¸íîé ðàâíèíå ïàñëèñü ñòàäà êîðîâ.

K o r e a n a ı Âåñíà 2 0 1 4

29

2


1

«Êàê ñîéä¸òå íà îñòðîâ — îñìîòðèòåñü âîêðóã. È âû óâèäèòå ïåéçàæ, êîòîðûé èçìåíÿëñÿ íà ïðîòÿæåíèè äåñÿòêà òûñÿ÷ ëåò, è ïîâñþäó — âûñòðîèâøèåñÿ â ðÿä ñêóëüïòóðû, âûòî÷åííûå âåòðîì, âîëíàìè, òóìàíîì è ñîë¸íîé ìîðñêîé âîäîé…» íàñòîÿùèé ãîðîä íà ìîðå, ãäå êèøåëè äåñÿòêè òûñÿ÷ ëþäåé: ìåñòíûå æèòåëè, ÷ëåíû êîìàíä ðûáîëîâåöêèõ ñóäîâ è òîðãîâöû. Îòêðûâàëè ñâîè äâåðè òàêæå áîëåå ñîòíè ïèòåéíûõ çàâåäåíèé ñ ñîìíèòåëüíîé ðåïóòàöèåé.  íèõ ïðèñëóæèâàëî áîëåå 500 äåâóøåê, êîòîðûõ íàçûâàëè «ìóëüñý» (âîäîïëàâàþùàÿ ïòèöà).  êîíöå àïðåëÿ 1943 ãîäà, êîãäà ðûíîê «ïõàñè» äîñòèãàë ñâîåãî ïèêà, âîêðóã îñòðîâà, ñîçäàâàÿ âïå÷àòëÿþùåå çðåëèùå, ñîáèðàëîñü áîëåå 5000 ñóäîâ, à îáú¸ì âûëîâëåííîãî ãîðáûëÿ â 1944 ãîäó ñîñòàâëÿë 9,7 ìëðä. øòóê.  1947 ãîäó âî âðåìÿ ðàáîòû ðûíêà «ïõàñè» êîëè÷åñòâî ðûáàêîâ, ìîáèëèçîâàííûõ äëÿ âûëîâà ðûáû â îñòðîâíûõ âîäàõ, äîñòèãàëî 90 òûñÿ÷ ÷åëîâåê. Ïðèøâàðòîâàííûå ñóäà ñíàáæàëèñü ñ îñòðîâà ïðîäîâîëüñòâèåì, âîäîé, äðîâàìè äëÿ òîïëèâà è ò.ä. Ìåñòíûå æåíùèíû èñïîëüçîâàëè ýòî âðåìÿ, ÷òîáû òîðãîâàòü ïèòüåâîé âîäîé. Âîäðóçèâ íà ãîëîâû êóâøèíû ñ âîäîé, îíè âûñòðàèâàëèñü âäîëü áåðåãà. Êîãäà çàêàí÷èâàëñÿ âûëîâ ðûáû, òîðãîâöû áåç âñÿêèõ ñîæàëåíèé ïîêèäàëè îñòðîâ, è ¨íïõ¸í-äî ñíîâà ïðåâðàùàëñÿ â òèõóþ ìàëîëþäíóþ ðûáàöêóþ äåðåâóøêó.  òå âðåìåíà êàçàëîñü, ÷òî ýòè «çîëîòûå äåíüêè» áóäóò äëèòüñÿ âå÷íî, íî â 1960-õ ãîäàõ èì íàñòàë êîíåö.  1968 ãîäó ïîÿâèëàñü

30

îãðàíè÷èòåëüíàÿ ëèíèÿ, çàïðåùàâøàÿ ðûáîëîâåöêèì ñóäàì âûõîäèòü â ìîðå ê ñåâåðó îò îñòðîâà. Ïðèìåðíî â òî æå âðåìÿ â ðåçóëüòàòå äëèòåëüíîãî ÷ðåçìåðíîãî ïðîìûñëà ðûáû îáú¸ìû âûëîâà ãîðáûëÿ ðåçêî ñîêðàòèëèñü. È, êàê áóäòî îäíîãî íåñ÷àñòüÿ áûëî íåäîñòàòî÷íî, íà÷èíàÿ ñ 1969 ãîäà â Ƹëòîì ìîðå (êîð. íàçâàíèå Çàïàäíîå ìîðå) íà÷àë óñòàíàâëèâàòüñÿ õîëîäíûé àòìîñôåðíûé ôðîíò, ïîýòîìó òåìïåðàòóðà âîäû âîêðóã îñòðîâà ïåðåñòàëà ïîäíèìàòüñÿ, è òîãäà ãîðáûëü ïåðåñòàë ïðîäâèãàòüñÿ íà ñåâåð, ïðåäïî÷èòàÿ îñòàâàòüñÿ â þæíûõ ìîðñêèõ âîäàõ, ãäå åãî òóò æå ïðèíÿëèñü îòëàâëèâàòü ñåòÿìè ìåñòíûå ðûáîëîâåöêèå ñóäà. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ãîðáûëü ïðîñòî ïåðåñòàë äîïëûâàòü äî îñòðîâà ¨íïõ¸í-äî.  ðåçóëüòàòå åù¸ íåäàâíî ìíîãî÷èñëåííûå êîñÿêè ãîðáûëÿ âñåãî çà íåñêîëüêî ëåò èñ÷åçëè áåç ñëåäà. À âñëåä çà íèì èñ÷åçëè è ðûáîëîâåöêèå, è òîðãîâûå ñóäà, êîòîðûå ðàíüøå ÷àñòî ïðèõîäèëè ê îñòðîâó. Ðûíîê «ïõàñè» òîæå óø¸ë â èñòîðèþ. Íà ýòîì ðàçäåë¸ííîì îñòðîâå, ãäå ïî-ïðåæíåìó öàðèò íàïðÿæåíèå, è ñåãîäíÿ ñî ñìîòðîâîé ïëîùàäêè Ìàíõÿí, ò.å. Íîñòàëüãèÿ, âèäíà ñåâåðîêîðåéñêàÿ çåìëÿ, êîòîðàÿ êàæåòñÿ òàêîé áëèçêîé, ÷òî ìîæíî äîòÿíóòüñÿ äî íå¸ ðóêîé. Êîðåéñêàÿ êóëüòóðà è èñêóññòâî


Òàèíñòâåííûé ïåñ÷àíûé îñòðîâ âîçëå È÷æàê-òî Îñòðîâ È÷æàê-òî, êîòîðûé îòíîñèòñÿ ê ïîñ¸ëêó ×àâîëü-ì¸í óåçäà Îí÷æèí-ãóí ãîðîäà Èí÷õîí, â ñòàðèíó íàçûâàëè È÷æîê-òî, ò.å. Ïèðàòñêèé îñòðîâ. Äåëî â òîì, ÷òî îäíî âðåìÿ íà ýòîì îñòðîâå äåéñòâèòåëüíî óñòðàèâàëè ñâîè òàéíûå ïðèñòàíèùà ÿïîíñêèå ïèðàòû, êîòîðûå â ïðîøëîì áûëè ñàìûìè îïàñíûìè ìîðñêèìè ðàçáîéíèêàìè â Ñåâåðî-Âîñòî÷íîé Àçèè. Òåïåðü ïèðàòîâ áîëüøå íåò, íî â ìîðå ïåðåä È÷æàê-òî åñòü îñòðîâ, êîòîðûé êàæäûé äåíü òî ïîÿâëÿåòñÿ, òî èñ÷åçàåò èç âèäó ïîäîáíî ìèðàæó. Ýòîò ïåñ÷àíûé îñòðîâ ïëîùàäüþ áîëåå 300 òûñ. «ïõ¸í» (îêîëî 100 òûñ. êâ. ì), êîòîðûé óõîäèò ïîä âîäó âî âðåìÿ ïðèëèâà, ÷òîáû ñíîâà ïîÿâèòñÿ íà ïîâåðõíîñòè ïîñëå ñõîäà âîäû, ëþäè ïðîçâàëè Ïõóëüäûí. Ïðîòÿíóâøèéñÿ íà 2,5 êì ñ âîñòîêà íà çàïàä è íà 1 êì ñ ñåâåðà íà þã, îí ïîõîæ íà ïóñòûíþ, îáðàçîâàâøóþñÿ íà ïîâåðõíîñòè ìîðÿ. È â ýòîì çðåëèùå ÷óâñòâóåòñÿ ðóêà Áîãà. Ðàíüøå âî âðåìÿ îòëèâà â ëóæàõ íà Ïõóëüäûíå ìîæíî áûëî ëåãêî ñîáèðàòü «çàïåðòûõ» â íèõ ãîëóáûõ êðàáîâ, êðåâåòîê, ïàëòóñà è ò.ä. Ýòîò ïåñ÷àíûé îñòðîâîê, áóäó÷è ê òîìó æå ìåñòîì íåðåñòà ðàçíîé ìîðñêîé æèâíîñòè, â òå÷åíèå äîëãîãî âðåìåíè êîðìèë îñòðîâèòÿí. Îäíàêî ñ

ðàçðåøåíèÿ âëàñòåé óåçäà Îí÷æèí-ãóí ãîðîäà Èí÷õîíà â ïðîøëîì íà ïðîòÿæåíèè áîëåå 10 ëåò çäåñü äîáûâàëè ïåñîê. Ïîýòîìó áîëüøàÿ ÷àñòü ïåñêà, îáðàçóþùåãî îñòðîâ, èñ÷åçëà, è êîãäà-òî îãðîìíûé Ïõóëüäûí, ïëîùàäü êîòîðîãî èçíà÷àëüíî ñîñòàâëÿëà 500 òûñÿ÷ «ïõ¸í», òåïåðü óìåíüøèëñÿ è íàñ÷èòûâàåò ÷óòü áîëåå 300 òûñÿ÷ «ïõ¸í». Ïîä äàâëåíèåì ìåñòíûõ æèòåëåé è ïðèðîäîîõðàííûõ îðãàíèçàöèé ïðàâèòåëüñòâî íàêîíåö ïðèçíàëî ýêîëîãè÷åñêóþ öåííîñòü è óíèêàëüíîñòü ïåéçàæà ýòîãî ìåñòà è â 2004 ãîäó îôèöèàëüíî îáúÿâèëî Ïõóëüäûí «çîíîé ñîõðàíåíèÿ ýêîëîãè÷åñêîé ñèñòåìû». Ñåé÷àñ ìåñòíîå ñîîáùåñòâî,

1 Ïõóëüäûí — ýòî ïåñ÷àíûé îñòðîâ ïëîùàäüþ áîëåå 300 òûñÿ÷ «ïõ¸í», êîòîðûé ïîÿâëÿåòñÿ â ìîðå ïåðåä îñòðîâîì È÷æàê-òî âî âðåìÿ îòëèâà.  2004 ã. îôèöèàëüíî îáúÿâëåí «çîíîé ñîõðàíåíèÿ ýêîëîãè÷åñêîé ñèñòåìû». 2 Ïÿòíèñòûå òþëåíè â ìîðå ïåðåä Òóìó÷æèíîì. Ãîâîðÿò, ÷òî â ïðîøëîì âñ¸ Çàïàäíîå ìîðå áûëî ìåñòîì ìàññîâîãî îáèòàíèÿ òþëåíåé, îäíàêî ñåé÷àñ îíè íàõîäÿòñÿ íà ãðàíè âûìèðàíèÿ. K o r e a n a ı Âåñíà 2 0 1 4

31

2


1

32

Êîðåéñêàÿ êóëüòóðà è èñêóññòâî


òàêæå ïðîíèêøèñü îñîçíàíèåì öåííîñòè ýòîãî îñòðîâà, âîçãëàâëÿåò äåÿòåëüíîñòü, íàïðàâëåííóþ íà åãî ñîõðàíåíèå. Íà ïëÿæå «×àãûí ïõóðàí» îñòðîâà È÷æàê-òî íàõîäèòñÿ ñàìàÿ äðåâíÿÿ ñêàëà â Þæíîé Êîðåå, ñôîðìèðîâàâøàÿñÿ 2,5 ìëðä. ëåò íàçàä. Îíà ñîñòîèò èç ìèãìàòèòà — ñëîæíîé ãîðíîé ïîðîäû, îáðàçîâàâøåéñÿ â ðåçóëüòàòå ïðîíèêíîâåíèÿ æèäêîé ìàãìû â òâ¸ðäûé ìàòåðèàë ìåòàìîðôè÷åñêèõ ïîðîä, — è ñ ýòîé òî÷êè çðåíèÿ îáëàäàåò èñêëþ÷èòåëüíîé âàæíîñòüþ äëÿ èçó÷åíèÿ èñòîðèè ýâîëþöèè çåìíîé êîðû íà Êîðåéñêîì ïîëóîñòðîâå.

Ñòðîìàòîëèòû îñòðîâà Ñî÷õîí-äî: îêàìåíåëîñòè, êîòîðûì ìèëëèàðä ëåò Îñòðîâ Ñî÷õîí-äî íàñòîëüêî íåâåëèê, ÷òî äàæå ìåäëåííûì øàãîì åãî ìîæíî îáîéòè ìåíüøå ÷åì çà äâà ÷àñà. Íà þãî-âîñòî÷íîì ïîáåðåæüå îñòðîâà íàõîäÿòñÿ çíàìåíèòûå Ïóí-áàâè, ò.å. Ïðèïóäðåííûå ñêàëû, êîòîðûå ñîñòîÿò èç ìðàìîðà. Ìðàìîð — ýòî, ïî ñóòè, ïåðåðîäèâøèé èçâåñòíÿê, è êîãäà åãî ïîâåðõíîñòü âûâåòðèâàåòñÿ, îíà ïðèîáðåòàåò áåë¸ñîñòü, êàê áóäòî å¸ ïðèïóäðèëè. Òàê ýòè ñêàëû è ïîëó÷èëè ñâî¸ íàçâàíèå.  îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ýòèõ ñêàë íàõîäÿòñÿ ñàìûå äðåâíèå â Êîðåå îêàìåíåëîñòè — ñòðîìàòîëèòû. Ýòî îêàìåíåâøèå öèàíîáàêòåðèè (ñèíå-çåë¸íûå áàêòåðèè), âîçðàñò êîòîðûõ äàòèðóåòñÿ ìèëëèàðäîì ëåò: îíè ñôîðìèðîâàëèñü çäåñü â ïîçäíèé ïåðèîä ïðîòåðîçîéñêîé ýðû. Âîîáùå, ñèíå-çåë¸íûå áàêòåðèè — ýòî ïåðâîáûòíûå ìèêðîîðãàíèçìû, êîòîðûå ïåðâûìè íà íàøåé ïëàíåòå îáðåëè ñïîñîáíîñòü ê ôîòîñèíòåçó, è ïðîèçîøëî ýòî ïðèìåðíî 2 ìëðä. ëåò íàçàä. Ôàêòè÷åñêè ýòè ñóùåñòâà, íà÷àâ ïðîèçâîäñòâî êèñëîðîäà, ñîçäàëè óñëîâèÿ äëÿ ïîÿâëåíèÿ íà Çåìëå äðóãèõ âèäîâ æèçíè. Ñîîáùàëîñü, ÷òî ñòðîìàòîëèòû âîçðàñòîì îêîëî 2 ìëðä. ëåò áûëè îáíàðóæåíû íà òåððèòîðèè Ñåâåðíîé Êîðåè, îäíàêî ñðåäè îêàìåíåëîñòåé, èìåþùèõñÿ â Þæíîé Êîðåå, òå, ÷òî íàõîäÿòñÿ íà Ñî÷õîí-äî, ÿâëÿþòñÿ ñàìèìè äðåâíèìè. Ýòî ïðèðîäíîå íàñëåäèå èìååò áîëüøóþ öåííîñòü ñ òî÷êè çðåíèÿ ãåîëîãèè. Îäíàêî ñ íàñòóïëåíèåì XX âåêà åìó áûë íàíåñ¸í çíà÷èòåëüíûé óùåðá.  ÷àñòíîñòè, èç-çà ôàáðè÷íîãî ïðîèçâîäñòâà çäåñü öèíîâîê ñ óçîðàìè, êîïèðîâàâøèìè ðèñóíîê ñòðîìàòîëèòîâ, ìíîãèå èç íèõ èñ÷åçëè. Ïî ñ÷àñòüþ, â 2009 ãîäó, ïóñòü è ñ çàïîçäàíèåì, ýòè îêàìåíåëîñòè áûëè îáúÿâëåíû ïðèðîäíûì ïàìÿòíèêîì ïîä íîìåðîì 508, è òåïåðü, ïîñëå òîãî êàê èõ çíà÷åíèå íàêîíåö áûëî äîëæíûì îáðàçîì îöåíåíî, îíè íàõîäÿòñÿ ïîä îõðàíîé ãîñóäàðñòâà.

 ìîðå ïåðåä Òóìó÷æèíîì âûñòðîèëèñü â ðÿä ñêàëüíûå îáðàçîâàíèÿ ðàçíîîáðàçíûõ ôîðì. Ýòè ñêàëû íîñÿò ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèå çàáàâíûå èìåíà, òàêèå êàê Áðàòüÿ, Ñëîí, Ñâå÷à, ñêàëà Áåññìåðòíûõ è ò.ä. Ïîñêîëüêó îíè íàïîìèíàþò ñîáîé ïðè÷óäëèâûå î÷åðòàíèÿ ãîð Êûìãàíñàí (èçâåñòíûõ êàê Àëìàçíûå ãîðû), èõ òàêæå íàçûâàþò «ãîðû Êûìãàíñàí Çàïàäíîãî ìîðÿ». Ïðîñëàâëåííûé È Äýãè, êîòîðûé â¸ë çà ñîáîé îòðÿäû îïîë÷åíöåâ âî âðåìÿ Èì÷æèíñêîé âîéíû, â êîíöå æèçíè áûë ñîñëàí íà ýòîò îñòðîâ è, áóäó÷è î÷àðîâàí âèäîì Òóìó÷æèíà, îïèñûâàÿ ñâîþ æèçíü â èçãíàíèè, ñ âîñõèùåíèåì íàçâàë ýòî ìåñòî «ïîñëåäíèì ïðîèçâåäåíèåì ñòàðîãî Áîãà». Îäíàêî ïðåêðàñíûé Òóìó÷æèí â òå÷åíèå äëèòåëüíîãî âðåìåíè òàêæå áûë ïðèñòàíèùåì ïèðàòîâ.  ìîðå ïåðåä Òóìó÷æèíîì îáèòàåò òðè âèäà õèùíèêîâ. Ýòî ëþäè, òþëåíè è áàêëàíû. Ïÿòíèñòûå òþëåíè, êîòîðûå çèìîé, âî âðåìÿ áðà÷íîãî ñåçîíà, îòïðàâëÿþòñÿ â ëåäÿíûå âîäû çàëèâà Ëÿîäîíã â Áîõàéñêîì ìîðå, ñ íàñòóïëåíèåì âåñíû âîçâðàùàþòñÿ ñþäà. Ãîâîðÿò, ÷òî â ïðîøëîì âñ¸ Çàïàäíîå ìîðå áûëî ìåñòîì ìàññîâîãî îáèòàíèÿ òþëåíåé, íî ñåé÷àñ îíè íàõîäÿòñÿ íà ãðàíè èñ÷åçíîâåíèÿ. Åäèíñòâåííûé êîíêóðåíò òþëåíåé â ìîðå ïåðåä Òóìó÷æèíîì — ýòî áàêëàíû. Îíè ñòðîÿò ãíåçäà íà ñêàëàõ Òóìó÷æèíà è ëîâÿò ðûáó, íûðÿÿ íà ãëóáèíó äî 40 ìåòðîâ. Íà ýòîì îñòðîâ, ãäå âñåãäà öàðèò âîåííàÿ íàïðÿæ¸ííîñòü, ïîñêîëüêó îí ÿâëÿåòñÿ ñïîðíîé òåððèòîðèåé, â ïîñëåäíåå âðåìÿ äóþò ìèðíûå âåòðû. Äåëî â òîì, ÷òî íà Ïýíí¸í-äî çàïóùåí ïðîåêò Peace Arts Residency, êîòîðûì ðóêîâîäèò îðãàíèçàöèÿ «Àðò-ïëàòôîðìà Èí÷õîíà», ÿâëÿþùàÿñÿ ìåñòíûì ôèëèàëîì Êóëüòóðíîãî ôîíäà Èí÷õîíà.  ðàìêàõ ýòîãî ïðîåêòà îñóùåñòâëÿåòñÿ ïîääåðæêà òâîð÷åñêîé äåÿòåëüíîñòè è îáìåíîâ ìåæäó õóäîæíèêàìè Êîðåè è çàðóáåæíûõ ñòðàí. Õóäîæíèêè èç Êîðåè, à òàêæå òàêèõ ñòðàí, êàê ÑØÀ, Êèòàé è ìíîãèõ äðóãèõ, æèâóò è ðàáîòàþò íà îñòðîâå íà ôîíå ðàçäåë¸ííîãî ìîðÿ. Íåò ñîìíåíèé, ÷òî èõ äåÿòåëüíîñòü áóäåò ñïîñîáñòâîâàòü îñëàáëåíèþ íàïðÿæ¸ííîñòè è óñòàíîâëåíèþ ìèðà ìåæäó Þãîì è Ñåâåðîì.

Ïýíí¸í-äî: «ïîñëåäíåå ïðîèçâåäåíèå ñòàðîãî Áîãà» Ìîðå, êîòîðîå, âîçìîæíî, çàâòðà ïðåðâ¸ò äâèæåíèå ñóäîâ, ñåãîäíÿ ñòàíîâèòñÿ ïðîõîäîì, âåäóùèì ê îñòðîâó. Îñòðîâ Ïýíí¸í-äî (Ïýêð¸í-äî) ðàñïîëîæåí äàëåêî íà ñåâåðå, íà øèðîòå ñåâåðîêîðåéñêîé ïðîâèíöèè Õâàíõý-äî. Îí áëèæå ê Ïõåíüÿíó, ÷åì ê Ñåóëó. Ïàññàæèðñêèå ñóäà, èäóùèå ê Ïýíí¸í-äî, äîëæíû äâèãàòüñÿ íà ñåâåð, îñòàâëÿÿ çà ñïèíîé îòíîñÿùèåñÿ ê ñåâåðîêîðåéñêîé ÷àñòè óåçäà Îí÷æèí-ãóí îñòðîâà, òàêèå êàê Ñóíâè-äî, Îõâà-äî, ×õàííèí-äî (×õàíðèí-äî), Ïèàì-äî, Êèðèí-äî, Ìààì-äî, à òàêæå òàêèå îñòðîâà óåçäà ×àí¸í-ãóí, êàê Âîëëý-äî (Âîëüíý-äî), Þê-òî è äðóãèå. Ïýíí¸í-äî â òå÷åíèå äëèòåëüíîãî âðåìåíè îòíîñèëñÿ ê óåçäó ×àí¸í-ãóí ïðîâèíöèè Õâàíõý-äî, íî ïîñëå ðàçäåëåíèÿ Êîðåè îí îêàçàëñÿ ïðèñîåäèí¸ííûì ê þæíîêîðåéñêîé ÷àñòè óåçäà Îí÷æèí-ãóí ãîðîäà Èí÷õîí. Îñòðîâ íàõîäèòñÿ íà ðàññòîÿíèè 229 êì îò Èí÷õîíà, íî âñåãî â 13,5 êì îò ñåâåðîêîðåéñêîãî ïèêà ×àíñàí. Ãëàâíàÿ äîñòîïðèìå÷àòåëüíîñòü Ïýíí¸í-äî — ýòî ïðè÷óäëèâîé ôîðìû ñêàëû, ðàñïîëîæåííûå ðÿäîì ñ óò¸ñîì Òóìó÷æèí. Òóìó÷æèí íàõîäèòñÿ íà ñàìîé êðàéíåé òî÷êå ñåâåðî-çàïàäíîé îêîíå÷íîñòè îñòðîâà. Îí ñìîòðèò íà ïèê ×àíñàí óåçäà ×àí¸í-ãóí Ñåâåðíîé Êîðåè.

1 Ñêàëû ïðè÷óäëèâîé ôîðìû ðÿäîì ñ óò¸ñîì Òóìó÷æèí íà îñòðîâå Ïýíí¸í-äî. 2 Ñáîð óñòðèö íà ïîáåðåæüå îñòðîâà Ïýíí¸í-äî. K o r e a n a ı Âåñíà 2 0 1 4

33

2


 öåíòpå âíèìàíèÿ

Îòêðûòèå Íàöèîíàëüíîãî ìóçåÿ ñîâðåìåííîãî èñêóññòâà â Ñåóëå 34

Êîðåéñêàÿ êóëüòóðà è èñêóññòâî


13

íîÿáðÿ 2013 ãîäà íà óëèöå Ñàì÷õîí-íî (Ñàì÷õîí-ðî; îêðóã ×îííî-ãó, Ñåóë), ïî ïðîøåñòâèè ÷åòûð¸õ ëåò, ïîòðåáîâàâøèõñÿ äëÿ ðåàëèçàöèè ïðîåêòà îáùåé ñòîèìîñòüþ 246 ìëðä. âîí, îòêðûëñÿ Íàöèîíàëüíûé ìóçåé ñîâðåìåííîãî èñêóññòâà. Íîâûé ìóçåé, ðàçìåñòèâøèéñÿ íà òð¸õ íàäçåìíûõ è òð¸õ ïîäçåìíûõ ýòàæàõ êîìïëåêñà çäàíèé îáùåé ïëîùàäüþ 52125 êâ. ì íà ó÷àñòêå çåìëè ïëîùàäüþ 27264 êâ. ì, òóò æå ñòàë íîâîé äîñòîïðèìå÷àòåëüíîñòüþ «Ñåóëà ê ñåâåðó îò ðåêè Õàí». Óæå â ïåðâûé æå äåíü â ìóçåå ïîáûâàëî 3900 ïîñåòèòåëåé, ïîýòîìó îæèäàåòñÿ, ÷òî âïðåäü ñðåäíÿÿ ïîñåùàåìîñòü ñîñòàâèò áîëåå 3000 ÷åëîâåê â äåíü.

Èñòîðè÷íîñòü ìåñòà Íà ìåñòå, ãäå âûðîñ íîâûé ìóçåé, â ýïîõó ×îñîí ðàñïîëàãàëîñü ×îí÷õèíáó — âåäîìñòâî, çàíèìàâøååñÿ äåëàìè êîðîëåâñêîé ñåìüè, à â ïåðèîä ÿïîíñêîé àííåêñèè — Ìåäèöèíñêàÿ øêîëà Êýéäç¸. Êðîìå òîãî, ïîñëå îñâîáîæäåíèÿ ýòó òåððèòîðèþ íà äëèòåëüíîå âðåìÿ ìîíîïîëèçèðîâàëè âîåííûå ó÷ðåæäåíèÿ. Çäåñü, â ÷àñòíîñòè, ðàñïîëàãàëàñü øòàá-êâàðòèðà Êîìàíäîâàíèÿ îáîðîíû è áåçîïàñíîñòè, çàíèìàâøåãîñÿ âîïðîñàìè îáåñïå÷åíèÿ âîåííîé áåçîïàñíîñòè ñòðàíû è âîåííîé êîíòððàçâåäêîé, è Ñåóëüñêèé îêðóæíîé âîåííûé ãîñïèòàëü. Ïîñêîëüêó äåÿòåëüíîñòü ýòèõ ó÷ðåæäåíèé òðåáîâàëà îñîáûõ ìåð îáåñïå÷åíèÿ áåçîïàñíîñòè, äîñòóï òóäà ïîñòîðîííèõ ëèö áûë ñòðîãî âîñïðåù¸í. Íà ýòîì ôîíå îòêðûòèå çäåñü ìóçåÿ îçíà÷àåò, ÷òî ýòîò ó÷àñòîê çåìëè, ñ áîãàòûì èñòîðè÷åñêèì ïðîøëûì è ðàñïîëîæåííûé â ñàìîì ñåðäöå ãîðîäà, íàêîíåö áûë âîçâðàù¸í íàðîäó. Ó÷èòûâàÿ äàííûå èñòîðè÷åñêèå ôàêòû, àäìèíèñòðàöèÿ áóäóùåãî ìóçåÿ îòäàëà ïðåäïî÷òåíèå ïðîåêòó, â ñîîòâåòñòâèè ñ êîòîðûì çäàíèÿ ìóçåÿ íå ïîäàâëÿëè áû ñâî¸ îêðóæåíèå, à ìîãëè áû åñòåñòâåííî ñëèòüñÿ ñ íèì. Êîìïëåêñ òðàäèöèîííûõ ñîîðóæåíèé, ãäå â ñâî¸ âðåìÿ ðàçìåùàëîñü ×îí÷õèíáó, â 1981 ãîäó áûë ïåðåíåñ¸í íà òåððèòîðèþ áëèçëåæàùåé áèáëèîòåêè ×îíäîê, îäíàêî â 2010 ãîäó áûë âîçâðàù¸í íà ïðåæíåå ìåñòî, ïîñëå òîãî êàê çäåñü â õîäå ðàñêîïîê áûë îáíàðóæåí îðèãèíàëüíûé ôóíäàìåíò ýòèõ ñòðîåíèé. Êðîìå òîãî, çäåñü òàêæå ñîõðàíèëèñü çäàíèÿ èç êðàñíîãî êèðïè÷à, âûñòðîåííûå â 1920-õ ãîäàõ äëÿ èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ â êà÷åñòâå áîëüíèöû. Òåïåðü æå ê íèì ïðèñîåäèíèëèñü ñîâðåìåííûå çäàíèÿ ìóçåÿ, ïðîäåìîíñòðèðîâàâ òàêèì îáðàçîì, ÷òî íà îäíîì ó÷àñòêå çåìëè ìîãóò ãàðìîíè÷íî ñîñóùåñòâîâàòü òðàäèöèÿ, íîâîå âðåìÿ è ñîâðåìåííîñòü. Öåíòðàëüíàÿ ÷àñòü ìóçåÿ, â êîòîðîì ïîä îäíîé êðûøåé ñîáðàëèñü ñòðîåíèÿ ðàçíûõ ýïîõ è ñòèëåé, ïðåäñòàâëÿåò ñîáîé 8 âûñòàâî÷íûõ çàëîâ. Âîêðóã íèõ ðàñïîëîæåíû êèíîçàë, ìíîãîôóíêöèîíàëüíûé çàë, çàë äëÿ ñåìèíàðîâ, öèôðîâîé àðõèâ è ò.ä. Ïðè ýòîì îäíà òðåòü îáùåé ïîëåçíîé ïëîùàäè îòäàíà ïîä ïðåäíàçíà÷åííóþ äëÿ ìåñòíûõ æèòåëåé èíôðàñòðóêòóðó — ðåñòîðàí, êàôåòåðèé, êàôå ýëåêòðîííûõ êíèã è ò.ï., ïîñêîëüêó àâòîðû ïðîåêòà ñòðåìèëèñü ñîçäàòü «îòêðûòûé ìóçåé», êóäà, êàê â ìåñòíóþ ÷àéíóþ, ìîæåò çàéòè ëþáîé ãîðîæàíèí. Äèðåêòîð ìóçåÿ ×îí Õ¸íìèí òàê îïèñàë ðàñïðåäåëåíèå îáÿçàííîñòåé ìåæäó òðåìÿ îòäåëåíèÿìè Íàöèîíàëüíîãî ìóçåÿ ñîâðåìåííîãî èñêóññòâà: «Ñåóëüñêèé Íàöèîíàëüíûé ìóçåé ñîâðåìåííîãî èñêóññòâà, øèðîêî ïðåäñòàâëÿÿ êîðåéñêîå èñêóññòâî, áóäåò óêðåïëÿòü ïîëîæåíèå Êîðåè êàê öåíòðà ñîâðåìåííîãî èñêóññòâà Àçèè, â òî âðåìÿ êàê Íàöèîíàëüíûé ìóçåé ñîâðåìåííîãî èñêóññòâà â Êâà÷õîíå íàïðàâèò ñèëû íà èçó÷åíèå èñòîðèè ñîâðåìåííîãî èñêóññòâà, à îòäåëåíèå íà òåððèòîðèè äâîðöà Òîêñó-ãóí ñêîíöåíòðèðóåò óñèëèÿ íà èññëåäîâàíèè èñêóññòâà íîâîãî âðåìåíè».

Ïðîöåññ ñòðîèòåëüñòâà Îòêðûòèå â Ñåóëå îòäåëåíèÿ Íàöèîíàëüíîãî ìóçåÿ ñîâðåìåííîãî èñêóññòâà íà ïðîòÿæåíèè äîëãèõ ëåò áûëî ñîêðîâåííîé ìå÷òîé äåÿòåëåé èñêóññòâà è êóëüòóðû Êîðåè. Äåëî â òîì, ÷òî Íàöèîíàëüíûé ìóçåé ñîâðåìåííîãî èñêóññòâà â Êâà÷õîíå, îòêðûòûé â 1986 ãîäó, ðàñïîëîæåí â ïðèãîðîäå Ñåóëà, ÷òî çàòðóäíÿåò äîñòóï ê íåìó øèðîêèõ ìàññ ãîðîæàí. Êàê ñëåäñòâèå, ãëàâíûìè ïîñåòèòåëÿìè ìóçåÿ ñòàëè èñòèííûå ëþáèòåëè èñêóññòâà, äîñòàòî÷íî óâëå÷¸ííûå, ÷òîáû íå èñïóãàòüñÿ íèêàêèõ ðàññòîÿíèé, è øêîëüíèêè ñðåäíèõ è ñòàðøèõ êëàññîâ, êîòîðûõ âîçÿò ñþäà íà ýêñêóðñèè.  òî æå âðåìÿ èç-çà òîãî, ÷òî â íåïîñðåäñòâåííîé áëèçîñòè îò ìóçåÿ ðàñïîëîæåí òàêîé ïîïóëÿðíûé ðàçâëåêàòåëüíûé êîìïëåêñ, êàê Ñåóëüñêèé ãðàíä-ïàðê, è Ñåóëüñêèé èïïîäðîì, ñþäà ÷àñòî áûëî ïðîñòî íå äîáðàòüñÿ èç-çà ïðîáîê íà äîðîãàõ, îñîáåííî â âûõîäíûå, à òàêæå âåñíîé è îñåíüþ, êîãäà êîðåéöû ìàññîâî âûåçæàþò íà ïðèðîäó. ×òî êàñàåòñÿ îòäåëåíèÿ âî äâîðöå Òîêñó-ãóí, Ñåóëüñêèé Íàöèîíàëüíûé ìóçåé ñîâðåìåííîãî èñêóññòâà, âìåñòî òîãî ÷òîáû ïîäàâëÿòü ñâî¸ îêðóæåíèå, ïðåäïî÷¸ë åñòåñòâåííî ñëèòüñÿ ñ íèì. Íà çàäíåì ïëàíå âèäíî âîññòàíîâëåííîå çäàíèå ×îí÷õèíáó, íà ïåðåäíåì ïëàíå ñëåâà — Öèôðîâîé àðõèâ èçîáðàçèòåëüíîãî èñêóññòâà, à ñïðàâà — Seoul Box, êîòîðûé ÿâëÿåòñÿ ïðîñòðàíñòâîì, ïðåäíàçíà÷åííûì èñêëþ÷èòåëüíî äëÿ ñîâðåìåííûõ àðòèíñòàëëÿöèé.

 Ñåóëå îòêðûë ñâîè äâåðè íîâûé Íàöèîíàëüíûé ìóçåé ñîâðåìåííîãî èñêóññòâà. Ýòî çíà÷èò, ÷òî òåïåðü ïðÿìî â ñåðäöå ñòîëèöû, ðÿäîì ñ ʸíáîê-êóíîì, ãëàâíûì äâîðöîì ýïîõè ×îñîí, è ñ Ãîëóáûì äâîðöîì, ÿâëÿþùèìñÿ ïðåçèäåíòñêîé ðåçèäåíöèåé, âîçíèêëà íîâàÿ êîëûáåëü ñîâðåìåííîãî èñêóññòâà. Êî Ìèñîê, àâòîð ðåäàêöèîííûõ ñòàòåé ãàçåòû «Òîíúà èëüáî» | Ôîòîãðàôèè: Àí Õîíáîì

K o r e a n a ı Âåñíà 2 0 14

35


Íîâûé ìóçåé ðàçìåñòèëñÿ â êîìïëåêñå çäàíèé, íàïîìèíàþùåì ñâîåé ñòðóêòóðîé àðõèïåëàã: íåñêîëüêî ñòðîåíèé îáúåäèíåíû â ãðóïïó, ïîäîáíî îñòðîâàì â îêåàíå. Íà ïåðâûé âçãëÿä çäàíèÿ âûãëÿäÿò îáîñîáëåííûìè, íî íà ñàìîì äåëå âñå âûñòàâî÷íûå çàëû ñîîáùàþòñÿ äðóã ñ äðóãîì íà ïåðâîì ïîäçåìíîì ýòàæå. Øåñòü äâîðîâ, îðãàíè÷íî ñîåäèíÿÿ âíóòðåííåå è âíåøíåå ïðîñòðàíñòâî, â òî æå âðåìÿ âûïîëíÿþò ôóíêöèþ èñòî÷íèêîâ åñòåñòâåííîãî îñâåùåíèÿ.

òî òàêèå îñîáåííîñòè ýòîãî ìåñòà, êàê ìàëàÿ ïëîùàäü çäàíèÿ è ðàñïîëîæåííîñòü íà òåððèòîðèè äâîðöà, íå ìîãëè íå íàêëàäûâàòü îïðåäåë¸ííûå îãðàíè÷åíèÿ ñ òî÷êè çðåíèÿ ïëàíèðîâàíèÿ âûñòàâîê. Ïîýòîìó ïðè êàæäîì óäîáíîì ñëó÷àå äåÿòåëè êóëüòóðû è èñêóññòâà ïîäíèìàëè âîïðîñ î íåîáõîäèìîñòè ñòðîèòåëüñòâà ïîëíîöåííîãî ìóçåÿ ñîâðåìåííîãî èñêóññòâà â ñàìîì Ñåóëå, à òàêæå âðåìÿ îò âðåìåíè ïðîâîäèëè ñáîðû ïîäïèñåé, íî âñå ýòè íà÷èíàíèÿ íå óâåí÷àëèñü îñîáûì óñïåõîì.  2008 ãîäó, ïîñëå òîãî êàê îñâîáîäèëîñü çäàíèå øòàá-êâàðòèðû Êîìàíäîâàíèÿ îáîðîíû è áåçîïàñíîñòè, äåÿòåëè èñêóññòâà îáðàòèëèñü ê ïðàâèòåëüñòâó ñ ïðîñüáîé ïîñòðîèòü íà ýòîì ìåñòå íîâûé ìóçåé. È óæå â 2009 ãîäó, íà íîâîãîäíåì òîðæåñòâåííîì ñîáðàíèè äåÿòåëåé êóëüòóðû è èñêóññòâà, òîãäàøíèé ïðåçèäåíò Êîðåè È Ì¸íáàê ïîîáåùàë, ÷òî íà ìåñòå áûâøåé øòàá-êâàðòèðû êîìàíäîâàíèÿ áóäåò ïîñòðîåí íîâûé ìóçåé èçîáðàçèòåëüíîãî èñêóññòâà. Òàêèì îáðàçîì ñåóëüñêîå îòäåëåíèå Íàöèîíàëüíîãî ìóçåÿ ñîâðåìåííîãî èñêóññòâà ñòàëî îáðåòàòü âèäèìûå î÷åðòàíèÿ. Ñîãëàñíî âèäåíèþ ïðàâèòåëüñòâà, íîâûé ìàñøòàáíûé ìóçåé, ñîåäèíèâøèñü â åäèíûé êëàñòåð ñ ñîñåäíèìè äâîðöàìè, ìóçåÿìè, êîìïàêòíî ðàñïîëîæåííûìè â ýòîì ðàéîíå ãàëåðåÿìè è êâàðòàëîì «õàíîêîâ» â Ïóê÷õîíå, äîëæåí áûë ñòàòü íîâîé íàöèîíàëüíûì êóëüòóðíûì áðåíäîì ñòîëèöû.  àâãóñòå 2010 ãîä áûë íàêîíåö íàçâàí ãëàâà àðõèòåêòóðíîãî ïðîåêòà: èì ñòàë àðõèòåêòîð Ìèí Õ¸í÷æóí. Îäíàêî ïóòü ê îòêðûòèþ ìóçåÿ áûë îòíþäü íå ãëàäêèì. Ñíà÷àëà â õîäå îáñëåäîâàíèÿ çåìåëüíîãî ó÷àñòêà ïåðåä íà÷àëîì ñòðîèòåëüñòâà áûëè îáíàðóæåíû ôóíäàìåíòû çäàíèé ×îí÷õèíáó, ïîñëå ÷åãî áûëî ðåøåíî ïåðåíåñòè äåðåâÿííûå ñòðîåíèÿ ×îí÷õèíáó íà ïðåæíåå ìåñòî è âîññòàíîâèòü, ïðèäàâ èì ïåðâîíà÷àëüíûé âèä. Ðåøåíèå âîïðîñà î ïåðåäèñëîêàöèè Ñåóëüñêîãî îêðóæíîãî âîåííîãî ãîñïèòàëÿ, êîòîðûé âñ¸ ýòî âðåìÿ âûïîëíÿë ôóíêöèþ ïðåçèäåíòñêîé êëèíèêè, òàêæå áûëî íåë¸ãêèì. Êðîìå òîãî, ïåðåñòðîéêà çäàíèé áûâøåé Ìåäèöèíñêîé øêîëû Êýéäç¸ òîæå âûçâàëà íåìàëóþ ïîëåìèêó. Áûëè è äðóãèå òðóäíîñòè, â ÷àñòíîñòè, â õîäå ñòðîèòåëüñòâà ñëó÷èëñÿ ïîæàð.

1

Ðàñòâîðèâøèñü â îêðóæàþùåì ïðîñòðàíñòâå Ïðîåêòèðîâàíèå êîìïëåêñà çäàíèé ñåóëüñêîãî îòäåëåíèÿ áûëî ïîðó÷åíî àðõèòåêòîðó Ìèí Õ¸í÷æóíó, 2

36

Êîðåéñêàÿ êóëüòóðà è èñêóññòâî


3

äèðåêòîðó àðõèòåêòóðíîãî áþðî MPART, âûáðàííîìó áîëåå ÷åì èç 110 ïðåòåíäåíòîâ, ïðèíÿâøèõ ó÷àñòèå â êîíêóðñå. Ïî åãî ñëîâàì, «Ñåóëüñêèé ìóçåé ñîâðåìåííîãî èñêóññòâà — ýòî íå àðõèòåêòóðà, à ïåéçàæ». Òàê àðõèòåêòîð îáúÿñíÿåò âûáðàííóþ èì êîíöåïöèþ. Ñîãëàñíî åãî çàìûñëàì, íîâûé ìóçåé, âîçâîäèìûé íà çåìëå ñ áîãàòûì è ñëîæíûì ïðîøëîì, äîëæåí íå äîìèíèðîâàòü íàä ïåéçàæåì, à ñîñóùåñòâîâàòü ñ «îñêîëêàìè èñòîðèè», ðàññåÿííûìè âîêðóã íåãî. Äðóãèìè ñëîâàìè, àðõèòåêòîð èçíà÷àëüíî îòêàçàëñÿ îò íàìåðåíèÿ ïðîäåìîíñòðèðîâàòü ñâîé àðõèòåêòîðñêèé òàëàíò, ñîçäàâ âíóøèòåëüíîå «àðõèòåêòóðíîå ñîîðóæåíèå êàê ïðîèçâåäåíèå èñêóññòâà».  íîâîì ìóçåå íå âèäíî àðõèòåêòóðíûõ îáúåêòîâ, âûñòàâëÿþùèõ íàïîêàç ñâî¸ ñóùåñòâîâàíèå â îáîñîáëåííîì âèäå. Âìåñòî ýòîãî àâòîð ñîçäàë êîìïëåêñ çäàíèé, íàïîìèíàþùèõ ñâîåé ñòðóêòóðîé àðõèïåëàã, êîãäà íåñêîëüêî ñòðîåíèé îáúåäèíåíî â ãðóïïó, ïîäîáíî îñòðîâàì â îêåàíå. Íà ïåðâûé âçãëÿä çäàíèÿ âûãëÿäÿò ñòîÿùèìè îòäåëüíî, íî íà ñàìîì äåëå âñå âûñòàâî÷íûå çàëû ñîîáùàþòñÿ äðóã ñ äðóãîì íà ïåðâîì ïîäçåìíîì ýòàæå. Ñ öåëüþ ñîõðàíåíèÿ èñòîðè÷åñêîé öåííîñòè ðàñïîëîæåííîãî ïðÿìî ÷åðåç äîðîãó äâîðöà ʸíáîê-êóí êàê ïàìÿòíèêà êîðåéñêîãî çîä÷åñòâà âëàñòè çàïðåòèëè âîçâîäèòü ðÿäîì çäàíèÿ âûñîòîé áîëåå 12 ìåòðîâ, ïîýòîìó íîâûé ìóçåé óø¸ë ãëóáîêî ïîä çåìëþ, è ýòî òàêæå ñîñòàâëÿåò åãî îòëè÷èòåëüíóþ ÷åðòó. ×òîáû ñîåäèíèòü ðàçðîçíåííûå âûñòàâî÷íûå çàëû è îäíîâðåìåííî ðåøèòü ïðîáëåìó ñî ñâåòîì, àðõèòåêòîð èñïîëüçîâàë êîíöåïöèþ òðàäèöèîííîãî êîðåéñêîãî äâîðà «ìàäàí». Øåñòü äâîðîâ, îðãàíè÷íî ñîåäèíÿÿ âíóòðåííåå è âíåøíåå ïðîñòðàíñòâî, â òî æå âðåìÿ âûïîëíÿþò ôóíêöèþ èñòî÷íèêîâ åñòåñòâåííîãî îñâåùåíèÿ. Íîâûå çäàíèÿ íàñòîëüêî ãàðìîíèðóþò ñ îêðóæåíèåì, ÷òî âîçíèêàåò îùóùåíèå, áóäòî îíè èçäàâíà ñòîÿëè íà ýòîì ìåñòå. Ó÷èòûâàÿ èñòîðè÷íîñòü ìåñòà, àâòîðû ïðîåêòà ñîçíàòåëüíî ñäåëàëè çäàíèÿ è èõ èíòåðüåðû K o r e a n a ı Âåñíà 2 0 14

1 Òàñèòà Äèí (Tacita Dean). Ôèëüì. 2001 ã. Íà îãðîìíîì êèíîýêðàíå äåìîíñòðèðóåòñÿ 11-ìèíóòíûé àíàëîãîâûé íåìîé ôèëüì. 2 Õâàí Èíãè. Ïóòåøåñòâèå âî ñíå — Äåòñòâî. 307 x 845 ñì. 2011 ã. Ïëàñòèêîâûå áëîêè Lego íà ôàíåðå. Ýòà ðàáîòà áûëà ïîêàçàíà â ðàìêàõ âûñòàâêè «Zeitgeist: äóõ ýïîõè», íà êîòîðîé ïîñåòèòåëè ìîãóò óâèäåòü ðàáîòû èç êîëëåêöèè ìóçåÿ. 3 Ñî Äîõî. Äîì âíóòðè äîìà âíóòðè äîìà âíóòðè äîìà âíóòðè äîìà. 1530 x 1283 x 1297 ñì. 2013 ã. Ïîëèýñòåð, ìåòàëëè÷åñêèé êàðêàñ.

37


1

ìàêñèìàëüíî àñêåòè÷íûìè, ñóìåâ ïðè ýòîì ãàðìîíè÷íî âïèñàòü èõ â îêðóæàþùèé ãîðîäñêîé ïåéçàæ, ÷åì çàñëóæèëè ïîëîæèòåëüíóþ îöåíêó îáùåñòâåííîñòè.

