The Key 2020

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THE K E Y 100

Learn from history: cars always win!


If we look back at the cars we love so dearly and study the historical moments in which they were conceived and created, we soon discover that, without exception, they emerged from different kinds of crises: financial, conflict, violent clashes, petrol shortages, atomic threats and even extremism. And they, the cars, clothed in technology and magnificence, are testiments to how humanity always manages to respond to adversity in an unexpected way. They are a demonstration of the positive energy that accompanies human nature, and which can transform simple objects into timeless symbols, almost as if they are conduits of positivity and trust. The first post-war Decò cars, the reaction of the American automobile industry after the stock market crash of 1929, the creative momentum of the Italian, German and English brands after the destruction of Europe during WW2, are just some glorious examples. This issue of The Key, written at a moment when the world stopped, confirms the role that cars can play as powerful stimulants of positivity. It does so by using scientific data to demonstrate the enormous yet unexpressed potential of collecting and using classic cars, thanks in no small part to the interest and sophisticated attraction they exert over the female gender. It does so by proposing an innovative and decidedly contemporary way to enjoy collectible cars, specifically through the possibility to use them virtually, and not just in reality. Here, Pininfarina and Zagato, two great coachbuilders who are keeping the magical legend of Italian style alive, have joined forces to create two simulators for TCCT based on identical mechanics, each capable of reproducing the authentic sensations and engine noises of the most famous sports and Gran Turismo cars from late 1940s to the beginning of the 1980s. The eClassic programme looks set to become a sort of club where those who buy the simulator can find themselves on the track or on the road together with other owners for friendly meetings or, if desired, the possibility to compete in challenges on the world’s most famous circuits. Races in which the clutch, gearbox and overall control of the vehicle will be up to those behind the wheel and not, as too often is the case today, to electronics. Magnificent!

This issue of The Key also aims to celebrate the considerable energy that goes into collections and projects – both realized and never born – like those of the many Alfa Romeos that we have discovered in the 110 years of the brand’s illustrious history – presenting the motivations and secrets of Ralph Lauren, Fred Simeone, Nicola Bulgari and Michael Kadoorie and proposing, for the third year running, a ranking of the world’s 100 most important collectors. A list whose accuracy and trustworthiness continues to grow year after year. Energy and potential resonate through the rediscovery of legends, such as Steve McQueen the young race driver, the Ferrari 330 P4, the genius of Scaglione, the highly anticipated renaissance of Iso Rivolta thanks to Marella, the founder’s granddaughter, and Bertone’s secret creativity hidden away in his private archive. And then the new generations, attracted to races, rally raids and events, such as the magnificent London Brighton experience, concours and restorations. All this in the presence of the cars they love: the same Youngtimers you’ll see in the preferences of the younger generations from the 2019 edition of The Key which, thanks to the help of Quattroruote and the Director of the Ruoteclassiche and Auto Italiana magazines, we can present alongside their original car reviews. The Key 2020, a veritable reference to be preserved and consulted over the years, was compiled during difficult months for the world during the pandemic, but offers readers, on the basis of the desire for pleasure and beauty that unites us all, the positive energy and passion of the extraordinary world of collecting, as we look forward to a future that can only be better than what came before.

Antonio Ghini Chief Editor Learn from history: cars always win! 5


Lorenzo Ardizio

Is the Curator of the Alfa Romeo Museum, responsible for both the Centro Documentazione Alfa Romeo and the Centro Storico Fiat. Ardizio is an automobile historian and a professor of Car Design History and Culture at the Scuola Politecnica di Design and at the Istituto d’Arte Applicata e Design. He collaborated in the completion of the National Automobile Museum of Turin. Ardizio is the Conservator of the Registro Italiano Alfa Romeo and served as the editorial director for the magazine Il Quadrifoglio. Partnering with multiple publishers, Ardizio is the author of many automotive books.

Massimo Delbò

This car lover started working for a car magazine in 1997, and has never stopped since. He considers Isotta Fraschini the most important, and forgotten, brand in automotive history and has driven its very first and last cars built. He is the Italian contributor for UK Octane magazine, a freelance classic car writer, a communication consultant for Lamborghini Polo Storico, and an experienced Concours judge. He has contributed to The Key Magazine since issue 1. In his garage is a small collection of classics, always with the tanks filled up because, for Massimo, cars are meant to be driven.

Dale Drinnon

Dale Drinnon’s automotive passion was inspired from age 12 by reading Ken Purdy and Denis Jenkinson, so it’s no surprise he followed their example into motoring journalism. Relocating to Britain from his native USA some 20 years ago, his work is award-winning in both countries, and has appeared in Octane, Magneto, Automobile (USA), Ettore, and other publications worldwide.

Shinichi Ekko

Shinichi Ekko is a PR Consultant and Chairman of EKKO PROJECT. He is a car historian with an extensive network of contacts in Modena and Turin, Italy. While working in the entertainment business around the world as a producer of a record company, he was also involved in the automotive industry. He was the founder and chairman of Maserati Club of Japan in 1993. Currently he runs the EKKO PROJECT as a business consultant and is also working as a journalist. Born in Tokyo Japan.

David Giudici

David Giudici started collaborating with authoritative motoring magazines in the early 90s (AM., AutoCapital, Ruoteclassiche, Gente Motori). His first contract as a trainee was at in 2000, followed by a long period in Aci Mondadori and in 2012 at the direction of GenteMotori, with the new GenteMotori Classic project. Two years later, he was called to the board Editoriale Domus as Director of Ruoteclassiche and, subsequently, of the Italian edition of TopGear. He is now also Director of Youngtimer and AutoItaliana.

Massimo Grandi

Massimo Grandi has been an architect, professor of Transportation Design and director of the Car Design Laboratory at the Design Campus of the University of Florence until 2019. Among his published works are: Car Design, the shape of memory - Car design workshop - Dreaming american car - Ferrari 550 Alaspessa, from idea to project - When the wind drew them - The Scaglione paradigm - The fastest, brief history of world road speed records (with others).

Duccio Lopresto

Born into a car family, he developed a taste for beauty and design thanks to his father Corrado, architect and renowned collector of Italian one-off and prototypes. His experience lies in Marketing and Business Strategy, having worked for Lamborghini, RM Sotheby’s and Hagerty, before joining TCCT, where he currently sits on the Management Committee and is part of the Editorial Board of The Key. His experience as a judge started in Pebble Beach 2019 as a young apprentice, and he has since judged at Salon Privé, Audrain and other international events.

Mike Robinson

Mike Robinson’s 41-year career as an American car designer in Italy includes 22 years as Design Director, at Lancia, Fiat, Bertone, and ED Design. The hundreds of car design projects include many concept cars as well as many production cars. Some of Robinson’s highlights are the 1995 Fiat Bravo production car, the 2001 Lancia Thesis and the 2003 Lancia Ypsilon. In 2003, Robinson was inducted into the Car Designer Hall of Fame at the Italian National Auto Museum (MAUTO). At home he is a painter, sculptor, journalist, and author.

Bernard Vermeylen

Born in 1953 in Brussels, Bernard Vermeylen became fascinated by motoring history very early in his life, and was collecting car brochures since the ‘60s. He has owned Panhard’s and Tatra’s since the ‘70s, and has, since 1995, written several books, half on the French make, or others like Renault and Nissan. He also writes articles for French magazines like Gazoline, L’Aventure Automobile and Citroscopie. His enthusiastic interest for cars from eastern Europe led him to write on this subject as well.

Gary Watkins

Gary Watkins fell in love with motorsport as a car-mad nine-year old, when James Hunt and Niki Lauda were making newspaper headlines – on both the front and back pages – during the barmy summer of 1976. He went straight into journalism on completing a degree in politics. That turned out to be the ideal qualification for the sometimes Machiavellian world of international sportscar racing, which has been his area of specialism for 30 years.





Past & Future

Ranking and Subranking


Learn from history: cars always win!


Our passion during a crisis


Ralph Lauren A questionof style


Fred Simeone: Protagonists. Just them.


Bulgari and his jewels


The reality of virtual


Sir Michael Kadoorie: the responsibility of excellence


Art is timeless. Art is eternal.


Marella Rivolta: Iso, from dream to reality


Top 100 Collectors 2020

113 Steve.Him.

Myth and Myts

Young Collectors


Sliding doors. The history of the Alfas that never were.


Scaglione, the Palladio ofthe car world


Monna Lisa


The more things change


Young, different pasions, same enthusiasm


J-Duck, the soul of the missing Jota.

170 Cockpit





She knows what she wants


Intelligence and Vision


The new frontier


A promoter of culture and creator of value


Behind the Curtain


Within the dreams of “Generation Z”


Here are the rules of a perfect restoration


Bertone’s secrets


Our passion during a crisis

Same vision, new reality. Fritz Kaiser looks ahead.



he Corona pandemic has not prevented us from promoting the wonderful cars of the last century. On the contrary. It has encouraged all of us to use the time to go the extra mile.

Our editor-in-chief Antonio Ghini, Duccio Lopresto and their team have once again created a unique, must-have yearbook for every classic car enthusiast, with valuable analysis and great feature stories. An issue even richer in content than any of the previous ones! Our 2020 ranking of the top 100 collectors globally has continued to evolve and improve thanks to our ever-growing database and our market intelligence. Many collectors have supported us by providing data about their collections. Their dedication and involvement are much appreciated and are helping improve the accuracy of this overview of the collectors’ world. For the annual TCCT – The Classic Car Trust – collector ranking we have applied a scoring system that takes into account the estimated market value of the collections, the historical importance of the vehicles, the reputation of the collections and the awards they have won, and the contribution made by the collectors to the world of collecting. The current ranking reflects some Corona-related effects and recent market adjustments. The No 1 among international collectors in 2020 is Evert Louwman. With his impressive Louwman Museum in the Hague, which features cars from his extraordinary and historically significant collection. His mission is to preserve the heritage that deserves to be conserved. Congratulations Evert. In addition, you will find a wealth of interesting features in this issue, including unique stories about Ralph Lauren, Nicola Bulgari, Fred Simeone, Sir Michael Kadoorie and Marella Rivolta. You can see unpublished photos by Steve McQueen and hear about his passion for cars; read the story of the many Alfa Romeos that

were never actually built; have a peek into Bertone’s secret archive; and even take a look behind the Iron Curtain at the cars of the USSR. A special mention should also go to the results of our own international market research about women in the classic car world, and we hope that our “market cockpit” continues to offer interesting insights for all key stakeholders.

A year for the history books 2020 is proving to be an annus horribilis for many. The speed and severity of the worldwide shutdown would have been simply unthinkable a few short months ago. Hotels, restaurants and shops were closed by decree. Businesses had to quickly organize home offices. Aircrafts remained on the ground for weeks and you can no longer simply travel at will. The Olympic Games are postponed, football matches and Formula 1 races are taking place without spectators. People wear masks now as a matter of routine, and they still live in fear of this invisible enemy. A screenplay for Hollywood. 2020 is a year in which boundaries were moved in ways that will substantially change our lives, our thinking, our social habits and the global and local economy going forward. We are learning the painful lesson that pandemics are another fundamental driver of rapid change in our world. But, what does all this mean for the classic car market?

Classic cars are emotional assets in a new reality Countries around the world have made previously unimaginable trillions available to cushion the effects of the Corona crisis. However, we will soon see more bankruptcies, unemployment and a shift from old to new business models. In times like these there is a demand among wealthy people for tangible assets and collectibles, innovation and sustainable business models.

As collectors’ items, important classic cars can be considered emotional assets, assets for which their owners have a passion. Comparable to works of art. However, the classic car market has been facing various challenges for some time now. The world’s great collectors and officials are themselves reaching a certain vintage, and are looking for successors as caretakers for these important historic automobiles. Car manufacturers are feeling the impact of the economic crisis and are having to reinvent themselves. And then there is the green movement, which is demanding fewer cars in general. There is a flipside to everything, of course, and challenges always also represent opportunities. There are undoubtedly solid arguments for newcomers to look into this exciting billion dollar classic car market. First of all, these gems from yesteryear are simply very enjoyable to drive or even race. And besides their value as pieces of history, these cars convey prestige. They are well-liked status symbols that have always been and continue to be popular with people young and old. No wonder, then, that we are seeing more and more younger celebrities from the music, film and business scene, as well as people who made their fortune on the internet joining the classic car community. They welcome the fact that unique collectors’ items are now coming onto the market and that they can sometimes benefit from “bargain” sales of interesting, affordable and cool cars. Today’s prices are more in line with the natural market, as fewer speculators are currently investing in this segment. I recommend newcomers to the collector’s market to get professional support, because important cars can quickly earn a million dollar price tag and, for such investments, the basics such as history authenticity and quality must be expertly proven and documented.

Our passion during a crisis 9


Never let a good crisis go to waste In the spirit of this famous quote by Winston Churchill, we have used this “special” year to innovate and take classic cars into the world of eSports. We have commissioned unique high-tech classic car simulators tailored by two of the greatest car design superstars ever – Pininfarina and Zagato. With this initiative we are introducing a new dimension to the passion for classic cars and aim to help build a bridge to the next generation.

TCCT eClassic: Classic cars go eSports We all love these precious gems from the past. The fascinating body designs, the bespoke interiors, the technology and the smell of leather and gasoline. Driving them is a real pleasure and, to me the sound of their engines is just like music. But all too often we can’t enjoy these automotive icons because they are kept idle in their garages. So TCCT is launching eClassic, which allows us to drive and race classic cars whenever and wherever we want – securely, at no cost to the environment and with virtually all the excitement of the real thing.

Today our own eClassic machines sit proudly among my collection of iconic sports cars. And when I don’t have the opportunity to enjoy the real thing, I now have the perfect alternative method of experiencing the most important cars of yesteryear – on a Sunday morning drive in the countryside or on a mountain road, practising with friends on important tracks or racing in club events. I am also convinced that eDriving is a valuable training tool that will help make racing with old cars in real life safer.

For the future of classic cars in a fast moving world Cars were for the last century what data is for this one. These masterpieces of engineering facilitated human progress and economic development.Today, however, classic cars, like many other things, have to face new realities and disruptive developments. They are threatened by mobility mega-trends, the race to a sustainable way of living, by generational shifts and new lifestyles. TCCT is committed to preserving the value, the cultural heritage and the enjoyment of classic cars in a fast moving world.

To achieve this we have converted state-ofthe-art high-end simulator technology – as used by racing drivers for training purposes – into a unique classic car driver experience. And Pininfarina and Zagato have joined us to design new masterpieces that ensure an exciting look and feel.

Real driving and simulated driving.

The eClassic Racing Club is an exclusive community of collectors, aficionados and racers: an interesting network of like-minded people who connect both in the real world and digitally in order to enjoy together the passion of classic cars in a new way.

Fritz Kaiser, TCCT Founder November 2020

With eClassic, the pleasure never stops.

Our passion during a crisis 11

Ralph Lauren’s pride in his collection and his passion for the automobile are clear from the entrance of his DAD Garage.


Ralph Lauren A question of style What is surprising, knowing him as a passionate, successful man, is the consistency in his choices and behaviour. His capacity to look at the new generations and the emotion that animates him when he talks about his cars, which he drives, all of them, makes him a man without age. Spending a few hours with him is a great experience. Here it is. Fritz Kaiser with Antonio Ghini

Ralph Lauren A question of style 13


ids love these cars. They see them and say, ‘That’s the most amazing car in the world!’ They are attracted by simplicity and purity. Even my little grandson loves the Porsche Speedster! However, young people can’t afford cars like these; they are all too expensive, and that’s a big issue. But they remain passionate about them nonetheless, 14 COLLECTOR’S

because it’s a passion that never dies.” Ralph Lauren, together with his invaluable right-hand man Mark Reinwald, who looks after his magnificent collection, are giving us a fascinating tour of what Lauren calls the “Garage”. We were welcomed into the reception area with its poster-sized magazine covers, immediately understanding Ralph’s

passion for cars. We then continued into the library where the impeccable archives are stored – in other words, an actively growing and evolving history of each car. But if you were at the Louvre or MoMA, you would want to do more than just talk about the works and their history: you would want to go and see them for yourself, one by one.

The collection is housed over two floors and no detail is too small. The contrast between the dark floor and the white platforms is magnificent, as is the sophisticated lighting system.

And that is exactly what Ralph Lauren, the man of the iconic polo player logo, invited us to do. He stops to comment on every car, and his words, conveying a deep passion for and intimate knowledge of every single one, inject real warmth into the cool, austere setting of this faultless exhibition, with its fine art museum setting where every last detail

is perfect, the lighting in particular. “I have many cars, I drive them all.” I like to come here and take a nice drive with my wife in one of the cars. Every time I choose a different car, and it’s another experience, as each car has a personality. I love the drive, I love the sound, I love the authenticity. We’re not talking about everyday driving. We’re talking about enjoy-

ment of quality and about integrity of both machine and design. We’re talking about special cars.” But which is his favorite? “They’re like my children, my kids. It’s like asking me which is my favorite child; if you asked me which is my favorite car, I would tell you, I don’t know.” Ralph Lauren A question of style 15

Visiting the Garage, the children of the Lauren family are spoilt for choice, but their favorites are the Porsches. This image confirms it.

The garage, called DAD, which can be taken to mean father but is also an acronym based on the names of Lauren’s children (David, Andrew and Dylan), is situated an hour’s drive north from New York City. Buried in quiet countryside far removed from Manhattan’s imposing skyscrapers, it can easily be missed. There are no signs and, unlike a traditional museum, it is not open to visitors. Lauren tells us, “I like the mystique and excitement of something that’s hard to see; something magical.” Lauren’s attire is entirely in keeping with the place: he is wearing a sort of suit that is midway between a racing overall and a 1960s paddock mechanic’s garment. He also sports a pair of modern, brightly coloured sneakers. He points at them: “When you look at sneakers, everyone wears sneakers! I wanted to make a car that young people would really want, just like sneakers. My idea was to go to Polaris to talk about this 4-wheel drive lightweight car that I had in mind: a young car, not so expensive, but with a certain something ... the spirit of my sneakers! I have a lot of energy for 16 COLLECTOR’S

buying cars and collecting and dreaming, but unfortunately, nowadays I can’t follow through like I used to. I have to put all my energy into my work, and focus on that.” What a pity! A designer of his calibre and with his level of passion and expertise would surely have come up with something really special! And he adds that young people today aren’t interested in cars as status symbols. They are more interested in having experiences – that is their priority – and they have little time for cars they perceive as boring. “The car business is about mass production,” Lauren reminds us, explaining that carmakers have to mass-produce simply to exist, and are therefore not really into the aesthetics, and cannot really do much in that regard. “I’m talking about what presents an image. Why would you look at a Porsche turbo and be drawn to it, and why would your son look at it and say: ‘Dad, I want that! That’s beautiful.’ What makes it cool? Why do you like some

of the cars in here? What makes them great? Ferraris are race cars. People love race cars, but they also love the design, the beauty of a car. Take the California; it’s perfect because it’s perfectly pure.” Listening to Ralph Lauren speak, you soon realize that the Garage project and his eponymous brand that has brought him global renown, despite being two entirely separate enterprises, are, in his mind, a single entity. And this is hardly surprising if we consider that this is a man who has always approached his two passions in the same way: in his work, he is a man who, over many years, has consistently created highly refined menswear and womenswear while never allowing himself to be influenced by changing fashion trends. “I get dressed to match my car! The car tells me I’m sexy, or it tells me that I’m cool,” he says. Like a sponge, Lauren has soaked up the mystique of the cars around him and combined this with the very best in terms of taste and lifestyle trends. “The beauty of the car is the beauty it has in the imagination,” he says,

explaining that, in his view, combining clothes with cars has the effect of enhancing the car’s place in the world. “I have a station wagon upstairs: it is a car I love because it represents my growing up and loving to be in the country. As a 10-year-old boy I’d see ads in the papers and say, ‘That’s nice, families all going out together on a picnic, and the car is a beautiful Woody,’ and all that makes you happy, it makes you smile and it represents life ....” Lauren’s love of cars is reserved for certain cars, and we do not mean the dull, standard cars that, all too readily, are produced nowadays. “Where’s the passion? Where’s the dream? Where’s the excitement?” Lauren

warns. He, instead, loves cars with a passion, but it is a passion governed by a clear criterion: he collects cars that are recognized as special (special because they were made by special people) and that brim with their own unique personality, which is reflected in a whole series of aspects: the design, the details, the behaviour on the road and the smell, not to mention the sound of the engine. “This is very personal; it’s what I’m seeing in my eye. And so, I’m a driver, I love passion, I love vision, and I love the integrity of the design. I love Mr Porsche and I love Mr Ferrari, and I really have a great respect for the creators of their brands. They’re inspiring to me. When I look at a Bugatti, I think to myself, ‘Yes! They came up with something that really stands for something.’ I believe, when I design my clothes, that the clothes have to have integrity, they have to have quality, they have

to stand for something. These are classics, and classics get better with age. I hope that I will get better with age, too, but I don’t think so!” Basically, it is this keen perception of all these aspects that fills Ralph Lauren with inspiration whenever he studies, touches or drives his cars; and it’s also this that allows him to appreciate how the changes we are seeing now are having the effect of enhancing the value of certain models. “I don’t know about the cars of the future,” he says, but what he does say is that certain brands – Porsche, Ferrari and McLaren – represent the dream of individuality. “They are tuned into being special, because if they don’t stay special and cause you to be excited, then they are going to be out of business.” On this basis, he argues that the possibility of having a Porsche, Ferrari and McLaren may keep the market alive, and keep people interested in cars. “I think you have to stand for something. You have to have a clear image of who you are. You have to say, ‘Well, we’re Porsche: who are we?” Accordingly, Porsche, like others, is making electric cars, but their electric cars “are not going to be the same electric cars that everyone else is making!”

The dynamic lines of the magnificent 1930 Count Trossi Mercedes Benz SSK, one of the most important pieces in the collection.

Ralph Lauren A question of style 17

Summit meeting: the Alfa Romeo 8C 2900 Mille Miglia #412030 and the Bugatti Type 57 SC Atlantic.


Ralph Lauren A question of style 19

Stopping in front of the Bugatti Atlantic, you can’t help but wonder whether cars, and this one in particular, can be considered an art form. “This is design. Someone has conceived the car, whether it is one person or 10 people together. They’re building a machine; they’re building a piece of work, and in their eyes I’m sure they’re looking at every detail and saying, ‘let’s keep this clean, keep this minimal.’ You know, Gordon Murray with the three-seater McLaren and Ettore and Jean Bugatti with the Atlantic, they had their teams, I don’t know who did all the different things. But, to me, the McLaren and the Bugatti that we have are pieces of art. Those cars are art in motion.” So, if the Bugatti Atlantic is a work of art, might a great designer, drawing on his own impeccable taste, be justified in seeking to further perfect and refine it? “I respect the car, I respect the manufacturer and I respect the designer, and I am very careful to respect the time in which the car was created. The Atlantic is not a race car, it’s a pleasure car. They made black cars at that time, and there was indeed a black Atlantic, although not this one. So, I made it black precisely because they did make black ones. I wouldn’t have painted it any other color except what had been done.” And his Jaguars? He shows us a magnificent dark green XK 120, close to a D Type, and an equally amazing XKSS, and explains how he was careful to choose a green that was used by the manufacturer and that complemented the tan canvas top. “So, this is purely a question of respecting the talents of designers, of the company, while at the same time showing

how beautiful the car can be, in my view. I don’t do this all the time, only when I think I have a vision of how it should be. I knew that the Atlantic should be black. No one would have talked me out of it”. And yet, once you’re behind the wheel of a car, all this quest for integrity and beauty, befitting a work of art, can tend to be forgotten. Is that right? “Absolutely, when I get into the car, I’m driving. I’m in the car and I’m feeling the excitement of the drive. I don’t remember what color it is. Maybe I see the hint of a fender and I see the color, but I’m enjoying my drive and enjoying the wheel and enjoying the shifting – the downshifting and upshifting –, and whatever the car is saying to me. I’m not the greatest driver on earth; I’m ok, I went to racing school just so as to know what I am doing ... but it’s all about the total pleasure of visuality, beauty and romance.” Time seems to stand still. The man standing before us is not Ralph Lauren, the famous

fashion designer, but a cultured and sensitive gentleman who profoundly loves his cars, knows them inside out, and drives and looks after them in person, with the expert support of Mark, who has learned to read his mind. We make our way back to the library, but no one seems ready to start taking their leave. The conversation turns to the “mystique” that is felt in the guts of those who love cars and are doing well enough to afford and enjoy them, and in view of all we have learned in the course of this long conversation, it is a word that seems entirely apt, conjuring up a sense of intimacy and contemplation. Lauren loves to share this profound emotion with those he invites to the garage: “I watch all kinds of people, men and women, who come in here and say, ‘Oh, my God, this is gorgeous, this is beautiful!’ It’s another dimension of what I stand for. I’m proud of my work. I was proud of it 20 years ago, but I kept going and going and improving, and I feel the same way about cars.” We tell him, with absolute sincerity, that his mindset and his way of doing things really set him apart and make him a role model in his dual capacity as a hugely talented entrepreneur and a collector. “So, am I proud that you would say I’m a role model? I would say that I am proud because I love that you are saying it, but I don’t live on it. It doesn’t change my personality. I feel good about myself. I feel that I am honest. I feel that I have integrity and I feel that if someone recognizes that, that’s the nicest compliment you can have. So, I don’t walk away and just say, ‘Oh great!”

The Golden Cup lifted high by Ralph Lauren at Villa D’Este following the success of his Bugatti Atlantic.


The Mighty Blower Bentley was aggressively campaigned in 1930 by Tim Birkin and supported by Dorothy Paget.

Ralph Lauren A question of style 21

Fred Simeone brings to life the emotion of the magnif icent Sports cars used in road and endurance races. Authentic art creations for the most daring of men. The Simeone Foundation Automotive Museum today bears witness to their story. by Massimo Delbò


Protagonists. Just them.

