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Serving Mifflin County and the surrounding area.

The Valley A free newspaper dedicated to agriculture, self-reliance, frugal living, and modern homesteading. Tomorrow’s Media - A Day Early Volume 4, No. 8

Saturday August 31st is going to be a very special day in Burnham. Vietnam Veterans Chapter 791 is going to dedicate the new Memorial at Beech Circle in Burnham. Isn’t it about time everyone came out and said Thank You to these forgotten and often times maligned heros? We did a story on this endeavor early on in the last stages of their planning. At the time, it seemed like a monumental task for the group of crusty old men gathered around the table at Vince’s. I thought to myself, “God Bless you for your inspiration and vision,” but I wasn’t sure this was going to go off as planned. The sparkle in their eyes eased my fears somewhat, but still... My fears were baseless, as once again these soldiers mounted up and accomplished their mission. Within weeks I saw fluorescent marking paint on the grass at the circle. I started driving that way often to gauge the progress. On one particularly cold and windy day the group of old soldiers were out there building the forms for the concrete bases, taking constant measurements and handling other tasks, all with August 31st in mind. It was beginning to appear that just like in the war, this group of dedicated veterans were once again going to win the battle. Flag pole bases were set in late spring, then the poles them-


The Valley, August 2013

selves. More concrete was poured and this area was becoming something very moving. Before the black slabs were even in place, I was beginning to feel the importance this place would hold

to those who served, and to the families of those who didn’t come home. The memorial was designed by Charlie Dicken and is funded by the purchase of brick pav-

ers that will be used at the site memorializing your favorite veteran or to honor a deceased family member. The brick pavers will feature three lines of text for the name, branch of service, and

The site of the new Vietnam Veterans Memorial at the Beech Street circle in Burnham, you can still say thank you to those who served by purchasing a brick.

Lighting Brush Fires in People’s Minds

years served, or for a non-veteran, perhaps “In Memory Of” and then a name. There is a cut out form at the end of this story to make it easy for you to participate in this long overdue Thank You for those who fought and were forgotten by those they fought for. Two black marble panels are being placed as of this writing, which will contain the names of the 16 local soldiers who paid the ultimate price. The back of one panel will feature the POW-MIA logo and the back of the second panel will feature the service ribbons and the phrase “All Gave Some—Some Gave All.” This memorial will be a source of pride for Burnham and I am sure many will go out of their way to steal a glimpse over time. To ensure that this is a total success, I would encourage you to purchase a brick as I am going to do for my brother who served in the Air Force in 1967-1968. Stationed in Da Nang as a computer programer, he never expected to see any action, but the Tet offensive changed that, and sent him home a changed man. I can’t imagine what it did to those who saw it every day. I do know one thing, this memorial is long overdue, and so are the thank you’s. The ceremony will kick off at 1:30 p.m. on Sat., August 31st and

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The Valley, August 2013


Editor’s Corner Wayne Stottlar What troubling times we live in. People taking to the streets and rioting because they are unhappy with a jury verdict. Our President is even stirring the pot of racial tension. The media is manipulating what you hear and thereby forming your perception for you. We are surely in troubled times, when you add this to the fact that no answers have been forthcoming concerning the IRS, Benghazi, or NSA. I know the wheels of justice turn slowly, but isn’t it amazing how slow they turn when the defendant is our own government. But why would we expect anything less from a government that makes it illegal for someone to point out that our government is doing something illegal? To add insult to injury, those useless corrupt Senators and Representatives all seem to regurgitate the “government” talking points, BOTH PARTIES! This should turn the light bulb on in some folks minds. There is no more balance of power in our government, both sides are working AGAINST you. You are nothing more than subjects who will obediently do as you are told. If you aren’t compliant, the government will use one of its unaccountable, all-powerful agencies to bring you into line. Welcome to tyranny! Our government school system has

finally produced a population of willing little sheep who are connected electronically 24/7 and patiently wait to be manipulated into action in mass. Take the Trayvon Martin/ George Zimmerman verdict. First off, the only reason this was brought to trial was because our own government, with your tax dollars, sent agents to Florida to fan the flames and stage riots. Read that again, the hysteria was manufactured by our own government! Was it a tragedy? Yes, absolutely, the best thing that could have happened was for the two never to meet. Once they did, and Zimmerman was attacked, the resulting outcome was exactly what should happen. The attacker was the one responsible from the moment he threw the first punch. It does not matter what our (criminal) President has to say, or his equally criminal attorney general. They, or the government, are not who gives us this right to defend ourselves—that comes from GOD! If Martin had answered Zimmerman respectfully about being on his way home, the incident would not have escalated to the point it did. But like so many youngsters these days, Martin decided to escalate the problem, probably never expecting that Zimmerman was armed.

I feel really bad for Martin’s parents, they have handled themselves extremely well. I am not sure I could fathom that much composure if this had been one of my boys, in fact, I know I couldn’t. Just the same, their boy did, in fact, cause his own death, and Zimmerman was more than justified in using deadly force. This could very easily become a teachable moment as our ‘criminal in chief’ likes to say, in that this could be a lesson to other wannabee thugs, that sometimes thugs get shot. It is sad that a 17 year old lost his life, no doubt about it, but that 17 year old chose to gamble and he lost. In my mind, this was the correct verdict to a trial that should never have taken place. Zimmerman should be entitled to have ALL costs associated with the trial be paid by the prosecutors office, after all, their corrupt actions caused this expense. For all of you folks who disregard the facts and the truth of this case, YOU are the reason this will happen again. When you disregard the truth and side with emotion, nobody learns anything and the cycle repeats. This incident had absolutely NOTHING to do with race. It was caused by a teenager who

had no respect and idolized a thug mentality. One person attacked another person and was killed in the process—it happens every day, and this time the situation turned out as it should. Was this just a case, or more government and media manipulation of what you were supposed to think? Remember, they call it “programming” for a reason. Speaking of media manipulation and dictating what is important, how about the hour-by-hour week long, coverage of the “royal baby”! Really, this was worth all of that air time? It sure wasn’t to me, or anyone that I talked to. The media apparently decided that you should all care about it, so instead of broadcasting the NEWS, they manufactured a production worthy of a film premier. I mean honestly— congrats to the parents, cheerio old England and all that, but isn’t this kind of behavior one of the underlying reasons our founders decided that this kind of elitism wasn’t what we wanted? I seriously do not give a rats rear end about ANYTHING of this nature, especially from outside our borders. This kind of ‘production’ is what keeps people distracted from the serious issues that affect us as a nation. How about some coverage from the 30 survivors of the Benghazi attack? Can’t talk about that, it just might highlight the fact that Hillary is criminally responsible for what took place, and then there would be the list of those involved covering it up. Reporters just won’t report on the truth in most cases anymore for fear of not being invited to the next press conference designed to

Contact Info Editor/Publisher Wayne Stottlar Graphic Artist/Co-Publisher Lynn Persing Associate Editor Colleen Swetland The Valley PO Box 41 Yeagertown, PA 17099 (717) 363-1550 E-mail: Web: ©The Valley. All Rights Reserved.

distract from real issues. We still have a criminal agency in the IRS that has yet to be held accountable for targeting those who stand opposed to the unconstitutional actions of the current group of thieves, despots, and common criminals that rule our country. Neither party has a corner on this behavior, the Democrats and the Republicans share equally in this regard. They are liars, with absolutely no intention of doing anything to correct the course of our country. They should all be thrown overboard, except that might leave one liable for polluting the water. Of course these are men and women with human tendencies toward taking care of themselves at all of our expense. The watchdog who is supposedly the media have failed miserably at reporting the truth, they too only care about being

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The Valley, August 2013 Editors Corner from page 2 invited to the next news conference or scoring that big story that will further ingratiate themselves to the very criminals who need to be held accountable. Rant over! Do you all have your wood stacked and ready for winter yet? I have next year’s ready to go and have the following year’s wood ready as well. Just two more loads and that task will be finished. If you plan on burning the wood you buy now this season, the quicker you get it stacked the better, and it had better already be seasoned or dry. If not, you will not be getting the BTU potential from your wood. Give Brian Stine a call—his ad appears on page 8 of this issue. I have been getting all of my wood from Brian for the last 3 years and have been 100% satisfied. He provides honest counts and prices that can’t be beat. A harder working guy you won’t find anywhere. As the season gets closer, he, of course, gets busier, so take care of this right away and be ready for winter when it arrives. There is something very comforting about a year’s supply of wood all stacked and covered. While trying to get this issue completed of The Valley, we have been working around a topsy turvy house. We are having a bathroom remodeled and, of course, it is the one we normally use every day, so it is now downstairs to shower in the morning and also to water the lily before bed. Not only that, but because of this, we have all of the upstairs the bathroom paraphernalia all over the upstairs! My OCD is really being challenged. The saving grace is the contractor we chose for the job. Larry Yohn came highly recommened by Ron Witherite up at Ron’s Fruit Market, and Jewel Brindel, at The Paint Shop in Reedsville who said sometimes Larry is in a couple times a day. I like that, a local contractor who doesn’t buy at the big box stores or from the national chains, but rather supports his local businesses. That fits right in with why we chose Larry, he is local. Still, no matter how local the guy or gal is, anyone who suffers “neatness syndrome” like I do, knows that just using someone local will not hold back those feelings of despair over an upside down house. But somehow, Larry can do that, he is prompt, meticulous, neat, and as we say in “New Hampsha,” “Wicked Smaht.” I know all too well that this house does not possess a plumb

Sunday, September 1


Rain or Shine at Coburn Park

» » » » » » » » » »

Live Music All Day Silent Auction Fresh, Locally Prepared Food Workshops in the Learning Tent Children’s Creativity Tent Sweet Creek Café Duck Races & Water Bottle Rockets Conservation Exhibits Live Petting Farm & Pony Rides Falconer Mike Dupuy

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START Benefits: AM PVCA Environmental Education Programs PM FINISH

wall, a square corner, or a level floor. This is what you get with a 105+ year-old house. No problem for Larry, a real carpenter, he can figure the issue out and make everything look right. If you need some work done, let Larry give you a quote, I think you will be pleasantly surprised. Don’t forget to come see us

at the PA Organic Farmfest at the Grange Fairgrounds in Centre Hall on August 2 - 3. See ad on page 28. The Valley will have a booth in the main hall as well as The Valley Cinema where we will show movies from our Food Freedom series. Movies are all free to attend. We will be showing, “Farmageddon,” “Queen of the Sun,”

and “Genetic Roulette” at noon, 2:00 p.m. and 4:00 p.m., repsectively on Saturday in The Valley Cinema building. There will also be a 15- minute “Introduction to Organics” before each show starts. There are demos, organic food vendors, exhibits, an outdoor symposium and live music all day long from three different stages.

This is the second annual PA Organic Farmfest presented by Pennsylvania Certified Organic and it promises to be a great time! Come on out, learn something new, meet someone new and try some new foods. See you all at Grange Fairgrounds on August 2nd and 3rd. Go Organic! a

The Valley, August 2013


quick stop at my local hardware store for some 3 ½ inch nails was first on my list. Next on the list was cutting the nail head off and sharpening both ends to a lethal sharp point. Getting a 900 bend in the nail was accomplished by placing the nail in a vice and using a hammer (my way) or using a bench mounted metal bender (the professional way). Now finding a welder willing to help me with my project was in order. A little asking around was all it took—it pays to know people who know people! (On a side note: welding is an excellent skill to learn, as much as it would pay off now it would most certainly be beneficial in a post-collapse economy.) The last steps consisted of inner looping the nails, welding on all sides, and then a quick paint job

Bunker Security: Homemade Caltrops A caltrop also known as caltraps, jack spikes, nail stars, and/ or road stars; is a device that has four sharpened spikes designed so that no matter how the device lands when deployed there will

always be one spike pointing up. Caltrops have been used for decades in many different manners. Feudal Japanese warriors had a design which they called a Makibishi, which was used in defending fortifications from the attacking enemy and could also be thrown to hinder a chase when making an escape. The earliest known use of a caltrop was in 331 B.C. by the Romans. This device had a devastating Bad news for any tire or even an animal hoof. Roadstars effect on horseallow you to secure a small area fast

driven chariots. Similar devices are still put to use today by Law enforcement and Special Forces units. Again, before I go any further, here is your token disclaimer. I am not responsible for anything that you do at home. Deployment of such a device isn’t advised and possession is forbidden in some jurisdictions. Wait a minute, I take that back, possession and deployment IS advised but ONLY in a worst-case scenario. I knew caltrops would fit perfectly into my defensive preparedness plans and I knew I needed a lot of the little nasties. While available for purchase online, I wanted to go the frugal route and make my own. Finding the materials was easy enough; a

in a subdued color that wouldn’t reflect light. With my caltrops complete I now have a vital step in securing any area that I want to deny access to. Again I will state that deployment or even possession of such devices could be illegal in some jurisdictions. Do so at your own risk. While this article, I’m sure, will elicit a few strange looks my way and I guarantee there is a certain D.A. who is shaking his head right about now, when properly deployed in a worst-case survival situation such as a EROL

(Extreme Rule Of Law, in other words declared Martial Law) or WROL (Without Rule Of Law), caltrops will make a great addition to your preparedness security needs. a

The Valley, August 2013

Getting Down And Dirty! The Basic Building Blocks You know how events sometimes suddenly pile up and you find yourself facing way more things needing your attention than any one 24-hour day could possibly accommodate? Well, I recently looked out my back door and found this very situation staring back at me. As we all know, the only way to handle these occasional avalanches is to prioritize and

then juggle like crazy – which is precisely what I’ve been doing and it’s been working well. Now, like all of your Valley writers, I take each month’s article seriously (even when the subject isn’t). This means I try to write the best article I am able to, every time. Since I can’t do that right now and since our Editor is such a laid back kind-a guy (THANKS, Wayne), we’ll be pushing the next

installment of “Getting Down and Dirty!” to September. So have a productive August, we’ll see you next month and, as always, THANK YOU for being THE GREATEST READERS IN THE VALLEY! a


The Valley, August 2013


Burnham’s Massage/ Sauna Practice Shares The Secret To Detoxifying Your Whole Body As a Licensed Massage Therapist and a Certified Medical Massage Practitioner, I am always looking for different options to help my clients feel better and stay healthy. After a massage, it is recommended that the client drink plenty of water to help flush the toxins from their body. While receiving a massage, the toxins are being pushed through the bloodstream, so it is important to flush them out in one way or another. Besides drinking water, the next best option is to “sweat” it out. Now, you can go outside and run or do some kind of physical activity, or you can use a Far Infrared Sauna. With that said, I decided to purchase a Far Infrared Sauna and add it to my massage practice.

Now my clients can relax, detox, and feel energized all in one session. The Far Infrared Sauna uses dry, radiant heat, which comes from the carbon panel heaters that are located on each wall, floor, and underneath a bench. The removable bench is ideal for stretching and hot yoga applications. The cabin temperature ranges from 110-115 degrees. Each session lasts 30 minutes. Now, let’s take a deeper look at how each Infrared Sauna benefit helps our body heal. Weight Loss: You can lose up to 10 pounds in 30 days with regular sauna use while you relax and unwind. Far Infrared radiant heat will Burn 600-900

calories in a 30 minute session! Sweat off pounds and inches without a special diet or exercise! Far Infrared heat actually breaks down the water clusters that contain fatty cells and toxins, which allows the body to sweat out this cellular waste through the pores of the skin. When the body temperature reaches 100 – 101 degrees F, the Resonant Absorption Effect literally melts Fat and Cellulite while you Sit and Relax! Detoxify Your Whole Body: Far Infrared Heat Therapy is absolutely the safest, most efficient detoxification method for expelling harmful environmental toxins, lactic acids, & heavy metals from the body. Detoxification is the foundation for family health maintenance. Healing time for damaged tissues, muscles, tendons, ligaments and nerve endings is greatly reduced. Enhanced cell regeneration will give you more energy, stamina, and mental clarity. Pain Relief: Healing therapy with Far Infrared Saunas provides real, lasting relief for: nerve damage, arthritis, fibromyalgia, muscle pain, carpal tunnel and joint pain. No pills, potions or lotions!

Eliminate Stress and Tension: Relax and melt away the buildup of daily stress and the tension of the workday grind. Feel the glow of deep penetrating infrared heat as it soothes and heals your body naturally. Say “Goodbye” to everyday stress, tension, sleep apnea and insomnia. You will be more relaxed, tension free and sleep like a baby. Full Cardiovascular Workout: Medical studies have documented Far Infrared Therapy lowers blood pressure, improves blood circulation and rebalances the body’s metabolism. A sauna session is a genuine passive cardio workout without exercise! Now, I’m not saying you should not exercise! Organic Skin Care: Infrared Sauna Treatments dramatically renew elasticin-collagen tissues while crow’s feet, forehead lines, wrinkles, age spots, scars, varicose veins and stretch marks naturally fade away. Look younger while you cleanse your body from the inside out. Chronic skin conditions like acne, dermatitis, eczema and psoriasis literally vanish. Infrared energy purges

clogged pores, neutralizes infection and hydrates skin. Cancer Therapy: Far Infrared Therapy has been applied as a cancer treatment worldwide for 20 years. Far Infrared saunas increase the production of white blood cells, killer T-Cells, and interferon which fight cancer cell growth. Radiant heat actually kills mutated cancer cells! Lymphatic Drainage/Edema: Infrared Sauna Therapy assists in resolution of inflammation infiltrates, edema, and exudates. The increased peripheral circulation provides the transportation needed to help evacuate the edema, which can help stop inflammation, decrease pain, and help speed healing. a

OBSERVATIONS . . . of an OLD MAN A Day At The Beach

From The Notes, Ronald Reagan’s Personal Collection of Stories and Wisdom, edited by Douglas Brinkley, 2011, page 109: Wisdom of a Founding Father - A Thomas Jefferson quote:

by Sarah Hurlburt This month is for the young and the young at heart... The warm sand feels like its rolling under my feet as I run toward the big waves. I hear the ocean roaring like a lion wild and beautiful. The waves crash in front of me spraying salty water on my face and I laugh and squeal as daddy lifts me high above the next wave and spins me around. I feel the hot sun wrapping around me like a fuzzy blanket and skip towards the waters edge to feel the next cold wave wash its cool, refreshing spray over my burning skin. The giant ocean uses its icy cold fingers to pull the sand from under my toes as it races back out towards the sky. We scoop and dig and press the sand until we have a magical land of castles. I imagine tiny

kings and queens in them ruling their sandy kingdoms. But soon the giant ocean reaches the castle walls and the sand kingdom is helpless against the cold giants smashing waves. I jump as the lifeguards screechy whistle pierces the air—no more swimming because the dolphins are here. I jump for joy as a dolphin shoots out of the water swaying like a dancer, then disappears with a loud slap of his tale. Mommy gets out a kite and shows me how the wind grabs it and flings it wildly into the clouds. I run and run as the kite pulls me along; I wish the wind could pick me up and fly me through the clouds—it looks fun to be a kite. As the sun goes down and winks its sleepy goodbye, we will go home and I will dream of our magical day at the beach. a

“I place economy among the first and most important virtues, and public debt as the greatest of dangers to be feared. To preserve our independence, we must not let our rulers load us with perpetual debt. If we run into such debt, we must be taxed in our meat and drinks, in our necessities and in our comforts, in our labor and amusements. If we can prevent the government from wasting the labor of the people under the pretense of caring for them, they will be happy.” How are we doing?

A) “We must not let our rulers load us with perpetual debt.” We have already violated this dictum; for over 30 years.

