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Volume 52, Issue 82 | wednesday, february 14, 2018 |

Appeal denied For more on NCAA decision, see page 12

Sisters of Holy Cross featured in film festival SMC nuns highlighted in documentary about AIDS epidemic By JORDAN COCKRUM News Writer

During the mid-1980s, only two medical professionals would care for patients diagnosed with HIV or AIDS: Dr. Kristen Ries and physician assistant Maggie Snyder. Dr. Ries and Snyder cared for their patients in Salt Lake City’s Holy Cross Hospital, which was founded by the Sisters of the Holy Cross, as well as at a clinic in southern Utah. Four Sisters of the Holy Cross were also involved in the care of

Dolores Huerta discusses activism, leadership role By MADISON RIEHLE News Writer

Welcomed by an audience cheering her famous phrase, “Si, se puede! Si, se puede!” Dolores Huerta, the co-founder of the United Farm Workers and civil rights icon, took the stage in McKenna Hall Tuesday night to discuss her career as an activist and leader. The lecture was hosted in conjunction with the Institute for

Latino Studies’ Transformative Latino Leadership Lecture Series which involved a discussion with the Institute for Latino Studies director Luis Fraga along with the local community. Huerta explored her upbringing in Stockton, California, as well as her road to founding the United Farm Workers with Cesar Chavez in 1962. “Many organizations had tried to unionize farm workers but they had all failed,” Huerta

said. “But since Cesar and I had learned to do this kind of bottom up organizing, we thought we could do it. We knew it was going to take a long time. The thing is about organizing is that you have to teach people how to fight for themselves.” Through this method, Chavez and Huerta planned the Delano Grape Strike over three years by reasoning with farm workers in see HUERTA PAGE 4

College students reflect on pom squad experiences By MARIA LEONTARAS News Writer

The Notre Dame men’s basketball team cinches another victory. The fans are cheering, the student section goes wild and the band belts out a song of success. On and off the court, people wrap their arms around one another and begin to sway in anticipation of singing the alma mater. This celebratory gathering is tradition, as is having


performances by the Notre Dame Pom Squad. Singing the alma mater is one of Saint Mary’s sophomore Claire Holman’s favorite things about being on the Notre Dame Pom Squad, she said. “We get to stand in front of everyone, and it’s having the whole team behind us and the student section in front of us,” Holman said. “Everyone’s there. The band’s there and cheer’s next to us. It’s a cool feeling, everyone coming together and singing


those words. That’s a little part of it, but I love that.” Though the team is based at Notre Dame, it has members from both Saint Mary’s and Notre Dame. The Pom Squad performs at men’s basketball home games, football pep rallies and other community events, Holman said. Senior Hannah Hoody said in an email friends and family see POM PAGE 4


these HIV and AIDS patients, two of whom were interviewed for the documentary “Quiet Heroes,” which debuted at Sundance Film Festival in Park City, Utah, from Jan. 18-28. Bernie Mulick, C.S.C., a nun who currently resides at Saint Mary’s, was one of the sisters featured in the film. “It’s part of our mission as Sisters of the Holy Cross to care for those who are poor and sick and needy,” Mulick said in an email. “We have always cared for the forgotten ones, for the underdogs. They were the railroaders

and the coal miners in our earliest days in Utah [1875]. During the 1980s and 1990s, individuals with HIV and AIDS were the lepers of the time, and no one else was taking care of them.” Mulick met Ries and Snyder at Holy Cross Jordan Valley Hospital in West Jordan, Utah, prior to assisting them with the care of HIV and AIDS patients, she said. “Dr. Ries and I talked about my going back to school to become a physician assistant,” Mulick said. see SISTERS PAGE 4

Professor shares advice on seeking success, balance By CLAIRE RAFFORD News Writer

Professor Maria McKenna, an education and Africana studies professor at Notre Dame, delivered the fourth Sorin Scholars lecture this year Tuesday evening. Her talk, titled “(In)congruence in Life and Learning,” gave advice to college students about success in higher education and how to find opportunities to engage in research that is fulfilling and interesting for each individual person. McKenna began her talk by suggesting that balance — which McKenna described as “congruence” — is often difficult to achieve, especially in education. “American education was designed with a factory model in mind, with a limited set of ideas about what the purpose and outcomes of education should be, and who benefits and who doesn’t,” she said. However, a little bit of incongruence is normal on the way to pursuing passions in college and finding one‘s way, McKenna said, sharing the story of a student who, after much deliberation, changed her major.


“Be brave, especially in the face of incongruence,” she said. “When things that you don’t understand come flying at your face in classes, do not run away from that class. Jump right back into it.” McKenna also mentioned other incongruences that college students face on a regular basis — for example, the tension between professors’ stringent attendance policies which can become an issue when students are ill and the pressure for students to take care of themselves. Another incongruence, she said, is the struggle to balance studying a subject one loves with finding an economically successful career. “There is an inherent inconsistency in how we message what is important at different moments along the way in our career as students and even as faculty and staff,” McKenna said. McKenna suggested that because of these many incongruences, it is useful to evaluate how one’s actions relate to one’s values. “As you go through life, you are going to face many choices along the way. And in each moment, it is see ADVICE PAGE 4




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Exhibit: “Modern Women’s Prints” Snite Museum of Art all day Selected prints by female artists.

Graduate School Social 1050 Nanovic Hall 4 p.m. - 6 p.m. An open house for graduate students.

EXALT Adoration Dillon Hall Chapel 7:30 p.m. - 9 p.m. Evening adoration in Dillon Hall Chapel with Rev. Nate Wills.

Junior Parents Weekend campus-wide all day Visit for more details.

Junior Parents Weekend Brunch Dahnke Ballroom 9 a.m. - 12 p.m. Visit for more details.

Ash Wednesday Mass Basilica of the Sacred Heart 9 p.m. - 10 p.m. Join in Lenten prayer.

Sr. Mary McNamara Memorial Mass Basilica of the Sacred Heart 9 p.m. - 10 p.m. Memorial mass.

Hockey vs. Michigan Compton Family Ice Arena 7:35 p.m. The Irish take on the Wolverines.

Grand Rapids Ballet “Romeo & Juliet” DeBartolo Center 7:30 p.m. - 9:30 p.m. See the classic tragedy in dance.

2018 Chinese New Year Celebration LaFortune Ballroom 2 p.m. - 4 p.m. Includes food, games and activities.

Podcast examines free speech By ADRIANA FAZIO News Writer

Sophomore Evan DaCosta hosted the second installment of the “Pod. Country. Notre Dame.” podcast series Tuesday night to discuss free speech on college campuses. The event was held in the LaFortune ballroom and featured a panel composed of seniors Armani Vaniko Porter and Brendan Clemente, along with sophomore Nicholas Marr. Editor’s note: DaCosta is a News writer and Marr is a Viewpoint columnist for The Observer. DaCosta posed questions to the three students regarding the right to free speech, the relationship between freedom of expression and hate crimes and asked their thoughts on bringing controversial speakers to college campuses. Throughout the panel, all three students unanimously expressed the need to protect freedom of expression, but each focused on different reasons for its importance. Marr said he believes that amidst the various controversial speakers and opinions surfacing in recent years, speakers and academics in pursuit of truth are worth the listen.