Protagonists. Just them. 23

A series of great Sports cars from the 1950s: in the foreground two great rivals. The Ferrari 250 Testa Rossa and the Maserati 300 S.



t seems fitting that a physician recognized the world over for his considerable contribution to the development of neurosurgery should be equally renowned for having displayed the same level of commitment and expertise towards another passion: collectable cars. With a brain neatly divided between these two completely different fields, he has enjoyed remarkable success both in his medical career and with his “Simeone Foundation Automotive Museum”. When we say “his”, that is exactly what we mean. The museum, located on Philadelphia’s Norwitch Drive, is his for two reasons. First, because it grew out of his boyhood love of cars and early interest in collecting car-related documents and publications, the start of a passion that was to see him evolve into a cultured collector and tireless hunter of rare pieces. Second, it is his because he invested an absolute fortune in making it a reality. And yet there is a third, and significant, reason why we can confidently say that this museum will be forever linked with Simeone’s name. Anxious to safeguard its continued existence and to make sure that some of the most fascinating chapters in automotive history remain accessible to future generations, Simeone has donated the museum to a specially created foundation. He will continue to look after it and to preserve its ethos, but the reality is he has given it away – a noble and generous gesture for which he has been widely applauded. Racing cars generally, both for road and endurance races, are among his greatest passions. In Paris, at last year’s “The Circle” event (the annual meeting of leading figures from the car world, organized by The Classic Car Trust), he spoke brilliantly on this very topic. His talk actually became something of a “lectio magistralis”, given that the same event saw him “crowned” the world’s no. 1 collector, after topping the ranking list drawn up by The Key. Taking all this into account, the main reason for our visit was to try and get to the root of his deep passion for these particular cars. “These cars, in a specific space of time, achieved a unique level of historical importance. I felt it was right to keep them together in a collection that would be able to tell a story far broader than the tale of a single victory or a Protagonists. Just them. 25

single race. I wanted them to bear witness to what was an important evolution in the car world. It turned out to be the right choice, one that has been appreciated worldwide.” It is certainly no coincidence that Simeone has received great international recognition. For instance, his museum has twice been named Museum of the Year at the International Historic Motoring Awards in London, and he has also received prizes for his publications and rare vehicles. “I was very clear in my mind about the criteria that should shape the collection: the exhibits had to be cars, or at least models, that had won races, played an important role in competitions, and been produced only in the limited numbers required in order to compete.” It is worth remembering that, back in the day, cars participating in endurance races such as the Le Mans 24 Hours, and in major road races like the Mille Miglia and the Targa Florio, had to meet specific criteria. Basically, only cars that might subsequently be registered for normal road use could be entered. In other words, they had to be cars that anyone, in theory at least, might buy and drive. “The section devoted to Le Mans certainly shows what I had in mind, as every car in it either won or performed very well at this marathon of a race. They also include the ‘little’ MG K3 Magnette, which came fourth overall at Le Mans in 1934, despite competing against cars with engine capacities three times greater than its 1100cc unit. So, from the outset, I knew perfectly well which cars I wanted in my collection. I had a bunch of fridge magnets, each one securing a slip of paper with the name of a particular model I wanted written on it. Each time I purchased a car, I removed the relevant slip of paper. My dream cars were the eight cylinder Alfa Romeos – there were quite a lot of those on my list –, and I remember as clearly as if it were yesterday how I felt the very first time after acquisition I was able to throw away one of those slips of paper: absolutely amazing! There are still a few, one in particular that I haven’t managed to acquire, but times have changed. Back then – I am talking about the 1970s –, these were still affordable cars”. Every car in the museum has two tales to tell: the story of its golden years as a racer, and the sto26 COLLECTOR’S

ry of how it came to be part of Fred Simeone’s collection. And, among these, there is one very special story that really conveys the significance of collections of this kind. “It was 1972, and at that time very few people really understood what it meant to have an Alfa Romeo 8C 2900, even though there weren’t thought to be many still surviving. One day, flicking through a back issue of Road & Track dated 1952, I came across a reference to a race in Mar del Plata, Argentina, where the entrants had included a 2900 A driven by a certain Ernesto Tornquist. I called up a friend of mine, Hector Mendizabal, in Argentina, and we began to try and trace this “Señor Tornquist”, who, we learned, lived alone as something of a recluse, and was considered a little crazy. Incredibly, it turned out that the 2900 A still existed. We found it complete, and actually in quite good shape, parked under a canopy and covered in pigeon droppings. The only thing missing was the engine, which had apparently been entrusted to a mechanic called Carlos back in the 1950s. However, our luck was still in! We found Carlos’s workshop and discovered that the engine, thought to be beyond repair, had simply been left there and forgotten. It was completely dismantled, but entirely present and correct! The first real problem we encountered was negotiating the sale. While Tornquist was happy to get rid of the car, Carlos immediately realized that, since we had come all the way from the USA for it, that engine must really mean something to us! In the end, the engine cost me more than the actual car. Then came the problem of getting it home, as assets considered culturally important weren’t easy to export from Argentina. To be on the safe side, we dismantled the car, packed it up in boxes and took it away by road to Uruguay. From there we were able to ship it to America!” From time to time, Simeone takes his magnificent racing cars for a spin after an historical lecture, providing a spectacle that visitors to the museum can also enjoy on regular demonstration days. A three-acre “track” behind the museum is the venue for these thematic outings. “I firmly believe that preserving a car also means keeping it in working order. If you don’t do that, if you don’t keep it running, then it

Road and track. Fred Simeone's collection is testament to an entire, magnificent era.

Protagonists. Just them. 27

loses its reason for being and becomes a mere sculpture. It’s the same approach adopted by other types of museum: an old clock, for example, will be kept ticking because this demonstrates its integrity. Let me be clear, I’m not talking about using vintage cars for racing – I am absolutely opposed to that because it goes entirely against the concept of preserving these cars and maintaining their originality –, but driving them for brief outings, amounting to just 30-40 miles a year, is quite a different matter. It also has the advantage of being an instructive and exciting experience for visitors. Hearing the engine’s 'voice' and breathing in that hot oil smell is all part of the experience. Maintaining these cars is pretty straightforward: I am lucky to have Kevin (Kevin Kelly, technical manager of the collection, editor’s note), who is a genius. Even though we use aviation fuel that does not contain ethanol, which is corrosive, every time we put a car back in the museum, we always empty its tank first, and remove the battery. Also, we use an appropriate anti-corrosion coolant with no electrolytic action, and silicone brake fluid. That way, the cars are always ready to go.” Simeone is wearing a very satisfied expression as he speaks. He is undoubtedly thinking about what it is like being behind the wheel of one of these cars. “I always find driving them a wonderful experience. A couple of years ago, I was invited to an event reserved for Ferrari 250 GTOs and Alfa 8Cs. There were about six or seven of us in all. I took along the Alfa 8C 2900 B that won the 1938 Mille Miglia driven by Biondetti and Stefani; it is one of the only four that were ever built. I have also driven this car in Italy, twice taking part in the historic Mille 28 COLLECTOR’S

Fred Simeone and his vast and precious archive.

Miglia in the ’80s, and there really is no better way to do justice to it and really get the most out of driving it. His library really brings home just how important it is, for a true collector, to have a well-documented archive. “It all started when I was just a kid. In America in the 1950s, the only information available – and I mean to anyone, not just to a boy like me –, was what we could get from advertising and also from manufacturers’ brochures. I was only 13 years old, and so it wasn’t easy for me to get my hands on them! I wanted European ones, too, and there was only one place in the USA where you could get those: New York, initially from Inskip’s Manhattan showroom, and then

also from Hoffmann’s. I had an idea. I went to the Free Library of Philadelphia, home of the Thomas McKean Automobile Collection, and managed to get a letter from them authorizing me to source, on their behalf, two copies of every automotive brochure I could find. Armed with this letter, I started making train journeys to Manhattan to collect the material that was to represent the start of my archive. Because, obviously, while one copy of each pair of brochures was for the library, the other was for me!” Now, anyway, the two copies are back together, as the 70-year-old McKean collection has just been acquired by the Simeone Foundation.

The “Winner’s Circle”: 1952 Cunningham C4-R Roadster (#5217), 1954 Le Mans class winner; 1938 Alfa Romeo 8C 2900 B MM Spyder (#412031), 1938 MM winner; 1936 Bugatti Type 57G “Tank” (#570 01), 1937 Le Mans winner; 1927 Mercedes-Benz S-Type Sportwagen (#33679), 1927 Nürburgring 1stGerman Grand Prix winner.

What does Simeone think of the men who drove these cars? “The drivers are a fundamental part of the story, because they give these masterpieces a human dimension. I have always thought that sport races illustrate the perfect balance that should exist between driver and car. Great drivers could really get the best from these cars. Nowadays, on the other hand, races are won or lost from the pits, through the use of telemetry, as well as recourse to modifications and strategies that can even be implemented remotely, without drivers necessarily being aware. This has had the effect of diminishing the driver’s role. In the past, the Le Mans cars raced had to be road cars, with a

passenger seat, luggage rack and spare wheel – cars that you could sell. Then things changed. The carmakers withdrew from the scene and the racing professionals moved in.” As he starts ruminating on the future, Fred Simeone reveals something of the cool clarity of thought that has made him such a great scholar and surgeon. He created the foundation precisely in order to be able to donate his museum to others. “My only regret is not having recognized earlier the immense value that these cars would acquire over time. Many see me as a groundbreaker, but if I had been quicker off the mark, the collection might today also include a

Mercedes SSK.” He is concerned by the fact that little real thought is being given to the future of classic cars. “To safeguard the future of our cars, we need to work on the legislators, because otherwise, one day, some law may come in that stops us from using or registering them. And even though enthusiasts will naturally resist such a development, and fight to be able to carry on using them, it won’t be easy.” He is also convinced that young people need to get excited about cars. “If they see cars as no more important than refrigerators, say, then they will never really be able to grasp their artistic value. If, on the other hand, they can appreciate the esthetic beauty of these cars, they will underProtagonists. Just them. 29

Two eras and two Alfa Romeos: in the foreground the 1975 Type 33 TT12 (#AR-115-12-012) used by Autodelta in the 1975 and 1977 World Championships and in the background the 8C 2900 A from 1937 (#412015) second in the 1937 MM.

stand that they are more than just sculptures or museum pieces: cars move, they have a voice and they are full of stories to tell – stories of men and of racing. From this perspective, these cars can be seen as genuine works of art.” For those of us dreading a future filled with soulless cars, Simeone has some reassuring words. And if we can’t believe him, who can we believe? “Self-driving cars? No, I don’t think they’ll ever come about for use in cities or where there is heavy traffic. When we need roads to be repaired who will invest on every stop and traffic sign? Each misadventure will be national news. Knowing the human 30 COLLECTOR’S

brain, I can tell you that it is far too complex to replicate; you could never reproduce its rapid decision-making capacity and adaptability to a thousand external stimuli.” Thanks, that’s great to know, Fred! Just what the doctor ordered! Thanks Fred, too, for reminding us that emotion can only really be transmitted by living things. “Rather like the fictional character Walter Mitty, a dreamer who liked to imagine he was someone famous or special, I love to imagine I am Clemente Biondetti whenever I am behind the wheel of an Alfa in the Milla Miglia, or Tazio Nuvolari, who in 1930, pursued Varzi with his headlights off. We should never forget that these cars are underappreciated

without the stories they tell. Ever since it was first invented, the automobile has been an object that, more than any other, has managed to evolve and change, transforming the world around it. It is the car that gave us roads, and then highways, allowing ever increasing numbers of people to get around more easily and more quickly. In this sense, it has created the world in which we live. Speed, sport and competition racers are both a source of inspiration and a well of wonderful stories. Ferraris are a case in point. Today, Ferraris are idolized, but we should not forget that this is because they were, and still are, a living symbol of the dream of one man: Enzo Ferrari.”


One by one, Fred Simeone chose, documented and preserved these cars, and he has driven them all. Here are his comments on them. 1916 Stutz Series 4C Bearcat: Hugely powerful, poor road holding. 1921 Duesenberg 183 Grand Prix Race Car: The only American car to win, overall, an international race before Ford’s victory at Le Mans in 1966. 1927 Mercedes-Benz S-Type Sportwagen: Brutal speed and power 1929 Alfa Romeo 6C 1750 SS: Speed and power expressed with great finesse. 1929 Stutz Model M Supercharged Le Mans: Good idea, poorly executed. 1933 Auburn 12-165 Salon Speedster: The Speedster giving the best value for money. 1933 Alfa Romeo 8C 2300 Monza: The best racer and best road car. 1934 MG K3 Magnette: David overcoming Goliath! 1936 Bugatti Type 57G Tank: The most successful Bugatti Sport in history. 1936/48 Delahaye 135 S/175 S: Worsened with each intervention. Ending up ugly. 1937 Peugeot 402 Darl’mat Racer: Too much French sauce. 1938 Alfa Romeo 8C 2900B MM Spyder: No superlative can suffice. 1950 Allard J2: Huge power, but how to handle it? 1951 Aton Martin DBR1: The zenith of the 1950s Sport racer. 1952 Cunningham C-4R Roadster: Pure power. 1952 Jaguar C-Type: Sport racers start embracing elegance. 1956 Jaguar D-Type: Perfection. 1956 Maserati 300 S: One name: Stirling Moss. 1958 Ferrari Testarossa: A revolutionary success. 1964 Shelby Daytona Coupe: The first American Sport world champion. 1966 Ford GT40 MK II: Sophisticated power. 1970 Porsche 917 LH: Perfect for the Mulsanne Straight. 1975 Alfa Romeo Tipo 33 TT 12: Simply superlative. Protagonists. Just them. 31

Bulgari and his jewels

Culture and taste unite to save the heritage of the large-series American cars from the 30s and 40s. A passion born in Rome that found a home in Allentown, Pennsylvania, through The NB Center for American Automotive Heritage. by Massimo Delbò


Bulgari and his jewels 33

NICOLA BULGARI Nicola Bulgari belongs to the family of the famous Roman jewellers of Via Condotti, and was born in Rome. Despite celebrating his eightieth birthday next year, he surprises and fascinates with overwhelming enthusiasm when he talks about the NB Center and its collection of about 300 classic American cars in Allentown, Pennsylvania. The buildings of the Center, in addition to housing the cars, are intended for the restoration and maintenance of the cars: from the mechanical workshop and upholstery areas, to the bodywork to the spare parts warehouse. The Historic Vehicle Association (HVA) is housed in the same building as the photo studio and archives. Besides Allentown, in a garage in Rome, there is also the first cluster of a collection of over 100 cars and an extraordinary collection of 11 vintage cars from the Vatican. The garage in Rome also houses over 4,000 model cars from all over the world, including China, Russia and Eastern Europe. Bulgari has contributed significantly to the construction of LeMay – America’s car Museum in Tacoma (WA), which exhibits an exhibition called “Nicola Bulgari’s cars”, created with the cars he donated to the museum. Classical music plays a central role among his many passions, and he is an enthusiastic supporter of the Academy of Santa Cecilia in Rome and Carnegie Hall in New York.


Nicola Bulgari behind the wheel of one of the cars of his collection: the 1931 Franklin series 15 Transcontinental Convertible Coupe.


icola Bulgari, a collector of American cars from the 30s and 40s, large-series production cars that paved the way for the world we live in today, pushes for a reflection that goes beyond his own personal legacy of a magnificent jewellery maker and enthusiast. A reflection on what collecting cars is becoming today. The theme of classic cars as art or as a “common thread” of the design of the 1900s has become an open debate. Listening to Nicola Bulgari, in his Center for American Automotive Heritage in Allentown, Pennsylvania, something very clear becomes apparent: car collections are culture. Every human being forms his or her personal culture by decoding studies and life experiences that are not only influenced by their personal taste, but also by their moral compass and sense of self-awareness. Hearing him speak of his idea of preserving ​​ the values ​​of an era with that characteristic emotional detachment, mixing the magnificence of the great goldsmith craft – art, even if he is not inclined to use this word – with the refinement of aesthetic solutions of American cars created for the general public but built with wisdom and the pursuit of details that touch our very soul, makes a strong case for how the true mission of car collecting today should be expressed. Nobody truly believes that wretched decisions on the limitations or even bans on the use of classic cars can ever really be made. But if there were ever temptations in this sense, collections built with a cultural mission, linked to training activities for the younger generations in the art of restoration and conservation, are certainly details that go a long way towards strengthening the cause. It is hard to contest the grandeur of seeing a man who has spent his life cultivating beauty and contributing to the global footprint of his esteemed family brand, personally committed to animating and motivating those who have the opportunity to work with him: animating by passing on the message of perfection and mastery required by excellence, and motivating by ensuring the collaborators of the “Center” become a team that fosters quality and pleasure at work. TCCT, The Classic Car Trust, aims to guarantee a future of mutual respect and passion for classic cars. For this reason, we thoroughly recommend anyone who wants their collection to be ready for tomorrow, to pay a visit to The NB Center for American Automotive Heritage and, perhaps, to meet Nicola Bulgari. It will unquestionably be a productive experience. Before this, in order to get to know the man and his passion, here is a brief summary of the interesting answers given to Massimo Delbò, who met him in Allentown. Bulgari and his jewels 35


Bulgari and his jewels 37

What were the first cars you owned? | When I was 18, I had a Fiat 508 “Balilla” 4-Speed, which I replaced a year later with a Bordeaux-colored Fiat 509 Torpedo. At 20, I changed that for a 1937 Buick, which I purchased very cheaply. I cut my teeth in the immediate post-war years, don’t forget, and at that time, if you wanted a car, you really needed to look to America, given the quality of its prewar models. The style revolution in the US automotive industry began in 1936 with Raymond Loewy’s Studebaker. But the advent of fins a couple of decades later marked the beginning of the end: American cars started getting too big and their style too different from European tastes. That was the point at which, partly due to a steady decline in their build quality, American cars began to lose ground. What is the theme of your collection, and why did you choose it? | American-built cars manufactured between the 1930s and 1950s. Plus American-built papal cars, which I love for their symbolic value and the important image they conveyed. Lately, we have increasingly been embracing 1920’s American cars, too. Many people underestimate these, but to my mind they are beautiful. What has putting together this collection meant to you? What did you set out to achieve? | At the age of 14 or 15, well before I had my first car, I already dreamed of having large sheds full of cars, which is what I now have in Allentown. I realized that I wanted to

The close-knit team and technical school at The N.B. Center in Pennsylvania.

keep hold of something that I felt was being allowed to slip away. In fact, it was becoming increasingly clear that the Americans, as an effect of Germany’s economic and industrial recovery, were going to be the losers in the automotive industry. I started collecting in the 1960s, and initially had a small collection of around 15 cars, which I kept in Rome, and a small workshop that also took care of the restoration work. As regards the impetus to expand, it was fate that stepped in really: it was thanks to a lucky meeting with brothers Keith and Kris Flickinger that I was able to build all this. In your view, why do American cars manufactured from the 1980s onwards lack the character and originality of the earlier USbuilt cars? | It’s a mystery to me. They really made a mess of things in the USA in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis. They reacted to it by producing some really absurd, ridiculous cars, like the Ford Pinto and the Chevrolet Vega. Each of these manufacturers had numerous technical and design centers in Europe, and, if only they had made use of them, they could easily have coped with the arrival of the competition. But they didn’t, and as a result of these senseless decisions they completely lost their hold on the market. As a result, the younger generations started losing interest in American cars and their history, preferring Japanese ones. Do you see a connection between cars and art? | The MoMA in New York has a small collection of cars, and surprisingly the only American vehicle in it is a Jeep. It’s quite disheartening, also because there is, indeed, a strong connection between art and the automobile. In times gone by, certainly, car design was an art form in its own right, and actually had a considerable influence on

style in other areas, too. If the MoMA were to decide to give automotive style the visibility it deserves, and needed one of my cars in order to do so, I would find it very hard to resist the temptation to help. Albeit reluctantly, I would give them my 1934 Nash. It is a true symbol of automotive design of the period (1932-1934) in which technology and metallurgy changed and cars ceased to be square shaped. Modern car design doesn’t have the same influence. It’s as though everyone has agreed to build ugly, out-of-scale, poorly proportioned cars, all in the name of functionality. But in reality, where is all this extra functionality? What is art, for you? | What a great question! Art is something you simply can’t live without. It transcends us and conveys emotions that we would not otherwise be able to experience. I think that art is quite closely bound up with the concept of immortality, because if you look at a Greek statue of Phidias, made in the third or fourth century BC, or a sculpture by Canova or Bernini, you cannot fail to be moved by something so incredible, and marvel at what the human hand is capable of creating. Have you ever drawn any parallels between the pieces in Bulgari’s great jewellery collections and the cars in your collection? | Let’s keep our feet on the ground, here! Our jewellery pieces are a lesser art form (given the magnificence of Bulgari’s jewels, we consider this overly modest, editor’s note). There is no doubt that, if you really look at them, the interiors of certain cars of the past, with their hugely imaginative solutions, refined touches, and ornamental details, can fill you with the same awe as a piece of fine jewellery can. In today’s classic car restoration community, it is possible to find craftsmen capable of doing extremely complicated work, with the same dedication and expertise shown by an artist creating a piece of jewellery. There are also some similarities in the use of certain materials: the refinement of certain front grilles of the past is quite astounding. Interiors and grilles today, on the other hand, are not only ugly, but largely made of plastic. You began collecting cars when you were very young. Would you say it was cars that shaped your love of fine, beautiful things, or rather your work? | From a very young age,


I received constant stimulation, through trips to museums and exhibitions and also through books. I am very thankful to my parents for this and have fortunately managed to repeat the experience with my daughters. I have always felt nourished by art, and my love of it is boundless. My love of cars came along later, as an additional part of all this. What is the main symbolic value of your collection? | It is certainly a value that goes beyond the cars themselves. The key value of the collection today is linked to the preservation of a period of automotive history that we are seriously at risk of losing, and also to the chance it gives artisans to apply their expertise and, through the cars, to pass on their historical knowledge, and the opportunity it gives young people to learn a new craft. Your collection has become a benchmark and a meeting place for collectors. How did this happen? | My arrival in Allentown was an accident, literally. In the 1990s, during a visit to a friend, Bernard Berman, I left my 1942 Buick Estate Wagon parked without the handbrake on, and the car rolled into a tree. To get it repaired, I was sent to the Flickinger brothers’ facility (Precision Motor Cars). I soon discovered that their work was characterized by levels of attention to detail, knowledge and historical research that I had never seen before, and so the encounter revolutionized my approach to collecting and restoring. I had the idea of building some sheds near their workshop, as a home for my collection. That way, Precision Motor Cars, which in the meantime had become partners of the NB Collection, could look after it. With extra space available, the collection grew and the need to restore the new additions prompted the creation of the restoration center. This now doubles up as a school where we train young people in this work, which is crucial to the survival of the whole classic car movement. When the opportunity arose to purchase (for an excellent price) an adjacent abandoned drive-in, we seized it immediately, also because it gave us a private road of our own on which to drive these cars. We ensure that the cars are always ready for use. This is important both for me, and for the friends who come to visit us, whom we love to surprise! As regards our restoration school,

we collaborate with schools that teach this particular subject, especially the Pennsylvania School of Technology and a center in Italy run by the Salesians. The youngsters who come here learn just as much as they would have done at college, if not more; they also accumulate more practical experience and can benefit from the experience of senior mechanics. As well as going on exchanges in Italy, at the end of the five to six years, they have the added benefit of not having racked up the 60,000 dollars in student debt that they would otherwise have faced. If, at the end of their apprenticeship, they want to stay with us, they are welcome to do so, but there’s no obligation. This issue of The Key includes a piece about Soviet Russian cars. Russia’s backwardness in the automotive sector somehow seems to represent the flip side to America’s success in this historical period. Why did the Russians fail to keep up? | I can’t answer that question with any real certainty. I know that Stalin loved the Packard he was given by the US president, and that the ZIS was based on it. However, I just think that Russia lacked the automotive culture that developed in other countries. Have you ever been intrigued or attracted by any car model produced in Russia or its satellite states? | Not really. I find them rather ridiculous imitations of those produced in other countries. The model that really stands out is the Trabant, but only because it became a symbol of communist failure. This is the only reason it might interest collectors. Is your collection complete, or is there still something on your wish list? | We are increasingly open to 1920s cars, but only ones that have an attractive design or that introduced technological innovations. There is also a group of postwar Studebackers, produced in 1947, 1948, 1949 and 1950, that I would really like to track down, and I would also like to add the 1953 coupe designed by Loewy, and perhaps an Avanti, too. These cars are very scarce, and those we have come across haven’t met our criteria in terms of originality and preservation. We just have to be patient... Looking to the future, we also plan to embrace the retromod phenomenon, which gives you the best of

both worlds: the beauty of a classic car and the technology and performance of a modern one. Do you think the environment-related restrictions being introduced in the car industry are endangering the world of classic car collecting? What can and should be done to safeguard it? | This is a real and alarming danger: the only thing we can do is make sure that history is respected and that the rules allow classic cars to be used. Even though you are among the collectors that most often use and drive their classic cars, you are rarely to be seen at classic car events, which seems somewhat contradictory. Why is this? | I have been to Pebble Beach twice, but there was rather a heavy atmosphere; you had the sense that the owners mattered more than the cars. There was a feeling of one-upmanship which I didn’t like and it stopped me from having fun. Amelia Island is another thing altogether because it has a different spirit, so we go there, and also to Hershey. It is no secret that you like to keep all the cars in your collection ready to use. Why is this so important to you? | Because we love driving our cars and even take them on long trips But, the main reason is that cars are living things, and should be kept that way. One last question: what is the greatest joy your collection could give you? | I still feel amazed, even today, at what we have created, and I am not talking about the cars so much as the various parts of our center. My hope is that the work we do here, and at colleges and shows, as well the opportunity we give so many people to see these cars – we are currently thinking of opening our doors to school groups –, might gradually foster a growing interest in classic cars generally, and in American ones in particular. And so here you have him: Nicola Bulgari. A man who, appreciating the huge value of an overlooked category of automotive history (the American cars that once led the world), embraced it as a life force and made it the subject of a refined collection. Thank you. This is just what collecting needs. Bulgari and his jewels 39


Bulgari and his jewels 41

You love them more than you actually use them. You proudly show them as if they were unique works of art but dedicated to speed. Yet when you do use them there’s that never-ending fear of damaging them by exposing them to conditions they were not created for. Those magnificent Sports and Gran Turismo cars from the golden age of racing were aching to be freed from a world that was too cramped for them and from unbearably long pauses between use. eClassic provides the right solution, bringing together the beauty of collecting with the opportunity to drive whenever you want, with whoever you want. A 30-centimetre steering wheel, just like in the old days, wrap around seats, three pedals and a manual gearbox, just waiting to be used with the classic heel and toe technique on tracks of yesteryear like Monza and Brands Hatch or on alpine climbs like the one that leads up to the Bondone pass. These are the first steps of this new reality. Then, there is the magnificent opportunity to come together in friendly 42 PAST & FUTURE

races, competing with fellow club members on the same platform under the auspices of the eClassic Racing Club, from the comfort of one’s own home. All this without complications, whether you are 1,000 m or 2,000 km apart. Finally, the pleasure of beauty meets the timeless appeal of legends: the freedom to choose between two simulators specially designed for TCCT by Pininfarina and Zagato combined with the thrill of being immersed in the sound and exhilarating challenges of driving these cars without running the risk of damaging them! The Classic Car Trust, in strict accordance with its mission, has created all of this to give something meaningful back to the community of enthusiasts in this moment that is sadly accustoming us to spending less time together: the pleasure of driving the cars we love. At the same time, it is an opportunity to attract new generations – perhaps through their fathers or grandfathers – to the magnificent world of cars that don’t deserve to be confined to memories and museums.

The reality of virtual

Two works of art by Pininfarina and Zagato, the thrill of driving classic cars we love, a club where members share the same passion, and the chance to compete against one another.