B) “If we run into such debt, we must be taxed in our meat and drinks, in our necessities and in our comforts, in our labor and amusements.” It is the only way out C) Jefferson did not say we should cut taxes; he said we must be taxed! Cutting taxes is how we got here, an accumulation of deficits for over 30 years.

Peter J. Moses


The Valley, August 2013

Adventures on Our Nourishing Journey by Sue Burns

Fair Thee Well It is the fairest time of the year! Surely you and yours have plans this summer to explore America’s favorite playground; the county fair! One of the many privileges of living “The Valley” life is making an annual pilgrimage to our local fairs and festivals. It is a unique time set aside to celebrate and recognize farming, small town life, small local businesses, and homemaking skills that have all but disappeared from most of modern society. Is there anything grander than a summer fair? I think not. It is a delight to our senses. Wrapped into one amazing event we are offered competitions, entertainment, vendors, rides, and oh yes, we can’t forget the ever present and tempting “fair food.” I am sure you would agree; anything deep fried and served on a stick has a special allure. You may be surprised to know that while I don’t endorse most of the epicurean delights found at fairs, I recognize their beckoning charm. I am sure you would agree that there are many valuable lessons to be learned and shared at the county fair, such as witnessing demonstrations of hard work, commitment, respect, and relationship building, yet most assuredly, this extravaganza is not the time nor place for an in- depth discussion on the health benefits of broccoli! Even so, I believe we need not indulge our palates to the point of no return. County fairs can be seasonal dietary pitfalls bursting with ‘over the top’ foods that are heavily laden with sugar and damaged fats. With that in mind, I will share with you some survival tips I have used over the years that have helped me navigate the inevitable landmines of fair food. Perhaps they will keep

you out of the line of fire too! • First, eat something healthful at home before you head to the fair. You don’t necessarily need a big heavy meal, but get some reinforcements into you like cheese and raw vegetables or a salad and lean protein such as chicken, nuts, hardboiled eggs, or tuna. Otherwise, when the smell of fried foods smack you in the face as you emerge from your car, you will more than likely be magnetically pulled to the first corn dog stand you see. • I am a realist when it comes to county fairs. I know that everyone gives in to at least one or two indulgences. It is all part of the experience. Yet when you predetermine your choices before impulsively consuming everything in sight, you will stand a better chance of winning the war on grease. Take several trips around the “battlefield.” Peruse all the vendors. Navigate the lay of the land to get a heads up on your best bets. For me, I seek out the hottest, crispiest, hand cut, french fries, (which I douse in ketchup), followed by a small mound of cooling chocolate ice cream. To further enhance my enjoyment, I try to find a place to sit down, watch the crowd go by, and savor every lip smacking bite! Now THAT is country living. • Split your portions with fam-

ily and friends. You’ll get to taste more items and you may find that just a bite or two of that fried pickle is enough! This tip is a money saver too. August is the month for us to indulge in the bounty of the county in the form of fresh fruits and vegetables, but unfortunately, at the county fair most of those lovely crops are on display in the exhibit hall rather than being served by the food vendors. Yet if you dig deeply, you may find hidden gems such as grilled veggies, salads and fruit cups hidden within the puffs of cotton candy and deep fried everything. Drink water. Staying hydrated is critical on warm summer days. Resist the soda and lemonade. They will only cause you to crave more sweets and your thirst will not be satisfied. Save your calories for something that you only get to eat once a year! Walk, walk and walk some more. Unless you are sitting down to mindfully enjoy your treats, keep moving to burn up those extra calories. Avoid completely or share abundantly the following foods which are some of most calorie laden morsels at the fair: Just say no to funnel cakes, turkey legs, giant pret-

zels, snow cones, and all those novelty deep fired items like fried Oreos, fried cheese, fried candy bars, fried butter and fried krispy kremes. OH MY!! • Instead, substitute vegetable and meat kabobs, corn on the cob, iced tea, a candy apple, and, (I can’t believe I am saying this), it IS summer and it IS the county fair so, what the heck, have a hotdog! Now for some very exciting news. If you want to savor the essence of a county fair, but would also like to be assured of fresh, local, high quality food, check out the fun-filled events associated with “Local Foods Week” sponsored by PASA (Pennsylvania Association for Sustainable Agriculture) and the Centre County Chapter of Buy Fresh Buy Local. The week long event kicks off on Friday August 2nd and runs through and including August 10th. Here is a sampling of the highlights taken from their website: • Friday & Saturday, August 2nd & 3rd - Pennsylvania Organic Farm Fest - Head out to the Grange Fair Grounds in Centre Hall for live music, awesome exhibits, a home-

made & homegrown market, organic classes, children’s activities and delicious food. You’ll find some of your favorite BFBL Partners there, and stop by PASA’s table to get your Farm Tour Pass along with lots of good information about local and sustainable agriculture. It’s the perfect way to kick off Local Foods Week! Make sure to stop by and say hello to Wayne at The Valley exhibit booth. There is no fee for this event. Go to http:// for a lot more information. Sunday, August 4th - Bike Fresh Bike Local Centre County -Join us for a summertime ride through some of the most beautiful rural landscapes of Central Pennsylvania. This three tier Bike Fresh ride - 25, 50 and 75 mile routes available - provides opportunities for the beginner and the advanced cyclist to tour the farmscapes, woodlands and villages that populate this sheltered valley region. Cyclists will finish their ride with a delicious lunch & refreshments provided by Elk Creek Café

Continued on page 14

The Valley, August 2013


War Of The Weeds I don’t know about you, but I am up to my eyeballs in weeds this year. I don’t know what to blame it on. Wet weather? Heat? Improperly cooked compost? Usually I would point to the latter, but even in my journeys to different landscaping jobs, I am finding an abundance of noxious weeds. Jewel weed, poke weed, dandelion, purslane, chickweed and various others are running rampant everywhere. I am spending countless hours every week

manually pulling trash barrels full. I have looked for many different answers to manual cultivation, but each has its drawbacks and benefits. I don’t really like the idea of using Roundup. There is a lot of controversy in the safety of this well known chemical. Plus, as farmers well know, weeds are becoming immune to Roundup and they are resorting to other cocktails of herbicides to combat the new super weeds taking over their fields. Still others don’t like

the idea of supporting the likes of Monsanto (the manufacturer of Roundup). There are many more natural methods of dealing with weeds such as using white vinegar in a spray bottle. Ten percent acidity works the best and is more readily available than the 20%. As this is usually pretty effective, you have to be extremely careful not to overspray the area where you are treating because it will kill anything that it comes in contact with. Some people will mix a little table salt in with the vinegar, but I hesitate using this because, in my opinion, it can’t be very good for the soil. You also can add a quick squirt of dish soap to the sprayer to help the vinegar cling to the leaves of your weeds. This is best done on a sunny day as the weeds will fry within hours. Boiling water is another pretty easy trick. Just boil up a kettle of boiling water and pour it on the weeds you want to eradicate. You are effectively cooking the plants. This idea intrigued me until I had

a vision of walking around the yard with a hot tea kettle, oven mitt in hand accidently splashing the boiling water on my legs and feet. You can outnumber them. Gardening is all about a competition for resources, where the strongest not only survive, but thrive. By choosing ground covers, flowers, and garden crops that will naturally out-compete weeds for sunlight, water, and soil nutrients, you can dramatically reduce the number of weeds you’ll need to contend with. The same principle applies to controlling weeds in a lawn. If you maintain a thick, healthy lawn, you’ll have fewer weed-invaders. Mulch is also a great way to keep weeds down. Of course, in places like driveways and walkways mulch can’t be used, but for larger open areas a thick layer of mulch will almost always dramatically reduce the hours spent pulling or cultivating. Last year in the vegetable garden I even laid down landscape fabric before planting my tomatoes. It worked pretty well, but as the season went on I discovered the weeds were actually sprouting on top of the fabric, as the seeds must have been blown in by the wind. Newspaper as a starter layer works really well in the garden. Just be sure to use many layers and wet them immediately upon putting them down. I made that mistake a few years ago. I thought I had enough newspaper to do an area but once I ran out I went looking for more in the basement. It was very

windy that day…and you can just imagine the rest of THAT story! If you plan on using straw in your beds, please put down the newspaper layer first. Another lesson that same year as after I ran out of newspaper, I threw down leaves of straw on the bare ground only to have them madly sprout a week or two later. It was a nightmare to rake it all out of the way and then pull the field of lush new straw babies. I suppose you learn new things every year and each time I try something new I always go back to using my hands and my trusty cultivator. Nothing beats good old fashioned sweat and muscle, and maybe that’s not such a bad thing. a

Lawlessness and the Good, Holy and Spiritual Law from page 17 vances. It is my hope to address various church doctrines such as Sunday vs. Saturday observance, Festivals vs. Holidays, and even the rapture over the next several columns bringing a different perspective to bear. Thanks for taking this time with me. C. Mark Ostrowski, MSFS, is the Founder and President of The Stewardship Group in Belleville. His articles ponder various contemporary topics evaluating them from a political, economic and scriptural point of view. a


The Valley, August 2013 Seasonal Produce

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The Valley, August 2013


Picture Perfect

I enjoy looking at online advertisements for horses in my spare time. Not that I need to buy anymore horses. I am curious to see what is available. It always amazes me that people will post

an advertisement for an expensive horse, but they cannot seem to put a decent photograph with the ad. More than looking at horses for sale, I enjoy photographing horses. Therefore, I may be more

Goose in the front reaching forward is a more eye appealing photograph than Crockett during a down stride.

critical of photographs that others show of their horses. There are a few key factors you need to consider when photographing a horse to make it look its best. Are you photographing to show conformation for the purpose of an advertisement? Are you photographing to have a beautiful artistic portrait? If you are photographing for conformation to show how the horse is built, you need to take consideration of many more factors. When photographing just for fun, any camera may do. Many people with today’s social media just want pictures they can post online and share through the internet. If you truly want good clear photographs that you can reproduce, you may want to purchase a better quality camera with a few key elements. This will enable you to have photographs that you can enlarge and frame for on

your wall. The most important functions I look for are shutter speed and zoom. I want a camera that has no delay from the time I press the button until it snaps the picture. Quick shutter speed is great for horse action. Also when trying to capture distant images, such as reaching out into the pasture or bringing horses up close while in the show ring, a zoom lens is a must have. Once you have found a camera and decided what kind of pictures you want to take, a little preparation will make photographing your horse much more gratifying. First, be prepared to be patient. Some days you just don’t get the shot that you want. There is nothing wrong with taking several shots. With digital cameras, delete is a wonderful thing! Sometimes what you are looking for does not come out in the first shot, and often you may find that you have captured something else interesting by taking more pictures. If you are taking action shots, unless you have studied the movement of the horse to be able to get exact timing of leg position, you may need to take multiple photos. Positioning of legs in action shots is

important to make the horse look more balanced and eye appealing. If a horse is in a “down stride” that is not as pretty as an “up and forward moving” stride. The angle of the photograph is important so that the horse does not look out proportion, such as having a large head or long body. Whether you are taking conformation shots or creative shots, you always need to consider background. Background can be distracting. Fence in a picture can enhance the landscape, but it can also look odd coming out of the back of a horse. Poles and vehicles are other distractions. Considering the composition, such as the space around the horse or your focal point in the photograph can make a boring image into something vibrant and exciting. When photographing with a rider, it is twice as hard to get an ideal picture. You must consider position and expression of both horse and rider. Usually if the rider remains relaxed and patient during the photo shoot, the horse will also. Often the “less posed” photograph is the more appealing. Always consider lighting and shadows. Shadows can either ruin a picture or make it look more creative. Be aware of where the shadows are as you are shooting. I try to avoid a flash. I prefer natural lighting, and a flash can also be distracting or spook a horse.

Continued on page 47


The Valley, August 2013

LIbrary Lines Your Mifflin County Library

Wow! Here we are in the dog days of summer! It is time to wrap up our summer vacations and get ready for school to start again. But let’s not get ahead of ourselves, there is still plenty of time left for summer fun. Do you have a trip planned to the beach, the lake, maybe camping in the mountains? There is so much to do at these venues, but between the planning, the packing, and the kids in the car, you can be exhausted before you even begin your vacation! Well the library can help. We have books to make trips with the kids more fun than ever before. Try a few of these books: 101 Family Vacation Games by Shando Varda, 38 Ways to Entertain Your Parents on Summer Vacation by Dette Hunter (or) 38 Ways to Entertain Your Grandparents on Summer Vacation by Dette Hunter or, maybe you would like Games From Long Ago by Bobbie Kalman. As grown-ups we have to worry about keeping everyone safe, especially when we are camping and swimming. So why not try one of these books: Basic essentials: Wilderness first aid by William W. Forgey, Wilderness medicine by William W. Forgey, or The Kids’ Guide to First Aid: all about bruises, burns, stings, sprains & other ouches by Karen Buhler Gale. We even own the

First aid: Boy Scouts of America merit badge series. Remember, we have books to help you prepare ahead of time, whether it is cooking, getting in shape, or even relaxing tips. Maybe you want to try something different, how about: Volunteer vacations: short-term adventures that will benefit you and others by Bill McMillon, Doug Cutchins, and Anne Geissinger. Last year I wrote an article in Library Lines about all the books we have on fun vacations and day trips you can make in Pennsylvania. Most of these are great because you have less travel time, and we have so much to see and do here. We have lakes, camping, hiking trails, canoeing trips, museums, spas, famous historic sites, and so much more. There really is something for everyone in Pennsylvania! So, relax and let us help you find the right book for your travel needs. Speaking of relaxing, remember we also have great books to take on vacation. Do you like love stories, mysteries, fantasy, biographies? We have every kind of book you can imagine to take along. We also have tons of great books for kids of every age. So come into our libraries and get started! Betsy Tomasik a

Dutch Pantry from page 31

best way to insure innovation and low prices over the long-term. A multitude of small businesses, each selecting products based not on a national sales plan, but on their own interests and the needs of their local customers, guarantees a much broader range of product choices. 10. Encourage local prosperity: A growing body of economic research shows that in an increasingly homogenized world, entrepreneurs and skilled workers are more likely to invest and settle in communities that preserve their one-of-a-kind businesses and distinctive character. August 2013 is our one year Anniversary at our new home in Milroy, Pa. We would like to take this opportunity to thank our community and our neighbors in the surrounding counties for your wonderful feedback and support, and for making our first year a huge success. We have made many new friends and found new

jobs to residents. 6. Get better service: Local businesses often hire people with a better understanding of the products they are selling and take more time to get to know customers. 7. Invest in community: Local businesses are owned by people who live in this community, are less likely to leave, and are more invested in the community’s future. 8. Put your taxes to good use: Local businesses in town centers require comparatively little infrastructure investment and make more efficient use of public services as compared to nationally owned stores entering the community. 9. Buy what you want, not what someone wants you to buy: A marketplace of tens of thousands of small businesses is the

will feature the President and Vice President of the National Vietnam Veterans Association as well as a county official, all of which will give short speeches to make the dedication official. The last time I saw the group

they seemed upbeat and excited despite being constantly behind in fund raising, but they seemed sure that this was going to be a mission completed no matter what obstacle was presented to them. I say it is up to us to give them a little help this time, to make sure that this last battle will be one that they will win as well. It

is a thoughtful way to say Thank You, so buy a brick and come to the dedication. Bricks are only $60 and I can’t think of a better long term, cost effective piece of advertising than your business or group thanking the veterans on a brick paver that will be there long after you retire. a

talented artisans that now have their unique creations for sale here at Dutch Pantry Gifts. We are continuing to grow and offer many new and unique items that won’t be found anywhere else. We would also like to take this opportunity to thank The Valley Newspaper for their support and providing a place for local talent and businesses to be

highlighted. In appreciation for the support we have received from our community, the Dutch Pantry will be holding a customer appreciation super sale August 4th through August 18th. We will not be taking any commissions from our local consignment vendors, instead we will give that fee away to the customer in the form of a

super sale. Everything in the store will be on sale. Dutch Pantry Gifts is at 15 Commerce Drive, Milroy, Pa accross from Tom’s next to Dollar General and Subway. See our ad in this months paper for store hours. or call 717-667-0310 or visit us at *Statistics provided by Sustainable Connections. a

Vietnam Veterans Memorial Dedication from front page

The Valley, August 2013



If you read my article in the July issue, you know that Wayne is starting into the honeybee hobby in our back yard. You also know that I’m not particularly thrilled about it and that I was stung by one of them on delivery night when we set the hive into place. Although I survived the sting, it’s been four weeks now and I still have a round red spot the size of a quarter where I was stung. I’ve never been allergic to bee stings before, but I’ve been told you can develop an allergic reaction at any time. Wayne’s “girls” (as he affectionately refers to the bees) really haven’t been as much of a “problem” as I initially thought they’d be, but I have to admit, when the clover in the yard is in full bloom between mowings, I walk pretty care-

fully through the yard in my flip flops. I’m a little apprehensive

Wayne tending to his “girls.”

about another sting since that first sting ended up in a bit of cellulitis about the size of my hand for a

couple weeks. Can you blame me? Wayne has tended the hive twice now since we brought it to live with us. He’s pretty brave about it, but I keep my distance! On his first visit to the hive, it was H&H (hot and humid)—90 degree hot and humid—so he just pulled out each frame in the upper honey super and tried to see where they were in the production of honey. When he returned to the house and stripped off the vinyl gloves he was wearing, water (aka sweat) poured out of them. Wow, better you than me! He must have lost two lbs. in body weight just from the sweat that came off of his hands. His second hive tending was just yesterday and involved removing one of the “deeps” (A deep is where the queen lays eggs, the brood is hatched and some honey is stored to feed the queen and feed the hive throughout the winter) and transferring the frames of bees

into a newer, freshly painted by his honeybees. However, he deep. That’s a lot of movement did mow over top of a hornet’s of bees—way too much for me. I nest in the yard last week and got did get some pictures of this, but I stung twice. Now, speaking of didn’t want to get anywhere close hornets, that same day I was in to that kind of action! the yard pulling weeds out of the So I’ve been reading some flower beds and this HUGE hornet interesting things about honey (at least that’s what I speculated bees. They don’t like the smell of it was at the time) landed on a human body odor, so you better be plant right in front of me. I’ve showered when you go out there never seen a hornet this big and so to tend that hive! They also like unusual. It had a band of bright light colors, rather than dark, thus orange around it’s body and very the reason bee suits are white. The long wings. I had to find out what queen can lay about 2000 eggs a this thing was so I went right to day--a DAY! Quick calculating Google. I identified it as a Vespa tells me that’s 14,000 new bees Tropica, which is commonly a week. I also learned (technicalled a Greater Banded Hornet cally I already knew) that they and lives in Asia and other areas don’t like it when you wave your of Europe. So, WHAT is this hands around and they can sense thing doing in my backyard? Is when you are not calm, which is probably why I got stung. I was Continued on page 30 most definitely “freaking out” after we placed the hive that first night. I really think seeing Wayne dressed in his white bee suit and moving around the hive is quite comical. He looks like something from a sy-fy movie where they dress up in full body suits and breathing apparatus before inspecting some creature. Wayne hasn’t been Vespa Tropica, commonly known as the Greater stung yet, at least not Banded Hornet.