“[Notre Dame students] have a bigger personal duty to pursue truth and seek truth because religion challenges us to do so,” he said. “That’s why Notre Dame has such a great place in higher education.” Clemente closely followed Marr’s emphasis on truth by referencing Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes. “The best remedy for a bad idea is a good idea,” he said “The good ideas, the right ones, the truth, will come through the marketplace and exchange of ideas.” Clemente said it is through active conversation and this exchange of ideas that hateful rhetoric, such as racism, can be overturned. While Marr and Clemente focused on those who are participating in conversations and utilizing free speech, Porter said he was more interested in those who are not speaking. “When we begin to limit who can and cannot speak on campus, academia begins to lose its growth” he said. Porter said his concerns in limiting campus speech were largely rooted in silence by exclusion, specifically citing experiences with marginalized communities. “A huge part of this is figuring out

whose voices are not being heard,” he added. “Figuring out why those voices aren’t being heard can tell you a lot about a university.” Porter specifically called on Notre Dame for not hosting more speakers from the Pokagon Band of Potawatomi, the Native American tribe who originally claimed the land on which Notre Dame resides. “It is very rare that members of that tribe come here and we need to question why that is so,” he said. John Duffy, a professor from the English department who researches ethics and rhetoric, said he thought the event fostered a good discussion and pushed for students to continue to the conversation even further. “Once we establish that we have the right to invite speakers of diverse views, then as a community we need to decide what kinds of people we want to hear from and what kinds of people we are interested in hearing from,” he said. DaCosta said he hopes to record the third podcast for the “Pod. Country. Notre Dame.” series by the end of the month. Contact Adriana Fazio at

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Sisters Continued from page 1

“She was my preceptor, at different times, during my two-year program at the University of Utah School of Medicine.” Linda Bellemore, C.S.C., another sister at Saint Mary‘s, was also interviewed for the film for her involvement with HIV and AIDS patients. She served as a nurse at the hospital, she said in an email. Bellemore said she was encouraged to pursue this work because of the efforts of Olivia Marie Hutcheson, C.S.C. The hospital, she said, offered care to patients with HIV and AIDS because of Hutcheson’s insistence. “I was scheduled to move to Holy Cross Hospital, Salt Lake City, to start a program of home visits to elderly patients after discharge from the hospital to see if they needed any resources…,” Bellemore said. “Just before I arrived, I was asked if I would do these same services but for a different group of people — those with the new dreaded disease of HIV or AIDS. Being a Sister of the Holy Cross as well as a nurse and hospital chaplain, I immediately said yes. Knowing nothing about HIV and AIDS except what I had seen in the media, I decided to ask those living with the disease to teach me about it.” The clear need of support in patients with HIV and AIDS drew Bellemore to this work, she said. “Those were the years of fear about the transmission of this terminal disease resulting in alienation from family, friends and society due to their diagnosis,” Bellemore said. “And this at the

time of their lives when they most needed care and support, how could I not help? The need was obvious, and I am committed to serving people as Jesus did.” Mulick said the relationships her patients had were some of the most rewarding aspects of her work. “I found our clients to be the most patient, peaceful, giving and loving,” Mulick said. “They were so caring about each other. And the love you would see between the partners, the gentleness shown, the compassion and empathy, was very touching.” The documentary covers the work that Dr. Ries and Snyder did in the treatment of HIV and AIDS patients, along with the assistance of the Sisters, Bellemore said. “I am glad that I personally don’t get much attention,” Bellemore said. “It is only because I am a Sister of the Holy Cross that I was privileged to be part of a community of wonderful and delightful persons who were so feared and ostracized. I appreciate that this film recognizes that our congregation and hospital took the risk to care for people with HIV and AIDS when others were too frightened to do so.” Bellemore said she found her role in the documentary to be important if it were to raise awareness of the work done. “I did not want that kind of publicity, but if this film could increase compassion in the heart of even a few people it would be worth it, especially since the focus was on the loving care given by Dr. Ries and Maggie Snyder,” Bellemore said. Contact Jordan Cockrum at

Pom Continued from page 1

members encouraged her to try out for the team, and has been a member for three years. “This opportunity is a privilege since we are a student run club who is allowed the chance to perform and cheer on the Irish during sporting events,” she said. “It is also an opportunity to continue dancing throughout college. It’s also an amazing opportunity to make new friends and become close with your team members allowing you to form friendships that last forever.” It is these friendships that make being on the team exciting senior Becca Gunter said. Even

Advice Continued from page 1

worth pausing and asking, ‘Is what I am about to do congruent with who I am as a person in this exact moment?’” she said. McKenna offered advice about how to be a successful learner and researcher, most of it based on her own experience while in college. Her first piece of advice discussed the importance of role models on a young person developing and discovering passions and interests. “Surround yourself with the people you want to be when you grow up. … This allows for congruence to develop in your work and in your learning over

though this is Gunter’s first year on the team, she said she has already made lasting friendships through the squad. “(My favorite thing about the team) is how close all of us are,” Gunter said. “There’s 11 of us, and we’re having practice three or four times a week and dancing at all of the games together. We all are doing what we love, and we’re getting to do it together.” Holman said it was through another friendship that she heard about the Pom Squad. After hearing about the team, she said she knew it was a team she wanted to be part of. “I first knew about it from my friend in high school who’s on it,” Holman said. “I was on dance team in high school with her, and

time,” she said. McKenna also mentioned the importance of questions in research and scholarly pursuits. “If you don’t take time to find the right questions, you will often feel like the research was not what it was supposed to be,” she said. “And often when that happens you will find out that you were asking a different question, or you cared about a different question and did not take long enough to articulate that.” As a community-based researcher by profession, McKenna also stated her preference for describing how she does her research rather than what exactly she researches. She has three requirements for her research: It must be based on a question about which someone else in the world cares, Paid Advertisement

Huerta Continued from page 1

Central California to unite and getting consumers across America to boycott grapes. The strike lasted for five years. “Originally I felt a little intimidated, but then I realized it was all in my head,” Huerta said. “Cesar always said, though, ‘if you don’t feel nervous, that means it’s not important. That nervousness means you’re doing something really great.’” Huerta recounted growing up in a middle class home in Stockton, with music and dancing lessons, and being a member of the Girl Scouts for 10 years. This way of life, she said, was incomparable to that of the farm workers, expressing the difficulty of raising her 11 children on wages similar to that of the farmers she was campaigning for. “I literally did not know where my next meal was coming from,” Huerta said. “My family thought I was crazy and they criticized me very harshly. But I did it anyway. It was a calling that was so strong that I felt I had to do it.” Now, at 87 years old, Huerta has been the head of the Dolores Huerta Foundation for almost 15 years, which grounds itself on the same principles of organizing from the ground up to impact social change. The foundation now helps nine different school districts of California’s Central Valley.