The reality of virtual 43


Fritz Kaiser

A new dimension in classic car passion

We love these precious gems from the past. The fascinating body designs, the bespoke interiors, the technology and the smell of leather and gasoline. Driving them is a real pleasure, and to me the sound of their engines is just like music. But all too often we can’t fully enjoy these automotive icons because they are kept idle in their garages. eClassic will let us drive and race classic cars whenever and wherever we want – securely and at no cost to the environment, in a mind-blowingly accurate, virtual, reality We have worked with Racing Unleashed to convert state-of-the-art high-end simulator technology – used by race drivers for training purposes – into a unique classic car driver experience. Pininfarina and Zagato have joined us to design new masterpieces that ensure the eClassic racing experience has the perfect look and feel. We are pleased to launch the TCCT eClassic Racing Club: an international community of petrolheads who will meet at major classic car events and who will be able to connect online for an exciting eDrive or eRace experience.

Your garage – your own world. Books, objects, documents, cars and, now simulators to enjoy your passion in every way possible.

My eClassic simulator currently sits proudly among my collection of iconic sports cars. And when I don’t have the opportunity to enjoy the real thing, my eClassic Club Membership will be the perfect alternative, allowing me to experience the most exciting cars of yesteryear – on a Sunday morning drive, or practicing with friends on famous racetracks, or racing in club events.

The reality of virtual 45

Animation and organisation of eClassic Racing Club requires passion and skill. Pablo Izquierdo combines both with a strong and highlytreasured empathy.

Pablo Izquierdo

Together. In a real club. Even when you are far away.

For many, the beauty of an event is being able to experience it together. Drivers back then were very close to one another. They were acutely aware that in the evening after the race they might not get to sleep in their own beds. And because of this understanding, whether they were in the paddock or at dinner, in the hotel, on the eve of the event, they all ate together and spoke about whatever was on their minds. Those were the years in which every team was the emblem of a community of enthusiasts, drivers, technicians and even journalists. The teams were authentic clubs that fostered much closer relationships than anything a modern “social media” can ever dream of. Owning the eClassic Simulator is equivalent to travelling back in time to relive a moment in history that was full of passion and the pursuit of light-heartedness to ward off ghosts. A world in which drivers raced chivalrously, steering well away from any wrong-doing and the urge to take unnecessary risks. A world where the joy of driving was just as important as winning.


The eClassic Racing Team is created to uphold this spirit: maintaining close contact, deciding to race on a track together or to go for a drive on a mountain road, and to organize exhilarating club races, in pairs or by inviting other friends too. All done with the greatest of simplicity, through a special APP. There’s a dedicated team that will organize it and ensure that everything works flawlessly. You can also drive on the roads, and then improvise an uphill race, all with timings and rankings. Membership of the Club brings with it other advantages: you can request the intervention of the “eClassic Racing Club” van, which will deliver a simulator to your friends interested in trying out and competing. There is no dealer network for the simulators; a decision taken in order to restrict membership purely to people who know each other and who can enjoy the pleasure of being together in this world that is both virtual and real at the same time. A world in which you can also stay together at the Club headquarters, or meet at the Club table during international Concours d’Elegance events and competitions.

The reality of virtual 47

The rear actuators that generate the dynamic effect of the retro-car.

Manual gear change and three pedals: reality is the goal in every detail.


Monisha Kaltenborn

Technology for authenticity

“ Monisha Kaltenborn, former CEO of the Sauber Formula One team, leads the company that makes the technology of the TCCT eClassic simulators: Racing Unleashed.

A classic car simulator must be designed and created with purpose. It should come with a manual gearbox and have the same number of gears as the original model. It must be realistic in both movement and stiffness and the clutch must respond as it does in reality, preventing the gears from engaging if the engine speed isn’t right. Braking and road manners must be reproduced correctly, and the car should make the same sound as the real one. When designing the simulator for TCCT - the structure and characteristics are identical for both Pininfarina and Zagato versions - we used expert and professional drivers who were very familiar with driving classic cars, Formula 1 and Sports cars from the ‘60s and ‘70s. It was very

challenging but extremely motivating. The first four models made - the Ferrari 250 GTO, the Alfa Romeo 33 Stradale, the Cobra and the Ford GT 40 – each behave very differently. Without question, the most demanding is the GTO, while the most docile is the 33 Stradale which, because of its characteristics, is perfect for learning new routes and practicing. These are the first models, with others currently under preparation. eClassic Racing Club members will have access to the most diverse cars in their personal garage, as they become available, and will be able to experience the differences and performance on the circuits. An activity that is extremely enjoyable above all for its realism. But without the worry, because to gain experience, it’s possible to choose a less extreme racing mode before reaching the real-life level. A small private race against one’s own abilities, during which drivers can interact with our engineers, who will provide driving skills advice after specific scheduled personal sessions.

The reality of virtual 49

Andrea ZAGATO, third generation at the

Andrea Zagato

helm of a company with 100 years of

The shapes of history

remarkable history.

We celebrated our 100th anniversary by showing how consistency in design in the pursuit of performance has been a constant feature throughout the history of Zagato. For this reason, faced with the challenge of creating a simulator capable of transmitting the reality of the past in which our cars won so much, we followed the most traditional of approaches: function and lightness. We did it with the desire to show our construction techniques by drawing inspiration from the “iron wires” created to give form to the car, which was subsequently clothed in aluminium. We know we have accomplished something unexpected. But it is precisely for this reason that our simulator transforms into a cultured message that gives design its true meaning. In other words, there is nothing that is not necessary and what there is there truly expresses the design knowledge of our company. I had a lot of fun, and even got excited, when I started “driving history” behind the wheel of our simulator. I am sure that same fun and excitement will be experienced by all those who want to own one for themselves. Then, in the challenges that await us as eClassic Racing Club members, may the best car win! 50 PAST & FUTURE

TCCT eClassic Zagato Edition Elio Z is the name of the simulator designed by Zagato. Elio, an excellent race driver, was Andrea’s father. Refined and cultured, the style is reminiscent of the technique used by Zagato to be both effective and lightweight.

The reality of virtual 51

Pedals, original seats from the ‘60s hammered aluminium. Just like being in a real car.

Subtle body shapes that partially cover the trellis structure.


Take the classic, dynamic ‘Z’, add a sporty gear change and you’re already making history.

Technical Specs Zagato “Elio Z” DIMENSIONS

Shifter: Fanatec

Width: 116 cm

Screens: 3 x 32”

Length: 268 cm

Audio: Logitech Sound System

Height: 104 cm

Electronics: Bespoke RU electronics

Weight: 190 kg

and wiring harness Base: Black carpeting on an aluminium



Main body: Fiber glass, aluminium

Steering wheel: Classic Nardi Zagato

base frame

Leather: Vintage Brown

Frame: Aluminium footplate and frame

Stitching and quilting: Piping with

Display bracket: Aluminium

stitching, matching the colour of the

Motion System: Racing Unleashed

seat, foam quilting

Pedals: Fanatec Inverted

Color: Rosso Zagato

This simulator is a prototype and some features and/or specifications may change in the series production, based on feedback collected from market tests and client experience sessions.

The reality of virtual 53

TCCT eClassic Pininfarina Edition The harmonious elegance of the version created by Pininfarina , showcasing the distinctive styles of the renowned coachbuilder from Turin. In addition to the “Sportiva” edition, Pininfarina also created nine signed examples to celebrate the company’s 90th anniversary, called “Leggenda” (pictured).


Paolo Pininfarina, grandson of the famous “Pinin”, now the President of the company, wanted the simulator to be an authentic Pininfarina.

Paolo Pininfarina

Sporty sophistication

Beauty is a subjective thing. Experience gained over 90 years as the creators of exclusive automobiles has shown us that cars designed by Pininfarina have the gift of overcoming this subjectivity, and they are cherished all around the world. This wealth of experience was in our hearts and minds when we started working on the TCCT classic simulator. It is therefore no coincidence that, among the various proposals, the one that combined tradition - think of the tiny Cisitalia at the MOMA in New York - with the contemporary attention to details capable of transforming even races, with their inspiring cars of today’s style, into epic moments of history, immediately prevailed. The Pininfarina Simulator offers a vast array of details to bring the real and the virtual together in a truly inspiring manner. Behind the wheel, in a driving position that is consistent with the ‘50s and ‘60s of the last century, the feeling is one of being inside a real car and its charm enriched with the roar of its engine and the movements that accompany those who really do drive them on the road or on the track. This result even convinced us to create Leggenda: a small series of nine simulators in the classic Pininfarina warm silver colour , dedicated to their 90-year history.

The reality of virtual 55

The elegant driving seat of the Pininfarina

Technical Specs Pininfarina “Leggenda”

simulator is carefully handcrafted in Connolly leather.


Shifter: Fanatec

Width: 175 cm

Screens: 3 x 32”

Length: 301 cm

Audio: Logitech Sound System

Height: 126 cm

Electronics: Bespoke RU electronics

Weight: 250 kg

and wiring harness Base: Black carpeting on an aluminium



Main body: Fibre glass, high-density

Steering wheel: Nardi

polyurethane base

Leather: Connolly 4624

Frame: Aluminium footplate and frame

Stitching and quilting: Serafil A3871

Display bracket: Aluminium

Color: PNG Maz.24E Sparkling silver

Motion System: Racing Unleashed

met 2ct

Pedals: Fanatec Inverted This simulator is a prototype and some features and/or specifications may change in the series production, based on feedback collected from market tests and client experience sessions.


The use of the classic Pininfarina air in takes, the signature gearchange and slotted gate for insertion of the gears.

The limited edition “Leggenda� also has a classic stop watch fixed to the dashboard.

The reality of virtual 57


The great responsibility of programming such a highly confidential project with proprietary platforms falls on the expert shoulders of Simone Radaelli, the CEO of 21iLAB.

Simone Radaelli

All our world in an APP Easy and clear communication with each member or with the technical team to receive information or suggestions to improve lap times, start a race and much more. All in one app: The eClassic APP.

Imagine having the eClassic masterpieces to hand whenever you want. An easy-to-use app allows you to navigate through the different features of the eClassic simulators and software with ease. But it’s more than just that… whether you are enjoying the eClassic Sportiva, Elio Z or the Leggenda, or revelling in the company of friends at a restaurant, you can connect with the eClassic community wherever you are and at any time. Schedule private races, reserve a spot on the grid for the upcoming club race, see how others are performing through official leaderboards and driver profiles, or simply connect with like-minded people through an exclusive chat for eClassic members. Share driving experiences, personal records, and much more! The eClassic App will be more than a remote control, it is the gateway to a new community. A community that spans countries, generations and time zones. Always live, always connected. Welcome to a new dimension of classic car passion.

The reality of virtual 59


Sir Michael Kadoorie: the responsibility of Excellence Michael Kadoorie, with Best of the Best, shows us that it is only excellence that guarantees the value of collecting. Andreas Mohringer’s Ferrari 335 Sport, crowned this year, is confirmation. Antonio Ghini with Duccio Lopresto

The Ferrari Testa Rossa, winner of the 1958 Le Mans 24 Hours driven by Phil Hill and Olivier Gendebien, gave Michael Kadoorie the joy of winning the Best of Show at the 2017 Chantilly Concours.

Sir Michael Kadoorie: the responsibility of Excellence 61



car is not an instant gratification; it is a long journey...” says Michael Kadoorie sitting on an armchair in the breakfast room of the refined Peninsula hotel in Paris the morning after the Best of the Best 2019 award ceremony. It’s February but the outdoor garden is blessed with sunshine and several guests are seated outside, protected by hefty mushroom heaters. He smiles as he pronounces this profound truth because it represents, as it happens, the very essence of the passion for car collecting. He smiles even if he can’t hide an obvious concern for the threat which, at the time, seemed so far away yet had already alarmed China. “The Peninsula of Hong Kong” – the city where his empire was located – “has three hundred rooms and today only six are occupied.” It is early February, the problem seems far away from the west. We will soon discover that it’s anything but, so let’s talk about what happened in the evening between those very walls, the success of the evening that saw Andreas Mohringer’s Ferrari 335 Sport prevail after being brought back to that aesthetic magnificent Scaglietti bestowed upon her by Paul Russell. We’ll start from there to try to understand just how important quality is to the successful outcome of international events. It is a good starting point given the level of perfection of every organizational detail of the evening sponsored by him: the location, a luxury hotel on the aristocratic Avenue Kléber, the warm welcome and the refinement of the dinner, the jury made up of recognised personalities, the ceremony full of well-balanced speeches and the friendly and not falsely formal atmosphere that often pervades those events dedicated to important awards.

Andreas Mohringer with his wife Friederike Hrubesch-Mohringer, together with Michael Kadoorie and the organizers of the Peninsula Classics at the moment his Ferrari 335S Scaglietti won the Best of The Best Award.

“Start with passionate people who find themselves meeting other passionate people. That is the glue. The same interest, the same driving force…” This vision is certainly not limited to the Best of the Best in Paris. Hearing the words of the man who organizes The Quail, one of the most coveted and prestigious appointments of the Monterey week, confirms this idea: “The Quail is a garden party; everybody wants to go there. The price is already very high, but still everybody wants to go! You have to be differ-

ent. Competition is fierce” and he adds “You are never the best, you can always improve!” The facts are more than enough to confirm something The Key has long insisted on: the value of collectors’ cars is not only something controlled by the market. On the contrary, the market is a consequence of the intrinsic values ​ of the goods. And the value of a collector’s car is fervently related to what the car allows you to do. When Michael Kadoorie says “A car is not an instant gratification, it is a long journey...” he is referring to the pleasure it will give you. And for a classic car this pleasure comes in the form of events, meetings and driving experiences that will determine its true value. And on this note, leaving for an instant the Concours d’Elégance that he knows only too well, having won the Best of Show at Pebble Beach 2019 with the 1931 Bentley 8-Litres Dual Cowl Tourer, he gives us an interesting example to reflect on, namely that of the authenticity of classic car events: “I had a great Mille Miglia experience in 1987. Ten years later it was completely different: so many sponsors, people with nice watches. Pretty girls with nice watches, too much, too commercialised. The event has to respect its own spirit”. Classic car events are like restaurants and hotels: there are the starred ones and those at lower levels. At every level it is the judgment of those who frequent them that counts. There is no doubt that Mille Miglia, The Quail, Le Mans Classique or Villa d’Este belong to the top category. But there is also no doubt that when one is a leader, the commitment to always being the best becomes obsessive. It’s almost as if our guests read our minds: he gets up and says “Come, I want to show you what we offer our customers here at the Peninsula.” An efficient manager appears as if by magic and together we go up to see some suites. It is Sir Michael himself who shows the many details created and offered exclusively to their clientele. Details related to the most advanced electronic technologies available in the room, as well as elements of the most sophisticated hotel tradition. And seeing the enthusiasm and competence he shows, we understand two things: that many were requested by him personally and also how this man manages to organize such outstanding events. If truth be told, the search for perfec-

Sir Michael Kadoorie: the responsibility of Excellence 63

tion is part of his very way of being. Indeed,

takers of classic cars. But in tomorrow’s green-

the thought of the cars does not abandon

er environment, cars will be very different. It

him: “Let’s go down to the garage, I’ll show

will be time to make classic cars passionate

you what we offer to our customers...” We go

for them. The younger generations look at

to the elevator while talking about how the

a different type of car. The car has now lost

cars of the past, if they came with those mod-

its soul. Classic cars have one.” And he adds:

ern indispensable requirements such as air

“Tradition means taking account of a wonder-

conditioning, sat-nav and hands-free phone

ful history but remembering that everybody

connectivity, would be far more popular than

today looks towards the future.” How do you

today’s cars, which have become too compli-

include the next generation? Passion is in our

cated. “The beauty of simplicity has been lost.

DNA, we all have it. We just have to make sure it comes out naturally. The fundamental point

Who will repair the cars of today in the fu-

is to encourage the younger generations and

ture? Where is the engine? It’s all plastic, elec-

include them in this world. Let them live the

tronics. Nobody knows how to do it. Factories

experience, make them excited. An example?

know everything about your car.” We have ar-

The London to Brighton, which every year

rived at the underground garage; in addition

brings together hundreds of fans, including

to the normal parking lots there are some

many young people, who experience a unique

closed garages. One opens and a magnificent

emotion, far from their world and therefore

Rolls Royce from the 1930s appears. In that

completely fascinating for them.

confined space it seems even more imposing. It is perfect - black with chrome finishes that

We must encourage younger people to partic-

contrast sumptuously. To remove any doubt

ipate in such events. Philip, his 28-year-old son,

that, evidently, shines through as we observe

is a perfect example. He participates in events

that it has air conditioning, telephone and

and shares his passion with a large audience,

every modern comfort, he adds, “The Penin-

also publishing his experiences on his social

sula Hotel provides guests with several classic

channels, an ambassador for the next genera-

Rolls Royces they can use to travel around the

tions to come. He accompanies us to the hall.

city. These Rolls are equipped with air condi-

We meet Andreas Mohringer with the beautiful,

tioning and modern equipment to make the

smiling Friederike Hrubesch-Mohringer, still vis-

journey more pleasant.” See? His passion for

ibly satisfied with the great joy of receiving his

cars and perfection has arrived at this level.

prize. The arrival of Sir Michel Kadoorie calls for a

But what role do the younger generations play

greeting between the other stars of the evening

in this world that is too far from them? “The

accompanied by their wives, intent on going for

key here is that we need to encourage young

a walk in the city. The temptation to visit Ret-

people. They have a different view of the car;

romobile is certainly strong. But when in Paris,

maybe the future cars will make them pas-

unless you are alone, there are other rules to be

sionate. Today we are privileged to be the care-

respected... excellence is this as well.

The 335S by Mohringer was always victorious, here at the Concorso d’Eleganza at Villa d’Este together with the director of the restoration, Paul Russell.


Sir Michael Kadoorie: the responsibility of Excellence 65

The Hon. Sir Michael Kadoorie with one of the oldest pieces in his collection, the 1903 4-cylinder Sunbeam. Sir Michael has driven it in the London to Brighton run in recent years.


The Best of the Best 2019 finalists who competed for the Best of the Best Award at the Peninsula Classic 2020 were, in order of year of production:

1919 Rolls-Royce Silver Ghost Torpedo Skiff Coachwork by Barker Owner: John Fasal, United Kingdom Best of Show: 2019 Concours of Elegance Hampton Court Palace 1931 Bentley 8 Litre Dual Cowl Tourer Coachwork by Gurney Nutting Owner: Michael Kadoorie, Hong Kong Best of Show: 2019 Pebble Beach Concours d’Elegance

1931 Stutz DV Convertible Victoria Coachwork by Le Baron Owner: Joseph & Margie Cassini, USA Best of Show: 2019 The Quail. A Motorsports Gathering

1931 Bentley 8 Litre Foursome Coupe Coachwork by Freestone & Webb Owner: William E. Konnor, Hong Kong Best of Show: 2019 Chantilly Arts & Elegance Richard Mille

1938 Mercedes-Benz 540 K Autobahn-Kurier Coachwork by the Factory Owner: The Keller Collection, USA Best of Show: 2019 Amelia Island Concourse d’Elegance

1948 Talbot-Lago T26 Grand Sport Coupé Coachwork by Figoni e Falaschi Owner: Robert Kudela, Czech Republic Best of Show: 2019 Salon Privé 1950 Abarth 205 Berlinetta Coachwork by Vignale, design by Michelotti Owner: Klaus Edel, Germany Best of Show: 2019 Goodwood Cartier Style et Luxe Concourse d’Elegance 1958 Ferrari 335 S Coachwork by Scaglietti Owner: Andreas Mohringer, Austria Best of Show: 2019 Cavallino Classic

Sir Michael Kadoorie: the responsibility of Excellence 67

Art is timeless. Art is eternal. Modena’s master coachbuilders chose a church to display their works of art. These are the aluminium shells of legendary models cherished by the world’s most enamoured collectors, beaten by hand using techniques of a bygone era. A heritage that deserves a worthy and permanent exhibition. by Antonio Ghini


Art is timeless. Art is eternal. 69


e didn’t have any pencils back then. The cars arrived almost complete and the only thing left to do was the bodywork. Many came to see us work, engineers, even the drivers themselves...” With the weary voice of a man, who has used hammers and shears all his life, Giancarlo Guerra remembers the days of Scaglietti, when every car came into being like a sculpture from the hands of an artist. Next to him is Afro Gibellini. “I was lucky enough to

learn this craft from him, from the very best A friend told me that Scaglietti was looking for an apprentice. Sergio saw me and said, “Okay, help Guerra.” I couldn’t believe it; after all, he was the one who invented the “filoni”.

Afro is full of energy and still uses his hammers, which quickly becomes evident when you take a look around the Modenese church of San Carlo where the exhibition that honours these artists has taken residence.

He was the best of all of them. I thought to myself, “If I’m with the best, all I have to do is be second!” And that’s how I started. It was 1954 and we made the Ferrari Tour de France and some sports cars...”.

Among the Baroque friezes, the majestic columns and the altar with its meticulously aligned candlesticks appear the silhouettes of the bodies beaten in aluminium as they were in the day, alongside the wooden bucks

The magical charm of the pure form of a Shelby Cobra Daytona handembossed by the artists and craftsmen of Modena blends perfectly with the baroque images of the Church of San Carlo in Modena.


This page, clockwise - Afro Gibellini and his precious hammer; the tools used to beat aluminium; and an example of how the sheet was modelled over wooden bucks or iron wire, called “filoni�.

Art is timeless. Art is eternal. 71

and the “filoni” wires that are specific to the Modena school of coach building. Instead of appearing in sacrilegious contrast, they convey a message of very human qualities capable of making even the Creator himself smile with pride. This will be confirmed by anyone who had the privilege to visit the exhibition in the two weeks from 10th to 20th October 2019, organized with boundless energy and passion by Jean-Marc Borel to honour the Modenese craftsmen. Indeed, those dynamic silhouettes hailing from that magnificent era

of man’s pursuit for glory through mechanical racing machines that he himself invented and created provoke a mystical feeling in even the most taciturn of observers. A feeling of admiration for creations that, when seen today in the perfection of their simplicity and in the natural beauty of their forms, are almost supernatural. “It’s a form of art that is no longer desired, sadly, and so with these gentlemen ends a method of working that sounds inconceivable today,” observes Borel when we

ask him if he wants to give life to a school that preserves this art of doing. “What purpose would filoni have in today’s world? With CAD and mathematical models it takes just a few hours to do what these artists created in days using pure imagination and talent.” “There was an infernal noise, the aluminium being constantly hammered – we had all the sizes and different materials: wood, aluminium, iron and each of us did what we thought was best – sitting on cushions made from

Comparing two techniques on the Ferrari 500 Mondial: a wooden buck or made with iron wires.

Sante Lusuardi

truck tarpaulins and filled with sand. With all that hammering – always in reverse, of course, so that body came out perfectly smooth – the sand turned to dust and we had to change it.”

and the precious shop drawings.

Fernando Baccarini, at work studying the past.


The hard work of beating with mallets and wooden hammers that is so important to gently curve the aluminium without wearing it out, is also the first thing Oriello Leonardi and Fernando Baccarini think of. These are the other two stars of ModenArt who, over a threeyear period, crafted the shells of legendary cars

using the exact same techniques and which, at auctions, exceeded even the most optimistic estimates. Visitors to the exhibition have no difficulty understanding the genesis of a model like the Ferrari GTO and are left in no doubt about what all the fuss is about. Listening to Giancarlo, Afro, Oriello and Fernando, I am reminded of the first meeting I had with Sergio Scagletti. It was 1993, I had recently arrived in Ferrari, and I had met the celebrated coachbuilder in the courtyard between

the management building and the original buildings, the ochre-coloured ones that looked onto Via Abetone and from which Enzo Ferrari came out of the famous door at the wheel of his first car, the 125S, without any bodywork. Courteous and thoughtful, dressed in a grey overcoat as soberly as any man who became wealthy and famous after starting from nothing could be, my question about how he could create an extraordinary car like the 250 GTO was greeted with a modest smile: “It was easy, we were brought the full chassis and we pulled

Giancarlo Guerra, recognized as the creator of the “filoni” and considered the greatest master coachbuilder in Modena.

The authentic work of an artist, illustrated by Oriello Leonardi.

the iron wires” – and as he said it, he traced an imaginary line with his hand in mid-air, in the exact same shape as the car – “and it came out like that!” Truth and modesty are the essence of one of Scaglietti’s many masterpieces. The “iron wire” – he used a layman’s term to make sure I understood… was the GTO’s “filone”. The “filone” perfectly reconstructed by Afro under the vigilant eyes of Giancarlo Guerra, widely recognized as the inventor of this technique, and exposed right beneath the body of the legendary car, hammered to perfection and pains-

takingly polished. It is worth bearing in mind that the Turin coach builders, from Pininfarina to Bertone, from Ghia to Frua, built their oneto-one scale models, the ones on which the bodywork was modelled, out of wood. Wood was not entirely unknown in Modena where, in addition to Scaglietti, Neri and Bonacini, Fantuzzi, Onorio Campana, Drogo, Carrozzeria Gransport and many more besides used it as templates to make small-series bodies not only for Italian manufacturers. Also on display is the bodywork of Carroll Shelby’s Cobra Daytona, Art is timeless. Art is eternal. 73

built in the workshop of Baccarini and Vaccari and used to illustrate how wood and filoni sometimes found useful meeting points. To get an idea of how humble and artisanal those art workshops were, just read this phrase by Fernando Baccarini: “When the Americans saw the workshop they wanted to go away. Leave her here and we’ll see you in three months, we told them. When they came back they couldn’t believe their eyes and today everyone knows why.” Indeed, that very same car is one of the most coveted at today’s big auctions. On display you can see how this creation combined wood with metal strands. “Iron was important to ensure accuracy in structural points such as wheel wells, door overlays, the hoods... Everything else was done by eye; for example, calculating the height of the wheel arches based on body movement, we pulled up the suspension to the maximum and based on that measurement, simply pulled the iron wire.” Craftsmanship? Some prefer the term magical. And once the first car was finalized, perhaps with some modifications made necessary by actually testing it out on the streets, as in the case of the GTO or for purely aesthetic reasons, the final “filone” was used to make the others. Identical? “Well, most of this was work done by hand but they were essentially identical, then every now and then there was a change, maybe a request from the customer. Those who know the cars of those years, let’s say up to the P3/P4 and therefore cars from the end of the 60s, know only too well that rather than identical, they were ‘perfectly similar’. So it’s fairly pointless to use CAD on one car to check the authenticity of the others! “We first toyed with the idea of this exhibition six years ago, just before Christmas while having dinner together,” recalls Borel, who, as a well-educated and passionate Frenchman, felt the need to give this workshop craft the same dignity as art, just as was done during the Renaissance. “As soon as we came up with the idea, we just set about doing it. A few years later and here we are in the presence of several unique pieces that will go down in history. We’ve been asked to sell them, there are 9 of them today but we decided to show just 74 PAST & FUTURE

7 to preserve the atmosphere of the location. The models we want to do next are the Ferrari P4 and the 250 Testa Rossa but we’ve made it very clear to everyone that these are works of art that are not for sale, which will remain united in what I hope can become a museum dedicated to Modena’s master coach builders from that period.” The models on display stand on their own: from the ’61 prototype Ferrari GTO, the one nicknamed “papera” [ed. “duck”] for its unusually low snout, to the ‘62, the one known across the globe, all the way up to the ’64 GTO. Alongside these are the 500 Mondial, the 250 GT Nembo spider, the Maserati 151/3 (known as the “Monster”) and the Cobra Daytona. Jean-Marc Borel, the courageous creator of the Modena Art project, inside the dima model made for the exhibition half in wood, half in wire. In the background, the two versions of the Ferrari GTO: 1962 on the right, 1964 on the left.