The Valley, August 2013

Understanding the Constitution Constitutional Chaos I borrowed the title of a book written by Judge Andrew Napolitano in 2004 for the title of my column this month.. There are so many attacks on our Constitution that it is difficult to narrow down an issue. It should be against the law to break the law. It should also be against the law to refuse to enforce the law when it is your job. Our federal government is a mess. Our President and his bureaucracy have been dodging responsibility for their misdeeds, their illegal actions and their utopian arrogance. They seem to take the posture that they may use any means necessary to achieve their ends of supposed fairness and egalitarianism. The government and media do their best to spread their ideals of radical egalitarianism while avoiding offense to anyone (except we conservatives). Officially, our

by David Molek

country celebrates diversity, but privately, America is fragmenting into racial, political and ideological camps. Truth is one of, or perhaps the, lifeblood of democracy. Our foundation of honesty is crumbling. I believe the Obama administration has institutionalized deception. Just look at our Justice Department, IRS, our security agencies, and even official presidential press communications and speeches. There seems to be an arrogance in Washington that justifies any means necessary to achieve their goals. Our federal government tells us that it is better capable of determining our lives, our lifestyles, our religion and how we speak, act, think and spend our money. We cannot conduct businesses without government over-regulation and control. These proponents of a “living constitution” aim to transform

our nation’s supreme law beyond recognition, with a minimum of public attention or debate. The self-evident truths of our Declaration of Independence aren’t as widely thought to be “self-evident” as they once were. They have been forgotten by many and transformed beyond recognition by others. Sometimes, I feel like the “lone ranger” amongst apathetic, ignorant “takers”. We need to resist this tyranny and oppression. It almost seems to me that our elected leaders in Washington along with our current administration control all three branches of government. They no longer respect or consider themselves answerable to the people or our Constitution that speaks with their voice and in their name. We are heading towards the very species of totalitarian government that our Founders feared. But no matter what setbacks we face and what the current administration is doing to us, liberty is an eternal endowment. Liberty is endowed by our Creator. Progressives assert that the government is the giver of liberty. Man dose not endow liberty. God does. Just look at what President Obama is doing. He suspends laws contrary to his constitutional duty to enforce laws. There is absolutely no provision in our Constitution that authorizes a President to enact, amend or repeal statutes. Obama does so by executive decrees. Remember the Dream Act, DOMA, NCLB, IRS Obamacare, marijuana, immigration, etc. The list goes on and

on. Our federal government is, in my opinion, a mess. The bureaucracy has amassed enormous power, has taken illegal and highhanded actions, has become indifferent, erects legal barriers for citizens and dodges responsibilities. Federal propaganda astounds me. They keep telling us how great their socialist policies are. This “change” that was voted in is not the change our country should have. I just don’t trust them at all. They commit crimes and no one takes them to task. I never thought in my lifetime that I would ever see a worse president than Jimmy Carter. But I was wrong – big time! Our President does not govern and is not a leader at all. I am tired of hearing all the excuses. I truly hope we can survive the next couple years. I did not focus on a specific constitutional issue this time as I usually do in my column. I hope Editor Wayne gives me a pass. I just get so frustrated at times seeing how our wonderful country is being turned into an administrative state by these so-called progressives. This administrative state was created to overcome our Constitution’s goal of limited government. These giveaway programs, once created, are never questioned and are just transferred to some bureaucracy to be admin-

istered. The spending and debt are out of control. When more than 50% of voters become totally dependent upon government, we are done. I try hard to remember and advocate issues like our constitutional framework being inspired by a theological sense of natural law. I am often accused of wanting to “turn the clock back”. I can live with that because I believe that preserving and renewing the spirit of our Founders is perfectly consistent with our moving into the future. Without our constitutional framework, America would no longer be e pluribus unum. Is it possible to restore constitutionalism? It is possible that things have moved so far that there is no way to recover the cultural foundations for a constitutional constituency. But it seems wrong to me to give up without a fight. Unless Congress cuts off the flow of power to the administrative state, unless there are checks and balances reintroduced, unless true separation of powers are the norm, unless the role of the states is as the Founders designed it with our 9th and 10th Amendments with true federalism and unless our spending and governmental dependency programs are reduced, it is an uphill battle. But it is the right thing to do. A long time ago, I saw the words: Resolve, Ready, Resist. I have applied these words and basic principles to my feelings toward my country, politics, government and our Constitution. Having completed what I perceive to be the Resole phase, I have been in ready phase a few years now. There is still work to be done in the Ready phase. a

The Valley, August 2013


Encouragement From The Book Of Revelation

Fair Thee Well from page 7

by Pastor J. C. Reese If you do Facebook and are a little older, now isn’t it interesting to catch up with old friends you haven’t seen in years and see the changes? What if we could peer into the future and see what we will look like years later or what the world will be like? Aren’t you sometimes anxious about what will happen with the economy, your health, or something else? The final book of the Bible offers us a glimpse of the future and it’s an accurate one for it is from God Himself! The book of Revelation is perhaps the most misunderstood, misinterpreted, and misapplied book in all of Scripture. It evokes feelings of dread to some and encouragement to others. It has been sensationalized and jammed into TV preacher’s teachings for personal gain and downplayed by those who do not believe the Word of God, yet this wonderful climax of the Holy Bible is meant to be a very enlightening and encouraging glimpse into what will come to pass. It’s talking about YOUR future! Permit me to delve into just a few reasons this Divine disclosure of the end times should bring you such peace and assurance about what will be. For one, because of what God has disclosed to YOU. The book begins: “The Revelation of Jesus Christ. . .” That word “revelation” is the Greek “apokolupsis” from which we get apocalypse and means a disclosure or unveiling of truth. But it is not the predictions of Nostradamus or some other fallible foreteller, but as the Bible says next “. . .of JESUS CHRIST” letting us know we can bank on it. With the unsettledness of our current world, it is very comforting knowing the Lord Himself has given us a message of hope that our future, as true believers in Him, is very bright. But also, be comforted knowing that Revelation shows us what God has done for YOU. A promise is given by the Lord in verse 3: “Blessed is he that reads, and they that hear the words of this prophecy, and keep those things which are written therein.

. .”. The word “blessed” was used in the Sermon on the Mount by Jesus in what are called the Beatitudes. For example, “Blessed are the poor in spirit” (Matt.5:3). It is important to understand that the word blessed isn’t limited to the idea of happiness, which comes from “hap” and means a joy dependent on one’s circumstances. Normall,y when someone is happy they are so due to things going well at the moment, but when adversity comes, most people are unhappy. They are governed by their situation, not the Savior. This word, however, is much richer and spiritual in its meaning for it is a joy that comes from the Person of God ! It is as Paul says, a “fruit of the Spirit.” So what we’re told as Revelation begins is that for the one who reads, hears, and endeavors to observe carefully what is in it, this person will be a special recipient of the joy and blessing that God alone gives! What a promise, huh? Who wouldn’t then want to read this book often! And John goes on to record (as the human writer, God being the author) that Jesus loves us and the proof is He died for us to “wash us from our sins” (vs. 6). The greatest thing done for you is not the promise of blessedness but that of salvation in His dying on the cross to pay for our sin! To any person, no matter how you have sinned in the past, who truly asks God’s forgiveness for his sin and asks Jesus to save his soul, salvation is extended because He paid for it at Calvary and said “It is finished.” Something I tell our congregation often in our little log cabin church is those very words in the original language He used allude to no need for a “do over” as to what

+ Aleworks, including a brew for riders over 21 years of age. Tuesday, August 6th - Golden Basket Chef Competition. The Boalsburg Farmers Market will once again host their local food chef challenge during Local Foods Week. Come to the market to watch area chefs go head-to-head to create a variety of dishes inspired by and featuring ingredients sourced at the market. You’ll get a chance to sample some of the dishes and definitely get some inspiration for your own culinary pursuits! Saturday, August 10th - 8th Annual Farm Tour -Don’t miss the chance to see the farms where your food is grown and get a tour from the farmer. A summer highlight, tour goers will get to know their food at its roots and have a chance to pick up goods directly from the farm. Many farms offer samples or a chance to pet or feed animals. Details and passes for the tour are available on the website.

week-long event contact: www. or call 814-349-9856 With so much from which to choose, I hope you “fair thee well” during these dog days of summer. See you at the fair! a Sue is a holistic nutrition consultant and holistic health educator. Her office is located at 54 Chestnut Street in Lewistown. To learn more about her business go to She can be reached by email at or give her a call at 242- 3132.

He did on that cross for you! Last, Revelation consoles us in what God will do for YOU! One day He will right all wrongs when He returns and the evil we see in our world today, whether it be in government, business, even in the name of God through religion, will be dealt with properly Poor Will’s Valley Almanack and things set right. I will not from page 19 • fall into the trap of setting dates on this as others have, for it is not, man’s place to do so, but what I contains weekly updates and can say with certainty is each tick a sizable bank of information of the clock draws us closer to His about nature. His organization appearing. Verse seven refers not of weather patterns and phenolto the rapture of the church, but ogy (what happens when in nainstead the Second Coming. We ture) offers a unique structure are clued in on this when it states for understanding the repeating that “every eye shall see Him.” rhythms of the year. Believers who have been raptured will return with Him at the Second Bill lives in Yellow Springs, Ohio. Advent to set up His kingdom and He has two daughters, Jeni, who set things right as He deems them is a psychologist in Portland, Orto be. And when He comes, “all egon, and Neysa, a photographer kindreds of the earth shall wail in Spoleto, Italy. a For more information on this because of Him” (vs.7). Why not joyous at His visible return? These will be those who oppose Him and His Word and the word “wailing” indicates very strong emotion against Him, but for those who love Him, you can be encouraged He comes to rectify the wrongs done to you and others, and so there is no need for us to be • Reliable Propane & Heating Oil Delivery vengeful, but to show His love and • Budget Payment Plan Call today grace and let Him to learn about our • 24/7 Emergency Service deal with those who are sinful toNEw CustOmER • Heating Equipment Service Plans ward you. He will sPECiAls! • Safety Trained Professionals always do right by you, but in His • Over 80 Years Experience time. Revelation is a great book encouraging us in many wonderful ways! Why not Our Business is Customer Satisfaction start reading it today?! a

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The Valley, August 2013

Our Environment Our Culture

An Introduction to Biochar by Kevin Morgan

If it’s not gas prices (hydrocarbons), carbon dioxide, sugars in the diet (carbohydrates), or in agriculture, soil organic matter, which is just another name for it; everyone is talking about carbon in one form or another. Carbon is the building block of life due to its ability to bind to numerous other elements to form many essential compounds. So it should not be surprising that using large amounts of charcoal or Biochar as a soil amendment is one of the most talked about topics in agricultural research. So what is Biochar? To understand this method a little history about using charcoal, or Biochar, as a soil amendment needs to be explained. Charcoal has been shown to be a stable form of carbon that scientists say continues to remain in Amazonian soils often referred to as terra preta. Tribal peoples of the region took soils that are considered marginal in nutrient value, drainage, texture, and depth and

transformed them into productive agricultural lands through their use of Biochar. However, the true productivity potential is only now beginning to be examined. Johannes Lehmann of Cornell University states, “Biochar can be used to address some of the most urgent environmental problems of our time-soil degradation, food insecurity, water pollution from agrichemicals, and carbon loading of the atmosphere.” What is taking place in the soil when Biochar is added is still open to opinion, but in a studies that took place from 1980 to 2008, 16 out of 18 experiments conducted using Biochar have shown increased yields and/or increased biomass in crops ranging from radishes to rice. The three main reasons for these results are believed to be soil nutrient availability, microbial activity and composition, and soil moisture retention. Let’s examine each of these separately. Biochar has shown the ability

to increase nutrient availability in soils. Through studies, Biochar demonstrates that it holds nutrients in place allowing for their slow release. It also exhibits better retention of all cations owning to increased CEC (cation exchange capacity). The addition of Biochar also increases the pH of the soil. The reason for this could be attributed to the overall increased organic matter in the soil. However, studies have shown that Biochar alone can have the reverse effect on plant productivity the first year. Biochar that has been mixed with compost or some other fertilizer has shown the greatest benefit. Many leading experts believe that Biochar accomplishes this due to its high amount of surface area caused by its porous structure (see picture). This structure, which resembles a sponge under a microscope, gives nutrients more available area to adhere to, thus preventing the leaching of nutrients. Soils that have been treated with Biochar illustrate increased microbial composition and greater species diversity. Once again, Biochar’s increased surface area is believed to be the main culprit along with hydrophobic nature of

An electron microscope image of Biochar.

the microbes and the Biochar itself. Greater microbial activity increases more rapid cycling of nutrients in soil organic matter allowing for decreased leaching and more nutrient uptake by the plant. According to Dr. Riveria-Utrilla, “Activated carbon, which is chemically similar to black carbon or Biochar in soil, has shown to absorb microorganisms strongly, and this absorption increases with higher hydrophobicity.” Once again, Biochar shows a unique ability increasing microorganism activity and composition leading to a more productive environment for the plant. The final reason for increased productivity with the soil amendment Biochar is increased soil moisture retention. Organic and mineral composition in soils contributes to soil water holding capacity. Since Biochar affects

both organic and mineral levels in soil, it will also affect the soil water holding capacity. According to a study conducted by Glaser in 2002, “Water retention capacity was 18% higher than in adjacent soils in which charcoal was low or absent. This was likely a combined effect of the char itself and the higher levels of organic matter that it promotes.” However it should be noted that many experts agree that these results would only apply for sandy soils, have a neutral effect on medium textured soils, and retain a negative effect on “clayey” soils. Could you use charcoal brought at the store and add it to your soil? Yes you can but make sure it has no other chemicals added to it. You also want to pummel the charcoal in a dust form and

Continued on page 30

The Valley, August 2013


The moment of truth when the judge inspects your animal.

It's Fair Season!

The anticipation is over. All of the hard work you have done to get your lambs and goats show ring ready is now becoming a reality. Are you ready for fair? In this article, I am going to explain what to expect for your local fair and some helpful hints in preventing common problems. It’s a week before move-in day for your local fair. What do you need to remember? When I am getting ready for fair, I always write a check list, and I pack my vehicle and trailer the night before and check off what has already been packed. Most importantly, you need to remember to pack the essentials. Health papers, bedding, feed, and

buckets are a good start. It’s also helpful to pack “extras” just in case something happens to the original. If you have the opportunity to clip your animals before going down to the fair, make sure you bring blankets for the animals at night when the temperature drops, and also bring clippers, a hose, soap, and a trimming stand for last minute touch-ups. Writing emergency phone numbers, such as your veterinarians, could come in handy if something goes wrong. If you’re not sure whether you packed everything that you need for fair, contact an experienced person that has exhibited animals at the fair before or contact the livestock chairman of your fair for

additional information. If it’s your first time showing goats or lambs at a fair, there are a

few things you should remember. A fair is a completely different environment compared to being at

These two entries seem to be taking all of the commotion in stride.

home in a place that’s familiar to the animals. The different smells, other animals, and crowds of visitors that come to the fair are extremely stressful on the animals. Try to make them as comfortable as possible. From experience, there are many fairs that have chlorine in the water to eliminate bacteria. Because of the different taste and smell, some animals refuse to drink the water. It would be a good idea to either bring water from home or to purchase a water purifier so that the animal doesn’t become dehydrated and lose weight, especially because of the summer heat and stress combination. Market animals will stay at

Continued on page 41


The Valley, August 2013

Lawlessness And The Good, Holy And Spiritual Law We live in a lawless society, from the very upper echelon of government to the street level, many seem to be seeking after only that which satisfies their own base desires. Looking at this through the lens of scripture, I propose to you that we are witnessing a harbinger which is indicating the times are drawing to a close. It’s really a global epidemic, and this cancer is permeating our society. Can you not sense it? It’s in the news reports, it’s in the way the financial markets behave. It’s in the weather patterns. It’s evident in how our neighbors treat us, it comes through in the draconian edicts our government pronounces over our daily lives.

And soon, according to Holy Writ, the God of Abraham, Isaac and Israel, the Great Redeemer, will stand to take his rightful place as the head of the nation of Israel, and rule from Jerusalem. The message of the day is the message of the past six millennia. The King is looking for a spotless bride. One who is blemish free, conforming to all His ways. This is His message: Come out of her my people! We do well to consider these matters, particularly if you claim the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob as your God, because the Almighty is doing a renewed work in these days. I believe it is evident in scripture that as His

Sons and Daughters, we were never to have left the observance of his law and feasts. We inherited lies, as the Prophet Jeremiah says in chapter 16. Jesus never taught men to break His law and neither did Paul. Jesus said do not think that I have come to abolish or destroy the law or the prophets, I have come to fully preach it! The Greek word used here is pleroo (play-ro’-o) which means to fully preach! To prove this, consider Romans 15:19; through mighty signs and wonders, by the power of the Spirit of God; so that from Jerusalem, and round about unto Illyricum, I have fully preached the gospel of Christ. Same word, pleroo. So we see, right at the onset of His earthly ministry, Jesus said he was not going to get rid of the law! Paul himself says in the book of Acts; I do serve the God of our Fathers, believing everything that is in accordance with the Law!