Ìàñøòàáíîå îòêðûòèå Ê îòêðûòèþ ìóçåÿ áûëî ïðèóðî÷åíî ïÿòü ñïåöèàëüíûõ âûñòàâîê, êîòîðûå ïîçâîëÿþò ïðåäóãàäàòü, â êàêîì íàïðàâëåíèè áóäåò ðàçâèâàòüñÿ ñåóëüñêèé Íàöèîíàëüíûé ìóçåé ñîâðåìåííîãî èñêóññòâà.  ðàìêàõ ýòèõ ïÿòè âûñòàâîê óäàëîñü ïðåäñòàâèòü âñþ èñòîðèþ êîðåéñêîãî èñêóññòâà, à òàêæå ïîñëåäíèå òðåíäû ñîâðåìåííîãî èñêóññòâà. Öåíòðàëüíûì ïðîåêòîì ñòàëà âûñòàâêà «Ñîåäèíåíèå-Ðàçâ¸ðòûâàíèå», â ðàáîòå íàä êîòîðîé ïðèíÿëè ó÷àñòèå êîðåéñêèå è çàðóáåæíûå êóðàòîðû ñ öåëüþ ñîçäàíèÿ «óçëà» ìèðîâîãî èñêóññòâà. Âûñòàâêà Aleph Project áûëà ïðèçâàíà ðàçðóøèòü áàðüåðû ìåæäó æàíðàìè, òîãäà êàê ó÷àñòíèêè «Ïðîåêòà èíñòàëëÿöèé íà ìåñòàõ» (SiteSpecific Art Project) àêòèâíî èñïîëüçîâàëè äëÿ ñâîèõ ïðîèçâåäåíèé ïðîñòðàíñòâî ìóçåÿ. Âûñòàâêà «Zeitgeist: äóõ ýïîõè» ñòàíåò ïîñòîÿííîé ýêñïîçèöèåé, íà êîòîðîé ïîñåòèòåëè ñìîãóò óâèäåòü ðàáîòû èç ñîáñòâåííîãî ñîáðàíèÿ ìóçåÿ, à íà âûñòàâêå «Ðîæäåíèå ìóçåÿ» ìîæíî áûëî óâèäåòü íà ôîòîãðàôèÿõ ïðîöåññ ñòðîèòåëüñòâà Ñåóëüñêîãî îòäåëåíèÿ è óñëûøàòü åãî íà çâóêîçàïèñè. Ãëàâíûé êóðàòîð íîâîãî ìóçåÿ ã-æà ×õâå Ûí÷æó ñêàçàëà: «Ìû ñäåëàëè îñíîâíîé àêöåíò íà ïîèñêå âîçìîæíîñòåé äëÿ òâîð÷åñòâà, íà ðàçíûõ òî÷êàõ ñîïðèêîñíîâåíèÿ è îòêðûòîñòè, ê êîòîðîé ñòðåìèòñÿ ìóçåé». Êðèòèêè, îòìåòèâ íåäîñòàòîê çíà÷èìûõ ðàáîò, òåì íå ìåíåå, îöåíèëè âûñòàâêè êàê «äîñòàòî÷íî ðîâíûå ïî óðîâíþ ïðåäñòàâëåííûõ ïðîèçâåäåíèé».  ÷àñòíîñòè, îñîáåííî âûäåëÿëîñü òî, ÷òî â ðàìêàõ âûñòàâîê óäàëîñü ïðåäñòàâèòü ñàìûå ðàçíûå æàíðû èñêóññòâà, òàêèå êàê æèâîïèñü, âèäåî, èíñòàëëÿöèÿ, ïåðôîðìàíñ, îäíîâðåìåííî àêòèâíî ïîîùðÿÿ ñëèÿíèå è îáùåíèå ìåæäó æàíðàìè.  ðàìêàõ âûñòàâêè «Ñîåäèíåíèå-Ðàçâ¸ðòûâàíèå» áûëè

38

Êîðåéñêàÿ êóëüòóðà è èñêóññòâî


ïðåäñòàâëåíû ðàáîòû 7 õóäîæíèêîâ, îòîáðàííûõ â ðåçóëüòàòå îáñóæäåíèé êóðàòîðàìè èç 7 ñòðàí — Êîðåè, Ãåðìàíèè, ÑØÀ è äð. Íà ýòîé âûñòàâêå ìîæíî áûëî óâèäåòü ïðîèçâåäåíèÿ Êèñèî Ñóãà, âåäóùåãî õóäîæíèêà íàïðàâëåíèÿ «ìîíî-õà» èç ßïîíèè; ðèñóíêè íà àíòèâîåííóþ òåìó àìåðèêàíöà Êèìà Äæîóíñà (Kim Jones); ïîýòè÷åñêèå ðàáîòû èíäèéöà Àìàðà Êàíâàðà (Amar Kanwar), âûðàæàþùèå ñîïðîòèâëåíèå ðàçâèòèþ; èäóùèå âðàçðåç ñ ñîâðåìåííîé öèôðîâîé ýïîõîé àíàëîãîâûå âèäåîðàáîòû Òàñèòû Äèí (Tacita Dean) èç Âåëèêîáðèòàíèè. Ëè Ìèíâåé (Lee Mingwei) èç Òàéâàíÿ ïðåäñòàâèë íà ñóä ïóáëèêè ñâîé èíòåðàêòèâíûé ïåðôîðìàíñ Sonic Blossom, êîòîðûé ïðèîáðåòàë çàêîí÷åííîñòü ïðè ó÷àñòèè çðèòåëåé.  õîäå ïåðôîðìàíñà ÷åëîâåê, îäåòûé â äëèííîå ïàëüòî, õîäèë ïî ìóçåþ è, ïîäõîäÿ ê ïîñåòèòåëÿì, ïðåäëàãàë èì íåêèé «ïîäàðîê», ïîñëå ÷åãî, åñëè ïîäàðîê ïðèíèìàëñÿ, èñïîëíÿë îäíó èç ïåñåí Øóáåðòà. Ðàáîòû, ïðåäñòàâëåííûå íà âûñòàâêå Aleph Project, ïðèâëåêëè âíèìàíèå ïîñåòèòåëåé ñâîåé íîâèçíîé, ïîñêîëüêó â íèõ òåñíî ïåðåïëåëèñü àðõèòåêòóðà, äèçàéí, íàóêà, ïðåäñòàâëåíèå è èçîáðàçèòåëüíîå èñêóññòâî.  ÷àñòíîñòè, ïðåäìåòàìè ðàçãîâîðîâ ñòàëà Epiphyte Chamber — «äâèæóùàÿñÿ àðõèòåêòóðà» Ôèëèïà Áèñëè (Philip Beesley), êîòîðàÿ, êàê áóäòî æèâàÿ, ðåàãèðîâàëà íà ïðèáëèæåíèå ëþäåé, âûòÿãèâàÿ ùóïàëüöà, è ðàáîòà The Elaboratorium ãðóïïû àâñòðàëèéñêèõ õóäîæíèêîâ, ïðåäîñòàâèâøàÿ âñåì æåëàþùèì âîçìîæíîñòü óâèäåòü ìèêðîñêîïè÷åñêèå îáðàçû, íåâèäèìûå íåâîîðóæ¸ííûì ãëàçîì.  ðàìêàõ «Ïðîåêòà èíñòàëëÿöèé íà ìåñòàõ» âíèìàíèå ëþáèòåëåé èñêóññòâà ïðèâëåêëà âèäåîðàáîòà êîìàíäû «Òÿæ¸ëàÿ ïðîìûøëåííîñòü ×àí ¨íõéå», ñîçäàííàÿ èç òåêñòîâ, íàïèñàííûõ êîðåéñêèì àëôàâèòîì «õàíãûëü», è ðàáîòà «Äîì âíóòðè äîìà âíóòðè äîìà âíóòðè äîìà âíóòðè äîìà» Ñî Äîõî, êîòîðûé èç òîíêîé òêàíè ñäåëàë «õàíîê», â êîòîðîì æèë â äåòñòâå, è äîì, â êîòîðîì æèë âî âðåìÿ ó÷¸áû â ÑØÀ, è âëîæèë èõ îäèí â äðóãîé.

1 Ôèëèï Áèñëè (Philip Beesley). Epiphyte Chamber. 2012 ã. Èíòåðàêòèâíàÿ ñêóëüïòóðàèíñòàëëÿöèÿ ñîçäàíà èç ñîòíè òûñÿ÷ èçÿùíûõ ýëåìåíòîâ. 2 Íà ïåðâûé âçãëÿä çäàíèÿ âûãëÿäÿò îáîñîáëåííûìè, íî íà ñàìîì äåëå âñå âûñòàâî÷íûå çàëû ñîîáùàþòñÿ äðóã ñ äðóãîì íà ïåðâîì ïîäçåìíîì ýòàæå. Âäàëåêå, íà çàäíåì ïëàíå, ìîæíî âèäåòü ïîäâåøåííóþ ê ïîòîëêó ðàáîòó ×õâå Óðàìà «Opertus Lunula Umbra» («Ñêðûòàÿ òåíü ëóíû»). 2008 ã.

Ñîçäàâ òðàìïëèí äëÿ êîðåéñêîãî èñêóññòâà Îòêðûòèå Íàöèîíàëüíîãî ìóçåÿ ñîâðåìåííîãî èñêóññòâà â Ñåóëå ÿâëÿåòñÿ òðàìïëèíîì, êîòîðûé ïîçâîëèò êîðåéñêîìó èñêóññòâó, ñîâåðøèâ ñêà÷îê, ïîäíÿòüñÿ íà ìåæäóíàðîäíûé óðîâåíü. Êîíå÷íî, åñòü åù¸ êîå-êàêèå ïðîáëåìû, êîòîðûå íóæíî óëàäèòü, íàïðèìåð, ñëåäóåò ðåøèòü ïðîáëåìó íåýôôåêòèâíîé «öèðêóëÿöèè» ïîñåòèòåëåé, îäíàêî ìîæíî îæèäàòü, ÷òî ïî ïðîøåñòâèè îïðåäåë¸ííîãî âðåìåíè íîâûé ìóçåé ïðåäñòàíåò êàê ïðîñòðàíñòâî, ãäå æèâ¸ò è äûøèò èñòîðèÿ è òðàäèöèÿ, ïðèðîäà è èñêóññòâî, à òàêæå êàê ïàðê êóëüòóðû è îòäûõà. Ïåðâîî÷åðåäíîé çàäà÷åé íîâîãî ìóçåÿ ÿâëÿåòñÿ ðåàëèçàöèÿ êîíöåïöèè êóëüòóðíîãî áëàãîñîñòîÿíèÿ, ÷òîáû ÷¸òêî îáîçíà÷èòü ìåñòî Êîðåè íà êóëüòóðíîé êàðòå ìèðà è ïîçâîëèòü øèðîêèì ìàññàì âìåñòå íàñëàæäàòüñÿ êóëüòóðîé è èñêóññòâîì. Íî ÷òîáû ñåóëüñêèé Íàöèîíàëüíûé ìóçåé ñîâðåìåííîãî èñêóññòâà, êîòîðûé òîëüêî ÷òî ñäåëàë ïåðâûé øàã, ýâîëþöèîíèðîâàë è ñî âðåìåíåì ñòàë íîâîé èêîíîé êóëüòóðíîãî ãîñóäàðñòâà è ìóçååì, êîòîðûì ìîæíî áóäåò ãîðäèòüñÿ â ãëîáàëüíîé äåðåâíå, íåäîñòàòî÷íî òîëüêî ñòèëüíîãî çäàíèÿ è èíòåðåñíûõ âûñòàâîê. Êàê çëàêè ðàñòóò ïîä øóì øàãîâ êðåñòüÿíèíà, òàê è êóëüòóðà è èñêóññòâî ðàñöâåòàþò îò èíòåðåñà ê íèì è ëþáâè øèðîêèõ ìàññ. Ïîýòîìó ìîæíî ñêàçàòü, ÷òî óñïåõ íîâîãî ìóçåÿ çàâèñèò îò òîãî, ñêîëüêî ëþäåé, âëþáë¸ííûõ â èñêóññòâî, áóäåò ñíîâà è ñíîâà ïðèõîäèòü â åãî çàëû.

2

K o r e a n a ı Âåñíà 2 0 14

39


Äîñòîïðèìå÷àòåëüíîñòè

Òð¸õýòàæíàÿ áàøíÿ, îñòàâøàÿñÿ îò çäàíèÿ áûâøåé ðóññêîé äèïëîìàòè÷åñêîé ìèññèè, íåêîãäà áûëà ñâèäåòåëåì êëþ÷åâûõ ñîáûòèé èñòîðèè Êîðåè íîâîãî âðåìåíè.

40

Êîðåéñêàÿ êóëüòóðà è èñêóññòâî


Ó

ñåðîãî öâåòà, íî â õîäå ðåìîíòíî-ðåñòàâðàöèîííûõ ðàáîò 1973 ã. å¸ ïîáåëèëè èçâåñòüþ.  þæíîé ñòåíå ïåðâîãî ýòàæà áàøíè ñäåëàíî äâà àðî÷íûõ âõîäà ñ äåðåâÿííûìè âîðîòàìè, â îñòàëüíûõ òð¸õ ñòåíàõ èìååòñÿ ïî îäíîìó âõîäó. Ôîðìà àðî÷íûõ ïðî¸ìîâ îäèíàêîâà, îäíàêî èõ âûñîòà è øèðèíà ðàçíÿòñÿ. Íà âòîðîì ýòàæå òîëüêî â îäíîé ñòåíå åñòü ÷åòûð¸õóãîëüíîå îêíî, òîãäà êàê íà òðåòüåì ýòàæå âñå ÷åòûðå ñòåíû óêðàøåíû âûñîêèìè àðî÷íûìè îêíàìè. Âåðõóøêà áàøíè ñíàáæåíà ïàðàïåòîì è òðåóãîëüíûì ôðîíòîíîì íà êàæäîé èç ñòîðîí. Âûñîòà ñîîðóæåíèÿ ñîñòàâëÿåò îêîëî 8 ìåòðîâ. ß ó÷èëàñü â øêîëå, à ïîòîì ðàáîòàëà â ðàéîíå ×îí-äîí, â íåïîñðåäñòâåííîé áëèçîñòè îò áàøíè, ïîýòîìó íà ïðîòÿæåíèè áîëåå 30 ëåò âèäåëà å¸ ïî÷òè êàæäûé äåíü. È äàæå çàõîäèëà â íå¸. Áàøíÿ íå èìååò ïåðåêðûòèé è âíóòðè ïîëàÿ. Âî âðåìÿ ðàñêîïîê â 1981 ã. áûë îáíàðóæåí òàéíûé ïîäçåìíûé õîä, âåäóùèé âî äâîðåö Òîêñó-ãóí. Êòî Îñíîâíîå çäàíèå è áàøíÿ çíàåò — ìîæåò áûòü, îí òîæå áûë ïîñòðîåí ïî ïðîåêòó Ñàáàòèíà? Ñòðîèòåëüñòâî çäàíèÿ ðóññêîé äèïëîìàòè÷åñêîé ìèññèè, Íà ôîòîãðàôèè, ñäåëàííîé àìåðèêàíñêèì ïóòåøåñòâåííèêîì ñïðîåêòèðîâàííîãî ðóññêèì àðõèòåêòîðîì Àôàíàñèåì Èâàíîâè÷åì Á¸ðòîíîì Õîëìñîì â 1901 ã., ìîæíî óâèäåòü «Ðóññêèå âîðîòà», ãëàâíûé âõîä íà òåððèòîðèþ äèïìèññèè, êîòîðûå áûëè ñîçäàíû ïî îáðàçöó Òðèóìôàëüíîé àðêè â Ïàðèæå. Îíè ñòîÿò îñîáíÿêîì íà õîëìå, çàñòðîåííîì îáû÷íûìè êîðåéñêèìè äîìàìè. Íà ïðîòèâîïîëîæíîé ñòîðîíå çàíÿë ñâî¸ ìåñòî îòåëü «Çîíòàã», ïåðâûé îòåëü çàïàäíîãî òèïà â Êîðåå, ïîÿâèâøèéñÿ â 1902 ã. Èìïåðàòîð Êî÷æîí äàðîâàë çäàíèÿ è çåìëþ, íàõîäèâøèåñÿ â ñîáñòâåííîñòè ìîíàðøåé ñåìüè, è ïîâåëåë ïîñòðîèòü íà ýòîì ìåñòå îòåëü, óïðàâëåíèå êîòîðûì ââåðèë Àíòóàíåòòå Çîíòàã (1854—1925), ðîäñòâåííèöå ðóññêîãî ãåíêîíñóëà Êàðëà Èâàíîâè÷à Âåáåðà. Òðàäèöèîííûé «õàíîê», ñòîÿâøèé ðÿäîì ñ ðóññêîé äèïìèññèåé, ñëóæèë âðåìåííûì ïðèñòàíèùåì äëÿ ãðóïïû ìèññèîíåðîê îðäåíà ñåñò¸ð ñâ. Ïàâëà äå Øàðòð, ïðèáûâøèõ â Êîðåþ â 1887 ã., è òàêèì  ðàéîíå ×îí-äîí, â ñàìîì öåíòðå Ñåóëà, ñòîèò òð¸õýòàæíàÿ áàøíÿ. îáðàçîì ñòàë êîëûáåëüþ æåíñêîãî Ýòî âñ¸, ÷òî îñòàëîñü îò çäàíèÿ áûâøåé ðóññêîé äèïëîìàòè÷åñêîé ìîíàñòûðÿ ýòîãî îðäåíà, êîòîðûé â ìèññèè, êîòîðàÿ â êîíöå XIX âåêà ñòàëà ñâèäåòåëåì êëþ÷åâûõ íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ íàõîäèòñÿ â ðàéîíå ñîáûòèé èñòîðèè Êîðåè íîâîãî âðåìåíè. ̸í-äîí.

ëèöà ×îí-äîí, êîòîðàÿ èä¸ò îò âîðîò Òýõàí-ìóí, ãëàâíûõ âîðîò äâîðöà Òîêñó-ãóí, äî çäàíèÿ èçäàòåëüñòâà «Ê¸íõÿí ñèíìóí», â êîíöå ýïîõè ×îñîí è íà ïðîòÿæåíèè êîðîòêîé ýïîõè Êîðåéñêîé èìïåðèè áûëà ãëàâíûì êâàðòàëîì äèïëîìàòèè è ïîëèòèêè, ãäå êîìïàêòíî ðàñïîëàãàëèñü èíîñòðàííûå ìèññèè. Íà îäíîé èç ñòîðîí ýòîé óëèöû, ïðåâðàòèâøåéñÿ â æèâîïèñíîå êóëüòóðíîå ïðîñòðàíñòâî, íà âåðøèíå õîëìà â îäèíî÷åñòâå ñòîèò ñìîòðîâàÿ áàøíÿ â çàïàäíîì ñòèëå. Ýòî ñîîðóæåíèå, çàðåãèñòðèðîâàííîå êàê «èñòîðè÷åñêîå ìåñòî ¹253», — âñ¸, ÷òî îñòàëîñü îò çäàíèÿ áûâøåé ðóññêîé äèïìèññèè. Áîëåå ñòà ëåò íàçàä îíà íàõîäèëàñü â ñàìîì ñåðäöå ñîáûòèé, íàâñåãäà èçìåíèâøèõ õîä èñòîðèè ñòðàíû, íî òåïåðü îíà çàáðîøåíà è â å¸ îáëèêå, îòìå÷åííîì ïå÷àëüþ ðóèí, ÷óäèòñÿ íå÷òî ÷óæåçåìíîå.

Áàøíÿ áûâøåé ðóññêîé äèïìèññèè: çàñòûâøèé ýëåìåíò ïåéçàæà Êîðåè íîâîãî âðåìåíè Êèì Þã¸í, æóðíàëèñò | Ôîòîãðàôèè: Àí Õîíáîì

Ñåðåäèíûì-Ñàáàòèíûì (1860—1921), áûëî çàâåðøåíî ê 1890 ã. Ïî çàïèñÿì, îñòàâëåííûì Ñ.Â. ×èðêèíûì, êîòîðûé ñëóæèë â í¸ì äèïëîìàòîì â 1911—1914 ãã., ìîæíî ñîñòàâèòü ïðåäñòàâëåíèå î òîì, êàê âûãëÿäåëî ýòî çäàíèå, íå ñîõðàíèâøååñÿ äî íàøåãî âðåìåíè. «Íàøå ãåíåðàëüíîå êîíñóëüñòâî áûëî ïðåêðàñíî ðàñïîëîæåíî íà áîëüøîì ïîëîãîì õîëìå, íà âåðøèíå êîòîðîãî ñòîÿëî ãëàâíîå çäàíèå, ïîñòðîåííîå â ñòèëå èòàëüÿíñêîé âèëëû. Îäíîýòàæíûé äîì î÷åíü êðàñèâ ñ àíôèëàäîé ãðîìàäíûõ âûñîêèõ êîìíàò è ÷åòûð¸õãðàííîé áàøíåé íà ïðàâîé ñòîðîíå… Ïî ñêëîíàì õîëìà <…> ðàçáèò âåëèêîëåïíûé ïàðê âåêîâûõ äåðåâüåâ ðàçíîîáðàçíûõ ïîðîä…» (öèòèðóåòñÿ ïî ñòàòüå Ò. Ì. Ñèìáèðöåâîé è Ñ. Ñ. Ëåâîøêî ««Àðõèòåêòîð åãî âåëè÷åñòâà Êîðåè» Ñåðåäèí-Ñàáàòèí (1860—1921)»)  Çäàíèå äèïìèññèè, ïîñòðîåííîå èç ìðàìîðà è êèðïè÷à, áûëî ðàçðóøåíî âî âðåìÿ Êîðåéñêîé âîéíû, îñòàëàñü òîëüêî òð¸õýòàæíàÿ áàøíÿ è ÷àñòü ïîäçåìíîãî ýòàæà. Èçíà÷àëüíî áàøíÿ áûëà ñâåòëîK o r e a n a ı Âåñíà 2 0 14

Ïåéçàæ íîâîãî âðåìåíè Legation Street  îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ×îí-äîíà, ãäå íàõîäèòñÿ äâîðåö Òîêñó-ãóí, ïîñëåäíÿÿ ðåçèäåíöèÿ èìïåðàòîðà Êî÷æîíà, â êîíöå ýïîõè ×îñîí íà÷àëè ïîäíèìàòüñÿ âîëíû ìîäåðíèçàöèè. Ñåìü èç äåâÿòè ñòðàí, óñòàíîâèâøèõ äèïëîìàòè÷åñêèå îòíîøåíèÿ ñ ãîñóäàðñòâîì ×îñîí îêîëî 1890 ã., èñêëþ÷àÿ Êèòàé è ßïîíèþ, ïîñòðîèëè çäåñü çäàíèÿ ñâîèõ äèïìèññèé. È äàæå â íàøè äíè â ýòîì ðàéîíå íàõîäÿòñÿ øåñòü ïîñîëüñòâ èíîñòðàííûõ ãîñóäàðñòâ, â ÷àñòíîñòè Ðîññèè, ÑØÀ è Âåëèêîáðèòàíèè. Àìåðèêàíñêàÿ äèïìèññèÿ ïåðâîé îáîñíîâàëàñü â ýòîì ìåñòå, âúåõàâ â 1882 ã. â ïåðåñòðîåííîå çäàíèå ïîä ÷åðåïè÷íîé êðûøåé, âûêóïëåííîå ó ñåìüè Ìèí è ðàñïîëîæåííîå. Çàòåì íà õîëìå ×îíäîí ïîÿâèëîñü çäàíèå ðóññêîé äèïëîìàòè÷åñêîé ìèññèè, à ê ñåâåðó îò äâîðöà Òîêñó-ãóí ðàçìåñòèëàñü äèïìèññèÿ Âåëèêîáðèòàíèè. Âñå òðè ìèññèè áûëè ñîåäèíåíû äðóã ñ äðóãîì è äâîðöîì Òîêñó-ãóí ïîñðåäñòâîì ïåðåäíèõ èëè çàäíèõ âîðîò.  1883 ã. Óèëüÿì Àñòîí (1841—1911), ñëóæèâøèé â òî âðåìÿ â

41


«Íàøå ãåíåðàëüíîå êîíñóëüñòâî áûëî ïðåêðàñíî ðàñïîëîæåíî íà áîëüøîì ïîëîãîì õîëìå, íà âåðøèíå êîòîðîãî ñòîÿëî ãëàâíîå çäàíèå, ïîñòðîåííîå â ñòèëå èòàëüÿíñêîé âèëëû. Îäíîýòàæíûé äîì î÷åíü êðàñèâ ñ àíôèëàäîé ãðîìàäíûõ âûñîêèõ êîìíàò è ÷åòûð¸õãðàííîé áàøíåé íà ïðàâîé ñòîðîíå… Ïî ñêëîíàì õîëìà <…> ðàçáèò âåëèêîëåïíûé ïàðê âåêîâûõ äåðåâüåâ ðàçíîîáðàçíûõ ïîðîä…» (Ñ. Â. ×èðêèí)

äèïìèññèè Âåëèêîáðèòàíèè â ßïîíèè, ïðèåõàë â Ñåóë ñ öåëüþ ïîèñêà ìåñòà äëÿ ñòðîèòåëüñòâà çäàíèÿ áðèòàíñêîé äèïìèññèè â Êîðåå; ñëåäóþùèé îòðûâîê èç åãî äîêëàäà ïî ïîâîäó âûáðàííîãî ó÷àñòêà ÿñíî ïîêàçûâàåò, êàêèì âèäåëè èäåàëüíîå ìåñòî äëÿ ñâîèõ äèïëîìàòè÷åñêèõ ïðåäñòàâèòåëüñòâ çàïàäíûå äèïëîìàòû. «[Ýòî çäàíèå ðàñïîëîæåíî] …â ïðåäåëàõ êðåïîñòíîé ñòåíû, ìåæäó Þæíûìè è Çàïàäíûìè âîðîòàìè, ïðèìåðíî â ìèëå îò äâîðöà [Òîêñó-ãóí], Ìèíèñòåðñòâà èíîñòðàííûõ äåë è ÿïîíñêîé äèïìèññèè… Àìåðèêàíñêàÿ äèïìèññèÿ óæå ïðèîáðåëà ó÷àñòîê çåìëè â ðàéîíå ×îí-äîí. Ãåðìàíèÿ, Ðîññèÿ è Èòàëèÿ òîæå ïëàíèðóþò ïîñòðîèòü çäàíèÿ ñâîèõ ìèññèé â Ñåóëå, ïîýòîìó âîïðîñû îòíîñèòåëüíî ïîêóïêè çåìëè äîëæíû áûòü ðåøåíû ïðåæäå, ÷åì îíè ïðèáóäóò â Ñåóë. Çåìëÿ [âîêðóã äâîðöà Òîêñó-ãóí] èçíà÷àëüíî ïðèíàäëåæàëà êîðîëåâñêîé ñåìüå, íî áîëüøàÿ ÷àñòü å¸, âûñêîëüçíóâ èç-ïîä êîðîëåâñêîãî êîíòðîëÿ, ïåðåøëà â ðóêè ïðèáëèæ¸ííûõ êîðîëÿ». (Èç “The British Embassy Compound Seoul 1884—1984”, J. E. Hoare, Seoul: Korean British Society, 1984.)

42

Ïðîõîäèâøèå â äèïìèññèÿõ òóðíèðû ïî òåííèñó, ïðè¸ìû, æåíùèíû â ïðèòàëåííûõ ïëàòüÿõ, îòåëü «Çîíòàã» ñ åãî ÿðêèìè ýëåêòðè÷åñêèìè îãíÿìè — íåò ñîìíåíèé, ÷òî ïðîñòûì êîðåéöàì òîãî âðåìåíè âñ¸ ýòî êàçàëîñü ýêçîòèêîé.  êâàðòàëå ×îí-äîí, êîòîðûé ñòàëè íàçûâàòü Legation Street, ïîÿâèëèñü õðèñòèàíñêèå öåðêâè, à òàêæå îòêðûòûå àìåðèêàíñêèìè ìèññèîíåðàìè «Ïý÷æý-õàêòàí» (øêîëà äëÿ ìàëü÷èêîâ) è «Èõâà-õàêòàí» (øêîëà äëÿ äåâî÷åê), ìàãàçèíû çàïàäíîé ìóæñêîé è æåíñêîé îäåæäû. Íåêîòîðûå ó÷¸íûå ïîëàãàþò, ÷òî â ïîëèòè÷åñêîì ñìûñëå ýòî ìåñòî ïðåäñòàâëÿëî ñîáîé èñòèííûé «ðàé äëÿ èíîñòðàííûõ øïèîíîâ», ðàáîòàâøèõ êàæäûé íà áëàãî ñâîåé ñòðàíû.  ×îí-äîíå ïîáûâàëè ìíîãèå èçâåñòíûå èñòîðè÷åñêèå ëè÷íîñòè. Òàê, â îòåëå «Çîíòàã» îñòàíàâëèâàëñÿ áóäóùèé ïðåìüåð-ìèíèñòð Âåëèêîáðèòàíèè Óèíñòîí ×åð÷èëëü è àìåðèêàíñêèé ïèñàòåëü Ìàðê Òâåí.  ýòîì æå îòåëå âî âðåìÿ ñâîèõ âèçèòîâ â Ñåóë æèë Èòî Õèðîáóìè, âïîñëåäñòâèè — ãåíåðàë-ðåçèäåíò Êîðåè, êîòîðûé ïðèåçæàë â ×îñîí, ÷òîáû ïðèâëå÷ü íà ñâîþ ñòîðîíó êîðåéñêèõ ïîëèòèêîâ, à ïîòîì ñûãðàë âåäóùóþ ðîëü â íàñèëüñòâåííîì ïðèñîåäèíåíèè Êîðåè ê ßïîíèè.

Êîðåéñêàÿ êóëüòóðà è èñêóññòâî 1


1 Ðóññêàÿ äèïëîìàòè÷åñêàÿ ìèññèÿ. Îáùèé âèä. 2 Íà ôîòîãðàôèè, ñäåëàííîé àìåðèêàíñêèì ïóòåøåñòâåííèêîì Á¸ðòîíîì Õîëìñîì â 1901 ã., íà çàäíåì ïëàíå ìîæíî óâèäåòü çäàíèå ðóññêîé äèïìèññèè, à íà ïåðåäíåì — «Ðóññêèå âîðîòà», ãëàâíûé âõîä íà òåððèòîðèþ äèïìèññèè, êîòîðûå áûëè ñîçäàíû ïî îáðàçöó Òðèóìôàëüíîé àðêè â Ïàðèæå. Âîêðóã âûñòðîèëèñü òðàäèöèîííûå «õàíîêè» ïîä ÷åðåïè÷íûìè êðûøàìè.

2

«Àðõèòåêòîð åãî âåëè÷åñòâà Êîðåè» Çäàíèå ðóññêîé äèïìèññèè è èìÿ Ñàáàòèíà ðàçîì ïåðåíîñÿò íàñ áîëåå ÷åì íà ñòî ëåò íàçàä, âî âðåìåíà Êîðåéñêîé èìïåðèè. Àðõèòåêòîð À. È. Ñåðåäèí-Ñàáàòèí áûë â ÷èñëå ïåðâûõ òðèäöàòè åâðîïåéöåâ, íàíÿòûõ êîðåéñêèì ïðàâèòåëüñòâîì è ïðèáûâøèõ â Êîðåþ èç Øàíõàÿ ÷åðåç ïîðò ×åìóëüïõî â ñåíòÿáðå 1883 ã. Ýòî áûëî çà 10 ìåñÿöåâ äî ïîäïèñàíèÿ ðóññêî-êîðåéñêîãî äîãîâîðà î äðóæáå è òîðãîâëå (èþëü 1884 ã.). Áóäóùèé àðõèòåêòîð Ñàáàòèí, âûõîäåö èç óêðàèíñêîãî äâîðÿíñêîãî ðîäà, îêîí÷èë ìîðåõîäíûå êëàññû è íåäîëãî èçó÷àë èçîáðàçèòåëüíîå èñêóññòâî â Ïåòåðáóðãñêîé àêàäåìèè õóäîæåñòâ, ïîòîì â êà÷åñòâå øòóðìàíà äàëüíåãî ïëàâàíèÿ ïîïàë íà Äàëüíèé Âîñòîê, ãäå áûë íàíÿò ðóêîâîäèòåëåì êîðåéñêèõ òàìîæåí íåìåöêèì áàðîíîì Ïàóëåì Ãåîðãîì ôîí Ìåëëåíäîðôîì, êîòîðûé èñêàë ñïåöèàëèñòà ïî çàïàäíîé àðõèòåêòóðå. Òàê â 23 ãîäà îí îêàçàëñÿ â Êîðåå, ãäå ïðîæèë ñëåäóþùèå 20 ëåò — äî 1904 ã. Çà ýòî âðåìÿ Ñàáàòèí ñîçäàë ïðèìåðíî 20 ïðîåêòîâ çäàíèé åâðîïåéñêîãî òèïà, êîòîðûõ òðåáîâàëà íîâàÿ ýïîõà. Áîëüøàÿ ÷àñòü èç íèõ áûëà ðåàëèçîâàíà.  ÷àñòíîñòè, îí ñïðîåêòèðîâàë ãëàâíîå çäàíèå Ìîðñêîé òàìîæíè â Èí÷õîíå, ðàçðàáîòàë ãåíåðàëüíûé ïëàí ñòðîèòåëüñòâà èíîñòðàííûõ ñåòòëüìåíòîâ â ×åìóëüïõî, ñîçäàë ïåðâûé â Êîðåå ïàðê îòäûõà çàïàäíîãî òèïà Ìàíãóê (ñåé÷àñ Ïàðê Ñâîáîäû). Âñå äåòè àðõèòåêòîðà ðîäèëèñü â Êîðåå, à åãî ñòàðøèé ñûí ϸòð ñòàë ïåðâûì åâðîïåéöåì, ðîäèâøèìñÿ â ãîñóäàðñòâå ×îñîí. Íà ñåìèíàðå Ìåæäóíàðîäíîé àññîöèàöèè èñòîðèè Êîðåè, ïðîøåäøåì â îêòÿáðå 2009 ã., Òàòüÿíà Ñèìáèðöåâà, êàíäèäàò èñòîðè÷åñêèõ íàóê, ñîòðóäíèê ÐÃÃÓ, â ÷àñòíîñòè, ñêàçàëà: «Ñòàòüè Ñàáàòèíà, îïóáëèêîâàííûå â ðîññèéñêèõ ãàçåòàõ òîãî âðåìåíè, ïîêàçûâàþò, ÷òî îí î÷åíü õîðîøî çíàë Êîðåþ. Âîâëå÷¸ííîñòü â âàæíûå ñîáûòèÿ êîðåéñêîé èñòîðèè è áëèçîñòü ê Êî÷æîíó, ê êîòîðîìó Ñàáàòèí èñïûòûâàë óâàæåíèå è ñîñòðàäàíèå, åù¸ áîëüøå ñâÿçàëè åãî ñ Êîðååé».

Î÷åâèäåö òðàãè÷åñêèõ ñîáûòèé íîâîé èñòîðèè Êîðåè Çàâîåâàâ äîâåðèå Êî÷æîíà, Ñàáàòèí ñ àâãóñòà 1894 ã. ñòàë ñëóæèòü âî äâîðöå ʸíáîê-êóí, ãäå íà ðàññâåòå 8 îêòÿáðÿ 1895 ã. âìåñòå ñ Óèëüÿìîì Ìàêèíòàéðîì Äàéåì, àìåðèêàíñêèì ãåíåðàëîì è îôèöåðîì-ïðåïîäàâàòåëåì, îáó÷àâøèì êîðîëåâñêóþ ãâàðäèþ, ñòàë ñâèäåòåëåì íàïàäåíèÿ ÿïîíñêèõ ñîëäàò íà êîðîëåâó Ìèí.  îñòàâëåííûõ èì ïîêàçàíèÿõ åñòü ñëåäóþùèå ñòðîêè: «ßïîíñêèå ñîëäàòû ïîêà íå ñìîãëè íàéòè êîðîëåâó. Íèêòî íå çíàåò, æèâà îíà èëè ìåðòâà. ßïîíñêèé ïîñëàííèê Ìèóðà Ãîðî äî òîãî, êàê îí óçíàë, ÷òî åñòü ñâèäåòåëè èç ÷èñëà åâðîïåéöåâ, íè ñëîâîì íå îáìîëâèëñÿ î òîì, ÷òî ÿïîíñêèå ñîëäàòû íàïàëè íà äâîðåö è óáèëè ïðèäâîðíûõ äàì è ïðàâèòåëüñòâåííûõ ÷èíîâíèêîâ». Óáèéñòâî êîðîëåâû Ìèí äî ñèõ ïîð îñòà¸òñÿ çàãàäêîé èñòîðèè. Èññëåäîâàòåëü ×îí Ñàíñó èç Íàöèîíàëüíîãî îòêðûòîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà Êîðåèâ2013ã.îáíàðóæèëäèïëîìàòè÷åñêèåäîêóìåíòûÂåëèêîáðèòàíèè K o r e a n a ı Âåñíà 2 0 14

è Ãåðìàíèè, â êîòîðûõ óòâåðæäàåòñÿ, ÷òî êîðîëåâà Ìèí íå ïîãèáëà â 1895 ã., à ñïàñëàñü áåãñòâîì. Ñîãëàñíî ýòèì äîêóìåíòàì, íåêîå ëèöî îáðàòèëîñü ê ãåíêîíñóëó ðóññêîé ìèññèè Êàðëó Âåáåðó ñ ïðîñüáîé ïðåäîñòàâèòü óáåæèùå êîðîëåâå Ìèí, è Óîëòåð Õèëüå, â òî âðåìÿ ãåíêîíñóë Âåëèêîáðèòàíèè, â äîêëàäå ñâîåìó ïðàâèòåëüñòâó òàêæå ñîîáùàë, ÷òî «ñóäÿ ïî âñåìó, êîðîëåâå óäàëîñü áåæàòü».  ôåâðàëå 1896 ã., êîãäà óãðîçà ñî ñòîðîíû ßïîíèè ñòàëà îáðåòàòü ðåàëüíûå î÷åðòàíèÿ, Êî÷æîí âìåñòå ñ íàñëåäíûì ïðèíöåì, êîòîðûé âïîñëåäñòâèè âçîø¸ë íà òðîí ïîä èìåíåì Ñóí÷æîíà, ïîêèíóë ʸíáîê-êóí è ïåðåáðàëñÿ â ðóññêóþ äèïìèññèþ. Êî÷æîí ïðîâ¸ë â íåé áîëüøå ãîäà, à â ôåâðàëå 1897 ã. ïåðååõàë âî äâîðåö Òîêñó-ãóí, ãäå âñêîðå îáúÿâèë î ñîçäàíèè èìïåðèè. Âûáîð Òîêñó-ãóíà, êîòîðûé ïî ïëîùàäè çíà÷èòåëüíî óñòóïàë ãëàâíîìó äâîðöó — ×õàíäîê-êóíó, áûë ïðîäèêòîâàí ñîîáðàæåíèåì, ÷òî, áóäó÷è îêðóæ¸í èíîñòðàííûìè äèïìèññèÿìè, èìïåðàòîð è åãî äâîð ñìîãóò ëó÷øå îòðàçèòü ÿïîíñêóþ óãðîçó. Ïîñêîëüêó Òîêñó-ãóí áûë ñîâñåì íåáîëüøèì, èìïåðàòîðñêàÿ ñåìüÿ, êóïèâ ïðèëåãàþùèå ó÷àñòêè çåìëè, ïðèíàäëåæàâøèå àìåðèêàíñêèì ìèññèîíåðàì Õîðàñó Äæ. Àíäåðâóäó è Ñýìþåëó À. Ìîôôåòòó, ðàñøèðèëà òåððèòîðèþ äâîðöà, íà êîòîðîé âñêîðå áûëî ïîñòðîåíî íåñêîëüêî çäàíèé çàïàäíîãî òèïà. Ïÿòü èç øåñòè çäàíèé, ïîÿâèâøèõñÿ òîãäà âî äâîðöå, áûëè ñïðîåêòèðîâàíû Àôàíàñèåì Ñàáàòèíûì.  àïðåëå 1904 ã. âî äâîðöå ñëó÷èëñÿ ñòðàøíûé ïîæàð, êîòîðûé, ïî óòâåðæäåíèþ æóðíàëèñòà ãàçåòû «Òýõàí ìýèëü» Ýðíåñòà Áåòåëëÿ, âîçíèê â ðåçóëüòàòå ïîäæîãà ÿïîíöàìè. Çäàíèå ×óíì¸í÷æîí, â êîòîðîì òîãäà óêðûëñÿ èìïåðàòîð Êî÷æîí, òîæå áûëî ïîñòðîåíî ïî ïðîåêòó Ñàáàòèíà. Ñàì Ñàáàòèí íåçàäîëãî äî ïîæàðà, â ôåâðàëå, êîãäà ðàçðàçèëàñü ðóññêî-ÿïîíñêàÿ âîéíà, âìåñòå ñ ñåìü¸é è äðóãèìè ðîññèéñêèìè ïîäàííûìè íàâñåãäà ïîêèíóë ×îñîí.

Íîâûå äèïîòíîøåíèÿ  1990 ã. ìåæäó Êîðååé è Ðîññèåé áûëè âîçîáíîâëåíû äèïëîìàòè÷åñêèå îòíîøåíèÿ, è ðîññèéñêîå ïîñîëüñòâî âúåõàëî â ñîâðåìåííîå 12-ýòàæíîå çäàíèå, ïîñòðîåííîå íåïîäàë¸êó îò áûâøåé ðóññêîé äèïìèññèè â ðàéîíå ×îí-äîí. Ñðàçó ïîñëå ýòîãî ìíå äîâåëîñü ïîâñòðå÷àòüñÿ ñ ãðóïïîé âûñîêîïîñòàâëåííûõ ðîññèéñêèõ âîåííûõ, êîòîðûå ïðèøëè îñìîòðåòü áàøíþ ðóññêîé äèïìèññèè. Ëþäè, îáëà÷¸ííûå â âîåííóþ ôîðìó, îñìîòðåâ áàøíþ ñî âñåõ ñòîðîí, êàçàëèñü ïðåèñïîëíåííûìè ãëóáîêèõ ÷óâñòâ è ïåðåä óõîäîì ñôîòîãðàôèðîâàëèñü íà ïàìÿòü íà å¸ ôîíå. Ðàéîí ×îí-äîí íàõîäèëñÿ â öåíòðå ïðîöåññà ìîäåðíèçàöèè, òåñíî ñâÿçàííîãî ñ ïîòðÿñåíèÿìè, êîòîðûå ïåðåæèëà ñòðàíà â íà÷àëå XX âåêà. Ñåé÷àñ ïîëèòè÷åñêîå íàïðÿæåíèå òåõ äíåé è ÷óæåçåìíûå âåÿíèÿ óëåãëèñü, êàê áóäòî ñïàëà îòëèâíàÿ âîäà. Áàøíÿ áûâøåé ðóññêîé äèïìèññèè, êîòîðàÿ ñïîêîéíî âîçâûøàåòñÿ íà õîëìå, áóäó÷è ôîðìàëüíî ïîëîé, íà ñàìîì äåëå ñîäåðæèò â ñåáå ÷àñòèöó èñòîðèè Êîðåè.

43


Ñ ëþáîâüþ ê Êîðåå

Íîìóðà Ìîòîþêè: «Ëþäè ×õîíãéå÷õîíà 1970-õ ãîäîâ — ýòî ó÷èòåëÿ ìîåé æèçíè» Äëÿ Ìîòîþêè Íîìóðû (83 ãîäà) äåñÿòü ëåò ñ 1973 ãîäà ñòàëè âðåìåíåì, êîãäà îí ïîçíàë, êàêîâî ýòî — áûòü «áåçäîìíûì Èèñóñîì» áëàãîäàðÿ æèòåëÿì ×õîíãéå÷õîíà, áàðà÷íîãî ïîñ¸ëêà, âûðîñøåãî ïî áåðåãàì ðå÷êè ×õîíãéå-÷õîí, êîòîðûé â òå ãîäû áûë áåäíåéøèì êâàðòàëîì ñòîëèöû.  2007 ãîäó ã-í Íîìóðà ïåðåäàë â äàð ãîðîäó Ñåóëó 800 ôîòîïë¸íîê ñ ôîòîãðàôèÿìè ×õîíãéå÷õîíà è öåííûå ìàòåðèàëû òîãî âðåìåíè, êîòîðûå æäàëè ñâîåãî ÷àñà â åãî êàáèíåòå, è èçäàë ôîòîàëüáîì «Äîêëàä Íîìóðû». Ýòè ñîáûòèÿ ïîçâîëèëè åìó çàâÿçàòü íîâûå îòíîøåíèå ñ Êîðååé, íà ýòîò ðàç — ñ ìîëîäûì ïîêîëåíèåì ñòðàíû. ×îí Ûíè, ñòèïåíäèàò-èññëåäîâàòåëü Èññëåäîâàòåëüñêîãî öåíòðà ìåäèà è êóëüòóðû Óíèâåðñèòåòà Êîáå

Ï

îêà ÿ äîáèðàëàñü ê ìåñòó íàçíà÷åíèÿ, ìåíÿÿ ëèíèè ìåòðî è ïîåçäà, â ìîåé ãîëîâå îäíîâðåìåííî òåñíèëèñü äâà îáðàçà ÷åëîâåêà, ñ êîòîðûì ìíå ïðåäñòîÿëî âñòðåòèòüñÿ. Îäíèì áûë «ñâÿòîé ×õîíãéå÷õîíà», áðîäÿùèé ïî ñåðîìó ïåéçàæó áåäíîãî êâàðòàëà, äðóãèì — äîáðûé äåäóøêà, êîòîðûé â ëåñó íà çàêàòå ñîëíöà íàêðûâàåò «ñòîë äëÿ ëèñ». Åù¸ â òî âðåìÿ, êîãäà ìû îáìåíèâàëèñü ïåðâûìè ýëåêòðîííûìè ïèñüìàìè, ÷òîáû äîãîâîðèòüñÿ îá èíòåðâüþ, ÿ îáðàòèëàñü ê íåìó, èñïîëüçóÿ ñëîâà «ñâÿòîé îòåö», íà ÷òî îí îòâåòèë áóêâàëüíî ìîëüáîé: «ß — íå ñâÿùåííèê. ß îáû÷íûé ñåëüñêèé ñòàðèê, êîòîðûé æèâ¸ò â ãëóõîé áåäíîé äåðåâíå. Çîâèòå ìåíÿ ïðîñòî äåäóøêîé».

Ïóòü ê Äîìó Âèôàíèè

1 1 Îáëîæêà ôîòîàëüáîìà «Äîêëàä Íîìóðû», èçäàííîãî â 2013 ã. 2 Ã-í Íîìóðà ïåðåäàë â äàð ãîðîäó Ñåóëó 800 ôîòîïë¸íîê ñ ôîòîãðàôèÿìè ×õîíãéå÷õîíà, îñòàâèâ ñåáå òîëüêî êàäðû ñ ëè÷íûìè ñíèìêàìè.

44

Îòïðàâèâøèñü â ïóòü èç Êîáå, ãäå ðåäêî èä¸ò ñíåã, ÿ ïðîâåëà â äîðîãå 4 ÷àñà. Íà ìîèõ êîëåíÿõ ëåæèò ôîòîàëüáîì ïîä íàçâàíèåì «Äîêëàä Íîìóðû». Íà îáëîæêå — áàðà÷íûé ïîñ¸ëîê èç äîùàòûõ õèáàð, âûñòðîèâøèõñÿ â ðÿä â áåäíîì êâàðòàëå ×õîíãéå÷õîí â 1970-õ ãîäàõ. Òåïåðü ýòî ìåñòî ïðåâðàòèëîñü â ñîâðåìåííóþ ïðåêðàñíóþ ãîðîäñêóþ çîíó îòäûõà, ïîýòîìó ñþäà íåïðåðûâíûì ïîòîêîì èäóò ñåóëüöû, ÷òîáû ñ óäîâîëüñòâèåì ïðîâåñòè çäåñü ñâîé äîñóã. È ñåé÷àñ, êîãäà íà äâîðå 2014 ãîä, â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ×õîíãéå÷õîíà íèãäå íå íàéòè è ñëåäà òîãî ïîñ¸ëêà èç ëà÷óã. Îòêðûâ ïåðâóþ ñòðàíèöó àëüáîìà, íàòûêàþñü íà ôîòîãðàôèþ, íà êîòîðîé îòêðûòî óëûáàåòñÿ ãëÿäÿ â êàìåðó ðåá¸íîê, ñòîÿùèé ïåðåä âõîäîì òî ëè â ïåùåðó, òî ëè çåìëÿíêó. Ëþäè, íå ñóìåâøèå ðàçäîáûòü äàæå äîñîê, â çåìëÿíîé äàìáå âûêàïûâàëè çåìëÿíêè è æèëè â íèõ, çàêðûâ âõîä ñîëîìåííûìè öèíîâêàìè èëè ïîëèýòèëåíîâîé ïë¸íêîé. Ìåñòî, ãäå áûëè ñîñðåäîòî÷åíû òàêèå çåìëÿíûå óáåæèùà, ëþäè íàçâàëè «ìóðàâüèíîé äåðåâíåé».  Ñèîäçèðè ïðåôåêòóðû Íàãàíî ÿ ïåðåñåëà íà ñåëüñêèé ïîåçä, â êîòîðîì ïî÷òè íå áûëî ïàññàæèðîâ, è ñïóñòÿ 40 ìèíóò ïåðåä ìîèìè ãëàçàìè íåîæèäàííî íà÷àë ðàçâîðà÷èâàòüñÿ âåëè÷åñòâåííûé çàñíåæåííûé ïåéçàæ Þæíûõ ÿïîíñêèõ Àëüï. Ìîèì ïóíêòîì íàçíà÷åíèÿ áûëà ìàëåíüêàÿ äåðåâåíüêà â ïÿòè êèëîìåòðàõ íà ñåâåðî-âîñòîê îò ñòàíöèè Êîáóòèäçàâà.  ýòîé äåðåâíå, ðàñïîëîæåííîé ó ïîäíîæèÿ ãîðû ßöóãàòàêå, íà âûñîòå 1050 ìåòðîâ íàä óðîâíåì ìîðÿ íàõîäèòñÿ Äîì Êîðåéñêàÿ êóëüòóðà è èñêóññòâî


2

Âèôàíèè äåäóøêè Íîìóðû. Ýòî ìåñòî — äîìàøíèé î÷àã îáùèíû äåäóøêè Íîìóðû, êóäà ñâîáîäíî çàõîäÿò, îñòàþòñÿ íà íî÷ëåã, à ïîòîì ñíîâà îòïðàâëÿþòñÿ ïî ñâîèì äåëàì ëþäè, çâåðè è ïðèðîäà.