The four “artists” followed different professional paths. After Scaglietti, Giancarlo Guerra moved to Lamborghini in 1974 “to finish off the Countach, with those scissor doors... I made 100 of them.” Afro, on the other hand, remained in Scaglietti even after the old coachbuilder was acquired by Ferrari, like Leonardi, who “hammered” the bodywork of famous models, including the 250 SWB, GTO, 250LM, California, NART and P3/4, to name just a few of the most significant. Baccarini worked with Vaccari at Carrozzeria Gran Sport, of which he was a partner. All the Stanguellini Juniors were created out there, along with unique models made for Scaglione, De Tomaso and Count Volpi di Misurata of the Serenissima Scuderia. His hands also created five of the six Daytona Cobras. But they are all united under the same mantra: the forms of a car must be able to dance in the light, for only then can we appreciate their true beauty. Indeed, the shapes of their bodywork, crafted with powerful hands delicately wielding heavy hammers, was created to dance in the light. “Never fall into the error of making forms that this light can kill.” We take one final look around. Everything returns to perfection. The church with its angels looking at the silhouettes of the cars projected upwards, visitors whispering their impressions to each other... The only thing missing to complement the mystical setting is a distant Gregorian chant. Art is timeless. Art is eternal. 75

Marella Rivolta: Iso, from dream to reality The new Iso Rivolta GTZ is finally ready to resume a journey driven by family tradition. by Antonio Ghini


Marella Rivolta Barberi, raised in US, now at the helm of Iso Rivolta (Italy).

Marella Rivolta: Iso, from dream to reality 77

Villa Rivolta in Bresso (MI) with the Iso Rivolta 300 and the 340.

Marella and her brother Renzo Rivolta.


n the sumptuous Villa Rivolta of Bresso, standing at the edge of the Iso Rivolta factory, lunch is underway. At the head of the table sits Renzo Rivolta, the “commendatore” with his son Piero by his side. Their guests include Nuccio Bertone, Giorgetto Giugiaro, Marcello Gandini, Giampaolo Dallara, Giotto Bizzarrini, Giulio Alfieri and Pierluigi Raggi, the engineer who in 1952 drew the lines of the Isetta. 78 PAST & FUTURE

Sumptuous Italian cuisine and a fine wine from Oltrepò Pavese, together with the sun that filters through the curtains and makes the cutlery sparkle, contribute to the euphoria of the guests. Conversation turns to the return of Iso Rivolta, of its next presentation, and to the magnificence of its bodywork made by Zagato. It is clear just how endeared the guests are about restoring the brand to the prominence and notoriety it rightfully enjoyed in the years it was operational. “Madam, breakfast is ready… perhaps you didn’t hear the alarm clock?”, says Emma gently to Marella Rivolta who opens her eyes reluctantly, not wanting to interrupt the magical dream in which her grandfather and father were celebrating her decision to bring their beloved family brand back to the market. And they did so alongside the professionals whose talent and skills contributed towards the creation of a legend which, despite being linked to just 1,720 cars, managed to leave an

indelible mark in the hearts of those who love cars and one which, more than others, exerts a powerful force on those who collect them. There are plenty of reasons for this sentiment and the people sitting around the dining table are just the tip of an iceberg which, in the finest Italian tradition, stems from passion, enthusiasm and the self-sacrifice that denotes those who work for a company that sets great goals. Consider that the test drivers of the three “official” Isettas, who competed in the Mille Miglia in 1954 and 1955, driving for over twenty hours straight, completing the almost 1,600 kilometres at an incredible average speed of over 79km/h and winning the Performance Index as a result; then after, they simply returned to the factory just like any other day. This Italian spirit, it should be said, needs to be stimulated by special men. And Italy has been home to many men with such character for a historical reason that is unfamiliar

The Engineer Pier Attilio Rivolta with his daughter Marella and the Vision GT concept from 2017 when they decided to bring the Iso Rivolta marque back onto the market.

Us quam, que earum vollessim endele nimet optia dolor.

The Iso Rivolta GTZ (2020) introduces a contemporary approach to the unforgettable lines of the Grifo A3.

Marella Rivolta: Iso, from dream to reality 79


The Iso Rivolta GTZ, presented in 2020 and, in the background, the A3 model from 1963. Note the careful reference of certain stylistic features of the previous model.

Marella Rivolta: Iso, from dream to reality 81

to other countries. If truth be told, Italy has never been a nation: the Papal State, which extended out from Rome across central Italy favoured the formation of small kingdoms, principalities and grand duchies led by noble families, such as the Gonzaga, Savoy, Este and Visconti lineages, who were related to other noble families from across Europe. This led to the historical introduction of different cultures and customs. Above all, it meant that each small kingdom had its own architects, artists, poets, artisans and cooks, making Italy a cradle of sublime culture, but one with very different habits and mentalities.

The red Iso Rivolta A3 Berlinetta Stradale (1965) owned by Johnny

Therefore, whereas the passion for engines comes from Emilia, the refined taste for coachbuilding is unquestionably from Piedmont. Lombardy has always had an entrepreneurial vocation linked to mechanics and Renzo Rivolta interpreted this role to perfection. When someone is possessed with this temperament, it is not specialization that prevails, but rather a sense of entrepreneurship that is ready to take every opportunity in order to achieve success. And so it was that Renzo started out with ISOTHERMOS, which produced refrigerators and radiators. At the end of the war, he quickly realized that Italy craved mobility more than it did refrigerators and so he started a company for the production of small motorcycles and scooters. Vespa and Lambretta had already created the scooter phenomenon and Renzo did not intend to introduce a new version, but instead he was going to offer an efficient, more advanced powerplant. He adopted and modified a split-single engine: essentially a two-stroke engine in which the two cylinders share a single combustion chamber, allowing the fuel combustion to be optimized by phasing the intake and exhaust scavenging. The inclusion of safer and more comfortable larger diameter wheels along with the higher efficiency of the engine and an endless series of victories in speed and endurance races meant the Isoscooter and Isomoto quickly became runaway successes. Needless to say, Renzo never truly fell in love with motorbikes. For him, only his customers and their desires counted. As we would say today, he put marketing before his heart. And Italians didn’t really buy motorbikes or scoot82 PAST & FUTURE

Nequost fugitas acerro blabore p erferibus.


The Iso Rivolta Lele, designed by Marcello Gandini, presented in 1969.

Us quam, que earum The Iso Rivolta Fidia vollessim (1967), theendele world’s nimet optia dolor. four fastest seats.

Nequost fugitas acerro blabore p erferibus.

The Iso Rivolta Grifo GL (1965), “the ultimate in two-seaters” by England’s Autsport magazine.

Marella Rivolta: Iso, from dream to reality 83

From 1972 to 1996, Iso Rivolta has made its fans dream with three never-produced concepts: the Varedo, designed by Ercole Spada, the Grifo 90 and the Grifo 96, both designed by Marcello Gandini.

ers out of passion, but rather because they still couldn’t afford a car. So why not offer them an inexpensive, compact car to replace their motorbike? The Fiat 600 hadn’t arrived yet – that came in 1955 – and not even the 500, which was introduced in 1957. The idea behind ​​the Isetta was brilliant, the result of the intelligent vision of Ermenegildo Preti and Pierluigi Raggi, but the sensitivity of the Italians towards the status of the automobile impeded them from fully appreciating it. No worries, there were other countries where rationality prevailed, and Germany was chief among them. BMW had come out of the war in shatters, like the rest of Germany, and had no products to sell. The qualities of the Isetta, reinforced by its splendid performances at the Mille Miglia, convinced the German company to agree on a production license with Rivolta. Few changes were made, apart from the adoption of a BMW 250 engine instead of the Iso. And it was a success too, with 170,000 units sold. An achievement repeated in France and Brazil. 84 PAST & FUTURE

In her dream, Marella Rivolta had clearly perceived the family links in a chain of vision and passion that, thanks to her, continues uninterrupted to today. She tells the story of a life full of emotions and passions fuelled by her father’s tales and her solid grounding in numbers and facts. Just as she tells how her grandfather Lorenzo – Renzo to his friends – had sensed the timing was right to abandon motorcycles and micro-cars to focus on the well-paid profits promised by producing captivating luxury cars “The Italians had changed; they now had a car. It was time to think about those who were not satisfied and wanted something more luxurious. My grandfather was unhappy with the cars he bought, his Maseratis and Jaguars overheated and his weekend trips to the beach house in San Margherita were always an unknown entity. Then, when he arrived at the port and boarded his Riva motorboat, the engine started and worked perfectly every single time. Why not follow the same path his friend Carlo Riva had

taken, but with the car?” That path was simple and sublimely rational: mount a powerful and reliable American engine and take care of the rest with style. And here we arrive at the key role played by another person in Marella’s dream: Pierluigi Raggi, the brilliant engineer who made such an important contribution to each and every success of Iso, including the wonderful off-roader called 100,000 that was so interesting that Fiat toyed with the idea of acquiring the Iso brand just to put it onto the market. But Rivolta said no, he wasn’t interested in taking it any further than the intellectual prototype. Raggi was there, and so was the American engine – taken from the Corvette Chevrolet – as well as gearbox, differential and brake suppliers from the likes of Salisbury, Borg-Warner and Dunlop. The only component missing was someone with hands-on experience in the manufacturing of sports cars. And here we come across a chapter worthy of the best Italian “inventiveness”: Giotto Bizzarrini

was chosen, fresh from setting up the Ferrari 250GTO and a great advocate of front engines mounted as far back as possible to achieve the best weight distribution. Raggi, Rivolta and Giulio Alfieri – unjustly left out of the lunch of memories given his role as a magnificent creator of chassis and bodies – made a wooden simulation of the chassis, positioned a mock-up of the engine and the seats and, at that point, decided to abandon the welded tube technique used by everyone for sports cars. It would have been too complex and expensive to do, he thought. Why not “invent” the monocoque for a super sports car? Bertone and the very young Giorgetto Giugiaro designed and supplied the complete bodywork and this was then electrically welded to the steel floor! Would it work? Would it be adequately rigid? Here, under the reassuring hand of engineer Raggi, Recalcati made his masterpiece: using a hammer, sheet metal cutters and a bending press, he built the body piece by piece using a striker plate which, once complete with suspension and mechanical parts, was welded to Bertone’s beautiful bodywork, becoming a magnificent and above all, rigid and reliable Gran Turismo.

The engine was finally mounted in a position that paired performance with the great comfort that Rivolta wanted to achieve. The tests, personally carried out by Giotto Bizzarrini, who combined driving talent with an uncanny ability to identify the origin of possible problems, prepared it for the market and on 27th June 1962, less than two years after the start of the project, the Iso Gran Turismo was presented in the villa at Bresso. Magnificent, truly magnificent and magically Italian. In Marella’s dream there were no traces of the difficulties in starting production and the cold reception of the Americans due to the presence of a motor they knew only too well, and which was very distant from the roaring Italian engines of the time. A dream deserves only beautiful moments and the arrival of the Grifo, in 1963, was one of those. Giugiaro gave a decidedly sporty quality to this new Iso Rivolta, which came in two versions: the L (Lusso), which was sold by the Company, and the C, which stands for Corsa, built together with Bizzarrini, who moved the engine back to make it more competitive. Bertone, who in those years took on the costs of making the models that were later proposed to manufac-

turers to be put into production, also presented a spider version. Glorious. Thanks to the Grifo and an increase in product development, Iso Rivolta became a commercial reality, even if it was burdened by the initial investment costs. Things seemed to be picking up when fate dealt a cruel blow to the factory: in 1966, Renzo Rivolta died of a heart attack. He was just fifty years old and his son Piero, fresh from completing his engineering degree, was asked to take the reins of the company. He was certainly not lacking in courage and oversaw development of the luxurious, high-performance sedan, the S4, styled by Giugiaro and manufactured by the Ghia coachbuilding company. The year was 1967. Heavily modified, two years later, in Athens, it was presented with the name Fidia. From 1968, the Grifo came equipped with a 7-litre engine, putting it in open competition with Ferrari and Lamborghini. Piero’s unbridled energy that later accompanied him towards future successes in real estate and the nautical world when family affairs led him to the United States, was further demonstrated by the arrival of Iso Lele, the model that replaced the now dated GT.

The first of the 19 Iso Rivolta GTZ cars was delivered in October 2020.

Marella Rivolta: Iso, from dream to reality 85

In Marella’s dream around the sumptuously laid table, Marcello Gandini was also present. Not by chance though; the styling of the Lele was clearly blessed with his light and elegant hand, a hand that can also be seen on the second series of the Grifo. A second blow to the company, after the disappearance of Renzo Rivolta, came in the form of social unrest that began in 1968 and then, in 1973, with the oil crisis sparked by the Yom Kippur War. Piero’s courage was no longer enough to make ends meet. Even the dream of producing the Varedo, a magnificent mid-engine super sports car designed by the hand of Ercole Spada from Zagato, collapsed. A partner was needed, the company was listed on the NY stock exchange and suddenly everything had changed: there was no longer the passionate fervour of a visionary Italian entrepreneur in charge, but instead a system for making decisions that weren’t always shared. Iso Rivolta continued its journey, even trying its hand at Formula 1, and it also built 10,000 ISONEVE snowmobiles. A resounding success. But everything had changed. Piero decided it was time to leave. It was 1973. At the end of 1974, Iso finally closed after producing 1,720 cars and four models: the GT: 797 units, the Grifo Lusso and Corsa: 412, Fidia: 192 and Lele: 316. The difference in numbers were all down to prototypes.

Returning to Marella’s dream, one character still remained, Giampaolo Dallara, next to whom, on awakening, her husband Andrea appeared. Andrea Zagato, yes that Zagato and heir to the family who had created the centennial coachbuilding company that bears his name. Dallara’s presence was not a trivial one: in 1991, Piero, convinced by a pool of Italian investors, asked Dallara and Gandini to develop a new super sports car. A powerful, elegant and powerful front-engined Ford V8 prototype was thus born. But they lacked the necessary funding and the revival was a short-lived dream. But what about Zagato? Marella Rivolta, who acquired a stake in the company, continues the long and rewarding journey of the Milanese coachbuilding company with Andrea. After more than twenty years, Marella and Andrea have created the foundations for an authentic return of Iso Rivolta to the market. The presentation in the tormented year of 2020 promises to be a positive sign for the future: Noah, with his Ark full of those who would have saved the world, one day saw a strip of blue in the sky and a dove that brought with it an olive branch. Here, we can only hope that the new Iso is the dove that brings back serenity together with a brand that has earned the right to drive true passion for the automobile.

The Iso Rivolta A3/C n° #002 at the Sebring 12 hours in 1964.


Iso Rivolta also competed in Formula 1, under the management of Frank Williams. Here, at the 1973 United States Grand Prix with Jacky Ickx.

The Iso Rivolta A3/c at Le Mans, class winner in 1964 and 1965.

Marella Rivolta: Iso, from dream to reality 87

Top 100 Collectors 2020


TCCT collector’s ranking TCCT is proud to present the 2020 Top 100 global classic car collector rankings. Behind every collection there are passionate people who dedicate time, energy and money to the enhancement of cultural content and the charm of that magical object we call the automobile. An object that has been at the heart of the development of our society for well over a hundred years. Every collector has our utmost admiration and they all thoroughly deserve equal respect, but it is both correct and important that, each year, we praise those who are excelling. Our constant efforts to monitor and verify the market have resulted in some 400 more collections being analysed in 2020 than in 2019. This has led to 12 new collections being entered into the Top 100 rankings which, in turn, comprises over 5,000 automobiles. Thanks to the direct involvement of recognised and highlyregarded international experts and the many collectors who kindly shared valuable data and numbers regarding their collections, we continue to refine our starting point, which will always be verifiable published data. We therefore wish to thank all those who support us in this endeavour and will joyfully welcome anyone who wishes to help us make this precious tool even more precise. Each database value has been updated and estimated by our analysts according to 2020 market standards. All information regarding cars sold or purchased by collectors at auctions or, where possible, privately has also been updated, allowing us to get a more accurate picture of the current state of the collections. This has also been possible thanks to an in-depth and ongoing review of the auction market over the last three years. The parameters used in defining the total score include, in addition to the estimated value of the collections, the historical importance of the vehicles, the contribution of the collector to the notoriety and prestige of the world of collecting and the awards obtained at classic car events. Based on this methodology, the 2020 score allowed, for the very first time, a European collector to lead the rankings. The gentleman in question is Evert Louwman, with his prestigious museum on the outskirts of The Hague in the Netherlands.

Top 100 Collectors 2020 -89-

Evert Louwman, together with the Queen of Netherlands during the opening of the new Louwman Museum at the Hague in 2010.



Evert Louwman Age: 80+ | Score: 84.66 The entrance to the

1953 Lancia D23 Spider Pininfarina 2004 Paleis Het Loo Best of Show, 2012 Paleis Het Loo Best of Show, 2015 Chantilly Concourse Best of Show, 2016 Amelia Island Best of Show - Sport

Louwman Museum, with the statue that reminds of a racing driver.

Evert Louwman is the owner of the Louwman Museum and Collection, among the most significant, varied and historically important automobile collections in the world. Cars have been in Louwman’s DNA since the early 20th century. In fact, Evert’s father, active in the automotive industry as Toyota’s North European importer, was one of the pioneers of historic car collecting in Europe. He bought his first collector’s car back in 1934 and, over time, created one of Europe’s most important collections. When Evert took over the family business, he significantly expand the collection, gradually acquiring more and more important pieces. The collection is internationally-oriented and today consists of over 230 automobiles, ranging from the very early era of the automobile to present-day supercars. The museum has the largest collection of cars in the world from 1910 or older. Among the rarities, the collection features one of the original Aston Martin DB5s used in the James Bond movie Goldfinger, the 1957 Jaguar D-Type Le Mans Winner, preserved in completely original condition, and the unique 1941 Alfa Romeo 2900B Spider Corsa Sperimentale “Balena”. A singular feature of the collection is the fact that almost all the vehicles are kept in remarkably original or preserved conditions. Evert emphasises that “it is about a heritage that deserves to be conserved, which is why some vehicles remain in their original state with the honest patina of a century of use.” Evert not only wants to preserve the condition of the cars, but also wants to share their history with the public and future generations. That is why the cars in the museum are frequently shown at Concours d’Elegance events or driven at the most important races or rallies around the world. He would like his collection to be open to the public for at least 200 more years, even if the cars of the future will look very different. “At least the Louwman Collection will give people an idea of how we used to get around in the past”.

The Louwman Museum is one of the most important and complete in the world, featuring cars from 1880s up to modern days. Here, you can admire the spectacular hall with its modern design.

Top 100 Collectors 2020 91


Arturo Keller Age: 70-79 | Score: 84.00

1930 Mercedes Benz SS Erdmann & Rossi 1986 Pebble Beach Best of Show, 2001 Pebble Beach Best of Show, 2007 Best of Show Villa Erba, 2008 Coppa d’Oro Villa d’Este, 2014 Hampton Court Concours Best of Show, 2019 Amelia Island Best of Show Elegance “He wouldn’t say this because he’s a modest person, but I can assure you that Arturo’s is probably among the top three private collections in the world,” declares Michael Kadoorie. “Ask anybody who has seen it.” Arturo Keller is indeed a highly reserved, private man who shuns the spotlight, but who is one of the key figures in the world of classic car collectors. Apart from owning the world’s finest and rarest collection of Mercedes, over the years Arturo has also acquired some extremely rare pieces, such as the 1937 Alfa Romeo 2.9 Touring Spider or the wonderful 1931 Alfa Romeo 6C 1750 Flying Star. Arturo and his wife Deborah are frequent entrants to the most prestigious Concours d’Elegance events around the world. They have won Pebble Beach Best in Show twice, and received the Coppa d’Oro at Concorso d’Eleganza di Villa d’Este in 2008. Thanks to his unique taste for elegance and beauty, his is rightly considered one of the world’s most significant and prestigious collections. In 2019, Deborah and Arturo won the Best in Show Concours d’Elegance award at Amelia Island, with their unique 1930 Mercedes Benz SS Erdmann & Rossi.

Arturo and Deborah Keller


Ralph Lauren


Ralph Lauren Age: 80+ | Score: 83.00

1930 Mercedes Benz SSK ”Count Trossi” 1986 Pebble Beach Best of Show, 2001 Pebble Beach Best of Show, 2007 Best of Show Villa Erba, 2008 Coppa d’Oro Villa d’Este Ralph Lauren is not only the world-class fashion designer and successful businessman we all know, but also an ardent and passionate classic car collector. “Cars say as much about you as your clothes do,” he declares. “For me, they are like artworks crafted not only for speed but also for style and beauty.” The broad spectrum of remarkable vehicles in his collection speaks eloquently about this belief: from the brilliant, unique designs of classic cars to iconic automobiles and high-end racing cars, the collection is a real car enthusiast’s dream come true. Although Ralph Lauren would seem to have a particular predilection for Ferrari and Bugatti, every single item in his collection could very easily be someone’s favourite car. Guests at the show he staged in his private garage during the New York Fashion Week were able to get a glimpse of the glorious vehicles that are part of his stupendous collection. His garage is truly reminiscent of a modern art museum, where each car is presented and shown in all its beauty and elegance. He is one of the very first collectors to explore the concept of “Art & Cars” in a public museum. He organised the publicly acclaimed “Art de l’automobile” exhibition at the Louvre’s Musée des Arts décoratifs, where the most important cars from his collection could be admired. As he points out, “the real beauty of owning a rare and magnificently designed car is the fact that you can use it. You can look at it, enjoy its visual qualities, as with a painting, but you can also get inside and drive it.”


Fred Simeone Age: 80+ | Score: 82.90

1937 Alfa Romeo 8C 2900A 2007 The Quail Best of Show, 2007 Amelia Island Continantal Historic Racing Association, 2013 Octane publication of the year, 2014 Octane Car of the Year, 2017 Octane Awards - Museum of the Year Fred Simeone has achieved tremendous success both as a neurosurgeon and as a classic car collector. He fell in love with cars in his early childhood, when his father not only aroused his son’s interest in cars by taking him with him on visits to promising junkyards, but also gifted him his very first car: an Alfa Romeo 6C 2500. An outstanding feature of Fred Simeone’s collection, probably the only one of its kind in the US, is the originality and conserved state of all his cars. It includes some of the rarest and most significant race cars ever built by legendary brands such as Alfa Romeo, Jaguar, Ferrari, and many others. Fred does not consider his collection exclusively a hobby, but rather as “a representation of specific times and places in history.” With this perspective he has made his remarkable collection accessible to the wider public by donating it to the Simeone Foundation Automotive Museum, which revolves around an interesting theme, “The Spirit of Competition,” which is also the name of an annual award to honour the greatest contributors to the world of motorsports. In Fred’s Museum you really do get a feel for what the DNA of racing cars is all about: competition, the desire to win, the knowledge that each one had to be progressively better in order to succeed; and that magical DNA each year spawned a better offspring, improving the breed, crafting the vehicle, which can carry the manufacturer to invincibility.


Fred Simeone

Miles Collier Age: 80+ | Score: 82.87

1955 Jaguar D-type Longnose 2005 Amelia Island Best of Show - Sport, 2013 RRDC’s 2012 Bob Akin Award, 2013 Lime Rock Best of Show

Miles Collier

The founder of the Revs Institute, Miles Collier, was born into an American automotive dynasty. Both his father and uncle, Miles and Sam, respectively, are credited with having introduced sports car racing to the US during the 1930s. An accomplished fine artist, investor and philanthropist, Mr Collier also spent the better part of a decade racing behind the wheel of several vintage automobiles. In 1984, he became the inaugural recipient of the SVRA Driver of the Year Award and in 1986 he acquired the Cunningham Museum collection of his long-time family friend, Briggs Swift Cunningham, which included the first Ferrari racing car ever sold in the US and one of six Bugatti Royales ever produced. What is now known today as the Miles Collier Collection began to take shape during the late 1980s and 1990s as Mr. Collier continued to grow his private collection as one of the finest, most original examples of sports cars and collectable items. He soon became widely recognised for his ground-breaking preservation aesthetic, which elevated the original function and integrity of historic automobiles above the all-too-common unsympathetic renovation styles. By meticulously preserving these incredible milestones in automotive history, the Revs Institute, founded in 2008, is endeavouring to shape history by elevating the status of the automobile to a cultural icon and agent of change and human progress. Thereby, collecting and documenting this important history and making it available to a new era of scholars and thought leaders, the Revs Institute seeks to serve as a platform for the next century of automotive innovation, both on and off the track. His collection includes also the 1971 Porsche 917, chassis 917-019, which raced as a member of the Martini Racing Team, kept in completely original condition. Top 100 Collectors 2020 93


William “Chip” Connor Age: 70-79 | Score: 71.16

1959 Ferrari 250 TR59/60 Fantuzzi Spyder 1999 Pebble Beach Best of Show, 2003 The Quail Best of Show, 2019 Chantilly Arts & Elegance Best of Show William E. “Chip” Connor II is a Japanese-born Hong Kong-based business man and classic car collector. His collection of over 100 automobiles ranges from those of the classic era to 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s sports/ racing cars. He is a long-time competitor in both modern and vintage racing and is a regular exhibitor and judge at Concours d’Elegance events around the world, including Pebble Beach, The Quail, Cartier Style et Luxe and others. His cars have won over 100 awards over the years, including many Best in Show awards and the Pebble Beach Concours d’Elegance. Chip is a member of the FIA Senate and is the Chairman and CEO of William E. Connor & Associates Ltd., one of the world’s largest merchandise sourcing companies, headquartered in Hong Kong with operations across Asia and Europe. He was born and raised in Tokyo, Japan and attended Stanford University and USC in the US. He is married to Jacque Beck Connor and has three sons, Will, Sam, and Ben. He has won Best in Show awards at both The Quail (2003) and Chantilly Concourse (2019).

William “Chip” Connor



Samuel Robson Walton Age: 70-79 | Score: 69.70

1962 Ferrari 250 GTO 1998 Designer’s Choice Trophy Meadow Brook Concours, 2018 Peninsula Best of the Best Award Sam Walton is an American businessman, philanthropist and car collector. He was the Chairman of Walmart from 1992 to 2015, the largest retailer in the world. Passionately involved in racing on track and driving at rallies, over the past two decades he has put together a collection featuring the greatest 1950s and 1960s sports and racing vehicles ever produced: mostly Ferraris, Maseratis, and Porsches. He is a frequent driver at the Monterey Historic Races in California and owns two original Ferrari 250 GTOs, which are the stars of his collection. He also frequently shows his cars at Concours d’Elegance events such as Pebble Beach and, in 2018, he was awarded the Peninsula Best of the Best Award for the 1936 Bugatti Type 57SC Atlantic, co-owned with Peter Mullin.