That’s verse 14, and in chapter 25 verse 8, Paul said I have committed no offense either against the Law of the Jews or against the temple or against Caesar. We see here that Paul was a law abiding man, he gave unto Caesar what was Caesar’s and to God that which was God’s. In the book of Romans, Paul says it is not the hearers of the Law who are just before God, but the doers of the Law will be justified! Do we then nullify the Law through faith? May it never be! On the contrary, we establish the Law. What shall we say then? Is the Law sin? May it never be! So then the Law is Holy and the commandment is holy and righteous and good. The Law is spiritual, but if I do the very thing I do not want to do, I agree with the Law, confessing that the Law is good! The Law is Holy, The Law is spiritual and the Law is good! We never hear this! But God these days is bringing us back to His plan that He established all along for His people to be a pure and Holy Nation who follow His decrees and observe His ordinances. You see, I’ve come to learn that when scripture speaks against the law, it’s not God’s Law. Scripture never doubles down and speaks against The Almighty’s decrees. No, it is the man made laws of the

Pharisees that Paul rails against. He counters the claims that one needs to be a Jew to be saved. He speaks out against circumcision as a method of salvation. No, salvation is a free gift, but how we use that salvation is key. In Revelation, the perseverance of the saints is spoken of. It is they who keep the commandments of God and their faith in Jesus! Then there is another group of people who think they are recipients of the Kingdom of heaven, but are denied entry. Did we not prophesy in your name they are recorded saying in Matthew 7, and in your name cast out demons and in your name perform many miracles they will say to Jesus. He declares to them, I never knew you, depart from me, you who practice lawlessness. We know from 1 John 3:4 that God defines lawlessness as sin. Many are dogmatic, stating that Jesus did away with the law, but if the new covenant is as Jerimiah prophesied in chapter 31, whereby God places His law within us (and you can’t be under something that’s in you) and has written it on our hearts, then it is still in full force and effect and we need to determine how to get back to His right rulings and obser-

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The Valley, August 2013


POOR WILL’S VALLEY ALMANACK for August of 2013 by Bill Felker

Our seasons have no fixed returns, Without our will they come and go; At noon our sudden summer burns, Ere sunset all is snow. --James Russell Lowell The Sun This week, the sun moves halfway between summer solstice and autumn equinox. It is a time that lies between the chorus of birdsong, which characterizes the first half of the year, and the chanting of insects, which marks that transition to the final half. . The Planets Jupiter and Mars in Gemini rise well before dawn, shining in the east. Mars moves retrograde into Cancer at the end of the month, moving away from Jupiter, but retaining its position as one of the morning planets. Venus and Saturn, both in Virgo, shine in the west after sundown. The Stars August’s midnight brings the Summer Triangle close to the center of the sky. Arcturus is setting and Perseus is rising. The Milky Way splits the heavens in two. August at midnight is also the daytime sky of the midwinter thaw. It is a promise of spring written in stars, a prophecy that everything, indeed, is exactly balanced. The Shooting Stars Starting on August 12th, the Perseid meteors appear in the east (at the rate of one shooting star a second) an hour or so after midnight below the Milky Way in Perseus. If you look too far to the east, you will see Orion emerging out of the trees. If you look too far west, you will see the Great Square

Meteorology Tornadoes, hurricanes, floods or prolonged periods of soggy pasture are most likely to occur between August 8 and 13 and between August 27 and 31. Frost is most likely, of course, as summer ends, and the August 27 - 31 window often burns tender plants all along the northern border with Canada, as well as at higher elevations in the East and West. Full moon and new moon times bring increased chances for severe weather. AUGUST - WEEK 1 THE FINAL WEEK OF MIDDLE SUMMER Lunar Phase And Lore The Sweet Corn Moon entering its final phase at 12:43 p.m. on July 29, wanes throughout the period becoming the new Blackberry Moon on August 6 at 4:51 p.m. Rising after midnight and setting in the late afternoon, this moon moves overhead in the morning. Angling after breakfast should catch the fish which are influenced by the moon, especially as the cool front of August 4 presses down the barometer. Lunar passage through Taurus at the end of July and through Cancer on August 3 through August 5 favors the planting of the fall garden, especially radishes and turnips. Weather Trends The weather in advance of the August 4 front is some of the hottest of the summer. Highs in the cool 70s and lows in the 50s are rare in most of the nation between August 1 and 3. Rain very often accompanies the August 4 front (the day of the front’s arrival brings showers more often than any day since the first week of July), but after the system moves east, the likelihood for highs in the 90s begins a steady decline, and the possibility for a high only in the 60s appears on the horizon of possibility. Rainfall remains light and clouds infrequent through the 9th, which is one of the sunniest and

driest days of the summer. AUGUST - WEEK 2 THE FIRST WEEK OF LATE SUMMER Lunar Phase And Lore Under the Blackberry Moon, dark blackberries usher in the season of late summer. When they are ripe enough to pick, then all the crickets and katydids will be singing through the nights, and the first bird migrations will be underway. Rising in the morning and setting in the evening, this moon is overhead in the middle of the day, favouring angling at that time (but not dieting), most notably as the August 10 cool front approaches. The dark moon in Leo and Libra this week offers good lunar conditions for harvest and for weeding. Weather Trends The August 10 cool front can bring frost to the higher elevations in the West. Its strength also frequently causes violent weather throughout the Plains and the Middle Atlantic region. This second August front also contributes to the erosion of chances for highs in the 90s. The likelihood of rain increases sharply for two to three days because of this weather system, and within the next seven days along the 40th Parallel, lows reach into the 40s fifteen times more often than they do during the first week of August. AUGUST- WEEK 3 THE SECOND WEEK OF LATE SUMMER Lunar Phase And Lore The Blackberry Moon waxes all week, entering its second quarter at 5:56 a.m. on August 14. Rising in the middle of the day and setting in the middle of the night, this moon comes overhead in the evening. Fishing after supper offers promising lunar conditions this week, those conditions becoming even more promising as the August 17 cool front approaches from the west. The moon’s passage through Scorpio

on August 12 – 14 should help plantings of lettuce and autumn greens get off to a solid start.

set shrubs and bulbs for spring flowers. Harvest with the moon in Gemini, August 27 – 29.

Weather Trends Weather history promises highs in the 90s on 15 to 20 percent of the afternoons, milder 80s fiftyfive percent of the time, and cool 70s the remaining 25 percent. The 19th of the month, however, breaks from the pattern many years, and it has the highest frequency of 90s (35 percent chance) of any other day in the week. The third of late summer’s cool fronts typically comes through on August 17th. That weather system brings the chance of a killing frost to higher elevations in the West and portions of the North.

Weather Trends The high-pressure system that arrives near August 24 erodes summer a little more. At average elevations along the 40th Parallel, odds for an afternoon in the 90s are now only half of what they were two weeks ago, and the likelihood of mild highs only in the 70s is twice as great as it was at the end of July. As this cool front moves away, the period between August 25 and August 27 usually brings a return of warmer temperatures in the 80s or 90s. Rain precedes the last of August’s cool fronts two years in three, and when this high-pressure system arrives, the likelihood for chilly highs only the 60s or 70s becomes almost autumnal. Nights in the 40s or 50s occur half the time, and the morning of the 29th brings the slight possibility (a five percent chance) of light frost to the lower Midwest for first time since the end of May.

AUGUST - WEEK 4 THE THIRD WEEK OF LATE SUMMER Lunar Phase And Lore The Blackberry Moon, ripening the last of the blackberries, becomes completely full on August 20 at 8:45 p.m. Rising in the evening and setting after sunup, this moon is overhead in the middle of the night at the first part of the period. Midnight angling is always suggested at full-moon time, and this month’s middle-ofthe-night fishing will be enhanced by the approach of the August 24 cool front. The moon will travel through Pisces on August 21 - 23, favorable for seeding biennials and perennials in the garden, setting established collard and kale plants, and for getting in a row of lettuce. The Blackberry Moon wanes into its last phase 4:35 a.m. on August 28. Rising in the middle of the night and setting in the afternoon, this moon comes overhead in the morning. Angling (but not dieting) is favoured at breakfast time this week, and the approach of a cool front due in the last days of the month, will help the fish to bite. When the moon enters Taurus between August 26 – 27 and Cancer, August 30 through September 1,

A DAYBOOK FOR AUGUST August 1: Summer potatoes are usually ten percent dug by today. Half of the corn should be in dough. Honeysuckle berries ripen, and hickory nuts and black walnuts drop into the undergrowth. Arrowhead is in full bloom along the shores of rivers and ponds. August 2: This is the first week of ragweed time, and the first week of late summer. Golden and purple coneflowers, and white, pink and violet phlox still dominate the gardens. Red trumpet vine still curls through the trellises. Mums appear in the dooryards. The red stonecrop pushes out. August 3: Robin calls increase, short clucking signals for migration. Starlings and warblers become more restless. Hummingbirds, wood ducks, Baltimore orioles and purple martins start to


The Valley, August 2013 disappear south; their departure marks a quickening in the advent of early fall. August 4: Green acorns fall to the sweet rocket growing back among the budding asters. Black walnut foliage is thinning. Violet Joe Pye weed becomes gray like the thistledown. Fruit of the bittersweet ripens orange. Spicebush berries redden. Rose pinks and great blue lobelia color the waysides. August 5: Half the summer apples have usually been picked. Hemlock loopers work the hemlocks. Make corrective lime and fertilizer applications for August and September seeding. August 6: Three-fourths of the corn should be silked by now, more than half of the soybeans flowering or setting pods. Oats and the second cut of alfalfa, running neck and neck, are ordinarily three- fourths harvested. Oak skeletonizers eat the oak leaves. August 7: The third cut of alfalfa hay is often well underway by today. August 8: Growers are accelerating the harvest of processing tomatoes and peppers. Corn is usually all silked throughout the region. The peach harvest peaks. August 9: Everbearing strawberries and watermelons are ripe; summer apples are half picked. Pennsylvania peaches are often at their best. The harvest of winter wheat and oats is complete throughout the nation. Farmers are bringing in corn for silage, digging potatoes, picking tomatoes and finishing the second or third cut of alfalfa hay. August 10: Tulip tree scale attacks the tulip trees. August 11: The first ears of field corn are mature by today and at least a third of the crop is in dent. August 12: Divide and transplant lilies of the valley. Soybean foliage is turning; and the flowers have set their pods. August 13: The end of fireflies, the occasional long and loud robin valediction song, the yellow jackets in the windfall apples and plums, the appearance of white snakeroot and boneset flowers, the fading of cottonwoods, and the occasional falling leaf combine now with all the other endings and beginnings to accelerate the passage of the summer, building momentum with an accumulation of more and more events. August 14: This is the time that spiders in the woods weave their final webs. The katydids now chant through the night. Cicadas fill the afternoons. August 15: Morning fogs are thickening as the night air cools

more often into the 50s. Grackle activity increases while cardinal song becomes fainter. The early morning robins are silent. Whippoor-wills, cedar waxwings, and catbirds follow the signs toward the Gulf of Mexico. August 16: The third week of August is the week in which the Judas trees often show patches of bright orange in the otherwise solid green of maples. It is the week that elms, box elders, and catalpas start to wear thin, and showers of black walnut leaves sometimes foretell autumn. Buckeye leaves are browning under the high canopy. Scarlet has appeared in the sumac, Virginia creeper, and poison ivy. Ash, wild grape, redbud and cottonwood can be yellowing from the heat. August 17: As the sun moves toward its halfway point to equinox, frost season opens in the Northwest, and snow will soon be falling into Hudson Bay. Here in Pennsylvania, elderberries are ready for wine. It is high bloom for velvetleaf, jimsonweed, prickly mallow, wild lettuce, ironweed and wingstem, but teasel and tall bellflower time is over. August 18: Plum and pear harvests are underway. Long flocks of blackbirds head north to clean up after harvest. August 19: The banded ash clearwings attack local ash trees. August 20: Scout fields for lateseason pests, for larval feeding scars, a sign of rootworm damage, second brood corn borer, second generation of bean leaf beetles, and rootworm beetles. August 21: Wild grapes are ready to pick. A few fields are being prepared for winter wheat seeding. August 22: Prickly mallow and jimsonweed are taking over an occasional soybean field. August 23: Puffball mushrooms emerge among spring’s rotting stems and leaves. Bees are everywhere in the fields, sometimes five or six on a single flower cluster. Grackles become louder in the afternoons now, but an entire morning can go by without a cardinal song or the sound of a dove. August 24: Signs of fall coming: rows of lanky great mulleins black and gone to seed, pokeweed the size of small trees with purple stalks and berries, the panicled dogwood with white fruit and leaves fading pink, trefoils decaying, staghorns dark brown above their slightly red or yellow leaves. August 25: Ragweed pollen disappears with the last of the garden phlox. The year’s final tier of wildflowers is budding: beggarticks, bur marigolds, asters,

zigzag goldenrod. August 26: Telephone wires fill with birds as migrations accelerate. Flickers, red-headed woodpeckers, red-winged blackbirds, house wrens, scarlet tanagers, indigo buntings, Eastern bluebirds, robins, grackles, and black ducks move south. August 27: The best of hickory nutting season begins as sweet corn time tapers off. August 28: Sod the lawn in anticipation of cooler, wetter weather. August 30: These are the very last days of late summer, the transition time to early fall. Red and white phlox and the violet Resurrection lilies have almost disappeared from the garden. The tall loosestrife, which began its season in the middle of June, has completed flowering. Purple coneflowers and Joe Pye weed are pale now, and golden coneflowers have begun their three-week process of decay. August 31: Pickles season is usually over by now. Peach picking may be over for the year Prepare for the seeding of winter barley. Almanack Literature A Mouse in the Wash Story By Marie Knieper, New Lothrop, Michigan After we had been married for six years, we finally had enough money saved to build a new house on my father’s farm. I always was afraid of mice. One day as I was doing laundry in the basement, I was putting my husband’s socks through the wringers, and I reached in the water, and as I started to put my hand toward the wringers, I thought, “How did this sock get so scrunched up?” Just then it hit me: I’m holding a MOUSE! I threw it up in the air and it fell back into the washtub. I struggled to get upstairs. My husband took one look at me and said, “What’s wrong?” I guess I was pure white and almost ready to faint. He nicely went down and fished out my friend. Later we found out that when they ran the telephone wire into the basement, they made the hole too big, and the mice thought that was their front door. We carried out 37 mice that first winter, before we figured out what was going on. A Lump in the Boot Story By P.K. Anderson, Lima, Ohio “Here is a true story about my dad and a small mouse,” writes P.K Anderson. “Dad had a soft spot for all animals, so the end of

the story was painful to him as well as to the mouse.” My father, Warren Anderson, had remarkably trouble-free feet. When he needed new shoes, he’d send my mother to buy a pair of men’s size 9M, and then he’d wear the new shoes until they, in turn, fell apart. He kept his dress shoes in the house in his closet, but muddy and wet boots were kept in the “breezeway” that connected our garage to our kitchen. One day, my father was surprised when he put on his favorite boots in the breezeway, and they weren’t as comfortable as they had been the day before. He assumed that the problem was illfitting socks that were creating the sensation of a lump in his boot. He was startled when at the end of the day he removed his footwear and discovered blood on one sock. It was then he saw the small mouse, now crushed to death, which had shared his boot that day WINNER OF THE JUNE AND JULY SCKRAMBLER TO BE ANNOUNCED ANSWERS TO THE JULY SCKRAMBLER GIVANTEA NAVIGATE TIAAETG AGITATE GGGRTEEA AGGREGATE RRGTIIAE IRRIGATE EAITR IRATE ETARBELEC CELEBRATE EAOETRCD DECORATE ATEPETUPER PERPETUATE RAPCITEAT PARTICIPATE REPTEPTARE PERPETRATE TORTAE ROTATE RRTTIIAE IRRITATE SLTIOAE ISOLATE BVTOIAE OBVIATE LMNTEIIAE ELIMINATE CNTMNTOAIAE CONTAMINATE LTGTIIAE LITIGATE TDMEAOE MEDIATE TRGMEAI MIGRATE NGTEAE NEGATE MDTTEAIE MEDITATE TGMFIUAE FUMIGATE PRPGTOAAE PROPAGATE THE VALLEY “SCKRAMBLER” FOR AUGUST If you are the 1st or the 5th person to respond with the correct answers, you’ll receive a $5.00 prize. There should by no typos in this puzzle, but if you do find one, you June skip the word without penalty. There should be no typos in this puzzle, and no typo prize will be awarded. If you happen to find a typo, however, you June simply skip that word

without penalty. Send your entries by postcard only to Poor Will’s Valley Almanack at P.O. Box 431, Yellow Springs, Ohio 45387. The unscrambled words and the names of the winners will appear an upcoming issue of The Valley Newspaper. ORCN UOMHGRS ETAHW EDESNIL ALEM SNAEBYOS OOEEDSNTTC LAEM YOIHTMT LEYRAB ETEBS AETHWCKUB BTTRMLKUEI HISF MALE XLAF ESED YNIMOH SSSLMEAO OLIM NIAGR ODOLB AMEL SOTA UAENTP OLI EYR ROVELC AAALLFF AYH AUEDMRB AHY EAPWOC YAH SOONNHJ SSARG YAH SLEGMAN EOURWLFNS EDSSE NAUDS SASRG ETESW OESTATOP Listen to Bill Felker’s weekly “Poor Will’s Almanack” on podcast any time at www. And Bill’s website,

Continued on page 14

The Valley, August 2013


Fifty Years Ago From the pages of The Sentinel (Lewistown, PA), founded in 1903: August 1963 The vanguard of 4,000 Mennonite youth begins arrival in Mifflin County for the U.S. National Youth Convention with events scheduled at Kishacoquillas High School. A Mennonite bishop from Oregon addresses the gathering according to Sentinel reports. Temperatures begin a fickle dance as thermometers across Mifflin County strain to rise above 52 degrees. Nighttime lows flirt with the 30s. The low of August 26 dropped to 42 degrees, as the populace realizes complaining has little effect on the local weather. In local sports, Moose defeats Y’s Boys, 1-0 for National Division crown; Dick Berick of Junction hurls no-hitter at City nine in

softball league; area high schools open football practice; Lewistown Sunday School League All-Stars win Area 2 Little League crown over Snyder County. One Hundred Years Ago From the pages of the Democrat & Sentinel (Lewistown, PA), founded in 1832: August 1913 CARNIVAL GIRLS ARE LOCKED UP – State Police Serve Warrants Issued Through Local Committee – CHANCE GAMES ALSO SUSPENDED – Officers Brought Here From Harrisburg – Charged with violations of the laws regarding morality, five girls connected with the Oriental Show at the carnival grounds were arrested by two agents of the State Police from Harrisburg who came here at the insistence of the Law and Order Committee, composed of members of the Mifflin

County Ministerial Association and prominent churchmen. The committee claims that District Attorney Howard W. Aikins and Sheriff M.M. Bricker refused to take action against immoral shows and gambling. Civil War Echoes – One Hundred Fifty Years Ago From the pages of the Lewistown Gazette (Lewistown, PA), founded in 1811: August 1863 Long lists of the killed and wounded from Gettysburg were published weekly as reports made it through official channels. Union soldiers in Gettysburg hospitals able to walk with the aid of crutches moved through the town and identified rebel soldiers. These men were turned over to the provost guards. Ground in Gettysburg was purchased for a national cemetery

After two years of researching local history, collecting community photos, documenting the findings and reviewing his own experience, Paul Fagley’s book on the history of Derry Township Community Park is available. Entitled “Memories of Kishacoquillas Park,” the book presents the heyday times of this community landmark, which was once a popular amusement park, through more than 300 pages of color photos, illustrations and printed memorabilia. The idea for the book came to Fagley in 2010 after giving a walking tour of the park for the local Boyscout Camporee. “Memories of Kishacoquillas Park” is priced at $32.95 plus tax. Contact the Mifflin County Historical Society at 242-1022 or at Books can be purchased from the Historical Society office, at the Chamber of Commerce Gift Shop in the Historic Courthouse or at Friendship Book Store in the K-Mart Plaza, Burnham.

and preparations were being made for the removal of Union dead to the 20-acre plot. Dedication plans for the cemetery were to be announced at a later date. The cultivation of flax and tobacco was being revived because of the shortage of these two crops due to the supply from the South being cut off. The newspaper gave detailed instructions for the

growing and harvesting of tobacco. The general farm harvest was being hampered by the scarcity of hands. The largest corn crop in memory stood in the fields. Other grains were also plentiful. Grain prices included: wheat, $1.15 per bushel; corn, 60 cents per bushel; rye, 75 cents per bushel; and oats at 50 cents per bushel. a


The Valley, August 2013

Modern Energy and Alternative Heating with Curt Bierly

Bicycling the Rail Trails With our quick turnaround this month, and with it being summer, I decided to go off topic some this month to tell you about another passion I have, bicycling! We are very fortunate to live in an area with extensive trail systems for cycling—there is no better way to enjoy nature, come along with me and explore the Rail Trails. So far the summer has been plenty hot and humid with lots of rain. We live along Pine Creek north of Jersey Shore and they are still floating the creek in kayaks, inner tubes or canoes. Usually the stream is too shallow by this time, but the water level has held up this summer. We are also fortunate to live next to the 61 mile long Rail Trail in the Pine Creek Valley that starts north of us at Wellsboro Junction, travels south through the Pennsylvania Grand Canyon and terminates at the Trail Head in Jersey Shore. The trail is maintained by PA DCNR and what a great job they do. When we purchased the property some 15 years ago there was only talk of the trail being developed and, to be honest, we didn’t think much about it. Now I’m not sure how we could get along without it. We ride a portion of the trail 3 to 4 times a week for aerobic conditioning and to spend time in the great outdoors. It has opened up a whole new activity for us — Bicycling on Rail Trails. The Rail Trails, as the name suggests, are former railroads that have been abandoned and have been converted to a trail that is open to hiking, walking or the use of non-motorized vehicles. The trail surface is usually a fine crushed stone packed down to provide a very hard surface and because railroads don’t like steep grades, there are no big hills to climb! Hybrid bicycles are generally used to ride a Rail Trail, although any bicycle will do. The hybrid bike has a medium width tire as opposed to a larger width mountain bike tire or a skinny road bike tire. Other than the tire size, the hybrid is a standard mul-

tispeed bike that you can purchase at any good bike shop (suggested) or a big box store. In addition, Recumbent bicycles are gaining in popularity. We are seeing more of these on the trail, both the two and three wheel types. They are more expensive than a standard bicycle, but people that own them say they are more comfortable to ride. Also available are Comfort bicycles which keep you more in an upright posture as opposed to being in the tuck position. The seats are also cushier. I ride a vintage three speed Raleigh bicycle that was manufactured in England in 1958 that I purchased in an antique shop for $100.00. I find the three speeds to be fine for the modest rail trail upgrades. It has a Brooks “Saddle” which basically has a piece of leather stretched between the front and back of the seat. I find it very comfortable. The number of Rail Trails have been growing rapidly as cities, states and non profit organizations have been buying abandoned railroads and converting them. There is currently a bicycle trail that you can ride that starts in Washington, DC and goes all the way to Point State Park in Pittsburgh (340 miles). Amazing! The Washington, DC to Cumberland Maryland portion of the trail utilizes the old C & O Canal Tow Path while the Cumberland to Pittsburgh portion was a former railroad. They named the trail the “Great Alleghany Passage” ( With some friends, I rode the Washington, DC to Cumberland portion of it last year (185 miles) and the Cumberland to Pittsburgh portion of it this year (155 miles). What a great experience. The Pittsburgh to Cumberland portion is very scenic with tunnels to go thru and the high trestle bridges to go across, whereas the Washington to Cumberland portion is very historic with the dams across the Potomac River, the viaducts, and the Paw Paw Tunnel that was opened for canal traffic in 1850. “Trail Towns” have enjoyed the

extra business from trail customers looking for food, supplies and a place to stay overnight. The Rails to Trails Conservancy ( publishes a magazine and logs the trails in all states with comments published on their website from people that have ridden the trails. The Pine Creek Trail receives great reviews and is easily accessible to this paper’s readership. Why not grab a bicycle and give it a try?!