Huerta said she continues to work with farmers and low income individuals, especially minorities to help them unite and decide what it is they want to do as a community. “So many of our African American and Latino students are being pushed out of schools,” she said. “They suspend kids for whatever reasons. We normally have a lot of kids in prison, and a lot of them come from the school systems because they criminalize the children while they are in the school systems. Our children of color are not getting a quality education.” When asked about the current political climate, Huerta responded that we must constantly remember we are one human race, and quoted Rev. James Lawson, who said “we have to eliminate the systems of oppression in our society.” Specifically, she said if she could say one thing to President Donald Trump, her response was, “Get an education.” Leaving on a similar note as she walked in, Huerta turned to the audience in conclusion, urging them take action to improve the world. “Don’t be afraid to take risks,” she said. “Don’t think in terms of making money, because you can’t take it with you. Think about how we can make a better world.” Contact Madison Riehle at

I loved it so much. I loved the idea of a team and everything. When I knew they had something like that at Notre Dame that let Saint Mary’s girls be on it, I was like, ‘I need to be on this team.’” Holman said she has made lasting relationships through the team and encourages anyone who is thinking about trying out this semester to do so. “It’s seriously one of the best teams I’ve ever been on,” she said. “It is a lot, but practice, going to it, it doesn’t feel like a practice. It feels like all of us hanging out, doing what we love. It’s so fun. I love it so much. Anyone really should try out for it. Poms is the best.” Contact Maria Leontaras at

it must be in the service of youth and it must incorporate art. “I have to ask the questions the way I ask them, and the way I collect the data needs to make sense to me,” McKenna said. Though research is often tough and discouraging, McKenna offered some advice about sticking with it, even when the results do not turn out exactly as expected. “When your question doesn’t lead you down the path exactly straight, it doesn’t mean you’re not on the path,” she said. “And when you hit a dead end, it doesn’t mean you’re not supposed to do that work. It just means maybe you are supposed to ask that question a different way.” Contact Claire Rafford at

The observer | wednesday, february 14, 2018 |




The observer | Wednesday, February 14, 2018 |

Speak up! More student participation on campus

Inside Column

How to make the internet a better place Stephen Hannon Sports Writer

For as long as I’ve had to do school projects requiring some amount of research — since maybe third grade or so — there’s been one word that seems to strike as much fear into my teachers’ hearts as a four-letter curse word. It’s the “He-WhoMust-Not-Be-Named” of academia: Wikipedia. But Wikipedia is not something to be avoided like the plague. In fact, it’s the most useful place to start your research. First, some terminology. Wikipedia is just one example of a “wiki,” which is the generic term for a website that is edited collaboratively by many users. Wikipedia was started in 2001, and since then it has grown to tens of millions of encyclopedia articles across nearly 300 languages. Teachers and professors have valid reasons for doubting the reliability of a website that can be edited by anyone, anywhere, without approval. You don’t even need to create an account to edit. But there’s a reason why Wikipedia is one of the top-visited sites in the world, not a pit of absurd, completely made-up information. There are many protective measures in place. A juvenile insertion of a vulgar remark about a disliked celebrity, for example, will be reverted instantly by a specialized computer program. Even a more clever vandal is vastly outnumbered by well-intentioned editors cleaning up and ensuring the accuracy of the encyclopedia. Even still, I realize that the chance of an inaccuracy is not one that’s worth taking when it comes to a major research paper. But the goal of Wikipedia is not to be the only stop for your research. In fact, one of Wikipedia’s core policies is that everything in an article must be able to be verified by a reliable source. Furthermore, any fact that can be challenged has to be backed up by an inline citation. You may have seen those superscripted numbers in square brackets but never clicked on them. There lies the true beauty of Wikipedia. Those citations take you to a reference to a book, news article, journal, etc., frequently online, where you can continue your research and independently verify what you read. For many of Wikipedia’s articles, that page is arguably the most current, comprehensive treatment of that subject that is freely available anywhere online. And the reason why Wikipedia is widely distrusted is also the reason why it is so exhaustive and up-to-date. You don’t have to be an expert in the field or slog through a lengthy review process to add a fact or fix a mistake. The job of a Wikipedia editor is to synthesize the literature of many different experts, and it’s easier than you might think. I’ve been active on Wikipedia for over six years and written dozens of articles in my spare time. I learned how to be a better researcher and writer through this. To be clear, I am by no means advocating for blind acceptance of everything you read on Wikipedia, and certainly not for plagiarizing the site. Take Wikipedia with a grain of salt, but don’t ignore it entirely. Be a critical reader, and use the references. If you find a mistake and fix it. Congratulations — you’ve just made the Internet a better place. Contact Stephen Hannon at The views and expressions of the inside column are those of the author and not necessarily of the Observer.

Soren Hansen Au Contraire

On a cozy cab ride back to campus one November evening, a student leaned over, tapped me on the shoulder and asked, “Hey, you’re in my education class right? Aren’t you the one who argues a lot?” To many students at Notre Dame, this comment would probably have been an insult. In typical contrarian style, I took it in stride. I really don’t mind being identified as the one who engages critically with other students in the classroom — that’s how I see it anyways. To everyone else in class, I might just be a nuisance. As far as I know, laryngitis is not an infectious epidemic wreaking havoc here in South Bend. Yet it seems that more than half the student body has caught a bad case of the “will-not-participate.” Far too often professor queries are met with stony silence or only a few raised hands. Even outside the classroom, I’ve heard one too many stories from people (even seniors) whose peers outright refuse to engage in any conversation beyond the mundane and shallow. What really confuses me is that every single student in every single class was accepted by the admissions department, which means they were smart and showed serious potential. I know those brains didn’t disappear after high school graduation. So where did they go? Why are the classrooms, dining halls and sidewalks of Notre Dame not filled will invigorating disputes or meaningful conversation? Why don’t more students feel free to speak their minds in class or out of it? Why is it a big deal for a student to argue and debate in class, the one place where those activities are supposed to happen most frequently and zealously? If it isn’t laryngitis, why don’t more students speak up? My opinion is that there are a few root causes for this silence. I’ll proffer three different diagnoses and let you (the Notre Dame community) accept, reject or apply them as you will. Fair warning: as my cab ride classmate could probably tell you, I’m not one to mince my words. That being said I do not intend to isolate any particular student or group, merely to reveal this issue as a whole with the hope of changing our campus for the better. As an additional qualification — and to avoid insulting every friend and peer who I’ve had a class or discussion with — I’d like to point out that there are many students who do participate with full heart and voice. I’ve witnessed incredible debates and deep conversations, and I commend all who continue to push themselves and others beyond the surface level. I’ll begin with my harshest criticism: laziness. Wrestling with sincerely held beliefs and strong personal opinions isn’t easy, especially when attacks