×àøêà ïîäñàõàðåííîé âîäû Ïîéäÿ ïî ëåñíîé äîðîæêå, ÿ âñêîðå âûøëà ê íåáîëüøîìó äîìó. Ðÿäîì ñ äðóãèìè ñòðîåíèÿìè â ýòîì ðàéîíå, êîòîðûé â ïîñëåäíåå âðåìÿ ñòàë ïîïóëÿðíîé äà÷íîé çîíîé, îí ïîðàæàåò ñâîåé áåñêîíå÷íîé ïðîñòîòîé. Ã-í Íîìóðà ïðîäàë ñâîé äîì â Òîêèî è ïîñåëèëñÿ çäåñü â 1985 ãîäó.  òî âðåìÿ ýòî áûëà ãëóõàÿ ãîðíàÿ äåðåâóøêà, ìàëîïðèãîäíàÿ äëÿ êîìôîðòíîé æèçíè, ïîýòîìó öåíà íà çåìëþ áûëà î÷åíü íèçêîé. Äåðåâüÿ, êîòîðûå ïîäíèìàëèñü íå âûøå êîëåíà, êîãäà ã-í Íîìóðà ïðèåõàë ñþäà âïåðâûå, òåïåðü âûìàõàëè è ïðåâðàòèëèñü â îáøèðíûé ëåñ. Ýòîò ëåñ âûïîëíÿåò ðîëü ïðîõîäà, êîòîðûé ïîçâîëÿåò áåç ñòðàõà ïðèõîäèòü íà äåäóøêèí äâîð æèâóùèì â ãîðàõ îëåíÿì, ëèñàì, ïòèöàì. — Íàäî æå, âû ïðèåõàëè òàê èçäàëåêà ðàäè íèê÷¸ìíîãî ñòàðèêà, êîòîðûé æä¸ò â ãîñòè ðàçâå ÷òî ñåìåéñòâî ëèñ… Äåäóøêà Íîìóðà âñòðå÷àåò ìåíÿ ñ ïðîñòîäóøíîé óëûáêîé äåòåé èç «ìóðàâüèíîé äåðåâíè». Ïî ñëó÷àþ ïðîäîëæèòåëüíûõ âûõîäíûõ â êîíöå ãîäà ê íåìó ïðèåõàëè èç ïðåôåêòóðû Èáàðàêè ñûí, çàíèìàþùèéñÿ ïðîôåññèîíàëüíûì îáó÷åíèåì óìñòâåííî îòñòàëûõ ëþäåé, è íåâåñòêà, êîòîðàÿ îáåñïå÷èâàåò ñòîìàòîëîãè÷åñêèì îáñëóæèâàíèåì ëþäåé ñ îãðàíè÷åííûìè ôèçè÷åñêèìè âîçìîæíîñòÿìè. —  1968 ãîäó ìíå äîâåëîñü âïåðâûå ïîñåòèòü Êîðåþ. Êîãäà ÿ ó÷èëñÿ â âåòåðèíàðíîì ó÷èëèùå â ßïîíèè, ïðèìåðíî âî âðåìÿ Êîðåéñêîé âîéíû, ó ìåíÿ áûë äðóã-êîðååö, ñ êîòîðûì ìû òîãäà äåëèëè ãîðå è ðàäîñòü. Îí áûë ñ îñòðîâà ×å÷æó-äî. Òîãäà ïîñëå ïîñåùåíèÿ ×å÷æó-äî ÿ îáúåõàë âñþ ñòðàíó, è øîê, êîòîðûé ÿ èñïûòàë òîãäà, ìíå òðóäíî çàáûòü è ïî ñåé äåíü. «Âåäü âñåãî êàêèõ-òî 20 ëåò íàçàä, äîëæíî áûòü, çäåñü ïîâñþäó, äàæå â ãëóõèõ ãîðíûõ ìåñòàõ ðàçâåâàëèñü ÿïîíñêèå ôëàãè, è K o r e a n a ı Âåñíà 2 0 14

45


«Ñàìîìó ãëàâíîìó â ýòîé æèçíè ìåíÿ íàó÷èëè îáèòàòåëè ×õîíãéå÷õîíà. Îíè ñòàëè ìîèìè ó÷èòåëÿìè, êîòîðûå ñàìîé ñâîåé æèçíüþ ïîìîãëè ìíå ïîíÿòü, î ÷¸ì ñêàçàíî â Áèáëèè. Ìíå ñòûäíî, ÷òî ìå��ÿ íàçûâàþò “ñâÿòûì ×õîíãéå÷õîíà”… ß ïðîñòî áåñêîíå÷íî áëàãîäàðåí ýòèì ëþäÿì, êîòîðûå ïðîáóäèëè âî ìíå ñòðåìëåíèå ñòàòü ïîäëèííûìè ó÷åíèêîì Èèñóñà».

ðàçäàâàëñÿ ãðîõîò ñàïîã ÿïîíñêèõ ñîëäàò. È âñ¸, ÷òî ÿ âèæó ñåé÷àñ âîêðóã, — ýòî, äîëæíî áûòü, íàñëåäèå, îñòàâëåííîå ÿïîíñêèì êîëîíèàëüíûì ïðàâëåíèåì, è åãî íèêàê íå ñìûòü». Ïîìíþ, ýòè ìûñëè ïðîíçèëè ìåíÿ òîãäà äî ìîçãà êîñòåé.  òî âðåìÿ ã-í Íîìóðà êàê ðàç òîëüêî âåðíóëñÿ â ßïîíèþ, êîòîðàÿ ñòðåìèòåëüíî äâèãàëàñü ê äîñòèæåíèþ ïèêà ýêîíîìè÷åñêîãî ðîñòà, ïîñëå çàâåðøåíèÿ ó÷¸áû â ÑØÀ, êóäà îí, ïðåðâàâ ñâîè çàíÿòèÿ âåòåðèíàðèåé, îòïðàâèëñÿ èçó÷àòü áîãîñëîâèå ïî ñîâåòó îäíîãî àìåðèêàíñêîãî ìèññèîíåðà. Óâèäåâ ñâîèìè ãëàçàìè øðàìû, îñòàâëåííûå ïîâñþäó Êîðåéñêîé âîéíîé, è êðàéíþþ ñòåïåíü îáíèùàíèÿ íàðîäà, ã-í Íîìóðà èñïûòàë ãëóáî÷àéøèé øîê. Ïî åãî ñëîâàì, òîãäà îí îñîçíàë, ÷òî íàðÿäó ñ ãîñóäàðñòâåííîé îòâåòñòâåííîñòüþ äîëæíà ñóùåñòâîâàòü òàêæå íðàâñòâåííàÿ è ýòè÷åñêàÿ îòâåòñòâåííîñòü êàæäîãî èíäèâèäóóìà. Íàéäÿ ïîíèìàíèå ó ÷ëåíîâ ñâîåé ñåìüè, ëåòîì 1973 ãîäà, íà ýòîò ðàç â ñîïðîâîæäåíèè ñåìüè, ã-í Íîìóðà ñíîâà îòïðàâèëñÿ â Êîðåþ ñ íàìåðåíèåì âåñòè âîëîíò¸ðñêóþ äåÿòåëüíîñòü íà áëàãî êîðåéöåâ. Ðàññêàç î ïîñåùåíèè äåðåâíè ×åàì-íè ïîäõâàòûâàåò ñóïðóãà äåäà ã-æà ¨ðèêî, êîòîðàÿ äî ýòîãî ñèäåëà ðÿäîì ñ äåäîì, êàê áóäòî ãëóáîêî ïîãðóæ¸ííàÿ â ñâîè ìûñëè. —  òîò ãîä ñòîÿëî ïî-íàñòîÿùåìó æàðêîå ëåòî. Ïèòüåâîé âîäû áûëî íå äîñòàòü. Íî êîãäà ìû ñ ñåìü¸é ïðèáûëè â äåðåâíþ ×åàì-íè, îäíà áàáóëÿ, æèâóùàÿ â äîìå, êðûòîì ñîëîìîé, äàëà íàì ÷àøêó ïîäñàõàðåííîé âîäû. È íåñêîëüêî ëîìòåé àðáóçà, ùåäðî ïîñûïàííûõ ñàõàðîì. À âåäü â òå âðåìåíà â Êîðåå ñàõàð áûë ðåäêèì è äîðîãèì ïðîäóêòîì. Òîãäà íàø ñûí Ìàêîòî, êîòîðûé åçäèë ñ íàìè, ó÷èëñÿ âî âòîðîì êëàññå. Ïîçæå îíè óçíàëè, ÷òî áàáóøêà, óãîñòèâøàÿ èõ ïîäñàõàðåííîé âîäîé, áûëà îäíîé èç íåìíîãèõ ëþäåé, êîòîðûå âûæèëè âî âðåìÿ ðåçíè â äåðåâíå ×åàì-íè. (Âî âðåìÿ òåõ êðîâàâûõ ñîáûòèé â õîäå ðåïðåññèé â îòâåò íà Ïåðâîìàðòîâñêîå äâèæåíèå çà íåçàâèñèìîñòü â 1919 ãîäó ÿïîíñêèå ñîëäàòû óáèëè áîëåå 20 ãðàæäàíñêèõ æèòåëåé äåðåâíè ×åàì-íè óåçäà Õâàñîí-ãóí íûíåøíåé ïðîâèíöèè ʸíãè-äî.)

«Òîëüêî, ïðîøó âàñ, íå íàçûâàéòå ìåíÿ “ñâÿòûì ×õîíãéå÷õîíà”!» Ã-í Íîìóðà ñ ñåìü¸é âïåðâûå ïîñåòèë ×õîíãéå÷õîí 25 èþëÿ 1973 ãîäà ïðè ïîääåðæêå îðãàíèçàöèè Urban Industrial Mission (Ãîðîäñêàÿ ïðîìûøëåííàÿ ìèññèÿ). Ïî åãî ñëîâàì, òî, ÷òî îíè óâèäåëè, íàïîìèíàëî íàñòîÿùèé àä. Íî â îäíîì óãëó áàðà÷íîãî ïîñ¸ëêà èì áðîñèëîñü â ãëàçà êðàéíå îáâåòøàëîå ñòðîåíèå ñ äåðåâÿííûì êðåñòîì íà êðûøå. Ýòî áûëà öåðêîâü Õâàëüáèí. Áëàãîäàðÿ âñòðå÷å ñ ìîëîäûì, èñïîëíåííûì ðâåíèÿ ñâÿùåííèêîì, ñëóæèâøèì â ýòîé öåðêâè, ã-í Íîìóðà îêîí÷àòåëüíî óâåðèëñÿ â òîì, ÷òî åãî ìèññèÿ çäåñü, â ×õîíãéå÷õîíå. Òàê íà÷àëèñü îòíîøåíèÿ íàøåãî ÿïîíñêîãî ãåðîÿ ñ ×õîíãéå÷õîíîì è ìîëîäûì ñâÿùåííèêîì. Áëàãîäàðÿ îáèòàòåëÿì ýòîãî ìåñòà ã-í Íîìóðà ïîíÿë, ÷òî çíà÷èò æèòü, êàê «áåçäîìíûé Èèñóñ», è ðåøèë ñäåëàòü ýòî ñâîèì îáðàçîì æèçíè. Ã-í Íîìóðà, îáðàòèâøèñü çà ïîìîùüþ ê ìåæäóíàðîäíîìó ñîîáùåñòâó, ïðè ïîìîùè áëàãîòâîðèòåëüíûõ ôîíäîâ è ÷àñòíûõ ëèö èç ßïîíèè, Çàïàäíîé Ãåðìàíèè, Íîâîé Çåëàíäèè è äðóãèõ ñòðàí, ñóìåë ñîáðàòü áîëüøèå ñðåäñòâà è ðàçâåðíóë äåÿòåëüíîñòü ïî îêàçàíèþ ïîìîùè îáèòàòåëÿì ×õîíãéå÷õîíà. Ïîñëå ñíîñà áàðà÷íîãî ïîñ¸ëêà ïîëó÷åííûå èç-çà ãðàíèöû ôèíàíñîâûå ñðåäñòâà è ãóìàíèòàðíûå ãðóçû ïîøëè íà îáóñòðîéñòâî ïåðåñåëåíöåâ íà íîâîì ìåñòå, â Íàìÿí÷æó ïðîâèíöèè ʸíãè-äî. Áûëè îòêðûòû äåòñêèå ñàäû äëÿ ñåìåé ñ íèçêèì äîõîäîì, à òàêæå îðãàíèçîâàíà ïðîãðàììà ïîìîùè òåì, êòî õîòåë íà÷àòü ñàìîñòîÿòåëüíóþ æèçíü â äåðåâíå. Ïóò¸ì îðãàíèçàöèè ñòðîéîòðÿäîâ ñ ïðèâëå÷åíèåì âîëîíò¸ðîâ èç-çà ðóáåæà íà ñåëå áûëà ñîçäàíà 1

46

Êîðåéñêàÿ êóëüòóðà è èñêóññòâî


1 Íà ïåðåäíåì äâîðå äîìà ã-í Íîìóðà ëèñà ñ óäîâîëüñòâèåì ïîåäàåò ïðèãîòîâëåííûé äëÿ íå¸ óæèí. 2-5 Íà ôîòîãðàôèÿõ, ñíÿòûõ ã-í Íîìóðîé, ìîæíî óâèäåòü, êàê âûãëÿäåë ×õîíãéå÷õîí â 1970-õ ãã. Íà âòîðîé ôîòîãðàôèè ñâåðõó çàïå÷àòëåíû çåìëÿíêè «ìóðàâüèíîé äåðåâíè».

2

èíôðàñòðóêòóðà äëÿ íîâûõ ïîñåëåíöåâ. Îäíàêî íà ñåáÿ ã-í Íîìóðà íå ïîòðàòèë íè êîïåéêè îáùåñòâåííûõ äåíåã. Êàæäûå äâà ìåñÿöà åìó ïðèõîäèëîñü åçäèòü â ßïîíèþ äëÿ âîçîáíîâëåíèÿ âèçû, íî âñå ýòè ðàñõîäû îí îïëà÷èâàë èñêëþ÷èòåëüíî èç ëè÷íûõ ñðåäñòâ. Îäíàêî â ñèëó íåîïûòíîñòè ìîëîäîãî êîðåéñêîãî ñâÿùåííèêà, êîòîðîìó ðàíüøå íå ïðèõîäèëîñü èìåòü äåëî ñ òàêèìè áîëüøèìè ñóììàìè äåíåã, ñëó÷èëîñü íåñêîëüêî ïðîèñøåñòâèé, êîòîðûå áûëî òðóäíî ïåðåæèòü.  ïîïûòêå ñïðàâèòüñÿ ñ ñèòóàöèåé ã-í Íîìóðà îêàçàëñÿ â êðàéíå ñòåñí¸ííûõ îáñòîÿòåëüñòâàõ. È â 1985 ãîäó åãî îòíîøåíèÿ ñ Êîðååé, ê ñîæàëåíèþ, áûëè ðàçîðâàíû. Ê òîìó âðåìåíè ñåìüÿ Íîìóðû ïðåáûâàëà â êðàéíåé ýêîíîìè÷åñêîé íóæäå, â êîòîðîé èì ïðåäñòîÿëî æèòü è â ïîñëåäóþùèå ãîäû. Ñûíó Ìàêîòî ïîòðåáîâàëîñü 7 ëåò, ÷òîáû îêîí÷èòü ó÷èëèùå, à ñàì ã-í Íîìóðà è åãî ñóïðóãà íîñèëè íèæíåå áåëü¸ èç õëîïêà, ïîêà îíî, èñòîí÷èâøèñü, íå ðàçëåçàëîñü íà íèòêè. — Ëþäè, ó êîòîðûõ áîëüøå äåíåã è âîçìîæíîñòåé, åñòåñòâåííî äîëæíû äåëèòüñÿ ñ òåìè, ó êîãî ýòîãî íåò. Äàæå åñëè åñòü ëèøü ñàìàÿ ìàëîñòü, äàæå åþ íóæíî ñòàðàòüñÿ ïîäåëèòüñÿ ñ òåìè, ó êîãî íåò íè÷åãî, — ãîâîðèò ã-í Íîìóðà, âñïîìèíàÿ î òåõ âðåìåíàõ. Ó÷èòåëÿìè, êîòîðûå ïðåïîäàëè åìó ýòîò æèçíåííûé óðîê, áûëè âäîâû, ïðîñòèòóòêè, áðîäÿãè, äåòè è äðóãèå îáèòàòåëè ×õîíãéå÷õîíà. —  äåòñòâå ìåíÿ âîñïèòûâàë îòåö, êîòîðûé ïðåïîäàâàë â Óíèâåðñèòåòå Äîñèñÿ â Êèîòî, â ñòàðøèõ êëàññàõ ÿ õîäèë â ìèññèîíåðñêóþ øêîëó. Ïîñëå ýòîãî ÿ ïåðåáðàëñÿ â ÑØÀ, ãäå ïîñåùàë òðè áîãîñëîâñêèõ ñåìèíàðèè, íî ñàìîìó ãëàâíîìó â ýòîé æèçíè, òîìó, ÷åìó ìåíÿ íå íàó÷èë íèêòî çà âñå ýòè ãîäû, ìåíÿ íàó÷èëè îáèòàòåëè ×õîíãéå÷õîíà. Îíè ñòàëè ìîèìè ó÷èòåëÿìè, êîòîðûå ñàìîé ñâîåé æèçíüþ ïîìîãëè ìíå ïîíÿòü, î ÷¸ì ñêàçàíî â Áèáëèè. Ìíå ñòûäíî, ÷òî ìåíÿ íàçûâàþò «ñâÿòûì ×õîíãéå÷õîíà»… ß ïðîñòî áåñêîíå÷íî áëàãîäàðåí ýòèì ëþäÿì, êîòîðûå ïðîáóäèëè âî ìíå ñòðåìëåíèå ñòàòü ïîäëèííûìè ó÷åíèêîì Èèñóñà.

3

4

Óæèí äëÿ æèâîòíûõ — Èçâèíèòå, íî ìíå íóæíî ïðèãîòîâèòü åäó, ïîñêîëüêó íåñêîëüêî ãîñòåé çàêàçàëè ñòîëèêè â ìî¸ì ðåñòîðàíå. Ñ òàêèìè ñëîâàìè äåäóøêà Íîìóðà íåîæèäàííî ïîäíèìàåòñÿ ñ ìåñòà. Åãî îòëè÷àåò ñâîåîáðàçíàÿ ìàíåðà âåñòè áåñåäó, êîãäà áûâàåò ñëîæíî ïîíÿòü, ãîâîðèò îí ÷òî-òî âñåðü¸ç èëè øóòèò. Ïîýòîìó ïîêà ÿ íàêîíåö ïðèñïîñîáèëàñü ê åãî ÷óâñòâó þìîðà, ìíå ïðèøëîñü íåîäíîêðàòíî ïåðåæèòü ïðèÿòíîå çàìåøàòåëüñòâî. — Åäó? Äëÿ ðåñòîðàíà? K o r e a n a ı Âåñíà 2 0 14

47

5


© Choi In-gi

1

— Íà ïåðåäíåì äâîðå åñòü ðåñòîðàí äëÿ ñåìüè ëèñ. È åñòü åù¸ ðåñòîðàí äëÿ ïòèö, ðåñòîðàí äëÿ îëåíåé, — âñòàâëÿåò ñëîâî íåâåñòêà ã-íà Íîìóðû. Îñòàëüíûå ÷ëåíû ñåìüè ñ ëèöàìè, èñêðÿùèìèñÿ âåñåëüåì, äàâÿñü îò ñìåõà, ñìîòðÿò íà ìî¸ ëèöî, íà êîòîðîì íàïèñàíî, ÷òî ÿ òîëüêî ñåé÷àñ äîãàäàëàñü, î ÷¸ì èä¸ò ðå÷ü. È ìíå òîæå ñòàíîâèòñÿ âåñåëî. Ñèäÿ íà ïåðåäíåì äâîðå, êîòîðûé íà÷èíàåò ïîãðóæàòüñÿ â òåìíîòó, äåäóøêà íàêðûâàåò ñòîë äëÿ ëèñ. Ïîñðåäè äâîðà, ðàñïîëîæåííîãî â òð¸õ-÷åòûð¸õ ìåòðàõ îò âåðàíäû, íà çåìëå ëåæèò áîëüøîé ïëîñêèé ÷¸ðíûé êàìåíü. Äåäóøêà Íîìóðà, äîñòàâ ÷òî-òî èç ïîëèýòèëåíîâîãî ïàêåòà, íà÷èíàåò ñ ëþáîâüþ ðàñêëàäûâàòü ýòî íà êàìíå. Ýòî ñûðîå ìÿñî. Îí ãîâîðèò, ÷òî ïî åãî ïðîñüáå èç ìåñòíîé ìÿñíîé ëàâêè åìó îòäàþò íåêîíäèöèîííîå ìÿñî, êîòîðîå íåëüçÿ âûëîæèòü íà ïðèëàâîê. Ïî ìåðå òîãî êàê îêðåñòíàÿ ìåñòíîñòü ïîñòåïåííî ïðåâðàùàåòñÿ â äà÷íóþ çîíó, çâåðè, ëèø¸ííûå ïðèâû÷íîé ñðåäû îáèòàíèÿ, èíîãäà ñïóñêàþòñÿ ê ëþäñêèì äîìàì â ïîèñêàõ åäû. Çèìîé ñëó÷àåòñÿ, ÷òî èç-çà íåäîñòàòêà ïèùè íåêîòîðûå æèâîòíûå óìèðàþò îò ãîëîäà. Ïîýòîìó â ðåñòîðàíå íà ïåðåäíåì äâîðå äîìà äåäóøêè Íîìóðû íèêîãäà íåò ñâîáîäíûõ ñòîëèêîâ. —  äåòñòâå, êîãäà óìåð îòåö, ìàìà õîòåëà, ÷òîáû ÿ ïðîäîëæèë ó÷¸áó â ñåìèíàðèè. Ïîýòîìó â âîçðàñòå, êîãäà ÿ âñ¸ åù¸ íóæäàëñÿ â ìàòåðèíñêîé çàáîòå, ÿ áûë îòäàí â ÷óæîé äîì, ãäå ïðîâ¸ë â îäèíî÷åñòâå ñâî¸ îòðî÷åñòâî. ß áûë íåóâåðåííûì â ñåáå ïîäðîñòêîì, à ïîòîì òàêèì æå íåóâåðåííûì þíîøåé, ïîòîìó ÷òî äóìàë, ÷òî ìàìà ìåíÿ áðîñèëà. Ìîæåò áûòü, ïîýòîìó ÿ ñ äåòñòâà ëþáèë æèâîòíûõ.

Íà÷àëî íîâûõ îòíîøåíèé Íà ñëåäóþùåå óòðî ÿ ïðîñíóëàñü ðàíî îò òîãî, ÷òî ó ìåíÿ çàì¸ðç íîñ. Íàêàíóíå âå÷åðîì äåäóøêà

48

Êîðåéñêàÿ êóëüòóðà è èñêóññòâî


K o r e a n a ı Âåñíà 2 0 14

1 Ã-í Íîìóðà ñî ñâîèì ñûíîì Ìàêîòî ïîñåùàþò Èíñòèòóò ñàìîñòîÿòåëüíîé æèçíè äëÿ òÿæåëîáîëüíûõ èíâàëèäîâ â Ñåóëå (ã-í Íîìóðà ñëåâà). 2 28 îêòÿáðÿ 2013 ã. ã-í Ìîòîþêè Íîìóðà ïîëó÷èë çâàíèå «Ïî÷¸òíûé ãðàæäàíèí Ñåóëà». Ã-æà ¨ðèêî, êîòîðàÿ âñåãäà è âî âñ¸ì ïîääåðæèâàëà ñâîåãî ìóæà, ñîïðîâîæäàëà åãî âî âðåìÿ òîðæåñòâåííîé öåðåìîíèè.

49

2

© Choi In-gi

Íîìóðà ñî ñëîâàìè «êîðåéöû âñå ì¸ðçíóò â ÿïîíñêèõ äîìàõ, ïîòîìó ÷òî â íèõ íåò “îíäîëÿ”» íàêðûë ìåíÿ ñíà÷àëà ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì îäåÿëîì, ïîòîì äâóìÿ ñòàðûìè âàòíûìè îäåÿëàìè, à ñâåðõó åù¸ íåñêîëüêèìè àðìåéñêèìè îäåÿëàìè. Äîì Âèôàíèè ñâîåé êîíñòðóêöèåé íàïîìèíàåò ïðîñòîé îáùèííûé äîì.  ïðîñòîðíîé ãîñòèíîé, íåñìîòðÿ íà îòñóòñòâèå ïåðåãîðîäîê, îòäåëüíî îáîðóäîâàíî ìåñòî äëÿ ñîáðàíèé, ãäå ìîãóò ïîìåñòèòüñÿ îäíîâðåìåííî áîëåå 10 ÷åëîâåê, óãîëîê äëÿ îòäûõà è îáåäåííîå ïðîñòðàíñòâî. Ìàëåíüêàÿ êóõíÿ, ñîåäèí¸ííàÿ ñî ñòîëîâîé, ñâîåé ïðîñòîòîé è îïðÿòíîñòüþ íàïîìèíàåò êóõíþ ïðè ìîíàñòûðå. Ïî îáå ñòîðîíû äëèííîãî êîðèäîðà ðàñïîëîæåíî äîâîëüíî ìíîãî êîìíàò. Ñðàçó ìîæíî ïîíÿòü, ÷òî ýòîò äîì áûë ïîñòðîåí íå êàê «ìîé äîì», à êàê «íàø äîì», â êîòîðîì ëþäè äåëÿòñÿ äðóã ñ äðóãîì ñâîåé æèçíüþ. Çà ýòî âðåìÿ òîëüêî â êà÷åñòâå ïîñåòèòåëåé ç��åñü ïîáûâàëî áîëåå 3000 ÷åëîâåê. — Ìàðòèí Áóáåð ãîâîðèë, ÷òî ìèð ÷åëîâåêà äâîéñòâåíåí â ñîîòâåòñòâèè ñ äâîéñòâåííîñòüþ åãî ïîçèöèè ïî îòíîøåíèè ê äðóãîìó ÷åëîâåêó. Ìèð äåëèòñÿ íà ß-ÒÛ èëè ß-ÎÍÎ, è åñëè òû ïðèíèìàåøü äðóãîãî ÷åëîâåêà íå êàê ñðåäñòâî èëè îðóäèå (ÎÍÎ) äëÿ äîñòèæåíèÿ ñâîèõ öåëåé, à êàê ëè÷íîñòü ñî ñâîåé èíäèâèäóàëüíîñòüþ (ÒÛ), òî íàñòóïàåò ìèð äîâåðèÿ, ëþáâè è óâàæåíèÿ. Ìíå êàæåòñÿ, ÷òî îäíî âðåìÿ êîðåéöû ðàññìàòðèâàëè ìåíÿ êàê ÎÍÎ. Íàâåðíîå, ïîýòîìó òîò ïåðèîä áûë äëÿ ìåíÿ î÷åíü òðóäíûì è íàïðÿæ¸ííûì êàê ôèçè÷åñêè, òàê è ìîðàëüíî. Áûëî òàêæå ìíîãî ëþäåé, êîòîðûå ïûòàëèñü îáðåñòè ÎÍÎ ÷åðåç ìåíÿ. Íî ïîñëå òîãî êàê ÿ ïåðåäàë â äàð ôîòîãðàôèè ×õîíãéå÷õîíà, êîðåéöû ñòàëè âîñïðèíèìàòü ìåíÿ è ìîþ ñåìüþ êàê ÒÛ, è ÿ î÷åíü ðàä ýòîìó.  2005 ãîäó, êîãäà ìàòü íàøåãî ãåðîÿ Êàöóêî Íîìóðà, âûðîñøàÿ â ñåìüå ðåìåñëåííèêîâ êèìîíî â Êèîòî è ïîñâÿòèâøàÿ âñþ ñâîþ æèçíü äâèæåíèþ çà ïîòðåáèòåëüñêóþ êîîïåðàöèþ, áûëà âûäâèíóòà â êà÷åñòâå íîìèíàíòà íà Íîáåëåâñêóþ ïðåìèþ ìèðà, â Òîêèî îòïðàâèëñÿ íûíå ïîêîéíûé àâòîð ðåäàêöèîííûõ ñòàòåé ãàçåòû «Õàíã¸ðéå» È Èí÷õîëü.  áåñåäå ñ êîðåéñêèì æóðíàëèñòîì ã-í Íîìóðà ñêàçàë, ÷òî ïîñêîëüêó åìó íåäîëãî îñòàëîñü æèòü, îí õîòåë áû ïîäàðèòü Ñåóëó öåííûå ìàòåðèàëû, îòíîñÿùèåñÿ ê òîìó ïåðèîäó, âêëþ÷àÿ 800 íåãàòèâîâ ôîòîãðàôèé, ÷òîáû êîðåéöû âïîñëåäñòâèè ìîãëè àêòèâíî èçó÷àòü èõ è èñïîëüçîâàòü. Èìåííî áëàãîäàðÿ ýòîìó ìèð âïåðâûå óçíàë î òîé ÷àñòè æèçíè ã-íà Íîìóðû, êîòîðàÿ áûëà ñâÿçàíà ñ ×õîíãéå÷õîíîì. Êîãäà âûñòàâêè ôîòîãðàôèé ×õîíãéå÷õîíà ïðîøëè â Ñåóëå, Êâàí÷æó è äðóãèõ ìåñòàõ, êîðåéöû, ïîñìîòðåâ íà ýòè ôîòîñíèìêè, íà÷àëè ïðèåçæàòü â Äîì Âèôàíèè Íîìóðû. Äàâíÿÿ ñâÿçü ñ ôîíäîì Purme, êîðåéñêîé íåêîììåð÷åñêîé îáùåñòâåííîé îðãàíèçàöèåé, êîòîðàÿ çàíèìàåòñÿ áëàãîñîñòîÿíèåì èíâàëèäîâ, ñòàëà åù¸ îäíèì îáñòîÿòåëüñòâîì, êîòîðîå â èòîãå ïðèâåëî ê òîìó, ÷òî â 2013 ãîäó ã-í Ìîòîþêè Íîìóðà ïîëó÷èë çâàíèå «Ïî÷¸òíûé ãðàæäàíèí Ñåóëà».  ýòî âðåìÿ ã-í Íîìóðà òàêæå ïîçíàêîìèëñÿ ñ ìîëîäûì ôîòîãðàôîì, êîòîðûé ñíèìàåò íà êàìåðó æèçíü ëþäåé, îáèòàþùèõ íà äíå îáùåñòâà. Ýòî çàñòåí÷èâûé ìîëîäîé ÷åëîâåê, ëþáÿùèé êîøåê, ïî èìåíè ×õâå Èìãè. Íàèáîëåå ÷àñòûìè îáúåêòàìè åãî ôîòîñú¸ìêè ñòàíîâÿòñÿ ïåðåñåëåíöû èëè óëè÷íûå òîðãîâöû. Ïîñëå âîçâðàùåíèÿ â ßïîíèþ ã-í Íîìóðà îòïðàâèë â ïîäàðîê ñâîåìó íîâîìó äðóãó äâå öèôðîâûå êàìåðû è êîìïëåêò îáúåêòèâîâ. Áëàãîäàðÿ óñèëèÿì èçäàòåëüñòâà, ñ ðóêîâîäñòâîì êîòîðîãî ñâ¸ë íàøåãî ãåðîÿ ìîëîäîé ôîòîãðàô, áûë îïóáëèêîâàí ôîòîàëüáîì «Äîêëàä Íîìóðû». Äîõîä, ïîëó÷åííûé îò ïðîäàæè ýòîãî ôîòîàëüáîìà, èä¸ò íà ïîääåðæêó ìîëîäûõ îáùåñòâåííûõ àêòèâèñòîâ. Äåäóøêà Íîìóðà ãîâîðèò, ÷òî îí âñåãî ëèøü «ñòàðàëñÿ ïëàêàòü âìåñòå ñ ïëà÷óùèìè» è, ïîëó÷èâ çâàíèå «Ïî÷¸òíûé ãðàæäàíèí Ñåóëà», ïîíà÷àëó áûë î÷åíü ðàñòåðÿí. Íî ñåé÷àñ îí èñïûòûâàåò áëàãîäàðíîñòü, ïîñêîëüêó ïðèñóæäåíèå ýòîé íàãðàäû ñòàëî ïîâîäîì íà÷àòü íîâûå îòíîøåíèÿ ñ Êîðååé. È ãîâîðèò, ÷òî åäèíñòâåííîå æåëàíèå, êîòîðîå ó íåãî îñòàëîñü, — ýòî àêòèâíî çàíèìàòüñÿ áëàãîòâîðèòåëüíîé äåÿòåëüíîñòüþ, ÷òîáû ñóìåòü îòïëàòèòü çà îêàçàííóþ åìó ÷åñòü. Ñûí Ìàêîòî, êîòîðûé èä¸ò ïóò¸ì, ñõîæèì ñ äîðîãîé îòöà, òàêæå âîçëàãàåò áîëüøèå îæèäàíèÿ íà íîâûå îòíîøåíèÿ ã-íà Íîìóðû ñ Êîðååé: «Ïîêà ÿ ðîñ, íàáëþäàÿ ÷åðåç ïëå÷î çà òåì, ÷òî äåëàåò îòåö, ÿ, ñàì òîãî íå îñîçíàâàÿ, ñòàë æèòü åãî æèçíüþ. Òàê ÷òî ýòî íå áûë ñîçíàòåëüíûé âûáîð». È äîáàâëÿåò: «Ìíå êàæåòñÿ, ÷òî òåïåðü â æèçíè íàøåé ñåìüè íà÷àëàñü íîâàÿ ãëàâà».


ÊÍÈÃÈ, ÄÈÑÊÈ È ÄÐÓÃÎÅ 50

Áèáëèîòåêà êîðåéñêîé ëèòåðàòóðû äëÿ àíãëîÿçû÷íûõ ÷èòàòåëåé Áèáëèîòåêà êîðåéñêîé ëèòåðàòóðû. Library of Korean Literature (Volumes 1-10). By various authors. — Èçäàòåëüñòâî Champaign, Ill., U.S.; London; Dublin: Dalkey Archive Press, 2013. — Öåíà: $65 (10-volume set)

Çíàêîìèòü àíãëîÿçû÷íûõ ÷èòàòåëåé ñ ëèòåðàòóðîé íåàíãëîÿçû÷íûõ ãîñóäàðñòâ — çàíÿòèå äîâîëüíî íåïðîñòîå. ×èòàòåëè â ÑØÀ èëè Àíãëèè ìîãóò áûòü çíàêîìû ñ íåñêîëüêèìè ïåðåâîäíûìè øåäåâðàìè, íî ýòè ïðîèçâåäåíèÿ — ëèøü âåðõóøêà àéñáåðãà, íåñêîëüêî æåì÷óæèí èç ñîêðîâèùíèöû ìèðîâîé ëèòåðàòóðû. Èçâåñòíî, ÷òî ïåðåâîäíûå êíèãè ñîñòàâëÿþò êðàéíå ìàëóþ ÷àñòü ëèòåðàòóðû, ÷èòàåìîé íà àíãëèéñêîì. Îñíîâàòåëü è äèðåêòîð èçäàòåëüñòâà Dalkey Archive Press Äæîí Îáðàéåí (John O’Brien) îïèñûâàåò ýòó ñèòóàöèþ ñëåäóþùèì îáðàçîì: «Â ëèòåðàòóðíîì ìèðå øèðîêî èçâåñòåí ôàêò, ÷òî î÷åíü ìàëîå êîëè÷åñòâî ëèòåðàòóðíûõ ïðîèçâåäåíèé èç íåàíãëîÿçû÷íûõ ñòðàí ïåðåâîäÿòñÿ íà àíãëèéñêèé ÿçûê». Èçäàòåëüñòâî Dalkey Archive Press çàíèìàåòñÿ òåì, ÷òî, îòûñêàâ ìàëîèçâåñòíûõ ïèñàòåëåé, äà¸ò èì øàíñ ïðèâëå÷ü âíèìàíèå ÷èòàòåëåé. Íåñìîòðÿ íà òî ÷òî Êîðåÿ îáëàäàåò áîãàòûì ëèòåðàòóðíûì íàñëåäèåì, â àíãëîÿçû÷íûõ ñòðàíàõ êðàéíå ìàëî çíàþò êîðåéñêóþ ëèòåðàòóðó, è â ðàìêàõ óñèëèé ïî èñïðàâëåíèþ ýòîé ñèòóàöèè èçäàòåëüñòâî Dalkey Archive Press ñîâìåñòíî ñ Êîðåéñêèì èíñòèòóòîì ëèòåðàòóðíûõ ïåðåâîäîâ (ÊÈËÏ) ïëàíèðóåò èçäàòü ñåðèþ êíèã ïîä íàçâàíèåì «Áèáëèîòåêà êîðåéñêîé ëèòåðàòóðû», â êîòîðóþ âîéäóò ñáîðíèêè ðàññêàçîâ è 25 ðîìàíîâ êîðåéñêèõ ïèñàòåëåé. Íàäî ñêàçàòü, ÷òî ïðîñòî èçäàíèå ýòèõ êíèã — ýòî âñåãî ëèøü íà÷àëî òðóäíîãî ïóòè. Äåëî â òîì, ÷òî ïåðåâîäíàÿ ëèòåðàòóðà â ïðèíöèïå ïðîäà¸òñÿ ïëîõî, ïîýòîìó âåäóùèå èçäàòåëüñòâà, êàê ïðàâèëî, èçáåãàþò ñâÿçûâàòüñÿ ñ å¸ èçäàíèåì.  ðåçóëüòàòå ýòîãî âñå çàáîòû ïî ïóáëèêàöèè ïåðåâîäíûõ ïðîèçâåäåíèé áåðóò íà ñåáå ìåëêèå èçäàòåëüñòâà, ó êîòîðûõ îáû÷íî íåäîñòàòî÷íî ñðåäñòâ äëÿ îðãàíèçàöèè ïîëíîöåííîé ðåêëàìíîé êàìïàíèè äëÿ ñâîåé ïðîäóêöèè. «Áèáëèîòåêà êîðåéñêîé ëèòåðàòóðû ÿâëÿåòñÿ ñìåëûì ýêñïåðèìåíòîì, íàïðàâëåííûì íà ðåøåíèå ïîäîáíûõ ïðîáëåì», — ãîâîðèò Äæîí Îáðàéåí. Èçäàòåëüñòâî è ÊÈËÏ íàìåðåíû ñîâìåñòíî îòñëåæèâàòü âåñü ïðîöåññ, íà÷èíàÿ ñ ðàáîòû ïî ïåðåâîäó ëèòåðàòóðû è êîí÷àÿ îñâåùåíèåì ïóáëèêàöèé â ÑÌÈ è îðãàíèçàöèåé ìàðêåòèíãà ñ öåëüþ ïðèâëå÷ü âíèìàíèå äàæå òåõ ÷èòàòåëåé, êîòîðûå, âîçìîæíî, íèêîãäà è íå ïîìûøëÿëè î òîì, ÷òîáû âûáðàòü äëÿ ÷òåíèÿ êîðåéñêèé ðîìàí èëè ñáîðíèê ðàññêàçîâ. Ýòîò ïðîåêò óæå íà÷àë ïðèíîñèòü ïåðâûå ïëîäû. Òàê, ÷àñòíîñòè, â íîÿáðå ïðîøëîãî ãîäà áûëè èçäàíû ïåðâûå äåñÿòü òîìîâ, à îñåíüþ íûíåøíåãî ãîäà ïëàíèðóåòñÿ èçäàòü îñòàâøèåñÿ êíèãè. Ñ òî÷êè çðåíèÿ õðîíîëîãèè, ñåðèÿ íà÷èíàåòñÿ ïðîèçâåäåíèåì È Ãâàíñó «Çåìëÿ» («Õûê»), êîòîðîå ïðèíÿòî ñ÷èòàòü ïåðâûì ñîâðåìåííûì êîðåéñêèì ðîìàíîì.  ýòîì ðîìàíå, êîòîðûé â 1932 ãîäó ïå÷àòàëñÿ ÷àñòÿìè â ãàçåòå, ðàññêàçûâàåòñÿ î äåÿòåëüíîñòè àêòèâèñòà-îáùåñòâåííèêà, êîòîðûé, çàíèìàÿñü ïðîñâåòèòåëüñòâîì â ðîäíîé äåðåâíå, ñòðåìèòñÿ óâëå÷ü îäíîñåëü÷àí â ñîâðåìåííîñòü. Ðîìàí æèâîïèñóåò ñîöèàëüíóþ ñèòóàöèþ â Êîðåå â ïåðèîä ÿïîíñêîé àííåêñèè (1910 — 1945 ãã.), ÷òî îáåñïå÷èëî åìó ìåñòî ñðåäè 75 êíèã, âûáðàííûõ World Literature Today â êà÷åñòâå «çíà÷èòåëüíûõ ïåðåâîäíûõ ïðîèçâåäåíèé» 2013 ãîäà.  òî æå âðåìÿ îñòàëüíûå ïðîèçâåäåíèÿ, âûøåäøèå â ýòîé ñåðèè, áóäó÷è ñðàâíèòåëüíî íåäàâíèìè ðàáîòàìè, îïóáëèêîâàííûìè çà íåñêîëüêî ïîñëåäíèõ äåñÿòèëåòèé, çíàêîìÿò ÷èòàòåëåé ñ îáëèêîì áîëåå ñîâðåìåííîé Êîðåè. Æàíð ðàññêàçà âñåãäà áûë ïîïóëÿðåí â êîðåéñêîé ëèòåðàòóðå, ïîýòîìó íåóäèâèòåëüíî, ÷òî è â ýòó ñåðèþ âîøëè ñáîðíèêè ðàññêàçîâ òð¸õ êîðåéñêèõ ïèñàòåëåé.  ñáîðíèê «Áåñêîíå÷íî ñìóòíîå âîñêðåñåíüå è äðóãèå èñòîðèè» («Òîîïñè îð¸ìïõóòõàí èð¸èëü âå») ×îí ¨íìóíà âîøëè èñòîðèè, îïèñûâàþùèå â êîìè÷åñêîì êëþ÷å ñòðàííûå è ïðè÷óäëèâûå âåùè; êðèòèêè õàðàêòåðèçóþò åãî ñòèëü êàê «êàôêèàíñêèé».  ñáîðíèêå «Âîçëþáëåííàÿ ìîåãî ñûíà» («Íý àäûð-ûé ¸íèí») ïèñàòåëü ×îí Ìèã¸í, èñïîëüçóÿ èðîíè÷åñêèé ñòèëü ïîâåñòâîâàíèÿ, èññëåäóåò ãëóáèíû ãîðîäñêîé æèçíè ñîâðåìåííîé Êîðåè â ïîïûòêå íàéòè ëó÷ íàäåæäû, ñêðûòûé òó÷àìè îò÷óæäåíèÿ. Ïèñàòåëüíèöà Ïàê Âàíñî ÿâëÿåòñÿ ëåãåíäàðíîé ëè÷íîñòüþ â ñîâðåìåííîé êîðåéñêîé ëèòåðàòóðå; â ñáîðíèê å¸ ðàññêàçîâ «Òû òàêîé õìóðûé» («Íîìóäî ññûëüññûðõàí òàíñèí») âîøëè àâòîáèîãðàôè÷åñêèå èñòîðèè, íàïèñàííûå ÷åëîâåêîì, êîòîðûé íà ïîðîãå ñòàðîñòè îãëÿäûâàåòñÿ íà ñîáñòâåííóþ æèçíü. Òðè èç âûøåäøèõ â ðàìêàõ ñåðèè ðîìàíà îáðàùàþòñÿ ê èñòîðèè è áèîãðàôèè. Àâòîáèîãðàôè÷åñêèé ðîìàí Õ¸í Ãè¸íà «Îäíà çåìíàÿ ëîæêà» («×èñàí-ûé ñóòêàðàê õàíà») ïîêàçûâàåò èñòîðèþ ñîâðåìåííîé Êîðåè, óâèäåííóþ ÷åðåç ïðèçìó ëè÷íîãî è ñåìåéíîãî îïûòà. À ðîìàí Êèì Âîíèëÿ «Äîì ñ ãëóáîêèì äâîðîì» («Ìàäàí êèïõûí ÷èï») îáðàùàåòñÿ ê ñèòóàöèè ñðàçó ïîñëå Êîðåéñêîé âîéíû, îäíîé èç ñàìûõ ìðà÷íûõ ñòðàíèö â êîðåéñêîé èñòîðèè, è îïèñûâàåò å¸ ÷åðåç ñóäüáó øåñòè ñåìåé, æèâóùèõ ïîä îäíîé êðûøåé.  ðîìàíå «Ñêàò» («Õîíî») Êèì ×æó¸íà, êîòîðûé ñàì àâòîð íàçûâàåò «êðèòè÷åñêîé áèîãðàôèåé ìîåé ëþáèìîé ìàìû», ðàññêàçûâàåòñÿ èñòîðèÿ ìàòåðè è ñûíà, èõ òÿæ¸ëàÿ æèçíü â äåðåâíå 50-õ ãîäîâ. Îñòàëüíûå òðè ðîìàíà òðóäíî îõàðàêòåðèçîâàòü îäíèì ñëîâîì — íàñòîëüêî îíè ðàçíûå. Ïèñàòåëü ×àí ×æîíèëü — íåîäíîçíà÷íàÿ Êîðåéñêàÿ êóëüòóðà è èñêóññòâî


ôèãóðà â êîðåéñêîé ëèòåðàòóðå. Äîñòàòî÷íî ëèøü óïîìÿíóòü, ÷òî îäíàæäû îí ïîáûâàë â òþðüìå, ïîñêîëüêó ñóä ïðèçíàë åãî ïðîèçâåäåíèå ïîðíîãðàôè÷åñêèì. Ðîìàí ýòîãî ñêàíäàëüíîãî àâòîðà «Êîãäà Àäàì îòêðûë ãëàçà» («Àäàì-è íóíòòûëü òòý») — ýòî èñòîðèÿ î ñåêñå, ñìåðòè è âçðîñëåíèè.  òî æå âðåìÿ ðîìàí ×àí Ûí÷æèí «Íèêòî íå îòïðàâëÿåò ïèñåì» («Àìóäî ïõ¸í÷æè-õà÷æè àíòõà») ðàñöåíèâàåòñÿ êàê ñîâðåìåííûé àâàíòþðíûé ðîìàí; ýòî èñòîðèÿ ìîëîäîãî ÷åëîâåêà, êîòîðûé, ïðîâåäÿ òðè ãîäà â äîðîãå, âñòðå÷àåò íà ñâî¸ì ïóòè ðàçíûõ îáåçäîëåííûõ ëþäåé è, ÷òîáû óòåøèòü èõ, íà÷èíàåò ïèñàòü èì ïèñüìà. Ðîìàí È Ãèõî «Èçâèíÿòüñÿ ìû óìååì» («Ñàãâà-íûí ÷àðõý¸») íàïèñàí â æàíðå þìîðèñòè÷åñêîé ñàòèðû è ðàññêàçûâàåò î ôèðìå, êîòîðàÿ ïðåäîñòàâëÿåò ñâîèì êëèåíòàì êðàéíå îðèãèíàëüíóþ óñëóãó: å¸ ñîòðóäíèêè ìîãóò èçâèíèòüñÿ âìåñòî âàñ çà ñäåëàííóþ âàìè îøèáêó. Êíèãè, âûøåäøèå â ðàìêàõ ýòîãî ñìåëîãî ñîâìåñòíîãî ïðîåêòà èçäàòåëüñòâà Dalkey Archive Press è ÊÈËÏ, ñòàíóò ïðåêðàñíûì ââåäåíèåì â êîðåéñêóþ ëèòåðàòóðó äëÿ òåõ ÷èòàòåëåé, êîòîðûå õîòÿò ñ íåé ïîçíàêîìèòüñÿ. Îñòàëüíûå ïðîèçâåäåíèÿ ñåðèè ïëàíèðóåòñÿ èçäàòü âî âòîðîé ïîëîâèíå ýòîãî ãîäà, è ýòî èçäàíèå «Áèáëèîòåêè êîðåéñêîé ëèòåðàòóðû» îáåùàåò ñòàòü âàæíûì øàãîì íà ïóòè ê ðàñøèðåíèþ ìàñøòàáîâ ïåðåâîäíîé êîðåéñêîé ëèòåðàòóðû.