Curt Bierly is president of the bierly group incorporated of which Stanley C. Bierly is a division. He graduated from Penn State with a BS in Mechanical

Engineering and is a member of the Penn College HVAC Advisory Board. You can contact him at a


The Valley, August 2013


The Valley, August 2013 ter, excruciating physical suffering, and a lot of forced, angry rifts and walkouts. “The Language of Flowers” has to do with family and it could be symbolized in a bouquet of aster (patience), daffodil (new beginnings), honeysuckle (devotion), hyacinth (constancy) and moss (maternal love)!

Mail Pouch Books by Carleen B. Grossman What better way to celebrate the end of a season than to enjoy some great books about the specialties of that season! My theme for this month is “summing-up” the summer gardening experience; and just think, you will be better prepared for next year’s garden from the information you absorb from these great reads! THE LANGUAGE OF FLOWERS By Vanessa Diffenbaugh Copyright 2011 This interesting novel covers several areas of life....adoption, foster homes, emancipation, homelessness, single motherhood and attachment disorder and ties

them in with flowers! In fact, the author of this book has compiled her own flower dictionary [ included at the end of the book as an appendix]. This story is about a young 9 year old who was abandoned at birth by her mother and has lived in at least 32 foster homes by the time she turns 18 (the author herself has been a foster mother, so truth rings clearly in this novel!). The tale has alternating chapters between two time periods, the girl as seen as a 9-year-old who hopes to be adopted by a woman who runs a vineyard, and as an adult who becomes involved with a young man, who runs a flower farm and is a wonderful cook. The life of this young girl/ woman is a tragic one and within the story are two secrets in her life that the reader will discover. In addition to the suspense of the book, there are wonderful selections telling what the different flowers/plants mean, thus the title, THE LANGUAGE OF FLOWERS. As the young protagonist of this story grows up and discovers her own passion in life, that of working with flowers, there are some wonderful new uses for flowers such as [from page 435] • Brides carrying ceramic bowls of strawberries (strawberries symbolizing perfec-

• • •

tion) or fragrant clusters of fennel (fennel symbolizing strength) Bouquets of yarrow to cure a broken heart A sage posy to symbolize good health and long life Plum trees being planted to symbolize keeping your promises

The book is centered around a terrible secret of the past, a bitter feud, a violent horticultural disas-

THE EARTH MOVED: On the Remarkable Achievements of Earthworms By Amy Stewart Copyright 2005 Travel on a journey underground to find out how earthworms impact our planet. This author will teach you about the importance of these creatures. Learn about their role in garden crops and all about their unusual lifestyle. THE GARDENER’S FRIEND: A Miscellany of Wit & Wisdom By L. Masters Copyright 2011 “A garden is the best alternative therapy.” This book is filled with delightful quotes and thoughts just like this. There is practical advice from having an organized shed to spotting various birds, walking barefoot in the

grass, taking time to smell the flowers, and harvesting the fruits of your labors. FROM THE GROUND UP: The Story of a First Garden By Amy Stewart Copyright 2001 In this quirky, humorous chronicle of the blossoms and weeds, you will learn about planting seeds and about battling snails, gophers, and aphids. You will experience all four seasons of gardening. This is an essential book for the novice and the experienced gardener with helpful tips embedded in an engaging story. a


The Valley, August 2013

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Monday, Wednesday, Friday 10:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m.

717-248-6079 131 West Market Street Lewistown, Pennsylvania


The Valley, August 2013

Passion For Needlework Leads to Business by Jane Nevel My love for needlework began at an early age, starting with Barbie doll clothes made by hand for my younger sister. Her granddaughter is playing with those clothes to this day. As a young wife, I taught myself to crochet, making various items for our home and more doll clothes for Julia. Another love was discovered later on when my mother-inlaw, Pauline, taught me the basics of knitting. My “Hugs and Kisses” blanket began as an adaptation of simple cross-stitch designs into crochet. I have lost track of how many of these I have made over the last twenty years as gifts for

family, friends and baby shower gifts for our children’s friends. Now that we have our own grandchildren, I make blankets for Drew and Sophie. Sweaters and hats to keep them warm are other items I take joy in designing. I must say I prefer knitting my sweaters and hats in the round, eliminating bulky seams and having to stitch the pieces together. I rarely go anywhere that I do not have a needlework bag with me. People often watch and comment how “that would drive me crazy.” I tell them, “this is what keeps me sane, I love the creativity.” Not to mention that I rarely watch television without a project

in my lap, I cannot abide wasting time. It is not unusual for me to have several projects going at one

time. I also love to quilt and do counted cross-stitch projects. My work can be seen and purchased at Bushman@Home Gifts and Primitives on the corner of Loop Rd. and 522 across from PA Auto Brokers. Bushman@ Home is also now at Toot’s Place in Reedsville too, offering two locations for your convenience. You will be proud to pass these quality garments down to loved ones, and I bet they will be

Baby clothes of this quality are something you will be proud to pass down, and something that will be gratefully received.

happy to receive them as well. Come in and find that something special for your child or grandchild, perhaps you will see one of their kids wearing those same clothes some day, and will remember this story. I don’t charge extra for the love and care I put into my creations, and I wouldn’t make anything but the best for my customers—check them out and see for yourself! a

The Valley, August 2013


The 2nd Annual Pennsylvania Organic FarmFest is excited to announce its expanded music line-up across three stages on Friday, August 2nd and Saturday, August 3rd, 2013, at the Grange Fairgrounds in Centre Hall, PA. The three stages will feature music for the whole family from some of the best bands in Pennsylvania. Lady Moon Farms Grandstand provides lively evening entertainment, Organic Valley Stage features music throughout the day, and Organic Kids Stage features children’s music and programming. “This year we wanted to not only add more music to FarmFest but we wanted to integrate it more fully into the rest of the festival, as a constant reminder and opportunity to celebrate who we are as an organic community,” says FarmFest Music Coordinator Erin McCracken. On the Lady Moon Farms Grandstand, attendees will enjoy listening and dancing to original music from great Pennsylvania musical acts. Headliners include JMac, Junior, & Friends and Vinegar Creek Constituency, who

round out the day on Friday, August 2nd from 7:00 – 10:30 pm, and Ted McCloskey & the HiFis and Mountain Minstrelsy, who wrap-up FarmFest on Saturday, August 3rd from 7:00 pm – 10:30 pm. The Organic Valley Stage hosts more acoustic acts for folks to enjoy while experiencing the rest of the festival. Centrally located in the Bell & Evans Homemade & Homegrown Market, the Organic Valley stage featured music acts are interspersed with inspiring organic speakers on Friday and Saturday. Musicians on the Organic Valley Stage include the Hot Mamas, The Rounders, Apache Records Artist Harold Taddy, and more. Also new this year is the Organic Kids Stage, which will be just one part of the many children’s activities at the festival. In addition to children’s music, the Organic Kids Stage will also host live book readings, poetry, and more. Live music acts include Robot Mouth, Gary Gyekis, & The Three Kitties. FarmFest is a fun and free

community-building event that fosters knowledge of organic agriculture and sustainable living through educational opportunities, local foods, lively entertainment, and interactive activities. In its first year, FarmFest attracted a crowd of over 2,000 attendees including farmers, backyard growers, consumers, and families. In hosting a diverse set of educational workshops, live music, food and craft vendors, exhibitors, and children’s activities, it was truly a celebration of the ever-broadening organic community.

Pure Cane Sugar performs at Farmfest 2012

About Pennsylvania Certified Organic – Host of FarmFest Pennsylvania Certified Organic (PCO) is a USDA-accredited organic certifying agency that educates and certifies growers, processors and handlers of organic crops, wild crops, livestock and livestock products in Pennsylvania and adjoining states. PCO’s mission is to assure the integrity of organic agricultural products through education,

Continued on page 28


The Valley, August 2013

Grosze Thal Nachbaren

(Big Valley Neighbors) by Jeptha I. Yoder

Erstlich ein Grusz zu euch alle liebe und werthe Leser. Es ist die heisze ente-zeit. Frühe Äpfeln und Pfirichen sin reif. Man Kann auch gut leben von den GemüszeGarten. Wir sin reichlich gesegnet mit regen! Am drei und zwan zigst Juni war Kirchengasse Gemein ans M. Sieber Hostetlers. West Lang Leen ans Simeon J. Hostetlers. Wir waren alle ans Mose R. Hostetlers, fürs Mittag-essen. Jesse J’s und Familie waren bei seine eltern die Unkel Jesse S. Hostetlers. Christ G. Yoders waren ans Unkel Ruben D. Hostetlers fürs abendessen. Der Dreisigst Juni waren wir im der Gemein ans Mose C. Yoders. Von McClur waren Yost I’s und zwei Jüngste, und Abner C. (Iddo M.), alle Hostetlern. Von andere theilen waren (Sam R.) Malinda K. und Stief-kindeskind, Frieda L. (Jacob Z.), beide Hostetlern, und Samuel N. Yoders. Etliche Junge waren ans Johannes M. Hostetlers fürs Abendessen und Singen, nachdem (Ost Lang Leen) Gemein da war. Jacob S. Hostetlers waren in McClur, in der Gemein, bei ihr

Sohn die Joseph J. Hostetlers. Es waren auch etliche Junge dort von Grosze Thal. Der Siebent Juli war Kirchengasse Gemein ans Uria S. Hostetlers, West Lang Leen war ans Thomas S. Yoders. Ost Milroy war ans Jonathan D. Hostetlers. Meine Eltern waren ans Unkel Rudy S. Yoders fürs Abendessen. Rudys waren ein wenig ans Seth R. Yoders nachmittages. Jesse J’s und Eli S’s und Familien waren ans Rudy C. Yoders fürs Mittagessen. Der Dreizeht waren wir in der Gemein ans Manasse J. Yoders. Von McClur waren seine eltern, die Johannes E. Yoders. Von ander theil waren Mattie, Elisabeth und Mose Yoder (Joseph S.), und Samuel B. Hostetlers. So der Herr Will und wir leben ist unser Gemein ans Eli S. Zugen bis nächstmol. Ost Lang Leen war ans Mose J. Hostetlers. Nieder Milroy bei die Leah E. Zug. Jacob S. Hostetlers waren in Penns Thal in der Gemein bei ihre Tochter die Henry M. Speichers. Well es iss belegt mit arbeit auf beide Seiten, so dann musz ich ablasse --

Gottes Segen Gewinscht Christian greetings in our Lords’ Name on a hot summer day. Lots of moisture and everything is lush and green. Grain is being bindered and/or threshed between rainy days. It seems to barely dry off enough in between for field work. Early peaches and apples are ripe. New arrivals are Ruthie L. making first-time parents of Christ E. and Fronie E. Yoder on June 25th. Grands are Sam I. and Ruth L. Yoder; Moses J. and Esther Y. Hosteler. Greats are Moses I. and Elizabeth L.; Jacob S. and Franey L., all Hostetlers. Son number two, fifth child, named Christ on July 7th to Solomon C. and Rebecca C. Zook of McClure. Grands are Christian R. and Mary L. (Hostetler) Zook of McClure; Widow (Solomon) Mary R. (Yoder) Hostetler of Milroy. Great-grandfather is widower Eli B. Zook of Penns Valley. Widow (John A.) Barbara M. Hostetler of 7052 East Back Mountain Road, Reedsville, PA 17084 was hospitalized, with heart attack suspected. Had fluid removed and is now home and on medication. Saturday June 29th relatives from the area were to a frolic in McClure to set lower frame of a barn on Stage Road, McClure for Christ E. Yoders. The “raising” was then two weeks later on July 6th. A lot of our recently announced auctions are now history. I believe they had a good turnout, except that at times there seemed to be more items than buyers. This coming Saturday, (July 20th) is our annual Special Education meeting held at Solomon C. Hostetlers, Lord Willing. Also on this date is a “Freundschaft” or relatives auction to sell the earthly belongings of the late Christian C. “C.C.” and Elizabeth L. (Hostetler) Zook. Thursday, (July 11th) was the barn raising frolic at Menno R. Hostetlers. We have some (10 gal.) regular old fashioned tin milk cans for sale. Price is $25 each. Contact: Isaac M. Yoder at 150 Red Lane Milroy, PA 17063. Some upcoming birthdays are, John D. Hostetler, 76 on July 29 (1937). John and Nancy’s address is 4915 Back Mountain Road, McClure, PA 17841. Also John’s daughter Mary, 41 on August 7th (1972). Moses I. Hostetler 83 on August 9th, (1930) and his wife Elizabeth L. 77 on October 1st (1936) of 8100 East Back Moun-

tain Road, Reedsville. Widow Catherine S. Hostetler of 100 Running Stream Lane, Reedsville, 71 on August 9th (1942). Her special needs son will be 42 on September 12 (1971). He is blind and mail would be beyond “comprehension” for him, but of much value to his mother. Isaac J., 23 on August 23rd (1990) of 225 Shady Acre Lane, Reedsville. He is handicapped and unable to read, but would appreciate picture cards or whatever you wish to send. Was recently in a wheelchair, but in his earlier years was able to walk. He is the son of Noah D. and Fronie K. (Yoder) Hostetler and the late Leah Z. Some more new arrivals, A son Amos N. July 13, to Benjamin H. and Leah R. Hostetler. Grands are Rudy M. and Leah K. Hostetler and widow (Yost E.) Lydia E. (Zook) Hostetler. Joining two brothers and three sisters on July 14 is a son Noah J. to Eli T. and Barbara E. Yoder. Grands are Andy M. and Leah F. Hostetler and widow (Noah I.) Dena L. (Zook) Yoder. Noah Y. and Dena R. (Hostetler) Speicher of 82 Barrville Mountain Road, Reedsville, buried a stillborn recently. Grandparents are Yonie N. and Emma S. (Yoder) Speicher; Samuel Y. and Sara N. (Yoder) Hostetler. Great-

grandfather is widower Christ S. Yoder. The family has our sympathy. In closing, remember to enjoy the summer while it is here. I find it hard to believe, but if I live to write another “Valley” letter, it will be about the end of summer and probably schoolhouse doors opening. God’s Blessings Wished! Jeptha I. Yoder a

Old Fashioned 10 Gallon Tin Milk Cans For Sale $25 Each Contact: Isaac M. Yoder at 150 Red Lane Milroy, PA 17063.

The Valley, August 2013






P e n n s y lva n i a O r g a n i c

FarmFest August 2-3, 2013

Grange Fairgrounds, Centre Hall, PA Free Admission • 814-422-0251 •


• SpringCreek Homesteading Education Track • • Outdoor Symposium • Kids Parade • • Silent Auction & Raffle • FarmFest 5K & Fun Run • • NCAT Agricultural Education Track • Art Exhibit • • Children’s Activities • Organic Book Nook • • Homemade & Homegrown Market •

Call or visit today!


speakers Jerry Brunetti • Gary Zimmer • Brian Snyder • Susan Beal

live music Lady Moon Farms Grandstand:

Mountain Minstrelsy Ted McCloskey & the Hi-Fi's Vinegar Creek Constituency J-Mac, Jr. & Friends Organic Valley Stage:




Hot Mamas Harold Taddy

Organic Kids Stage:

Gary Gyekis Three Kitties robot mouth



Proper Logo Usage

Use logo on white or purple background only (see color builds below).

Farmfest Music from page 26 Color Guidelines

The minimum amount of space that should be allotted around the logo should be equal to the height of the moon in the logo.