seem to be coming from every side. Notre Dame students are also constantly loaded up with classwork and full schedules (more on that later) which makes any additional intellectual endeavor extra taxing. Many classes include heavy reading loads too. But seriously? We are here to pursue truth, and if we don’t begin to do the readings and discuss the important questions now, when will we? A recent graduate told me about a particularly trying moment of her senior year. When she sat down to a meal with friends, somehow the topic of climate change came up, but was immediately shot down because it was “too serious” for dinnertime conversation. Seems to me like most dining hall conversations steer clear of anything “serious.” I understand that the life of a Notre Dame student isn’t easy — it isn’t supposed to be — but we should all try a little harder to be better than the superficial “Hey, how are you?” “Good, how are you?” exchanges that are repeated ad nauseam on this campus. Which leads to my second diagnosis, I think campus culture hinders deep and meaningful discourse because we worship the idols of careerism and busyness. No one is safe from this campus-wide phenomenon, personally I find myself bowing to the gods of Netf lix and “resume builders” too often, yet for all of our full schedules and career prospects, we can’t lose sight of the present moment, the mere eight semesters we have to fill with as much truth-seeking as possible. If our daily conversations never go deeper than the shallows, or if we force ourselves to put on false masks of perfection — the perfect resumée the perfect interview, the perfect GPA, the perfect social life, etc. — our academic and intellectual community suffers as a whole, and we must take responsibility for that. In line with this take on Notre Dame’s campus culture, I see self-censorship as a major cause of student silence. Not all students are extroverts; I understand that social anxiety and insecurity play a large role in keeping students silent. I am most concerned with students who self-censor because they believe their views will be insulted or dismissed. So if you’re able, set the good example that we are lacking, others will feel encouraged to join in the conversation (and get over their fears or shyness). Shake off the shackles of self-doubt and outside judgement. Offer contrary opinions and participate. We must pursue truth by speaking up — challenging ideas not people — to create a louder, more vigorous campus. Soren Hansen (junior) is a proud member of the Program of Liberal Studies and spends her free time lamenting the lack of intellectual culture on campus and playing the upright bass. Send your contrarian opinions and snide comments to The views expressed in this column are those of the author and not necessarily those of the Observer.

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Robinson Community Learning Center should go zero-carbon Notre Dame’s Robinson Community Learning Center is highly successful at teaching children that they can do anything to which they put their minds. In a few years, the RCLC will move into a new building constructed explicitly for their needs as part of the Eddy Street redevelopment. Why not make this building into a statement of what the RCLC teaches? Why not make it a zero-carbon building as a visible example of what we all need to do to fight climate change? A zero-carbon building produces no carbon dioxide and thus does not contribute to causing climate change. The techniques for such construction are surprisingly simple and are commonly used in Europe. The building is made completely airtight by sealing all seams and cracks. It is sheathed in high-quality insulation, and the interior walls are lined with phasechange insulation. This remarkable product contains a

gel-like substance engineered to have a freezing point near room temperature. It automatically regulates the temperature by absorbing heat through melting if the temperature is too high, or by giving off heat through freezing if the temperature is too low. All fresh outside air is brought in through a mechanical ventilation system that exchanges heat with the outgoing air, thus ensuring that no heat is lost in the process. The incoming air can easily be filtered to eliminate pollutants and allergy sources, thus creating a healthier environment for the children who come to the RCLC. Large south-facing windows provide passive heating from sunlight in the winter, and, with proper shading, prevent direct sunlight from entering in the summer. Energy efficient lighting and appliances further reduce energy consumption. Solar panels on the roof, supplemented by heat pump coils buried during

construction, can then provide all of the remaining energy needs. The point is that no complex or costly technologies are involved. Experience shows that such zero-carbon construction costs only a few percent more than traditional construction. Then, since there will be no electricity or natural gas bills to pay, the building will actually save money for its occupants for its entire lifetime. The end result is a building that is healthy, cost efficient and a constant reminder of how easy it is to take care of climate change. Why wouldn’t we want to do it? Philip Sakimoto director First Year of Studies Program in Academic Excellence Jan. 29

Realizing Lady Liberty’s dream Paul Kozhipatt Paul’s Ponderings

The 1960s was a period of soul searching for the United States. The civil rights movement was surging ahead, expanding the scope of the American Dream. In the midst of this progress, Congress enacted the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, popularly known as the Hart-Celler Act after its sponsors, Senator Philip A. Hart and Representative Emanuel Celler. This Act ended the preference for northern Europeans in America’s immigration policy, allowing for dramatically greater levels of immigration from Asia, Africa and the Americas. Arguably, no act of Congress has had as dramatic an impact on America’s identity. Much of America’s unprecedented growth and progress in the last half century can directly and indirectly be attributed to this immigration reform. Successive waves of immigration from all over the world built the United States, making it the melting pot that it is today. However, for much of America’s history, immigration was heavily restricted to certain nationalities. The 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act quashed America’s first wave of Asian immigration after the California Gold Rush. In 1924, after several decades of heavy immigration, largely Catholic and Jewish, from southern and eastern Europe, Congress succumbed to nativist pressures and established a quota-based immigration system where 70 percent of the total allocation went to immigrants from northern Europe. This quota system dramatically shaped the face of America. Prior to 1965, before the Hart-Celler Act became law, only 5 percent of immigrants were born in Asia and 19.1 percent of immigrants were born in the Americas. In 2016, the numbers show a dramatic increase; Asian immigrants now account for 30.8 percent of total immigrants and immigrants from the Americas account for 52.8 percent of the total immigrant population. In the midst of the civil rights movement, the Kennedy brothers and other prominent American politicians advocated for inclusive reforms to the

existing immigration policy. In response to this mounting pressure, Congress passed the Hart-Celler Act in a surprisingly quick and bipartisan fashion. Interestingly, as a concession to nativist prejudices in Congress, the Act created a strong preference for family reunification immigration, also known as chain migration. The rationale being, since the majority of immigrants present in the country were European at the time, chain migration would advantage immigrants from Europe, who were viewed favorably by nativists. Paradoxically, this clause has since allowed millions of immigrants from Asia, Africa and the Americas to come to the United States. The Act’s eponymous sponsor, New York congressman and civil rights advocate, Emmanuel Celler was himself a descendent of Jewish immigrants. Representative Celler was an accomplished legislator, instrumental in the passage of four Constitutional Amendments, the 1964 Civil Rights Act, and approximately 400 major laws. Of particular relevance to Notre Dame is Rep. Celler’s efforts to normalize relations between the United States and the Holy See at a time when Catholicism was considered to be “unAmerican.” In July 1939, Celler extensively lobbied the State Department to start the 45-year long process to reestablish full diplomatic relations with the Holy See. Relations between the U.S. and the Vatican were terminated in 1867 due to strong anti-Catholic sentiments. The success of congressman Celler’s inclusive vision is especially evident in his former district covering parts of Brooklyn and Queens in New York. Queens now includes the most diverse square mile in the world where Americans of all backgrounds live, work and commute together in harmony speaking hundreds of different languages. On a larger scale, immigration has undisputedly spurred growth and innovation throughout America’s history. Immigrants bring with them an entrepreneurial zeal; starting businesses ranging in size from local convenience stores to household names such as SpaceX, Chobani and Alphabet (Google’s parent company). Without the Hart-Celler Act, the founders of these firms would have found it incredibly