Anne Brockinton Lee Score: 62.71

1949 Ferrari 166 MM Touring Barchetta Lusso 2006 Pebble Beach Best of Show, 2009 Pebble Beach Best of Show, 2014 Amelia Island Best of Show - Elegance, 2018 The Quail Best of Show The extraordinary passion with which Anne Lee has given continuity to Robert Lee’s magnificent collection is extremely positive for the world of collecting. It shows that women can play a leading role at events and, at the same time, contribute towards the preservation of the heritage that is now in their hands. Lee’s cars won the coveted “Best in Show” award at the Pebble Beach Concours d’Elegance, the world’s premier automobile competition, first in 2006, with her 1931 Daimler Double-Six 50 Corsica Drophead Coupe, and again in 2009, with an in-house restoration of her 1937 Horch 853 Voll & Ruhrbeck Sport Cabriolet. She shows and drives her cars at several Concours d’Elegance events every year, winning several awards, such as the ‘Masters Owners Choice’ award at Salon Privé and Zoute GP Best in Show, with her 1949 Ferrari 166 Barchetta #0008M. This car, one of the stars of her collection, won the first post-war 24 Hours of Le Mans in June 1949 with Luigi Chinetti and Lord Seldson at the wheel. It is also believed to have won the 1949 Mille Miglia with Clemente Biondetti and Ettore Salani.

Samuel Robson Walton

Anne Brockinton Lee


Lawrence Auriana


Lawrence Auriana Age: 70-79 | Score: 62.25

1929 Maserati V4 Sport 16 Cylinder Zagato 2014 IACC Business and Culture Award, 2014 Santa Fe Concorso Best of Show - Sport, 2014 Lee Iacocca Award - Amelia Island, 2017 Most Historically Significant Post-War Race Car, Amelia Island Lawrence Auriana, a successful American investor and businessman, acquired his first car at the tender age of 12, and today owns what is arguably the most important Maserati collection worldwide, including the only 16 cylinder Maserati ever built, as well as a number of historically significant Alfa Romeos and Ferraris. He is drawn towards cars that embody a living history, and his collection celebrates the superior design expertise of the Italian automotive industry. Lawrence thinks of his cars as “a tribute to that group of Italians who made an important contribution to the automotive industry of the 20th century. The Italian tradition in racing shows exceptional skills in design, implementation and genius, which are summed up in a century of success. It is a pleasure to be able to take care of and share these treasures.” Lawrence makes sure that all of his cars feature regularly on racetracks and circuits around the world. Among his Maseratis, a Grand Prix Tipo 26B/M 8C stands out, probably the oldest running Maserati in the world. But you can also see the first A6 GCS (the only one defined on the original drawings as MM) which debuted with a first place in class at the Mille Miglia and which - apart from a single case - has never finished a race without taking the podium. In addition, a Tipo 300 S that boasts two wins with Juan Manuel Fangio and Stirling Moss, which also appears in a ‘family’ photo with a Granturismo MC.

Peter Mullin Age: 70-79 | Score: 62.05

1936 Bugatti Type 57SC Atlantic 2006 Best of Show Villa Erba, 2008 Best of Show Villa Erba, 2011 Pebble Beach Best of Show, 2014 Chantilly Concours d’Elegance Best of Show, 2017 Chantilly Concours d’Elegance Best of Show, 2017 Peninsula Best of the Best Award Peter W. Mullin is an ardent American businessman and philanthropist. His affinity for cars, in particular French cars from the Art Deco era, started long before his business career, when a neighbour brought home a Delage. It was love at first sight, sowing the seeds for what was to become one of the best French car collections worldwide. For those who appreciate Art Deco cars, there is nothing to miss in Peter Mullin’s collection, which comprises the finest, most exclusive automobiles ever made in France, from Delage to Talbot and Delahaye to Bugatti. It’s not just the engines that have always excited Peter, but also the overall design, shape, and beauty of his cars. To display them in fitting splendour, he founded the Mullin Automotive Museum in Oxnard, California. Little wonder that, in 2015, Peter Mullin was elected Man of the Year by Automobile Magazine. He is now in the process of creating a new museum and a “classic car village”, designed by Sir Norman Foster, in the county of Sussex in the UK. It will be called the Mullin Automotive Park. The new museum will house many of Mullin’s fantastic cars but will also seek to tell the story of the automobile, and deal with future transport solutions and environmental issues. It will consist of the museum, a demonstration road where museum cars can be viewed in action, manufacturer pavilions, workshops and 28 residential lodges.

Peter Mullin

Jon A. Shirley


Jon A. Shirley Age: 80+ | Score: 60.74

1954 Ferrari 375 MM Coupe Scaglietti 1990 Pebble Beach Best of Show, 2008 Pebble Beach Best of Show, 2009 Coppa d’Oro Villa d’Este, 2009 Best of Show Villa d’Este, 2009 Best of Show Villa Erba, 2012 Windsor Castle Best of show, 2014 Pebble Beach Best of Show, 2016 Chantilly Best of Show Hired by Bill Gates in 1983 as president of Microsoft, Shirley’s most notable success was guiding the thriving technology company through its wildly successful initial public offering. He left the company after seven years, having decided that “there was a whole mess of other things that I wanted to do with my life.” This “mess of other things” would thankfully include gathering (and racing, in vintage events) a staggering collection of pre-war Alfa Romeos, post-war Ferraris, and significant race cars and street cars from the ‘50s, ‘60s, and beyond. Shirley looks upon his world-class collection as “almost two collections. One of them is Ferraris and Alfas. The other one is sports cars from the 1950s and ‘60s that I either owned, got the chance to drive, or wanted to own. So that includes things like the two Jags, the Cobra, and the 300 SLs. But the thought process on the Ferraris and the Alfas is the same sort of process we go through with art collecting. I wanted to buy things that were ‘museum standard’. I just wanted to get cars that had excellent histories if they were race cars, or that were reasonably unique.” Jon Shirley is the only collector in the world to have won the Best in Show at Pebble Beach Concours with a post-war car: the one-off Ferrari 375 MM, made for Italian film director Roberto Rossellini. This car also won the Best in Show at the Ferrari Concorso d’Eleganza, organized in Fiorano to mark the company’s 60th anniversary. Top 100 Collectors 2020 95


Leslie Wexner Age: 80+ | Score: 56.35

1956 Ferrari 290 MM Spyder Scaglietti 2014 Pebble Beach First in Class, 2014 The Phil Hill Cup, 2015 The Phil Hill Cup

Albert Spiess


Leslie Wexner

Albert Spiess Age: 60-69 | Score: 57.09

1967 Lamborghini Marzal 2014 Villa d’Este Best of Show, 2017 Best of the Best Lamborghini Concorso Neuchatel, 2018 Villa d’Este Coppa d’Oro Over the past 40 years Albert Spiess has quietly amassed one of the greatest collections of prototypes, concept cars, one-off vehicles, and limited-edition models crafted by some of the most famous designers and manufacturers. Collecting was originally a spare time activity, since Albert was also busy managing his family business, which over the course of time has become an international name. He nurtures a particular love for Lamborghinis, collecting pretty much all the concept cars and 001 chassis made by the factory in St. Agata Bolognese. The star attractions in what is undoubtedly the best Lambo collection in existence are the Marzal and Bravo prototypes and the only Miura Roadster ever built. Yet Albert is not just an avid collector of cars: he has also acquired many original automotive documents and archives, as well as pre-production chassis of major car brands. In recent years he has been showing his best cars more frequently at Concours d’Elegance events worldwide, winning both the Coppa d’Oro and Best in Show awards at Villa d’Este.


Leslie Wexner is an eminent American businessman who founded the world-renowned fashion group that includes the Victoria’s Secret label. Alongside his remarkable business career Leslie also owns a spectacular collection of classic cars, with an exclusive focus on the world’s rarest and finest Ferraris. A genuine aficionado of the Cavallino, Leslie has managed to put together some truly special models, such as the ex-Fangio 1956 Ferrari 290 MM Spider Scaglietti that arrived fourth overall at the Mille Miglia in 1956, the Ferrari 375 MM Coupe Speciale Pininfarina, shown at the 1955 Torino Motor Show, or a 1964 Ferrari 275 GTB/C, the first of only three Works Berlinetta Competizione cars built. Packed with amazing racing history, many of his cars are limited editions. Leslie is always on the lookout for what is truly peerless – the run of the mill is simply not for him. He showcases cars at Concours d’Elegance events around the world. Just recently he won the third in class award at Pebble Beach 2019 and the ‘Ferrari Competition Cup’ at Cavallino Classic 2020.

Bruce McCaw Age: 70-79 | Score: 56.86

1952 Mercedes Benz Type 194 Coupe 2007 Amelia Island Best of Show - Sport, 2013 St James Concourse Best of Show, 2017 Pebble Beach Best of Show, 2018 Hampton Court Best of Show, 2018 Hampton Court Concourse Best of Show

Bruce McCaw


Bruce McCaw is the oldest of the three McCaw brothers, all of whom have devoted time in recent years to collecting the greatest cars ever produced. Bruce collects a wide range of cars, from one-off pre-war models to ‘50s and ‘60s automobiles. He has a special love for Mercedes, owning the Type 194 Coupe that won Le Mans in 1952. He is also a fan of British cars, having acquired and restored the splendid 1930 Bentley Speed 6 Coupe “Blue Train” built by Gurney Nutting. Bruce likes to show his cars around the world and has won several Concours d’Elegance events over the past years. The most remarkable victories include the Best in Show Award at Pebble Beach in 2017 and the Best in Show at Hampton Court in 2018, both achieved with the stunning one-off 1929 Mercedes Benz S Barker Tourer. But Bruce is not only a collector; he is also a skilled driver, racing the most important cars of his collection on tracks and at rallies around the globe: “I have always been interested in racing and high performance cars. Now I drive in vintage Formula One and CanAm”.


Sir Michael Kadoorie Age: 70-79 | Score: 56.86

1958 Ferrari 250 TR 58 2017 Chantilly Concours d’Elegance Best of Show, 2019 Pebble Beach Best of Show

Anthony Wang


Anthony Wang Age: 70-79 | Score: 56.00

1962 Ferrari 250 GTO 1991 First in Class FCA National Concours Washington Anthony “Tony” Wang is the former president of Computer Associates International Inc., also known as CA Technologies. CA Technologies was founded by Anthony’s brother Charles Wang in 1976, when he was just 31 years old. Today it is one of the world’s largest independent software companies and the first ever to achieve $1 billion in annual sales. The Wangs were both born in Shanghai in the early 1940s, at a time when the city was under Japanese occupation. The family moved to Queens, New York and eventually to Long Island. Anthony owns one of the most complete Ferrari collections in the world, with two GTOs and several other highly significant pieces. He has sponsored McLaren in F1 and together with his wife, Lulu, he often races on track. Wang has been an ardent supporter of vintage racing since the early 1990s. He is not seen often at Concours d’Elegance events, as he prefers to race his beauties on track or at private rallies.

Born in Hong Kong, The Hon. Sir Michael Kadoorie is a passionate enthusiast of motorcars and an active helicopter pilot. Since the mid-1960s, he has taken a special interest in the vintage and early veteran period, and has become a caretaker to an eclectic collection spanning a period from 1903 to the present day. Many of these cars have been winners in numerous prestigious events. He very much enjoys rallying and participates competitively in historic events. Amongst his many activities, Michael is Chairman of China Light & Power Holdings Limited and The Hongkong & Shanghai Hotels Company Limited – owner of the prestigious Peninsula Hotels, Quail Lodge and the Quail Event. He has received a number of international decorations in recognition of his business and charitable work. He won the Best in Show at Pebble Beach 2019 with his 1931 Bentley 8 Litre Gurney Nutting Sports Tourer. He is one of the founders and organisers of the “Peninsula Classics Best of the Best Award”.


Sir Michael Kadoorie

Jack Nethercutt

Jack Nethercutt Age: 80+ | Score: 55.76

1931 Bugatti Type 51 Dubos Coupe 1979 Pebble Beach Best of Show, 2004 The Quail Best of Show, 2005 Amelia Island Best of Show - Elegance, 2007 Amelia Island Best of Show - Elegance, 2007 Kirkland Concourse Best of Show, 2008 LA Concourse d’Elegance Best of Show, 2008 Pebble Beach Best of Show - Nominee, 2011 Amelia Island Best of Show - Elegance, 2012 Pebble Beach Best of Show - Nominee, 2013 Amelia Island Best of Show - Elegance The great-nephew of entrepreneur and philanthropist Merle Norman, Jack Nethercutt was born in Santa Monica, CA in 1936. Jack recalls sweeping floors and stirring sulphur baths as a child for his great-aunt’s growing company. He inherited his father’s love of cars and, following graduation from the University of Southern California, had a successful racing career throughout the 1950s and into the 1960s. Founded by Jack’s parents J.B. and Dorothy Nethercutt, the Nethercutt Collection is a family-owned museum featuring over 250 rare collectible cars, where they continue to restore museum-quality vehicles that are recognised at the most important Concours d’Elegance events. The Nethercutt Collection is one of the world’s most significant and celebrated pre-war car collections. They are current record-holders for the Best in Show award at Pebble Beach Concours d’Elegance with six wins. Pebble Beach now also includes the “Nethercutt Most Elegant Closed Vehicle of the Show”, in recognition of their achievement. Top 100 Collectors 2020 97


David MacNeil


Age: 50-59 | Score: 54.21

1963 Ferrari 250 GTO Best of Show Nominee

2019 Pebble Beach

David MacNeil, is the founder and CEO of WeatherTech, a US company that produces several car accessories, but is probably best known for its all-weather mats and trunk/ loader mats. He has taken part in a few races himself, but at the moment he prefers to focus on business, his car collection and his own team, WeatherTech Racing, which puts the cars driven by Cooper, his son - including the 488 GTE he races in the 24 Hours of Le Mans - on the track. In the past few years the collection has grown significantly, achieving global recognition in the collector community. In 2018, he acquired one of the most original and special Ferrari 250 GTOs (#4153GT). This car’s biggest success came in 1964 when it was driven to outright victory in the Tour de France by Lucien Bianchi and Georges Berger. David has also won several awards at Concours d’Elegance events, such as the Best in Class and Best in Show nominee obtained at Pebble Beach 2019 with his Aston Martin DB4 GT Zagato.

David MacNeil


Bruce Meyer Age: 70-79 | Score: 52.94

1979 Porsche 953 K3 2008 The Quail Best of Show, 2015 Enthusiast of the Year - Concours d’Elegance of America

A. Dano Davis


A. Dano Davis Age: 70-79 | Score: 53.76

1914 Peugeot L45 Grand Prix Two Seater chassis n. 1 2009 Amelia Island Best of Show - Sport, 2017 Amelia Island Best of Show - Sport A. Dano Davis is the former owner of the legendary Brumos Car Dealership, which he bought in 1990 and then sold a few years ago. Over the past 20 years he has been collecting numerous historically significant automobiles and created the “Brumos Collection”, which has now become a public museum in Florida. The Brumos Collection began as an eclectic, private automotive collection that was stored on-site at the Brumos car dealerships in Jacksonville, Florida. Many international and national award-winning cars, historical documents, and racing artefacts from the Brumos Racing history became part of the collection. Over time, the collection grew in scope, size, and significance and soon incorporated the works of other world-renowned automotive masters. These include Miller, Bugatti, Peugeot, Offenhauser, Watson, and more. Davis’ primary love is Porsche, and he owns some very rare models, including a 1970 Porsche 917. Dano also bought the ex-Sam Mann Alfa Romeo 8C 2.9 Spider Touring a few years ago, which won Best in Show at Amelia Island in 2017, a triumph that he also enjoyed in 2009, with a Miller Special.

Bruce Meyer is a prominent figure in the classic car world, with a truly unique love and passion for vintage automobiles. He likes to collect cars that have had extraordinary owners and a significant racing history. In other words, his cars all tell stories. Meyer is referred to as “everyone’s car guy” for his boundless enthusiasm for cars, and because he’s so well connected with seemingly every major player in the industry. Meyer was the founding chairman of the Petersen Automotive Museum, now celebrating its 25th anniversary, and his personal cars represent some of the finest in the country. Certainly, he has come a long way from his first car, a 1950 Plymouth gifted to him by his aunt when he was 16 years old. He grew up in a family that cared little about automobiles as anything other than basic transportation, but Meyer spent his youth in the exhaust-infused heyday of hot rodding, and he dreamed of big engines and drag racing. He was awarded the prestigious Lee lacocca Award for his dedication to the American automotive tradition, the Meguiar’s Award for Collector Car Person of the Year, the Automotive Icon Award by the Petersen Museum, and has been inducted into three different prestigious automotive halls of fame for his tireless dedication to promoting awareness and recognition of American hot rodding and automotive innovation. Bruce has also won eight awards at Pebble Beach. He owns five Le Mans winners and the Petersen Museum has a section dedicated solely to his cars. In addition, Mattel created a “Hot Wheels” special edition of his cars.

Bruce Meyer


Tom Price Age: 70-79 | Score: 52.45

1932 Alfa Romeo 8C 2300 Spider The Quail Best of Show


Tom Price is a successful car dealership mogul in Northern California who worked his way through the University of Colorado and then landed a job with Ford, where he stayed for eight years. He acquired his first dealership in 1976. Today, Price Family Dealerships own and operate Volvo, Toyota, Land Rover, Aston Martin, Infinity, and Jaguar dealerships in upscale Marin County. Tom also owns dealerships in Sacramento and Sunnyvale. His spectacular automobile collection features sports and racing cars from the 1950s through to the 2000s. The theme of his collection is cars with a strong racing pedigree. He races his cars frequently on the track: “I’ve raced the 250 Testa Rossa probably 80 times in the last 25 years. I’ve done 180 races in the GTO. For me it’s all about having fun with the cars. If it’s a race car I want to race it. If it’s a street car I want to drive it. Some of them do both. I have a 1932 Alfa Romeo 8C Spider that I’m racing, and I’ve done a lot of tours in that. It’s exciting to get these cars out on the road.” But Tom is also a frequent entrant at the most important Concours d’Elegance events. His biggest satisfaction came when he won the 2014 The Quail Best in Show with his beautiful 1938 Talbot-Lago T150 C SS.

Tom Price


Corrado Lopresto

Corrado Lopresto Age: 60-69 | Score: 51.87

1931 Alfa Romeo 6C 1750 Gran Sport Aprile Spider Corsa 2006 Coppa d’Oro Villa d’Este, 2008 Paleis Het Loo Best of Show, 2011 Coppa d’Oro Villa d’Este, 2014 Villa d’Este Coppa d’Oro, 2014 Villa Erba Best of Show, 2016 UNESCO FIVA Preservation Award, “2016 Most Elegant Closed Car, Pebble Beach Concourse”, 2017 Best of Show Villa d’Este, 2017 Best of Show Villa Erba, 2017 Personal Achievement of the Year - Octane Awards Corrado Lopresto, Milanese architect and entrepreneur, can rightfully be considered the world’s most famous collector of classic Italian cars. His cars, all rigorously Italian, totally unique and exemplary pieces full of history, are the stars of Concours d’Elegance and museum exhibitions all over the world. Lopresto’s passion for restorations, carried out with exceptional attention to detail and the absolute preservation of the original conditions of each of his cars, is famous around the globe. All of his cars are strictly Italian prototypes, one-offs, 001 chassis numbers, and masterpieces crafted by Italian manufacturers from all eras: some of the most original and best preserved cars in the world. He began collecting at the age of 18 and is the only person ever to have won four Gold Cups at Villa d’Este (and one Best in Show). Over 20 years, he has garnered more than 250 awards (with 60 Best in Shows) at international concourses, with seven awards at Pebble Beach. The success of his cars lies in the perfect balance of their historical significance and immaculate restoration. In 2016 UNESCO awarded him the preservation FIVA prize at Villa d’Este for the restoration of the Alfa Romeo Coda Tronca prototype.


Richard Workman Age: 60-69 | Score: 51.83

1967 Ferrari 275 GTB 4 NART Spyder 2014 Hilton Head Best of Show, 2018 Concourse of America Best of Show European, 2019 Boca Raton Concours Best of Show

Richard Workman

Dr. Workman grew up on a farm in Southern Illinois but had dreams of buying a Corvette. He became a dentist and bought that Corvette soon after graduating from Southern Illinois University School of Dental Medicine. His dream continued to grow as Dr. Workman created the largest group of dental providers in the US with over 1,000 dental offices. In 2011 Dr. Workman began collecting the cars that he read about as a boy on that farm in Illinois. His world-class classic car collection, known as “The Rare Wheels Collection”, gathers a fine selection of sports cars from all eras. His automobiles participate every year to the best Concourse around the world, also winning important awards. A highlight of his collection is the 1961 Ferrari 400 Superamerica Aerodinamico PF Coupé, one of the most original examples in existence. Another highlight is the 1952 Ferrari 250 Europa GT S2 PF that won the Gerald Roush Memorial Cup at Cavallino this year. Top 100 Collectors 2020 99


Andreas Mohringer


Age: 70-79 | Score: 51.73

1959 Maserati Tipo 60/61 Allegretti 2011 1st in Class Villa d’Este, 2013 Amelia Island Sports and GT Cars Postwar to 1955, 2014 Cavallino Classic Preservation Platino, 2014 Cavallino Classic Owners Best Representing the Spirit of Track and Concorso, 2016 The Quail Best of Show, 2016 Pebble Beach The Phil Hill Cup, 2017 1st in Class Villa d’Este, 2018 Villa d’Este Best of Show, 2019 Cavallino Best of Show, 2020 Peninsula Classics Best of the Best Austrian pharmaceuticals magnate, business man and collector Andreas Mohringer has built a world-class car collection featuring exclusive sports and racing models from all eras, as well as prototypes and one-offs of unique historical importance. Andreas has contributed significantly to the world of classic cars with his passion and cultural approach to the world of vintage automobiles, showing a fantastic example from his collection every year at Concours d’Elegance and other events around the world. His cars always impress both the public and the jury and very often return home with Best in Show recognitions. In 2019 he won the Best in Show at Cavallino and in 2020 his 1958 Ferrari 335 S Spyder Scaglietti, restored by Maestro Paul Russell, was recognised as the “Best of the Best” car of the 2019 Concours season at the Peninsula Classics event in Paris.

Andreas Mohringer


Martin Viessmann

Joe Lacob

Martin Viessmann


Age: 60-69 | Score: 51.70

1923 Mercedes-Benz Indianapolis Beach Concourse

2nd in class at 2000 Pebble

Viessmann is Chairman of the Executive Board of Viessmann Group, a German manufacturer of heating, refrigeration and climate-control equipment, which employs around 12,000 people in 12 countries worldwide. His love for classic cars dates back to over 20 years ago, when he started collecting some of the finest examples of Mercedes and European sports cars. Today, he is the proud owner of one of the best classic car collections in Europe. The focus of his collection is mainly Mercedes, but over the years he has assembled a considerable number of important pre-war and post-war cars. He also likes to race his cars, especially at events like Goodwood or the Mille Miglia. One of the stars of his world-class collection is the 1929 Mercedes-Benz 720 SSK, kept in highly original condition. 100 RANKING & SUB RANKINGS

Harry Yeaggy

Harry Yeaggy Age: 70-79 | Score: 51.54

1935 Duesenberg SJ ”Mormom Meteor” 2007 Pebble Beach Best of Show, 2011 Amelia Island Best of Show - Sport, 2018 Amelia Island Elegance Best of Show Harry Yeaggy accepted the challenge of being the custodian of some of the finest cars in the world, although he shuns the spotlight and his garage is a decidedly private realm. However, he has shown cars at several Concours d’Elegance events around the world, such as Pebble Beach or other American shows, winning several Best in Shows in recent years. Most notably, he won the most coveted award at Pebble Beach with his Duesenberg SJ Marmon Meteor in 2007 and Best in Show at Amelia Island 2018 with a 1929 Duesenberg J/ SJ Convertible. He also became a name on everyone’s lips when he acquired the ex-James Bond Aston Martin DB5 at auction. His collection is an amazing accomplishment, especially when you realise that as a child his own family was so poor they couldn’t afford a car. Yeaggy owns Ford GT40 #1076, which shared the 1-2-3 GT40 tie at Le Mans in 1966. He also owns the only factory Cobra race car made with a 427 big block. Another highlight of the collection is the 1967 Ferrari 412 P Competizione, which raced with the Ecurie Francorchamps.

Joe Lacob Age: 60-69 | Score: 51.50

1963 Ferrari 250/275P Best of Show

2018 Amelia Island Concourse de Sport

Joe Lacob is an American business executive, partner at Kleiner Perkins and the majority owner of the Golden State Warriors of the National Basketball Association. In the past few years, Lacob has been collecting the best racing and sports cars of the ‘50s and ‘60s. One of the highlights of his collection is the 1963 Ferrari 250/275P. This car won the 1963 ADAC Nurburgring 1,000 km with John Surtees and Willy Mairesse and the 1964 Sebring 12 Hours with Mike Parkes and Umberto Maglioli at the wheel. It also finished second at Sebring in 1963 and won the first race at Mont Tremblant as a NART entry with Pedro Rodriguez. At Amelia Island 2018, it received the “Best of Show Concours de Sport” award.


Anthony P. Bamford Age: 70-79 | Score: 51.13

1962 Ferrari 250 GTO

Anthony P. Bamford


Anthony Paul Bamford, Baron Bamford, is an English businessman. He succeeded his father, Joseph Cyril Bamford, as chairman and managing director of JCB in 1975, at the age of 30. He was knighted in 1990 at the age of 45. Over the past three decades, he has collected some truly historically significant automobiles, both pre-war and post-war. He owns two original Ferrari 250 GTOs, but also loves to collect British cars, especially Bentleys and Rolls Royces. The 1937 Rolls-Royce Phantom III Vanvooren Sports Cabriolet, which won its class at Pebble Beach 2014 and was also selected as one of the overall Best in Show nominees, is one of the most elegant English pre-war cars ever made. Another highlight of his collection is the 1934 Rolls-Royce Phantom II, Boat Tail, Gurney Nutting, which won Best in Class at Villa d’Este in 2014. Lord Bamford is not just a collector, but also a frequent racer, driving his own cars on the world’s foremost circuits.