2685 PMS 109 inspection, andPMS certification of C-92 M-100 Y-0 K-10 C-0 M-10 Y-100 K-0 R-58 G-45 B-130 R-249 G-220 B-47 growers, processors and handlers. PCO provides services to Improper Usage operations based Do not stretch, skew, or change thein colorsPennsylvania of the logo. Do not place logo on backgrounds other than a solid white or purple background. and the surrounding mid-Atlantic region. a Purple


The Rounders! Typography Headlines: Adobe Garamond Bold Text: Adobe Garamond Regular

Logo: Bernhard Std Use only in logo and not in body or header copy

For questions or comments related to the use of the Lady Moon Farms logo, please contact Marc Laucks and Company, Inc. 717-747-5895 or

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The Valley, August 2013

Brewing up a Snack

A few months ago I wrote about my evil menace Beerstone. The culprit that was souring all of my beer was not the stone itself, but about what had taken up residence in the stone, Lactobacillus. This common bacterium can be found on everything and everywhere. This week I will write about how to use this bacterium to store fermented vegetables. The art and science of fermenting foods has been around for thousands of years. Even though traditional cultures may not have known the science behind fermenting, they did not have refrigeration and for them it was a practical way to increase the shelf life of their food supply. Lacto-fermentation is defined

as a biochemical change which is brought about by the anaerobic or partially anaerobic oxidation of carbs by these micro-organisms. Basically, when raw vegetables and salt are placed in a zero oxygen environment the bacterium begins to consume some of the carbohydrates in the vegetables, thus producing lactic acid. This makes an acidic environment and a poor place for unwanted bacteria to take up shop, which would lead to spoilage. Producing this zero oxygen environment is not hard these days with air tight containers, but how did our ancient ancestors produce this environment to make lacto-fermentation take place? Traditional fermenting

crocks were made of pottery or clay. Cabbage would be packed tightly, a cloth large enough to drape over the crock and cover the top of the cabbage was placed next. Then, rocks were used to weigh down the cloth-covered cabbage. The brine would then be at or over the level of the rocks, providing a brine seal. If any mold did get on the top of the brine, it wouldn’t reach past the rocks and cloth, and the cabbage below was safe. I also found information that the pots were sealed and buried to prevent oxygen from contaminating the ferment. In some regions, the bladder and stomach of animals were used as a sort of air lock allowing carbon dioxide to escape but preventing oxygen from entering. Each region of the world fermented many different things from turnips, cucumbers, carrots and beets. However, it seems that every region of the world had some type of ferment with the main ingredient of cab-

bage. My wife is the vegetable fermenter in the house and by far my favorite is curried kraut. I love to eat it for breakfast with two fried eggs. She will actually be teaching a lactofermenting class at Rec Park Farmers’ Market on August 13 at 5:30, so if you want to know more about the health benefits of lactofermentation you should sign up early. Here are the ingredients needed to make this tasty treat. Curried Kraut • 5 pounds chopped cabbage • 1 green apple peeled and chopped • 2 carrots peeled • 4 green onions • Knob of ginger (1 inch) chopped

• 1 clove of garlic chopped • 1 tablespoon curry powder • ½ teaspoon red pepper flakes • 1 jalapeno chopped • 3 tablespoons sea salt Once you have chopped and peeled all the ingredients mix then up in a large bowl with the 3 tablespoons sea salt. It is a good idea to use organic vegetables and sea salt when fermenting so

Continued on page 30

The Valley, August 2013


Home-Grown! A Homeschooler’s Perspective By Mary Eck

Do You Talk? Funny question, right?! What I mean is, do you take time to talk “with” your children, or is an “at” dynamic more typical of your relationship? As both parents and teachers, we are in the unique position of having significant more time to with our youngsters. And so, it begs the question, do we capitalize on it? Is there more to our exchanges than commands, barks and groans? Are we purposeful about communicating to our children our dreams for them; our expectations; what we believe, and why? Likewise, do we take time to find out what all of theirs are, to really listen to what they have to say, think and value? I know I can so easily get caught up in appointments, and schedules, and social outings, and housework, and meal planning and prep, and my own interests and selfish ambitions. And I gotta say, I drop that proverbial ball

way more often than I’d like to admit. Life, I fear, is getting in the way of my relationships with my children to the point that we sometimes assume more of a “house-mates” mentality, instead of that precious parent-child one I used to nurture more instinctively when my kids were younger…and far less independent-minded. Can you relate? The realization of my shortcomings in this department (believe me, there are myriad more) was more of a sucker-punch to my heart than any other. These young people that I am accountable for—not just legally, but to God Almighty, no less—will leave home in a few short years. Have I done right by them? Do they know what they need to know—not just academicallyspeaking, or the finer points of balancing their checkbook, or how to change a flat tire? Do they have a strong moral compass that will

point true north when they need it most? Does compassion rule the day, and self-discipline and –accountability their paths? Can they interact with others in a way that is as kind as it is genuine? And, perhaps most important of all, do they know my God as their own? Sobering questions for any parent, right? The good news is it doesn’t take much to turn things around. A few minutes here and there might be all you have some days, but the cliché is so true: quality will forever beat quantity! We do dinner debates at our home sometimes, which can be as humorous as they are enlightening. Having to argue that chocolate ice cream is way better than its plain counterpart, vanilla (when you feel the exact opposite) is no small feat, believe me! Or why boys are better than girls, etc…More somber issues can be broached as the concept catches on, including local news issues, and breaking political scandals for ‘tweens and teens. Some of you, I know, join us in turning the sacred television off every summer (June through September) and it is hardly noticed. We spend longer clumps of quality time together simply because there is not that pressing burden of knowing such-and-such comes on at 8:00 p.m. and should not do so without my riveted attention! I’m telling you, you are missing out if Scrabble®, Sorry!®, charades and the like are not topping your family to-do list! That’s what it boils down to…being purposeful about spending time together so that talking “with” each other becomes as normal as the talking “at” part that parenting requires at times. Ask an eight-year old her opinion on anything, and she will delight in answering you. Wonder aloud to your pre-teen what make, model and color vehicle he likes best, and you’ve tapped a treasure trove. Ask an older teen how much money they’d (ideallybut-realistically :) like to have in their checking account come graduation day, and the tangents you could veer onto are numerous. We are vulnerable when we talk, when we share. And it is that very vulnerability that binds us when we do. Families are not just defined by their like gene-pools, but by the emotional closeness they cultivate. In fact, some families lacking the former boast the latter to an extraordinary degree. Regardless of your schooling choice, eighteen years’ time is hardly enough…and I plead with you not to squander it!

Biochar from page 15 mix it with compost for the best effects. You can also make it yourself. To make Biochar, any organic matter will do—chicken litter, untreated wood, leaves, etc. Just make sure that some of the burned material is wood. Place the debris in your garden area, get it to a high intense burn, and then rake the soil over the fire. The lack of oxygen will cause the organic matter to smolder producing Biochar. Then you can hoe the char into the soil. There are also sites online for you to purchase Biochar.

Brewing up a Snack from page 29 that the fermentation process will not be contaminated by unwanted chemicals or by-products. You want to mash the mixture with a slotted spoon to get the vegetables to juice. This juice, along with sea salt, is the basis for your brine, which will provide that zero oxygen environment that you need. Now you want to wash your hands really well. Using your hands, pack the mixture into your fermenting vessel tightly and use your fist to press in and down tight (see picture). This is done to try to limit any air pockets in the kraut that would contain oxygen. Pour the rest of the brine into the vessel. My wife likes to use what she call Fido jars. These are flip top jars with rubber seals. She has Fido jars in multiple sizes. She says the reason for this is that you want at a minimum of ¾ of the jars filled with your vegetable/ brine solution, otherwise there could be spoilage caused by too much oxygen. The carbon dioxide will dissolve into the solution and you should see some move-

Bee Calm from page 12 this what stung Wayne? This isn’t Asia (although we did have a lot of rain that week, so maybe the bee thought it was in a tropical region.) The one I saw was easily about two inches long (yes, I looked at a ruler, I know that two inches is big—this thing was big!) For your enjoyment, I’ve posted some pictures of Wayne tending his hive and a picture of the Vespa Tropica (makes me shiver just looking at that picture.) Can you imagine being stung by that? Me either. OUCH! If anyone else has seen one of these around here, please let me know

There is a lot of excitement about the use of Biochar to reclaim abandoned urban lots and reestablish them for agricultural production because the best results for the amendment are on marginal land. So use of this practice will make low production land better, but not make high production lands more productive. Either way you look at it, Biochar could be the answer to a lot of the global problems we face today. So remember, you are a carbon-based life form; you eat carbon-based life forms; so your soil needs carbon. a

ment in the kraut after a week or so. Place the kraut in a dark area in the temperature range of 70 to 80 degrees for one month. At this point you could open the jar and consume the product. But if you want to, you can also store the product in a cool cellar for up to six months or let the product continue to ferment while you eat some here and there at room temperature. But after four to six weeks at room temperature, it needs to go into the fridge where it will last another few weeks before it should be consumed or composted. There you have it—lactofermentation. So if you have too many cucumbers or a bumper harvest of cabbage, consider fermenting some now so you can eat them for weeks. Next month it’s back to beer. If you really want to know about how to ferment other vegetables you should come to my wife’s class. She has fermented asparagus, beets, cucumbers, carrots, and all kinds of other combinations. Until next month here’s hoping your beer is crisp and kraut is too. a (thevalleynewspaper@gmail. com). I’m curious as to whether they’ve been here a long time or if they are a recent arrival. Enough about bees! Next month I plan to have a topic that doesn’t give me the creepy crawlies and make me fidget so much. a

The more corrupt the state, the more it legislates. – Tacitus


The Valley, August 2013

Dutch Pantry 1 Year Anniversary Still Keeping It Local At Dutch Pantry Gifts we believe in the power of our local community. The ability to support one another, listen to each other, and provide everyone with the best we have to offer is our priority. That’s why our mission is grounded in keeping our market locally focused. From sourcing products within a 100-mile radius of our store, to partnering with locally-owned businesses and farmers for our daily operational needs, buying local to us is more than a fleeting fad, it’s a way of life. Dutch Pantry Gifts has provided a home for many local artisans who were unable to be discovered or start their own business such as alpaca clothing made from local alpaca wool, locally made all natural bath and body products, embroidered cards, handmade jewelry, paintings from local artists, homemade jams and jellies, chocolates, and so much more. Here are a few reasons why we choose to support local: Locally grown food tastes better: Food grown in your own community was probably picked within the past day or two. It’s

crisp, sweet and loaded with flavor. Several studies have shown that the average distance food travels from farm to plate is 1,500 miles. In a week-long (or more) delay from harvest to dinner table, sugars turn to starches, plant cells shrink, and produce loses its vitality. Local food is often GMOfree: Although biotechnology companies have been trying to commercialize genetically modified fruits and vegetables, they are currently licensing them only to large factory-style farms. Local farmers don’t have access to genetically modified seed, and most of them wouldn’t use it even if they could. Why should you buy from locally owned small businesses? Here are 10 reasons we think are worth considering: 1. Buy Local — Support yourself: Several studies have shown that when you buy from an independent, locally owned business, rather than a nationally owned businesses, more of your money is used to make purchases from other local businesses,

service providers and farms — strengthening the economic base of the community. These include case studies showing that locallyowned businesses generate a premium in enhanced economic impact to the community and our tax base. 2. Support community groups: Non-profit organizations receive on average, 250% more support from smaller business owners than they do from large businesses. 3. Keep our community unique: Where we shop, where we eat and have fun — all of it makes our community home. Our one-ofa-kind businesses are an integral part of the distinctive character of this place. Our tourism businesses also benefit. “When people go on vacation they generally seek out destinations that offer them the sense of being someplace, not just anyplace.” ~ Richard

Moe, President, National Historic Preservation Trust 4. Reduce environmental impact: Locally owned businesses can make more local purchases requiring less transportation and generally set up shop in town or city centers as opposed to developing on the fringe. This generally

means contributing less to sprawl, congestion, habitat loss and pollution. 5. Create more good jobs: Small local businesses are the largest employer nationally and in our community, provide the most

Continued on page 11

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The Valley, August 2013



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The Valley, August 2013

Back Talk by Dr. Joseph Kauffman

611—the 911 of MRI’s and CT Scans Occasionally, I come across a deal that I like to spread to all of my patients, but why stop there? I already refer many patients to this place, but now I can make sure that all of my readers are well aware also. Whenever something happens to the body or a condition arises, it is always good to know what is going on. Diagnostic testing in the form of radiology can be very costly, especially to people who do not have health insurance and to those who have a high-deductible health insurance plan. The place I am referring to is 611 MRI/CT of State College. Their rates for an MRI or a CT scan are significantly cheaper than that of any hospital in our area. Many of the hospitals tend to charge different prices for the actual scan, a technician to do the procedure, and a specialist to read the scan. So, you have many charges for the scan. 611 MRI/CT charges a global fee which covers

all of the costs at one time and is significantly less than the facility in any hospital. Even if you have insurance and can use it, 611 is still the much more cost-effective solution for you. “MRI uses two safe and natural forces, a magnetic field and radio waves, to produce vivid images of internal body parts. Images are interpreted by a radiologist to see if a medical condition is present. Results are then sent to your doctor who will review them with you. No special preparation is necessary before your exam. You may eat and drink as you normally do. A restroom and individual dressing rooms are available for your privacy. You will be provided with specialized clothing for the exam. All metal objects, including coins and watches will be kept in a locker. Someone may stay with you during the exam. A comfortable lounge is available for other family members or

friends. The MRI contains a padded bed on which you will lie during the exam. An MRI technologist will be in continual voice and visual contact with you. Exams normally last 20 to 45 minutes. The exam consists of a series of 4- to 7-minute scans. You will hear a knocking sound during the scanning periods. You should remain very still during the scanning periods, as any movement will cause poor images. Music of your choice can be played during the exam. Feel free to bring your own compact disc. Only a few people are excluded from having an MRI: • A Pacemaker • Cardiac Pumps • A Defibrillator • Aneurysm Clips in the Brain • Carotid Clip • Metal Fragments in your Eye(s) • Inner Ear Implants Open MRI With a 270-degree view, our open MRI allows patients to see the room – and people – around them, throughout their scans. 611 MRI offers the only Hitachi

Oasis Open MRI within 100 miles. We are the first choice for patients who are: • Claustrophobic • larger than average (660 lb. weight limit) • elderly or very young • of limited mobility Combining state-of-the-art imaging with advanced comfort, the bed is wider than usual, allowing patients to stretch out and relax. Most importantly, no matter which part of the body is being scanned, the patient maintains an unobstructed view. That means a loved one can stay right at the patient’s side – in clear sight – throughout the MRI. Plus, this new system conducts the fastest open scans in Central Pennsylvania, minimizing the amount of time spent getting an MRI. Our experienced technologists are used to helping patients that feel apprehensive. Almost all of our patients say that their MRI exam was much easier than they expected. This is just one of the many reasons patients travel long distances to 611 Open MRI. High-Resolution MRI 611 Open MRI uses a GE 1.5 High-Field MRI and so do many of America’s Best Hospitals. According to US News and World Report, the Mayo Clinic, Johns Hopkins, Massachusetts General,

UCLA Medical Center and other top hospitals use the same MRI as is used at 611 Open MRI. This scanner is unique in that it has a very large opening that is flared at both ends, and more importantly is only 3’ in length, which is half the length of the usual tube type MRI found in most hospitals. With the OPEN Flairs, many patients with claustrophobia are able to be scanned in this very fast and high quality scanner. In addition, the HighField MRI can accommodate many larger patients weighing up to 350 pounds.” Computer Tomography “Computer tomography (CT) combines the use of x-rays with the latest computer technology. The CT scanner creates crosssectional images by using a series of x-ray beams. A CT scan offers greater image detail than a traditional x-ray - which means that your doctor gets the best information to make the most accurate diagnosis. Our multi-sensor CAT scan represents the future of CT technology. The scanning times are very quick, which means shorter exam times, decreased x-ray exposure, and more rapid results! Our experienced technol-

Continued on page 47

The Valley, August 2013



Progress At The Embassy by Patricia Lawson

I hope you enjoyed the Let Freedom Ring concert! And, did you notice how radiant The Embassy Theatre appears? There was a collective gasp of joy as the marquee lit up during the last refrain of ‘Stars and Stripes Forever.’ Yes, the restoration is upon us, plus as I unveiled last month, another grant has been secured! Here are the details as relayed to me by Paul Fagley and Mike Negra. First, lets take a look at the progress at the theatre during the past two months. The Altoona contractor, BCS Construction, has been improving the exterior of the building, including a new roof, rehabilitation of the side and rear walls, new fire doors, and improvements to the front of the theatre. These improvements included repainting and varnishing the woodwork, and replacing the marble wainscot along the ground level.

Now, most recently, The Embassy Theatre has received a grant to fund the Conceptual Master Plan. This document will lay out the theatre based on the vision of the use of the Embassy. Local arts groups, the Board and other individuals will be interviewed to help determine the potential utilization of the theatre, for example, the desired capacity, expected budget, etc. Then, a historic architectural firm will assess the existing footprint, room for expansion, necessary theatrical support requirements based on the desired programming, and deliver the first view at what the Embassy will look like and how it will operate. This plan will be funded by multiple sources. The Friends recently received a $10,000 grant from the Louis J. Appell, Jr., Preservation Fund for Central Pennsylvania of the National Trust for Historic Preservation. This will

be matched by a like amount from the Save Americas Treasures grant the Friends already have, and other private donations. These private donations mean that we need YOU and local business owners to help bring this historic treasure back to life and make Lewistown a destination! Your tax-deductible donations would be greatly appreciated. Please make your checks payable to The Friends of The Embassy Theatre, and mail them to The Embassy Theatre, P.O. Box 203, Burnham, PA 17009. Thank you in advance for your support. a


The Valley, August 2013

Life in the East End by Rebecca Harrop Once again it’s time for the Mifflin County Youth Fair. This year will be different for me because I am no longer showing animals. The week won’t be quite so crazy for me, but I will still have plenty to do with all the Open Show stuff. I know Mom is happy I will be able to help more with the Open Show this year. For those of you who don’t know about the Open Show, it is for anyone who is not enrolled in 4-H who would like to participate in the fair by entering something they have made or grown since last year’s fair. Some of the classes we have are flowers, vegetables, wool, eggs, farm hay, and grains. Plus, fruits & nuts, baked goods, home canned and dried produce, evergreens, sewing and needlework, photography and

handi-crafts, and apiary and maple products. We have an antique farm equipment department also. Our major contests with larger premiums are Scarecrow, PA Preferred Chocolate Cake, PA Preferred Chocolate Cookie, Brownie or Bar (8-18 year old ONLY), Angel Food Cake, Blue Ribbon

Apple Pie, and our Recyclables Class. This year’s Photo Contest is 50 Great States and Cutest Baby. The Photo Contests are always one of our most popular contests. We also have a division for people who are in 4-H who still would like to enter the Open Show. The Open Show is funded by the Benefit Auction held the last day of Fair. The Open Show Committee collects donations from area businesses and individuals. The donations are actual items or gift certificates. One of the most popular items we have are the wood carvings made by the wood carvers. This year’s carvers are T & D Carvings. Don Chesney is our auctioneer. He does a really great job for us including putting photos and a list of items to be auctioned on his website. This year’s auction will be Saturday August 10 at 6 PM. We also have a cash and carry baked goods auction Tuesday night at 6 PM.

we have been chopping hay and harvesting wheat. When you harvest the wheat you need to watch for mold or toxins. Years when we have a lot of rain around the time of harvesting, the wheat can sprout. If you have any of this when you sell the wheat it can’t go for milling to be made into flour, but it can still be used

in animal feed. However, you get a lower price when you sell wheat for animal feed. This year we haven’t had either of those problems. This year my little cousin Matt had his first ride in the combine. He was going to ride in it two years ago but he got scared by how loud it was, but this year he

We auction off all the baked goods that are entered in the Open Show. So please consider entering or coming to the auction to support the Open Show and Youth Fair. On the farm

decided he wanted to ride in the combine. He was very excited. I helped him up in the combine, then his Mom and I watched as he rode with Bob. He was probably asking lots of questions. When I was little, my sister and I would ride in the combine and chopper

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The Valley, August 2013


Hi, how ya been? Still north of the grass? If your reading this, you must be. Always a good way to start your day, alive and kicking. Been following the drama that’s now the nightly news? I see bits and pieces while getting lost traveling Al Gore’s ‘Intranet,’ and it amazes me that people are not frothing at the mouth in anger. They only show what they want you to see, and they are ALL guilty of censorship. What will it take until the average person realizes that the gubmint considers them to be just another Cash Cow? Nothing will ever change for the better unless people throw off the shackles of socialism. It all started in 1913 with income tax and the federal reserve. Want

something FUBAR? (Google it) Just call in the gubmint. No one does it better. So, how’s the garden doing? We have most of our 28 gardens planted with the first and second rounds. We plant all summer long, different things like radishes, all types of greens, cucurbits, corn, spinach under shadecloth, etc. Companion planting and crop rotation is a big thing with us. I can almost picture the confused look on a tomato hornworm’s ugly face when he gets the hankerin’ for some chow. “Wha? Dad said they were right here last year. Bugga lied to me!” Have you tried mulching yet? We swear by it. (#%$&’# A!) After it’s all put in place, all that needs to be done is pull the rare weed, and add some more mulch

here and there as needed. It saves on weeding and watering, and the rain hits the mulch, not the soil, so compaction is a thing of the past. Visitors here are amazed when I pull some back and show them my wormies and how friable the soil is. Between two pressure canners, two dehydrators, and two freezers, we are well ahead of the curve when this ‘merry’-go -round called the ‘global society,’ controlled by the ‘Elitists,’ comes crashing down. The way we are heading, I’m taking bets on what language they will try to make us speak in the next 10-20 years. Spanish, or Chinese? I can tell you with firsthand knowledge that after I killed my TV, I started to think more, see more, feel more. Laugh at me all

you want as you watch that sitcom in your lazyboy, munching on Doritos. When you die, and your life flashes before your eyes, do you REALLY want to be watching re-runs, AGAIN? Something to think about, anyway. Until next time, keep your piece handy. As daddy always said, never bring a knife to a gunfight. What? I’m too young to die, and too old to get my butt whipped. ;-) a

We mulch using material that we already have— plenty of, namely newspaper and grass clippings.