×àðëüç Ëà Øóý, ïðîôåññîð îòäåëåíèÿ êîðåéñêîãî ÿçûêà è ëèòåðàòóðû Ñåóëüñêîãî íàöèîíàëüíîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà

Èçó÷åíèå ïóòè Êîðåè â íàïðàâëåíèè ñîâðåìåííîãî ñóâåðåííîãî ãîñóäàðñòâà Õåíðè Èì (Henry H. Em). Âåëèêîå ïðåäïðèÿòèå: ñóâåðåííîñòü è èñòîðèîãðàôèÿ Êîðåè íîâîãî âðåìåíè (The Great Enterprise: Sovereignty and Historiography in Modern Korea). — Èçäàòåëüñòâî Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2013. — 265 ñ. — Öåíà: $24,95

 ïðîèçâåäåíèè «Âåëèêîå ïðåäïðèÿòèå» àâòîð èññëåäóåò ïóòü (èìåííî îí ÿâëÿåòñÿ òåì ñàìûì «âåëèêèì ïðåäïðèÿòèåì»), ïðîéäåííûé Êîðååé äëÿ òîãî, ÷òîáû ñîçäàòü ñîâðåìåííîå ãîñóäàðñòâî, èìåþùåå ðàâíûé ñòàòóñ ñ äðóãèìè ãîñóäàðñòâàìè, è èçó÷àåò, êàê ýòîò ïóòü ïîâëèÿë íà îïèñàíèå èñòîðèè â Êîðåå. Õåíðè Èì, ðàçäåëèâ ñâîþ ðàáîòó íà äâå ÷àñòè, ñíà÷àëà ñíàáæàåò ÷èòàòåëåé èñòîðè÷åñêèì ôîíîì, íà êîòîðîì ïðîèñõîäèëî îáðåòåíèå Êîðååé ñóâåðåíèòåòà â êà÷åñòâå ñîâðåìåííîãî ãîñóäàðñòâà, à çàòåì èçó÷àåò ðàçëè÷íûå íèòè, êîòîðûå, áóäó÷è ñïëåò¸ííûìè âîåäèíî, ñîñòàâëÿþò èñòîðèþ Êîðåè, îáðàùàÿñü ñíà÷àëà ê ïåðèîäó ÿïîíñêîé àííåêñèè, çàòåì ê êîðîòêîìó ïðîìåæóòêó ñðàçó ïîñëå îáðåòåíèÿ íåçàâèñèìîñòè è ïîñëå ýòîãî ê ïåðèîäó ðàçäåëåíèÿ, ïðîäîëæàþùåìóñÿ ïî ñåé äåíü. Ïóòü Êîðåè ê îáðåòåíèþ ñóâåðåíèòåòà è íåçàâèñèìîñòè áûë íåïðîñòûì, è ÷òîáû ïîíÿòü ýòîò ïðîöåññ, íóæíî ïðåäâàðèòåëüíî ïîíÿòü, íà êàêîì êóëüòóðíîì ôîíå îí ïðîèñõîäèë, à èìåííî — îñîçíàòü òîò ôàêò, ÷òî ñíà÷àëà Êîðåÿ íàõîäèëàñü ïîä âëèÿíèåì Êèòàÿ, à ïîòîì áîðîëàñü ñ çàïàäíûì èìïåðèàëèçìîì.  ïåðâîé ãëàâå àâòîð ïîêàçûâàåò, ÷òî Êîðåÿ äàæå â ïåðèîä íàõîæäåíèÿ ïîä ãîñïîäñòâîì Êèòàÿ, ïðèíèìàÿ ðåàëüíîñòü ñèíîöåíòðèñòñêîãî ìèðà, îäíîâðåìåííî â çíà÷èòåëüíîé ìåðå ñîõðàíÿëà íåçàâèñèìîñòü, ÷òî ïîçâîëèëî åé ñòàòü «íå òàêèì óæå îáðàçöîâûì âàññàëüíûì ãîñóäàðñòâîì». Íàëè÷èå ïîäîáíûõ ôîíîâûõ çíàíèé ïîçâîëÿåò ëåã÷å ïîíÿòü, ïî÷åìó ßïîíèÿ, ïðåæäå ÷åì óòâåðäèòü ñâî¸ ïðàâî ãîñïîäñòâà íàä Êîðååé, õîòåëà, ÷òîáû îíà ñíà÷àëà óêðåïèëà ñâîþ íåçàâèñèìîñòü îò Êèòàÿ.  ñëåäóþùåé ãëàâå àâòîð, èçó÷àÿ ñóâåðåíèòåò Êîðåè ñ òî÷êè çðåíèÿ òîãî, íàñêîëüêî îí ñîîòâåòñòâîâàë åâðîïåéñêèì ñòàíäàðòàì, âûñêàçûâàåò èíòåðåñíîå ìíåíèå îòíîñèòåëüíî ðîëè ÿçûêà è ïåðåâîäà. Âòîðàÿ ÷àñòü êíèãè íà÷èíàåòñÿ ñ ïîâòîðíîãî îòêðûòèÿ Ñîêêóðàìà ÿïîíöàìè, ïðè ýòîì àâòîð ñ÷èòàåò ýòî ñîáûòèå îòïðàâíîé òî÷êîé, êîòîðàÿ ïîêàçûâàåò, êàê íà ñàìîì äåëå ßïîíèÿ ïðèëàãàëà óñèëèÿ äëÿ òîãî, ÷òîáû óñòàíîâèòü èñêîííóþ íàöèîíàëüíóþ èäåíòè÷íîñòü êîðåéöåâ, ÷òî èä¸ò âðàçðåç ñ îáùåïðèíÿòûì ìíåíèåì, ñîãëàñíî êîòîðîìó ßïîíèÿ îñóùåñòâëÿëà ïîëèòèêó óíè÷òîæåíèÿ íàöèè â öåëÿõ óíè÷òîæåíèÿ êîðåéñêîé ñàìîèäåíòèôèêàöèè. Õåíðè Èì óòâåðæäàåò, ÷òî ßïîíèè áûëî íåîáõîäèìî óñòàíîâèòü èäåíòè÷íîñòü êîðåéñêîé íàöèè, ÷òîáû çàòåì ïîêàçàòü íåïîëíîöåííîñòü êîðåéöåâ ïî ñðàâíåíèþ ñ ÿïîíöàìè, äëÿ ÷åãî, â ÷àñòíîñòè, èñïîëüçîâàëñÿ Ñîêêóðàì — êàê ïðèìåð òîãî, ÷òî ïèê ðàçâèòèÿ êîðåéñêîé êóëüòóðû îñòàëñÿ â äàë¸êîì ïðîøëîì, è òåì ñàìûì îïðàâäàòü ñâîè êîëîíèàëüíûå ïðèòÿçàíèÿ. Äàëåå àâòîð îïèñûâàåò êîíôëèêò ìåæäó óñèëèÿìè ïî ïîèñêó óíèâåðñàëüíûõ ÷åðò â ïðîøëîì Êîðåè, ïðåäïðèíèìàåìûìè ëåâûìè ñèëàìè, è ñòàðàíèÿìè íàöèîíàëèñòîâ, êîòîðûå, íàïðîòèâ, ñòðåìÿòñÿ îáíàðóæèòü â í¸ì ñïåöèôè÷åñêèå ÷åðòû, ïðèñóùèå òîëüêî Êîðåå. Ïîñëåäíÿÿ ãëàâà êíèãè îáðàùàåòñÿ ê ïðîáëåìå îïèñàíèÿ èñòîðèè ïîñòêîëîíèàëüíîãî ïåðèîäà â ñîâðåìåííóþ ýïîõó ðàçäåëåíèÿ è ïîêàçûâàåò, êàê ðàçëè÷íûå ìåòîäû èñòîðèîãðàôèè ïðîäîëæàþò âçàèìîäåéñòâîâàòü â íàøè äíè. «Âåëèêîå äåëî» ïðåäëàãàåò èíôîðìàòèâíîå è ëàêîíè÷íîå îïèñàíèå òàêèõ âîïðîñîâ, êàê îáðåòåíèå ñóâåðåíèòåòà è èñòîðèîãðàôèÿ â Êîðåå íîâîãî âðåìåíè. ×òîáû äàòü ìàêñèìàëüíî áåñïðèñòðàñòíóþ îöåíêó, àâòîð êíèãè èçó÷èë êàê êîðåéñêèå, òàê è ÿïîíñêèå è çàïàäíûå èñòî÷íèêè. Íåò ñîìíåíèé, ÷òî Õåíðè Èì ïðîäåëàë âïå÷àòëÿþùóþ ðàáîòó ñ òî÷êè çðåíèÿ ïîòðà÷åííîãî âðåìåíè è óñèëèé. Êîììåíòàðèè êî âñåì ïÿòè ãëàâàì ñîñòàâëÿþò ïðàêòè÷åñêè òðåòü îáú¸ìà âñåãî òåêñòà, à ñïèñîê ñïðàâî÷íîé ëèòåðàòóðû ïîñëóæèò îòëè÷íîé îòïðàâíîé òî÷êîé äëÿ âñåõ ñòóäåíòîâ, èçó÷àþùèõ èñòîðèþ Êîðåè è íàìåðåâàþùèõñÿ ïðîäîëæèòü èññëåäîâàíèå ýòîé òåìû, èñïîëüçóÿ èñòî÷íèêè íà êîðåéñêîì, ÿïîíñêîì è àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêàõ. Ýòà êíèãà ñòàíåò öåííûì äîïîëíåíèåì ê ñóùåñòâóþùèì àíãëîÿçû÷íûì íàó÷íûì ìàòåðèàëàì ïî èñòîðèè Êîðåè íîâîãî âðåìåíè. K o r e a n a ı Âåñíà 2 0 14

51


Êîðåÿ â çåðêàëå ìîåé äóøè

Ýòà ðàçóìíàÿ, ðàçóìíàÿ, ðàçóìíàÿ ñòðàíà... «Ýòî æå Êîðåÿ, çäåñü âñ¸ ðàçóìíî!». Òàê ãîâîðÿò ðóññêèå, êîãäà áåñåäóþò ìåæäó ñîáîé î æèçíè â Êîðåå. Ðàèñà Êóëüêîâà, ïðîôåññîð êàôåäðû ðóññêîãî ÿçûêà è ëèòåðàòóðû Óíèâåðñèòåòà Ñàí-̸í (ã. ×îíàí)

Ê

àçàëîñü áû, åù¸ ñîâñåì íåäàâíî (ñ òî÷êè çðåíèÿ èñòîðèè) áûëè âðåìåíà ïîëíîé èëè îòíîñèòåëüíîé èçîëÿöèè ñòðàí äðóã îò äðóãà. ×åëîâåê ðîæäàëñÿ, æèë è óìèðàë, êàê ïðàâèëî, â îäíîé êóëüòóðå. È êàæäîìó ïîíåâîëå êàçàëîñü, ÷òî åãî êóëüòóðà, åãî ñòèëü æèçíè — âîò ýòî è åñòü âñÿ æèçíü. Íî ôèëîñîôû ñïðàâåäëèâî óòâåðæäàþò, ÷òî «âñ¸ ïîçíà¸òñÿ â ñðàâíåíèè». Æèçíü çàáðîñèëà ìåíÿ â Êîðåþ â 1998 ãîäó â êîìàíäèðîâêó äëÿ ðàáîòû â Ñåóëüñêîì íàöèîíàëüíîì óíèâåðñèòåòå. Õîòÿ ÿ èíòåðåñîâàëàñü Âîñòîêîì ïî êíèãàì è ïðîèçâåäåíèÿì èñêóññòâà, õîòÿ ÿ âíèìàëà ðàññêàçàì ïîáûâàâøèõ çäåñü è ãîâîðèâøèõ, ÷òî «Êîðåÿ — ýòî êðàñêè», «Êîðåÿ — ýòî âîñòî÷íàÿ Âåíåöèÿ», âñ¸-òàêè ïðåäñòàâëåíèå î Êîðåå áûëî íå î÷åíü îïðåäåë¸ííîå... È âîò ÿ íà êîðåéñêîé çåìëå. Äåéñòâèòåëüíî, ñàìîå-ñàìîå ïåðâîå âïå÷àòëåíèå — ýòî ÿðêèé ñâåò è ñî÷íûå êðàñêè. Ñîëíöå ÿðêî ñèÿåò äàæå çèìîé, ÷òî íåïðèâû÷íî äëÿ ðóññêîãî ãëàçà, âåäü â Ðîññèè ñîëíå÷íûå òîëüêî 100 äíåé â ãîäó!.. È êðàñêè, ÿðêèå êðàñêè ïðèðîäû. Ïî÷åìó Êîðåþ íàçûâàþò âîñòî÷íîé Âåíåöèåé? À âû ïîåçæàéòå íà ëþáîå ïîáåðåæüå, íà ëþáîé îñòðîâ, íà îç¸ðà, ïîäíèìèòåñü â ãîðó ñ ãîðíîé ðåêîé — è âû òîæå ñäåëàåòå âûâîä, ÷òî Êîðåÿ ñ÷èòàåòñÿ âîñòî÷íîé Âåíåöèåé ïî ïðàâó. Ïðèðîäíîå áîãàòñòâî áåðåæíî ñîõðàíÿåòñÿ: íàöèîíàëüíûå ïàðêè óõîæåíû è îáëàãîðîæåíû. Åñëè áû ÿ áûëà õóäîæíèêîì, ÿ áû âîñïåëà êðàñîòó êîðåéñêèõ ãîð, ðåê, ìîðåé, îñòðîâîâ íà êàðòèíàõ. Ñ ÷óäíûìè ïðèðîäíûì êðàñêàì Êîðåè ãàðìîíèðóåò è ðóêîòâîðíàÿ êðàñîòà, ñîçäàííàÿ ÷åëîâåêîì. Äàæå ñàìûå òðåáîâàòåëüíûå ïðîôåññèîíàëüíûå äèçàéíåðû èç ðàçíûõ ñòðàí, êîòîðûå ïîáûâàëè â Êîðåå, îòìå÷àþò, ÷òî äèçàéí âñþäó ïåðâîêëàññíûé: â ãîðîäàõ âûñòðîåíû ñîâðåìåííåéøèå çäàíèÿ, âåçäå ìû âèäèì îðèãèíàëüíûå ñîâðåìåííûå ñêóëüïòóðû, ðàäóåò ãëàç òàê íàçûâàåìîå âåðòèêàëüíîå îçåëåíåíèå (âäîëü äîðîã — íåáîëüøèå «ñòåíêè» êàìíåé, à ìåæäó êàìíÿìè öâåòóò öâåòû). Íî ïðèðîäà — ýòî åù¸ íå âñ¸. Âàæíî, êàê â ýòîì ïðèðîäíîì è ðóêîòâîðíîì âåëèêîëåïèè æèâóò ëþäè. Íàáëþäàÿ ñî ñòîðîíû ýòó æèçíü, ìíîãî ðàç óáåæäàåøüñÿ, ÷òî îñíîâíîé ïðèíöèï — ðàçóìíîñòü. Ðàçóìíî è ïðîäóìàíî, êàê ìíå êàæåòñÿ, â Êîðåå âñ¸, ñ ÷åì áû ìû íè ñòîëêíóëèñü: îò ñåðü¸çíûõ ãîñóäàðñòâåííûõ ðåøåíèé äî ñàìûõ ìåëêèõ ìåëî÷åé áûòà. ß âñþ ñâîþ æèçíü ïîñâÿòèëà îáðàçîâàíèþ è âîñïèòàíèþ ïîäðàñòàþùåãî ïîêîëåíèÿ. Ýòà ñôåðà — ãëàâíûé ïðåäìåò ìîèõ ðàçìûøëåíèé, ãëàâíîå ñîäåðæàíèå ìîåé íå òîëüêî ïðîôåññèîíàëüíîé, íî è äóøåâíîé æèçíè. È ïîòîìó äëÿ ìåíÿ îñîáî âàæíî, òðîãàòåëüíî è ñâÿòî âñ¸ òî õîðîøåå, ÷òî ñóùåñòâóåò â ýòîé ñôåðå â ðàçíûõ ñòðàíàõ. À Êîðåÿ èìååò â ýòîé ñôåðå áîëüøèå äîñòèæåíèÿ. Ñàìîå ãëàâíîå, íàñêîëüêî ÿ çíàþ, â ñôåðå îáðàçîâàíèÿ â Êîðåå íåò êîððóïöèè. Áðàâî, Êîðåÿ! Ïîòîìó ÷òî åñëè íåò êîððóïöèè, ýòî çíà÷èò, ÷òî äðàãîöåííûå íàðîäíûå òàëàíòû, êîðåéñêèå Ëîìîíîñîâû, êîòîðûå ðîäèëèñü â ãëóáèíêå, äëÿ îáùåñòâà íå ïîòåðÿíû. Åñëè êàêîé-òî òàëàíòëèâûé è òðóäîëþáèâûé ðåá¸íîê õîðîøî ñäàë âûïóñêíûå òåñòû (âñå ó÷àùèåñÿ ïðè èõ ïðîõîæäåíèè íàõîäÿòñÿ â îäèíàêîâîì ïîëîæåíèè), îí áóäåò ó îáùåñòâà íà âèäó, íå çàòåðÿåòñÿ, íå áóäåò «îòîäâèíóò» íà çàäíèé ïëàí â ñèëó ñâîåãî ñêðîìíîãî ïðîèñõîæäåíèÿ. Ýòî îçíà÷àåò, ÷òî îáðàçîâàíèå â Êîðåå íå íîñèò êëàññîâîãî õàðàêòåðà, à ýòî ñàìî ïî ñåáå âåëèêîå, íè ñ ÷åì íå ñðàâíèìîå áëàãî äëÿ ÷åëîâåêà è äëÿ îáùåñòâà.

52

Êîðåéñêàÿ êóëüòóðà è èñêóññòâî


Êðîìå òîãî, â Êîðåå ñòàâèòñÿ çàäà÷à ïîñòåïåííîãî âûòåñíåíèÿ ñèñòåìû ðåïåòèòîðñòâà. Íàñêîëüêî ÿ çíàþ, çäåñü Êîðåÿ òîæå «âïåðåäè ïëàíåòû âñåé». Äåéñòâèòåëüíî, åñëè ïðèëàãàåòñÿ ìíîãî óñèëèé äëÿ ñîçäàíèÿ óñëîâèé (ñ ïîìîùüþ äîïîëíèòåëüíûõ çàíÿòèé â øêîëå, äîñòóïíûõ îáðàçîâàòåëüíûõ êîìïüþòåðíûõ ñàéòîâ) äëÿ òîãî, ÷òîáû ðåá¸íîê ñ ëþáûì äîñòàòêîì ìîã ïîäãîòîâèòüñÿ õîðîøî ê âûïóñêíûì øêîëüíûì òåñòàì, ýòî òàêæå îçíà÷àåò, ÷òî êîðåéñêèå Íüþòîíû è Êóëèáèíû íå ïðîæèâóò ñâîþ æèçíü ñàïîæíèêàìè. Ýòî èäåàë ëþáîãî îáùåñòâà, íà êàêîé áû ñòóïåíè ðàçâèòèÿ îíî íè íàõîäèëîñü. ×òî åù¸ ìåíÿ âîñõèùàåò? Êîðåéöû áûñòðî ââîäÿò âñå òåõíè÷åñêèå íîâøåñòâà. Îäíàêî, ÷òî âàæíî, ÷òî îíè íå ñëåïî ñëåäóåò ìîäå. Íå ñëåïî, íå áåçäóìíî, íå àâòîìàòè÷åñêè! Ñíà÷àëà ïðîâîäèòñÿ ýêñïåðèìåíò. Íàïðèìåð, ýêñïåðèìåíò ñ èíòåðàêòèâíûìè äîñêàìè è îáó÷åíèåì òîëüêî ïî ýëåêòðîííûì ó÷åáíèêàì ïîê��çàë, ÷òî ýòî âðåäíî äëÿ çäîðîâüÿ äåòåé è íå òàê ðåçóëüòàòèâíî, êàê ðåêëàìèðóåòñÿ. È ðàçóìíûå êîðåéöû îïðåäåëèëè äîçó, â êîòîðîé ýòî ïîëåçíî, ðàçðàáîòàëè êîíêðåòíûå ðåêîìåíäàöèè. Ïîýòîìó ñ ïîëíûì îñíîâàíèåì ìîæíî ñêàçàòü, ÷òî Êîðåÿ — ðàçóìíàÿ ñòðàíà â ñàìîì âàæíîì âîïðîñå, âîïðîñå âîñïèòàíèÿ è ñîõðàíåíèÿ òàëàíòîâ. Íî äàëåêî íå òîëüêî â ýòîì ÿ âèæó ðàçóìíîñòü êîðåéñêîé æèçíè. Ïîâñåäíåâíàÿ ðóòèííàÿ æèçíü ïðîäóìàíà äî ñàìûõ ìåëêèõ ìåëî÷åé. Âñ¸, íà÷èíàÿ ñ òðàíñïîðòà è çàêàí÷èâàÿ ìåëêèìè ïðèñïîñîáëåíèÿìè íà êóõíå, ìîæåò áûòü îõàðàêòåðèçîâàíî òàê: âñ¸ ïðîäóìàíî è ðàçóìíî îðãàíèçîâàíî. Åñëè â îáùåñòâåííîé èëè áûòîâîé æèçíè âîçíèêàåò òðóäíîñòü, îíà ñðàçó ðåøàåòñÿ. Íàïðèìåð, êîãäàòî äàâíî ìíå áûëî òðóäíî óåõàòü âå÷åðîì èç Ñåóëà íà ìåæäóãîðîäíåì àâòîáóñå â ×îíàí: ïîçäíèì âå÷åðîì áèëåòû ìîãëè áûòü ðàñïðîäàíû. Íî ñåé÷àñ ýòà ïðîáëåìà ðåøåíà. Âèäèìî, òðàíñïîðòíèêè èçó÷èëè ïàññàæèðîïîòîêè è ïîñòåïåííî ââåëè ñòîëüêî àâòîáóñîâ íà ìàðøðóò, ñêîëüêî íåîáõîäèìî â ýòî âðåìÿ â ýòîì íàïðàâëåíèè. Ýòî ãîâîðèò î òîì, ÷òî êîðåéñêîå îáùåñòâî îðãàíèçîâàíî âíóòðè î÷åíü ãèáêî, îíî áûñòðî ðåàãèðóåò íà èçìåíåíèå îáñòàíîâêè, ÷òî î÷åíü ðàçóìíî, õîòÿ íåâèäèìî ãëàçó. Áëàãîäàðÿ ÷åìó âñ¸ òàê ïðîèñõîäèò? Íå îòêðîþ íè÷åãî íîâîãî, åñëè ñêàæó, ÷òî ïðè÷èíà óñïåõîâ — â èçâåñòíîì íà âåñü ìèð òðóäîëþáèè êîðåéöåâ, à òàêæå â èõ êîëëåêòèâèçìå. Îäèí ÷àñòíûé ïðèìåð. Ïîçäíèì âå÷åðîì, âîçâðàùàÿñü äîìîé èç äàëüíåé ïîåçäêè, ÿ íèêàê íå ìîãëà íàéòè ðàáîòàþùèé ðåñòîðàí. Çàéäÿ â îäèí èç åù¸ îñâåù¸ííûõ ðåñòîðàíîâ, ÿ óâèäåëà, ÷òî îí òîæå çàêðûâàåòñÿ. Îäíàêî «àäæ¸ùè» ïîíÿë, ÷òî èíîñòðàíêà ãîëîäíàÿ, ïðîñòóæåííàÿ, óñòàâøàÿ. Îí ïîø¸ë íà êóõíþ è ïðèãîòîâèë ìíå åäó. ß áûëà áåçìåðíî áëàãîäàðíà è ðåøèëà çàïëàòèòü â äâà ðàçà áîëüøå. Âåäü îí òîæå ïîñëå ðàáî÷åãî äíÿ è óñòàë. ß áûñòðî ïîëîæèëà ýòó ñóììó è óáåæàëà, ïîòîìó ÷òî çíàþ, ÷òî â Êîðåå íå áåðóò ÷àåâûå. Êàêîâî áûëî ìî¸ óäèâëåíèå, êîãäà ÷åðåç êâàðòàë «àäæ¸ùè» ìåíÿ äîãíàë è âåðíóë ìíå ïîëîâèíó äåíåã. Îí ñêàçàë: «Ó íàñ òàê íèêòî íå ïîñòóïàåò!» Êàê ÿ ïîíÿëà èç ýòîãî ñëó÷àÿ, êîðåéöû ðåàëèçóþò íà ïðàêòèêå ïðèíöèï «Îäèí çà âñåõ, âñå çà îäíîãî», ýòî îáùåñòâî ñïëî÷¸ííîå, êàê êóëàê: åñëè äëÿ âñåõ íå ïîëîæåíî äåëàòü ÷òî-òî, òî è êàæäûé íå ïðåñòóïàåò ýòîò çàêîí. Âîò ýòî ãðååò ìíå äóøó â Êîðåå, âîñõèùàåò ìåíÿ. Âîò ýòî ÿ ðàññêàçûâàþò î Êîðåå òåì, êòî çäåñü íèêîãäà íå áûâàë. Ñîáåñåäíèêàì òîãäà ñòàíîâèòñÿ ïîíÿòíî, ïî÷åìó ÿ íàçûâàþ Êîðåþ ñâîåé âòîðîé ðîäèíîé. K o r e a n a ı Âåñíà 2 0 14

53


Øîó-áèçíåñ

Àêò¸ð Õà ×æîíó: íàñòîÿùèé ìóæ÷èíà â ýïîõó «þíîøåé-öâåòîâ» Àêò¸ð Õà ×æîíó ñåé÷àñ â òðåíäå. Íà÷àâ êàðüåðó â ìàëîáþäæåòíûõ ôèëüìàõ ðåæèññ¸ðîâ-äåáþòàíòîâ, êîòîðûå Õà ×æîíó áëàãîäàðÿ ñâîèì àêò¸ðñêèì ñïîñîáíîñòÿì ïðàêòè÷åñêè ïðåâðàòèë â «øîó îäíîãî àêò¸ðà», îí âûðîñ â íàñòîÿùóþ çâåçäó, îäíî ïðèñóòñòâèå êîòîðîé â ôèëüìå ãàðàíòèðóåò îãðîìíûå ñáîðû â ïðîêàòå. Ãîâîðÿò, ÷òî çà íèì îõîòÿòñÿ âñå èíâåñòîðû è êèíîïðîäþñåðû ñòðàíû. Îò÷åãî æå êîðåéñêèé çðèòåëü òàê îäåðæèì ýòèì àêò¸ðîì? Î Äîí÷æèí, êèíîêðèòèê

Â

ñ¸, ÷åãî õî÷åò Ñîôè (Âåðà Ôàðìèãà), — ýòî ðîäèòü ðåá¸íêà, ÷òîáû ñîõðàíèòü áðàê ñ ìóæåì-àäâîêàòîì, êîòîðûé ÿâëÿåòñÿ ýòíè÷åñêèì êîðåéöåì. Âñ¸, ÷åãî õî÷åò ×èõà (Õà ×æîíó), — ýòî ïðîñòî âûâåçòè â ÑØÀ èç Êîðåè ñâîþ âîçëþáëåííóþ. Ñ òàêèì ðàçíûìè öåëÿìè Ñîôè è ×èõà ëîæàòñÿ â îäíó ïîñòåëü. Æåíùèíà — ÷òîáû ïîëó÷èòü ðåá¸íêà, ìóæ÷èíà — ÷òîáû çàðàáîòàòü 300 äîëëàðîâ çà êàæäûé ñåàíñ ñåêñà. À åñëè Ñîôè óäàñòñÿ çàáåðåìåíåòü, òî åãî æä¸ò êðóãëàÿ ñóììà — 30 òûñÿ÷ äîëëàðîâ. Íî âñêîðå Ñîôè îáíàðóæèâàåò, ÷òî îíà ïîíåìíîãó íà÷èíàåò âëþáëÿòüñÿ â ýòîãî óãðþìîãî àçèàòñêîãî ìóæ÷èíó ñ ò¸ìíûìè ãëàçàìè, â êîòîðûõ æèâ¸ò òàéíà.

Ïîÿâëåíèå àêò¸ðà, îëèöåòâîðÿþùåãî ìóæåñòâåííîñòü Ôèëüì ðåæèññ¸ðà ã-æè Êèì ×æèíà «Âòîðàÿ ëþáîâü» («Òó áîí÷÷ý ñàðàí», àíãë. Never Forever), ïðîôåññîðà ôàêóëüòåòà âèçóàëüíûõ è ýêîëîãè÷åñêèõ èññëåäîâàíèé Ãàðâàðäñêîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà, äëÿ Õà ×æîíó èìååò îñîáîå çíà÷åíèå. Ïîòîìó ÷òî èìåííî ýòîò ôèëüì ñîçäàë àêò¸ðó îñîáûé èìèäæ «íàñòîÿùåãî ìóæ÷èíû». Áóäó÷è ïðåäñòàâëåí â 2007 ãîäó íà ôåñòèâàëå íåçàâèñèìîãî êèíî «Ñàíäýíñ» è âïîñëåäñòâèè íà äðóãèõ êèíîôîðóìàõ, ôèëüì ñòàë ïðåäìåòîì ðàçãîâîðîâ, îäíàêî âî âðåìÿ ïðåìüåðíîãî ïîêàçà â ñàìîé Êîðåå íå ñìîã ïðèâëå÷ü ê ñåáå âíèìàíèå ìàññîâîãî çðèòåëÿ èëè, êàê ýòî âèäèòñÿ ñ ìîåé ïîçèöèè êèíîêðèòèêà, íå ñóìåë ïîëó÷èòü äîëæíîãî ïðè¸ìà.  òî âðåìÿ â êîðåéñêîé ïîï-êóëüòóðå áûëî çàñèëüå çâ¸çä-èäîëîâ è àêò¸ðîâ èç ðàçðÿäà «þíîøåé-öâåòîâ», îòëè÷àþùèõñÿ æåíîïîäîáíîé êóêîëüíîé âíåøíîñòüþ. À âîò àêò¸ðû, ïîõîæèå íà ìóæ÷èí, ïðàêòè÷åñêè èñ÷åçëè èç âèäó. Îäíàêî â îáëèêå äåáþòàíòà Õà ×æîíó ñêâîçèëà ðåäêàÿ äëÿ òåõ âðåì¸í ìóæåñòâåííîñòü. Êàçàëîñü, â í¸ì ãäå-òî ãëóáîêî ïðÿ÷åòñÿ ðâóùååñÿ íàðóæó çâåðèíîå íà÷àëî, âàðâàð, ïèòàþùèéñÿ ñûðûì ìÿñîì. Åñòåñòâåííî, ÷òî ïîäîáíûé òèïàæ íå ìîã íå ïðèâëå÷ü âíèìàíèå êèíîïðîäþñåðîâ.

Ãåíèé ïðîêàòíûõ ñáîðîâ  ïîñëåäíåå âðåìÿ â Êîðåå Õà ×æîíó íàçûâàþò «Õà Äýñå», ãäå «äýñå» îçíà÷àåò «ãëàâíûé òðåíä». Êèíîïðîäþñåðû óáåæäåíû, ÷òî ïîÿâëåíèå â ôèëüìå ýòîãî àêò¸ðà ãàðàíòèðóåò âûñîêèå êàññîâûå ñáîðû. Õà ×æîíó âïåðâûå ñûãðàë ãëàâíóþ ðîëü â ôèëüìå «Íåïðîù¸ííûé»

54

(«¨íñî-ïàò÷è ìîòõàí ÷à», àíãë. The Unforgiven). Çàòåì îí ïîÿâèëñÿ â îáðàçå ïîäëîãî ñåðèéíîãî óáèéöû â ôèëüìå «Ïðåñëåäîâàòåëü» («×õóã¸ê÷à», àíãë. The Chaser), êîòîðûé ñòàë õèòîì ïðîêàòà â 2008 ãîäó. Íî äàæå òîãäà èìÿ Õà ×æîíó íà àôèøå åù¸ íå ãàðàíòèðîâàëî çàáèòûå çàëû. Íî íà÷èíàÿ ñ 2009 ãîäà ïî÷òè âñå ôèëüìû ñ åãî ó÷àñòèåì ñòàëè ïîïàäàòü â öåëü: «Ãîñóäàðñòâåííûé ïðåäñòàâèòåëü» («Êóêêà òýïõ¸», àíãë. Take Off), «Æ¸ëòîå ìîðå» («Õâàíõý», àíãë. The Yellow Sea), «Êëèåíò» («Ûéðâåèí», àíãë. The Client), «Áåçûìÿííûé ãàíãñòåð» («Ïîì÷âå-âà-ûé ÷îí÷æýí: íàïïûííîì-òûð-ûé ÷îíñîíñèäý», àíãë. Nameless Gangster: Rules of the Game), «Love Fiction», «Áåðëèí» (The Berlin File) è «The Terror Live» — âñ¸ ýòî ÿðêàÿ ôèëüìîãðàôèÿ Õà ×æîíó. «The Terror Live» — ýòî ôèëüì, ñîçäàííûé Õà ×æîíó, ðàäè Õà ×æîíó è ïðàêòè÷åñêè öåëèêîì èç Õà ×æîíó. Ýòî ïî÷òè «øîó îäíîãî àêò¸ðà». Ïîýòîìó ôèëüì óïðåêàëè â òîì, ÷òî îñòàëüíûå ïåðñîíàæè äåéñòâóþò ñëîâíî ïî ñîáñòâåííîé âîëå, à êîíöîâêà êàæåòñÿ ñëèøêîì íàäóìàííîé. Îäíàêî ôèëüì ïðèâëåêàåò òåì, ÷òî â ýòîì «øîó îäíîãî àêò¸ðà» Õà ×æîíó íå áûë åäèíñòâåííûì àêò¸ðîì.  ýòîì ñîñòîèò èçþìèíêà ôèëüìà, è èìåííî ýòîò ìîìåíò ïîäêóïèë çðèòåëÿ. Ñòîèò ëè ãîâîðèòü, ÷òî óñïåõ ýòîãî ôèëüìà — ïîëíîñòüþ çàñëóãà Õà ×æîíó.  «The Terror Live» Õà ×æîíó èãðàåò áûâøåãî äèêòîðà íîâîñòíîé ïðîãðàììû íà òåëåâèäåíèè, êîòîðûé îäíî âðåìÿ ãîðäèëñÿ çâàíèåì ÷óòü ëè íå «íàðîäíîãî äèêòîðà», îäíàêî òåïåðü îêàçàëñÿ â ðîëè âåäóùåãî «çàãèáàþùåéñÿ» ðàäèîïðîãðàììû. Åãî ãåðîé, êàðüåðèñò è îïïîðòóíèñò, ðàäååò î ñîöèàëüíîé ñïðàâåäëèâîñòè è çàáîòèòñÿ îá îáåçäîëåííûõ, òîëüêî êîãäà âêëþ÷¸í ìèêðîôîí. À êîãäà ìèêðîôîí âûêëþ÷åí, îí ïðîâîðà÷èâàåò ðàçíûå äåëèøêè ñ ãëàâîé îòäåëà íîâîñòåé è íàäóâàåò ñâîèõ êîëëåã. È òî, ÷òî, áóäó÷è óñïåøíûì ÷åëîâåêîì, îí íåîæèäàííî îêàçàëñÿ íà äíå æèçíè, ïðîèçîøëî âîâñå íå ïî ïðè÷èíå çëîãî ðîêà. À ïîòîìó, ÷òî â åãî äåÿòåëüíîñòè íà òåëåâèäåíèè ïðîÿâèëàñü åãî ïîäëèííàÿ ñóùíîñòü. Áóäó÷è âîâëå÷¸í â íåêèé íåêðàñèâûé èíöèäåíò, îí âñêîðå îáíàðóæèë ñåáÿ íà äíå. È âîò ãåðîþ Õà ×æîíó ïðåäîñòàâëÿåòñÿ øàíñ âñåé æèçíè: åìó çâîíèò ÷åëîâåê, óãðîæàþùèé âçîðâàòü ìîñò Ìàïõî, åñëè åãî òðåáîâàíèÿ íå áóäóò âûïîëíåíû. Ïîíà÷àëó ãåðîþ Õà ×æîíó âñ¸ ðàâíî. «Íó äàâàé, âçðûâàé, ñâîëî÷ü», — ãîâîðèò îí. Îäíàêî òåððîðèñò äåéñòâèòåëüíî Êîðåéñêàÿ êóëüòóðà è èñêóññòâî


Îò ñåðèéíîãî óáèéöû äî ãëàâíîãî ãåðîÿ ðîìàíòè÷åñêîé êîìåäèè — àêò¸ð Õà ×æîíó äîêàçàë, ÷òî îí îáëàäàåò äîñòàòî÷íûì àêò¸ðñêèì òàëàíòîì, ÷òîáû âîïëîòèòü íà ýêðàíå ëþáîé îáðàç.

K o r e a n a ı Âåñíà 2 0 14

55


Ìóæ÷èíà, êîòîðûé äîáàâëÿåò ìåëîäðàìû â çàêðó÷åííûé øïèîíñêèé òðèëëåð è, «èãðàÿ ëþáîâü», âûïðûãèâàåò â îêíî, ÷òîáû ñïàñòè ñâîþ ëþáèìóþ æåíùèíó, — ýòî âñ¸ Õà ×æîíó.

56

Êîðåéñêàÿ êóëüòóðà è èñêóññòâî


âûïîëíÿåò ñâîþ óãðîçó è âçðûâàåò ìîñò. Áëàãîäàðÿ ýòîìó âçðûâó ãëàâíûé ãåðîé ñíîâà çàíèìàåò ìåñòî âåäóùåãî òåëåíîâîñòåé, íî åìó íåò äåëà äî ñàìîãî òåðàêòà: âñ¸, ÷òî åãî âîëíóåò, — ýòî ñìîæåò ëè îí, ñïåêóëèðóÿ íà ýòîì ïðîèñøåñòâèè, ñíîâà âåðíóòü ñåáå áûëóþ ñëàâó. Âî âðåìÿ ïðîñìîòðà «The Terror Live» ëîâèøü ñåáÿ íà ìûñëè, ÷òî òîëüêî Õà ×æîíó ñìîã áû ñûãðàòü òàêóþ ïîäëóþ ëè÷íîñòü, êàê ãëàâíûé ãåðîé Þí ¨íõà, è ÷òî, íàâåðíîå, â í¸ì ñàìîì åñòü è òàêàÿ ÷åðòà.  òî æå âðåìÿ ýòîò ôèëüì çàñòàâëÿåò çàäóìàòüñÿ íàä âîïðîñîì, à íå æèâ¸ì ëè è ìû æèçíüþ ãëàâíîãî ãåðîÿ, êîãäà íàøå ïîäëèííîå «ÿ» ïðîÿâëÿåòñÿ, òîëüêî êîãäà âûêëþ÷åí ìèêðîôîí. Ã-í È ×õóí¸í, äèðåêòîð ñòóäèè Cine 2000, êîòîðàÿ çàïëàíèðîâàëà è ïðîäþñèðîâàëà «The Terror Live», ñäåëàë ãëàâíóþ ñòàâêó íà Õà ×æîíó. Ñòàëî èçâåñòíî, ÷òî çíà÷èòåëüíàÿ ÷àñòü ñðàâíèòåëüíî íåáîëüøîãî áþäæåòà ôèëüìà, ÷èñòàÿ ñòîèìîñòü ïðîèçâîäñòâà êîòîðîãî (îáùàÿ ñòîèìîñòü ïðîèçâîäñòâà çà âû÷åòîì ðàñõîäîâ íà ìàðêåòèíã, ðåêëàìó è äèñòðèáóöèþ) ñîñòàâèëà âñåãî 2 ìëðä. âîí, ïîøëà íà îïëàòó ãîíîðàðà Õà ×æîíó. Ðåæèññ¸ð è ÷ëåíû ñú¸ìî÷íîé ãðóïïû áûëè ãîòîâû îòêàçàòüñÿ îò ïðåäâàðèòåëüíîé îïëàòû ñâîåãî òðóäà ïðè óñëîâèè, ÷òî èì çàïëàòÿò èç ïðèáûëè â ñëó÷àå, åñëè ôèëüì ñîáåð¸ò ìíîãî äåíåã â ïðîêàòå. È ïîäîáíàÿ ñòðàòåãèÿ îòëè÷íî ñðàáîòàëà.  èòîãå ôèëüì ïîñìîòðåëè 5 ìëí. çðèòåëåé, â ðåçóëüòàòå ÷åãî òîëüêî ïðèáûëü îò ïðîêàòà ñîñòàâèëà 15 ìëðä. âîí.

Ñòèëüíûé íåãîäÿé  ôèëüìå «Áåçûìÿííûé ãàíãñòåð» Õà ×æîíó â ïîëíóþ ñèëó ïðîÿâèë ñâî¸ óíèêàëüíîå îáàÿíèå, ñûãðàâ áîññà ïðåñòóïíîé ãðóïïèðîâêè. Îáðàç ñâîåãî ãåðîÿ ñ åãî óñàìè, íàáðèîëèíåííûìè âîëîñàìè, ýëåãàíòíûì äâóáîðòíûì êîæàíûì ïèäæàêîì è î÷êàìè-àâèàòîðàìè, â êîòîðîì áûëî áîëüøå îò ñòèëÿãè, ÷åì îò ãðîçíîãî àâòîðèòåòà, îí ñäîáðèë èäåàëüíî ðàññ÷èòàííîé äîçîé ñíîáèçìà.  ñöåíå äèàëîãà ñî ñâîèì äÿäåé (â èñïîëíåíèè ×õâå Ìèíñèêà), êîòîðîãî îí ïðèâë¸ê ê ñâîåé äåÿòåëüíîñòè çà ñâÿçè â ãîñóäàðñòâåííûõ ñòðóêòóðàõ, ãåðîé Õà ×æîíó âñ¸ âðåìÿ ïîãëàæèâàåò ïàëüöåì ïîäáîðîäîê. Ýòî æåñò, â êîòîðîì çàëîæåíî íàìåðåíèå çàñòàâèòü âêðàä÷èâî áëåñíóòü åãî õàðèçìó, ñàì ïî ñåáå î÷åíü ïðèìå÷àòåëåí, èáî, êàê âûÿñíèëîñü, ýòî áûë îììàæ Ìàðëîíó Áðàíäî. Èìåííî òàê ãåðîé Ìàðëîíà Áðàíäî ïîãëàæèâàë ïîäáîðîäîê, âûñëóøèâàÿ ïðîñüáû äðóçåé è ïàðòí¸ðîâ, â íà÷àëüíîé ñöåíå ïåðâîé ÷àñòè «Êð¸ñòíîãî îòöà». Õà ×æîíó ãîâîðèò, ÷òî «Êð¸ñòíûé îòåö» — åãî ñàìûé ëþáèìûé ôèëüì: «ß ñìîòðåë âñå òðè ÷àñòè, íàâåðíîå, òûñÿ÷ó ðàç. È ñ äåòñòâà ïîäðàæàë èãðå Ìàðëîíà Áðàíäî».

Ýêøåí è ìåëîäðàìà  øïèîíñêîì òðèëëåðå «Áåðëèí» Õà ×æîíó èãðàåò ýëèòíîãî ñåâåðîêîðåéñêîãî øïèîíà, êîòîðîãî íà ðîäèíå â ñâî¸ âðåìÿ ïðåâîçíîñèëè êàê ãåðîÿ íàöèè. Îí îêàçûâàåòñÿ âòÿíóò â çëîâåùèé ïîëèòè÷åñêèé çàãîâîð, â ðåçóëüòàòå ÷åãî ãåðîþ Õà ×æîíó ïðèõîäèòñÿ ðèñêîâàòü æèçíüþ ðàäè ñïàñåíèÿ ñâîåé æåíû (â èñïîëíåíèè ×îí ×æèõ¸í), êîòîðóþ îí î÷åíü ëþáèò, íî â òî æå âðåìÿ ïîäîçðåâàåò â ïðåäàòåëüñòâå. Åãî ïðåñëåäóåò çëîáíûé àãåíò ñåâåðîêîðåéñêîé ãîñáåçîïàñíîñòè, îò ðóê êîòîðîãî âñêîðå ïîãèáàåò ïîñîë Ñåâåðíîé Êîðåè â Ãåðìàíèè, åäèíñòâåííîå äîâåðåííîå ëèöî ãåðîÿ Õà ×æîíó. Îäíàêî îí ïîëó÷àåò íåîæèäàííîãî ïîìîùíèêà â ëèöå ñâîåãî áûâøåãî âðàãà, àãåíòà Íàöèîíàëüíîé ðàçâåäñëóæáû Þæíîé Êîðåè, è âìåñòå ñ íèì áðîñàåòñÿ âûðó÷àòü æåíó, çàõâà÷åííóþ â çàëîæíèêè. Çàâÿçûâàåòñÿ îæåñòî÷¸ííàÿ ïåðåñòðåëêà, è õîòÿ ãåðîþ Õà ×æîíó

óäà¸òñÿ ëèêâèäèðîâàòü âñåõ âðàãîâ, åãî æåíà óìèðàåò îò ïîëó÷åííîãî ðàíåíèÿ. Äåðæà â îáúÿòèÿõ óìèðàþùóþ æåíó, ìóæ÷èíà èçäà¸ò ãîðüêèé ñòîí. È çðèòåëè ñëûøàò, êàê èç ãëóáèíû äóøè ãëàâíîãî ãåðîÿ ïîäíèìàåòñÿ è ðâ¸òñÿ íàðóæó ðûäàíèå. Ìóæ÷èíà, êîòîðûé äîáàâëÿåò ìåëîäðàìû â çàêðó÷åííûé øïèîíñêèé òðèëëåð è, «èãðàÿ ëþáîâü», âûïðûãèâàåò â îêíî, ÷òîáû ñïàñòè ñâîþ ëþáèìóþ æåíùèíó, — ýòî âñ¸ Õà ×æîíó.

Èñêóññòâî è þìîð Õà ×æîíó åù¸ è ðèñóåò. È íå ïðîñòî â êà÷åñòâå õîááè: åãî ðàáîòû äîñòàòî÷íî ïðîôåññèîíàëüíû, ÷òîáû âûñòàâèòü íà ïåðñîíàëüíîé âûñòàâêå. Êàðòèíû Õà ×æîíó èñïîëíåíû ïåðâîáûòíîé æèçíåííîé ñèëû. Îíè âûãëÿäÿò, êàê áóäòî àâòîð âûïëåñíóë íà ïîëîòíî âñå æåëàíèÿ, êîòîðûå ñïðÿòàíû ó íåãî âíóòðè.  ðàáîòàõ Õà ×æîíó òàêæå âðåìåíàìè ïðîãëÿäûâàåò åãî ÷óâñòâî þìîðà — òî ñàìîå ÷óâñòâî þìîðà, êîòîðîå ÿâëÿåòñÿ î÷åíü âàæíûì ôàêòîðîì, ñîñòàâëÿþùèì ëè÷íîñòü Õà ×æîíóàêò¸ðà. Ê ïðèìåðó, â ìóçûêàëüíîì âèäåîêëèïå, óêðàñèâøåì êîíöîâêó ôèëüìà «Love Fiction», êîòîðûé íåèçìåííî âûçûâàåò ñìåõ ó çðèòåëåé, Õà ×æîíó ïðîäåìîíñòðèðîâàë, íàñêîëüêî îí ìîæåò áûòü óáåäèòåëüíûì â êà÷åñòâå àêò¸ðà êîìè÷åñêîãî æàíðà. Íàñòîÿùèé þìîð ðîæäàåòñÿ, êîãäà ñìå¸øüñÿ ñàì íàä ñîáîé.  ýòîì ìîæíî óáåäèòüñÿ, åñëè ïîñìîòðåòü ôèëüì «Àìåðèêàíñêèå ãîðêè» («Ðîëëîêõîñòî», àíãë. «Fasten Your Seatbelt»), âûøåäøèé íà ýêðàíû â îêòÿáðå 2013 ãîäà, â êîòîðîì Õà ×æîíó äåáþòèðîâàë â êà÷åñòâå ðåæèññ¸ðà. Ýòîò ôèëüì, ñíÿòûé Õà ×æîíó ïî ñîáñòâåííîìó ñöåíàðèþ, ïîêàçûâàåò, êàê ÷åëîâåê, êîòîðûé, ñòàâ ñóïåðçâåçäîé, òåïåðü ïðåâðàùàåò â õèò ëþáîé ôèëüì ñî ñâîèì ó÷àñòèåì, íà ñàìîì äåëå èñïûòûâàåò áåçóìíîå æåëàíèå ââîëþ ïîñìåÿòüñÿ íàä ñîáîé, óíèçèòü ñåáÿ, îñêîðáèòü è òðåñíóòü ïî ãîëîâå. Îí òî ñòðîèò èç ñåáÿ àíãåëà, òî èçîáðàæàåò äåìîíà, ÷åì ÷àñòî ãðåøàò ïîï-çâ¸çäû. È â òî æå âðåìÿ êàê áóäòî ñïðàøèâàåò ó çðèòåëÿ: «À ÷òî ýòî âîîáùå çíà÷èò — áûòü çâåçäîé?» «×òî òàêîãî â ýòèõ çâ¸çäàõ, ÷òî çàñòàâëÿåò ëþäåé ñõîäèòü ñ óìà? Âåäü ó çâ¸çä òîæå åñòü îáû÷íàÿ ïîâñåäíåâíàÿ æèçíü, òàêàÿ æå, êàê ó âñåõ âàñ. Íåò íè÷åãî òàêîãî â òîì, ÷òîáû áûòü çâåçäîé», — ïûòàåòñÿ ñêàçàòü íàì Õà ×æîíó ñâîèì ôèëüìîì. È çäåñü âàæíî, ÷òî «ìèøåíüþ» ôèëüìà ÿâëÿþòñÿ íå òîëüêî çâ¸çäû ïîï-êóëüòóðû. Åãî êðèòèêà íàïðàâëåíà òàêæå íà âëàñòü ïðåäåðæàùèõ ñ îáûâàòåëüñêèì ñîçíàíèåì, êîòîðûå áàõâàëÿòñÿ ñâîèì âëèÿíèåì è èñïîëüçóþò îáùåñòâî ðàäè ñîáñòâåííîé íàæèâû. Õîòÿ äåáþòíûé ôàðñ «Àìåðèêàíñêèå ãîðêè» ïðîâàëèëñÿ â ïðîêàòå, Õà ×æîíó ïðîäîëæàåò äåëàòü íîâûå øàãè â êà÷åñòâå ðåæèññ¸ðà.  íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ îí çàíèìàåòñÿ ýêðàíèçàöèåé çíàìåíèòîãî ðîìàíà 2 êèòàéñêîãî ïèñàòåëÿ Þé Õóà «Êàê Ñþé Ñàíüãóàíü êðîâü ïðîäàâàë». Àêò¸ð ãîâîðèò: «ß õî÷ó ñîçäàòü åù¸ îäèí ïîäòåêñò. Ïîòîìó ÷òî ìíå êàæåòñÿ, áóäåò íå î÷åíü ñïðàâåäëèâî, åñëè âñ¸ äåéñòâèå ñòàíåò ðàçâîðà÷èâàòüñÿ òîëüêî âîêðóã îäíîé ôèãóðû ãëàâíîãî ãåðîÿ Ñþé Ñàíüãóàíÿ. ß òàêæå ìíîãî ðàçìûøëÿþ íàä òåì, êàê ïåðåíåñòè ýòó êèòàéñêóþ èñòîðèþ â Êîðåþ ïåðèîäà ìåæäó Êîðåéñêîé âîéíîé è 1990ìè ãîäàìè». Ñôåðà åãî äåÿòåëüíîñòè ïîíåìíîãó ðàñøèðÿåòñÿ. Êóäà åãî ïðèâåä¸ò ñëåäóþùèé øàã — ïîêà åù¸ òðóäíî ïðåäñêàçàòü. Åäèíñòâåííî, â ÷¸ì ìû ìîæåì áûòü óâåðåíû, — ýòî â òîì, ÷òî âñ¸ áîëüøåìó êîëè÷åñòâó ëþäåé õî÷åòñÿ, ÷òîáû ðÿäîì ñ íèìè â ýòîì ìèðå êàê ìîæíî äîëüøå ñíèìàë ñâî¸ êèíî Õà ×æîíó. È, íàâåðíîå, îí áóäåò àêò¸ðîì, ðåæèññ¸ðîì è õóäîæíèêîì, êîòîðûé îñòàíåòñÿ ñ íàìè íàâñåãäà.