difficult to immigrate to the United States from South Africa, Turkey and Russia respectively. According to a 2011 study published by the Partnership for a New American Economy, 40 percent of current Fortune 500 companies were founded by immigrants or children of immigrants. In the quickly growing technology sector these numbers are even more pronounced. 51 percent of unicorn startups, companies valued at more than $1 billion, were founded by immigrants. 16 percent of these unicorns were founded by immigrants born in India, a country previously restricted to only 100 annual immigrants before the Hart-Celler Act. The 44 immigrant-founded unicorns have created 760 American jobs on average. Immigrants also create jobs by spending their incomes in the United States, particularly bolstering the service sector. A National Bureau of Economic Research study found that for every one immigrant that comes to the United States, an additional 1.2 jobs are created for native born Americans. Ignoring for a moment immigrants countless other contributions to the American experiment, immigration makes economic sense. Americans have long welcomed those fleeing strife, famine and persecution, as well as those who simply want a better life for themselves and their children. Four hundred years ago, two Native Americans, Squanto and Samoset, famously welcomed refugees fleeing religious persecution in Europe to Plymouth, Massachusetts. Emma Lazarus’s poem “New Colossus” which is aptly placed on the pedestal of the Statue of Liberty reads, “Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free.” It is only fitting that on Oct. 4, 1965 President Lyndon Johnson signed the Hart-Celler Act in New York Harbor, under Lady Liberty’s approving gaze delivering on her pedestal’s bold promise. Paul Kozhipatt is a senior political science and information technology management major. Paul grew up on three continents, but calls New York home. He can be reached at The views expressed in this column are those of the author and not necessarily those of The Observer.




The observer | wednesday, february 14, 2018 |

Crossword | Will Shortz

Horoscope | Eugenia Last Happy Birthday: Expand your horizons and open your mind to trying new things. Take greater interest in others as well as in your personal affairs. Look for clear-cut ways to get the most for the least. Avoiding excessive behavior and people who tend to lead you in the wrong direction will help you maintain a lifestyle that is comfortable and fun. Your numbers are 2, 10, 21, 29, 34, 38, 44. ARIES (March 21-April 19): Emotional issues will surface if you can’t find common ground or an ability to compromise when dealing with others. Inconsistency and outbursts will only make matters worse. Keep the peace and think twice before you say something regrettable. TAURUS (April 20-May 20): Make changes at home or at work for the right reasons. Don’t let emotions take over or motivate you to head in a direction that may not be suitable over the long term. Intelligence and research will be your tickets to success. GEMINI (May 21-June 20): If someone is acting erratically, back away instead of tagging along. Concentrate on what’s best for you and what you want to pursue. An honest assessment of your current situation will help you make a wise choice. CANCER ( June 21-July 22): Rethink your lifestyle and the way you handle your money. Building a healthy nest egg will ease your stress. A physical approach to your responsibilities will help you impress others and gain access to a higher position. LEO ( July 23-Aug. 22): Keep busy. Exercise, rigorous activities, taking action and making your dreams come true should be on your agenda. It’s up to you to take control if you want to get ahead or make your life better. VIRGO (Aug. 23-Sept. 22): Offering to help others is fine, but don’t let anyone take advantage of you. Make clear what you are able to contribute before you get started. Avoid excessive people or temptation. Overdoing it will lead to regret. LIBRA (Sept. 23-Oct. 22): Get active and fit. Do your best to get rid of bad habits or frivolous behavior. Make wise choices that will encourage you to keep moving and to do the best job possible, and you’ll avoid complaints and criticism. SCORPIO (Oct. 23-Nov. 21): A business trip or meeting will encourage success. Discuss your ideas and plans and you’ll be given interesting choices. Walk away from anyone who shows signs of inconsistency or unpredictability. Align yourself with stable individuals. SAGITTARIUS (Nov. 22-Dec. 21): Let the past guide you. A legal or financial experience will save you from a similar fate. Recall what happened and make adjustments to ensure you don’t lose this time around. Don’t hesitate to say “no.” CAPRICORN (Dec. 22-Jan. 19): Partnerships will need to be handled with the utmost care. If someone appears to be the least bit erratic or inconsistent, it may be best to keep your distance. Trust in facts and only spend what is readily available to you. AQUARIUS ( Jan. 20-Feb. 18): Make a stress-free environment your priority. Live frugally and question your relationships with people who tend to be indulgent. Stay focused on what’s important to you and what will bring you the greatest stability. PISCES (Feb. 19-March 20): Speak from the heart and be open about the way you feel and what you want. Walk away from situations that are casting a shadow on your life or your ability to get ahead. Don’t let anyone stand in your way. Birthday Baby: You are sensitive, intuitive and caring. You are charismatic and outgoing.

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Jumble | David Hoyt and Jeff knurek

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sports | wednesday, february 14, 2018 | The Observer

ncaa men’s basketball | Red Raiders 88, sooners 78

Sports Authority

The Cleveland Cavaliers are back Michael Ivey Sports Writer

Remember about a week ago, when the Cleveland Cavaliers were 6-13 in their last 19 games dating back to Christmas Day, the players were questioning the legitimacy of a Kevin Love sickness and everyone in the locker room hated each other? Man, those were the days. Just one day after a thrilling win over the Minnesota Timberwolves that featured a LeBron James buzzer-beater, the Cavaliers rebuilt their entire roster. During last Thursday’s NBA trade deadline, Cleveland made three trades, shipping six players out of town and bringing four in, giving the organization fresh blood and completely changing the dynamic of the team. Let’s take a look at each move. Trade one: The Cavaliers sent Isaiah Thomas, Channing Frye and their own protected 2018 first-round draft pick to the Los Angeles Lakers for Jordan Clarkson and Larry Nance Jr. Trade two: In a three-team trade with the Utah Jazz and Sacramento Kings, the Cavaliers sent Jae Crowder and Derrick Rose to Utah and Iman Shumpert and a 2020 second-round draft — pick via the Miami Heat — to Sacramento. In return, Cleveland received Rodney Hood from Utah and George Hill from Sacramento. Trade three: The Cavaliers sent Dwayne Wade to the Heat for a protected 2024 second-round draft pick. There is obviously a lot to take in here, but let’s try. The Thomas move could have been orchestrated purely to get Thomas out of Cleveland. Despite being a reliable point guard option on the court, Thomas made headlines for publicly criticizing the coaching staff and reportedly leading the opposition in the locker-room when the legitimacy of Love’s illness came into question. There was also an incident where Thomas insisted on delaying a video tribute the Boston Celtics made in his honor to the same night the Celtics were already