The Valley, August 2013

Dispelling a Popular Notion about Haze by Lee Grenci There was a “tropical-surge sky” over central Pennsylvania and much of the Middle Atlantic region around July 4 (check out the photograph from atop Walker Building on Penn State’s campus below). Despite dew points in the upper 60’s, there was a noticeable lack of haze in the air. One of the popular beliefs that I tried to dispel over my teaching years is the mistaken notion that haze develops whenever a humid air mass settles over the eastern United States. In other words, it’s a popular belief that the arrival of a humid air mass automatically translates to haze. More succinctly, many people simply accept that haze is

primarily the culprit in putting the “hazy” in the “lazy, hazy days of summer.” Before I introduce the basics of haze, I want to make sure that everyone is on the same page with regard to the photograph above. Yes, there are some cumuliform clouds, but the profile of the mountain ridge in the background is pretty crisp and clear. Now compare this photograph of a haze-free sky to a photograph I took a couple of summers ago during a warm and humid spell in State College, PA (I was looking in the same general direction while taking both pictures). Note how the haze obscured the ridge line in the older photograph. For

Looking southward from the top of Walker Building on Penn State’s campus in University Park, PA, during the afternoon of July 5, 2013. Note the lack of haze and the relatively high visibility. Photo courtesy of Lynn Persing.

Looking south from the top of Walker Building on Penn State’s main campus on a warm and humid summer day. Note how haze reduces visibility. Courtesy of A World of Weather: Fundamentals of Meteorology.

a natural consequence of summer life in the eastern United States. Folks, it just not true...pollution is

the record, haze scattered light from the mountains away from me, making them harder to see

(more generally, haze reduces visibility). To see what I mean, check out the four-panel photograph below of a large bottle filled with plain water (upper-left image). Note how you can see the blinds in my office behind the bottle. I added a bit of milk to the bottle of water (upper-right photograph). Milk globules scattered some light from my office blinds away from the observer (I was obviously standing in front of the bottle). As a result, my office blinds behind the bottle were more difficult to observe. Next, I added a bit more milk to the bottle, and the increased number of milk globules scattered even more light from my office blinds behind the bottle away from the observer. Note how the blinds are now more difficult to detect. Finally, I added more milk to the bottle, and the milk globules scattered almost all the light coming from the blinds behind the bottle away from the observer. Thus, I could no longer see the blinds. And so it is with thick haze. Indeed, haze particles, like milk globules, scatter light from distant objects (such as mountains) away from an observer’s eyes, thereby making them more difficult to see (it’s also hard to see through a glass of whole milk). In other words, haze lowers visibility. For the most part, haze over the eastern United States during summer is wet haze (the haze I photographed a couple of summers ago was wet haze...revisit the photograph above. In more simple terms, wet haze forms when there’s net condensation on particles in the atmosphere that are hygroscopic. By definition, hygroscopic particles have an affinity for water vapor, and they can grow in environments where the relative humidity is less than 100%. Hygroscopic particles that form wet haze can grow to twice their original size, but, after having been “wetted”, these haze particles are still relatively small. Nonetheless, they are apparently large enough to effectively scatter light and reduce visibility (as my photograph suggests). For the most part, the hygroscopic particles that produce wet haze over a large portion of the country east of the Mississippi River are sulfate aerosols (an aerosol is a

A four-panel photograph of a plain bottle of water (upper-left panel). Visibility continually decreased as I added some milk (upper-right and lowerleft panels). Finally, visibility dropped toward zero as I added even more milk (lower-right panel). Courtesy of A World of Weather: Fundamentals of Meteorology.

solid or liquid particle suspended in the air). These aerosols form during the oxidation of sulfur dioxide, a gas which is released into the atmosphere from industrial plants that burn sulfurbearing fossil fuels. There’s more a lot more atmospheric chemistry associated with the production of sulfate aerosols, but it suffices to say that there are a lot of power plants, oil refineries, etc. east of the Mississippi River that collectively release very large quantities of sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere. Allow me to put it this way...there’s certainly no lack of sulfate aerosols over much of the East during summer. Or at any other time of the year, for that matter. But summer is time when the large-scale north-south temperature gradients weaken, causing winds to slacken through a deep layer of the troposphere (wind profiles tend to be weakest during July and August). As a result, the generally light winds of summer winds dramatically reduce the dispersal of pollutants. Moreover, temperature inversions associated with the proximity of the Bermuda high means that pollutants often get trapped in the boundary layer over the Eastern States (below the inversion). To make matters worse,

abundant sunshine accelerates the conversion of sulfur dioxide to sulfate aerosols. Moreover, evapotranspiration rates (evaporation of water from the ground, bodies of water, and vegetation) are large during summer. All in all, weather conditions during summer create a recipe for recurrent wet haze over much of the Eastern States. Around July 4, dew points here in central Pennsylvania and other parts of the Mid-Atlantic States were relatively high. Yet the “automatic” link between high dew points and haze to which many people subscribe clearly broke down (revisit the photograph near the top of this piece). For starters, check out the 18Z Rapid Refresh model analysis of 850-millibar streamlines on July 5 (below; 850-millibar streamlines indicate the wind directions at roughly 5000 feet). This model analysis clearly shows the clockwise circulation of air around a sub-center of the Bermuda highpressure system centered off the Carolina Coast. In turn, this anticyclonic circulation imported Atlantic air and carried it northward over the Mid-Atlantic region. Air originating over this region of the Atlantic obviously lacked suffi-

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The Valley, August 2013


Ed’s Railroading News by Ed Forsythe

Hello there everyone. It’s been a really good month of July. I’ve gotten to visit the Rockhill Trolley Museum and operate the trolleys several different days. The Trolley Museum’s 50th anniversary was held on July 6th with many members and visitors being in attendance. The following is a letter written by Joel Saloman. We’ve reached a milestone The 50th anniversary celebration for the museum is now history and while it was a hot and steamy day, it appears that a good time was had by everyone attending. The ceremony began a bit after the advertised time of 11:00 a.m., but this was due to WTAJ from Altoona wanting to interview Matt regarding the history of the museum. We had a good crowd assembled under the pavilion. Matt opened the program and member Jim Walsh offered an enlightening invocation. Special guests attending included County Commissioners Gary O’Korn and Jeff Thomas. Speaking at the ceremony, Joe and Judy Kovalchick praised the museum for its 50 years of volunteer efforts to make the day’s event possible. State

Senator John Eichelberger, 30th Senatorial District, commented on the many historical events occurring, including the 150th anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg. He commented on the importance of tourism and the impact museums such as RTY have on the economy. Representative Mike Fleck, 81st Legislative District, welcomed everyone. He indicated that a resolution had been introduced to make Johnstown Traction Co. 355 the “official trolley” of the State of Pennsylvania. Matt presented some words about the history of the museum and the long time dedication that some of our volunteers have given to the success of the museum. Frank Shoop offered some words and congratulations for two of our younger volunteers that have been a huge help in preparing for the event and other projects over the years. Nicholas Brightbill and Stephen Lane were given special shirts with museum logos. A final presentation was made by both Joel and Matt to Phil Glass who was a long term volunteer for many years. While Phil’s health prevents him from volunteering

actively, he is very much interested in the long term success of the museum. After the ceremony, the official first trips with cars 6 and 355 were dispatched followed closely by open car 1875. Trolley operations continued throughout the afternoon. Around 75 people took part in the delicious lunch prepared and served by Pam and Larry Zilch. Andrea Zilch helped prepare things on Friday and Dave Brightbill was seen helping a bit on Saturday with serving dessert. It was wonderful seeing some long term members attending. Pete Patterson, member #3, his daughter, and his grandchildren attended. Long-time member Dan Rollyson, member #14, and his wife Eileen were present. Peggy Kuhn, daughter Susan, and grandson Matthew were also there. Steve Kistler was there too, as well as long-time member and volunteer Phil Glass. Fred and Arline Walter and Dave Collins and his family drove in from IL and OH, respectively. Car operations continued until a bit after 5:00 p.m. At 6:00 p.m., twenty members participated in a delicious meal at the Iron Rail Bed and Breakfast, across from the EBT roundhouse. A few open car rides took place after dinner for members who were still at the museum. Matt Nawn and Joel Saloman were the co-organizers for

the event and Frank Shoop assisted with many details. Valerie Robbins Rice, as well as others helped with the promotion of the event sending out the prepared press release. A huge thank you to everyone that participated on the anniversary weekend and to those that worked so hard to make the museum look its best for the event. It took a huge commitment by several individuals to get some last minute projects completed and the event details handled. Thank you so much to everyone for their dedication! Photos of the festivities are posted on the museum facebook page, media/set/?set=a.1015147217919 1644.1073741828.158620121643 &type=1 Photos will also soon be on the website. For those interested, you may view the TV news interview by visiting: id=477292 There was a lot of preparation work that was completed prior to the weekend events and many THANK YOUs go out to all those involved. If you’re looking for a great place to visit this summer, please consider riding the trolleys at the Rockhill Trolley Museum. Visit us online at: Hope to see you there sometime and Happy Railroading, Ed a

Home Nursing Agency Private Duty Home Care Receives “Best of Home Care” Awards Home Nursing Agency’s Private Duty Home Care program today announced that it has been recognized with Home Care Pulse’s “Best of Home Care” distinction in four categories: knowledge of staff, appearance of staff, confidence level in office staff and overall quality of service. Awarded to the top 50% of agencies in client and employee satisfaction scores from Home Care Pulse, Home Nursing Agency is now ranked among a select few of the best agencies in the country. “We know that sometimes it is difficult to make care decisions when you don’t have specific experience with an agency. It was our goal to provide families with the ability to make an informed decision, have tangible ways to measure quality and help them find a comfort level when choos-

ing an agency to work with,” commented Aaron Marcum, founder of Home Care Pulse. Home Care Pulse, a company which measures client and employee satisfaction, created the award to identify those agencies in the private duty home care space that demonstrate a passion for client and employee satisfaction. Home Care Pulse believes that honoring such companies can both educate and help families to make better care decisions for their aging loved ones. “We are extremely pleased to see that during our very first measurement period that we have been honored with ‘Best of Home Care’ awards,” says Bill McManus, Home Nursing Agency vice president, operations support/ vice president, Private Duty Home Care. “This affirms the dedica-

tion of our staff to providing high quality non-medical home care services to our clients throughout Central Pennsylvania.” The selection process for the “Best of Home Care” includes the evaluation of client and employee satisfaction in areas such as agency training, communication, overall quality of care, caregiver performance, caregiver morale, response to problems and recommendation of services to name a few. “We want to congratulate Home Nursing Agency for winning the ‘Best of Home Care’ awards and commend their commitment to placing high priority on client and employee satisfaction,” concluded Marcum. To find out more about the “Best of Home Care” award or Home Care Pulse, please visit About Home Care Pulse Home Care Pulse was launched in 2008 and is a company specializing in measuring and benchmarking client and employee satisfaction for private duty home care agencies. Recently Home Care Pulse conducted the largest study ever performed on behalf of the private duty industry. Home Care Pulse helps agencies promote and drive business, improve service quality and increase employee loyalty. Visit www. for more information. About Home Nursing Agency Founded in 1968, Home Nursing Agency serves all ages through home health, hospice, private duty home care, pediatric and

behavioral health services. Home Nursing Agency employs more than 1,000 healthcare professionals who care for families with the mission of providing the highest quality of customer service with a sense of warmth, kindness and individual pride. Call Home Nursing Agency at 1.800.445.6262 or visit www.homenursingagency. com for more information. a

The Valley, August 2013

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The Valley, August 2013


McAlisterville Man Recounts Why Therapy Works McAlisterville resident Ralph Hanawalt, 69, recently came to HealthSouth’s Outpatient Clinic in Mifflintown with right hip pain, leg pain and left knee pain. His doctor referred him to physical therapy at HealthSouth to strengthen his lower body and reduce his pain. Ralph has a long history with physical therapy. “A motorcycle accident in 1975 left me with thirteen broken bones. I had a long recovery and a lot of therapy.” That time, Ralph’s therapy took

place at Lewistown Hospital. Ralph adds, “One of the therapists was so good, that later I married her!” His wife still works as a physical therapy assistant. This wasn’t Ralph’s first experience with the HealthSouth Mifflintown clinic. He explains, “In 2009, I had therapy after a knee replacement, and in 2010 I was back after I broke my hip. But this last round of therapy, and my recovery, was the HealthSouth experience that stands out as the best for me.”

Ralph worked with a physical therapist and a physical therapy assistant three times a week. “The therapists had their eye on me all of the time; there was no walking away and talking with coworkers. It motivated me, knowing that they cared,” Ralph explains. “Their attitude was so good, and it showed.” The benefits of physical therapy are reaped when both the therapist and the patient

Continued on page 44

Former outpatient Ralph Hanawalt (center) visits his “HealthSouth family” at the Mifflintown Outpatient Clinic. Ralph received therapy at the Clinic several times in the last four years in order to get stronger and remain independent. He plans to choose the same Clinic if he ever needs therapy again. Pictured with Ralph are Physical Therapy Assistant Jim Weaver and Physical Therapist, Rebecca Rhine, D.P.T.

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The Valley, August 2013

Notes Hospital Hosts Bag Sale Friends of Lewistown Hospital are hosting an “In the Bag” handbag sale on Friday, August 9, 2013, from 7:00 am to 4:00 pm in Classroom 4. Many styles of handbags will be on sale just in time for the fall. Event is open to the public and all major credit cards are accepted. For more information, call 717-242-7178 For more information, visit

Life in the East End from page 35

It’s Fair Season from page 16

all the time with Bob. We always had a lot of fun. Our garden is doing pretty well this year. Mom and I just planted 57 cabbage plants! That’s a lot, but we want to make sauerkraut this year. As we were planting them, it started to thunderstorm. I’m pretty sure that is the fastest anyone has planted 57 cabbage plants. When it is lightning around you and you’re holding a metal trowel, you kinda move a little faster. Dad said the rows look awful, but I don’t think they look that bad. We will soon have some sweet corn to eat, but I’m waiting for the Incredible to be ready—it’s my favorite. When Rachel and I were little, Mom would take us and a truck load of sweet corn to Agway to sell in the parking lot. Dad would let us keep all the money. That was usually our spending money at the fair and the beach. Sometimes the UPS driver would buy sweet corn from us. The Wallace truck driver from Georgia even bought from us a couple years. We didn’t freeze corn last year because we had a lot left from the year before, but this year we will need to freeze a bunch. We always give corn to our church to freeze for our soup sales too. Our church makes the best chicken corn and noodle soup you’ve ever eaten!!! No. I’m not baiased! That’s all for this month and I hope to see you at the fair. a

the fair until sale day then usually leave following the sale. If you decide to bring any breeding goats or sheep to your fair, it’s highly advisable to take precautions before letting them interact with the animals that stayed at home. When the judge touches and evaluates your sheep or goat, they can put bacteria onto your animal from the previous animal they touched. Contagious fungus or sore mouth could linger onto your animals and could spread to the rest of your animals at home. Make sure you wash your fair ani-

mals with soap and water before taking them home to prevent the spread of disease. Fairs can be extremely stressful, but being prepared before and after the fair can help you stay focused on what needs to be done. Remember, agricultural fairs in Pennsylvania were originated to promote agriculture, ethics, and family tradition. Fairs are a great place to gain experience, meet new friends, and help promote your area fair. Good luck showing! a

Waiting for final judging can be very stressful. Try to stay calm and focused, it will help your animal as well as you.

The Valley, August 2013



Celebrating Penns Valley My family and I just returned from a week spent in southwestern Oregon visiting our one daughter. Along with seeing natural wonders like Crater Lake and the giant redwoods of the northern California coast, we had the pleasure of visiting Ashland, Oregon, which is the kind of town Millheim is gradually becoming. Ashland is somewhat larger than Millheim, but has some of the same advantages that have allowed it to turn into a fun destination for visitors. It’s nestled among beautiful mountains and it’s reasonably close to the Pacific coast. It also seems to

have a thriving artist community and a healthy mix of people from different backgrounds and origins. The several blocks of downtown are a mix of art shops, restaurants and cafes, and interesting oneof-a kind boutiques. Throughout the summer, at least, there are always a few artisans set up with their canopies on walkway areas. We saw a lot of tourists going in and out of the shops while we were there. The town also has a beautiful park with a clear natural stream and a lot of big trees. I’m sure that the money coming into the town because of its reputation as an artsy destination has helped

fund the park and other improvements that make it so attractive. Millheim and east Penns Valley are becoming that kind of destination and on Sunday, September 1st you can experience some of the flavor of the valley at CrickFest 2013, held at the Coburn Park just three miles south of Millheim. The annual event benefits the Penns Valley Conservation Association, which has been working for the past twenty years to protect and improve the environment we all value here. PVCA has recently been adding up the amount of money brought into the area through grants and for its many projects and has reached nearly $800,000! So Crickfest is both a fun time and a way to help support a great cause. Live music is always a big part of Crickfest and this year’s

One of the many beautiful Penns Valley scenes on display at the Green Drake, this one is a watercolor by Jeff Mathison.

lineup looks like this: 12:30 - Hannah Bingman and Doug McMinn, 2:00 – Myra Sletson, Dave Mudgett, and Friends, 3:30 – Chicken Tractor Deluxe, 5:00 – The Wyos. In addition to music, there will be locally grown food, a children’s tent with activities and crafts, educational programs, and even ballroom dance instruction! For more about Crickfest and the PVCA, check out their newly revamped website at

If you get to Millheim before Crickfest, the Green Drake Gallery has an ongoing special show of paintings celebrating Penns Valley that will be up through September 1. On Friday evening, August 2, there will be an Open Mic followed by Marty Black and the Tree Stumps, with music starting at 7:30 p.m..The Elk Creek Café and Aleworks also has a lineup of Thursday and Sunday music throughout the month. So, come enjoy summer in Millheim! a

A view of a past Crickfest in the Coburn Park. Photo by Asta Broskley

I know of no more encouraging fact than the unquestioned ability of a man to elevate his life by conscious endeavor. -- Henry David Thoreau