Õà ×æîíó. Ïîðòðåò. 175,5 x 146 ñì. Õîëñò, øàðèêîâàÿ ðó÷êà. Õà ×æîíó — íå òîëüêî àêò¸ð, íî è õóäîæíèê, êîòîðûé ñ 2010 ã. åæåãîäíî ïðîâîäèò ïåðñîíàëüíûå âûñòàâêè ñâîèõ ðàáîò. K o r e a n a ı Âåñíà 2 0 14

57


Ðàäîñòè ãóðìàíà

Ñúåäîáíûå äèêîðàñòóùèå ðàñòåíèÿ è òðàâû: âêóñíîå ñðåäñòâî îò âåñåííåãî àâèòàìèíîçà

© yoanna

58

Êîðåéñêàÿ êóëüòóðà è èñêóññòâî


Âåñåííÿÿ äèêîðàñòóùàÿ çåëåíü, êîòîðàÿ òÿíåòñÿ ê ñîëíöó ïåðâûìè ðîñòêàìè, ïðîáèâàþùèìèñÿ èç îòòàÿâøåé çåìëè, ïðîáóæäàåò àïïåòèò è îòëè÷àåòñÿ áîëüøèì ñîäåðæàíèåì âèòàìèíîâ è ìèíåðàëîâ. Áëàíøèðîâàííûå ñúåäîáíûå ðàñòåíèÿ è òðàâû ïðèïðàâëÿþò ïàñòîé èç çàáðîäèâøèõ ñîåâûõ áîáîâ, ïåðå÷íîé ïàñòîé è äðóãèìè ñïåöèÿìè è åäÿò â êà÷åñòâå ñàëàòà èëè âàðÿò èç íèõ ñóïû. Áëèíû «÷îí» ñ âåñåííåé çåëåíüþ òîæå ÿâëÿþòñÿ èçûñêàííûì, ñâåæèì íà âêóñ ñåçîííûì äåëèêàòåñîì. Å ×æîíñîê, ïðîôåññîð ôàêóëüòåòà ìåíåäæìåíòà Óíèâåðñèòåòà Õàíÿí, êóëèíàðíûé êðèòèê

Â

êîðåéñêîé êóõíå ñåçîííàÿ åäà ÿâëÿåòñÿ ñèìâîëîì ïðàâèëüíîãî ïèòàíèÿ è îäíîâðåìåííî ãëàâíûì ïðèíöèïîì íàêðûâàíèÿ ñòîëà. Ñ äðåâíèõ ïîð êîðåéöû ïðèäåðæèâàëèñü ôèëîñîôèè, âûðàæàåìîé ôîðìóëîé «ñèñèê», ò.å. «êàæäîìó ñåçîíó — ñâîÿ åäà», è ïðåäïî÷èòàëè ãîòîâèòü åäó èç ñåçîííûõ ïðîäóêòîâ, ïîëó÷àÿ òàêèì îáðàçîì óäîâîëüñòâèå îò ïèùè â êàæäîå âðåìÿ ãîäà è îäíîâðåìåííî çàáîòÿñü î ñâî¸ì çäîðîâüå.

È â êîðîëåâñêîì äâîðöå, è â äîìå ïðîñòîëþäèíà Èç âñåé ïèùè, êîòîðóþ äàðèò íàì âåñåííÿÿ ïîðà, êîãäà âåñü ìèð ïðîáóæäàåòñÿ îò çèìíåé ñïÿ÷êè, ñúåäîáíûå ðàñòåíèÿ è òðàâû ñ÷èòàþòñÿ ëó÷øèì ïðîäóêòîì. Ðàííÿÿ çåëåíü îäíîâðåìåííî èñïîëíåíà ãëóáîêîãî ôèëîñîôñêîãî ñìûñëà è ïðàêòè÷íà â ïðèìåíåíèè. Çåë¸íûå ðîñòêè, êîòîðûå, ïðîáèâøèñü ñêâîçü îëåäåíåëóþ çåìëþ, ïîÿâëÿþòñÿ íà ïîâåðõíîñòè, ÿâëÿþòñÿ ñèìâîëè÷åñêèì ïðîÿâëåíèåì æèçíè.  ýïîõó ×îñîí ïåðâóþ íåæíóþ çåëåíü, ïîÿâèâøóþñÿ âåñíîé, êîòîðàÿ ñ÷èòàëàñü íà÷àëîì ãîäà, ò.å. ïåðâûì èç ÷åòûð¸õ ñåçîíîâ, â ïåðâóþ î÷åðåäü ïðèíîñèëè â äàð ïðåäêàì.  «Ïîäëèííûõ çàïèñÿõ Òõý÷æî» — õðîíèêå, îïèñûâàþùåé äåÿíèÿ ïåðâîãî êîðîëÿ äèíàñòèè ×îñîí (È) Òõý÷æî, — ñîäåðæèòñÿ çàïèñü î òîì, ÷òî âåñíîé «â ïîìèíàëüíîì õðàìå ×îíì¸ ïðîâîäèëè îáðÿä ïîìèíîâåíèÿ ïðåäêîâ, ïðåïîäíîñÿ èì ïåðâóþ çåëåíü è îòáîðíûå ìàíäàðèíû, à òàêæå ìåëêóþ æèâíîñòü, äîáûòóþ íà îõîòå». Êðîìå òîãî, ñ íàñòóïëåíèåì «èï÷õóí», 1-îãî ìàðòà ïî ëóííîìó êàëåíäàðþ, êîðîëåâñêèå ïîâàðà áðàëè ïÿòü âèäîâ ïðÿíûõ ðàñòåíèé è òðàâ, òàêèõ êàê ïåðüÿ ïðîðîùåííîãî â ïîäâàëå ëóêà, ëèñòüÿ äèêîðàñòóùåé ãîð÷èöû ñàðåïòñêîé, ðîñòêè äóäíèêà ìíîãîîáðàçíîãî, ðîñòêè îìåæíèêà è ðåäüêó äàéêîí, ñîáðàííûõ ïîä åù¸ íå ñòàÿâøèì äî êîíöà ñíåãîì, è, ïðèïðàâèâ èõ ñïåöèÿìè, ïîäàâàëè íà ñòîë êîðîëþ ïîä íàçâàíèåì «îñèíáàí» (五辛盤).  òàêèõ òðóäàõ, êàê «Ê¸íäî ÷àï÷è» (京都雜志) èëè «Òîíãóê ñåñèãè» (東國歲時記; «Êàëåíäàðíûå îáû÷àè è îáðÿäû ãîñóäàðñòâà Òîíãóê (Êîðåè)»), îïèñûâàþùèõ êàëåíäàðíûå îáû÷àè ýïîõè ×îñîí, óêàçûâàåòñÿ, ÷òî ïîäîáíûå ðàñòåíèÿ ïðèñûëàëè â äàð êîðîëþ â êà÷åñòâå ëó÷øèõ ìåñòíûõ ïðîäóêòîâ èç ãîðíûõ äåðåâåíü ïðîâèíöèè ʸíãè-äî, â ÷àñòíîñòè èç Ïõî÷õîíà, à òàêæå èç ßíãûíà è ×èïõ¸íà, êîòîðûå ñîñòàâëÿþò ñîâðåìåííûé ßíïõ¸í.  òî âðåìÿ â êîðîëåâñêîé ñåìüå âåðèëè, ÷òî åñëè â ïåðâûé äåíü âåñíû ñúåñòü «îñèíáàí», òî ýòî ïîçâîëèò îáðåñòè â ïîëíîé ìåðå ïÿòü äîáðîäåòåëåé, êîòîðûå ïîä÷¸ðêèâàþòñÿ â êîíôóöèàíñòâå è ñîñòàâëÿþò íðàâñòâåííóþ íîðìó ÷åëîâåêó, à èìåííî: êðîòîñòü, äîáðîòó, ïî÷òèòåëüíîñòü, ñêðîìíîñòü è óñòóï÷èâîñòü, à òàêæå áàëàíñ è ãàðìîíèþ ïÿòè âàæíûõ âíóòðåííèõ îðãàíîâ, ñïîñîáñòâóÿ òåì ñàìûì îçäîðîâëåíèþ îðãàíèçìà.  ñðåäå ïðîñòîãî íàðîäà, â ïîäðàæàíèå ýòîìó êîðîëåâñêîìó îáû÷àþ, òîæå ñîáèðàëè è åëè ïÿòü ïðÿíûõ òðàâ, à òàêæå, ðàçëîæèâ èõ íà ïîäíîñå, õîäèëè ïî îêðóãå è óãîùàëè ñîñåäåé. Ñî Ãî÷æàí, èçâåñòíûé ìàñòåð ñëîâà, ëèòåðàòîð íà÷àëüíîãî ïåðèîäà ýïîõè ×îñîí, â ñòèõîòâîðåíèè «Íà÷àëî âåñíû» («Èï÷õóí») òàê îïèñàë âåñåííèå òðàâû: «Âîò è â ýòîì ãîäó ñíîâà íàñòàë ïåðâûé äåíü âåñíû. / Íàñêîëüêî îáíîâèëñÿ ìèð çà ýòî âðåìÿ? — ãàäàþ. / Îïîñòûëåë âåçäåñóùèé ñàëàò èç ïÿòè ïðÿíûõ òðàâ, / Ïîòîìó çàêàçàë áåëîãî ðèñîâîãî âèíà è äåðæó åãî ïîä ðóêîé. / Íå ñáûëèñü, êàê çàäóìàíî, ìèðñêèå äåëà, èçìåíèëèñü ÷åðòû ÷åëîâåêà â çåðêàëå». Êðîìå òîãî, ñúåäîáíûå äèêîðàñòóùèå ðàñòåíèÿ è òðàâû âñåãäà ñ÷èòàëèñü ñèìâîëîì ñìèðåíèÿ, êîòîðîå ïîìîãàåò áåçðîïîòíî ïåðåíîñèòü áåäíîñòü è íàõîäèòü ðàäîñòü â ïðîñòûõ âåùàõ, êàê ýòî îïèñàíî â ñëåäóþùåì îòðûâêå èç «Áåñåä è ñóæäåíèé» Êîíôóöèÿ: «Åñòü ïðîñòóþ ïèùó, ïèòü âîäó, ñïàòü, ïîäëîæèâ ðóêó ïîä ãîëîâó, — â ýòîì òîæå åñòü óäîâîëüñòâèå».

Ïèùà-çàìåíèòåëü â ïåðèîä âåñåííèõ ïðîáëåì ñ ïðîäîâîëüñòâèåì Ñóï «òâåí÷æàí-êóê» ñ ïîëûíüþ è ïàñòóøüåé ñóìêîé. Ñâàðèòü áóëüîí èç ëàìèíàðèè è ñóø¸íûõ àí÷îóñîâ, ïðîöåäèòü, ðàçâåñòè â í¸ì íåìíîãî ïàñòû «òâåí÷æàí», äîâåñòè äî êèïåíèÿ, ïîñëå ÷åãî ñíà÷àëà áðîñèòü ïó÷îê ïàñòóøüåé ñóìêè, à â êîíöå, ïðÿìî ïåðåä òåì êàê âûêëþ÷èòü îãîíü, ïîëîæèòü ïîëûíü. K o r e a n a ı Âåñíà 2 0 14

È âñ¸ æå äëÿ áîëüøèíñòâà ïðîñòîëþäèíîâ ñúåäîáíûå ðàñòåíèÿ è òðàâû áûëè ñêîðåå ñèìâîëîì áåäíîñòè. Åñëè ïîñìîòðåòü íà èñòîðèþ Êîðåè, òî ìîæíî óâèäåòü, ÷òî â ýòîé ñòðàíå åäû â äîñòàòêå íå áûëî íèêîãäà.  ñèëó òîãî, ÷òî 70% òåððèòîðèè Êîðåè çàíèìàþò ãîðû, ñåëüñêîõîçÿéñòâåííûõ çåìåëü âñåãäà áûëî ìàëî, ïîýòîìó ñîáðàííîãî óðîæàÿ ÷àñòî íå õâàòàëî, ÷òîáû äîòÿíóòü äî ñëåäóþùåãî, ê òîìó æå íåðåäêî ñëó÷àëèñü âîîáùå íåóðîæàéíûå ãîäû, òàê ÷òî ñíàáæåíèå íàñåëåíèÿ ïðîäîâîëüñòâèåì íèêîãäà íå áûëî áåñïåðåáîéíûì. Âñåãî êàêèõ-òî ïîëâåêà íàçàä â Êîðåå ñóùåñòâîâàëî òàêîå ÿâëåíèå, êàê «ïîðèêîãý», à âåäü íûíåøíåé ìîëîä¸æè, êîòîðàÿ ïðèâûêëà æèòü íå âåäàÿ çàáîò î õëåáå íàñóùíîì, íàâåðíîå, íåçíàêîìî äàæå ñàìî ýòî ñëîâî. «Ïîðèêîãý» íàçûâàëè ïåðèîä, êîãäà â àïðåëå — ìàå ïî ëóííîìó êàëåíäàðþ íà ñåëå áûëà íàèáîëåå áåäñòâåííàÿ ñèòóàöèÿ ñ ïðîäîâîëüñòâèåì, ïîñêîëüêó ñòàðûå çàïàñû óæå çàêîí÷èëèñü, à ïåðâûé

59


Ñúåäîáíûå ðàñòåíèÿ è òðàâû, ïîÿâëÿþùèåñÿ âåñíîé, ñîäåðæàò áîëüøîå êîëè÷åñòâî âèòàìèíîâ è ìèíåðàëîâ, ïîýòîìó èõ óïîòðåáëåíèå â ïèùó ïîìîãàåò ñïðàâèòüñÿ ñ âåñåííåé óñòàëîñòüþ è âîññòàíîâèòü ñèëû. Êðîìå òîãî, âåñåííÿÿ çåëåíü, áóäó÷è áîãàòà ïèùåâûìè âîëîêíàìè, áûñòðî âûçûâàåò îùóùåíèå ñûòîñòè, à ïîòîìó áëþäà èç òàêèõ òðàâ è ðàñòåíèé â ïîñëåäíåå âðåìÿ îáðåòàþò ïîïóëÿðíîñòü êàê ïðîäóêò äèåòè÷åñêîãî ïèòàíèÿ.

1 Ðàçíîîáðàçíûå âåñåííèå òðàâû ñ ðûíêà. 2 Ñàëàò èç âåñåííèõ òðàâ. Âîçüìèòå íåìíîãî ñâåæåãî ñåëåç¸íî÷íèêà âåòâèñòîãî («òàëëý»), îìåæíèêà («ìèíàðè») è áåäðåíöà («÷õàìíàìóëü»), ïåðåìåøàéòå è çàïðàâüòå êîíôèòþðîì èç óâàðåííûõ â ìåäó öèòðîíîâ.

óðîæàé ÿ÷ìåíÿ åù¸ íå ïîñïåë.  ýïîõó ×îñîí Êîðåéñêèé ïîëóîñòðîâ ñòðàäàë îò õðîíè÷åñêèõ òðóäíîñòåé ñ ïðîäîâîëüñòâèåì èç-çà áîëüøèõ è ìàëûõ áåäñòâèé. Ïî óêàçàíèþ ìóäðîãî êîðîëÿ Ñå÷æîíà áûëè èçäàíû ðàçëè÷íûå êíèãè, â ÷àñòíîñòè òðàêòàò «Êóõâàíá¸êêîêïàí» (救荒辟穀方), â êîòîðûõ ðàññêàçûâàëîñü, êàê íàéòè è ïðèãîòîâèòü äèêîðàñòóùèå ñúåäîáíûå ðàñòåíèÿ, òðàâû è êîðåíüÿ, ÷òîáû ïðîêîðìèòüñÿ âî âðåìÿ ãîëîäà, âûçâàííîãî çàñóõîé è íàâîäíåíèÿìè, à òàêæå â ïåðèîä âåñåííèõ òðóäíîñòåé ñ ïðîäîâîëüñòâèåì.  ýòèõ êíèãàõ îïèñàíû ñîòíè âèäîâ ñúåäîáíûõ ðàñòåíèé, òðàâ è êîðåíüåâ, êîòîðûå óïîòðåáëÿëèñü â ïèùó êàê çàìåíèòåëü îñíîâíûõ ñåëüñêîõîçÿéñòâåííûõ êóëüòóð, íàïðèìåð: öâåòêè ãðå÷èõè, êîëîêàçèÿ ñúåäîáíàÿ, èëè òàðî («òõîðàí»), äèîñêîðåÿ áàòàòîâàÿ (ÿìñ), æ¸ëóäè, ïóñòûå ñòðó÷êè ñîåâûõ áîáîâ, êîðíè àòðàêòèëîäåñà ÿéöåâèäíîãî («ñàï÷ó»), Rumex coreanus («ñîðó÷æýíè»), êîðà è õâîÿ ñîñíû, êîðà âÿçà è äð.  ãîëîäíîå âðåìÿ äèêîðàñòóùàÿ çåëåíü áûëà êðàéíå âàæíûì ïîñòàâùèêîì ïèòàòåëüíûõ âåùåñòâ. Ñúåäîáíûå ðàñòåíèÿ ãîòîâèëè íà ïàðó âìåñòå ñ ðèñîì èëè âàðèëè èç íèõ æèäêóþ êàøó, äîáàâèâ íåìíîãî çåðíîâûõ. Äðóãèìè ñëîâàìè, àêòèâíî èñïîëüçîâàëè òðàâû, ÷òîáû ïîâûñèòü ïèòàòåëüíóþ öåííîñòü åäû. Ñëåäóþùàÿ çàïèñü èç òðàêòàòà «Ìîíìèí ñèìñî» (牧民心書; «Íàñòàâëåíèÿ ïî óïðàâëåíèþ íàðîäîì») èçâåñòíîãî ó÷¸íîãî «ñèðõàê» ×îí ßã¸íà (ïñåâäîíèì Òàñàí) äà¸ò ïðåäñòàâëåíèå î òîì, íàñêîëüêî ãðóáîé è íåâêóñíîé áûëà òàêàÿ ïèùà äëÿ âûæèâàíèÿ, êîòîðóþ åëè â òî âðåìÿ: «Â íåóðîæàéíûé ãîä íàðîä çàìåíÿåò ïèùó ñúåäîáíûìè òðàâàìè, à ïîñêîëüêó îíè áåç ñîëè è â ãîðëî íå ëåçóò, ñîëü äîðîæàåò, òàê ÷òî ñëåäóåò çàðàíåå çàêâàñèòü äîñòàòî÷íî ñîåâîãî ñîóñà, à òàêæå çàïàñòèñü ëàìèíàðèåé è ñóø¸íûìè êðåâåòêàìè». Êàíàäñêèé ìèññèîíåð Äæåéìñ Ñêàðò Ãåéë (James Scarth Gale), ïðèåõàâøèé â Êîðåþ â êîíöå XIX âåêà, ïèñàë: «Íàâåðíîå, íåò äðóãîãî íàðîäà, êîòîðûé áû çíàë ñòîëüêî âèäîâ ñúåäîáíûõ ðàñòåíèé, êàê êîðåéöû». Ïî ñëîâàì Ãåéëà, îí íå ìîã ñäåðæàòü óäèâëåíèÿ è âîñòîðãà, êîãäà óâèäåë, êàê êîðåéöû, âûâàðèâ â âîäå, ÷òîáû âûøåë âåñü ÿä, åäÿò ïàïîðîòíèê, êîòîðûé íà Çàïàäå ñ÷èòàþò ÿäîâèòûì ðàñòåíèåì è íå èñïîëüçóþò äàæå íà êîðì ñêîòó. Äëÿ êîðåéöåâ, âûðîñøèõ â ãîðàõ, è â íàøè äíè äèêîðàñòóùèå ðàñòåíèÿ îñòàþòñÿ âîñïîìèíàíèåì î âåñíå. Ïîýòåññà-ìîíàõèíÿ È Õýèí, óðîæåíêà ßíãó ïðîâèíöèè Êàíâîí-äî, â ñëåäóþùèõ ñòðî÷êàõ âñïîìèíàåò âåñåííèå äíè ñâîåãî äåòñòâà: «Êàê õîòåëîñü áû ïîçâàòü ïî èìåíè òîâàðèùåé, / Ñ êîòîðûìè âìåñòå õîäèëè â ãîðû ñîáèðàòü ñúåäîáíûå òðàâû, / Êàê õîòåëîñü áû óâèäåòü ïîäðóæåê ìîåãî äåòñòâà, / Çàêàäû÷íûõ ïîäðóæåê, êîòîðûå èíîãäà áðîñàëè íà ìåíÿ çàâèñòëèâûå âçãëÿäû, / Ïîäîáíî õîëîäíîìó âåòðó ðàííåé âåñíîé, êîòîðûé áóäòî èç çàâèñòè íàáðàñûâàåòñÿ íà åäâà ðàñïóñòèâøèåñÿ öâåòû».

Çàíîâî îòêðûòûé ïðîäóêò çäîðîâîãî ïèòàíèÿ Îäíàêî â íàøè äíè äèêîðàñòóùàÿ çåëåíü îáðåòàåò íîâóþ æèçíü, íî óæå íå êàê ñðåäñòâî îáìàíóòü ãîëîäíûé æåëóäîê, à êàê ïðîäóêò çäîðîâîãî ïèòàíèÿ. Ïàñòóøüÿ ñóìêà («íýíè»), ïîëûíü («ññóê»), Ixeris dentata («ññûìáàãâè»), ïåðåçèìîâàâøàÿ â çåìëå êèòàéñêàÿ êàïóñòà («ïîìäîí»), àñòðà øåðîõîâàòàÿ («÷õâèíàìóëü»), øèðîêîêîëîêîëü÷èê êðóïíîöâåòêîâûé («òîðà÷æè»), ìîëîäûå ïîáåãè àðàëèè âûñîêîé («òóðûï»), êðàñîäíåâ îðàíæåâûé («âîí÷õóðè»), êîäîíîïñèñ ëàíöåòíûé («òîäîê»), îìåæíèê ÿâàíñêèé («òîëüìèíàðè»), ñåëåç¸íî÷íèê âåòâèñòûé («òàëëý»), ëóê äóøèñòûé («ïó÷õó») è äðóãèå âåñåííèå ðàñòåíèÿ ñîäåðæàò áîëüøîå êîëè÷åñòâî âèòàìèíîâ è ìèíåðàëîâ, ïîýòîìó èõ óïîòðåáëåíèå â ïèùó ïîìîãàåò ñïðàâèòüñÿ ñ âåñåííåé óñòàëîñòüþ è âîññòàíîâèòü ñèëû. Êðîìå òîãî, áîãàòàÿ ïèùåâûìè âîëîêíàìè âåñåííÿÿ çåëåíü, áûñòðî âûçûâàåò îùóùåíèå ñûòîñòè, à ïîòîìó áëþäà èç òàêèõ òðàâ è ðàñòåíèé òåïåðü îáðåòàþò ïîïóëÿðíîñòü êàê ïðîäóêò äèåòè÷åñêîãî ïèòàíèÿ. Äèêîðàñòóùèå ðàñòåíèÿ è òðàâû òàêæå ÿâëÿþòñÿ ïðåêðàñíîé ïèùåé äëÿ âåãåòàðèàíöåâ. È ïóñòü çåëåíü, âûðàùåííàÿ â òåïëèöå, íå ñðàâíèòñÿ ñ òîé, ÷òî ñîáèðàþò â ãîðàõ è íà ëóãàõ, îíà ïîçâîëÿåò íàì íàñëàæäàòüñÿ âêóñîì ñâåæåñòè â ëþáîå âðåìÿ ãîäà. Êîãäà ïåðåñòàíåò äóòü õîëîäíûé âåòåð, à èç çåìëè íà÷íóòñÿ ïðîáèâàòüñÿ ïåðâûå çåë¸íûå ðîñòêè, äàâàéòå îòïðàâèìñÿ â äîðîãó íàâñòðå÷ó âåñíå.  ðåñòîðàíàõ, ñïåöèàëèçèðóþùèõñÿ íà áëþäàõ èç äèêîðàñòóùèõ ðàñòåíèé è òðàâ, è â ðåñòîðàíàõ «õàí÷îíñèê», ãäå ïîäàþò òðàäèöèîííûé êîðåéñêèé êîìïëåêñíûé îáåä, íàñ æä¸ò ðàäîñòü âñòðå÷è ñ ðàçëè÷íîé çåëåíüþ, èñòî÷àþùåé àðîìàòû âåñíû. 1

60

Êîðåéñêàÿ êóëüòóðà è èñêóññòâî


Š yoanna

2

61


Ñòèëü æèçíè

Êîðåéñêàÿ òðàäèöèîííàÿ êîñìåòîëîãèÿ:

êàê ïîõîðîøåòü áåç ïëàñòèêè

1

62

Êîðåéñêàÿ êóëüòóðà è èñêóññòâî


Æåíùèíû, êîòîðûå â ñòðåìëåíèè ñòàòü êðàñèâåå ðàíüøå ïðèáåãàëè ê óñëóãàì äåðìàòîëîãîâ è ïëàñòè÷åñêèõ õèðóðãîâ, òåïåðü îáðàòèëè ñâîè âçãëÿäû â ñòîðîíó òðàäèöèîííîé êîðåéñêîé ìåäèöèíû. Êîãäà âûÿñíèëîñü, ÷òî ðåãóëÿðíûé ìàññàæ ëèöà âäîëü ýíåðãåòè÷åñêèõ ìåðèäèàíîâ ñòèìóëèðóåò öèðêóëÿöèþ ýíåðãèè è òàêèì îáðàçîì ñíèìàåò óñòàëîñòü, óìåíüøàÿ ðàçìåðû ëèöà è äåëàÿ êîæó áîëåå óïðóãîé, â ïîñëåäíåå âðåìÿ âñ¸ áîëüøå æåíùèí ñòàëè ïðèáåãàòü ê ýòîé ïðîöåäóðå. È Ãûìñóê, øòàòíûé êîððåñïîíäåíò «Õåëñû ×îñîí»

2

Ä

ëÿ ã-æè Ñèí, ñëóæàùåé â âîçðàñòå çà 30, êîòîðàÿ ïðîæèâàåò â ãîðîäå Êóðè ïðîâèíöèè ʸíãè-äî, ìàññàæ ëèöà «ê¸ííàê», èëè ìàññàæ ëèöà âäîëü ýíåðãåòè÷åñêèõ ìåðèäèàíîâ, äàâíî ñòàë ÷àñòüþ ïîâñåäíåâíîé æèçíè. Âîò óæå òðè ãîäà êàê ìèíèìóì ðàç â íåäåëþ îíà ïîñåùàåò ìàññàæíûé ñàëîí, ðàñïîëîæåííûé ðÿäîì ñ ìåñòîì ðàáîòû. Ïî ñëîâàì ã-æè Ñèí, â îñîáåííî òðóäíûå äíè ïîñëå ñåàíñà ìàññàæà óñòàëîñòü îòñòóïàåò, à íàñòðîåíèå ìãíîâåííî óëó÷øàåòñÿ. Íàøà ñîáåñåäíèöà ïðèçíà¸òñÿ, ÷òî ïîíà÷àëó ýòà ïðîöåäóðà áûëà î÷åíü áîëåçíåííîé è äàæå îñòàâëÿëà ñèíÿêè íà ëèöå, ïîýòîìó îíà áûëà î÷åíü ðàçî÷àðîâàíà è ñ÷èòàëà, ÷òî ïëàòèòü çà îäèí ñåàíñ òàêîãî ìàññàæà ïî÷òè 100 òûñÿ÷ âîí — ýòî ÷ðåçìåðíî äîðîãî. Íî ïîñëå òîãî êàê ã-æà Ñèí ñòàëà õîäèòü íà ìàññàæ ðåãóëÿðíî, îíà íà÷àëà îùóùàòü îò íåãî ðåàëüíûé ýôôåêò. Ïðåæäå âñåãî, åñëè ðàíüøå íà óòðî ïîñëå òÿæ¸ëîãî äíÿ æåíùèíà âñòàâàëà ñ îïóõøèì ëèöîì, òî òåïåðü ýòà ïðèïóõëîñòü ñòàëà ãîðàçäî ìåíåå çàìåòíîé. Ïðûùèêè, êîòîðûå èíîãäà ïîÿâëÿëèñü íà ëèöå, ïðàêòè÷åñêè èñ÷åçëè, à êîæà ñòàëà áîëåå ãëàäêîé. Ïðè ýòîì òåïåðü îíà ÷àñòî ñëûøèò êîìïëèìåíòû, ÷òî å¸ «ëèöî ñòàëî ìåíüøå».

Ðàñøèðåíèå ðûíêà òðàäèöèîííîé êîñìåòîëîãèè Êîíöåïöèÿ êîñìåòîëîãèè â òðàäèöèîííîé êîðåéñêîé ìåäèöèíå âïåðâûå áûëà âíåäðåíà â ïåðâîé ïîëîâèíå 2000-õ ãîäîâ. Äî ýòîãî âðåìåíè åäèíñòâåííîé ñîáñòâåííî êîñìåòè÷åñêîé ïðîöåäóðîé, óëó÷øàâøåé âíåøíþþ ôîðìó ëèöà ïðè ïîìîùè ñðåäñòâ òðàäèöèîííîé êîðåéñêîé ìåäèöèíû, î êîòîðîé áûëî èçâåñòíî øèðîêèì ìàññàì, ÿâëÿëîñü òîëüêî ëå÷åíèå ïåðåêîñà ðòà â ðåçóëüòàòå èíñóëüòà. Âðà÷è, ïðàêòèêóþùèå òðàäèöèîííóþ ìåäèöèíó, âñ¸ ýòî âðåìÿ ïîñòåïåííî îñâàèâàëè ðûíîê êîñìåòîëîãè÷åñêèõ óñëóã íà âîëíå ïîëîæèòåëüíîé ðåàêöèè ìàññîâîãî ïîòðåáèòåëÿ, îäíàêî èõ êîëëåãè, çàíèìàþùèåñÿ çàïàäíîé ìåäèöèíîé, âñòàâëÿëè èì ïàëêè â êîëåñà, óòâåðæäàÿ, ÷òî âîëøåáíûé ýôôåêò ëèöåâîãî ìàññàæà, ïîçâîëÿþùèé äîñòè÷ü ðåçóëüòàòîâ, ñõîæèõ ñ ïëàñòè÷åñêîé îïåðàöèåé, ñèëüíî ïðåóâåëè÷åí, è ÷òî èñïîëüçîâàíèå ìåòîäîâ òðàäèöèîííîé ìåäèöèíû íå îáÿçàòåëüíî îçíà÷àåò îòñóòñòâèå ïîáî÷íûõ ýôôåêòîâ. Îäíàêî ñîãëàñíî àíàëèçó Èíñòèòó��à ýêîíîìèêè «Ñàìñóíã» çà 2013 ãîä, íà âíóòðåííåì ðûíêå êîñìåòîëîãè÷åñêèõ óñëóã íàáëþäàåòñÿ âûñîêèé ñðåäíåãîäîâîé ðîñò â 10,1% â öåëîì, ïðè÷¸ì êàê â çàïàäíîé, òàê è â òðàäèöèîííîé ìåäèöèíå, è îáú¸ì ýòîãî ðûíêà ñîñòàâëÿåò âíóøèòåëüíóþ öèôðó â 11,9 òðèëëèîíîâ âîí. (Ïî ìíåíèþ ñïåöèàëèñòîâ, äîëÿ òðàäèöèîííîé êîðåéñêîé ìåäèöèíû íà ðûíêå êîñìåòîëîãè÷åñêèõ óñëóã ñîñòàâëÿåò ìåíåå 30%.) Ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå èíôîðìàöèè îá ýôôåêòèâíîñòè òðàäèöèîííîé êîñìåòîëîãèè ïî «ñàðàôàííîìó ðàäèî» ïðèâåëî ê çíà÷èòåëüíîìó ðîñòó ñïðîñà íà ïîäîáíûå óñëóãè, ÷òî â ñâîþ î÷åðåäü âûçâàëî óâåëè÷åíèå êîëè÷åñòâà âðà÷åé íå òîëüêî òðàäèöèîííîé êîðåéñêîé ìåäèöèíû, íî è ñïåöèàëèñòîâ êîíêðåòíî ïî ëèöåâîìó ìàññàæó «ê¸ííàê», êîòîðûå, çàêîí÷èâ ñïåöèàëüíûå êóðñû, ïðåäëàãàåìûå ðàçëè÷íûìè îðãàíèçàöèÿìè, â ÷àñòíîñòè Êîðåéñêîé àññîöèàöèåé «ê¸ííàê», è ñäàâ ýêçàìåíû, ïîëó÷èëè ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèé ñåðòèôèêàò.  ðåçóëüòàòå ýòîãî ðûíîê òðàäèöèîííîé êîñìåòîëîãèè ïðîäîëæàåò ðàñòè äåíü îòî äíÿ.  ïîñëåäíåå âðåìÿ â Êîðåå ïîÿâèëàñü òàêæå ïàðà ñåòåâûõ êîìïàíèé, îòêðûâàþùèõ ïîâñþäó öåíòðû, ñïåöèàëèçèðóþùèåñÿ íà ëèöåâîì ìàññàæå «ê¸ííàê». Ïîäîáíûå öåíòðû èìåþò ïðåèìóùåñòâî â âèäå äîñòóïà ê îáøèðíîé áàçå äàííûõ ãîëîâíîé êîìïàíèè, êîòîðîãî ëèøåíû îáû÷íûå êëèíèêè òðàäèöèîííîé êîðåéñêîé ìåäèöèíû èëè öåíòðû ëèöåâîãî ìàññàæà, îäíàêî êëèåíòû ìîãóò âîñïîëüçîâàòüñÿ ýòîé áàçîé äàííûõ òîëüêî â ñëó÷àå íàëè÷èÿ ÷ëåíñêîé êàðòî÷êè, êîòîðóþ ìîæíî ïîëó÷èòü òîëüêî ïðè ïîêóïêå ìèíèìóì 10 ñåàíñîâ äîðîãîñòîÿùåãî ìàññàæà.

1 Ïðîôåññîð ×õâå Ìèíñîí â êëèíèêå òðàäèöèîííîé êîðåéñêîé ìåäèöèíû Èëüñàí â Óíèâåðñèòåòå Òîíãóê ïðîâîäèò ïðîöåäóðó ëèöåâîé êîñìåòè÷åñêîé àêóïóíêòóðû: «ß îäíîâðåìåííî âòûêàþ îò 50 äî 100 ñåðåáðÿíûõ íàíî-èãë, ñòèìóëèðóÿ òî÷êè àêóïóíêòóðû è ìèîôàñöèàëüíûå ìåðèäèàíû. Ïîñëå 5—10 ñåàíñîâ âû íå òîëüêî ïîëó÷èòå ïîäòÿíóòîå ëèöî ñ óïðóãîé êîæåé, íî òàêæå ñòàíåòå ìåíüøå ñòðàäàòü îò ãîëîâíîé áîëè, áåññîííèöû è ñèìïòîìîâ ìåíîïàóçû». 2 Ïîðîøîê äëÿ ïèëèíãà èç ëåêàðñòâåííûõ òðàâ, ïðèìåíÿåìûõ â òðàäèöèîííîé êîðåéñêîé ìåäèöèíå, è ñåðåáðÿíûå íàíîèãëû.

Îò êðàñîòû ê çäîðîâüþ Äåéñòâèòåëüíî ëè ïðè ïîìîùè ëèöåâîãî ìàññàæà «ê¸ííàê» ìîæíî óìåíüøèòü ðàçìåðû ëèöà? Ïîõîæå, ÷òî äà. Ïî êðàéíåé ìåðå, òàê óòâåðæäàþò ðåçóëüòàòû êëèíè÷åñêèõ èñïûòàíèé, ïîëó÷åííûõ â êëèíèêå çàïàäíîé ìåäèöèíû.  2012 ãîäó â ñòîìàòîëîãè÷åñêîé êëèíèêå ïðè Óíèâåðñèòåòå ¨íñå ñ öåëüþ íàó÷íîãî ñðàâíåíèÿ è àíàëèçà ýôôåêòà ëå÷åíèÿ áîòîêñîì è ëèöåâîãî ìàññàæà «ê¸ííàê» 10 æåíùèí â âîçðàñòå îò 20 äî 50 ëåò K o r e a n a ı Âåñíà 2 0 14

63


â òå÷åíèå 10 íåäåëü äîëæíû áûëè äâàæäû â íåäåëþ õîäèòü íà ñåàíñû ëèöåâîãî ìàññàæà «ê¸ííàê». Ðåçóëüòàòû ñðàâíåíèÿ ëèöà äî è ïîñëå ìàññàæà ïîêàçàëè, ÷òî îáú¸ì ëèöà ñîêðàòèëñÿ â ñðåäíåì íà 731 êóá. ìì, òîëùèíà ìûøö â îáëàñòè ñêóë íà 0,4 ìì, òîëùèíà ìûøö â îáëàñòè ïîäáîðîäêà íà 0,44 ìì. Ïî ñëîâàì ó÷¸íûõ, ìàññàæ «ê¸ííàê» ïîçâîëèë äîáèòüñÿ ïðàêòè÷åñêè òàêîãî æå ýôôåêòà â äåëå óìåíüøåíèÿ ðàçìåðîâ ëèöà, êàê è ïðè èñïîëüçîâàíèè äëÿ ýòèõ öåëåé áîòîêñà.  êîðåéñêîé òðàäèöèîííîé ìåäèöèíå ñëîâîì «ê¸ííàê», íàçûâàþò ìåðèäèàí, ïî êîòîðîìó òå÷¸ò ýíåðãèÿ öè. Ïîäîáíî òîìó, êàê êðîâü òå÷¸ò ïî ñîñóäàì, à èìïóëüñû ïåðåäàþòñÿ ïî íåðâàì, ýíåðãèÿ öè òå÷¸ò ïî ìåðèäèàíàì «ê¸ííàê».  òåëå ÷åëîâåêà åñòü 12 âàæíûõ ìåðèäèàíîâ. Ó÷àñòêè ìåðèäèàíîâ, ãäå ñêàïëèâàåòñÿ îñîáåííî ìíîãî ýíåðãèè, ïîõîæè íà òðàíñïîðòíûå óçëû æåëåçíîé äîðîãè; èõ íàçûâàþò «ê¸íõ¸ëü», è îíè ÿâëÿþòñÿ òî÷êàìè àêóïóíêòóðû. Îñíîâíîé ïðèíöèï ïîäîáíîãî ëèöåâîãî ìàññàæà ñîñòîèò â ñòèìóëèðîâàíèè ýíåðãåòè÷åñêèõ ìåðèäèàíîâ è òî÷åê àêóïóíêòóðû, ÷òî ïîçâîëÿåò âîññòàíîâèòü áàëàíñ íåðâíîé ñèñòåìû ÷åëîâå÷åñêîãî òåëà è ïîâûñèòü åñòåñòâåííóþ ñïîñîáíîñòü ê ñàìîèñöåëåíèþ. Îñâîáîæäåíèå çàáëîêèðîâàííîé ýíåðãèè ïðèâîäèò ê àêòèâèçàöèè ôóíêöèè êëåòîê è óñêîðåíèþ êðîâîîáðàùåíèÿ, â ðåçóëüòàòå ÷åãî ïåðâûì äåëîì óëó÷øàåòñÿ öâåò ëèöà, ïîýòîìó âñå, êòî ïîëüçóåòñÿ ýòîé ïðîöåäóðîé, ìîãóò óâèäåòü ïîëîæèòåëüíóþ äèíàìèêó óæå ïîñëå ïåðâûõ ñåàíñîâ. Åñëè ãîâîðèòü î äîëãîñðî÷íîì ýôôåêòå, òî â ïîñëåäíåå âðåìÿ ïîÿâèëîñü ìíîãî ðåçóëüòàòîâ èññëåäîâàíèé, ñîãëàñíî êîòîðûì ïîäîáíûé ìàññàæ ÿâëÿåòñÿ õîðîøåé ïðîôèëàêòèêîé ðàçíûõ çàáîëåâàíèé, òàêèõ êàê áîëè ðàçëè÷íîé ýòèîëîãèè, çàòðóäí¸ííîå ïèùåâàðåíèå, äåïðåññèÿ, à òàêæå ïîìîãàåò óëó÷øèòü îáùåå ñîñòîÿíèå îðãàíèçìà ïðè îæèðåíèè.  ñëó÷àå ðåãóëÿðíûõ ñåàíñîâ ñ óëó÷øåíèåì öèðêóëÿöèè ýíåðãèè öè âîññòàíàâëèâàåòñÿ áàëàíñ ìûøö è ñóñòàâîâ, óëó÷øàþòñÿ ôóíêöèè âíóòðåííèõ îðãàíîâ, â ðåçóëüòàòå ÷åëîâåê íà÷èíàåò îùóùàòü ïðèëèâ ñèë, îäíîâðåìåííî èçáàâëÿÿñü îò ëèøíåãî âåñà. Îïèðàÿñü íà ýòè äàííûå, ìàññàæíûå öåíòðû ïðîïàãàíäèðóþò ñâîè ïðîöåäóðû êàê ñðåäñòâî «îòñòðî÷èòü ñòàðåíèå» è ðåêëàìèðóþò èõ ýôôåêòèâíîñòü äëÿ ïîõóäåíèÿ, ïîëüçóÿñü åñòåñòâåííûì æåëàíèåì ïîòðåáèòåëåé ñîõðàíèòü ìîëîäîñòü è îáðåñòè ñòðîéíîñòü. Òàêæå ïîÿâëÿåòñÿ âñ¸ áîëüøå öåíòðîâ, ãäå ìàññàæ «ê¸ííàê» ïðèìåíÿþò äëÿ óõîäà íå òîëüêî çà ëèöîì, íî è äðóãèìè ÷àñòÿìè òåëà, òàêèìè êàê òàç, íèæíÿÿ ÷àñòü òåëà, ïðåäïëå÷üÿ è äð. Ã-æà È, ÷åé âîçðàñò ïðèáëèæàåòñÿ ê ñîðîêàëåòíåìó ðóáåæó, ïðîæèâàþùàÿ â îêðóãå Ñî÷õîãó Ñåóëà, ìó÷èëàñü îò ñèëüíûõ áîëåé, âûçâàííûõ èñêðèâëåíèåì òàçà ïîñëå ðîäîâ. Íåïðîïîðöèîíàëüíîå óâåëè÷åíèå íèæíåé ÷àñòè òåëà ñòàëî ïðåäìåòîì å¸ ïîñòîÿííûõ ïåðåæèâàíèé. Äåëî â òîì, ÷òî ïðè õóäîì ëèöå è òîðñå îò ïîÿñà è íèæå ã-æà È ñòðàäàëà îò îæèðåíèÿ â ñåðü¸çíîé ñòàäèè. Íà êîíñóëüòàöèè â öåíòðå ìàññàæà «ê¸ííàê» åé ñêàçàëè, ÷òî èñêðèâëåíèå òàçà, âûçâàííîå ðîäàìè è íåïðàâèëüíîé îñàíêîé, çàòðóäíèëî íîðìàëüíóþ öèðêóëÿöèþ ýíåðãèè öè, ïîýòîìó â íèæíåé ÷àñòè òåëà îáðàçîâàëñÿ ñåðü¸çíûé îò¸ê. Íàøåé ñîáåñåäíèöå ïðèøëîñü ïðîéòè 20 ñåàíñîâ ìàññàæà, êîòîðûå îáîøëèñü åé â áîëåå ÷åì 2 ìëí. âîí, îäíàêî áëàãîäàðÿ ýòîìó óäàëîñü èñïðàâèòü èñêðèâëåíèå òàçà, ïîýòîìó îíà îñòàëàñü î÷åíü äîâîëüíà.

1 2

1 Ãîâîðÿ î ëå÷åíèè áàíêàìè, ïðîôåññîð ×õâå Ìèíñîí îáúÿñíÿåò: «Ðàçìèíàÿ “çàáèòûå” ìûøöû ïëå÷, ìû óëó÷øàåì öèðêóëÿöèþ êðîâè â ìûøöàõ ëèöà». 2 Ïèëèíã ëèöà ñ ëåêàðñòâåííûìè òðàâàìè òðàäèöèîííîé ìåäèöèíû ÿâëÿåòñÿ ïðîöåäóðîé îìîëîæåíèÿ êîæè. Áëàãîäàðÿ îñîáîìó ñîñòàâó ñêðàá ìÿãêî îòøåëóøèâàåò îìåðòâåâøèå êëåòêè, ðåãóëèðóåò âûäåëåíèå êîæíîãî æèðà è ñòèìóëèðóåò îáíîâëåíèå êîæè.

64

Êîðåéñêàÿ êóëüòóðà è èñêóññòâî


Îñíîâíîé ïðèíöèï ïîäîáíîãî ëèöåâîãî ìàññàæà ñîñòîèò â ñòèìóëèðîâàíèè ýíåðãåòè÷åñêèõ ìåðèäèàíîâ è òî÷åê àêóïóíêòóðû, ÷òî ïîçâîëÿåò âîññòàíîâèòü áàëàíñ íåðâíîé ñèñòåìû ÷åëîâå÷åñêîãî òåëà è ïîâûñèòü åñòåñòâåííóþ ñïîñîáíîñòü ê ñàìîèñöåëåíèþ. Îñâîáîæäåíèå çàáëîêèðîâàííîé ýíåðãèè ïðèâîäèò ê àêòèâèçàöèè ôóíêöèè êëåòîê è óñêîðåíèþ êðîâîîáðàùåíèÿ, â ðåçóëüòàòå ÷åãî ïåðâûì äåëîì óëó÷øàåòñÿ öâåò ëèöà, ïîýòîìó âñå, êòî ïîëüçóåòñÿ ýòîé ïðîöåäóðîé, ìîãóò óâèäåòü ïîëîæèòåëüíóþ äèíàìèêó óæå ïîñëå ïåðâûõ ñåàíñîâ.