David Sydorick


Age: 70-79 | Score: 51.37

1937 Alfa Romeo 8C 2900B Touring Berlinetta 2011 Unique Concourse d’Elegance Firenze Best of Show, 2015 Best of Show Villa d’Este, 2015 Amelia Island Best of Show - Sport, 2018 Best of Show Pebble Beach , 2018 Cavallino Elegance Best of Show, 2019 Peninsula Classics Best of the Best, 2019 Villa d’Este Best of Show David Sydorick, a retired American investment banker, is an avid collector of special Italian automobiles. He is a member of the board of directors of the Petersen Museum as well as the Mullin Automotive Museum. Although his classic car collection is not particularly large, it includes some particularly exclusive models and is considered one of the world’s finest Zagato collections. His wife Ginny is also a classic car enthusiast and is always present at events alongside him, including Concours d’Elegance events and rallies. David shows his cars frequently at classic car events and has won an impressive number of awards over the years. In the last two years, he has won the Best in Show at both Pebble Beach and Villa d’Este with his spectacular 1937 Alfa Romeo 8C 2900 Touring, a car that also received the Best of the Best award at the Peninsula Classic event in Paris last year. Other highlights of his collection are the 1956 Ferrari 250 GT LWB and the 1961 Aston Martin DB4 GT, both designed by Zagato.

2014 Pebble Beach Best of Show Nominee

Nick Mason Age: 70-79 | Score: 50.89

1962 Ferrari 250 GTO 2009 Octane Awards Greatest Racing Car Ever, 2013 Pebble Beach Road & Track Trophy, 2013 Pebble Beach Enzo Ferrari Trophy, 2013 Pebble Beach 3rd in Class

Nick Mason

David and Ginny Sydorick

Nick Mason is famous for being one of the founding members of the legendary rock band Pink Floyd, but he is also a passionate car collector and racing driver. Nick’s passion for cars began at an early age, well before the days of the highly successful rock band, because his father loved cars and enjoyed showing his son how sophisticated and refined they could be. Today Nick’s classic car collection is truly outstanding. The focus is sports cars with a unique history and, although most of them are Ferraris, Nick describes his collection as “just a curious muddle of cars.” Nick is also a keen car racer, taking part in competitive events. During the late 1970s and 1980s he raced five times in the 24 Hours of Le Mans, finishing second and third in class. Little wonder that all of his cars are kept in prime racing condition. He’s also an experienced concours judge at Pebble Beach and several other events around the world. Nick also made a film about his favourite hobby, “Life Could Be a Dream.” Moreover, his book “Into the Red” gives further insights into his exclusive collection of classic cars, vehicles that shaped a century of motorsport. Top 100 Collectors 2020 101


Ed Davies Age: 70-79 | Score: 50.44

1956 Ferrari 290 MM Spyder Scaglietti 1994 III. Cavallino Classic The Judges Cup, 1995 FCA National Concours Luigi Chinetti Memorial Award, 2014 Cavallino Classic Best in Class Though Ed Davies tends to avoid the limelight, he owns a highly significant collection of Italian sport cars, featuring examples that made Ferrari and Alfa Romeo two of the most admired brands of all time. His collection includes an all-original 250 GTO. Sold new to Jean Guichet, this examples was ready just in time for the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1962. Finished with a French racing stripe, it was driven to second overall and first in the GT class by Guichet and Pierre Noblet. Other highlights of the collection are the Ferrari 290 MM Spyder Scaglietti that won the Mille Miglia in 1956 and the Alfa Romeo 8C 2300 Monza that arrived first at the 1932 GP de Marseille. Disinclined to show his cars at every Concours d’Elegance event, he prefers to drive them or race them on track.


Charles E. Nearburg Age: 60-69 | Score: 50.11

1969 Porsche 917K ”Alec Ulmann Trophy”

2019 Pebble Beach

Charles Nearburg is a professional racing driver and businessman, who achieved global success when he founded Nearburg Exploration, an independent oil and gas exploration company in 1979. Yet the oil and gas business was just a means to an end, because Charlie had always dreamed of being a racing driver. And that’s what he became, racing for many years in several professional competitions and leagues. He has driven at the 24 Hours of Le Mans and Daytona 24-Hour Races and also the Sebring 12 Hours with fourth and tenth place overall finishes. He is also a very active car collector, with a special love for Ferrari, but also for Porsche and Lancia. He owns a 1963 Ferrari 250 GTO. Finished in red with a French tricolore stripe, his example was campaigned with some success by Pierre Noblet, at times partnered by Jean Guichet. In 1963, the pair won the 6 Hours of Dakar and scored a class victory in the Nürburgring 1000 km. Other highlights of his collection include the 1969 Porsche 917K that arrived fourth overall at Sebring, driven by Siffert and Redman, and the 1957 Ferrari 250 TR Spyder Scaglietti that was part of Scuderia Ferrari Works Team, driven by Luigi Musso, with Luigi Musso and Olivier Gendebien behind the wheel. 102 RANKING & SUB RANKINGS

Charles E. Nearburg


John McCaw Jr.

John McCaw Jr. Age: 60-69 | Score: 50.00

1957 Ferrari 315 S 2017 Best of Show Nominee Pebble Beach The youngest of the three McCaw brothers, John McCaw, a Seattle native, helped build the giant McCaw Cellular Communications that was headed by his older brother, Craig. He shares the family passion for classic cars. An avid collector of special automobiles, he has slowly built up his collection with a focus on the best racing Ferraris of all time. In 2017, he was among the Best in Show nominees at Pebble Beach, although it was his brother Bruce who won in the end. Apart from Ferraris, he has a passion for pre-war English cars, mainly Bentleys. Today he is a prominent name in the global collector scene, showing and presenting cars at the world’s most important Concours d’Elegance events. Among his rarities, one of the diamonds of his collection is surely the Ferrari 315 S, driven by the legendary Pietro Taruffi and winner of the 1957 Mille Miglia.

Ed Davies


Lawrence Stroll Age: 60-69 | Score: 49.81

1967 Ferrari 330 P4 Spyder 2001 Cavallino Classic Gold, 2016 Pebble Beach Gran Turismo Trophy Lawrence Stroll is a Canadian businessman, a major name in the fashion industry, having developed some of the most successful fashion brands and companies in the business. He masterminded Michael Kors’ IPO in 2011 with business partner Silas Chou, a Hong Kong fashion tycoon. He is a prominent Ferrari collector. Stroll’s collection of classic cars largely consists of fabulous Ferraris, which he also loves to drive and race. He owns the Mont-Tremblant circuit in Quebec. On track Lawrence likes to get everything he can out of his stunning Ferraris, but when he’s simply driving on regular roads for pleasure he’s more cautious. “If conditions and laws permit, I try to feel the sensations that a Ferrari can give you both on and off the track”, he explains. His 20-year-old son, Lance Stroll, one of the youngest members to compete in Formula One, joined Racing Point in 2019. Today Lawrence Stroll is Aston Martin’s main shareholder. It will enter the Formula 1 Circus in 2021 to replace the Racing Point team.

Lawrence Stroll


Nicholas Schorsch Age: 50-59 | Score: 49.40

1907 Renault 34/45 Vanderbilt Racer Throughout his successful business career as an entrepreneur and investor, Nick Schorsch has also been a philanthropist, supporting educational, humanitarian and historical preservation. In addition, he and his wife Shelley are collectors of 18th century American art and antiques as well as contemporary art. Schorsch began to expand his vehicle collection to encompass a range from 1899 to 2020, with fine examples from the Brass Era to contemporary high performance limited edition vehicles, racing cars from F1, FIA Sports Car and IMSA series as well as vintage, modern and contemporary motorcycles. He enjoys driving and all the vehicles in his collection are kept in perfect running order and are frequently seen participating in events across the US and in Europe, including the Pebble Beach Concours d’Elegance, Mille Miglia, London-to-Brighton and Goodwood. In 2014 Schorsch co-founded the Audrain Automobile Museum in Newport, Rhode Island. Nick also serves as founder and chairman of the Audrain Newport Concours & Motor Week, which opened in 2019.


Peter Sachs Age: 80+ | Score: 49.14

1961 Ferrari 250 TRI/61 2006 Amelia Island Concours d’Elegance - Sport, 2008 Amelia Island Best of Show - Sport, 2013 Bob Akin Award from the Road Racing Drivers Club, 2019 Greenwich Best of Show Peter Sachs’ grandfather Samuel Sachs was the “Sachs” of “Goldman Sachs.” After studying at Harvard and NYU, Peter started working at Goldman Sachs, where he spent 37 years, before retiring as a director. In the 1960s he began collecting and racing cars, making a name for himself in SCCA, IMSA, USRRC and vintage car events. Apart from racing, over the years he has collected some of the most historically significant Italian sport cars ever made. Peter is the custodian of one of the 36 Ferrari 250 GTOs. He bought his example back in 1981 by trading his 275 GTB Speciale for the GTO then owned by the Chicago-based company Joe Marchetti’s International Auto Ltd. It is one of the three Series I models and was re-bodied as a Series II in 1964. He drove his first actual race at Silverstone (England) in 1960 in a Turner 950 and continued racing until 2007. In 1963 he was the SCCA national champion in F Modified, driving a Lotus 23. He won an SCCA divisional title in 1964 with a Brabham BT5, setting a lap record at Lime Rock Park (Conn.). Sachs also raced in the IMSA Firehawk, Grand-Am Cup, and vintage series. His interest in cultured collecting led him to collect documents and buy important photographic collections such as the famous “Klemantaski Collection”.

Peter Sachs


Oscar Davis

Oscar Davis Score: 47.84

1938 Talbot Lago T150C SS Teardrop Coupé ”Goute d’Eau” Figoni & Falaschi” Island Best of Show, 2010 Villa d’Este Best of Show, 2010 Villa Erba Best of Show

Nicholas Schorsch

2000 Amelia

Oscar Davis is a well-known personality in the classic car scene. His collection is composed mainly of Italian classic cars, ranging from racing Ferraris to elegant Lancias from the ‘50s. He likes to show the cars at events and rallies around the world. He has won several significant awards, such as the Best in Show at Villa d’Este in 2010 and Best in Show at Amelia Island in 2000. Highlights of his collection include the Alfa Romeo 8C 2300 Monza that was raced in the ‘30s by Alberto Ascari, the Ferrari 400 Superamerica PF Cabriolet S1 shown at the 1960 Brussels Motor Show and the 1955 Maserati A6G 2000 Zagato Spider that was presented at both Geneva and Paris Motor Shows at the time. Oscar has contributed significantly to the world of classic cars, bringing back to life lost pieces of history and showing them to the world. Top 100 Collectors 2020 103


Robert Ingram


Age: 70-79 | Score: 47.60

1961 Porsche Type 356B 1600 Carrera GTL Abarth Coupe 2013 Ault Park Esprit de Sport Award, 2013 Palmetto Award, 2017 Pebble Beach Best in Class Robert Ingram, also known as Bob, is General Partner at Hatteras Venture Partners, a venture capital firm that invests in early stage life science companies. Prior to joining Hatteras, Mr. Ingram was CEO and Chairman of Glaxo/Wellcome. Mr. Ingram co-led the merger and integration that formed GlaxoSmithKline. In 2006, he was appointed by President George W. Bush to the National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Advisory Board. Bob has been a car guy since the days he rode his bicycle past auto dealerships to see the new models each September. A trip to the Monterey Historic Automobile Races in 1998 inspired the collection that he and his wife Jeanie have assembled, tracing Porsche’s sports car history through distinctive and often unique examples of their road-going automobiles. He and Jeanie chose to focus on the history of the sports cars made by Porsche. Today their collection is considered by many as one of the best Porsche collections worldwide. Bob is a regular entrant at Concours d’Elegance events around the world, where he has also won several recognitions and awards over the years. In his collection you can find the 1955 Porsche 550/1500 RS Spyder that was campaigned by Paul Sagan in the SCCA F Modified class and finished second in points during the 1956 season. Another very rare automobile in his collection is the 1966 Porsche 906E, one of only four 906Es (‘E’ for Einspritz or fuel injection) built by the factory to compete in 1967 Daytona and Sebring races in 1967 while the 910 was being developed.

Robert Ingram


Friedhelm Loh Age: 70-79 | Score: 46.70

1928 Mercedes-Benz 680S Sports Tourer 2009 Pebble Beach 3rd in Class Carlos Monteverde


Carlos Monteverde Score: 47.50

1970 Porsche 917 2008 Madgwick Cup - Goodwood Revival, 2010 Cavallino Classic Coppa 4 Cilindri Swisss-Brazilian citizen, Carlos Monteverde became famous in the world of classic cars by racing a green and yellow Testarossa 250 “Pontoon” in the historic Ferrari championships. Brave and very fast behind the wheel, he ran a serious risk in the accident he had in Imola in a 1950s Ferrari single-seater, but his passion for racing hasn’t changed. In the past years he has won several races in different competitions worldwide, such as the famous Le Mans Classic, Monterey Historics, and many others. Carlos is a keen collector of exclusive classic cars, among them some of the best racing cars ever made. One of his most significant cars is the Porsche 917 that won the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1970 with Richard Attwood at the wheel.


Friedhelm Loh is a German entrepreneur who developed the firm founded by his father into a major global manufacturing and services group. Apart from his skill as a businessman, he is also renowned for his collection of classic cars, which largely consists of remarkable Mercedes and Ferraris, many of which have won awards at events such as Pebble Beach. One of his most important racing cars is the 1964 Ferrari 275/330P that arrived 2nd overall at the 1964 24 Hours of Le Mans and won the 1964 1000Km Nürburgring with Mike Parkes and Ludovico Scarfiotti. With regards to Mercedes, one of the highlights of his collection is the 1928 Mercedes-Benz 680S Sports Tourer that won a Class Award at Pebble Beach in 2009.

Giorgio Perfetti

Friedhelm Loh

Giorgio Perfetti Age: 70-79 | Score: 47.25

1958 Ferrari 250 TR Spyder Scaglietti, ”Lucybelle II” 1989 FCA Concours Lake Lanier Island 1st in Class, 1992 I. Cavallino Classic 2nd in Class, 1993 FCA Concours Lake Lanier Island 3rd in Class Giorgio Perfetti is an Italian candy tycoon and entrepreneur living in Switzerland. He is the co-owner of “Perfetti Van Melle”, the famous company that produces the Chupa Chups, Fruittella and Mentos candies, and distributes its products in over 130 countries worldwide. Giorgio Perfetti is a passionate classic car collector and owns one of the world’s most complete selections of Ferraris. He is very discreet and it is not easy to admire his jewels at events. Enthusiasts can glean exclusive information on Perfetti’s Ferraris from the 16 stunning books that make up the series, called “Cavalleria”. He owns a Ferrari 250 GTO that was shown at the London Motor Show, a Ferrari F40 LM with only one owner from new, the legendary 1958 Ferrari 250 TR Spyder Scaglietti “Lucybelle II” and several other highly relevant pieces produced in Maranello.


William “Bill” Pope Age: 60-69 | Score: 44.86

1953 Aston Martin DB2 4 Bertone Roadster 2010 Pebble Beach 2nd in Class, 2011 Desert Classic Concours d’Elegance The Most Significant Open Car Award, 2014 Amelia Island 100th Anniversary of Maserati Racing William ‘Bill’ Pope is a successful American real estate developer from Scottsdale, Arizona, who has a special passion for vintage automobiles. He started his collection with a 1955 Lancia B24 Spider America, and gradually built up one of the finest vintage racing car collections in the US. In his garage you can find some of the very best Jaguars, Maseratis and Oscas ever made. Each one of his cars has a special or unique history and he also owns various unique prototypes and one-off designs from both the pre- and post-war period. His Aston Martin DB2 Bertone concept car is a case in point. Bill considers himself more a custodian and caretaker of these gems than just a normal collector. His cars are shown every year at the most important Concours d’Elegance events. In 2019, his unique Lamborghini 350 GT Zagato was declared Best in Show winner of the Kyoto Concours d’Elegance in Japan.


William “Bill” Pope

Peter Kalikow Age: 70-79 | Score: 43.74

1961 Ferrari 250 GT SWB California Spyder 2005 Best of the Best International Greenwich Concourse, 2005 Best of Show International Greenwich Concourse, 2006 Best of Show Villa d’Este, 2014 FCA National meeting Best of Show, 2017 Best of Show Gran Turismo - Cavallino Classic

Peter Kalikow


Peter Kalikow is president of the development and management firm H.J. Kalikow & Company and a third-generation executive in the Kalikow family real estate business. He joined his father and uncles straight out of college in 1967 and became the company’s president in 1973. After his father, Harold, died in 1983, he took full control of the business and oversaw the development of several office towers, including 101 Park Avenue. Apart from his involvement in the firm his family founded two generations ago, Peter is also an automobile enthusiast who has built up an exclusive collection of special Ferraris, including some of the very best Superamerica models. With their particular focus on design rather than racing history, Peter’s stunning automobiles have won numerous important prizes, including several Best in Show awards at Concours d’Elegance events around the globe.

Brian Ross Age: 60-69 | Score: 43.22

1957 Ferrari 335 Sport Scaglietti Spyder 2006 Cavallino Classic Competition Best of Show, 2019 Amelia Island Best of Show Competition American businessman Brian Ross owns a highly significant Ferrari collection. Although very private by nature, he is slowly becoming an important figure at Concours d’Elegance and other events around the world. His cars have won numerous recognitions, the last being First in Class at Concorso d’Eleganza di Villa d’Este 2019 with his 1957 Ferrari 166 MM Touring Barchetta. Recently, he won the Best in Show competition at Amelia Island 2019, with his magnificent 1957 Ferrari 335 Sport Scaglietti, which raced at both Le Mans and Sebring.

Brian Ross

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Jim Patterson Age: 80+ | Score: 42.26

1936 Delahaye 135M Figoni & Falaschi 2002 Amelia Island Best of Show, 2007 Coppa d’Oro Villa d’Este, 2010 Pebble Beach Best of Show, 2012 Best of Show Concours d’Elegance of America at St. John, 2015 Pebble Beach Best of Show, 2016 Cavallino Classic Best of Show, 2017 Cavallino Classic Best of Show, 2017 Mar a Lago Classic Best of Show Jim Patterson is an American businessman and car collector from Louisville, Kentucky. He is famous for being the founder of Long John Silver’s, which has over 1,300 franchised locations, and employs more than 8,400 workers. He became a Wendy’s franchisee and formed Western Restaurants Inc. which operated 47 Wendy’s. He studied at the University of Louisville, majoring in marketing. He also participated in the Air Force ROTC program, and worked throughout his education. As a classic car collector, he twice won the Best in Show at Pebble Beach with two stunning pre-war automobiles, in 2010 with the spectacular 1933 Delage D8S Coupe Roadster by Villars and in 2015 with his 1924 Isotta Fraschini Tipo 8A Cabriolet Worblaufen. Limited edition, one-off and Art Deco French cars are his favourites, but he also likes Ferraris and 1950s sport cars. Jim Patterson is a prominent name on the American collector scene, showing his cars regularly at Concours d’Elegance events every year.


Mario Righini Age: 80+ | Score: 42.17

1940 Auto Avio AAC 815 Mario Righini’s collection of cars is arguably one of the most interesting in the world. The ancient walls of his castle in Emilia Romagna in Italy, today Righini’s private home, bear witness to his deep passion for vintage engines, which first arose at a young age when he witnessed the demolition of vehicles required by the State. Since then, Mario Righini has kept his promise to collect and keep as many historic cars and motorcycles as possible, in order to tell a piece of his country’s history. There are about 350 cars and motorcycles on display. Among the VIPs of the collection, the 1940 Auto Avio 815 model stands out. It was the first car built by Enzo Ferrari in Modena, but he was not yet able to call his four-wheeled creatures “four-wheeled” or equip them with the famous prancing horse. This is the model that Emilio Storchi, known as “Barighin”, brought to San Martino in Rio in 1958, later bought by Righini himself from the local museum. But there are other cars even more than worthy of note. For example, the Alfa Romeo 2300 8C, which belonged to Tazio Nuvolari, on board which he won the 1933 Targa Florio and the Monza Grand Prix and the unique Fiat Chiribiri from 1912, which looks like a cigar on four wheels, capable of reaching speeds that were truly astonishing for its time. Not to mention other stars from Ferrari, Mercedes Benz, Isotta Fraschini and Rolls Royce: the crème de la crème of history on four wheels.

Jim Patterson


Mario Righini

The Bahre Collection Score: 41.93

1938 Alfa Romeo 8C 2900B Touring Spider

The Bahre Collection


We were all deeply saddened by the loss of Bob Bahre this year. He was a real gentleman collector; a caretaker of historically significant cars who was always willing to share the culture and his knowledge of these precious objects with the general public. Once a year, Bob and his wife Sandra would generously open the garages for public viewing of their collection, asking only that their visitors make a small donation to the public library in the small town of Paris, Maine. The collection of over 60 cars mostly features pre-war beauties such as Duesenbergs, Packards, and other rare collectibles. Bob was notorious for chasing after the mere rumour of an interesting car’s possible whereabouts. “Some guys chase broads,” he used to say. “I chase cars”. Cars in his collection are displayed at the best Concours d’Elegance, where they often win awards. It is considered by many experts to be one of the finest pre-war classic car collections in the world.


Shiro Kosaka


Age: 70-79 | Score: 41.24

1964 Alfa Romeo Canguro

2005 Best of Show Villa d’Este

Shiro Kosaka is a name to remember in the automotive world. His extremely private classic car collection includes one of the most important line-ups of Abarths, as well as some of the best Alfa Romeo and Ferrari prototypes ever built. Clearly Italian design and style is dear to him. The one-off Alfa Romeo Canguro by Bertone and Ferrari Mythos by Pininfarina are among his best examples. Kosaka San shows his cars at Concours d’Elegance events, where he has also been recognised with several awards. In 2005, he won the Coppa d’Oro at the Concorso d’Eleganza di Villa d’Este with the Alfa Canguro by Bertone. Shiro Kosaka is the world’s most famous and respected Japanese classic car collector. There’s an interesting story behind his purchase of one particular Abarth: apparently he was keen to acquire it, but Fiat refused to sell it unless he was willing to open a museum. The outcome is the Gallery Abarth near Yamanaka Lake, just under Mount Fuji in Japan. Now that’s a trade-off we can all appreciate.


Robert Bishop Age: 60-69 | Score: 41.11

1958 Ferrari 250 LWB California Prototype 2012 Cavallino Classic Silver, 2018 Salon Prive Best of Show

Shiro Kosaka

Robert Bishop

Robert Bishop founded Impala Asset Management in 2004. He is the Managing Principal of the firm and manages the Impala, Waterbuck, Alpha Funds, and other managed accounts. In addition to portfolio management, Mr. Bishop leads the research efforts on metals, mining, capital goods and auto companies. Bishop is a name that is widely known in the world of Concours d’Elegance around the world. He particularly likes to collect custom-bodied Italian automobiles. Among his gems, the 1958 Ferrari 250 California Spider Prototype is surely one of the most appreciated pieces. This car is the first original pre-production California Spyder example. It has won Best in Class at Pebble Beach in 2016 and several other awards. Robert has also won the Best in Show award at Salon Privé in 2018 with his 1933 Bugatti Type 55 Roadster. Another important highlight of his collection is the splendid 1955 Maserati A6G 2000 Zagato Coupe. One of only 20 produced, this is the lightest alloy version of the famous A6G 2000. He also owns an elegant 1957 Ferrari 410 Superamerica S2 Coupe PF, winner of the Silver award at Cavallino 2012.

Craig McCaw Age: 70-79 | Score: 40.70

1938 Alfa Romeo 8C 2900B Touring Spider 2014 Amelia Island Best in Class, 2015 Amelia Island Concours Class Award, 2016 Montecito Motor Classics Best in Class, 2017 Montecito Motor Classics First in Class Craig McCaw is an American businessman, entrepreneur and world-renowned classic car collector. After graduating from Stanford, he entered the family broadcasting/cable business. Craig and his brothers took over their father’s cable-TV business in 1966. By the early 1980s he had turned the company into the 20th largest cable carrier in the US and then sold it to AT&T in 1994 for $12.6 billion in stock. Craig has exquisite taste in classic cars, acquiring an original Ferrari 250 GTO in 2015 for what was then the highest price ever paid for a car at auction. His collection features exclusive, elegant, high-end sports cars from both pre- and post-war periods. He has a special passion for Alfa Romeos and Ferraris, but he also collects wonderful pre-war Duesenbergs and Bentleys. He takes part at Pebble Beach every year, and is quite rightly considered one of the most prominent American collectors.

Craig McCaw

Top 100 Collectors 2020 107


Lee Harrington Score: 39.55

1956 Ferrari 250 GT Pininfarina Speciale

Lee Harrington is known for the expertise and attention he dedicates to managing his collection that consists mainly of Ferraris, many of which are interesting and important historical specimens. These include the 1960 Ferrari 400 Superamerica Superfast II, chassis number 2207SA that was the personal car of Battista Pininfarina and won the Best of Show at Cavallino Classic Concours d’Elegance in Palm Beach.


Roger Willbanks Score: 38.95

1948 Delahaye 135 MS Figoni & Falaschi Narval

The Delahaye 135 MS Figoni & Falaschi Narval is just one of the refined pieces in the collection Roger Willbanks created in Denver, Colorado. When he retired after a successful career at AT&T Inc, he dedicated his time to his passion with the not too insubstantial advantage of living in a state where the roads and nature partner to perfection with classic cars.


William Heinecke Age: 70-79 | Score: 38.95

1958 Ferrari 250 GT LWB California Spyder

A magnificent character in both vision and creativity – when he was a teenager he wrote about go-karting in a newspaper in exchange for advertising space. American of origin but raised in Thailand where he lives and works. His business, which began with advertising, has now extended to successful hotel and restaurant chains.


Sam Mann Age: 80+ | Score: 37.98

1937 Delage D8-120 S Pourtout Aéro Coupe

Sam Mann is the perfect example of how classic designs and cars can contribute to success: his career as a designer and inventor travelled in parallel with the successes of his cars, four times Best of Show at Pebble Beach. 108 RANKING & SUB RANKINGS


Jay Leno Age: 60-69 | Score: 37.80

1939 Delahaye Type 165 Cabriolet

Showman, TV star and a huge fan of cars and motorcycles, he is a formidable promoter of collecting through his show Jay Leno’s Garage and at events such as the Newport competition.


Bernie Ecclestone Age: 80+ | Score: 37.74

1937 Auto Union Typ C

Would there be single-seater cars in Bernie Ecclestone’s magnificent collection if he hadn’t invented modern Formula 1? Perhaps not. We have to thank him for this.


Johann Peter Rupert Age: 60-69 | Score: 36.23

1982 Porsche 956C

Johann Peter Rupert, the famous president of the luxury group Richemont, maintains his impressive collection, which encompasses everything from steam cars to contemporary automobiles, in his museum in Stellenbosch, South Africa.


Stieger Family Age: 80+ | Score: 36.09

1962 Ferrari 250 GTO

Created out of the passion of Patrick Stieger, the gorgeous collection of mostly racing Ferraris, all fully functional, is now managed by his children who also happen to be excellent drivers in historical races.


Gregory Whitten Age: 60-69 | Score: 35.71

1957 Aston Martin DBR-2

Gregory Whitten achieved success at Microsoft, as Chief Software Architect, when he also developed a passion for cars. His important collection mainly includes Ferraris, with several rare or unique pieces.