The Valley, August 2013

Rabbit Grooming 101 Grooming rabbits is a very important part of rabbit ownership—without proper grooming and care, rabbits can get sick, messy, and sometimes even die. This month in Splitting Hares we will discuss proper grooming, care and tips and tricks on how to keep rabbits looking their best. To start off, lets go over some standard grooming practices that apply to all rabbits. Once a month it is recommended that a rabbit’s toenails are clipped to prevent them from growing too long. Sometimes when the nails are allowed to grow, the nail will break off causing pain and bleeding. Just like with dog nails, rabbits have what is called a quick in each nail. The quick is the pink part of a rabbit’s toenail and supplies blood to the nail. (On darker colored rabbits a flashlight may need to be shone through the nail to see it.) If when clipping the quick is cut, the nail will bleed. Always clip a little bit before the quick to avoid this. There will most likely be times when the quick will be clipped no matter how much you try to avoid it. When this happens you can take a little bit of flour, and dab it on the nail to stop the bleeding. With short haired rabbits, minimal brushing is needed, but when a rabbit starts to molt, they should be brushed every day to remove any dead hair that they are

shedding. This will help the rabbit regain its healthy looking coat more quickly. Rabbits with longer hair or wool require more grooming than short-haired rabbits. These rabbits require anywhere between 5 and 20 minutes of grooming each day, depending on the breed. Several different brushes can be used to make the grooming process easier and faster. A slicker brush can come in handy for brushing hair that is not matted, but still needs to be brushed out, removing the loose hair that will cause mats if not removed. A metal dog comb can be useful in removing mats. Often these brushes have revolving teeth, making mat removal easier and less painful for the rabbit. Flea combs can be used to make sure the rabbit is free of fleas, but it can also remove any hay or dirt that may get caught in the rabbits fur. When brushing a long haired rabbit, pay special attention to the sides of the rabbit, around the tail, and near the legs. These areas are notorious for getting mats. With white rabbits or rabbits that have white spots (meaning they are a broken color) the white seems to be get yellow or brown often. To remove those stains, mix equal parts white vinegar and water, put it in a spray bottle, and spray the stain while working it in with a washcloth. This should


work just fine. Adding cornstarch to the stain and rubbing it in also works. Once the cornstarch is worked in, any extra can be brushed out with the slicker brush. With a long-haired rabbit, feeding him/her pineapple or papaya on a regular basis (a one inch Long-haired rabbits like “DustiBunni’s Aria owned by Caylie Voudren” require 20 chunk every other day minutes or more of care per day. works in most cases) to prevent wool block is name a few) or veggies (again, to be cleaned out regularly to advised. Wool block is when wool rabbit safe, avoiding things such avoid the buildup of ammonia and gets caught in the digestive tract as iceberg lettuce). However, feces. Avoid rusty cages, because and prevents food to pass through. these need to be given in moderathe rabbits can get stains from the Feeding pineapple or papaya helps tion as rabbits can easily get too rust. to coat the sides of the digestive much of a good thing and get sick With proper grooming and tract and allows the wool to pass because of too many treats. care, your bunny can look its through. Rabbits do best in cages with absolute best! a General care is also a part of wire bottoms so they do not grooming because providing rabhave to sit in their own urine and bits with a healthy environment feces. The trays of the cages need will help to maximize the rabbit’s health. All rabbits need fresh, clean water provided for them at all times. They should be on a diet of rabbit pellets (If possible avoid the colorful bits and other treats found in some foods.) and hay. They can also be given an occasional treat such as rabbit- safe fruits (bananas, strawberries, pineapple, papaya, and watermelon to

The Valley, August 2013


R. O. F. F.

Dairy Connection by Halee Wasson

Rescue Our Furry Friends by Patricia Lawson

Centre Count y Dair y Princess Sadly this month summer is coming close to an end, as everyone gets ready to go back to school. However, to me this month feels like the start to my summer vacation. In August there are multiple activities that go on, including multiple county fairs. Fairs are a place for family and friends to get together and enjoy all the entertainment the fair has to offer. My favorite thing to do at fair is watch the dairy show, of course! This is the time when dairy farmers get to show off all the hard work they put into taking care of their cows. This is because dairy farmers know that taking good care of their cows provides high quality milk to you and your family. Therefore if you are at a fair and have time, I encourage you to watch the dairy show or take a walk around the dairy barns to see the care dairy farmers put into their cows. This month may be the end to summer, but it is the beginning to more fun. I am in-

McAlisterville Man Recounts Why Therapy Works from page 40

are committed to reaching the patient’s goals. “My goal was to get stronger,” says Ralph. I would joke with them, and complain, but they pushed me to give just a little bit more, so that improvements continued through therapy. It was a good experience that helped get my legs stronger and eased my

cluding some recipes for you and your family to enjoy as you start your day of more fun in the sun! Chocolate Chip- Banana Bread ¼ cup BUTTER, softened ¾ cup sugar 2 eggs ¾ cup SOUR CREAM 1 cup mashed fully ripe bananas (about 3) 1 ½ cups flour 1 ½ tsp. baking powder ½ tsp. baking soda ½ tsp. salt ¾ cup semi- sweet chocolate morsels Heat oven to 350 degrees. Beat BUTTER and sugar in large bowl with mixer until blended. Add eggs and SOUR CREAM; mix well. Add bananas and combined dry ingredients; mix just until moistened. Stir in chocolate morsels. Pour into greased and floured 8x4-inch loaf pan. Bake 1 hour or until toothpick inserted in center comes out clean. Cool pain.” Ralph says that a total knee replacement may be in the near future for him. “And if/when it happens, I’ll be back to HealthSouth in Mifflintown for therapy. I’ll feel like part of ‘the family’ again!” HealthSouth’s Mifflintown Outpatient Therapy Clinic offers physical and occupational therapy to treat brain injuries, Parkinson’s disease, heart failure,

5 min.; remove from pan to wire rack. Cool completely before slicing. Refrigerate leftovers. Serving size: 16 Banana &Peanut Butter Smoothie ½ cup MILK 1 container (6oz.) Greek- style YOGURT 1 fully ripe banana 2 Tbsp. Creamy peanut butter 2 Tbsp. honey ½ cup ice cubes Blend all ingredients except ice in blender until blended. Add ice; blend on high speed until thickened. Serve immediately. Serving Size: 2 a stroke, orthopedic conditions, sports injuries, balance disorders, amputations, back care and more. Therapists also perform functional capacity testing when someone wants to return to work, or if they need updated information for their disability insurance carrier. Physical Therapist Rebecca Rhine, D.P.T., practices the McKenzie Method for Treatment of Back and Neck Pain. Occupational Therapist Krista Varner, O.T.R./L is experienced in providing hand therapy and wheelchair evaluations. For more information, contact: HealthSouth’s Outpatient Therapy Clinic in Mifflintown 27 CJEMS Lane, Suite 1, Mifflintown, PA 17059 (717) 436-8233 Fax (717) 436-5513 a

August 26th is National Dog Day! Give your dog extra hugs and treats! You know we would be lost without them. Did you know that pet owners have been found to have lower blood pressure and fewer stress hormones circulating in their blood? A doctor of psychology found that pets foster self-esteem, calmness, soothing and a feeling of acceptance. So, please consider adopting a pet. You will have a happy companion and a healthy you! For you dog owners out there, check this out! I recently bought some Doggie Biscuit Cutters in the shapes of a fire hydrant, bone, dog house, dog and dog paw at Bass Pro Shop. Here is the recipe that was on the package: Dog Biscuits 2 cups whole wheat flour 1 cup powdered dry milk 1 tsp. each salt & garlic powder 6 tbsp. margarine, shortening, or meat drippings (I use shortening) 1 egg, beaten 1 tsp. brown sugar 1 cup ice water Preheat oven to 350. Combine flour, dry milk, salt, garlic powder and brown sugar. Cut in shortening until mixture resembles cornmeal. Mix in egg. Add enough water so that mixture forms a ball. Pat dough out thick on an oiled (I use vegetable oil) cookie sheet. Cut with cookies cutters; place on a cookie sheet


and bake for 25-30 minutes. Remove from oven and let cool. Do not store treats in sealed container. My dog, Sam, loves them, and I hope your dogs enjoy them too. If you don’t want to make them, look for them for sale at future ROFF events. Check out our featured pet of the month. This is Zeva! She is a very sweet girl and loves to be held and snuggle with you. She is a 3 year old terrier mix who is spayed and up to date on her vaccines. She has also been dewormed, on Vectra, is housebroken and is crate trained. So, she’s ready to go! All you have to do is feed her and love her! Zeva is good with other dogs and kids, but we’re not sure about cats. Please visit our web site,, and fill out an application or call 877-­933-­7633. Please note: there is a $25 adoption application fee. And, since these articles are written several weeks prior to publication, Zeva may already have a forever home. However, be sure to check out the other dogs and cats on our web site that would be a loving companion. Please consider becoming a foster for our adorable cats and dogs or donating your time and/or money by calling 877.933.7633. Your contributions are greatly needed and appreciated. Please make checks payable to ROFF, and mail them to ROFF, 133 North Walnut Street, Burnham, PA 17009. Thanks, and I’ll talk to you next month! a


The Valley, August 2013

Dave Wilson

Coins, Precious Metal and a Little of this and That

Hyper - Inflation Horrible Depression Take Your Pick

I have wanted to write this article for several months now, but have always scrubbed the idea, as it deals with disturbing scenarios that, much like most of us, I would prefer NOT to dwell on. Still, reality is reality, so my hesitation must end here. ** (If reading about negative realities is particularly upsetting to you , then I will suggest , even ASK , that you skip this article all together.) The United Sates of America is in trouble. This trouble was either created by supreme GREED and TOTAL IGNORANCE, or by some form of TERRIBLE DESIGN. We will not try to make a case for either, but suggest that, quite simply, one of the two must be correct. Also, no matter what the reason, the outcome remains the same. If we can believe governmental statistics, which I’m sure most of us question, the United States has a 17+ Trillion Dollar deficit, and (selecting the LOWEST estimate we could find) well over 100+ Trillion Dollars in unfunded

liabilities, which are debts the US will be obligated to pay in the near future, but for which there are NO FUNDS available. If you are reading this article, then we will assume that you are at least “reasonably” intelligent (an assignment I like to allow myself) and understand how serious a problem this truly is. The “Powers-that-are,” mostly through the injection of multiple TRILLIONS of new fiat (backed by nothing) dollars, have been able (so far) to keep the most disastrous potential outcomes from happening, i.e. the total collapse of the US Dollar, and, in its wake, the entire world’s economy. Most experts agree (as do we) that keeping a lid on this hissing, shaking and rattling pressurecooker will be impossible to continue for much longer. So , what happens next? As we see it, only ONE of TWO outcomes are possible. This is where it gets dicey. Possibility #1: DEPRESSION The US simply “pulls the

plug” on everything. No more food stamps , no more extended unemployment benefits, no more subsidies, federal pensions, Social Security or entitlements of any kind, PERIOD. People will starve, cities will burn, homes and vehicles will be repossessed, State governments and local municipalities will collapse financially, essential services will be eliminated, and nobody will be safe—anywhere. Our military strength will diminish drastically, and Marshall Law will prevail. (Just GOOGLE “The financial collapse of Detroit,” and you will get an early eye-full of what a Depression will look like.) In the 1930s, “Americans” suffered through the great depression “mostly” with guts, dignity and a sense of caring for family, friends, and even strangers. They learned early that they simply had to “do without.” Do NOT expect that type of courage and personal discipline this time around. You know EXACTLY what I mean. Gosh , that one sounds like LOTS of fun.

fall very short of allowing them to “guess” is that alternative #2 actually afford what they NEED, above will be the path taken, and and used to be able to buy. we will all have a bit more time to The dollar will be replaced ready ourselves and our families as the world’s reserve currency, (as best we possibly can) for the and “imported goods” (which ugly mess to come. probably comprise about 70% of How much more time? what we, as Americans, buy) will Sorry,we really don’t care to disappear from store shelves, as speculate. a our (soon-to-be former) trading partners will no longer have an interest in accepting paper (fiat) DOLLARS in exchange for finished goods of any kind. Terrible STAGFLATION will occur (where people will earn less, but everything they want, and need, to buy will dramatically escalate in price.) While Hyper-Inflation is bad, it will likely be the politician’s choice, as it will allow us, with continued difficulty, to keep things “afloat” for some extended period of With all of the uncertainty about the dollar, time. Silver Eagles will bring real value to your The end result of savings. either choice will likely be very similar, so our

Possibility #2: HYPER-INFLATION High inflation has already begun, and anyone (alive and mobile) can see startling new examples almost every day. Food prices have risen nearly 50% in the past 6-7 years, and that rate of increase is being left in the dust by current price increases. Product packages have gotten much smaller, to the point where continuing to shrink packages will no longer work, and outright, inyour-face, price jumps will now be necessary. It will shortly be the hottest topic on the gossip circuit. People will still get their Social Security, pension, unemployment, disability and welfare checks, but they will increasingly

The Valley, August 2013


‘Citizen Science’ Leads to New Pennsylvania Birding Atlas by Marina Burka

Indigo Bunting Image: Photo credit: Robert Mulvihill

From Penn State Public Information. With the dedication of more than 2,000 volunteers, 52 authors and a number of trained ornithologists, geographic information specialists and other professionals, the Second Atlas of Breeding Birds in Pennsylvania was published in November by the Penn State University Press. Edited by Andrew M. Wilson, Daniel W. Brauning and Robert S. Mulvihill, this collaborative statewide project brings our knowledge of Pennsylvania’s bird populations up to date, and birders, ornithologists, conservationists and policymakers alike will benefit from the expansive yet meticulous information contained in this atlas. Data collection took place from 2004 through 2009, roughly 20 years after the first official atlas project (1983 through 1989), and the data assembled document the distribution of each species and

Scarlet Tanager Image: Photo credit: Robert Mulvihill

show changes in distribution since the publication of the first atlas. The atlas begins with an overview of the geography, habitats and habitat change occurring in Pennsylvania, followed by an explanation of research methods and results, and a discussion on conservation implications. The atlas contains species accounts for the 190 birds that breed in the state and includes a concise description of each breeding species, its geographic location, breeding behaviors and population status. Also included are detailed maps of the distribution of the species, the change in distribution from the first atlas to the second and often a third map of estimated abundance. Many Penn State researchers were involved in the project. Riparia, a research center focused on wetland science in the Department of Geography (formerly named the Cooperative Wetlands Center), was involved from the very beginning and was tasked with designing the field surveys. Project partner Joe Bishop, currently the

geospatial coordinator with Riparia, however, began his work with birds much earlier, when he began studying landscape change using data from the first atlas as response variables for his graduate research. “If a forest changes in any way, bird populations and species patterns will also change and are very telling as to the condition of the habitat’s ecological condition,” said Bishop. Bishop refers to the atlas as “an awesome example of citizen science...” After the survey design was finalized, more than 2,000 volunteers, directed by 83 regional coordinators, compiled observations of bird species throughout the state, while a highly trained survey crew conducted bird counts at more than 34,000 sites to obtain estimates of the statewide populations for more than half of Pennsylvania’s 190 breeding

stands alone as a window into the condition of bird communities as an ecological keystone of Pennsylvania’s ecosystems.” Other Penn State faculty were integral to the project: Bernd Haupt, senior research associate in the College of Earth and Mineral Sciences’ Earth and Environmental Sciences Institute, co-authored the chapter “The Geography of Pennsylvania,” and Margaret Brittingham, professor of wildlife resources in the College of Agricultural Sciences, and Joe Bishop co-authored the chapter “Habitats and Habitat Change.” The Pennsylvania Spatial Data Access, known as PASDA, also contributed to the effort. Developed by Penn State in 1996 and supported by the Governor’s Office of Administration, PASDA is the official public access geospatial information clearinghouse for the state and a partner with

OutdOOr SympOSium Aug. 2nd & 3rd

Centre County Grange Fairgrounds

Live! Birds of Prey Demo Saturday, Aug. 3 hosted by penns valley outfitters

Building appreciation and access to outdoor recreation in the Central PA region by highlighting area outfitters, outdoor gear vendors, environmental groups and outdoor clubs.

For more information contact:

Wood Warbler (Northern Parula) Image: Photo credit: Robert Mulvihill

species. “The beauty of birds,” Bishop stated, “is that there is a huge number of people who are dedicated to them.” Bishop refers to this atlas as “an awesome example of citizen science,” in which those dedicated birders, ornithologists, scientists and others have collaborated tirelessly on a decade-long project. Rob Brooks, professor of geography and ecology in the College of Earth and Mineral Sciences and director of Riparia, said, “The Second Atlas of Breeding Birds in Pennsylvania is a major achievement. The trends are most revealing when compared to the first atlas, but the second atlas

PSIEE. Maurie Kelly, who directs PASDA, said that they were “one cog in a vast wheel that made the atlas possible.” PASDA affiliates Ryan Baxter, information technology coordinator and doctoral candidate in geography, and James Spayd, data systems coordinator, created a mapping application that volunteers used to complete their surveys online, streamlining the data collection process. They also partnered with the Cornell Lab of Ornithology to create a Web application for volunteers to enter their observations into a database. PASDA also hosts the data from the first edition on their website. In the future, they will be able

to conduct comparisons between the data from the first and the second atlases in order to assess changes in Pennsylvania’s bird populations, a task that will have important implications for bird conservation going forward. Just as Bishop and Brooks articulated, Kelly called this “a true community effort” and said that “the atlas is living proof that when people are focused on the same goal, they can successfully collaborate and make something great.” The Second Atlas of Breeding Birds in Pennsylvania is available from the Penn State University Press. Visit for this and other publications. For more information about other sustainability activities and initiatives at Penn State, visit a


The Valley, August 2013 Picture Perfect from page 10 An essential part of photographing horses is to make it an enjoyable experience for you and the horse. Photography can be fun

and relaxing. Also make a point to take pictures that others will enjoy seeing...a photograph that shouts “Look at me!” a

Haze from page 37 cient sulfate aerosols to form wet haze, despite the relatively high dew points in the lower troposphere. I’ve been to a couple of tropical islands in the Atlantic during my life, and they’ve always been very warm and humid. Yet I never once observed any haze over these tropical islands. Last time I looked, there weren’t any major industrial areas upwind of these The 18Z Rapid Refresh model analysis of 850-mb streamlines on July 5, 2013. 850-mb islands in the Atlanstreamlines indicate the wind directions at roughly 5000 feet. Courtesy of Penn State. tic Ocean that might release large quantities over the East during summer, I contrary, I only see the potential of sulfur dioxide. don’t think about humidity. To the risk to people’s health. a When I observe wet haze

611 the 911 of MRI’s and CT Scans from page 33 ogists are used to helping patients that feel apprehensive. Almost all of our patients say that their CT exam was much easier than they expected. This is just one of the many reasons patients travel long distances to 611 CT.” Fees The fee for an MRI without dye at 611 is $495 and with the addition of contrast dye ($60) is $555 compared to $1794 if the same procedure is done at Mt. Nittany Medical Center. If you have a

high deductible health plan, such as $2500 for example, 611 is still your best bargain. The fee for an MRI with and without contrast at 611 is $998-$1104 compared to Mt. Nittany which is $2325$2569 and compared to Altoona Regional Health System which is $1708-$2146. The difference between the cash price of $495 to the high-deductible price of $998 is that the high deductible price gets applied to your deductible whereas the cash price does not. You have the choice. Many people do not know this place exists, and most of the

doctors are affiliated with the hospitals and therefore send their patients to them. But, there is an alternative that does provide a great service for a great price. So, if your doctor wants you to have an MRI or a CT scan, check with 611 MRI/CT located in State College and Altoona. State College: (814) 234-2600 Altoona: (814) 946-8000 a Dr. Joseph Kauffman Kauffman-Hummel Chiropractic Clinic

Why Overpay for Quality Imaging? 611 MRI•CT has high quality imaging and personal service at a realistic price! Hospitals receive higher rates for imaging services, resulting in higher costs for you! Comparing the two photographs: Although Goose is very photogenic, he looks much better “put together” by slightly changing his position and having him look at me with his ears up.

611 MRI performs over 10,000 MRI studies per year.


Your Deductible

Your Cost at a Hospital

Your Cost at 611 MRI-CT

Your Savings

MRI Knee





MRI Lumbar Spine





CAT Scan Chest





State College 814-234-2600 • Altoona 814-946-8000


The Valley, August 2013


The August issue of The Valley is a FREE newspaper covering Mifflin and surrounding counties. We are dedicated to agriculture, modern homest...

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