Ñàìîìàññàæ Ïî ìåðå òîãî êàê ýôôåêò îò ìàññàæà «ê¸ííàê» ñòàë øèðîêî èçâåñòåí, íà ïðèëàâêàõ êíèæíûõ ìàãàçèíîâ íà÷àëè ïîÿâëÿòüñÿ ìíîãî÷èñëåííûå ñàìîó÷èòåëè ïî ñàìîìàññàæó ñ ìíîãîîáåùàþùèìè íàçâàíèÿìè òèïà «Äèåòà äëÿ ëèöà», «Éîãà äëÿ ëèöà» è äð. Îäíàêî ñàìîìàññàæ, êîòîðîìó îáó÷àþò ïîäîáíûå áðîøþðû, êîíå÷íî, íå ìîæåò ñðàâíèòüñÿ ñ ïðîôåññèîíàëüíî ïðîâåä¸ííûì ìàññàæåì «ê¸ííàê», êîãäà ñïåöèàëèñò ìàññèðóåò ìåðèäèàíû è òî÷êè àêóïóíêòóðû. Îáû÷íî â òàêèõ èçäàíèÿõ äàþò ñîâåòû, êàê ïóò¸ì ñòèìóëÿöèè ìûøö, êîæè è ôàñöèé ñäåëàòü òàê, ÷òîáû ëèöî âûãëÿäåëî «ñòðîéíåå».  íèõ ñîäåðæàòñÿ ñâåäåíèÿ î äåñÿòêàõ âèäîâ ìàññàæà, êîòîðûå ïîìîãàþò ñäåëàòü ëèöî «ñåðäå÷êîì», óìåíüøèòü ëîá, ïðèïîäíÿòü ñïèíêó íîñà, èçáàâèòüñÿ îò íîñîãóáíûõ ñêëàäîê, ñäåëàòü êîæó áîëåå âîñïðèèì÷èâîé ê ìàêèÿæó è ò.ä. Íåêîòîðûå îôèñíûå ðàáîòíèöû ñ ãîòîâíîñòüþ èñïûòûâàþò íà ñåáå ðàçëè÷íûå ñðåäñòâà, îáåùàþùèå óëó÷øèòü âíåøíèé âèä, è ïîòîì ñ óäîâîëüñòâèåì äåëÿòñÿ äðóã ñ äðóãîì èñòîðèÿìè î ìãíîâåííîì ïðåîáðàæåíèè, ðàññêàçûâàÿ, êàê «ëèöî ñòàëî âûãëÿäåòü ìåíüøå ïîñëå òîãî, êàê ÿ íåñêîëüêî äíåé â òå÷åíèå 5-10 ìèíóò ìàññèðîâàëà ìûøöû ãîëîâû, ëèöà è óøåé».

Ïëàñòè÷åñêàÿ õèðóðãèÿ áåç ñêàëüïåëÿ  òðàäèöèîííîé êîðåéñêîé ìåäèöèíå åñòü áîëåå èíâàçèâíûå êîñìåòîëîãè÷åñêèå ïðîöåäóðû, ÷åì ìàññàæ «ê¸ííàê». Ýôôåêò îò íèõ ñðàâíèì ñ ïëàñòè÷åñêîé õèðóðãèåé, ïîýòîìó èõ ÷àñòî íàçûâàþò ïëàñòèêîé ñ ïðèìåíåíèåì òðàäèöèîííîé êîðåéñêîé ìåäèöèíû. Ïîñêîëüêó ýòè ïðîöåäóðû ïîçâîëÿþò ïîëó÷èòü ýôôåêò ïëàñòè÷åñêîé õèðóðãèè, íå ëîæàñü «ïîä íîæ», â ïîñëåäíåå âðåìÿ ðàñò¸ò ÷èñëî ïàöèåíòîâ èç-çà ðóáåæà, êîòîðûå, ïðîçíàâ î äîñòîèíñòâàõ ïîäîáíîé òðàäèöèîííîé ïëàñòèêè, ïðèåçæàþò èç Êèòàÿ, ßïîíèè, Âüåòíàìà, ÑØÀ è äðóãèõ ñòðàí. Ïî ñòàòèñòèêå îäíîãî èçâåñòíîãî öåíòðà òðàäèöèîííîé êîðåéñêîé ìåäèöèíû, ðàñïîëîæåííîãî â ñòîëè÷íîì ðàéîíå Êàííàì è ñïåöèàëèçèðóþùåãîñÿ íà òàêèõ êîñìåòîëîãè÷åñêèõ ïðîöåäóðàõ, äîëÿ èíîñòðàííûõ ïàöèåíòîâ ñîñòàâëÿåò îêîëî 10%. Ñàìàÿ ðàñïðîñòðàí¸ííàÿ ïðîöåäóðà — ýòî ñòèìóëèðîâàíèå äåðìû. Ãîâîðÿò, ÷òî ýòî ñïîñîáñòâóåò âûðàáîòêå êîëëàãåíà è óìåíüøàåò ãëóáèíó ìîðùèí. Ñóùåñòâóåò òàêæå ïðîöåäóðà àêóïóíêòóðû ñ âæèâëåíèåì íèòè. Õèðóðãè÷åñêóþ íèòü, ïðîïèòàííóþ íàñòîåì èç ëå÷åáíûõ òðàâ è êîðåíüåâ, ïðèìåíÿåìûõ â òðàäèöèîííîé ìåäèöèíå, âæèâëÿþò ïîä êîæó ëèöà, ãðóäè è äð., â ðåçóëüòàòå ÷åãî êîæà ïîäòÿãèâàåòñÿ, à ìîðùèíû ñòàíîâÿòñÿ ìåíåå çàìåòíûìè. Ã-æà Ñèì, ñëóæàùàÿ, êîòîðîé ëèøü íåìíîãî çà òðèäöàòü, î÷åíü ñòðàäàëà èç-çà ñòàðÿùèõ å¸ ãëóáîêèõ íîñîãóáíûõ ñêëàäîê.  ñòðåìëåíèè âûãëÿäåòü ìîëîæå îíà ïðèëåæ��î ñèäåëà íà äèåòå, íî â ðåçóëüòàòå, õîòÿ ëèöî è ïîõóäåëî, ñêëàäêè ñòàëè åù¸ ãëóáæå. Ñåé÷àñ, ìåñÿö ñïóñòÿ ïîñëå òîãî, êàê ã-æà Ñèì ïðîøëà ïðîöåäóðó ñ âæèâëåíèåì íèòè, îíà ãîâîðèò, ÷òî ÷óâñòâóåò, êàê êîæà ëèöà ñòàíîâèòñÿ áîëåå óïðóãîé, à íîñîãóáíûå ñêëàäêè — ìåíåå çàìåòíûìè, è ïëàíèðóåò â áóäóùåì åù¸ íåñêîëüêî ðàç ñ ïåðåðûâàìè ïîâòîðèòü ýòó ïðîöåäóðó, ÷òîáû ïîëíîñòüþ èçáàâèòüñÿ îò ýòèõ ñêëàäîê. Êðîìå òîãî, êëèíè÷åñêèå ðåçóëüòàòû, êîãäà ïðîöåäóðà ñ âæèâëåíèåì íèòè ïîçâîëèëà ïîäíÿòü íà 3 ìì ñïèíêó íîñà èëè âåðíóëà êîíòóðû îáâèñøåìó ëèöó, çàñòàâëÿþò ñåðü¸çíî çàäóìàòüñÿ î òðàäèöèîííîé êîñìåòîëîãèè òåõ æåíùèí, êîòîðûå ñ íåäîâåðèåì îòíîñÿòñÿ ê îáû÷íîé ïëàñòè÷åñêîé õèðóðãèè. Ñ ðîñòîì èíòåðåñà ê óõîäó çà ëèöîì ñî ñòîðîíû êàê æåíùèí, òàê è ìóæ÷èí âñåõ âîçðàñòíûõ ãðóïï ðûíîê òðàäèöèîííîé êîñìåòîëîãèè, ïîõîæå, ïðîäîëæèò ðàñòè. Êðîìå òîãî, â ïîñëåäíåå âðåìÿ íàáëþäàåòñÿ òåíäåíöèÿ ê óâåëè÷åíèþ ÷èñëà îòäåëåíèé, ãîòîâÿùèõ ñïåöèàëèñòîâ ýòîãî âèäà êîñìåòîëîãèè â èíñòèòóòàõ òðàäèöèîííîé êîðåéñêîé ìåäèöèíû. Êîíå÷íî, ïî ñðàâíåíèþ ñ ïëàñòè÷åñêîé õèðóðãèåé, êîãäà ïóò¸ì âæèâëåíèÿ èìïëàíòàòîâ äîñòèãàåòñÿ ìãíîâåííûé ýôôåêò óëó÷øåíèÿ âíåøíîñòè, ìåòîäû òðàäèöèîííîé êîñìåòîëîãèè òðåáóþò òåðïåíèÿ, ïðè ýòîì ñòåïåíü óäîâëåòâîð¸ííîñòè ðåçóëüòàòàìè ìîæåò ñåðü¸çíî ðàçëè÷àòüñÿ â çàâèñèìîñòè îò ïàöèåíòà. Îäíàêî ïî ìåðå òîãî, êàê ñòàíîâèòñÿ øèðîêî èçâåñòíûì, ÷òî ýòè ïðîöåäóðû âìåñòî èñêóññòâåííîé òðàíñôîðìàöèè âåäóò ê åñòåñòâåííîìó èçìåíåíèþ ñòðóêòóðû êîæè, íîâûå ìåòîäû îìîëîæåíèÿ è óëó÷øåíèÿ âíåøíåãî âèäà, êîòîðûå îïèðàþòñÿ íà ñïîñîáíîñòü ÷åëîâå÷åñêîãî îðãàíèçìà ê ñàìîèñöåëåíèþ, âûçûâàþò âñ¸ áîëüøèé èíòåðåñ ñî ñòîðîíû æåíñêîãî ïîëà. K o r e a n a ı Âåñíà 2 0 14

65


Ïóòåøåñòâèå â êîðåéñêóþ ëèòåðàòóðó

Êðèòèêà

Ò¸ïëûé âçãëÿä ïèñàòåëÿ-ïåðåâîä÷èêà ×àí Äó¸í, ëèòåðàòóðíûé êðèòèê

Ç

íàêîìñòâî ñ Ïàê ×õàíñóí âñåãäà ñîïðîâîæäàåòñÿ óäèâëåíèåì å¸ ïîçäíèì äåáþòîì. Îíà ðîäèëàñü â 1946 ãîäó, à äåáþòèðîâàëà íà ëèòåðàòóðíîì ïîïðèùå â 2006-ì ñ ðàññêàçîì «Áàðàíüè øàøëû÷êè íà Êàðèáîíå», êîòîðûé âûèãðàë ëèòåðàòóðíóþ ïðåìèþ «×îñîí Èëüáî». Ïàê ×õàíñóí áûëî óæå 60 ëåò, è ïîýòîìó âïîëíå ïîíÿòíî, ÷òî å¸ ïèñàòåëüñêèé äåáþò âûçâàë áîëüøîé èíòåðåñ. Ýòîò èíòåðåñ óñèëèëà âûñîêàÿ îöåíêà å¸ êàê îðèãèíàëüíîãî àâòîðà ëèòåðàòóðíûì ñîîáùåñòâîì, à òàêæå ëþáîïûòñòâî ñî ñòîðîíû øèðîêîé îáùåñòâåííîñòè ê òîìó ôàêòó, ÷òî Ïàê ×õàíñóí íà÷àëà íîâûé òâîð÷åñêèé ïóòü â âîçðàñòå, êîãäà îáû÷íî âûõîäÿò íà ïåíñèþ.  êà÷åñòâå ïðèìåðà òàêîãî èíòåðåñà ê å¸ äåáþòó ìîæíî ïðèâåñòè âîñõèù¸ííûå îòçûâû ëèòåðàòóðíîãî êðèòèêà Êèì ϸíúèêà, êîòîðûé ãîâîðèë, ÷òî â íåé ñîåäèíèëèñü «ë¸ãêîñòü 21 âåêà è ñåðü¸çíîñòü ñòàðøåãî ïîêîëåíèÿ», à òàêæå èíòðèãóþùåå íàçâàíèå ñòàòüè ê å¸ èíòåðâüþ â ãàçåòå: «Õâàíãàï1 – âðåìÿ ïîçäíåãî ëèòåðàòóðíîãî äåáþòà». Ñêîðî èñïîëíèòñÿ 7 ëåò òâîð÷åñêîé äåÿòåëüíîñòè Ïàê ×õàíñóí, âñ¸ ýòî âðåìÿ îíà àêòèâíî ïèñàëà è óæå âûïóñòèëà äâà ñáîðíèêà ðàññêàçîâ, ÷åì äîêàçàëà, ÷òî å¸ ïîÿâëåíèå â ðÿäàõ ïèñàòåëåé íå áûëî ñëó÷àéíûì. Ïåðâûé ñáîðíèê ðàññêàçîâ «Ñàä â ñòèëå Ïàðõý» (2009 ã.) ïåñòðèò ýêçîòèçìàìè ðàçíûõ ñòðàí: «÷àãûñàíè2», «ãíåçäî ñàëàíãàíû», «ïîäçåìíûé ëåñ», «áåðåñêëåò», «ïðîèçâîäñòâî õðóñòàëÿ», «òþðáàí», «ïîçà áîãîìîëà». Íåâîëüíî ñòàíîâèòñÿ ëþáîïûòíî, îòêóäà àâòîð ÷åðïàåò òàêîå áîãàòîå ðàçíîîáðàçèå ìàòåðèàëîâ è êàê åé óäà¸òñÿ òàê óìåëî âïëåòàòü âñ¸ ýòî â ñâîè ðàññêàçû. «Ñàä â ñòèëå Ïàðõý» — ýòî ñáîðíèê èíòåëëåêòóàëüíûõ î÷åðêîâ, êîòîðîìó ñâîéñòâåííî âäîõíîâåíèå íà÷èíàþùåãî ïèñàòåëÿ è ñâîåîáðàçíàÿ ýíåðãåòèêà.  ýòîì ñáîðíèêå àâòîð áóäòî ãîâîðèò âñåì, êòî ñìîòðèò íà íå¸ ñ âîñõèùåíèåì è ëþáîïûòñòâîì, ÷òî âîçðàñò — íå ïîìåõà ëèòåðàòóðíîìó òâîð÷åñòâó. Çäåñü ìîæíî âñïîìíèòü, ÷òî äî äåáþòà â êà÷åñòâå ïèñàòåëÿ Ïàê ×õàíñóí àêòèâíî çàíèìàëàñü ïåðåâîäàìè. Îíà îêîí÷èëà ôàêóëüòåò àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà è ëèòåðàòóðû è â 8090 ãîäû ïåðåâåëà áîëüøîå êîëè÷åñòâî èíîñòðàííûõ ôèëüìîâ è òåëåñåðèàëîâ. Ñàìà ñ áîëüøèì ïåðåâîä÷åñêèì îïûòîì çà ïëå÷àìè, îíà â íåêîòîðûõ ðàññêàçàõ óïîìèíàåò î òðóäíîñòÿõ ýòîé ïðîôåññèè.  ðàññêàçå «Ïåñíÿ ïîä ôîíîãðàììó» ïåðåâîä÷èê, êîòîðûé ðàáîòàåò íàä äîêóìåíòàëüíûì ôèëüìîì ïðî øèëîêëþâêó, îáèòàþùóþ â Ìèíñìèðñêîì çàïîâåäíèêå Âåëèêîáðèòàíèè, ïðèçíà¸òñÿ, ÷òî ñ íåãî «äåñÿòü ïîòîâ ñîøëî, ïîêà ïåðåâîäèë ïåðâóþ ôðàçó». À ïåðåâîä÷èê â ðàññêàçå «Ðåñïóáëèêà ðàïàíîâûõ ïàíöèðåé» ãîâîðèò: «Óñëûøàííûå èíîñòðàííûå ñëîâà ìíå íóæíî áûëî çàòàùèòü íà ìíîãîñëîéíûå

66

õîëìû ìîåé æèçíè, ñìåøàòü ñî âñåì, ÷òî òàì õðàíèòñÿ, ïåðåìåøàòü, ïðîñåÿòü è âûòÿíóòü èç íèõ ø¸ëêîâóþ íèòü. <...> Äëÿ ýòîãî ìíå ïðèøëîñü ïðîâåñòè ìíîãî ìó÷èòåëüíûõ äíåé è íî÷åé». Òî÷íî òàê æå, êàê è ïåðåâîä÷èê, ïèñàòåëü â ïðîöåññå ñâîåé ðàáîòû òîæå äîëæåí ñîáèðàòü âñåâîçìîæíóþ èíôîðìàöèþ è ìàòåðèàëû î òîì, ïðî ÷òî îí ïèøåò. Äëÿ òîãî ÷òîáû ïî÷óâñòâîâàòü òîíêèå íþàíñû êàæäîãî ñëîâà, íåîáõîäèìî èçó÷èòü âñå ïëàñòû êóëüòóðíîãî è ñìûñëîâîãî ïîäòåêñòà êàæäîãî ñëîâà.  ïðîèçâåäåíèÿõ Ïàê ×õàíñóí ÷óâñòâóåòñÿ áîãàòàÿ ýðóäèöèÿ è øèðîêèå ïîçíàíèÿ àâòîðà î åâðîïåéñêîé ëèòåðàòóðå. Ïîõîæå, ýòî èìååò ãëóáîêóþ ñâÿçü ñ å¸ îáðàçîâàíèåì è îïûòîì ëèòåðàòóðíîãî ïåðåâîä÷èêà.  ñâîè ïðîèçâåäåíèÿ îíà ââîäèò ñàìûå ðàçíûå âåùè è ïðåäìåòû, êîòîðûå ñëóæàò íå ïðîñòî îòäåëüíûì îò îáùåãî ñþæåòà óêðàøåíèåì, à ó÷àñòâóþò â ðàñêðûòèè îñíîâíîé òåìû èëè â ñîçäàíèè íóæíîé àòìîñôåðû. Ýòî âîçìîæíî áëàãîäàðÿ ýðóäèöèè ïèñàòåëüíèöû, êîòîðàÿ íå îãðàíè÷èâàåòñÿ ïîâåðõíîñòíûìè çíàíèÿìè, ïîñêîëüêó ñôîðìèðîâàíà â ðåçóëüòàòå äëèòåëüíîãî è íåë¸ãêîãî îïûòà ëèòåðàòóðíîãî ïåðåâîä÷èêà. Ìîæíî ñêàçàòü, ÷òî ýòîò îïûò ñòàë âûñòðàäàííûì ýòàïîì â ñòàíîâëåíèè Ïàê ×õàíñóí êàê ïèñàòåëÿ. À ýòî çíà÷èò, ÷òî å¸ ïîçäíèé ëèòåðàòóðíûé äåáþò íå áûë ñëó÷àéíûì, à ñòàë âîçìîæíûì áëàãîäàðÿ ëèòåðàòóðíîìó ÷óòüþ, êîòîðîå ôîðìèðîâàëîñü íà ïðîòÿæåíèè äåñÿòêîâ ëåò ïåðåâîä÷åñêîé ðàáîòû.  îòëè÷èå îò ïåðâîãî ñáîðíèêà, ãäå áîëüøèíñòâî ðàññêàçîâ ïîñòðîåíî íà ýêçîòè÷åñêîì ìàòåðèàëå, âî âòîðîì ñáîðíèêå «Áîæüÿ êîðîâêà íà÷èíàåò ïîë¸ò ñ âåðøèíû» (2013 ã.) âñòðå÷àåòñÿ áîëüøå ïðîèçâåäåíèé, ãäå ëèáî äåéñòâèå ïðîèñõîäèò â Êîðåå, ëèáî òåìàòèêà ñâÿçàíà ñ å¸ ñîöèàëüíûìè ïðîáëåìàìè, íî äåéñòâèå ïðè ýòîì ïðîèñõîäèò çà ïðåäåëàìè ñòðàíû. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, Ïàê ×õàíñóí, êîòîðàÿ â òå÷åíèå êàêîãî-òî âðåìåíè óäåëÿëà áîëüøåå âíèìàíèå ýêçîòè÷åñêèì ñþæåòàì, ñòàëà àêòèâíåå ïðèñìàòðèâàòüñÿ ê òîìó, ÷òî âèäèò âîêðóã ñåáÿ, è ïðåäñòàâëÿòü â ñâî¸ì âîîáðàæåíèè ñîáûòèÿ, êîòîðûå ìîãëè ñëó÷èòüñÿ ãäå-òî ðÿäîì.  öåëîì ìîæíî ñêàçàòü, ÷òî ïðîôåññèÿ ïåðåâîä÷èêà îáÿçûâàåò âíèìàòåëüíî íàáëþäàòü. Ïîòîìó ÷òî òîëüêî òàê ìîæíî äîñòè÷ü òî÷íîãî ïîíèìàíèÿ. Êàê â ïåðâîì ñáîðíèêå, òàê è âî âòîðîì Ïàê ×õàíñóí ïðîäîëæàåò ïèñàòü ñ ïîçèöèè

1 Õâàíãàï – 60-ëåòíèé þáèëåé. 2 Ðûáà ñåìåéñòâà êàðïîâûõ (Mesogobio tumensis). Êîðåéñêàÿ êóëüòóðà è èñêóññòâî


© Park Jai-hong

ïåðåâîä÷èêà, êîòîðûé äîëæåí ïîíÿòü ãëàâíîãî ãåðîÿ è ïåðåâåñòè åãî ìûñëè è ÷óâñòâà íà îáùåïîíÿòíûé ÿçûê. Àâòîð íàáëþäàåò çà âûðàæåíèåì ëèöà è ïîñòóïêàìè ãåðîåâ ðàññêàçà, çà èõ íàäåæäàìè è ðàçî÷àðîâàíèÿìè. Îíà òùàòåëüíî èçó÷àåò òî, ÷òî â ïîâñåäíåâíîé æèçíè ìîæíî ëåãêî óïóñòèòü èç âèäó, è ïåðåâîäèò ýòî íà ÿçûê ëèòåðàòóðíîãî ïðîèçâåäåíèÿ.

Ïàê ×õàíñóí Ãåðîè ïðîèçâåäåíèé Ïàê ×õàíñóí èìåþò ðàçíûå ïðîôåññèè è æèâóò â ðàçíûõ ãîðîäàõ, íî ïî ñóòè âñå îíè ïîõîæè íà àëüïèíèñòîâ, êîòîðûå âèñÿò ïîä êðûøåé âûñîòíîãî çäàíèÿ áåç ñòðàõîâêè. Ïàê ×õàíñóí, âîøåäøàÿ â ëèòåðàòóðó â óæå ïî÷òåííîì âîçðàñòå, îáðàùàåòñÿ ê íèì ñ ïðîíèêíîâåííûìè ñëîâàìè: «Æèçíü ñàìà ïî ñåáå ïðåäñòàâëÿåò íàñòîëüêî âåëèêóþ öåííîñòü, ÷òî å¸ íóæíî ïðèíèìàòü òàêîé, êàêàÿ îíà åñòü, íå âçâåøèâàÿ íà âåñàõ» (èç ðàññêàçà «Ïðîãóëêà ñ Ðóññî»).

K o r e a n a ı Âåñíà 2 0 14

«Ìíå êàçàëîñü, ÷òî ÿ îòîâñþäó ñëûøó ãîëîñà ëþäåé. ß ñëûøàëà èñòîðèè ìîëîäûõ ëþäåé, êîòîðûå ïðèõîäèëè êî ìíå, õîòÿ çíàëè, ÷òî ÿ íè÷åì íå ìîãó èì ïîìî÷ü. Ñëûøàëñÿ ìíå ãîëîñ ìîëîäîãî ñìóãëîãî èíîñòðàíöà, êîòîðûé ðàáîòàë â ïðîìûøëåííîì êîìïëåêñå Ñèõâà. ß ñëûøàëà âçäîõè ïàðíåé, êîòîðûå â ñàìûé ðàñöâåò ñâîåé ìîëîäîñòè áûëè âûáðîøåíû çà áîðò æåñòîêîé êîíêóðåíöèåé èëè îêàçàëèñü â óæàñíûõ óñëîâèÿõ. ß îáíàðóæèëà, ÷òî è ìîëîäîé ÷åëîâåê, êîòîðîãî ÿ âñòðåòèëà â “Êàñà äåëëà ìóçèêà” íà Êóáå, è ìóæ÷èíà, êîòîðîãî ÿ âñòðåòèëà â ïåëüìåííîé â Äàíüäóíå, íà ñàìîì äåëå èìåëè òå æå ïðîáëåìû, ÷òî è ìîëîä¸æü íàøåé ñòðàíû. Åñëè ïîñìîòðåòü íà íèõ ñî ñòîðîíû, òî âñå îíè äåòè ïðèðîäû, “êðàñèâàÿ ôîðìà ñóùåñòâîâàíèÿ”, êàê è áîæüè êîðîâêè ñ ÿðêîé îêðàñêîé». (Èç ïðåäèñëîâèÿ àâòîðà ê ñáîðíèêó «Áîæüÿ êîðîâêà íà÷èíàåò ïîë¸ò ñ âåðøèíû») Ãåðîè ïðîèçâåäåíèé Ïàê ×õàíñóí èìåþò ðàçíûå ïðîôåññèè è æèâóò â ðàçíûõ ãîðîäàõ, íî ïî ñóòè âñå îíè ïîõîæè íà ëþäåé, êîòîðûå âèñÿò ïîä êðûøåé âûñîêîãî çäàíèÿ áåç ñòðàõîâêè, ïîäîáíî ãëàâíîìó ãåðîþ òèòóëüíîãî ðàññêàçà ñáîðíèêà «Áîæüÿ êîðîâêà íà÷èíàåò ïîë¸ò ñ âåðøèíû». Âñå îíè áóäòî çàáëóäèëèñü â ëàáèðèíòå, èõ ãíåò¸ò ïëîõîå ïðåä÷óâñòâèå, ÷òî çà íèìè íèêòî íå ïðèä¸ò, è îíè íèêîãäà íå ñìîãóò âûáðàòüñÿ, äàæå åñëè ïîïûòàþòñÿ. Ïîýòîìó ãåðîè íå æèâóò, à áóäòî ïðîñòî îòáûâàþò ñâî¸ âðåìÿ â ýòîì ëàáèðèíòå, îäåðæèìûå òîñêîé îäèíî÷åñòâà, ãðóñòüþ, áåñïîìîùíîñòüþ. Âíèìàòåëüíî ÷èòàÿ ïðåäëîæåíèå çà ïðåäëîæåíèåì è îáðàùàÿ âíèìàíèå íà ïåðåâîä÷åñêóþ íàáëþäàòåëüíîñòü àâòîðà, â êàêîé-òî ìîìåíò ÷èòàòåëü ëîâèò ñåáÿ íà ìûñëè, ÷òî íåçàìåòíî äëÿ ñåáÿ îí âñòðåòèëñÿ ñ ýòèìè óñòàâøèìè îò æèçíè ãåðîÿìè è óæå ðàçäåëÿåò èõ ÷óâñòâà. Ïîõîæå, èìåííî ýòîãî è õî÷åò äîáèòüñÿ àâòîð ïîñðåäñòâîì ñêðóïóë¸çíûõ íàáëþäåíèé è òî÷íîãî ïîíèìàíèÿ ÷åëîâåêà. Íî Ïàê ×õàíñóí íå ñïåøèò îäàðèòü íàäåæäîé ýòèõ óñòàâøèõ îò æèçíè ãåðîåâ, ðàâíî êàê è íå ïîêàçûâàåò èì ãîòîâîãî ñïîñîáà ïðåîäîëåòü îäèíî÷åñòâî. Âñå ðàññêàçû èç ñáîðíèêà çàêàí÷èâàþòñÿ, êîãäà ÷èòàòåëü äîñòèãàåò êàêîãî-òî åäâà óëîâèìîãî âçàèìîïîíèìàíèÿ ñ ãëàâíûì ãåðîåì, íî ôèíàë òàê è îñòà¸òñÿ îòêðûòûì. Çàêðûâ êíèãó, ÷èòàòåëü îáíàðóæèâàåò, ÷òî â ãîëîâå ó íåãî îñòàëîñü íåñêîëüêî ÿðêèõ ñëîâ. «Þêèäçóðè», òðåóãîëüíûå ïîäïîðêè äëÿ âåòîê äåðåâüåâ èëè óñòàâøèõ îò æèçíè ëþäåé; êëóáîê íèòîê, ïîõîæèé íà «êëóáîê Àðèàäíû»; êðàñèâàÿ ñïèíêà áîæüåé êîðîâêè — ýòè ïðîñòûå, íî âåëè÷åñòâåííûå ñëîâà òàê íóæíû áûëè ãåðîÿì äëÿ óòåøåíèÿ.

67


Îáðàçû Êîðåè

Ê

îãäà ñ íàñòóïëåíèåì ôåâðàëÿ â ñîëíå÷íûõ ëó÷àõ, ïàäàþùèõ íà ñíåã, íà÷èíàåò ÷óâñòâîâàòüñÿ òåïëî, â äóøå ïîñåëÿåòñÿ áåñïîêîéñòâî. Ïîäãîíÿåìàÿ áåñïîêîéñòâîì îíà îòïðàâëÿåòñÿ â áóääèéñêèé õðàì, çàòåðÿííûé ãëóáîêî â ãîðàõ, ÷òîáû ñëîíÿòüñÿ ïîä äåðåâüÿìè àáðèêîñîâ íà ïåðåäíåì äâîðå â îæèäàíèè âåñíû. À êîãäà öâåòî÷íûå ïî÷êè, ïðîêëþíóâøèåñÿ íà âåòêàõ, ðàçáóõíóò äî ðàçìåðà ïðîñÿíûõ ç¸ðíûøåê, ëþäè õëûíóò â õðàì, íà ñëîâàõ — ÷òîáû ïîêëîíèòüñÿ Áóääå, íî ãëàçàìè áóäóò ïðåæäå âñåãî èñêàòü âåòêè, óñûïàííûå öâåòàìè. Íî äåðåâüÿ íå çíàþò ïîñïåøíîñòè äóøè. Ïðîéä¸ò åù¸ áîëüøå ìåñÿöà, è òîëüêî òîãäà ïî î÷åðåäè íà÷íóò ïðîáóæäàòüñÿ îòî ñíà àáðèêîñ, êèçèë, êàìåëèÿ, âèøíÿ. Íî íà ñîëíå÷íûõ ìåñòàõ, ïðîáèâøèñü ñêâîçü åù¸ íå ðàñòàÿâøèé ñíåã è îïàâøèå ëèñòüÿ, óæå çàæåëòåëè ðàñïóñòèâøèåñÿ ëþòèêè. Ïðèìåðíî â ýòî âðåìÿ â Êîðåþ ïðèõîäèò âåñíà. Íî ïåðâîé îíà ïîñåùàåò íå ãîðíûå ëîùèíû, ïîëÿ è ñàäû, à äâîðû óíèâåðñèòåòîâ, ãäå ðàñöâåòàåò ïûøíûì öâåòîì.  ñåðåäèíå ôåâðàëÿ âî äâîðå êàæäîãî âóçà â ðàçãàðå öåðåìîíèÿ âûïóñêà. Ìîëîäûå ëþäè, êîòîðûå çà íàñûùåííûå 10 ëåò óñïåëè ñíà÷àëà â äåòñêîì ñàäó è íà÷àëüíûõ êëàññàõ ïðèîáùèòüñÿ ê òàéíàì ñ÷¸òà è ïðàâîïèñàíèÿ, ÷òîáû çàòåì â ñðåäíèõ è ñòàðøèõ êëàññàõ, à ïîòîì â âóçå ïåðåæèòü áåñêîíå÷íîå êîëè÷åñòâî ýêçàìåíîâ ñ èõ îæåñòî÷¸ííîé êîíêóðåíöèåé, êàæäûé èç êîòîðûõ áûë ìàëåíüêèì êðèçèñîì, òåïåðü, íàõîäÿñü â ñàìîì ðàñöâåòå ñâîåé çîëîòîé ìîëîäîñòè, íàäåâàþò ê âûïóñêíîé ìàíòèè øàïî÷êó-êîíôåäåðàòêó.  Êîðåå, ãäå åù¸ â 1960-ì ãîäó áûëî âñåãî 52 âóçà, òåïåðü èõ öåëûõ 345.  ñòðàíå, ãäå æèâ¸ò 48 ìèëëèîíîâ ÷åëîâåê, 71% âûïóñêíèêîâ ñòàðøèõ êëàññîâ ïîñòóïàåò â âóçû, â êîòîðûõ ñåé÷àñ ó÷èòñÿ 3 ìèëëèîíà ÷åëîâåê. Çäåñü íà êàæäûå äåñÿòü òûñÿ÷ ÷åëîâåê ïðèõîäèòñÿ 615 ñòóäåíòîâ, ÷òî áîëüøå ÷åì â ÑØÀ, ãäå ýòà öèôðà ñîñòàâëÿåò 502 ÷åëîâåêà. Èç âóçîâ Êîðåè êàæäîé âåñíîé âûïóñêàåòñÿ îò 600 äî 700 òûñÿ÷ ÷åëîâåê. Ïîýòîìó â Êîðåå â ôåâðàëå âî äâîðàõ óíèâåðñèòåòîâ çàöâåòàþò 700 òûñÿ÷ öâåòîâ. Òîëüêî âåñíà â Êîðåå ñëèøêîì êîðîòêàÿ. Ó ýòèõ ïðåêðàñíûõ âûïóñêíèêîâ âóçîâ â èõ ìàíòèÿõ è øàïî÷êàõ, êîòîðûå ñäåëàëè ïåðâûé øàã âî âçðîñëóþ æèçíü, íå òàê ìíîãî âðåìåíè, ÷òîáû íàñëàäèòüñÿ ðàäîñòüþ ýòîé æèçíè è ïîñìàêîâàòü ïå÷àëü, êîòîðóþ ïðèíîñÿò çíàíèÿ. Äóøè ðåáÿò, ñòîëïèâøèõñÿ ïåðåä ñòåíäîì ñ îáúÿâëåíèÿìè î ïðè¸ìå íà ðàáîòó, ïîëíû áåñïîêîéñòâà è òðåâîãè. Íåóæåëè âåñíà ïðîìåëüêíóëà òàê áûñòðî, è óæå ñêîðî ëåòî ñ åãî èçíóðÿþùåé æàðîé, êîòîðàÿ áóäåò ãíàòü íàñ òîëüêî âïåð¸ä? À âåäü íè â ãîðàõ, íè íà ïîëÿõ, íè íà äâîðå áóääèéñêîãî õðàìà åù¸ äàæå íå çàöâåëè âåñåííèå öâåòû …

Òàêàÿ êîðîòêàÿ âåñíà Êèì Õâà¸í ëèòåðàòóðíûé êðèòèê, ÷ëåí Íàöèîíàëüíîé àêàäåìèè èñêóññòâ


We Help Asia Speak to the World We Asia World We Help Asia Speak Speak to the World andHelp the World Speakto tothe Asia. and the World Speak to Asia. and the World Speak to Asia. We Help Asia Speak to the World We Help Asia Speak to the World We Help Asia Speak to the World and the World Speak to Asia. Inside ourto Asia. and the World Speak and the World latest Speak issue:to Asia. Inside Inside our our

THE US REBALANCING TOWARD ASIA: ESSAYS BY

Patrick M. Cronin, Michael McDevitt, Wu Xinbo, Donald K. Emmerson, Malcolm Fraser, Richard A. Bitzinger, Kang Choi & Noboru Yamaguchi CREATING A NEW WORLD OF SOCIAL ENTERPRISES

Reflections by Won-soon Park & Tae-won Chey DRAWING A LINE IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA

By Nguyen Manh Hung

BURMA IN THE ASEAN CHAIR IN 2014, AT LAST

By Pavin Chachavalpongpun

PLUS

Georgiy Voloshin China as a Stabilizer in Central Asia Ramesh Thakur The New Great Game in Afghanistan Tridivesh Singh Maini & Manish Vaid The Emerging Role of Indo-Pakistan Border States Young-hoon Lee Economic Reform in North Korea Peter Hayes A Breakthrough Six-Party Summit in 2013? Asger Røjle Christensen Japan’s Abduction Saga Book Reviews by David C. Kang, Börje Ljunggren & John Delury

THE US REBALANCING TOWARD ASIA: ESSAYS BY

PLUS

THE US REBALANCING TOWARD ASIA: ESSAYS BY CREATING A NEW WORLD OF SOCIAL ENTERPRISES

PLUSEmerging Role of Indo-Pakistan Border States The Georgiy Voloshin China as a Stabilizer in Central Asia Young-hoon Lee Economic Reform in North Korea Ramesh Thakur The New Great Game in Afghanistan Peter Hayes A Breakthrough Six-Party Summit in 2013? Tridivesh Singh Maini & Manish Vaid Asger Røjle Christensen Japan’s Abduction Saga The Emerging Role of Indo-Pakistan Border States Book Reviews byEconomic David C. Kang, Young-hoon Lee Reform in North Korea Börje Ljunggren & John Delury Peter Hayes A Breakthrough Six-Party Summit in 2013? Asger Røjle Christensen Japan’s Abduction Saga Book Reviews by David C. Kang, Börje Ljunggren & John Delury

US$15.00 Georgiy Voloshin China as a Stabilizer in Central Asia Patrick M. Cronin, Michael McDevitt, Wu Xinbo, W15,000 Donald K. Emmerson, Malcolm Fraser, Richard A. Bitzinger, Ramesh Thakur The New Great Game in Afghanistan | A JOURNAL THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG 7, NUMBER Kang Choi &OF Noboru Yamaguchi Tridivesh Singh VOLUME Maini & Manish Vaid 4, WINTER 2012

The US ‘Pivot’ to Asia

Patrick M. Cronin, MichaelPark McDevitt, Wu Xinbo, Reflections by Won-soon & Tae-won Chey Donald K. Emmerson, Malcolm Fraser, Richard A. Bitzinger, DRAWING A LINE IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA Kang Choi & Noboru Yamaguchi By Nguyen Manh Hung CREATING A NEW WORLD OF SOCIAL ENTERPRISES

BURMA IN THE ASEAN CHAIR IN 2014, AT LAST Reflections by Won-soon Park & Tae-won Chey By Pavin Chachavalpongpun DRAWING A LINE IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA

By Nguyen Manh Hung

BURMA IN THE ASEAN CHAIR IN 2014, AT LAST

By Pavin Chachavalpongpun

Is It Just About Containing China?

US$15.00 W15,000

A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME 7, NUMBER 4, WINTER 2012

The US ‘Pivot’ Theto US ‘Pivot’ Asia to Asia PLUS

Georgiy Voloshin China as a Stabilizer in Central Asia Ramesh Thakur The New Great Game in Afghanistan

By Nguyen Manh Hung

Asger Røjle Christensen Japan’s Abduction Saga PLUS Reviews by David C. Kang, Book Georgiy Voloshin ChinaDelury as a Stabilizer in Central Asia Börje Ljunggren & John Ramesh Thakur The New Great Game in Afghanistan Tridivesh Singh Maini & Manish Vaid US$15.00 The Emerging Role of Indo-Pakistan Border States CREATING A NEW WORLD OF SOCIAL ENTERPRISES W15,000 Reflections by Won-soon Park & Tae-won Chey Young-hoon Lee Economic Reform in North Korea | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA CHINA FOUNDATION VOLUME 7, NUMBER 4, WINTER 2012 Peter Hayes A|Breakthrough Six-Party Summit in 2013? DRAWING A LINE IN THE SOUTH SEA US$15.00 THE US REBALANCING TOWARD ASIA: ESSAYS BY PLUS By Nguyen Manh Hung Asger Røjle Christensen Japan’s Abduction Saga W15,000 Georgiy Voloshin China as a Stabilizer in Central Asia Patrick M. Cronin, Michael McDevitt, Wu Xinbo, BURMA IN THE CHAIR IN 2014, LAST A. Book Reviews David C. 7, Kang, | Bitzinger, |byVOLUME Donald K. Emmerson, Malcolm Fraser,ATRichard A JOURNAL OFASEAN THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG NUMBER 4, Afghanistan WINTER 2012 Ramesh Thakur The New Great Game in Börje Ljunggren & John Delury By Pavin Chachavalpongpun Kang Choi & Noboru Yamaguchi Tridivesh Singh Maini & Manish Vaid The Emerging Role of Indo-Pakistan Border States CREATING A NEW WORLD OF SOCIAL ENTERPRISES South Korea Leading the Way Into a New World ofLee Social Enterprises Reflections by Won-soon Park & Tae-won Chey Young-hoon Economic Reform in North Korea Peter Hayes A Breakthrough Six-Party Summit in 2013? DRAWING A LINE IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA By Nguyen Manh Hung Asger Røjle Christensen Japan’s Abduction Saga US$15.00 BURMA IN THE ASEAN CHAIR IN 2014, AT LAST Book Reviews by David C. Kang, W15,000 Börje Ljunggren & John Delury By Pavin Chachavalpongpun BURMA IN THE ASEAN CHAIR IN 2014, LAST BY THE US REBALANCING TOWARD ASIA:AT ESSAYS

By Pavin Patrick M.Chachavalpongpun Cronin, Michael McDevitt, Wu Xinbo, Donald K. Emmerson, Malcolm Fraser, Richard A. Bitzinger, Kang Choi & Noboru Yamaguchi

The US ‘Pivot’ Theto US ‘Pivot’ Asia to Asia The US ‘Pivot’ to Asia The US ‘Pivot’ to Asia

A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME 7, NUMBER 4, WINTER 2012

Is It Just About Containing China? US$15.00 Is It Just About W15,000 | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME 7, NUMBER 4, WINTER 2012 A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION Containing China? THE POLITICS OF ENGAGEMENT: ESSAYS BY

PLUS

Rudiger Frank RollingEnterprises Reforms: Reflections Mel Gurtov, MiroslavSouth Nincic,Korea Walter C. Clemens, Jr., Into a New Leading the Way World of Social on Visits to Kim Jong Un’s North Korea Karin J. Lee, Andrei Lankov, Troy Stangarone, Stuart J. Thorson, Hyunjin Seo, Trita Parsi & Nicholas Farrelly Cheol Hee Park The Double Life of Shinzo Abe Stein Tønnesson Steps Forward for China

to Resolve the South China Sea Disputes Is It JustMark About J. Valencia & Hong Nong Exploring Joint Development Possibilities in the South China Sea Containing Book China? Reviews by John Delury

JAPAN’S DANGEROUSSouth GAMBLE ON ‘ABENOMICS’ Korea Leading the Way Into a New World of Social Enterprises

By Gongpil Choi

and Taehwan Kim

Is It Just About Containing China?

THE POLITICS OF ENGAGEMENT: ESSAYS BY

Have you tried our iPad or Android tablet editions? See p.3

PLUS

US$15.00

Rudiger Frank Rolling Reforms: Reflections Mel Gurtov, Miroslav Nincic, Walter C. Clemens, Jr., W15,000 on Visits to Kim Jong Un’s North Korea Karin J. Lee, Andrei Lankov, Troy Stangarone, Stuart A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME 8, NUMBER 2, SUMMER 2013 J. Thorson, Hyunjin Seo, Trita Parsi & Nicholas Farrelly Cheol Hee Park The Double Life of Shinzo Abe THE POLITICS OF ENGAGEMENT: ESSAYS BY

PLUS

Stein Tønnesson Steps Forward for China Rudiger Frank Rolling Reforms: Reflections to Resolve the South China Sea Disputes on Visits to Kim Jong Un’s North Korea Mark J. Valencia & Hong Nong Exploring Joint Cheol Hee Park The Double Life of Shinzo Abe Development Possibilities in the South China Sea THE DEBATE: IS POLITICAL RECONCILIATION Stein Tønnesson Steps Forward for China POSSIBLE IN MALAYSIA? Book Reviews by John Delury JAPAN’S DANGEROUS GAMBLE ON ‘ABENOMICS’ to Resolve the South China Sea DisputesHave and Taehwan Kim Khairy Jamaluddin By Gongpil Choi Squares Off Against Rafizi Ramli you tried Mark J. Valencia & Hong Nong Exploring Joint ourChina iPad Sea or Development Possibilities in the South THE DEBATE: IS POLITICAL RECONCILIATION Android tablet POSSIBLE IN MALAYSIA? Book Reviews by John Delury editions? Have and Taehwan Kim Khairy Jamaluddin Squares Off Against Rafizi Ramli See p.3 you tried South Korea Leading the Way Into a New World of Social Enterprises our iPad or US$15.00 Android tablet editions? W15,000 p.3 A JOURNAL OF THE EAST FOUNDATION WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG VOLUME 8, NUMBERSee 2, SUMMER 2013 SouthASIA Korea Leading the| Way Into a New World of|Social Enterprises JAPAN’S DANGEROUS ON ‘ABENOMICS’ Mel Gurtov, MiroslavGAMBLE Nincic, Walter C. Clemens, Jr., By Gongpil Karin J. Lee,Choi Andrei Lankov, Troy Stangarone, Stuart J. Thorson, Hyunjin Seo, Trita Parsi & Nicholas Farrelly

Positive Engagement with North Korea, Iran and Myanmar

PLUS

US$15.00 Gilbert Rozman, Takashi Inoguchi, David Shambaugh, Jennifer Lind Beware the Tomb of the Known Soldier W15,000 Joon Hyung Kim, Haksoon Paik, Leon V. Sigal, Shalendra D. Sharma From8,Meltdown | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME A JOURNAL OF THEMiller EAST & ASIA NUMBERto1,Bounceback: SPRING 2013 Jonathan Berkshire LiliaFOUNDATION Shevtsova How South Korea Weathered the 2008 Financial Crisis RISKS & OPPORTUNITIES FOR ASIA’S NEW LEADERS: ESSAYS BY THE TPP AND THE QUEST FOR EAST ASIAN REGIONALISM

Gilbert Rozman, By Inkyo CheongTakashi Inoguchi, David Shambaugh, Joon Hyung Kim, Haksoon Paik, Leon V. Sigal, THE DEBATE: IS THE TPP AIMED AT THWARTING CHINA? Jonathan Berkshire Miller & Lilia Shevtsova Wang Yong Squares Off Against Takashi Terada

THE TPP AND THE QUEST FOR EAST ASIAN REGIONALISM

PLUS

Andy YeeLind When Will Japan Tap Its Potential? Jennifer Beware the Tomb of Internet the Known Soldier Saroj Kumar Drugs in Meltdown India Are atoSecurity Threat Shalendra D. Rath Sharma From Bounceback: How South Korea Wu Weathered 2008 Financial In Focus: Taiwan Yu-shan,the Chen Tain-jy & ChuCrisis Yun-han

Andy Yee WhenbyWill Japan Tap Its Internet Potential? Book Reviews John Delury We and Taehwan Kim Drugs in India Are a Security Saroj Kumar Rath now have Threat an iPad and Yun-han In Focus: Taiwan Wu Yu-shan, Chen Tain-jy & Chu Wang Yong Squares Off Against Takashi Terada Android tablet ASSESSING A CODE OF CONDUCT FOR THE SOUTH CHINA SEA Book Reviews by John Delury edition! We and Taehwan Kim By Mark J. Valencia See p.5 now have an iPad and US$15.00 Android tablet edition! W15,000 See A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME 8, NUMBER 1,p.5 SPRING 2013 ASSESSING A CODE OF CONDUCT FOR THE SOUTH CHINA SEA By Inkyo Cheong By Mark J. Valencia THE DEBATE: IS THE TPP AIMED AT THWARTING CHINA?

Avoiding the Mines Avoiding Avoiding the Mines the Mines

RISKS & OPPORTUNITIES FOR ASIA’S NEW LEADERS: ESSAYS BY

Gilbert Rozman, Takashi Inoguchi, David Shambaugh, Joon Hyung Kim, Haksoon Paik, Leon V. Sigal, RISKS & OPPORTUNITIES FOR ASIA’S NEW LEADERS: ESSAYS BY Jonathan Berkshire Miller & Lilia Shevtsova Gilbert Rozman, Takashi Inoguchi, David Shambaugh, THE TPP AND THE QUEST FOR EAST ASIAN REGIONALISM Joon Hyung Kim, Haksoon Paik, Leon V. Sigal, By Inkyo Cheong Jonathan Berkshire Miller & Lilia Shevtsova THE DEBATE: IS THE TPP AIMED AT THWARTING CHINA? THE TPP AND THE QUEST FOR EAST ASIAN REGIONALISM

Wang Yong Squares Off Against Takashi Terada By Inkyo Cheong

New Leaders, New Dangers in Northeast Asia

ASSESSING A CODE OF CONDUCT FOR THE SOUTH CHINA SEA

THE DEBATE: IS THE TPP AIMED AT THWARTING CHINA? By Mark J. Valencia Wang Yong Squares Off Against Takashi Terada

ASSESSING A CODE OF CONDUCT FOR THE SOUTH CHINA SEA RISKS & OPPORTUNITIES FOR ASIA’S NEW LEADERS: ESSAYS BY

By MarkRozman, J. Valencia Gilbert Takashi Inoguchi, David Shambaugh, Joon Hyung Kim, Haksoon Paik, Leon V. Sigal, Jonathan Berkshire Miller & Lilia Shevtsova

THE TPP AND THE QUEST FOR EAST ASIAN REGIONALISM

By Inkyo Cheong

PLUS

Jennifer Lind Beware the Tomb of the Known Soldier

Shalendra D. Sharma From Meltdown to Bounceback: PLUS How South Korea Weathered the 2008 Financial Crisis Jennifer Lind Beware the Tomb of the Known Soldier Andy Yee When Will Japan Tap Its Internet Potential? Shalendra D. Sharma From Meltdown to Bounceback: SarojSouth Kumar Rath Drugs in India Are Financial a SecurityCrisis Threat How Korea Weathered the 2008

In Focus: Wu Japan Yu-shan, Chen Tain-jy &Potential? Chu Yun-han Andy YeeTaiwan When Will Tap Its Internet Book Reviews by John Delury Saroj Kumar Rath Drugs in India Are a Security Threat We and Taehwan Kim now have In Focus: Taiwan Wu Yu-shan, Chen Tain-jy & Chu Yun-han an iPad Book PLUS Reviews by John Delury Android and Wetablet and Taehwan Jennifer LindKim Beware the Tomb of the Known edition! now haveSoldier anSee p.5and iPad Shalendra D. Sharma From Meltdown to Bounceback: Android tablet How South Korea Weathered the 2008 Financial Crisis edition! US$15.00 Andy Yee When Will Japan Tap Its Internet Potential? W15,000 See p.5

Saroj Kumar Rath Drugs in8,India Are a Security Threat | VOLUME A JOURNAL ASIA FOUNDATION WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG NUMBER 1, SPRING 2013 THE DEBATE:OF IS THE THE EAST TPP AIMED AT THWARTING |CHINA? US$15.00 RISKS & OPPORTUNITIES FOR ASIA’S NEW LEADERS: ESSAYS BY PLUS

In Focus: Taiwan Wu Yu-shan, Chen Tain-jy & ChuW15,000 Yun-han Wang Yong Squares Off Against Takashi Terada Gilbert Rozman, Takashi Inoguchi, David Shambaugh, Jennifer Lind Beware the Tomb of the Known Soldier ASSESSING CODE OF CONDUCT FOR SOUTH SEA Book Reviews|byVOLUME John Delury | CHINA A JOURNAL THE EAST ASIA WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG 8, NUMBER 1, SPRING 2013 Joon HyungAOF Kim, Haksoon Paik,FOUNDATION LeonTHE V. Sigal, Shalendra D. Sharma From Meltdown toWe Bounceback: and Taehwan Kim By Mark J.Berkshire Valencia Miller & Lilia Shevtsova Jonathan have Crisis How South Korea Weathered the 2008now Financial

New Leaders, New Dangers in New Leaders, Northeast Asia New Dangers in Northeast Asia

an iPad and

THE TPP ANDIn THE QUEST FOR EAST ASIAN REGIONALISM This Issue: We Start a New Regular Section Profiling Asian Taiwan Andy Yee When WillCountries Japan Tap in ItsAndroid Internet tablet Potential? By Inkyo Cheong THE DEBATE: IS THE TPP AIMED AT THWARTING CHINA?