scheduled to retire franchiselegend Paul Pierce’s jersey number. Many thought the request made by Thomas to delay the video tribute was unwarranted and led to unnecessary drama for both the Cavaliers and the Celtics. Thomas might have been one of the main reasons the Cavaliers’ locker room became so toxic, so they attached Frye and a first-round draft pick with him in a trade to Los Angeles for two solid young players in Clarkson and Nance Jr., whose father played for the Cavs from 1988-1994. The Cavaliers acquired Hood and Hill to get stronger at the guard position, which resulted in the aging Wade being the odd man out. Cleveland traded him to the Heat as a way of “doing right” by Wade, letting him finish his illustrious career where it began. In addition to all of that, the Cavaliers got rid of several players that just weren’t getting the job done and/or were contributing to creating a bad locker-room environment for the rest of the team. By getting rid of those players and bringing in new, fresh-faced and reliable rotational players, the Cavaliers seem like a whole new team. Since all of those moves were made last Thursday, Cleveland is 2-0 with both wins being by double digits. The Cavaliers dismantled the former conference-leading Celtics 121-99 on Sunday afternoon. I know that’s a very small sample size, but this new-look Cavaliers team looks like they can play with anyone in the Eastern Conference. They have made the NBA Finals the last three seasons, but many people believed they wouldn’t go back this season after the losing streak and the reports of players feuding in the locker room. That was all before the trade deadline. Now, don’t be surprised if we see round four of WarriorsCavaliers come June. Contact Michael Ivey at The views expressed in this Sports Authority are those of the author and not necessarily those of The Observer.

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Evans leads Texas Tech in win over Oklahoma Associated Press

LUBBOCK, Texas — Keenan Evans scored 26 points and No. 7 Texas Tech beat 23rd-ranked Oklahoma 88-78 on Tuesday night in Division I scoring leader Trae Young’s first college game in the city where he was born. Young, the son of former Texas Tech player Rayford Young, missed all nine 3-pointers while finishing with 19 points in front of a hostile Lubbock crowd that booed him just about every time he touched the ball in the Sooners’ fourth straight loss. The Red Raiders (22-4, 10-3 Big 12) won their seventh straight game, including a sixgame Big 12 run that’s the best in the conference this season. They tied the Sooners for the most Top 25 wins nationally this season at six. Evans went 4 of 7 from 3-point range, including a fadeaway shot from the left corner that put Texas Tech ahead 7971 with less than 2 minutes to go. He added his second dunk of the second half moments later between a pair of 3s that

kept the Sooners (16-9, 6-7) alive into the final minute. And Evans easily outscored Young in matchup of the Big 12’s top two scorers — a game that lacked drama late despite 17 ties and 11 lead changes. The crowd was ready for what will be Young’s only appearance in Lubbock if the freshman declares for the NBA draft this summer, as expected. One fan greeted him with a sign picturing Young as a child wearing a Texas Tech T-shirt and showing the school’s “guns up” sign. Besides going without a 3 for the first time this season, Young gave the crowd a final moment to jeer when he dribbled the ball off his foot for his sixth turnover with the Sooners trailing by six with 41 seconds remaining. He was 4 of 15 from the field but made all 11 free throws. Young, who went to high school not far from the OU campus in Norman, and his dad are the first father-son pair in the 22-year history of Big 12 basketball. OU junior Christian James had a career high for the

second straight game with 23 points in the third game that someone other than Young led the Sooners in scoring. Texas Tech’s Norense Odiase scored 14 points, and Niem Stevenson had 12 points and seven rebounds.

Big picture Oklahoma: Young’s in a bit of a 3-point slump, which will have to stop if the Sooners are to make a run in the NCAA Tournament. He 1 of 17 over the past two games and had a recent 2-of-14 showing in a loss to Texas that started the current losing streak. Texas Tech: The Red Raiders had their most 3s in a Big 12 game, finishing 11 of 21. Like a lot of their scoring, they did it with Evans leading the way and balance behind him. Freshman Zhaire Smith and Stevenson each made both their attempts and Tommy Hamilton IV was 2 of 4.

Up next Oklahoma: Texas at home Saturday. Texas Tech: At Baylor on Saturday.

nhl | blue jackets 4, islanders 1

Bjorkstrand, Dubois help Columbus top New York Associated Press

NEW YORK — Oliver Bjorkstrand and Pierre-Luc Dubois scored power-play goals in the second period to give Columbus the lead, and the Blue Jackets went on to a 4-1 win over the New York Islanders on Tuesday night. Brandon Dubinsky and Cam Atkinson scored in the third period, defenseman Zach Werenski had three assists as the Blue Jackets had a season-high 51 shots and won their second straight since an 0-4-1 skid. Bjorkstrand and Dubois had assists on each other’s goals, and Sergei Bobrovsky stopped 27 shots. John Tavares scored for the Islanders, who have lost six of their last eight (2-5-1). Jaroslav Halak finished with a season-high 47 saves, including all 26 in another Columbus onslaught in the first period. He had 25 saves in the opening period against the Blue Jackets in the Islanders’ 4-3 win here Feb. 3.

With Columbus holding a 2-1 lead, Bobrovsky preserved the advantage early in the third, using his left blocker hand after losing his stick to deny a great chance in close by Islanders rookie sensation Mathew Barzal. Dubinsky put in the rebound of his wraparound try to push the Blue Jackets’ lead to 3-1 at 6:01 of the final period. Atkinson made it a threegoal lead just 43 seconds later. The Blue Jackets, last in the league on the power play coming in, went 2 for 4 with the man-advantage against an Islanders team that was second-worst in penaltykilling. Five of Columbus’ 24 power-play goals this season have come in four games against the Islanders. With just 8 seconds remaining on Nick Leddy’s penalty for delay of game, Bjorkstrand tied it 1-1 on the power play at 6:02 of the second with a wicked slap shot from the inside edge of the right circle for his 10th.

Halak made a stellar glove save while sliding to his left on a shot by Alexander Wennberg with less than five minutes to go in the second. Then, with New York’s Brock Nelson off for hooking late in the period, Columbus’ Zach Werenski hit the right goalpost with 1:10 remaining. However, Dubois put the Blue Jackets ahead 13 seconds later with their second power-olay goal of the period as his shot from the left circle went in off the left post for his 13th. Columbus controlled play for most of the first period, outshooting New York 26-11 to tie the franchise record for shots on goal in an opening period set against the Islanders 10 days earlier. The teams skated 4-on-4 for 33 seconds after Columbus’ Jussi Jokinen was whistled for tripping with the Islanders’ Ross Johnston in the penalty box. After Johnston’s penalty expired, the Islanders went on the power play and took advantage 45 seconds later.