Andreas Pohl Age: 50-59 | Score: 35.70

1936 Bentley Pacey Hassan

Chairman of German insurance company Deutsche Vermögensberatung, Pohl loves to use the many beautiful cars in his collection at events, whether it’s in the London to Brighton or the 1000 Miglia. An authentic, great enthusiast.


Ray Scherr Age: 60-69 | Score: 35.34

1911 Simplex 50HP Holbrook Toy Tonneau

The music of engines substituted the music from the activity that made Ray Scherr famous: the famous Guitar Center chain. His collection consists of many important pre-war pieces.


Andrew Pisker Age: 50-59 | Score: 35.33

1958 Ferrari 500 TRC Spider Scaglietti

Commitments to the world of finance do not prevent Andrew Pisker from following his passion for classic cars, especially racing models. A passion shared by his wife Belinda who prefers their beautiful 250 California SWB.


John Bookout Age: 80+ | Score: 35.14

1955 Maserati A6G/54 2000 GT Zagato Coupe

His passion for the Maserati brand has made John Bookout one of the most highly regarded collectors of the historic Italian brand. His A6GCS Frua is famous and came away from Villa d’Este and Pebble Beach with the “Gold Cup”.


Chris Cox Age: 60-69 | Score: 35.11

1962 Ferrari 250 GTO

Chris Cox’s Ferraris are very well known, from the Testa Rossa and the LM up to the famous blue and yellow GTO in Swedish racing colours. Cox takes particular care of his Ferraris, which are always certified by Ferrari Classiche.


Carlo Vögele Age: 60-69 | Score: 34.86

1934 Alfa Romeo 8C 2600

Carlo Vögele helped Jo Siffert during his wonderful yet unfortunate career as a racing driver and created the collection that his son Carlo passionately manages today. Carlo skillfully drives the 330 GTO and the Maserati 300S from the collection.


Silvia Nicolis Age: Below 50 | Score: 34.50

1938 LANCIA Astura Sport MM (IV serie)

Is a perfect example of a second-generation collector. After inheriting a collection of considerable historical value from her father, in memory of him she transformed it into a living museum that is full of events and exemplary passion.


Brandon Wang Age: 70-79 | Score: 33.92

1963 Ferrari 250 GTO

Brandon Wang, an Englishman of Oriental origin, often uses his own collectible Ferraris and loves to hold exclusive meetings reserved for collectors of the cars he owns, such as the 250 GTO.


Jim Glickenhaus Age: 60-69 | Score: 33.90

1967 Ferrari 412 P Competizione

Added his passion for classic cars and racing to the family’s film making business. The collection boasts some very important examples, such as the 1970 Ferrari Modulo concept by Pininfarina.


Matteo Panini Age: Below 50 | Score: 33.74

1953 Maserati A6GCS 53 Berlinetta Pinin Farina

Matteo Panini rigorously and lovingly maintains the original Maserati Collection of the company, which includes several unique models including the 250F 12 cylinder and the Eldorado built to race in the Indycar series, bought by his father to prevent it from being lost forever at auction.


Joseph Cassini Age: 60-69 | Score: 33.72

1927 Isotta Fraschini Tipo 8A Fleetwood Roadster

The collection of Joseph Cassini, a retired New Jersey Superior Court Judge, conveys a cultured approach towards collecting through the careful choice of cars, especially American ones, from the golden age of the pre-war period.


Michael Leventhal Age: 70-79 | Score: 33.65

1953 Ferrari 340 MM Vignale Spider

Michael Leventhal is a respected opinion maker in the world of Ferrari. Mike loves his outstanding cars to the point of saying that the Ferrari Daytona spider is the sexiest car in the world. His collection of Cavallino models, which includes the 340MM, 250 Tour de France and the 166 Touring MM Berlinetta, is truly magnificent.


The Miller Collection Score: 33.58

1964 Shelby Cobra Daytona Coupe


Donald Murray Age: 70-79 | Score: 33.85

1955 Porsche 550 Spyder

The interest in history, the most important models such as the Ferrari 166 Touring and Porsche’s of the first hour, including the 911, are the highlights of Don Murray’s collection. Extra care is always taken to preserve the originality.

The allure of the all-American motoring movement to challenge Europe is perfectly represented by the Miller Motorsports Park created by Ferry H. Miller. Today his son Greg continues the story with the acquisition of important cars by Carrol Shelby, including the incredible Ford GT 40 chassis P-104 and the Cobra Daytona Coupe class winner at the 1964 24 Hours of Le Mans.


Fred Phillips Score: 33.40

1954 Alfa Romeo CSS Ghia Special

A small offer to the Alberta Adolescent Recovery Center is all it takes for Fred Phillips to welcome you into the halls of his collection, the result of choices made more with the heart than with reason. And that’s very nice indeed. For him, his collection is his greatest weakness. Magnificent.


Jack Croul Age: 80+ | Score: 33.31

1954 Ferrari 250 Monza Scaglietti Pontoon Spyder

Europe, its cars and the 1000 Miglia all captured Jack Croul’s heart after the war he spent in Europe on board B52 bombers. His collection includes both magnificent Ferraris and magnificent fighter planes. Among his Ferraris, the 340 Vignale was first overall in the 1951 1000 Miglia and the Tour de France first GT in 56.


Nicola Bulgari Age: 70-79 | Score: 32.87

1933 Marmon V16 Victoria

Nicola Bulgari cultivates his passion for American cars from the ‘30s, ‘40s and ‘50s. His initiative to collect once popular production cars, now lost, and bring them back perfectly to their original condition is truly visionary.


J. Willard Marriott Jr. Age: 80+ | Score: 32.84

1938 Talbot Lago T150C SS Cabriolet

Although he created an empire, with hotels bearing his name and numerous other businesses, J Willard Marriott Jr also found time for his passion for cars. Some of the finest examples from his collection include his silver and red Talbot Lago 150 SS Teardrop Coupe, the Derraq Talbot Lago and the unique example built by the celebrated coachbuilder Sergio Scaglietti, on the chassis of a Chevrolet Corvette. Top 100 Collectors 2020 109


The Lyon Collection Score: 32.77

1936 Mercedes Benz 540K Spezial Roadster

William Lyon, who sadly passed away in May this year, created his collection of pre-war cars. His son Bill prefers post-war sports cars including Porsche and Abarth, which he regularly races.


Martin Halusa Score: 32.51

1961 Ferrari 250 GT SWB Berlinetta Competizione

All it takes is just one car from his collection, the Ferrari 250 SWB Breadvan, a unique model made by Bizzarrini for the Scuderia Serenissima, to understand Martin Halusa’s taste and passion for racing.


Fritz Kaiser Age: 60-69 | Score: 30.90


James Jaeger Score: 30.40

1967 Ferrari 275 GTB/4 N.A.R.T. Spyder

James Jaeger, who lives in Indian Hill, Ohio, belongs to the category of great Ferrari collectors. His most famous car is possibly the 330LM, still in its original livery f rom the 1962 24 Hours of Le Mans, Best of Show in Amelia island.


Fritz Burkard Age: 50-59 | Score: 30.31

1937 Bugatti Type 57S Atalante

Fritz Burkard, Swiss businessman and vice-president of the St. Moritz Bobsleigh Club. Fritz is also becoming more and more recognised as a serious collector in the classic car scene. He won an award at the Concours Virtual 2020 with his Delage D8-120, one of the various Deco-era cars in his collection.

1968 Lamborghini Miura P400

For Fritz Kaiser, collecting is the joy of driving, the pleasure of beauty and the desire to contribute towards creating a bright future for classical cars. His collection of ‘50s and ‘60s iconic sports cars and his commitment to TCCT is testament to this.


Kurt Engelhorn Age: 70-79 | Score: 30.50

1955 Jaguar D-Type

As wealth owner and collector he skillfully uses cars as a union between value and pleasure. In addition to collecting, he is the man behind the successful “Bernina Gran Turismo” event.


Wolfgang Friedrichs Score: 30.43

1962 Aston Martin DP212

Aston Martins are the true heart of his beautiful collection. Among the many models he possesses, special mention goes to the historically important DP 212, a unique car that contributed to the company’s climb to success at Le Mans. 110 RANKING & SUB RANKINGS


Giuseppe Lucchini Age: 60-69 | Score: 30.25

1958 Ferrari 250 Testa Rossa

From Brescia, and hence with the 1000 Miglia coursing through his veins, Giuseppe Lucchini combines passion with the pursuit of perfection. The Ferraris in his collection are perfect in every detail. Highlights of the collection are the bright green 250 GTO that raced with David Piper in 1962 and 1963.


Steven Read Score: 30.17

1964 Ferrari 250 LM

Steven Read can be defined as an action collector: his car collection includes important Ferrari racing cars such as the 512 M and 312 PB, and he drives them with commitment and passion in historic races. Among the cars in his collection, which he also races regularly, is the Ferrari F40 transformed by the specialist Michelotto for GT races. This car, in MonteShell livery, was very successful in Europe and Japan.


Jack E. Thomas Score: 30.15

1955 Ferrari 375 America Coupé Speciale

Jack E. Thomas is well known and respected in the American collector’s world for the quality of his extraordinary Ferrari collection. The collection includes the unique 1955 Pininfarina model, built for future Fiat president Giovanni Agnelli on a 375 American chassis called Coupé Speciale.


Roland D’Ieteren Age: 70-79 | Score: 30.08

1939 Alfa Romeo 6C 2300B Pescara

Historical star of the Belgian market, Roland D’Ieteren is now also the owner of Carrozzeria Touring. His collection starts from carriages and includes many important cars, including magnificent pre-war Alfas.


Robert Kauffman Age: 60-69 | Score: 29.87

1966 Ford GT40 MKII

Robert “Rob” Kauffman is an American businessman, investment banker, racing team owner, and racing driver. As a racing enthusiast and a driver himself, he participated at Le Mans and Daytona. His collection of vehicles in North Carolina also includes the Ford GT40 that won Le Mans with McLaren and Amon in 1966.


Axel Marx Age: 60-69 | Score: 29.71

1954 Alfa Romeo 2000 Sportiva

Axel Marx’s collection, recently placed in a new and important museum space in Canton Ticino, tells the long history of Alfa Romeo with great precision, through the most diverse models, with magnificent examples of pre-war cars, up to special series and the most recent models. Passionate about modern and contemporary art, he follows his cars with the same attention and care and uses them in events: he drove his beautiful, metallic green Alfa Romeo 1900 Zagato in the 1000 Miglia 2020.


Cameron Healy Age: 60-69 | Score: 29.60

1968 Porsche 908K Prototype

Cameron Healy, colourfully known as the “potato chips magnate” collects and competes with important Porsche models, such as the 356 SL from the 1951 Le Mans and the 908 from the 1971 Targa Florio.


Samuel Lehrman Score: 29.47

1934 Packard 1108 Twelve Dietrich Stationary

Samuel Lehrman has a special passion for pre-war American cars: His latest success was Best in Show at Amelia Island in 2020, with his Duesenberg J-2018 “Whittell” limousine.


Daniel Sielecki Age: 60-69 | Score: 29.18

Bugatti Type 57SC Atalante

Daniel Sielecki, together with his brother Carlos, Argentine pharmaceutical manufacturers, are well known at the international Concours d’Elegance competitions and at major events such as 1000 Miglia, where Carlos was the absolute winner in 2003 with his Bugatti T23 Brescia.


Jan De Reu Age: 50-59 | Score: 28.50

1954 Fiat 8V Coupe Zagato

De Reu has one of the most complete collections of Fiat 8Vs in the world, which includes many of the interpretations of the same model by renowned Italian coachbuilders.


Christophe d’Ansembourg Age: 50-59 | Score: 28.47

1970 Porsche 917K

Thanks to the magnificent collection of both endurance and single-seater racing cars, d’Ansembourg is a well-known regular at events such as the Le Mans classic, Goodwood revival and Silverstone classic.


Jean Pierre Slavic Age: 70-79 | Score: 28.11

1961 Aston Martin DB4 GT Zagato

The collection of Swiss watchmaking industrialist Jean Pierre Slavic includes many important Ferraris, Abarths, Porsches and the Miura P400 that triumphed at Villa d’Este in 2017.


Kotaru Maruyama Age: 50-59 | Score: 27.50

1964 AC Shelby Cobra Daytona Coupe

Japan’s Kotaru Maruyama inherited his passion for classic Western cars from his father Kazuo. His collection includes Ferrari, Iso Rivolta and Abarth cars as well as a magnificent 1964 Shelby Cobra Daytona Coupe.


Joseph M. Barone Score: 27.20

1961 Ferrari 250 GTO

Joseph Barone is the owner of a very select collection of important Ferraris, including a Ferrari 250 GTO, the very first one built, a 250 GT Berlinetta SWB and a rare 275 GTB/C Alloy.


Julio Palmaz Age: 70-79 | Score: 26.80

1976 Porsche 936/76

Julio Palmaz, the inventor of the first FDA-approved balloon-expandable vascular stent for angioplasty, has a collection of race cars in his Napa Valley winery that features the winners of major international events including the Porsche 936 that won at Le Mans in 1976.


Helmut Rothenberger Age: 70-79 | Score: 25.90

1929 Mercedes Benz SSK

Prominent German businessman Helmut Rothenberger collects important cars such as the 1929 Mercedes SSK and the 1931 Invicta S-TYPE ‘low chassis’ with which he also took part in the Goodwood revival and the 1000 miglia.

GTO Line Up at Pebble Beach.

Top 100 Collectors 2020 111

The young star, when he became a driver, took on even the simplest of jobs. The fascinating photos on these pages allow us to discover an unknown Steve McQueen.


Steve. Him.

Steve: not the actor or the star, but the true – and passionate – racer. The images, an exclusive for The Key, convey all the discreet charm of a world now long gone. by Antonio Ghini

Steve. Him. 113


We are in Dominique Aubert’s studio, which, probably once the base of a silo attached to his Provence home, is perfectly round. He talks quietly as he hunts for some unpublished photos of Steve McQueen, taken when he was a racing driver. Indeed, the star of The Great Escape, who is also associated in many people’s minds with the race sequences of another unforgettable film, Le Mans, had actually been a real racing driver earlier in his career, when he was known only as an actor in TV serials such as Dead or Alive. I am going back to 1959, when McQueen was 27 years old. At that time, he raced motorbikes and cars, in particular a small Porsche 356 speedster, “sponsored” (as we would now put it) by a dealer keen to promote small European sports cars in California, where models from the other side of “the pond” had always been well received. “Here they are, have a look”, says Dominique, as some truly remarkable images appear on the screen. “He went to Riverside and Del Mar for practice sessions and took along a photographer, Bob Tronolone, to record the trip. Wonderful…” Wonderful is certainly the word! It really is remarkable to be able to go through these strips of Kodak 125 ASA negatives, not to mention the first prints. They are the original ones from Bob’s archive, which, for various reasons, ended up in the hands of a relative whom Dominique subsequently tracked down. “At the time I was 114 MYTH AND MYTS

Speedbird Photo Vintage

hen you see a magnificent car, the kind that made history, you can certainly appreciate its perfection and state of preservation, and recognize that you are looking at something pretty extraordinary. What you can’t do, however, is get a sense of the period in which was built, or visualize it in a particular place. You can’t see the people who gravitated around it and truly “lived” it. This is why a period photo of the same car, giving you glimpse of its world and of the prominent personages of the time, gives you such a special, I would say unique, feeling. It opens a window onto the remarkable story not only of the vehicle depicted, but also of its time, and of a particular person or people. This is what makes an old photo, especially a black and white one, “a work of art”.

living in Los Angeles and piloting the McDonnell Douglas DC-10 between Los Angeles and Tahiti, but as a young man I had been a war photographer, in Lebanon and Afghanistan. I have always been passionate about photography, not just taking pictures but also seeking out old photographs. In Lebanon I had found and purchased some marvelous late nineteenth-century photos: an entire world captured in shots. That was when I realized the true extent to which a photograph, handed down through history, can express the spirit of a moment and an era. This fascination with old photos stayed with me. In the meantime, I switched my focus from war photography to cars, motorbikes and planes, which I am also

passionate about”. Driven by this dual passion, at the turn of the century, Dominique happened upon a way of sourcing old photos of motorsport events. The internet was on the rise and several US publications were starting to feel the pinch. Some even closed, prompting Dominique to go and see whether they had any picture archives for sale. He could scarcely believe his eyes when he discovered that some photographers – Tronolone, but also Jim Mortensen and Englishman Malcolm Carling – had followed races and taken pictures of Steve McQueen well before he became a household name. Aubert decided he had to have the pictures, all of them, so as to avoid them ending up in the ocean of the internet, where they

Steve McQueen’s great passion for engines and racing stemmed from his experience as a driver.

would certainly have lost their magic. Steve McQueen, of course, went on to become a huge star, about whom we know practically all there is to know. Leaving aside his movie career, we know that he collects cars and motorbikes, which he has enjoyed using and sees as a way of having fun – the kind of fun you would expect of a racing driver who was forced to stop competing because of the strict rules imposed by film producers! After the early “Porsche years” and successes in important competitions – in 1970, alongside Peter Revson in the small Porsche 908-2 owned by Solar Productions, he took second place in the 12 Hours of Sebring, overtaken on the last lap, after 12 hours(!), by the 512 S officially entered by Scuderia Ferrari, driv-

en by Mario Andretti, who shared the driving with Giunti and Vaccarella – McQueen’s love of racing is known to have remained as strong as ever. Equally well known is the fact that, in The Great Escape, he insisted on driving the motorbike – a Triumph disguised as a military BMW – in every sequence except one. Far too dangerous, the leap over a huge barbed wire fence was instead performed by a stuntman. “His name was Bud Ekins, and he and Steve got on extremely well; in fact, Ekins was later entrusted with managing the cars and motorbikes in Steve’s collection”, Dominique says, drawing my attention to a photo that shows them together, both wearing intercom helmets, during a raid in the Nevada desert.

Looking at the photos of Riverside and Del Mar, the truth of Aubert’s initial remarks hits home again and again: they show the actor arriving at the track and getting out of his Ford Fairlane, studying the spot where his Porsche will be taken off the trailer, before removing the belts used to block the wheels and getting behind the wheel, clearly anxious to ensure his gem is unloaded unscathed. These photos show a man, the young McQueen, busy doing the usual things – refuelling, checking the oil – but in a setting vastly different from what we find at tracks today: the cars are lined up almost casually. There are no sponsors’ logos all over everyone’s clothing, and there is practically no evidence of security Steve. Him. 115

1959: Arriving at the track in his huge 1957 Ford Fairlane, 27-year-old Steve McQueen is about to unload the small Porsche he will later drive on the track.


Steve. Him. 117

The fascination of an era and the desire to test one’s talent. Steve McQueen, in addition to driving, also took care of fine-tuning his Porsche 356 Speedster.


measures of any kind. Other photos show the preparations for the race itself: there are helmets and gloves, but no belts of course, as they didn’t exist back then. And then green light, speedy laps, McQueen pictured alone or with “colleagues” driving other little gems, another Porsche 356, and finally a picture showing a particularly tough and very different rival: the Italian OSCA, lightweight with a powerful front engine. Dominique Aubert is no longer an airline pilot. He has gone back to photography, although not as a photographer: “People will sometimes ask me for the photos I take, and it’s easier to sell them than to refuse, but now I do something different,” he laughs. What? We have moved from his studio to his lovely house, which opens onto a large garden. Everywhere you look, the walls are covered in photographs. All in black and white, they are perfectly printed on Baryta Fine Art paper and protected by a transparent patina that further enhances them. They are true works of art, hung in a gallery devoted to a world we can only dream about: there are scenes from races where we see drivers showing their true colours, and photos of motorcycles, in racing

mode or standing dusty and long forgotten in some garage; there are also pictures of magnificent fighter planes (P51 Mustangs and Spitfires) photographed returning from a mission, specifically used to protect the plane equipped to photograph the French coastline ahead of the Normandy landings. There are also pictures of the Beatles and the Rolling Stones, each with a story that goes far deeper than whatever first draws the eye to it. “I have decided to make these magnificent images available to those able to appreciate them, by producing numbered, limited edition prints, like you see in the art world. The photos that I find and offer for sale are always unpublished ones. If I manage to find and purchase the negative of a photograph that conveys an emotion I feel should be shared, then I will print a small series. A single series, not to be repeated. I have to guarantee rigour, seriousness and quality. The fact that these are not easy works makes my task all the more fascinating. Those who purchase them are always rather special people: cultured and alive to the aesthetic values conveyed by the real world. A real world of the past.”

This picture of the start of the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1961, published in The Key 2019 is part of the SpeedBird collection, like all the other Steve McQueen pictures of these pages. Each photo is printed in large format and produced in a limited and numbered edition. These works,, exclusive and of great artistic value, can be ordered at: Dominique Aubert, in addition to being the owner of the negatives, owns the copyright of each of the photos of the SpeedBird collection.

Steve. Him. 119

Sliding doors. The history of the Alfas that never were.

110 years of Alfa Romeo yet many models unknown to the world. Which, how and why? Lorenzo Ardizio, curator of the Alfa Romeo Museum, studied the precious archive and traced the history of these unknown models for The Key. by Lorenzo Ardizio


Sliding doors. The history of the Alfas that never were. 121

studying the 24 HP in his Milanese home in Via Cappuccio 17, and presented his drawings to the management on 1st January 1910. With 200 examples ultimately produced, this model, accompanied by its 12 HP “younger sister”, presented in 1911 and produced in another hundred units, allowed A.L.F.A. to close its balance sheets with a profit in 1913. However, the first of many “unborn” A.L.F.A. projects had already started to appear on the drawing boards: one, nicknamed “Bon Marché”, wasn’t even assigned a project code, but its story is no less interesting.


fficially registered on 24th June 1910 as A.L.F.A., Alfa Romeo, in 2020, celebrates 110 years of history. This is an important milestone, especially for a brand which, while transforming itself profoundly and continuously, has managed to preserve its creativity and values, its stylistic features and – in part – its customers. 110 years that have witnessed a whirlwind of eras, philosophies, crises and renaissances deeply intertwined with the History – with a capital H – of Italy and the world at large. Years that have written a story, outlined an image and created a series of models, each one with its own specific role and each being both the “effect” of the previous model and the “cause” of the next one. This story has been written in books, told in museums and is very clear in the mind of “insiders”. However, things could so easily have gone differently. Certain decisions, if taken differently, could have changed the destiny of the company and, of course, the image of the brand. These are the socalled “sliding doors” that made one reality possible by making many others disappear. These are the circumstances and decisions that have affected the company, its politics and market positioning throughout its history. But above all, these are also the cars that never saw the light of day, never 122 MYTH AND MYTS

opened new markets and never competed in races. Celebrating 110 years of Alfa Romeo is, therefore, a good excuse to try our hand at the curious feat of writing, in sequence, “a story that never happened”.

1910 Bon Marché The task of designing the first car was given by the managing director, Ugo Stella, to Giuseppe Merosi in September 1909, even before Società Italiana Automobili Darracq was transformed into Anonima Lombarda Fabbrica Automobili, or A.L.F.A. for short. The designer began

The idea was to build an inexpensive car and to lower production costs, not by surrendering performance, quality or prestige, but by developing innovative technological solutions that would allow the manufacturer to reduce the number of components used. With a wheelbase of 230 cm for the two-seater version and 270 cm for the four-seater version, it would have had the same displacement as the 12 HP, probably allowing it to use some of the same castings. But the “synergy” between the models ended right there: the intake valves were automatic, and the fuel feed came about through “a particular tube with an Alfa carburettor fixed to the cylinder”. Even the cooling system was different, doing away with the water pump in preference to a system with thermosiphon circulation and a honeycomb radiator. The transmission had a cone clutch, three-speed gearbox and a single chain that went from the gearbox to the differential. It was an ambitious project to

Giuseppe Merosi driving the A.L.F.A. 24 HP.

open a new commercial line and start a real series production. But for A.L.F.A., it wasn’t yet time, and Merosi was asked to improve the 12 HP instead, thus give life to the 15 HP, but adieu Bon Marché!

cial success – production was almost exclusively exported to Australia and Holland – and not even the launch of the sprightlier G2 with reduced displacement and increased power could revitalize it.

The rolling chassis of

Technical dra-

the A.L.F.A. 12-15 HP.

wings of the G2

the bonnet. However, it was its “younger sister” RM, with its 4-cylinder engine, that give rise to the prototype of a military vehicle that was intended to inaugurate a new industrial development. The idea came in 1925 and Merosi

rolling chassis.

1918 G1, G2 and Holle’s strange idea After the First World War, the need to restore industrial production was clear to Nicola Romeo. Giuseppe Merosi worked on the new L and M (later RL and RM) projects and, above all, on the ambitious G, a completely new car. The idea was to build a flagship model to compete with the likes of the Rolls-Royce Silver Ghost and Hispano-Suiza 37.2 HP, but at a much lower price point. With just 65 HP produced by the mighty 6,597cc six-cylinder engine, it was clearly intended for comfort and reliability; qualities also confirmed by The Automobile Engineer with a peremptory and somewhat uninspiring review: “Viewed as a whole, the car is successful; its main feature is robustness”. A prelude to its modest commer-

1925: the RL was to have considerably greater success, especially after Sivocci’s famous victory at the 1923 Targa Florio, with the even more famous debut of the Quadrifoglio painted on

was appointed to study a half-track equipped with mechanics from the RM. However, it was very well received, the military never ordered it, and nothing ever came of it.

A coupé de ville body

The prototype of a

on a G1 chassis.

military vehicle powered with an RM 2 liters straight-4 cylinder engine.

The car during a test: at the wheel, the chief test driver Attilio Marinoni.

Sliding doors. The history of the Alfas that never were. 123

1926: Alfa Romeo continued to develop the idea in collaboration with the Dutch naturalized Englishman Alexander Albert Holle, who in 1923 had patented a four-wheel drive vehicle with four-wheel steering. Alfa took up the gauntlet, installing the six cylinder engine from the RL origin and brakes on the four wheels at the exit of the differential together with water cooling! Once again, this model never made it to production as the anticipated military order never arrived. Too bad, because Romeo had also dreamed of using this sophisticated layout in a sports car.

ization, Alfa Romeo also considered a cheaper and more standardized car that could be mass produced. The idea was to build a four-door and four-seater metal-bodied sedan in two versions called Tipo 1 and Tipo 1S but which, once on the market, would probably have been called 4C 1500. The engine was in fact a one-and-a-half litre, single-shaft overhead four-cylinder in-line engine for the Tourism model and a double-overhead for the Sport. The choice of cast iron monobloc and light alloy head was a refined one: the 50 HP Turismo reached 110km/h, but the presentation was first postponed to 1937 and then finally cancelled altogether, despite three complete prototypes of the Normal version and two Sport engines having already been assembled.