Wang Yong Squares Off Against Takashi Terada

ASSESSING A CODE OF CONDUCT FOR THE SOUTH CHINA SEA

By Mark J. Valencia

Saroj Kumar Rath Drugs in India Areedition! a Security Threat See p.5 In Focus: Taiwan Wu Yu-shan, Chen Tain-jy & Chu Yun-han Book Reviews by John Delury and Taehwan Kim

US$15.00

We W15,000 now have and Android tablet edition!

A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME 8, NUMBER 1, SPRING 2013 an iPad

See p.5

US$15.00 W15,000 A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME 8, NUMBER 1, SPRING 2013 TACKLING TRUST GAPS IN EAST ASIA: ESSAYS BY PLUS

Avoiding Avoiding the Mines the Mines Avoiding the Mines Avoiding the Mines

Billo A WayCountries to Peace inin theTaiwan South China Sea InRichard This Issue: We Start a New Regular SectionAndrew Profiling Asian Yun Byung-se, Ned Lebow, Tae-Seop Bahng, Charles A. Kupchan, Wang Yizhou, Yoshihide Soeya, Alexandre Y. Jung-Sun Park Why ‘Gangnam Style’ Isn’t Hallyu Style Mansourov, Myung-bok Bae & Mohamed Jawhar Hassan Chung-in Moon North Korea vs. South Korea: What Will It Take to End 60 Years of War?

NON-WESTERN AND ASIAN POLITICAL SYSTEMS In DEMOCRACIES This Issue: We Start a New Regular SectionHaruki Profiling Asian Countries in Taiwan Wada Korea’s War, Armistice and Legacy By Alexei D. Voskressenshi. THE DEBATE: AUSTRALIA’S NEW REFUGEE POLICY

Andrew Markus Squares Off Against Graeme McGregor

Book Reviews by John Delury, Taehwan Kim, Nayan Chanda and David Plott

Have you tried our iPad or Android tablet editions? See p.57

New Leaders, New NewDangers Leaders,in Yun Byung-se, RichardNortheast Ned Lebow, Tae-Seop Bahng, Charles Asia By Alexei D. Voskressenshi. New Dangers A. Kupchan, Wang Yizhou, Yoshihide Soeya, Alexandrein Y. Mansourov, Myung-bok Bae & Mohamed Jawhar Hassan Northeast Asia Andrew Markus Squares Off Against Graeme McGregor TACKLING TRUST GAPS IN EAST ASIA: ESSAYS BY

PLUS

US$15.00

Andrew Billo A Way to Peace in the South China Sea Yun Byung-se, Richard Ned Lebow, Tae-Seop Bahng, Charles W15,000 A. Kupchan, Wang Yizhou, Yoshihide Soeya, Alexandre Y. Jung-Sun Park Why ‘Gangnam Style’ Isn’t Hallyu Style A JOURNAL Myung-bok OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME 8, NUMBER 3, FALL 2013 Mansourov, Bae & Mohamed Jawhar| Hassan Chung-in Moon North Korea vs. South Korea: TACKLING TRUST GAPS IN EAST ASIA: ESSAYS BY NON-WESTERN DEMOCRACIES AND ASIAN POLITICAL SYSTEMS

PLUS Will It Take to End 60 Years of War? What Andrew Billo A Way to Peace in the South China Sea Haruki Wada Korea’s War, Armistice and Legacy Jung-Sun Park Why ‘Gangnam Style’ Isn’t Hallyu Style Book Reviews by John Delury, Taehwan Kim, Chung-in Moon North Korea THE DEBATE: AUSTRALIA’S NEW REFUGEE POLICY Nayan Chanda and David Plottvs. South Korea: What Will It Take to End 60 Years of War? NON-WESTERN DEMOCRACIES AND ASIAN POLITICAL SYSTEMS Have Haruki Wada Korea’s War, Armistice and youLegacy By Alexei D. Voskressenshi. tried our Kim, Book Reviews by John Delury, Taehwan iPad or Android tablet THE DEBATE: AUSTRALIA’S NEW REFUGEE POLICY Nayan Chanda and David Plott editions? Andrew Markus Squares Off Against Graeme McGregor Have See you p.57 tried our iPad or In This Issue: We Start a New Regular Section Profiling Asian Countries in Taiwan Android tablet editions?US$15.00

How East Asia Can Secure New Leaders, New Dangers in a Peaceful Northeast Asia Future In This Issue: We Start a New Regular Section Profiling Asian Countries in Taiwan

See p.57

W15,000

| WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG

| VOLUME 8, NUMBER 3, FALL 2013

A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION

| WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG

| VOLUME 8, NUMBER 3, FALL 2013

THE POLITICS OF ENGAGEMENT: ESSAYS BY PLUS Hee Park The Double Life of Shinzo Abe J. Thorson, Hyunjin Seo, Trita Parsi & Nicholas Farrelly Cheol Rudiger Frank Rolling Reforms: Reflections Mel Gurtov, Miroslav Nincic, Walter C. Clemens, Jr., Stein Tønnesson Steps Forward for China on Visits to Kim Jong Un’s North Korea JAPAN’S DANGEROUS GAMBLE ON Stangarone, ‘ABENOMICS’ South Korea Leading the Way Into a New World of Social Enterprises Karin J. Lee, Andrei Lankov, Troy Stuart to Resolve the South China Sea Disputes By Gongpil Hyunjin Choi Seo, Trita Parsi & Nicholas Farrelly J. Thorson, Cheol Hee Park The Double Life of Shinzo Abe

Andrew Billo A Way to Peace in the South China Sea Yun Byung-se, Richard Ned Lebow, Tae-Seop Bahng, Charles A. Kupchan, Wang Yizhou, Yoshihide Soeya, Alexandre Y. Jung-Sun Park Why ‘Gangnam Style’ Isn’t Hallyu Style TACKLING TRUST GAPS IN EAST ASIA: ESSAYS BY Hassan PLUS Mansourov, Myung-bok Bae & Mohamed Jawhar Chung-in Moon North Korea vs. South Korea: Andrew A Way to Peace in the South China Sea Yun Byung-se, Richard Ned Lebow, Tae-Seop Bahng, Charles What WillBillo It Take to End 60 Years War? ThisYizhou, Issue:Yoshihide We Start a New Regular Profiling Asian inofTaiwan NON-WESTERN DEMOCRACIES AND ASIAN POLITICAL SYSTEMS A. Kupchan, In Wang Soeya, Alexandre Y.SectionHaruki Jung-Sun Park WhyCountries ‘Gangnam Style’ Isn’tLegacy Hallyu Style Wada Korea’s War, Armistice and By Alexei D. Myung-bok Voskressenshi. Mansourov, Bae & Mohamed Jawhar Hassan Chung-in Moon North Korea vs. South Korea:

THE DEBATE: IS POLITICAL RECONCILIATION POSSIBLE IN MALAYSIA? THE POLITICS OF ENGAGEMENT: ESSAYS BY

JAPAN’S DANGEROUS GAMBLE ON ‘ABENOMICS’

New Leaders, New Dangers in Northeast AsiaEast Asia How

US$15.00 W15,000

US$15.00 W15,000

Can Secure How East Asia a Peaceful Can Secure Future a Peaceful

In This Issue: We Start a New Regular Section Profiling Asian Countries in Taiwan

TACKLING TRUST GAPS IN EAST ASIA: ESSAYS BY

Mark J. Valencia & Hong Nong Exploring Joint Stein Tønnesson Steps Forward for China Development Possibilities in the South China Sea to Resolve the South China Sea Disputes Book Reviews by John Delury Mark J. Valencia Joint Have and Taehwan Kim& Hong Nong Exploring you Development Possibilities in the South China Sea tried our iPad Book PLUS Reviews by John Delury Android or tablet Have and Taehwan Kim Rudiger Frank Rolling Reforms: Reflections editions? you tried on Visits to Kim Jong Un’s North Korea See p.3 or our iPad Android Cheol Hee Park The Double Life of Shinzo Abe tablet editions? US$15.00 Stein Tønnesson Steps Forward for China W15,000 See to Resolve the South China Sea Disputes p.3

PLUS

Future Andrew Squares Off Against Graeme McGregor By AlexeiMarkus D. Voskressenshi. THE DEBATE: AUSTRALIA’S NEW REFUGEE POLICY NON-WESTERN DEMOCRACIES AND ASIAN POLITICAL SYSTEMS THE DEBATE: AUSTRALIA’S NEW REFUGEE POLICY

Andrew Markus Squares Off Against Graeme McGregor TACKLING TRUST GAPS IN EAST ASIA: ESSAYS BY

Yun Byung-se, Richard Ned Lebow, Tae-Seop Bahng, Charles A. Kupchan, Wang Yizhou, Yoshihide Soeya, Alexandre Y. Mansourov, Myung-bok Bae & Mohamed Jawhar Hassan

NON-WESTERN DEMOCRACIES AND ASIAN POLITICAL SYSTEMS

Book Reviews by John Delury, Taehwan Kim, What It Take toDavid End 60 Years of War? NayanWill Chanda and Plott Haruki Wada Korea’s War, Armistice and Legacy Have Book Reviews by John Delury, Taehwan youKim, tried Nayan Chanda and David Plott our iPad or Android tablet Have PLUS editions? you China tried Sea Andrew Billo A Way to Peace in the South SeeiPad p.57 our or Style Jung-Sun Park Why ‘Gangnam Style’ Isn’t Hallyu Android tablet editions? Chung-in Moon North Korea vs. South Korea:

See p.57 US$15.00 What Will It Take to End 60 Years of War?

W15,000

By Gongpil Choi A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME 8, NUMBER 2, SUMMER 2013 Mark J. Valencia & Hong Nong Exploring Joint

Haruki Wada Korea’s War, Armistice and Legacy By Alexei D. Voskressenshi. A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG VOLUME NUMBER 3, FALL 2013 Book Reviews by| John Delury,8,Taehwan Kim,

THE Gurtov, DEBATE:Miroslav IS POLITICAL RECONCILIATION Rudiger Frank Rolling Reforms: Reflections W15,000 Mel Nincic, Walter C. Clemens, Jr., POSSIBLE IN MALAYSIA? Book Reviews John Delury | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | by A JOURNAL THE Lankov, EAST ASIA FOUNDATION VOLUME 8, NUMBER on Visits to Kim Jong Un’s North Korea 2, SUMMER 2013 Karin J. Lee, OF Andrei Troy Stangarone, Stuart Have and Taehwan Kim Khairy Jamaluddin Squares Off Against Rafizi Ramli J. Thorson, Hyunjin Seo, Trita Parsi & Nicholas Farrelly

Andrew Billo A Way to Peace in the South ChinaW15,000 Sea Yun Byung-se, Richard Ned Tae-Seop Charles Andrew Markus Squares OffLebow, Against GraemeBahng, McGregor Have | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME A JOURNAL OF THE EAST Yoshihide ASIA FOUNDATION 8,Style’ NUMBER 3, FALLStyle 2013 A. Kupchan, Wang Yizhou, Soeya, Alexandre Y. Jung-Sun Park Why ‘Gangnam Isn’t you Hallyu tried Mansourov, Myung-bok Bae & Mohamed Jawhar Hassan Chung-in Moon North Korea vs. South ourKorea: iPad or Android See our redesigned In This website, Issue: Our www.globalasia.org, New Section Focusing for analysis, on It Asia's debates, Less archives Nations more What Will Take to EndProminent 60 Years ofand War? tablet

THE POLITICS OF ENGAGEMENT: ESSAYS BY

PLUS

US$15.00

Development Possibilities in the South China Sea

Positive Engagement with North Korea, Positive Engagement Iran and Myanmar with North Korea,

Cheol Hee Park The Double Life of Shinzo Abe you tried iPad or In This In Focus: Issue:How We Start to Break a New the Regular Deadlock Section in Tønnesson the South Profiling China Asian SeaCountries in Taiwan Stein Steps Forward forour China Android tablet JAPAN’S DANGEROUS GAMBLE ON ‘ABENOMICS’ to Resolve the South China Sea Disputes editions? By Gongpil Choi Mark J. Valencia & Hong Nong Exploring Joint See p.3 Development Possibilities in the South China Sea THE DEBATE: IS POLITICAL RECONCILIATION US$15.00 POSSIBLE IN MALAYSIA? Book Reviews by John Delury Have W15,000 and Taehwan Kim Khairy Jamaluddin Squares Off Against Rafizi Ramli you tried A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME 8, NUMBER SUMMER 2013 our2,iPad or Android tablet editions? See p.3

Iran and Myanmar

Positive Engagement US$15.00 W15,000 with North Korea, In This In Focus: Issue:How We Start to Break a New the Regular Deadlock Section in the South Profiling China Asian SeaCountries in Taiwan Iran and Myanmar

A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME 8, NUMBER 2, SUMMER 2013

PositiveInEngagement This In Focus: Issue:How We Start to Break a New the Regular Deadlock Section in the South Profiling China Asian SeaCountries in Taiwan with North Korea, Iran and Myanmar

Sticks Before Sticks

Jung Young Moon A Most Ambiguous Sunday, and Other Stories

We now have an iPad and Android tablet edition! See p.5

A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION

Positive Engagement with North Korea, Positive Engagement Iran and Myanmar South Korea Leading the Way Into a New World of Social Enterprises with North Korea, THE POLITICS OF ENGAGEMENT: ESSAYS BY PLUS Rudiger Frank Rolling Reforms: Reflections Mel Gurtov, Miroslav Nincic, Walter C. Clemens, Jr., and Myanmar on Visits to Kim Jong Un’s North Korea Karin J.Iran Lee, Andrei Lankov, Troy Stangarone, Stuart

Khairy Jamaluddin Squares Against Rafizi Ramli Mel Gurtov, Miroslav Nincic, Off Walter C. Clemens, Jr., Karin J. Lee, Andrei Lankov, Troy Stangarone, Stuart J. Thorson, Hyunjin Seo, Trita Parsi & Nicholas Farrelly

Jung Mi-kyung My Son’s Girlfriend: Stories

Book Reviews by John Delury and Taehwan Kim

A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME 8, NUMBER 2, SUMMER 2013

Khairy Jamaluddin Squares Off Against Rafizi Ramli

Jang Jung-il When Adam Opens His Eyes

ASSESSING A CODE OF CONDUCT FOR THE SOUTH CHINA SEA

RISKS & OPPORTUNITIES FOR ASIA’S NEW LEADERS: ESSAYS BY

Dewi Fortuna Anwar, Stephen Norris, James Castle, A. Lin Neumann, Erry R. Hardjapamekas and Adil W. Surowidjojo & Syed Farid Alatas

Saroj Kumar Rath Drugs in India Are a Security Threat

In Focus: Taiwan Wu Yu-shan, Chen Tain-jy & Chu Yun-han

By Mark J. Valencia

INDONESIA AND THE CHALLENGES OF GROWTH: ESSAYS BY

Andy Yee When Will Japan Tap Its Internet Potential?

latest issue: latest issue: The hard Inside our Inside our The hard choices The hard Inside our latest issue: latest issue: Inside our choices latest issue: Indonesia choices latest issue: The hard

PLUS

Jonathan Berkshire Miller Politics Continues to Chill Japan-South Korea Relations Andy Ye Why Taiwan’s ICT Sector Needs a New Model Pavin Chachavalpongpun Western Pragmatism Trumps CHINA’S NEW AIR ZONE AND THE EAST CHINA SEA DISPUTES Human Security Concerns in Myanmar By Mark J. Valencia Paul Evans The Passing of Robert Scalapino, Kim Kyung INDONESIA AND THE CHALLENGES OF GROWTH: ESSAYS BY PLUS Won and Yamamoto Tadashi WILL JAPAN’S PLAN TO EXERCISE ITS COLLECTIVE Jonathan Berkshire Miller Politics Continues to Chill Dewi Fortuna Anwar, Stephen Castle, SELF-DEFENSE RIGHT MAKE ASIANorris, MOREJames OR LESS SECURE? Book by Samuel S. Kim INDONESIA AND THE CHALLENGES OF GROWTH: ESSAYS BY PLUS Reviews Japan-South Korea Relations A. Lin Neumann, Erry R. Hardjapamekas and Have Gui Yongtao Squares Off Against Yuichi Hosoya & John Delury Jonathan Berkshire Miller PoliticsNeeds Continues Chill Dewi Fortuna Anwar,&Stephen Norris, James Castle, youatried Andy Ye Why Taiwan’s ICT Sector NewtoModel Adil W. Surowidjojo Syed Farid Alatas Japan-South Korea Relations our A. Lin Neumann, Erry R. Hardjapamekas and iPad or Trumps Pavin Chachavalpongpun Western Pragmatism Andr CHINA’S NEW AIR ZONE AND THE CHINA SEA DISPUTES oid Andy YeSecurity Why Taiwan’s ICTin Sector Needs a New tableModel Adil W. Surowidjojo & Syed FaridEAST Alatas t Human Concerns Myanmar editions? By Mark J. Valencia Pavin Chachavalpongpun Western Pragmatism Trumps See p.107 Paul Evans The Passing of Robert Scalapino, Kim Kyung CHINA’S NEW AIR ZONE AND THE EAST CHINA SEA DISPUTES Human Concerns in Myanmar Won andSecurity Yamamoto Tadashi WILL JAPAN’S PLAN TO EXERCISE ITS COLLECTIVE By Mark J. Valencia Paul Theby Passing ofS. Robert Kyung US$15.00 SELF-DEFENSE RIGHT MAKE ASIA MORE OR LESS SECURE? BookEvans Reviews Samuel Kim Scalapino, Kim Won and Yamamoto Tadashi Have W15,000 WILLYongtao JAPAN’S Squares PLAN TO Off EXERCISE ITSYuichi COLLECTIVE Gui Against Hosoya & John Delury you WINTER 2013 SELF-DEFENSE MAKE ASIAFOUNDATION MORE OR LESS |SECURE? Book Reviews|byVOLUME Samuel S. A JOURNAL OFRIGHT THE EAST ASIA WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG 8,Kim NUMBER 4, tried ourHave iPad or Gui Yongtao Squares Off Against Yuichi Hosoya & John Delury Andr oidtried you tablet editi our ons?or iPad INDONESIA AND THE CHALLENGES OF GROWTH: ESSAYS BY PLUS Seeoid Andr p.107 tablet Jonathan Berkshire Miller Politics Continues editions? to Chill Dewi Fortuna Anwar, Stephen Norris, James Castle, INDONESIA AND THE CHALLENGES OF GROWTH: ESSAYS BY PLUS See p.107 US$15.00 Japan-South Korea Relations A. Lin Neumann, Erry R. Hardjapamekas and Jonathan Berkshire Miller Politics Continues to Chill Dewi Fortuna Anwar, Stephen Norris, James Castle, W15,000 Andy Ye Why Taiwan’s ICT Sector Needs a New Model Adil W. Surowidjojo & Syed Farid Alatas Japan-South Korea Relations A. Lin Neumann, Erry R. Hardjapamekas and US$15.00 | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION NUMBER 4,aWINTER 2013 Pavin Ye Chachavalpongpun Western Pragmatism Trumps Andy Why Taiwan’s ICT8, Sector Needs New W15,000 Model Adil W. Surowidjojo & Syed Farid Alatas CHINA’S NEW AIR ZONE AND THE EAST CHINA SEA DISPUTES Human Security Concerns inWestern Myanmar INDONESIA AND THE CHALLENGES OF GROWTH: ESSAYS BY PLUS Chachavalpongpun Pavin Pragmatism Trumps | DISPUTES | VOLUME 8, NUMBER By MarkNEW J. Valencia A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG 4, WINTER 2013 CHINA’S AIR ZONE AND THE EAST CHINA SEA Jonathan Berkshire Miller Politics ContinuesKim to Chill Paul Evans The Passing of in Robert Scalapino, Kyung Dewi Fortuna Anwar, Stephen Norris, James Castle, Human Security Concerns Myanmar By Mark J. Valencia Japan-South Korea Relations Won and Yamamoto Tadashi A. Lin Neumann, Erry Hardjapamekas and WILL JAPAN’S PLAN TO R. EXERCISE ITS COLLECTIVE Paul Evans The Passing of Robert Scalapino, Kim Kyung SELF-DEFENSE RIGHT MAKE MORE OR LESS SECURE? Andy Ye Why Taiwan’s ICTS.Sector Adil Surowidjojo &CHALLENGES SyedASIA FaridITS Alatas Book Reviews by Samuel Kim Needs a New Model INDONESIA AND THE OF GROWTH: ESSAYS BY PLUSand Won Yamamoto Tadashi WILLW. JAPAN’S PLAN TO EXERCISE COLLECTIVE Have to Chill Gui Yongtao Off Against Yuichi & JohnReviews Delury Jonathan Berkshire Miller Politics SELF-DEFENSE RIGHT MAKE ASIANorris, MORE ORHosoya LESS SECURE? Pavin Chachavalpongpun Pragmatism Dewi FortunaSquares Anwar, Stephen James Castle, Book by Samuel S.Western Kim Continues you tried Trumps CHINA’S NEW AIR ZONE AND THE EAST CHINA SEA DISPUTES Japan-South Korea Relations Human Security Concerns in Myanmar GuiLin Yongtao Squares OffHardjapamekas Against Yuichi Hosoya A. Neumann, Erry R. and & John Delury ourHave or By Mark J. Valencia youiPad AndyEvans Ye Why Taiwan’s SectorAndr Needs atried New Model oid Adil W. Surowidjojo & Syed Farid Alatas Paul The PassingICT of Robert Scalapino, Kim table tKyung our iPad editi ons?or Trumps Won and Yamamoto Tadashi WILL JAPAN’S PLAN TO EXERCISE ITS COLLECTIVE Andr Pavin Chachavalpongpun Western Pragmatism tablet Seeoid CHINA’S NEW AIR ZONE ANDASIA THE MORE EAST CHINA SEA DISPUTES SELF-DEFENSE RIGHT MAKE OR LESS SECURE? editip.107 Human SecuritybyConcerns inKim Myanmar Book Reviews Samuel S. ons? By Mark J. Valencia Have See Gui Yongtao Squares Off Against Yuichi Hosoya p.107 & John Delury Paul Evans The Passing of Robert Scalapino, Kim Kyung US$15.00 you tried Won and Yamamoto Tadashi WILL JAPAN’S PLAN TO EXERCISE ITS COLLECTIVE W15,000 our iPad orUS$15.00 SELF-DEFENSE RIGHT MAKE ASIA MORE OR LESS |SECURE? Andr 4, WINTER Book Reviews|byVOLUME Samuel S. table t 2013 A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG 8,Kim NUMBER oid W15,000 Have editi Gui Yongtao Squares Off Against Yuichi Hosoya ons? & John Delury you A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME 8, NUMBER 4,p.107 WINTER 2013 See tried our iPad or Android table t US$15.00 editions? W15,000 See p.107

The Sense and Sensibility of Indonesia The Sense The Sense and Sensibility and Sensibility of Indonesia of Indonesia

An Emerging Giant Carrots An Emerging Before An Emerging The Sense The Sense Sticks and Sensibility Giant and Sensibility Carrots Giant ofThe Indonesia The Politics Sense Carrots of Indonesia Before of Trust and Sensibility Before The Sense Sticks of Indonesia Sticks An Emerging and Sensibility The Politics An Emerging of Indonesia The Politics of Trust Giant An Emerging of Trust Carrots Giant Carrots An Emerging Before Before Giant Sticks Carrots Sticks Before The Politics Carrotsout more and Find to our print or online edition atGiant globalasia.org Thesubscribe Politics THE DEBATE: IS POLITICAL RECONCILIATION POSSIBLE IN MALAYSIA?

Khairy Jamaluddin Squares Off Against Rafizi Ramli

JAPAN’S DANGEROUS GAMBLE ON ‘ABENOMICS’ THE DEBATE: IS POLITICAL RECONCILIATION POSSIBLE MALAYSIA? By GongpilINChoi

Hyun Ki Young One Spoon on This Earth

Shalendra D. Sharma From Meltdown to Bounceback: How South Korea Weathered the 2008 Financial Crisis

US$15.00 W15,000

PLUS Is It JustGeorgiy About Tridivesh Singh Maini & Manish Vaid Voloshin China as a Stabilizer in Central Asia The Emerging Role of Indo-Pakistan Border States Ramesh Thakur The New Great Game in Afghanistan Containing China? Young-hoon Lee Economic Reform in North Korea Tridivesh Singh Maini & Manish Vaid Peter Hayes A Breakthrough Six-Party Summit in 2013? Emerging Role of Indo-Pakistan Border States Is It JustThe About By Nguyen Manh Hung Asger Røjle Christensen Japan’s Abduction Saga Reflections by Won-soon Park & Tae-won Chey Young-hoon Lee Economic Reform in North Korea BURMA IN THE ASEAN CHAIR IN 2014, AT LAST Book Reviews by David C. Kang, PeterChina? Hayes A Breakthrough Six-Party Summit in 2013? DRAWING A LINE IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEAContaining Börje Ljunggren & John Delury By Pavin Chachavalpongpun

Kim Joo-young Stingray

PLUS

Jennifer Lind Beware the Tomb of the Known Soldier

A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME 8, NUMBER 1, SPRING 2013

DRAWING A LINE IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA CREATING A NEW WORLD OF SOCIAL ENTERPRISES

Listed Among World Literature Today’s Notable Translations of 2013

THE DEBATE: IS THE TPP AIMED AT THWARTING CHINA?

Wang Yong Squares Off Against Takashi Terada

US$15.00 W15,000

THE US REBALANCING TOWARD ASIA: ESSAYS BY

The Library of Korean Literature

THE TPP AND THE QUEST FOR EAST ASIAN REGIONALISM

By Inkyo Cheong

A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME 7, NUMBER 4, WINTER 2012

Patrick M. Cronin, Michael McDevitt, Wu Xinbo, Donald K. Emmerson, Malcolm Fraser, Richard A. Bitzinger, THE US REBALANCING TOWARD ASIA: ESSAYS BY Kang Choi & Noboru Yamaguchi Patrick M. Cronin, Michael McDevitt, Wu Xinbo, CREATING A NEW WORLD OF SOCIAL ENTERPRISES Donald K. Emmerson, Malcolm Richard Reflections by Won-soon Park &Fraser, Tae-won CheyA. Bitzinger, Kang Choi & Noboru Yamaguchi

Dalkey Archive Press in the U.S. Publishes the First 10 Books in

RISKS & OPPORTUNITIES FOR ASIA’S NEW LEADERS: ESSAYS BY

Gilbert Rozman, Takashi Inoguchi, David Shambaugh, Joon Hyung Kim, Haksoon Paik, Leon V. Sigal, Jonathan Berkshire Miller & Lilia Shevtsova

TACKLING TRUST GAPS IN NEW EASTREFUGEE ASIA: ESSAYS BY THE DEBATE: AUSTRALIA’S POLICY

US$15.00

PLUS Chanda and David Plott Nayan

How East Asia CanEast Secure How Asia a Peaceful Can Secure Future a Peaceful HowFuture East Asia See our redesigned In This website, Issue: Our www.globalasia.org, New Section Focusing for analysis, on Asia's debates, Less Prominent archives and Nations more Can Secure aSection Peaceful See our redesigned In This website, Issue: Our www.globalasia.org, New Focusing for analysis, on Asia's debates, Less Prominent archives and Nations more HowFuture East Asia Can Secure a Peaceful Future

NON-WESTERN DEMOCRACIES AND ASIAN POLITICAL SYSTEMS

By Alexei D. Voskressenshi.

THE DEBATE: AUSTRALIA’S NEW REFUGEE POLICY

Andrew Markus Squares Off Against Graeme McGregor

editions? Haruki Wada Korea’s War, Armistice and Legacy See p.57 Book Reviews by John Delury, Taehwan Kim, Nayan Chanda and David Plott

Have US$15.00 you triedW15,000 our iPad or 2013 A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME 8, NUMBER 3, FALL Android tablet editions? See p.57

A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION

| WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG

US$15.00 W15,000

| VOLUME 8, NUMBER 3, FALL 2013

The hard Indonesia is facing Indonesia The hard choices The hard is facing ischoices facing Indonesia choices Indonesia is facing Indonesia is is facing facing

A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME 8, NUMBER 4, WINTER 2013 US$15.00 W15,000 A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME 8, NUMBER 4, WINTER 2013

In In This Focus: Issue: Asian We Nations Start a New in the Regular Race toSection Get a Share Profiling of the Asian Arctic Countries in Taiwan

In In This Focus: Issue: Asian We Nations Start a New in the Regular Race toSection Get a Share Profiling of the Asian Arctic Countries in Taiwan In In This Focus: Issue: Asian We Nations Start a New in the Regular Race toSection Get a Share Profiling of the Asian Arctic Countries in Taiwan

of of Trust Trust The Politics Find to ofsubscribe Trust The Politics Find out out more more and and subscribe to our our print print or or online online edition edition at at globalasia.org globalasia.org of Trust In This In Focus: Issue:How We Start to Break a New the Regular Deadlock Section in the South Profiling China Asian SeaCountries in Taiwan

See our redesigned In This website, Issue: Our www.globalasia.org, New Section Focusing for analysis, on Asia's debates, Less Prominent archives and Nations more

In This In Focus: Issue:How We Start to Break a New the Regular Deadlock Section in the South Profiling China Asian SeaCountries in Taiwan

See our redesigned In This website, Issue: Our www.globalasia.org, New Section Focusing for analysis, on Asia's debates, Less Prominent archives and Nations more

In This In Focus: Issue:How We Start to Break a New the Regular Deadlock Section in the South Profiling China Asian SeaCountries in Taiwan

See our redesigned In This website, Issue: Our www.globalasia.org, New Section Focusing for analysis, on Asia's debates, Less Prominent archives and Nations more

In This In Focus: Issue:How We Start to Break a New the Regular Deadlock Section in the South Profiling China Asian SeaCountries in Taiwan

See our redesigned In This website, Issue: Our www.globalasia.org, New Section Focusing for analysis, on Asia's debates, Less Prominent archives and Nations more

In In This Focus: Issue: Asian We Nations Start a New in the Regular Race toSection Get a Share Profiling of the Asian Arctic Countries in Taiwan In In This Focus: Issue: Asian We Nations Start a New in the Regular Race toSection Get a Share Profiling of the Asian Arctic Countries in Taiwan

In In This Focus: Issue: Asian We Nations Start a New in the Regular Race toSection Get a Share Profiling of the Asian Arctic Countries in Taiwan In In This Focus: Issue: Asian We Nations Start a New in the Regular Race toSection Get a Share Profiling of the Asian Arctic Countries in Taiwan

Find to online edition at Have you tried our print tabletor edition yet? Download our app free on Find out out more more and and subscribe subscribe to our our print or online edition at globalasia.org globalasia.org iPad from Apple’s App Store or on Android from the Google Play Find out more and subscribe to our print or online edition at globalasia.org Have you tried our tablet edition yet? Download ourper app free on Find out more and subscribe to our print or online edition globalasia.org store.you Subscribe just $19.99 per year orat $5.99 Have tried ourfrom tablet edition yet? Download our appissue. free on

Kim Won-il The House with a Sunken Courtyard

Lee Ki-ho At Least We Can Apologize

Yi Kwang-su The Soil

Park Wan-suh Lonesome You: Stories

Jang Eun-jin No One Writes Back

We Help Asia Speak to the World We Help Asia Speak to the World and the World Speak to Asia. and the World Speak to Asia.

Ad for Koreana 277x280 Mar 2014.indd 1

Ad for Koreana 277x280 Mar 2014.indd 1 Ad for Koreana 277x280 Mar 2014.indd 1 THE US REBALANCING TOWARD ASIA: ESSAYS BY

Patrick M. Cronin, Michael McDevitt, Wu Xinbo, Donald K. Emmerson, Malcolm Fraser, Richard A. Bitzinger, Kang Choi & Noboru Yamaguchi

PLUS

By Pavin Chachavalpongpun

Georgiy Voloshin China as a Stabilizer in Central Asia Ramesh Thakur The New Great Game in Afghanistan Tridivesh Singh Maini & Manish Vaid The Emerging Role of Indo-Pakistan Border States Young-hoon Lee Economic Reform in North Korea Peter Hayes A Breakthrough Six-Party Summit in 2013? Asger Røjle Christensen Japan’s Abduction Saga Book Reviews by David C. Kang, Börje Ljunggren & John Delury

THE US REBALANCING TOWARD ASIA: ESSAYS BY

PLUS

CREATING A NEW WORLD OF SOCIAL ENTERPRISES

Reflections by Won-soon Park & Tae-won Chey DRAWING A LINE IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA

By Nguyen Manh Hung

BURMA IN THE ASEAN CHAIR IN 2014, AT LAST

Patrick M. Cronin, Michael McDevitt, Wu Xinbo, Donald K. Emmerson, Malcolm Fraser, Richard A. Bitzinger, Kang Choi & Noboru Yamaguchi

Georgiy Voloshin China as a Stabilizer in Central Asia Ramesh Thakur The New Great Game in Afghanistan US$15.00 Tridivesh Singh Maini & Manish Vaid W15,000 The Emerging Role of Indo-Pakistan Border States CREATING A NEW WORLD OF SOCIAL ENTERPRISES A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME 7, NUMBER 4, WINTER 2012 Reflections by Won-soon Park & Tae-won Chey Young-hoon Lee Economic Reform in North Korea Peter Hayes A Breakthrough Six-Party Summit in 2013? DRAWING A LINE IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA By Nguyen Manh Hung Asger Røjle Christensen Japan’s Abduction Saga BURMA IN THE ASEAN CHAIR IN 2014, AT LAST Book Reviews by David C. Kang, Börje Ljunggren & John Delury By Pavin Chachavalpongpun

The US ‘Pivot’ to Asia

Ad for Koreana 277x280 Mar 2014.indd 1 Is It Just About Ad for Koreana 277x280 Mar 2014.indd 1 Containing China?

iPad from Apple’s App Store or on Android from the Google Play iPad from Apple’s App Store or on Android from the Google Play store. Subscribe from just $19.99 per year or $5.99 per issue. store. Subscribe from just $19.99 per year or $5.99 per issue. Have Have you you tried tried our our tablet tablet edition edition yet? yet? Download Download our our app app free free on on iPad from Apple’s App Store or on Android from the Google Play Have you tried our App tablet edition Download our Google app freePlay on iPad from Apple’s Store or onyet? Android from the store. Subscribe just $19.99 per year $5.99 Have you tried ourfrom tablet edition Download ourper appissue. freePlay on iPad from Apple’s App Store or onyet? Android from the Google store. Subscribe from just $19.99 per year or or $5.99 per issue. iPad from Apple’sfrom App just Store or on per Android from theper Google store. Subscribe $19.99 year or $5.99 issue.Play store. Subscribe from just $19.99 per year or $5.99 per issue.

RISKS & OPPORTUNITIES FOR ASIA’S NEW LEADERS: ESSAYS BY

Gilbert Rozman, Takashi Inoguchi, David Shambaugh, Joon Hyung Kim, Haksoon Paik, Leon V. Sigal, Jonathan Berkshire Miller & Lilia Shevtsova

THE TPP AND THE QUEST FOR EAST ASIAN REGIONALISM

By Inkyo Cheong

THE DEBATE: IS THE TPP AIMED AT THWARTING CHINA?

PLUS

Jennifer Lind Beware the Tomb of the Known Soldier

Shalendra D. Sharma From Meltdown to Bounceback: How South Korea Weathered the 2008 Financial Crisis

Saroj Kumar Rath Drugs in India Are a Security Threat

In Focus: Taiwan Wu Yu-shan, Chen Tain-jy & Chu Yun-han

ASSESSING A CODE OF CONDUCT FOR THE SOUTH CHINA SEA

Book Reviews by John Delury and Taehwan Kim

By Mark J. Valencia

RISKS & OPPORTUNITIES FOR ASIA’S NEW LEADERS: ESSAYS BY

Gilbert Rozman, Takashi Inoguchi, David Shambaugh, Joon Hyung Kim, Haksoon Paik, Leon V. Sigal, Jonathan Berkshire Miller & Lilia Shevtsova

We now have an iPad and Android tablet edition! PLUS See p.5 Jennifer Lind Beware the Tomb of the Known Soldier

Shalendra D. Sharma From Meltdown to Bounceback: US$15.00 How South Korea Weathered the 2008 Financial W15,000 Crisis

THE TPP AND THE QUEST FOR EAST ASIAN REGIONALISM | Will Andy Yee When Japan8, Tap Its Internet Potential? A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG VOLUME NUMBER 1, SPRING 2013

By Inkyo Cheong

THE DEBATE: IS THE TPP AIMED AT THWARTING CHINA?

Saroj Kumar Rath Drugs in India Are a Security Threat

Wang Yong Squares Off Against Takashi Terada

In Focus: Taiwan Wu Yu-shan, Chen Tain-jy & Chu Yun-han

ASSESSING A CODE OF CONDUCT FOR THE SOUTH CHINA SEA

Book Reviews by John Delury and Taehwan Kim

By Mark J. Valencia

We now have an iPad and Android tablet edition! See p.5

US$15.00 W15,000

US$15.00 W15,000

A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME 7, NUMBER 4, WINTER 2012

A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME 8, NUMBER 1, SPRING 2013

The US ‘Pivot’

INDONESIA AND THE CHALLENGES OF GROWTH: ESSAYS BY

Andy Yee When Will Japan Tap Its Internet Potential?

Wang Yong Squares Off Against Takashi Terada

Inside our latest issue: Inside our

Dewi Fortuna Anwar, Stephen Norris, James Castle, A. Lin Neumann, Erry R. Hardjapamekas and Adil W. Surowidjojo & Syed Farid Alatas

CHINA’S NEW AIR ZONE AND THE EAST CHINA SEA DISPUTES

By Mark J. Valencia INDONESIA AND THE CHALLENGES OF GROWTH: ESSAYS BY Dewi FortunaPLAN Anwar, James Castle, WILL JAPAN’S TOStephen EXERCISENorris, ITS COLLECTIVE A. Lin Neumann, ErryMAKE R. Hardjapamekas SELF-DEFENSE RIGHT ASIA MORE ORand LESS SECURE? Adil W. Surowidjojo & Off Syed Farid Alatas Gui Yongtao Squares Against Yuichi Hosoya CHINA’S NEW AIR ZONE AND THE EAST CHINA SEA DISPUTES

By Mark J. Valencia

WILL JAPAN’S PLAN TO EXERCISE ITS COLLECTIVE SELF-DEFENSE RIGHT MAKE ASIA MORE OR LESS SECURE?

Gui Yongtao Squares Off Against Yuichi Hosoya

PLUS

Jonathan Berkshire Miller Politics Continues to Chill Japan-South Korea Relations Andy Ye Why Taiwan’s ICT Sector Needs a New Model Pavin Chachavalpongpun Western Pragmatism Trumps Human Security Concerns in Myanmar PLUSEvans The Passing of Robert Scalapino, Kim Kyung Paul Jonathan BerkshireTadashi Miller Politics Continues to Chill Won and Yamamoto Japan-South Korea Relations Book Reviews by Samuel S. Kim Andy Why Taiwan’s ICT Sector NeedsHave a New Model & JohnYeDelury you tried Trumps Pavin Chachavalpongpun Western Pragmatism our iPad or Human Security Concerns in Myanmar Android tablet Paul Evans The Passing of Robert Scalapino, Kim Kyung editions? See p.107 Won and Yamamoto Tadashi Book Reviews by Samuel S. Kim Have US$15.00 & John Delury you tried W15,000

3/10/1

3/10/1 3/10/1

3/10/1 3/10/1


We Help Asia Speak to the World We Asia World We Help Asia Speak Speak to the World andHelp the World Speakto tothe Asia. and the World Speak to Asia. and the World Speak to Asia. We Help Asia Speak to the World We Help Asia Speak to the World We Help Asia Speak to the World and the World Speak to Asia. Inside ourto Asia. and the World Speak and the World latest Speak issue:to Asia. Inside Inside our our

THE US REBALANCING TOWARD ASIA: ESSAYS BY

Patrick M. Cronin, Michael McDevitt, Wu Xinbo, Donald K. Emmerson, Malcolm Fraser, Richard A. Bitzinger, Kang Choi & Noboru Yamaguchi CREATING A NEW WORLD OF SOCIAL ENTERPRISES

Reflections by Won-soon Park & Tae-won Chey DRAWING A LINE IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA

By Nguyen Manh Hung

BURMA IN THE ASEAN CHAIR IN 2014, AT LAST

By Pavin Chachavalpongpun

PLUS

Georgiy Voloshin China as a Stabilizer in Central Asia Ramesh Thakur The New Great Game in Afghanistan Tridivesh Singh Maini & Manish Vaid The Emerging Role of Indo-Pakistan Border States Young-hoon Lee Economic Reform in North Korea Peter Hayes A Breakthrough Six-Party Summit in 2013? Asger Røjle Christensen Japan’s Abduction Saga Book Reviews by David C. Kang, Börje Ljunggren & John Delury

THE US REBALANCING TOWARD ASIA: ESSAYS BY

PLUS

THE US REBALANCING TOWARD ASIA: ESSAYS BY CREATING A NEW WORLD OF SOCIAL ENTERPRISES

PLUSEmerging Role of Indo-Pakistan Border States The Georgiy Voloshin China as a Stabilizer in Central Asia Young-hoon Lee Economic Reform in North Korea Ramesh Thakur The New Great Game in Afghanistan Peter Hayes A Breakthrough Six-Party Summit in 2013? Tridivesh Singh Maini & Manish Vaid Asger Røjle Christensen Japan’s Abduction Saga The Emerging Role of Indo-Pakistan Border States Book Reviews byEconomic David C. Kang, Young-hoon Lee Reform in North Korea Börje Ljunggren & John Delury Peter Hayes A Breakthrough Six-Party Summit in 2013? Asger Røjle Christensen Japan’s Abduction Saga Book Reviews by David C. Kang, Börje Ljunggren & John Delury

US$15.00 Georgiy Voloshin China as a Stabilizer in Central Asia Patrick M. Cronin, Michael McDevitt, Wu Xinbo, W15,000 Donald K. Emmerson, Malcolm Fraser, Richard A. Bitzinger, Ramesh Thakur The New Great Game in Afghanistan | A JOURNAL THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG 7, NUMBER Kang Choi &OF Noboru Yamaguchi Tridivesh Singh VOLUME Maini & Manish Vaid 4, WINTER 2012

The US ‘Pivot’ to Asia

Patrick M. Cronin, MichaelPark McDevitt, Wu Xinbo, Reflections by Won-soon & Tae-won Chey Donald K. Emmerson, Malcolm Fraser, Richard A. Bitzinger, DRAWING A LINE IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA Kang Choi & Noboru Yamaguchi By Nguyen Manh Hung CREATING A NEW WORLD OF SOCIAL ENTERPRISES

BURMA IN THE ASEAN CHAIR IN 2014, AT LAST Reflections by Won-soon Park & Tae-won Chey By Pavin Chachavalpongpun DRAWING A LINE IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA

By Nguyen Manh Hung

BURMA IN THE ASEAN CHAIR IN 2014, AT LAST

By Pavin Chachavalpongpun

Is It Just About Containing China?

US$15.00 W15,000

A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME 7, NUMBER 4, WINTER 2012

The US ‘Pivot’ Theto US ‘Pivot’ Asia to Asia PLUS

Georgiy Voloshin China as a Stabilizer in Central Asia Ramesh Thakur The New Great Game in Afghanistan

By Nguyen Manh Hung

Asger Røjle Christensen Japan’s Abduction Saga PLUS Reviews by David C. Kang, Book Georgiy Voloshin ChinaDelury as a Stabilizer in Central Asia Börje Ljunggren & John Ramesh Thakur The New Great Game in Afghanistan Tridivesh Singh Maini & Manish Vaid US$15.00 The Emerging Role of Indo-Pakistan Border States CREATING A NEW WORLD OF SOCIAL ENTERPRISES W15,000 Reflections by Won-soon Park & Tae-won Chey Young-hoon Lee Economic Reform in North Korea | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA CHINA FOUNDATION VOLUME 7, NUMBER 4, WINTER 2012 Peter Hayes A|Breakthrough Six-Party Summit in 2013? DRAWING A LINE IN THE SOUTH SEA US$15.00 THE US REBALANCING TOWARD ASIA: ESSAYS BY PLUS By Nguyen Manh Hung Asger Røjle Christensen Japan’s Abduction Saga W15,000 Georgiy Voloshin China as a Stabilizer in Central Asia Patrick M. Cronin, Michael McDevitt, Wu Xinbo, BURMA IN THE CHAIR IN 2014, LAST A. Book Reviews David C. 7, Kang, | Bitzinger, |byVOLUME Donald K. Emmerson, Malcolm Fraser,ATRichard A JOURNAL OFASEAN THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG NUMBER 4, Afghanistan WINTER 2012 Ramesh Thakur The New Great Game in Börje Ljunggren & John Delury By Pavin Chachavalpongpun Kang Choi & Noboru Yamaguchi Tridivesh Singh Maini & Manish Vaid The Emerging Role of Indo-Pakistan Border States CREATING A NEW WORLD OF SOCIAL ENTERPRISES South Korea Leading the Way Into a New World ofLee Social Enterprises Reflections by Won-soon Park & Tae-won Chey Young-hoon Economic Reform in North Korea Peter Hayes A Breakthrough Six-Party Summit in 2013? DRAWING A LINE IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA By Nguyen Manh Hung Asger Røjle Christensen Japan’s Abduction Saga US$15.00 BURMA IN THE ASEAN CHAIR IN 2014, AT LAST Book Reviews by David C. Kang, W15,000 Börje Ljunggren & John Delury By Pavin Chachavalpongpun BURMA IN THE ASEAN CHAIR IN 2014, LAST BY THE US REBALANCING TOWARD ASIA:AT ESSAYS

By Pavin Patrick M.Chachavalpongpun Cronin, Michael McDevitt, Wu Xinbo, Donald K. Emmerson, Malcolm Fraser, Richard A. Bitzinger, Kang Choi & Noboru Yamaguchi

The US ‘Pivot’ Theto US ‘Pivot’ Asia to Asia The US ‘Pivot’ to Asia The US ‘Pivot’ to Asia

A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME 7, NUMBER 4, WINTER 2012

Is It Just About Containing China? US$15.00 Is It Just About W15,000 | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME 7, NUMBER 4, WINTER 2012 A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION Containing China? THE POLITICS OF ENGAGEMENT: ESSAYS BY

PLUS

Rudiger Frank RollingEnterprises Reforms: Reflections Mel Gurtov, MiroslavSouth Nincic,Korea Walter C. Clemens, Jr., Into a New Leading the Way World of Social on Visits to Kim Jong Un’s North Korea Karin J. Lee, Andrei Lankov, Troy Stangarone, Stuart J. Thorson, Hyunjin Seo, Trita Parsi & Nicholas Farrelly Cheol Hee Park The Double Life of Shinzo Abe Stein Tønnesson Steps Forward for China

to Resolve the South China Sea Disputes Is It JustMark About J. Valencia & Hong Nong Exploring Joint Development Possibilities in the South China Sea Containing Book China? Reviews by John Delury

JAPAN’S DANGEROUSSouth GAMBLE ON ‘ABENOMICS’ Korea Leading the Way Into a New World of Social Enterprises

By Gongpil Choi

and Taehwan Kim

Is It Just About Containing China?