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The observer | wednesday, february 14, 2018 |

M Tennis Continued from page 12

thought everyone played well collectively. “It was a good day from everybody, really,” Sachire said. “Alex Lebedev continues to be a stud. Last year, he lost to the guy that he played on Sunday in our dual-match with Northwestern, and [he] beat him pretty soundly on Sunday, so that was a great performance. Northwestern is really strong in the middle of their lineup, particularly No. 5 singles as well, and Matt Gamble did a great job in his match beating a really great No. 5 player. So I would really highlight Lebedev and Gamble as two guys — again all did really well, but those two guys were awesome.” Despite the 7-0 record, Sachire expressed his desire to improve his team’s doubles play. “We still have a lot to work on for sure,” Sachire said. “We have to get better in doubles. That is a big thing. We’re not playing tremendous doubles right now, but that’s ok. We are still doing well enough to continue to be successful, but we definitely want to continue to improve the doubles area and get to the point where we’re one of the better teams in the country in doubles. That is our expectation and that’s our goal, and we’re not quite there yet now. “And so in the practices leading up to national indoors on Friday, that is going to be a big focus on what we do.”

Hockey Continued from page 12

hadn’t started a game until this season, has stepped in with an uncanny veteran-like ability. “I’ve said all season long, he’s been our rock,” Irish head coach Jeff Jackson said of the

Notre Dame will be back in action this weekend when they participate in the ITA Division I national indoor championship, which is being hosted by Washington at Seattle Tennis Club in Seattle beginning Friday. The tournament features the top-16 teams in the country. Sachire said his team is looking forward to the challenges it will face during the tournament. He also said his team will continue to focus on doing the same things which have made it successful this early on in the season. “Just continue us doing the same things we’ve been doing, and that’s practice really hard and practice with the focus of improving and getting better and knowing when game day comes around, we’re competing for every point as hard as we can,” Sachire said. “It’s a pretty simple answer; but when you can do that, you can have amazing success, and our group has experienced that. So we feel really confident going into the national indoors. We know there are some great teams there, and we’re going to have to play very well to beat any of them. “Each match will be a challenge and tough, but we also know we’re a pretty darn good team, too. And if we do things that we’ve been doing in terms of our preparation and how we compete on game day, we will have a chance to be successful.” ANN CURTIS | The Observer

Contact Michael Ivey at

Irish junior Alex Lebedev prepares for a hit during Notre Dame’s 6-1 victory over Michigan State on Jan. 19 at the Eck Tennis Pavilion. Lebedev currently has a 12-4 record this season.

sophomore. “He’s the guy that’s made the difference in so many games. … He’s had a lot of experience at the junior level, and last year wasn’t a wasted year — we worked with him quite a bit with goalie sessions and scrimmage situations. He developed last year. As coaches, we all thought he got better

last year, even though he didn’t play, and that’s a rarity in today’s game. Usually, guys are just complaining.” The end of that quote is the important part. This season, Notre Dame isn’t built on one player, or two, or three. As fun as the Irish were to watch last year, it was

ANN CURTIS | The Observer

Irish junior forward Andrew Oglevie winds up for a slapshot during Notre Dame’s 1-0 victory over Penn State on Nov. 10 at Compton Family Ice Arena. Oglevie has 12 goals and 16 assists on the season.

pretty simple — stop Bjork from doing his thing and/or disrupt Petersen’s mojo in net, and suddenly it was a lot easier to beat the Irish. The meltdown in the Frozen Four against Denver last April was a perfect example. But this season, the Irish have reforged their identity as a team that beats you from a variety of different players and angles. And it defends. A lot. Last year, Notre Dame gave up an average 2.33 goals a game. This time around, aided by the return of senior Justin Wade, the Irish defense has cut that down to 2.07, good for third in the country. On the penalty kill, the unit has jumped from 85.6 to 88.1 percent, also good for a top-five mark in the country. Morris has certainly been stellar, but Notre Dame’s defense has certainly played its role in helping the sophomore become a Hobey Baker candidate almost overnight. And on the offensive end, the Irish don’t have a game changer like Bjork, but they do have a knack for scoring when it matters and — perhaps even more importantly — not surrendering leads. This season, Notre Dame is a remarkable 18-1-2 when scoring first, a main reason why the team went on an unprecedented 16-game winning streak earlier this year.

With an every-play- and everyplayer-matters mentality, the Irish have emerged from the shadows of uncertainty as a legit contender. So what’s the next step? For Notre Dame, it’s about unfinished business. The Irish didn’t like how they went out last year. “For me, it just makes us more hungry to get back out there and come in with a better mindset, similar to what this Denver team here did [last year],” junior forward Andrew Oglevie said after last year’s Frozen Four loss to Denver. “We’re going to build off of it, have a good offseason and come back ready.” This year, Notre Dame has clearly taken this to heart. Rather than a rebuild, Jackson and the Irish have reloaded. And for all the success so far, with the postseason looming and the win streak a thing of the past, it’s time for the program to really see what it’s made of. But based on what we’ve seen so far, the only question is how far this team wants to go. Contact Tobias Hoonhout at The views expressed in this column are those of the author and not necessarily those of The Observer.

Sports | wednesday, february 14, 2018 | The Observer


nd women’s golf | florida state match-up

Notre Dame starts spring season Observer Staff Report

The Irish started their spring season off with a seventh-place finish at the Florida State Match-Up in Tallahassee, Florida, at Don Veller Seminole Golf Course After a four-month hiatus, Notre Dame returned to action in a tournament featuring the likes of South Carolina, Michigan State, Virginia and the host team, Florida State. Weather complications altered the format of the event, as the teams played two rounds Friday and a third Saturday. After a two-round Day 1, the Irish stood in sixth place with a team total of 580 (scores of 290 in each round) in the team competition and stood fifth in the match-up competition, having been paired with Kentucky. The Irish wouldn’t hold onto the sixth place, however, as a shaky third round that resulted in a 304 score Saturday that dropped the

Irish to seventh, as South Carolina ultimately took the crown. Junior Emma Albrecht and freshman Abby Heck led the way for the Irish individually, as both tied for 21st after shooting round scores of 72-70-76 and 73-70-75, respectively, for an event score of 218. Junior Maddie Rose Hamilton tied for 31st after shooting a total of 222 in three rounds, notching scores of 71-74-77 over Friday and Saturday. Sophomore Mia Ayer finished tied for 43rd with a score of 227 after shooting 74-77-76 over the three rounds, while junior Isabella DiLisio rounded out the top five for the Irish by totaling a score of 237 — shooting 83-76-78 over the two days — to place in a tie for 62nd amongst competitors. The Irish will have over a week’s rest before traveling to Peoria, Arizona, to compete in the Westbrook Invitational, which will take place Feb. 25-26.

Observer File Photo

Former Irish wide receiver DaVaris Daniels plays in Notre Dame’s 37-34 victory over Arizona State on Oct. 5, 2013, at AT&T Stadium in Arlington, Texas. Daniels was suspended as part of the “Frozen Five.”

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Appeal Continued from page 12

worst, it creates an incentive for colleges and universities to change their honor codes to avoid sanctions like that imposed here,” Jenkins said in the statement. “In this case, the University acknowledged the academic misconduct impacted the eligibility of student-athletes and resulted in student-athletes competing while ineligible,” the NCAA stated in a press release. “The appeals committee found the panel has the authority under NCAA rules to prescribe penalties for academic misconduct violations.” The penalties stem from a former student-athletic trainer, who committed academic misconduct for two football players and provided six others with impermissible academic benefits, per the NCAA’s Division I Committee on Infractions panel. An additional player committed academic misconduct on his own. Of the two players that committed academic misconduct with the trainer, one competed

Swimming Continued from page 12

ACC championships against top-ranked teams in No. 14 Louisville, No. 20 Florida State and No. 23 Virginia on the men’s side, while they will face ranked opponents

while ineligible during the 2012 football season, while the other competed while ineligible throughout the 2013 season. The third player that committed academic misconduct played in five games of the 2013 season. The investigation began following the so-called “Frozen Five” case in 2014, where five then-Irish football players — wide receiver DaVaris Daniels, safety Eilar Hardy, linebacker Kendall Moore, cornerback KeiVarae Russell and defensive lineman Ishaq Williams — were suspended from the team, with Daniels, Moore, Russell and Williams being dismissed from the University. Hardy returned to action later in the 2014 season, while Russell and Williams each were readmitted to the University in 2015. Russell returned to the field for Notre Dame in 2015, but Williams did not. The NCAA handed down its original decision in November of 2016. Notre Dame football went 12-1 in the 2012-13 season, losing only to Alabama in the BCS national championship game, and went 9-4 in 2013-14.

in No. 8 Virginia and No. 10 Louisville on the women’s side. The women’s team will travel to Greensboro, North Carolina, and compete from Wednesday to Saturday. The men’s team will then compete the following week in Greensboro, Feb. 21-24.


The observer | wednesday, february 14, 2018 |

men’s tennis | nd 5, northwestern 1


NCAA denies appeal, ND to vacate two years of wins Observer Staff Report

By MICHAEL IVEY Sports Writer

The NCAA announced Tuesday that Notre Dame’s appeal in the University’s academic misconduct case was denied, meaning Notre Dame will vacate all of its football victories from the 2012-13 and 2013-14 seasons. University President Fr. John Jenkins released a statement Tuesday morning saying Notre Dame is “deeply disappointed by and strongly disagree with the denial of the University’s appeal.” Notre Dame’s appeal rested largely on the fact that the academic misconduct was committed by one undergraduate student trainer, not a series of institutional figures, and that the University self-reported the violations to the NCAA once it was aware of them. “At best, the NCAA’s decision in this case creates a randomness of outcome based solely on how an institution chooses to define its honor code; at see APPEAL PAGE 11

Observer File Photo

Former Irish cornerback KeiVarae Russell leaps at a pass during Notre Dame’s 17-13 victory over Michigan State on Sept. 21, 2013.

nd swimming | Ohio state winter invitational

Squads take home eight event wins Observer Staff Report

No. 22 Notre Dame took home eight individual-event wins between its men’s and women’s squads this weekend, and it also saw its athletes combine for NCA A B-cut times in 10 events at the Ohio State Winter Invitational in the McCorkle Aquatic Pavilion. At the event, the Irish competed against the likes of Cincinnati, Cleveland State, Eastern Michigan, IUPUI, Kentucky, Miami (OH), Ohio State, Pacific, Pittsburgh, Penn State and Purdue. NCA A B-cut qualifiers on the women’s side included sophomore Claire DeSelm (100- and 200-yard backstroke), sophomore Katie Smith (50-yard freestyle), junior Rebecca Walton (1650yard freestyle) and senior Alyssa Storino (100- and 200-yard breaststroke). On the men’s side, sophomore Rex Riley (100- and 200-yard breaststroke), junior Jack

Irish improve to 7-0 with victory No. 22 Notre Dame extended its undefeated start to the season by defeating Northwestern 5-1 at the Combe Tennis Center in Evanston, Illinois, on Sunday. In the singles competition, junior Alex Lebedev grabbed a 6-4, 6-2 victory on court No. 1, while freshman Tristan McCormick won 6-4, 7-6 on court No. 3. Over on court No. 6, junior Grayson Broadus defeated his opponent 6-4, 6-4, while sophomore Matt Gamble grabbed a 6-4, 7-5 victory on court No. 5. On court No. 4, Richard Ciamarra won the first set of his match by a score of 6-2 before dropping the second set by a score of 6-1. Ciamarra recovered, however, and took the deciding third set, 6-3. The only point the Irish (70) lost came in doubles play, as the Wildcats (3-5) took two of the three doubles matches. Sophomore Guillermo Cabrera also competed in singles play, but his match on court No. 2 went unfinished after the Irish

had secured the victory. Irish head coach Ryan Sachire said he was pleased with his team’s performance Sunday. “It was a great win for us,” Sachire said. “Our guys played well, and more importantly, they competed well. Northwestern is a great team, and we were excited to do as well as we did against them. In terms of season record, I guess that is a great accomplishment. I think for us, it is more important just to stay focused on what we are doing each day and to play each match the best that we can play it, and I think our record and our ranking and that sort of stuff will all take care of itself. “So I look at it more as a reflection on the fact that we’ve done such a good job to start the year and our guys are working hard and improving, and that’s the most important thing.” Sachire singled out Gamble’s and Lebedev’s performances, but he also said he see M TENNIS PAGE 10


Notre Dame succeeding, even during rebuild

Russell (100-yard breaststroke) and junior David Stewart (100-yard butterf ly) also posted NCA A B-cut times. The Irish had several other top performers beyond just its NCA A B-cut qualifiers. Sophomore Kelly Jacob raced to a third-place finish in the women’s 200-yard freestyle. In the 200-yard butterf ly, sophomore Carolyn Kammeyer finished in second place, right ahead of third-place finisher and junior Paige Kaplan. For the men’s team, freshman John Paul Becker took fifth in the men’s 200-yard backstroke and fourth in the 100yard backstroke in addition to winning the 200-yard individual medley. Russell took sixth in the 200-yard breaststroke, while Stewart and junior Daniel Fujan took seventh and eighth, respectively, in the 50-yard freestyle. This upcoming week, the Irish will compete in the

Expectations can be tricky. On one hand, they are built on past success. On the other, they always result in question marks. But this season, No. 1 Notre Dame has answered every question thrown at it. Although there were certainly doubts about how well the Irish (22-6-2, 16-3-1 Big Ten) could replicate last season’s incredible Frozen Four run, which was built on the playmaking ability of forward Anders Bjork and the steadiness of captain Cal Petersen in net, Notre Dame has smashed the rebuild narrative, winning its first regular-season conference championship since 2009 — and in its first year in the conference, no less. This team is deep and experienced on both ends of the ice. Even sophomore goalie Cale Morris, who



Tobias Hoonhout Associate Sports Editor

ANN CURTS | The Observer

Irish freshman defenseman Matt Hellickson looks to pass during Notre Dame’s 5-1 loss to Ohio State on Saturday.

Print Edition of The Observer for Wednesday, February 14, 2018  

Print Edition of The Observer of Notre Dame and Saint Mary's for Wednesday, February 14, 2018

Print Edition of The Observer for Wednesday, February 14, 2018  

Print Edition of The Observer of Notre Dame and Saint Mary's for Wednesday, February 14, 2018