THE POLITICS OF ENGAGEMENT: ESSAYS BY

Have you tried our iPad or Android tablet editions? See p.3

PLUS

US$15.00

Rudiger Frank Rolling Reforms: Reflections Mel Gurtov, Miroslav Nincic, Walter C. Clemens, Jr., W15,000 on Visits to Kim Jong Un’s North Korea Karin J. Lee, Andrei Lankov, Troy Stangarone, Stuart A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME 8, NUMBER 2, SUMMER 2013 J. Thorson, Hyunjin Seo, Trita Parsi & Nicholas Farrelly Cheol Hee Park The Double Life of Shinzo Abe THE POLITICS OF ENGAGEMENT: ESSAYS BY

PLUS

Stein Tønnesson Steps Forward for China Rudiger Frank Rolling Reforms: Reflections to Resolve the South China Sea Disputes on Visits to Kim Jong Un’s North Korea Mark J. Valencia & Hong Nong Exploring Joint Cheol Hee Park The Double Life of Shinzo Abe Development Possibilities in the South China Sea THE DEBATE: IS POLITICAL RECONCILIATION Stein Tønnesson Steps Forward for China POSSIBLE IN MALAYSIA? Book Reviews by John Delury JAPAN’S DANGEROUS GAMBLE ON ‘ABENOMICS’ to Resolve the South China Sea DisputesHave and Taehwan Kim Khairy Jamaluddin By Gongpil Choi Squares Off Against Rafizi Ramli you tried Mark J. Valencia & Hong Nong Exploring Joint ourChina iPad Sea or Development Possibilities in the South THE DEBATE: IS POLITICAL RECONCILIATION Android tablet POSSIBLE IN MALAYSIA? Book Reviews by John Delury editions? Have and Taehwan Kim Khairy Jamaluddin Squares Off Against Rafizi Ramli See p.3 you tried South Korea Leading the Way Into a New World of Social Enterprises our iPad or US$15.00 Android tablet editions? W15,000 p.3 A JOURNAL OF THE EAST FOUNDATION WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG VOLUME 8, NUMBERSee 2, SUMMER 2013 SouthASIA Korea Leading the| Way Into a New World of|Social Enterprises JAPAN’S DANGEROUS ON ‘ABENOMICS’ Mel Gurtov, MiroslavGAMBLE Nincic, Walter C. Clemens, Jr., By Gongpil Karin J. Lee,Choi Andrei Lankov, Troy Stangarone, Stuart J. Thorson, Hyunjin Seo, Trita Parsi & Nicholas Farrelly

Positive Engagement with North Korea, Iran and Myanmar

PLUS

US$15.00 Gilbert Rozman, Takashi Inoguchi, David Shambaugh, Jennifer Lind Beware the Tomb of the Known Soldier W15,000 Joon Hyung Kim, Haksoon Paik, Leon V. Sigal, Shalendra D. Sharma From8,Meltdown | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME A JOURNAL OF THEMiller EAST & ASIA NUMBERto1,Bounceback: SPRING 2013 Jonathan Berkshire LiliaFOUNDATION Shevtsova How South Korea Weathered the 2008 Financial Crisis RISKS & OPPORTUNITIES FOR ASIA’S NEW LEADERS: ESSAYS BY THE TPP AND THE QUEST FOR EAST ASIAN REGIONALISM

Gilbert Rozman, By Inkyo CheongTakashi Inoguchi, David Shambaugh, Joon Hyung Kim, Haksoon Paik, Leon V. Sigal, THE DEBATE: IS THE TPP AIMED AT THWARTING CHINA? Jonathan Berkshire Miller & Lilia Shevtsova Wang Yong Squares Off Against Takashi Terada

THE TPP AND THE QUEST FOR EAST ASIAN REGIONALISM

PLUS

Andy YeeLind When Will Japan Tap Its Potential? Jennifer Beware the Tomb of Internet the Known Soldier Saroj Kumar Drugs in Meltdown India Are atoSecurity Threat Shalendra D. Rath Sharma From Bounceback: How South Korea Wu Weathered 2008 Financial In Focus: Taiwan Yu-shan,the Chen Tain-jy & ChuCrisis Yun-han

Andy Yee WhenbyWill Japan Tap Its Internet Potential? Book Reviews John Delury We and Taehwan Kim Drugs in India Are a Security Saroj Kumar Rath now have Threat an iPad and Yun-han In Focus: Taiwan Wu Yu-shan, Chen Tain-jy & Chu Wang Yong Squares Off Against Takashi Terada Android tablet ASSESSING A CODE OF CONDUCT FOR THE SOUTH CHINA SEA Book Reviews by John Delury edition! We and Taehwan Kim By Mark J. Valencia See p.5 now have an iPad and US$15.00 Android tablet edition! W15,000 See A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME 8, NUMBER 1,p.5 SPRING 2013 ASSESSING A CODE OF CONDUCT FOR THE SOUTH CHINA SEA By Inkyo Cheong By Mark J. Valencia THE DEBATE: IS THE TPP AIMED AT THWARTING CHINA?

Avoiding the Mines Avoiding Avoiding the Mines the Mines

RISKS & OPPORTUNITIES FOR ASIA’S NEW LEADERS: ESSAYS BY

Gilbert Rozman, Takashi Inoguchi, David Shambaugh, Joon Hyung Kim, Haksoon Paik, Leon V. Sigal, RISKS & OPPORTUNITIES FOR ASIA’S NEW LEADERS: ESSAYS BY Jonathan Berkshire Miller & Lilia Shevtsova Gilbert Rozman, Takashi Inoguchi, David Shambaugh, THE TPP AND THE QUEST FOR EAST ASIAN REGIONALISM Joon Hyung Kim, Haksoon Paik, Leon V. Sigal, By Inkyo Cheong Jonathan Berkshire Miller & Lilia Shevtsova THE DEBATE: IS THE TPP AIMED AT THWARTING CHINA? THE TPP AND THE QUEST FOR EAST ASIAN REGIONALISM

Wang Yong Squares Off Against Takashi Terada By Inkyo Cheong

New Leaders, New Dangers in Northeast Asia

ASSESSING A CODE OF CONDUCT FOR THE SOUTH CHINA SEA

THE DEBATE: IS THE TPP AIMED AT THWARTING CHINA? By Mark J. Valencia Wang Yong Squares Off Against Takashi Terada

ASSESSING A CODE OF CONDUCT FOR THE SOUTH CHINA SEA RISKS & OPPORTUNITIES FOR ASIA’S NEW LEADERS: ESSAYS BY

By MarkRozman, J. Valencia Gilbert Takashi Inoguchi, David Shambaugh, Joon Hyung Kim, Haksoon Paik, Leon V. Sigal, Jonathan Berkshire Miller & Lilia Shevtsova

THE TPP AND THE QUEST FOR EAST ASIAN REGIONALISM

By Inkyo Cheong

PLUS

Jennifer Lind Beware the Tomb of the Known Soldier

Shalendra D. Sharma From Meltdown to Bounceback: PLUS How South Korea Weathered the 2008 Financial Crisis Jennifer Lind Beware the Tomb of the Known Soldier Andy Yee When Will Japan Tap Its Internet Potential? Shalendra D. Sharma From Meltdown to Bounceback: SarojSouth Kumar Rath Drugs in India Are Financial a SecurityCrisis Threat How Korea Weathered the 2008

In Focus: Wu Japan Yu-shan, Chen Tain-jy &Potential? Chu Yun-han Andy YeeTaiwan When Will Tap Its Internet Book Reviews by John Delury Saroj Kumar Rath Drugs in India Are a Security Threat We and Taehwan Kim now have In Focus: Taiwan Wu Yu-shan, Chen Tain-jy & Chu Yun-han an iPad Book PLUS Reviews by John Delury Android and Wetablet and Taehwan Jennifer LindKim Beware the Tomb of the Known edition! now haveSoldier anSee p.5and iPad Shalendra D. Sharma From Meltdown to Bounceback: Android tablet How South Korea Weathered the 2008 Financial Crisis edition! US$15.00 Andy Yee When Will Japan Tap Its Internet Potential? W15,000 See p.5

Saroj Kumar Rath Drugs in8,India Are a Security Threat | VOLUME A JOURNAL ASIA FOUNDATION WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG NUMBER 1, SPRING 2013 THE DEBATE:OF IS THE THE EAST TPP AIMED AT THWARTING |CHINA? US$15.00 RISKS & OPPORTUNITIES FOR ASIA’S NEW LEADERS: ESSAYS BY PLUS

In Focus: Taiwan Wu Yu-shan, Chen Tain-jy & ChuW15,000 Yun-han Wang Yong Squares Off Against Takashi Terada Gilbert Rozman, Takashi Inoguchi, David Shambaugh, Jennifer Lind Beware the Tomb of the Known Soldier ASSESSING CODE OF CONDUCT FOR SOUTH SEA Book Reviews|byVOLUME John Delury | CHINA A JOURNAL THE EAST ASIA WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG 8, NUMBER 1, SPRING 2013 Joon HyungAOF Kim, Haksoon Paik,FOUNDATION LeonTHE V. Sigal, Shalendra D. Sharma From Meltdown toWe Bounceback: and Taehwan Kim By Mark J.Berkshire Valencia Miller & Lilia Shevtsova Jonathan have Crisis How South Korea Weathered the 2008now Financial

New Leaders, New Dangers in New Leaders, Northeast Asia New Dangers in Northeast Asia

an iPad and

THE TPP ANDIn THE QUEST FOR EAST ASIAN REGIONALISM This Issue: We Start a New Regular Section Profiling Asian Taiwan Andy Yee When WillCountries Japan Tap in ItsAndroid Internet tablet Potential? By Inkyo Cheong THE DEBATE: IS THE TPP AIMED AT THWARTING CHINA?

Wang Yong Squares Off Against Takashi Terada

ASSESSING A CODE OF CONDUCT FOR THE SOUTH CHINA SEA

By Mark J. Valencia

Saroj Kumar Rath Drugs in India Areedition! a Security Threat See p.5 In Focus: Taiwan Wu Yu-shan, Chen Tain-jy & Chu Yun-han Book Reviews by John Delury and Taehwan Kim

US$15.00

We W15,000 now have and Android tablet edition!

A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME 8, NUMBER 1, SPRING 2013 an iPad

See p.5

US$15.00 W15,000 A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME 8, NUMBER 1, SPRING 2013 TACKLING TRUST GAPS IN EAST ASIA: ESSAYS BY PLUS

Avoiding Avoiding the Mines the Mines Avoiding the Mines Avoiding the Mines

Billo A WayCountries to Peace inin theTaiwan South China Sea InRichard This Issue: We Start a New Regular SectionAndrew Profiling Asian Yun Byung-se, Ned Lebow, Tae-Seop Bahng, Charles A. Kupchan, Wang Yizhou, Yoshihide Soeya, Alexandre Y. Jung-Sun Park Why ‘Gangnam Style’ Isn’t Hallyu Style Mansourov, Myung-bok Bae & Mohamed Jawhar Hassan Chung-in Moon North Korea vs. South Korea: What Will It Take to End 60 Years of War?

NON-WESTERN AND ASIAN POLITICAL SYSTEMS In DEMOCRACIES This Issue: We Start a New Regular SectionHaruki Profiling Asian Countries in Taiwan Wada Korea’s War, Armistice and Legacy By Alexei D. Voskressenshi. THE DEBATE: AUSTRALIA’S NEW REFUGEE POLICY

Andrew Markus Squares Off Against Graeme McGregor

Book Reviews by John Delury, Taehwan Kim, Nayan Chanda and David Plott

Have you tried our iPad or Android tablet editions? See p.57

New Leaders, New NewDangers Leaders,in Yun Byung-se, RichardNortheast Ned Lebow, Tae-Seop Bahng, Charles Asia By Alexei D. Voskressenshi. New Dangers A. Kupchan, Wang Yizhou, Yoshihide Soeya, Alexandrein Y. Mansourov, Myung-bok Bae & Mohamed Jawhar Hassan Northeast Asia Andrew Markus Squares Off Against Graeme McGregor TACKLING TRUST GAPS IN EAST ASIA: ESSAYS BY

PLUS

US$15.00

Andrew Billo A Way to Peace in the South China Sea Yun Byung-se, Richard Ned Lebow, Tae-Seop Bahng, Charles W15,000 A. Kupchan, Wang Yizhou, Yoshihide Soeya, Alexandre Y. Jung-Sun Park Why ‘Gangnam Style’ Isn’t Hallyu Style A JOURNAL Myung-bok OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME 8, NUMBER 3, FALL 2013 Mansourov, Bae & Mohamed Jawhar| Hassan Chung-in Moon North Korea vs. South Korea: TACKLING TRUST GAPS IN EAST ASIA: ESSAYS BY NON-WESTERN DEMOCRACIES AND ASIAN POLITICAL SYSTEMS

PLUS Will It Take to End 60 Years of War? What Andrew Billo A Way to Peace in the South China Sea Haruki Wada Korea’s War, Armistice and Legacy Jung-Sun Park Why ‘Gangnam Style’ Isn’t Hallyu Style Book Reviews by John Delury, Taehwan Kim, Chung-in Moon North Korea THE DEBATE: AUSTRALIA’S NEW REFUGEE POLICY Nayan Chanda and David Plottvs. South Korea: What Will It Take to End 60 Years of War? NON-WESTERN DEMOCRACIES AND ASIAN POLITICAL SYSTEMS Have Haruki Wada Korea’s War, Armistice and youLegacy By Alexei D. Voskressenshi. tried our Kim, Book Reviews by John Delury, Taehwan iPad or Android tablet THE DEBATE: AUSTRALIA’S NEW REFUGEE POLICY Nayan Chanda and David Plott editions? Andrew Markus Squares Off Against Graeme McGregor Have See you p.57 tried our iPad or In This Issue: We Start a New Regular Section Profiling Asian Countries in Taiwan Android tablet editions?US$15.00

How East Asia Can Secure New Leaders, New Dangers in a Peaceful Northeast Asia Future In This Issue: We Start a New Regular Section Profiling Asian Countries in Taiwan

See p.57

W15,000

| WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG

| VOLUME 8, NUMBER 3, FALL 2013

A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION

| WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG

| VOLUME 8, NUMBER 3, FALL 2013

THE POLITICS OF ENGAGEMENT: ESSAYS BY PLUS Hee Park The Double Life of Shinzo Abe J. Thorson, Hyunjin Seo, Trita Parsi & Nicholas Farrelly Cheol Rudiger Frank Rolling Reforms: Reflections Mel Gurtov, Miroslav Nincic, Walter C. Clemens, Jr., Stein Tønnesson Steps Forward for China on Visits to Kim Jong Un’s North Korea JAPAN’S DANGEROUS GAMBLE ON Stangarone, ‘ABENOMICS’ South Korea Leading the Way Into a New World of Social Enterprises Karin J. Lee, Andrei Lankov, Troy Stuart to Resolve the South China Sea Disputes By Gongpil Hyunjin Choi Seo, Trita Parsi & Nicholas Farrelly J. Thorson, Cheol Hee Park The Double Life of Shinzo Abe

Andrew Billo A Way to Peace in the South China Sea Yun Byung-se, Richard Ned Lebow, Tae-Seop Bahng, Charles A. Kupchan, Wang Yizhou, Yoshihide Soeya, Alexandre Y. Jung-Sun Park Why ‘Gangnam Style’ Isn’t Hallyu Style TACKLING TRUST GAPS IN EAST ASIA: ESSAYS BY Hassan PLUS Mansourov, Myung-bok Bae & Mohamed Jawhar Chung-in Moon North Korea vs. South Korea: Andrew A Way to Peace in the South China Sea Yun Byung-se, Richard Ned Lebow, Tae-Seop Bahng, Charles What WillBillo It Take to End 60 Years War? ThisYizhou, Issue:Yoshihide We Start a New Regular Profiling Asian inofTaiwan NON-WESTERN DEMOCRACIES AND ASIAN POLITICAL SYSTEMS A. Kupchan, In Wang Soeya, Alexandre Y.SectionHaruki Jung-Sun Park WhyCountries ‘Gangnam Style’ Isn’tLegacy Hallyu Style Wada Korea’s War, Armistice and By Alexei D. Myung-bok Voskressenshi. Mansourov, Bae & Mohamed Jawhar Hassan Chung-in Moon North Korea vs. South Korea:

THE DEBATE: IS POLITICAL RECONCILIATION POSSIBLE IN MALAYSIA? THE POLITICS OF ENGAGEMENT: ESSAYS BY

JAPAN’S DANGEROUS GAMBLE ON ‘ABENOMICS’

New Leaders, New Dangers in Northeast AsiaEast Asia How

US$15.00 W15,000

US$15.00 W15,000

Can Secure How East Asia a Peaceful Can Secure Future a Peaceful

In This Issue: We Start a New Regular Section Profiling Asian Countries in Taiwan

TACKLING TRUST GAPS IN EAST ASIA: ESSAYS BY

Mark J. Valencia & Hong Nong Exploring Joint Stein Tønnesson Steps Forward for China Development Possibilities in the South China Sea to Resolve the South China Sea Disputes Book Reviews by John Delury Mark J. Valencia Joint Have and Taehwan Kim& Hong Nong Exploring you Development Possibilities in the South China Sea tried our iPad Book PLUS Reviews by John Delury Android or tablet Have and Taehwan Kim Rudiger Frank Rolling Reforms: Reflections editions? you tried on Visits to Kim Jong Un’s North Korea See p.3 or our iPad Android Cheol Hee Park The Double Life of Shinzo Abe tablet editions? US$15.00 Stein Tønnesson Steps Forward for China W15,000 See to Resolve the South China Sea Disputes p.3

PLUS

Future Andrew Squares Off Against Graeme McGregor By AlexeiMarkus D. Voskressenshi. THE DEBATE: AUSTRALIA’S NEW REFUGEE POLICY NON-WESTERN DEMOCRACIES AND ASIAN POLITICAL SYSTEMS THE DEBATE: AUSTRALIA’S NEW REFUGEE POLICY

Andrew Markus Squares Off Against Graeme McGregor TACKLING TRUST GAPS IN EAST ASIA: ESSAYS BY

Yun Byung-se, Richard Ned Lebow, Tae-Seop Bahng, Charles A. Kupchan, Wang Yizhou, Yoshihide Soeya, Alexandre Y. Mansourov, Myung-bok Bae & Mohamed Jawhar Hassan

NON-WESTERN DEMOCRACIES AND ASIAN POLITICAL SYSTEMS

Book Reviews by John Delury, Taehwan Kim, What It Take toDavid End 60 Years of War? NayanWill Chanda and Plott Haruki Wada Korea’s War, Armistice and Legacy Have Book Reviews by John Delury, Taehwan youKim, tried Nayan Chanda and David Plott our iPad or Android tablet Have PLUS editions? you China tried Sea Andrew Billo A Way to Peace in the South SeeiPad p.57 our or Style Jung-Sun Park Why ‘Gangnam Style’ Isn’t Hallyu Android tablet editions? Chung-in Moon North Korea vs. South Korea:

See p.57 US$15.00 What Will It Take to End 60 Years of War?

W15,000

By Gongpil Choi A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME 8, NUMBER 2, SUMMER 2013 Mark J. Valencia & Hong Nong Exploring Joint

Haruki Wada Korea’s War, Armistice and Legacy By Alexei D. Voskressenshi. A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG VOLUME NUMBER 3, FALL 2013 Book Reviews by| John Delury,8,Taehwan Kim,

THE Gurtov, DEBATE:Miroslav IS POLITICAL RECONCILIATION Rudiger Frank Rolling Reforms: Reflections W15,000 Mel Nincic, Walter C. Clemens, Jr., POSSIBLE IN MALAYSIA? Book Reviews John Delury | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | by A JOURNAL THE Lankov, EAST ASIA FOUNDATION VOLUME 8, NUMBER on Visits to Kim Jong Un’s North Korea 2, SUMMER 2013 Karin J. Lee, OF Andrei Troy Stangarone, Stuart Have and Taehwan Kim Khairy Jamaluddin Squares Off Against Rafizi Ramli J. Thorson, Hyunjin Seo, Trita Parsi & Nicholas Farrelly

Andrew Billo A Way to Peace in the South ChinaW15,000 Sea Yun Byung-se, Richard Ned Tae-Seop Charles Andrew Markus Squares OffLebow, Against GraemeBahng, McGregor Have | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME A JOURNAL OF THE EAST Yoshihide ASIA FOUNDATION 8,Style’ NUMBER 3, FALLStyle 2013 A. Kupchan, Wang Yizhou, Soeya, Alexandre Y. Jung-Sun Park Why ‘Gangnam Isn’t you Hallyu tried Mansourov, Myung-bok Bae & Mohamed Jawhar Hassan Chung-in Moon North Korea vs. South ourKorea: iPad or Android See our redesigned In This website, Issue: Our www.globalasia.org, New Section Focusing for analysis, on It Asia's debates, Less archives Nations more What Will Take to EndProminent 60 Years ofand War? tablet

THE POLITICS OF ENGAGEMENT: ESSAYS BY

PLUS

US$15.00

Development Possibilities in the South China Sea

Positive Engagement with North Korea, Positive Engagement Iran and Myanmar with North Korea,

Cheol Hee Park The Double Life of Shinzo Abe you tried iPad or In This In Focus: Issue:How We Start to Break a New the Regular Deadlock Section in Tønnesson the South Profiling China Asian SeaCountries in Taiwan Stein Steps Forward forour China Android tablet JAPAN’S DANGEROUS GAMBLE ON ‘ABENOMICS’ to Resolve the South China Sea Disputes editions? By Gongpil Choi Mark J. Valencia & Hong Nong Exploring Joint See p.3 Development Possibilities in the South China Sea THE DEBATE: IS POLITICAL RECONCILIATION US$15.00 POSSIBLE IN MALAYSIA? Book Reviews by John Delury Have W15,000 and Taehwan Kim Khairy Jamaluddin Squares Off Against Rafizi Ramli you tried A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME 8, NUMBER SUMMER 2013 our2,iPad or Android tablet editions? See p.3

Iran and Myanmar

Positive Engagement US$15.00 W15,000 with North Korea, In This In Focus: Issue:How We Start to Break a New the Regular Deadlock Section in the South Profiling China Asian SeaCountries in Taiwan Iran and Myanmar

A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME 8, NUMBER 2, SUMMER 2013

PositiveInEngagement This In Focus: Issue:How We Start to Break a New the Regular Deadlock Section in the South Profiling China Asian SeaCountries in Taiwan with North Korea, Iran and Myanmar

Sticks Before Sticks

Jung Young Moon A Most Ambiguous Sunday, and Other Stories

We now have an iPad and Android tablet edition! See p.5

A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION

Positive Engagement with North Korea, Positive Engagement Iran and Myanmar South Korea Leading the Way Into a New World of Social Enterprises with North Korea, THE POLITICS OF ENGAGEMENT: ESSAYS BY PLUS Rudiger Frank Rolling Reforms: Reflections Mel Gurtov, Miroslav Nincic, Walter C. Clemens, Jr., and Myanmar on Visits to Kim Jong Un’s North Korea Karin J.Iran Lee, Andrei Lankov, Troy Stangarone, Stuart

Khairy Jamaluddin Squares Against Rafizi Ramli Mel Gurtov, Miroslav Nincic, Off Walter C. Clemens, Jr., Karin J. Lee, Andrei Lankov, Troy Stangarone, Stuart J. Thorson, Hyunjin Seo, Trita Parsi & Nicholas Farrelly

Jung Mi-kyung My Son’s Girlfriend: Stories

Book Reviews by John Delury and Taehwan Kim

A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME 8, NUMBER 2, SUMMER 2013

Khairy Jamaluddin Squares Off Against Rafizi Ramli

Jang Jung-il When Adam Opens His Eyes

ASSESSING A CODE OF CONDUCT FOR THE SOUTH CHINA SEA

RISKS & OPPORTUNITIES FOR ASIA’S NEW LEADERS: ESSAYS BY

Dewi Fortuna Anwar, Stephen Norris, James Castle, A. Lin Neumann, Erry R. Hardjapamekas and Adil W. Surowidjojo & Syed Farid Alatas

Saroj Kumar Rath Drugs in India Are a Security Threat

In Focus: Taiwan Wu Yu-shan, Chen Tain-jy & Chu Yun-han

By Mark J. Valencia

INDONESIA AND THE CHALLENGES OF GROWTH: ESSAYS BY

Andy Yee When Will Japan Tap Its Internet Potential?

latest issue: latest issue: The hard Inside our Inside our The hard choices The hard Inside our latest issue: latest issue: Inside our choices latest issue: Indonesia choices latest issue: The hard

PLUS

Jonathan Berkshire Miller Politics Continues to Chill Japan-South Korea Relations Andy Ye Why Taiwan’s ICT Sector Needs a New Model Pavin Chachavalpongpun Western Pragmatism Trumps CHINA’S NEW AIR ZONE AND THE EAST CHINA SEA DISPUTES Human Security Concerns in Myanmar By Mark J. Valencia Paul Evans The Passing of Robert Scalapino, Kim Kyung INDONESIA AND THE CHALLENGES OF GROWTH: ESSAYS BY PLUS Won and Yamamoto Tadashi WILL JAPAN’S PLAN TO EXERCISE ITS COLLECTIVE Jonathan Berkshire Miller Politics Continues to Chill Dewi Fortuna Anwar, Stephen Castle, SELF-DEFENSE RIGHT MAKE ASIANorris, MOREJames OR LESS SECURE? Book by Samuel S. Kim INDONESIA AND THE CHALLENGES OF GROWTH: ESSAYS BY PLUS Reviews Japan-South Korea Relations A. Lin Neumann, Erry R. Hardjapamekas and Have Gui Yongtao Squares Off Against Yuichi Hosoya & John Delury Jonathan Berkshire Miller PoliticsNeeds Continues Chill Dewi Fortuna Anwar,&Stephen Norris, James Castle, youatried Andy Ye Why Taiwan’s ICT Sector NewtoModel Adil W. Surowidjojo Syed Farid Alatas Japan-South Korea Relations our A. Lin Neumann, Erry R. Hardjapamekas and iPad or Trumps Pavin Chachavalpongpun Western Pragmatism Andr CHINA’S NEW AIR ZONE AND THE CHINA SEA DISPUTES oid Andy YeSecurity Why Taiwan’s ICTin Sector Needs a New tableModel Adil W. Surowidjojo & Syed FaridEAST Alatas t Human Concerns Myanmar editions? By Mark J. Valencia Pavin Chachavalpongpun Western Pragmatism Trumps See p.107 Paul Evans The Passing of Robert Scalapino, Kim Kyung CHINA’S NEW AIR ZONE AND THE EAST CHINA SEA DISPUTES Human Concerns in Myanmar Won andSecurity Yamamoto Tadashi WILL JAPAN’S PLAN TO EXERCISE ITS COLLECTIVE By Mark J. Valencia Paul Theby Passing ofS. Robert Kyung US$15.00 SELF-DEFENSE RIGHT MAKE ASIA MORE OR LESS SECURE? BookEvans Reviews Samuel Kim Scalapino, Kim Won and Yamamoto Tadashi Have W15,000 WILLYongtao JAPAN’S Squares PLAN TO Off EXERCISE ITSYuichi COLLECTIVE Gui Against Hosoya & John Delury you WINTER 2013 SELF-DEFENSE MAKE ASIAFOUNDATION MORE OR LESS |SECURE? Book Reviews|byVOLUME Samuel S. A JOURNAL OFRIGHT THE EAST ASIA WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG 8,Kim NUMBER 4, tried ourHave iPad or Gui Yongtao Squares Off Against Yuichi Hosoya & John Delury Andr oidtried you tablet editi our ons?or iPad INDONESIA AND THE CHALLENGES OF GROWTH: ESSAYS BY PLUS Seeoid Andr p.107 tablet Jonathan Berkshire Miller Politics Continues editions? to Chill Dewi Fortuna Anwar, Stephen Norris, James Castle, INDONESIA AND THE CHALLENGES OF GROWTH: ESSAYS BY PLUS See p.107 US$15.00 Japan-South Korea Relations A. Lin Neumann, Erry R. Hardjapamekas and Jonathan Berkshire Miller Politics Continues to Chill Dewi Fortuna Anwar, Stephen Norris, James Castle, W15,000 Andy Ye Why Taiwan’s ICT Sector Needs a New Model Adil W. Surowidjojo & Syed Farid Alatas Japan-South Korea Relations A. Lin Neumann, Erry R. Hardjapamekas and US$15.00 | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION NUMBER 4,aWINTER 2013 Pavin Ye Chachavalpongpun Western Pragmatism Trumps Andy Why Taiwan’s ICT8, Sector Needs New W15,000 Model Adil W. Surowidjojo & Syed Farid Alatas CHINA’S NEW AIR ZONE AND THE EAST CHINA SEA DISPUTES Human Security Concerns inWestern Myanmar INDONESIA AND THE CHALLENGES OF GROWTH: ESSAYS BY PLUS Chachavalpongpun Pavin Pragmatism Trumps | DISPUTES | VOLUME 8, NUMBER By MarkNEW J. Valencia A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG 4, WINTER 2013 CHINA’S AIR ZONE AND THE EAST CHINA SEA Jonathan Berkshire Miller Politics ContinuesKim to Chill Paul Evans The Passing of in Robert Scalapino, Kyung Dewi Fortuna Anwar, Stephen Norris, James Castle, Human Security Concerns Myanmar By Mark J. Valencia Japan-South Korea Relations Won and Yamamoto Tadashi A. Lin Neumann, Erry Hardjapamekas and WILL JAPAN’S PLAN TO R. EXERCISE ITS COLLECTIVE Paul Evans The Passing of Robert Scalapino, Kim Kyung SELF-DEFENSE RIGHT MAKE MORE OR LESS SECURE? Andy Ye Why Taiwan’s ICTS.Sector Adil Surowidjojo &CHALLENGES SyedASIA FaridITS Alatas Book Reviews by Samuel Kim Needs a New Model INDONESIA AND THE OF GROWTH: ESSAYS BY PLUSand Won Yamamoto Tadashi WILLW. JAPAN’S PLAN TO EXERCISE COLLECTIVE Have to Chill Gui Yongtao Off Against Yuichi & JohnReviews Delury Jonathan Berkshire Miller Politics SELF-DEFENSE RIGHT MAKE ASIANorris, MORE ORHosoya LESS SECURE? Pavin Chachavalpongpun Pragmatism Dewi FortunaSquares Anwar, Stephen James Castle, Book by Samuel S.Western Kim Continues you tried Trumps CHINA’S NEW AIR ZONE AND THE EAST CHINA SEA DISPUTES Japan-South Korea Relations Human Security Concerns in Myanmar GuiLin Yongtao Squares OffHardjapamekas Against Yuichi Hosoya A. Neumann, Erry R. and & John Delury ourHave or By Mark J. Valencia youiPad AndyEvans Ye Why Taiwan’s SectorAndr Needs atried New Model oid Adil W. Surowidjojo & Syed Farid Alatas Paul The PassingICT of Robert Scalapino, Kim table tKyung our iPad editi ons?or Trumps Won and Yamamoto Tadashi WILL JAPAN’S PLAN TO EXERCISE ITS COLLECTIVE Andr Pavin Chachavalpongpun Western Pragmatism tablet Seeoid CHINA’S NEW AIR ZONE ANDASIA THE MORE EAST CHINA SEA DISPUTES SELF-DEFENSE RIGHT MAKE OR LESS SECURE? editip.107 Human SecuritybyConcerns inKim Myanmar Book Reviews Samuel S. ons? By Mark J. Valencia Have See Gui Yongtao Squares Off Against Yuichi Hosoya p.107 & John Delury Paul Evans The Passing of Robert Scalapino, Kim Kyung US$15.00 you tried Won and Yamamoto Tadashi WILL JAPAN’S PLAN TO EXERCISE ITS COLLECTIVE W15,000 our iPad orUS$15.00 SELF-DEFENSE RIGHT MAKE ASIA MORE OR LESS |SECURE? Andr 4, WINTER Book Reviews|byVOLUME Samuel S. table t 2013 A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG 8,Kim NUMBER oid W15,000 Have editi Gui Yongtao Squares Off Against Yuichi Hosoya ons? & John Delury you A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME 8, NUMBER 4,p.107 WINTER 2013 See tried our iPad or Android table t US$15.00 editions? W15,000 See p.107

The Sense and Sensibility of Indonesia The Sense The Sense and Sensibility and Sensibility of Indonesia of Indonesia

An Emerging Giant Carrots An Emerging Before An Emerging The Sense The Sense Sticks and Sensibility Giant and Sensibility Carrots Giant ofThe Indonesia The Politics Sense Carrots of Indonesia Before of Trust and Sensibility Before The Sense Sticks of Indonesia Sticks An Emerging and Sensibility The Politics An Emerging of Indonesia The Politics of Trust Giant An Emerging of Trust Carrots Giant Carrots An Emerging Before Before Giant Sticks Carrots Sticks Before The Politics Carrotsout more and Find to our print or online edition atGiant globalasia.org Thesubscribe Politics THE DEBATE: IS POLITICAL RECONCILIATION POSSIBLE IN MALAYSIA?

Khairy Jamaluddin Squares Off Against Rafizi Ramli

JAPAN’S DANGEROUS GAMBLE ON ‘ABENOMICS’ THE DEBATE: IS POLITICAL RECONCILIATION POSSIBLE MALAYSIA? By GongpilINChoi

Hyun Ki Young One Spoon on This Earth

Shalendra D. Sharma From Meltdown to Bounceback: How South Korea Weathered the 2008 Financial Crisis

US$15.00 W15,000

PLUS Is It JustGeorgiy About Tridivesh Singh Maini & Manish Vaid Voloshin China as a Stabilizer in Central Asia The Emerging Role of Indo-Pakistan Border States Ramesh Thakur The New Great Game in Afghanistan Containing China? Young-hoon Lee Economic Reform in North Korea Tridivesh Singh Maini & Manish Vaid Peter Hayes A Breakthrough Six-Party Summit in 2013? Emerging Role of Indo-Pakistan Border States Is It JustThe About By Nguyen Manh Hung Asger Røjle Christensen Japan’s Abduction Saga Reflections by Won-soon Park & Tae-won Chey Young-hoon Lee Economic Reform in North Korea BURMA IN THE ASEAN CHAIR IN 2014, AT LAST Book Reviews by David C. Kang, PeterChina? Hayes A Breakthrough Six-Party Summit in 2013? DRAWING A LINE IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEAContaining Börje Ljunggren & John Delury By Pavin Chachavalpongpun

Kim Joo-young Stingray

PLUS

Jennifer Lind Beware the Tomb of the Known Soldier

A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME 8, NUMBER 1, SPRING 2013

DRAWING A LINE IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA CREATING A NEW WORLD OF SOCIAL ENTERPRISES

Listed Among World Literature Today’s Notable Translations of 2013

THE DEBATE: IS THE TPP AIMED AT THWARTING CHINA?

Wang Yong Squares Off Against Takashi Terada

US$15.00 W15,000

THE US REBALANCING TOWARD ASIA: ESSAYS BY

The Library of Korean Literature

THE TPP AND THE QUEST FOR EAST ASIAN REGIONALISM

By Inkyo Cheong

A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME 7, NUMBER 4, WINTER 2012

Patrick M. Cronin, Michael McDevitt, Wu Xinbo, Donald K. Emmerson, Malcolm Fraser, Richard A. Bitzinger, THE US REBALANCING TOWARD ASIA: ESSAYS BY Kang Choi & Noboru Yamaguchi Patrick M. Cronin, Michael McDevitt, Wu Xinbo, CREATING A NEW WORLD OF SOCIAL ENTERPRISES Donald K. Emmerson, Malcolm Richard Reflections by Won-soon Park &Fraser, Tae-won CheyA. Bitzinger, Kang Choi & Noboru Yamaguchi

Dalkey Archive Press in the U.S. Publishes the First 10 Books in

RISKS & OPPORTUNITIES FOR ASIA’S NEW LEADERS: ESSAYS BY

Gilbert Rozman, Takashi Inoguchi, David Shambaugh, Joon Hyung Kim, Haksoon Paik, Leon V. Sigal, Jonathan Berkshire Miller & Lilia Shevtsova

TACKLING TRUST GAPS IN NEW EASTREFUGEE ASIA: ESSAYS BY THE DEBATE: AUSTRALIA’S POLICY

US$15.00

PLUS Chanda and David Plott Nayan

How East Asia CanEast Secure How Asia a Peaceful Can Secure Future a Peaceful HowFuture East Asia See our redesigned In This website, Issue: Our www.globalasia.org, New Section Focusing for analysis, on Asia's debates, Less Prominent archives and Nations more Can Secure aSection Peaceful See our redesigned In This website, Issue: Our www.globalasia.org, New Focusing for analysis, on Asia's debates, Less Prominent archives and Nations more HowFuture East Asia Can Secure a Peaceful Future

NON-WESTERN DEMOCRACIES AND ASIAN POLITICAL SYSTEMS

By Alexei D. Voskressenshi.

THE DEBATE: AUSTRALIA’S NEW REFUGEE POLICY

Andrew Markus Squares Off Against Graeme McGregor

editions? Haruki Wada Korea’s War, Armistice and Legacy See p.57 Book Reviews by John Delury, Taehwan Kim, Nayan Chanda and David Plott

Have US$15.00 you triedW15,000 our iPad or 2013 A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME 8, NUMBER 3, FALL Android tablet editions? See p.57

A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION

| WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG

US$15.00 W15,000

| VOLUME 8, NUMBER 3, FALL 2013

The hard Indonesia is facing Indonesia The hard choices The hard is facing ischoices facing Indonesia choices Indonesia is facing Indonesia is is facing facing

A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME 8, NUMBER 4, WINTER 2013 US$15.00 W15,000 A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME 8, NUMBER 4, WINTER 2013

In In This Focus: Issue: Asian We Nations Start a New in the Regular Race toSection Get a Share Profiling of the Asian Arctic Countries in Taiwan

In In This Focus: Issue: Asian We Nations Start a New in the Regular Race toSection Get a Share Profiling of the Asian Arctic Countries in Taiwan In In This Focus: Issue: Asian We Nations Start a New in the Regular Race toSection Get a Share Profiling of the Asian Arctic Countries in Taiwan

of of Trust Trust The Politics Find to ofsubscribe Trust The Politics Find out out more more and and subscribe to our our print print or or online online edition edition at at globalasia.org globalasia.org of Trust In This In Focus: Issue:How We Start to Break a New the Regular Deadlock Section in the South Profiling China Asian SeaCountries in Taiwan

See our redesigned In This website, Issue: Our www.globalasia.org, New Section Focusing for analysis, on Asia's debates, Less Prominent archives and Nations more

In This In Focus: Issue:How We Start to Break a New the Regular Deadlock Section in the South Profiling China Asian SeaCountries in Taiwan

See our redesigned In This website, Issue: Our www.globalasia.org, New Section Focusing for analysis, on Asia's debates, Less Prominent archives and Nations more

In This In Focus: Issue:How We Start to Break a New the Regular Deadlock Section in the South Profiling China Asian SeaCountries in Taiwan

See our redesigned In This website, Issue: Our www.globalasia.org, New Section Focusing for analysis, on Asia's debates, Less Prominent archives and Nations more

In This In Focus: Issue:How We Start to Break a New the Regular Deadlock Section in the South Profiling China Asian SeaCountries in Taiwan

See our redesigned In This website, Issue: Our www.globalasia.org, New Section Focusing for analysis, on Asia's debates, Less Prominent archives and Nations more

In In This Focus: Issue: Asian We Nations Start a New in the Regular Race toSection Get a Share Profiling of the Asian Arctic Countries in Taiwan In In This Focus: Issue: Asian We Nations Start a New in the Regular Race toSection Get a Share Profiling of the Asian Arctic Countries in Taiwan

In In This Focus: Issue: Asian We Nations Start a New in the Regular Race toSection Get a Share Profiling of the Asian Arctic Countries in Taiwan In In This Focus: Issue: Asian We Nations Start a New in the Regular Race toSection Get a Share Profiling of the Asian Arctic Countries in Taiwan

Find to online edition at Have you tried our print tabletor edition yet? Download our app free on Find out out more more and and subscribe subscribe to our our print or online edition at globalasia.org globalasia.org iPad from Apple’s App Store or on Android from the Google Play Find out more and subscribe to our print or online edition at globalasia.org Have you tried our tablet edition yet? Download ourper app free on Find out more and subscribe to our print or online edition globalasia.org store.you Subscribe just $19.99 per year orat $5.99 Have tried ourfrom tablet edition yet? Download our appissue. free on

Kim Won-il The House with a Sunken Courtyard

Lee Ki-ho At Least We Can Apologize

Yi Kwang-su The Soil

Park Wan-suh Lonesome You: Stories

Jang Eun-jin No One Writes Back

We Help Asia Speak to the World We Help Asia Speak to the World and the World Speak to Asia. and the World Speak to Asia.

Ad for Koreana 277x280 Mar 2014.indd 1

Ad for Koreana 277x280 Mar 2014.indd 1 Ad for Koreana 277x280 Mar 2014.indd 1 THE US REBALANCING TOWARD ASIA: ESSAYS BY

Patrick M. Cronin, Michael McDevitt, Wu Xinbo, Donald K. Emmerson, Malcolm Fraser, Richard A. Bitzinger, Kang Choi & Noboru Yamaguchi

PLUS

By Pavin Chachavalpongpun

Georgiy Voloshin China as a Stabilizer in Central Asia Ramesh Thakur The New Great Game in Afghanistan Tridivesh Singh Maini & Manish Vaid The Emerging Role of Indo-Pakistan Border States Young-hoon Lee Economic Reform in North Korea Peter Hayes A Breakthrough Six-Party Summit in 2013? Asger Røjle Christensen Japan’s Abduction Saga Book Reviews by David C. Kang, Börje Ljunggren & John Delury

THE US REBALANCING TOWARD ASIA: ESSAYS BY

PLUS

CREATING A NEW WORLD OF SOCIAL ENTERPRISES

Reflections by Won-soon Park & Tae-won Chey DRAWING A LINE IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA

By Nguyen Manh Hung

BURMA IN THE ASEAN CHAIR IN 2014, AT LAST

Patrick M. Cronin, Michael McDevitt, Wu Xinbo, Donald K. Emmerson, Malcolm Fraser, Richard A. Bitzinger, Kang Choi & Noboru Yamaguchi

Georgiy Voloshin China as a Stabilizer in Central Asia Ramesh Thakur The New Great Game in Afghanistan US$15.00 Tridivesh Singh Maini & Manish Vaid W15,000 The Emerging Role of Indo-Pakistan Border States CREATING A NEW WORLD OF SOCIAL ENTERPRISES A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME 7, NUMBER 4, WINTER 2012 Reflections by Won-soon Park & Tae-won Chey Young-hoon Lee Economic Reform in North Korea Peter Hayes A Breakthrough Six-Party Summit in 2013? DRAWING A LINE IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA By Nguyen Manh Hung Asger Røjle Christensen Japan’s Abduction Saga BURMA IN THE ASEAN CHAIR IN 2014, AT LAST Book Reviews by David C. Kang, Börje Ljunggren & John Delury By Pavin Chachavalpongpun

The US ‘Pivot’ to Asia

Ad for Koreana 277x280 Mar 2014.indd 1 Is It Just About Ad for Koreana 277x280 Mar 2014.indd 1 Containing China?

iPad from Apple’s App Store or on Android from the Google Play iPad from Apple’s App Store or on Android from the Google Play store. Subscribe from just $19.99 per year or $5.99 per issue. store. Subscribe from just $19.99 per year or $5.99 per issue. Have Have you you tried tried our our tablet tablet edition edition yet? yet? Download Download our our app app free free on on iPad from Apple’s App Store or on Android from the Google Play Have you tried our App tablet edition Download our Google app freePlay on iPad from Apple’s Store or onyet? Android from the store. Subscribe just $19.99 per year $5.99 Have you tried ourfrom tablet edition Download ourper appissue. freePlay on iPad from Apple’s App Store or onyet? Android from the Google store. Subscribe from just $19.99 per year or or $5.99 per issue. iPad from Apple’sfrom App just Store or on per Android from theper Google store. Subscribe $19.99 year or $5.99 issue.Play store. Subscribe from just $19.99 per year or $5.99 per issue.

RISKS & OPPORTUNITIES FOR ASIA’S NEW LEADERS: ESSAYS BY

Gilbert Rozman, Takashi Inoguchi, David Shambaugh, Joon Hyung Kim, Haksoon Paik, Leon V. Sigal, Jonathan Berkshire Miller & Lilia Shevtsova

THE TPP AND THE QUEST FOR EAST ASIAN REGIONALISM

By Inkyo Cheong

THE DEBATE: IS THE TPP AIMED AT THWARTING CHINA?

PLUS

Jennifer Lind Beware the Tomb of the Known Soldier

Shalendra D. Sharma From Meltdown to Bounceback: How South Korea Weathered the 2008 Financial Crisis

Saroj Kumar Rath Drugs in India Are a Security Threat

In Focus: Taiwan Wu Yu-shan, Chen Tain-jy & Chu Yun-han

ASSESSING A CODE OF CONDUCT FOR THE SOUTH CHINA SEA

Book Reviews by John Delury and Taehwan Kim

By Mark J. Valencia

RISKS & OPPORTUNITIES FOR ASIA’S NEW LEADERS: ESSAYS BY

Gilbert Rozman, Takashi Inoguchi, David Shambaugh, Joon Hyung Kim, Haksoon Paik, Leon V. Sigal, Jonathan Berkshire Miller & Lilia Shevtsova

We now have an iPad and Android tablet edition! PLUS See p.5 Jennifer Lind Beware the Tomb of the Known Soldier

Shalendra D. Sharma From Meltdown to Bounceback: US$15.00 How South Korea Weathered the 2008 Financial W15,000 Crisis

THE TPP AND THE QUEST FOR EAST ASIAN REGIONALISM | Will Andy Yee When Japan8, Tap Its Internet Potential? A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG VOLUME NUMBER 1, SPRING 2013

By Inkyo Cheong

THE DEBATE: IS THE TPP AIMED AT THWARTING CHINA?

Saroj Kumar Rath Drugs in India Are a Security Threat

Wang Yong Squares Off Against Takashi Terada

In Focus: Taiwan Wu Yu-shan, Chen Tain-jy & Chu Yun-han

ASSESSING A CODE OF CONDUCT FOR THE SOUTH CHINA SEA

Book Reviews by John Delury and Taehwan Kim

By Mark J. Valencia

We now have an iPad and Android tablet edition! See p.5

US$15.00 W15,000

US$15.00 W15,000

A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME 7, NUMBER 4, WINTER 2012

A JOURNAL OF THE EAST ASIA FOUNDATION | WWW.GLOBALASIA.ORG | VOLUME 8, NUMBER 1, SPRING 2013

The US ‘Pivot’

INDONESIA AND THE CHALLENGES OF GROWTH: ESSAYS BY

Andy Yee When Will Japan Tap Its Internet Potential?

Wang Yong Squares Off Against Takashi Terada

Inside our latest issue: Inside our

Dewi Fortuna Anwar, Stephen Norris, James Castle, A. Lin Neumann, Erry R. Hardjapamekas and Adil W. Surowidjojo & Syed Farid Alatas

CHINA’S NEW AIR ZONE AND THE EAST CHINA SEA DISPUTES

By Mark J. Valencia INDONESIA AND THE CHALLENGES OF GROWTH: ESSAYS BY Dewi FortunaPLAN Anwar, James Castle, WILL JAPAN’S TOStephen EXERCISENorris, ITS COLLECTIVE A. Lin Neumann, ErryMAKE R. Hardjapamekas SELF-DEFENSE RIGHT ASIA MORE ORand LESS SECURE? Adil W. Surowidjojo & Off Syed Farid Alatas Gui Yongtao Squares Against Yuichi Hosoya CHINA’S NEW AIR ZONE AND THE EAST CHINA SEA DISPUTES

By Mark J. Valencia

WILL JAPAN’S PLAN TO EXERCISE ITS COLLECTIVE SELF-DEFENSE RIGHT MAKE ASIA MORE OR LESS SECURE?

Gui Yongtao Squares Off Against Yuichi Hosoya

PLUS

Jonathan Berkshire Miller Politics Continues to Chill Japan-South Korea Relations Andy Ye Why Taiwan’s ICT Sector Needs a New Model Pavin Chachavalpongpun Western Pragmatism Trumps Human Security Concerns in Myanmar PLUSEvans The Passing of Robert Scalapino, Kim Kyung Paul Jonathan BerkshireTadashi Miller Politics Continues to Chill Won and Yamamoto Japan-South Korea Relations Book Reviews by Samuel S. Kim Andy Why Taiwan’s ICT Sector NeedsHave a New Model & JohnYeDelury you tried Trumps Pavin Chachavalpongpun Western Pragmatism our iPad or Human Security Concerns in Myanmar Android tablet Paul Evans The Passing of Robert Scalapino, Kim Kyung editions? See p.107 Won and Yamamoto Tadashi Book Reviews by Samuel S. Kim Have US$15.00 & John Delury you tried W15,000

3/10/1

3/10/1 3/10/1

3/10/1 3/10/1


frÜ h jah r 2014

Koreanische Kultur und Kunst

Vom offenen Hafen zum Flughafen Nr. 1

Jahrgang 9, Nr. 1

Incheon: Koreas Haupttor zur Welt

frÜh j ah r 2014

Spezial

Incheon Koreas Haupttor zur Welt

Die Stadt, wo innere und äußere Einflüsse zusammentreffen; Die Geschichte von Incheon

www.koreana.or.kr

Jahrgang 9, Nr. 1

ISSN 1975-0617


Koreana Spring 2014 (Russian)