A drawing of the Alfa Romeo “Holle”

In the same period, work also began on the S10 and S11 projects: cars that were, by vocation, price and technology, the antithesis of the Tipo 1. The S10 was to have a sedan body, while under the hood, a softened, light alloy version of the V12 was to have been installed, with its displacement brought to three and a half litres and naturally aspirated. The power, though, would still have been around 140 HP, allowing it to reach a top speed of over 165 Km/h. The S11 would have been more innovative: the chassis retained the same longitudinal layout with fully-independent suspension, while the engine would have been an unprecedented 8-cylinder V-shaped 90° engine with a displacement of approximately 2.3 litres. This was to be a completely new unit with no parts in common with existing mechanics. A new and unusual streamlined bodywork would have been stylistically avant-garde. Super Sport versions of the S10 and S11 models were also planned with dual overhead camshafts and increased powers to 165 and 135 HP.


1933–1941 The “small” and the “big” Alfas Just as Merosi was increasingly dedicated to military vehicles and the dreams of developing four-wheel drive and four-wheel steering cars, Vittorio Jano arrived at Alfa Romeo, and, with his Tipo P2 Grand Prix car, not only won the First World Championship but, above all, ushered in an entirely new era for the Brand. This was the era of the 6C 1500 and 1750, the Mille Miglia, the Targa Florio, and the 8C 2300 that won at Le Mans and on the major circuits, transforming Alfa Romeo into an ambassador of Italian excellence around the world. It was also a period of profound change for the company, which passed into state control, with Ugo Gobbato appointed to reorganize the factory and to relaunch the production activities. One of his first “moves” was to increase production of the commercial vehicles and aircraft engines under the Bristol license, which for years was to be the brand’s “core business”. In this period, driven by the goal of mass motor124 MYTH AND MYTS

Prototype en gine of the Tipo 1 1935 (4C 1500). Below, the Sport version of the Tipo 1 engine with double overhead camshaft.

The prototype of the new straight-6 cylinder engine designed for the Gazzella (1943). Below, the prototype of the new V8 engine (2260 cc) of the S11 car, 1938.

A communication signed by Ugo Gobbato n 31st May 1941, however, saw the suspension of the two projects, following “the examination of the prototypes and the future needs of the automotive market”. Italy was now, after all, at war. At the same time, Wifredo Ricart, a brilliant Spanish engineer appointed as head of the Special Studies Service, was entrusted with the task of launching a new project for a touring car.

1941 A new world: idea 163 Wifredo Ricart, whose bitter rivalry with Enzo Ferrari has been well documented, yet whose political-military role, which saw him become one of the most controversial characters of his time, is slightly less well-known, had his focus on some extremely ambitious projects: from the 1101, 28-cylinder aircraft engine to the 162 Tipo Grand Prix cars with their V16 engines, up to the 512, designed around a very advanced “flat-12” of just one and a half litres mounted in a mid-rear position. In 1941, as the war continued unabated, Ricart also came up with the Tipo 163, a futuristic and aerodynamic Berlinetta for the Sport category, that used the same chassis as the 512 and the V16-engine of the 163 without the supercharger and powered by a battery of eight twin carburettors. These arose in the years in which the entire design team moved to a rural area near lake Orta to escape the bombing during the war. This was an era in which the future of Alfa Romeo once the war was over would be “drawn” quite openly.

1943 Gazella The design of this new medium-high class sedan was much more “realistic” according to the very precise indications that Ricart transformed into a meticulous document that was used to form the guidelines for the new model that was to be innovative and avant-garde but also simple and inexpensive to build. The first project out of this, called 1350, was clearly modern in outlook, with a transversal wishbone front, and De Dion rear suspension. The engine was an in-line, single-shaft overhead six-cylinder with a sophisticated hydraulic valve clearance recovery system. There is no information as regards the causes but, at a certain point, something changed and a project that Giuseppe Busso defined as “involution” when it began, the 1350, gave way to the 1352, immediately named Gazzella. Obsolete, complex and expensive schemes had made a return. The project advanced but, by the end of the war, nothing remained of Ricart’s project. Enough components for 6 models were built and one was even assembled for testing; however, the great test driver Consalvo Sanesi, after a short test on 8th October 1945, rejected it without hesitation or remorse. This was the end for the Gazella and – until the arrival of the 1900 – Alfa was forced to continue with the “old” 6C 2500.

Sketckes, blueprints and the prototypoe of the bodywork of the Gazzella.

A blueprint of the Tipo 163 a V16 Sports car designed by Wifredo Ricart.

Sliding doors. The history of the Alfas that never were. 125

A “Reparto Carrozzeria” scale model of the 6C 3000 sedan.

1945 6C 3000 Another project soon to be forgotten, this time developed by the team of Orazio Satta Puliga and in particular by Giuseppe Busso, was the 6C 3000, equipped with a new six-cylinder inline engine with self-supporting shell. The engine enjoyed a short life on Sport Barchettas, but the road car project was soon abandoned.

The Alfa 750 Competizione was expected to compete with Porsche RS and OSCA. A challenge that unfortunately never saw the

1945–1952 Type 160

light of day.

A project that is a story in itself is the electric kitchen produced by Alfa Romeo. This was designed and produced to keep the factories working right after the war, but the project was quickly discarded. However for Alfa Romeo, soon doors would open to a future much more in line with the tradition of the Brand and it came bearing a name from 1900: the Giulietta. They couldn’t have wished for a better start, with two World Championship titles in the newly-born Formula 1, won by Farina and Fangio in the Alfetta 159. However in this period, there was also another great car that never saw the light of day: the Tipo 160. This would have been a mid-engined single-seater with a magnificent new 12-cylinder boxer powerplant, all-wheel drive and cantilevered driver’s seat beyond the rear axle. But in 1952, the rules of the World Championship changed, adopting those from Formula 2, which favoured the “traditional” Ferrari 500 F2s, which left the competition behind in their dust.

The magnificent V12 Boxer made for Formula 1 which never reached the tracks due to regulation changes.


1955 Pidocchio One of the 750 Competizione prototypes in a Portello workshop.

1955 750 Competizione Alfa, now retired undefeated from F1, was teeming with people, departments and whole trains of thought itching to get back into racing. Once the Tipo 160 dreams were abandoned, other projects suddenly became more realistic: the 6C 3000, the Disco Volante (or “Flying Saucer”), the 2000 Sportiva, all of which become a reality. In the aftermath of the presentation of the Giulietta, a small and lightweight Barchetta appeared in the 1500 category. The 750 Competizione project commenced, with its twin-cam engine brought to 1500cc and 148 HP and a load-bearing body designed by Carlo Abarth. Very light but not very rigid, it was immediately rejected by Alfa technicians. Then in an attempt to reinforce it, they ended up making it so heavy they had to abandon the project, despite Boano’s beautiful bodywork.

These were the years of great technical, industrial and social unrest. Half a century on, the ease with which the design team shifted from F1 to small car projects is extraordinary. And all on the same days and by the same – few – people. The study of a small car, alongside the idea of front-wheel drive, can be seen several times in the post-war period. A final project, identified in the beginning with the initials “V” (Vetturetta), and later with the code Tipo 103, began in 1954 at the behest of Finmeccanica, to which Alfa Romeo belonged. The assignment was passed to Satta’s team, but the unhappy nickname “Pidocchio” (ndr. “Louse”) had begun to be attached to the car. By September 1955, the project outlines had been defined. A dry weight of 660kg, max speed 110km/h, price of 620,000 lire and production rolling out planned for the autumn of 1961. In 1957, they were already considering an air-cooled 900cc engine and front-wheel drive. Air cooling was soon abandoned and even the original idea of ​​a boxer engine would give way in 1958 to a four-cylinder in-line double overhead camshaft engine with an aluminium head and cylinder block. isplace-

quickly passed from the design department to the “small department” of Lugi Fusi, from which the Alfa Romeo Museum collection would later come to light.

The Tipo 103 prototype now on display at the Museo Alfa Romeo.

Drawings and documents referring to the “V” project that later became the Tipo 103. The innovative transversally mounted straight-4 cylinder DOHC of the Tipo 103.

ment was 896cc, which was good for 52 HP. The engine was transversal, with a four-speed fully synchronized manual gearbox on the extension of the crankshaft and in the block with the differential. There were constant velocity joints on the drive shafts. The chassis was particularly sophisticated: the car featured independent front and rear suspension with coil-over shock absorbers at the front while the rear had a particular suspension set up with a longitudinal and a transverse arm and an electric motor with two flexible shafts that allowed the support plate of the coil springs to be raised and lowered, adjusting the ride height. There was disc brakes on the front and drum brakes on the rear. Weighing 725kg it could reach a maximum speed of 139km/h. The bodywork was angular and square, anticipating stylistic elements that would subsequently be taken up by the upcoming Giulia. The seats were very low, and it was very roomy for its category. Everything seemed ready for the final stages of development, but once again destiny had other ideas: Alfa signed an agreement with Renault for production under license from Dauphine. At that moment, the ambitious 103 project – now ex “Pidocchio” –

1958 Biscione and Scorpione “Abarth was not the type to surrender without a fight” – wrote Giuseppe Busso in a note – “ I have always appreciated the speed with which he took decisions and just how determined he became when he put his mind to something. A year passed. At the end of January 1958, Abarth came to propose to Management the construction of a 1,000cc car, with our mechanical groups and, scorched by the experiment with the 750 Competizione, an Alfa-style tube frame. The engine would still have been that of the Giulietta, reduced to 1,000cc.“ The Alfa Romeo design ethos that always aimed to create a Sports car, didn’t let the idea go away, and in order to mitigate any risk, Carlo Abarth allowed it to be published and the racy Berlinetta appeared, without Alfa Romeo being informed, in the 30th June 1958 issue of the weekly magazine Auto Italiana. By now the die was cast and the presentation at the Turin Motor Show only confirmed expectations: The 1000 was a huge success, but problems with Bertone’s production costs destroyed any chances it had of survival. The beautiful tubular chassis was modified and rebodied by Luigi Colani, but, for Alfa Romeo, this prototype became the seed for far more ambitious projects, such as the Giulia TZ. But that is “another story”, and is one of many that deserve entire chapters all to themselves.

One of the Alfa Romeo design proposals of the “V” project.

The prototype of the Abarth 1000 developed in cooperation with Alfa Romeo.

Sliding doors. The history of the Alfas that never were. 127

1966 Scarabeo The success of the Giulietta prima and Giulia in the sixties was so great it left no room for remorse or regrets: there may have been hypotheses and second thoughts, decisions and rejections, but years later, it’s easy to think that each one of those decisions was correct if not even inspired.

The Scarabeo, with its very promising performance, appealed immediately

However, the design team continued to innovate with the aim of taking the Brand back to the track. Since the sixties, that desire had a very clear name: “mid-engine”. At the dawn of 1966, after the Tipo 33 project conceived by Satta’s team was yielded to Autodelta, Giuseppe Busso proposed a project for a new rear-engine sports vehicle, which however, had to feature the GTA’s four-cylinder engine: the Scarabeo. The GTA engine was installed transversally in the rear, in one block with the clutch and gearbox. From there, the movement was transmitted to the differen-

One of the three prototypes of the Scarabeo has a barchetta bodywork that was never completed.

to everyone but unfortunately did not find a place in the Autodelta projects.

tial through an unusual shaft placed at a 45° angle. The rear disc brakes were on-board. For the suspension, Busso was inspired by the scheme used in the front of the Renault R8, a company that Alfa Romeo had excellent relations with and a step that would have allowed it to significantly reduce costs, while

the tubular chassis took up the ambitious solution – already seen on the 33 – of placing the tubular ladder frame on the sides of the cockpit, which contained the fuel tanks. The study of the bodywork was assigned to OSI from Borgaro Torinese. Barely over one metre tall and weighing just 700kg, the car reached 200km/h and promised world-class road manners: a first, fascinating model with the steering wheel on the right-hand side was presented at the Paris Motor Show in October 1966; later on, a second simplified prototype and a Barchetta were designed, but the latter was never completed.

1974 Scarabeo 2 The decision that only Autodelta was entitled to compete, effectively shipwrecked the seductive project. However, a “Scarabeo II” was to be introduced shortly thereafter: in this case, a large part of the chassis, including the rear De Dion system, was taken from the recently-presented standard Alfetta, while the engine was taken from the 2000 GT Veloce. The rear section of the chassis and transmission was that used in the 1966 Scarabeo. Despite the good performance and the low production costs, the “Scarabeo II” project was also discarded between 1974 and 1975, with the only prototype produced equipped with the suitably modified body of the GT Junior Zagato, characterized by an eye-catching periscopic air intake on the roof. 128 MYTH AND MYTS

The Scarabeo II

1988 164 ProCar

body used parts from the Junior Z.

The 164 Pro Car, a “Legendary beast” with the face of a family sedan and the heart of a Formula 1 car, was designed to join the FIA championship project. It was made with apparently normal-looking cars but with powerplants similar to those used in the highest formula. Designed around an innovative V10 engine created for F1 that anticipated the units with the same configuration developed by other manufacturers: Honda first of all. The cancellation of the ProCar championship rendered the car unusable and the project was scrapped.

1982 Sprint 6C While Alfa Romeo was engaged in Formula 1, a new project came to light that was loosely related to the world of rallying, in which the monstrous Group B cars dominated the headlines during its golden years. The starting point was the 1983 version of the Sprint (previously the Alfasud Sprint, with Italdesign bodywork), but the real novelty of the Sprint 6C was the installation of a 2.5i V6 engine in a mid-mounted, longitudinal configuration. Its chassis was reinforced with two boxed longitudinal members, while the Hewland gearbox had a non-drive transmission shaft facing forward, in preparation for a possible four-wheel drive version. The suspension was of superimposed wishbones with adjustable shock absorbers, double at the rear. The performance was interesting even with “only” 158 HP produced by the road engine, but it is easy to imagine its development potential. A development that, once again, was never to be. After the official photoshoot on the Monza straight and a press release circulated with little conviction, the door was soon closed.

The body - that One of the two Sprint

recalls that in

6C prototypes during

the production 164

the official shoot made at Monza.

- is made of two lightweight shells.

Sliding doors. The history of the Alfas that never were. 129

1992 Group C SE 048 SP Built on the technical platform from the stillborn 164 ProCar, this magnificent car was created specifically for the World Sportscar Championship. At this stage, Alfa Romeo was part of the Fiat Group after being sold by IRI and soon various decisions related to the sporting commitments of the group, which also included Ferrari, began to take their toll. The championship itself did not develop according to plan and this led to the cancellation of the programme. The V10 engine was also developed as a road

The magnificent Gruppo C , which sadly never took to the track (SE 048 SP).


legal version, with the displacement increased to four litres and the behaviour mapped to one suitable for a high-performance coupe, which, however, never reached the prototype stage.

1991 Proteo “Proteo”, in Greek mythology, is a god capable of changing shape to his liking and the model that bears this name, was presented at the Geneva Motor Show 1991 as a fully-working model that was based on the 164 floorplan

on which a number of design and technical innovations were tried out, including the metallized paint, Solextra glass to reduce solar radiation entering the passenger compartment by 40–42%, ventilation system, and through the perforated dashboard, a retractable glass hard-top that stowed away automatically in a dedicated compartment located behind the seats. The engine was the quad-cam 24-valve 3.0-litre V6. Transmission was via permanent four-wheel drive through an electronically controlled viscous coupling, and the car also featured four wheel steering.

The Centro Stile Alfa Romeo during the styling of the Protéo

The decision not to produce the beautiful Proteo created more than a little disappointment among enthusiasts as well as professionals. Many of the anticipated solutions were eventually to find their way into production, even if muffled by the fact that they were not concentrated together in the same magnificent vehicle. In the following years, the “sliding doors” culture within Alfa Romeo would often alternate between projects and products, dreams and regrets. They went by many names, such as Nuvola, which was supposed to bring the car back to its origins, with the chassis sold by the manufacturer and the bodywork built on commission by external coachbuilders. Or perhaps Diva, which recalled the sumptuous lines of the legendary 33 Stradale, and Kamal, the forerunner to compact SUVs. The list is a long one and yet it is recent history: still too close to be evaluated objectively. In the meantime, Alfa Romeo can wait, and will undoubtedly continue to flourish, create, produce and make new generations dream. Ultimately, finding the way, as it always has, to be the star of its era.

An official shooting of the Protéo: at Balocco proving ground with the former chief test driver Guido Moroni at the wheel

Sliding doors. The history of the Alfas that never were. 131

Scaglione, the Palladio of the car world Creativity in design is like mastery in art: if the pencil stroke is not guided by a tried and tested model, every creation is merely ephemeral. The eloquent analysis by Massimo Grandi, professor of architecture at the University of Florence, is an illuminating one as it argues that the pen of a genius is guided by reason. And paves the way for sometimes famous imitators. Text and Illustrations by Massimo Grandi


Scaglione’s Ferrari 166 Mille Miglia Abarth, practically a manifesto of many of his creative features: the double grille and the concave wheel arches for improved air flow.

Scaglione, the Palladio of the car world 133


t is difficult, if not impossible, to summarize the influence and weight that Franco Scaglione’s work and research had on the evolution of the shape of the car, as well as on Italian style in the world of car design. What we can acknowledge, however, is that the distinctive and underlying characteristic of his influence, which permeated his entire production, is undeniably his research into the field of aerodynamics.

Nothing in his designs is accidental or merely “stylistic”. Everything is the result of the constant application of physical and mathematical principles. Most, if not everyone, will describe their fascination with the extraordinary and history-laden forms of his famous BAT models, especially the BAT 7 with its huge and almost “baroque” tail fins similar to a manta ray. Forms that are at once confusing and enchanting, almost fictional. So much so that the acronym BAT, which in reality stood for “Berlinetta Aerodinamica Tecnica” [ndr Aerodynamic Engineering Sedan] , was immediately associated with the “Batmobile” driven by the legendary American comic character. This is somewhat unfortunate, because in many ways this “fascination” misrepresents and trivializes creativity, reducing it down to

Fins reminiscent of a manta on BAT 7 serve to direct air consistent with the ideal shape of a water drop.


A clever play on words: BAT7, which means Berlinetta Aerodinamica Tecnica, becomes the perfect name for a car immediately associated with the Batmobile.

an effect caused by an image, and completely overlooks the study, passion, and above all the cast-iron discipline of the underlying design exercise. Those celebrated fins are not the stylistic whim of the designer, but the scientific representation of an aerodynamic solution. They are like that because they could not be otherwise. If it were possible to see BAT 7 in its mathematical and physical form, or to read it in the score that denotes this symphony of shapes and contours, it would be even more fascinating to behold, akin to reading and not merely observing a painting by Paul Klee. In simple terms, Scaglione’s f ins were designed to create an air flow around the cockpit resembling the one produced by the theoretical shape of a “falling drop of rainwater”,

thus eliminating any rear turbulence while keeping the length of the car within reason. Indeed, the ratio between the maximum length and width of that elongated drop is fixed at around 1:5. Considering that a cockpit has to contain two people and therefore can never be less than 1,400mm in width, this means that the ideal length of the cockpit should be 7,000mm. Seven metres! In order to contain the air flow around the necessarily shorter cockpit, and to prevent it from detaching from the car and creating unwanted turbulence,

Scaglione introduced concave fins that “captured” the airflows at their detachment point and returned them into the imaginary vortex of the virtual elongated drop. Far beyond the physical dimensions of the cockpit. In BAT 7, the significant increase in the size of the fins was due to the increased height of the frontal area of the car, which brought the centre of air pressure forwards and could only be counterbalanced by increasing the surface area of the fins at the rear of the car. In many ways, Scaglione’s solution is similar in purpose to Kamm’s “truncated tail” design, even if the latter is perhaps technically less efficient but undoubtedly more practical for industrial applications, so much so that Scaglione himself often applied it, for example on his Giulietta SS and Titania. Having concluded this necessary premise, we can finally ask ourselves how much or indeed which of Scaglione’s design elements were subsequently copied, adopted or interpreted by other designers and manufacturers.

The “Bertone fenders” I have already underlined how Scaglione’s work cannot in any way be classified as mere exercises in style. There is no Scaglione style. Its language and descriptive language is not made up of stylistic elements, but rather by a set of essential and rational solutions to maximise both the aerodynamic and the ergonomic functionality of the car. In an article written by Scaglione himself, published in Quattroruote in January 1961 and entitled “La carrozzeria giusta” [ndr “The right bodywork”], he defined “integral design” as being “conditioned from the outset by the needs that will arise in use; with integral design, any consideration of a technical and aesthetic nature is subject to the three basic rules: economy of use, functionality of use, naturalness of use… all the better if this results in a new and aesthetically pleasing form”. It serves precious little purpose therefore, to search for Scaglione’s stylistic legacies, and yet many of his technical solutions have been reused specifically for their functionality and, in some cases as we will see, as aesthetic solutions. Scaglione, the Palladio of the car world 135

The first example is the so-called “faired fenders”, which later became known as the “Bertone fenders”, as these fenders were applied several times by Scaglione to the cars designed during his collaboration with Bertone between 1952 and 1959 and also successively. The design of the faired fenders is linked to the problem of the airflow along the sides of the car. In an article published in Auto Italiana in 1954, Scaglione wrote: “Having established the general principle that the shape of the flanks is always a result of the shape of the leading edge of the car, it is impossible to obtain a precise indication of their efficiency without having first clearly framed a matter of the utmost importance: the influence of the mass of air centrifuged by the rotating wheels on the aerodynamic efficiency of the car… it should also be noted that the negative influence of this phenomenon (calculated at 10-15% of the total resistance) increases as the leading edge of the car becomes more profiled.”

The scoops in the wheel openings, according to Scaglione, allow air to flow more efficiently and aerodynamically along the side of the vehicle. This idea has since been adopted by numerous famous cars, as can be seen in Massimo Grandi’s fascinating illustrations.


Paradoxically, the problem of the wheel wells is a consequence of the aerodynamic evolution of the car which has seen all of its components, grill wings and headlights incorporated into the body. The air trapped inside the wheel wells is affected by the rotating movement of

the wheel, which transforms it into a vortex. In practice, the wheel well is a sort of turbine and manifold, inside of which the rims act like an enormous fan, producing massive turbulence. The result is that a mass of air is sucked into the wheel compartment, where it is centrifuged and, finding no other way out, projected outwards in an almost orthogonal direction to the car’s axis, hitting another mass of air flowing along the car’s flanks, forming an invisible swirling “hump” that effectively widens the section of the car incrementally as the speed of the car increases. To counter this inconvenience, at least in part, Scaglione devised the drastic solution of completely fairing-in the wheels, adding a vent on the body immediately behind the wheels to allow the air to leave the wheel compartments in the same direction as the axis of the car and reduce the resistance “hump” in front of the wheel wells. This solution was used for the first time in the 1952 Fiat-Abarth 1500 Bertone prototype, and Scaglione would often use it in his designs. In 1953 he adopted it for the Ferrari-Abarth 166 MM, in 1954 for the splendid Alfa Romeo 1900 S Berlinetta of which unfortunately no trace remains, and then in 1957 for Fiat-Stanguellini.

In 1954 it was adopted by Ferrari for the 375 MM Pininfarina Kimberly, then by Aston Martin in 1955 for the DB3S. Once again by Ferrari in 1956 for the Ferrari 500 TR Touring, in the 625 LM again in 1956, and finally in 1958 the idea was taken to the extreme in the Ferrari 250 “Testa Rossa” by Scaglietti. As previously anticipated, what started out as a purely technical solution also gave rise to entirely aesthetic interpretations, including the 1953 Chevrolet Corvette, followed by the 1955 Flajole-Forerunner prototype. It is worthwhile remembering that following the 1952 Turin Motor Show, Fiat-Abarth 1500 was immediately purchased by Bill Graves and Edward Macauley from Packard and was brought to Detroit. It was therefore immediately known overseas. Pininfarina himself appears to want to mention the “Bertone fender” profile in his 1953 Ferrari 375 MM “Ingrid Bergman”.

Scaglione, the Palladio of the car world 137

The two-piece W muzzle Another element we can take as an example is the characteristic solution for the front or the W-shaped leading-edge with the two-piece air intakes beneath the bonnet. This solution appeared for the first time in the above-mentioned Fiat-Abarth 1500, which among other things, I have always considered as a sort of BAT 1 for the various aerodynamic solutions employed, which were then extensively developed in BAT 5 and BAT 7.

Regarding the front section, Scaglione stated “If the leading edge is treated as a single body, the subsequent cutting of the cooling air intake has such a profound effect on the airflow, that in certain cases it creates areas of depression on the hood and under the belly of the car”. In the Fiat-Abarth the leading edge is characterized by a W-shape built around three distinct and slightly tapered volumes. The prominent nose of the hood incorporates the central headlight, and the two front fenders

also end with two round headlights. Between the “nose” of the hood and the fenders, are two horizontally-split air intakes for the engine compartment. All this in answer the challenge regarding the optimization of the car’s air penetration ability on the one hand, and the optimization of the airflows to cool the front-mounted engine on the other. “While it’s easy to create a good amount of air penetration in the centre of the nose of the car, and rather difficult at the same time to avoid creating areas of

The most sophisticated interpretation of the “Scaglione front” appears on the 1952 Fiat-Abarth 1500.


The Ferrari Sharknose era has two points of excellence: the 156 World Champion in 1961 and LaFerrari in 2013. The front of the two cars is clearly inspired by Scaglione’s idea.

interference between the fender fronts and the nose, with this solution, the deflected air from the mudguards is sucked directly into the air intake”, as Scaglione himself described the solution. The front grille and bumpers are also eliminated, to maximize the elimination of elements that could disturb the flow of air. The hood is as low as possible, given the presence of the engine, and very low at the front; this is the so-called “knocking” nose that Scaglione applied to the majority of his sports cars. We still find this solution in the previously mentioned Ferrari 166 designed for Abarth and commissioned by the Guastalla team.

Despite being a front-engine car, the “nose” is low and “knocking”, quite long and in a pronounced W-shape, where a central “nose” incorporates a large round headlight and divides the leading edge into two sections into which two inclined pointed vents are inserted, like two “nostrils” framed by a very thin aluminium housing. This solution, with its very pronounced V-shaped leading edge with the two “nostrils”, anticipated the similar one designed by Carlo Chiti in the Ferrari 156 F1 and 246 SP of 1961 by several years and can still be found today used as a stylistic, as well as functional, element, in the 2013 Ferrari La Berlinetta.

one’s passionate research and experimentation in the evolution of aerodynamics – and therefore the form – of the modern-day car. But beyond all this there is the precious heritage of his creations that have contributed so much to the emergence and growth of “Italian style” which is still recognized and sought after internationally. The particular, complex and intriguing approach Scaglione had towards his project, his inimitable creative simplicity – in other words his paradigm – will forever be remembered in the history of the automobile as the ultimate testimony of an Italian genius.

“The above are just two examples, but I could make others”, of the contribution of ScagliScaglione, the Palladio of the car world 139

Monna Lisa


Leonardo’s masterpiece cannot be ranked in terms of beauty. It is absolute. The Ferrari 330 P4 has the same effect. There are no possible comparisons. The three built for the 1967 World Championship are once again a reality: together with #0856, which has remained exactly as it was when it crossed the finish line in Daytona, #0860 and #0858, transformed into open Can-Am by Ferrari that same year, have now returned to their original splendour. The latter car, which earned the decisive points that conquered the World Title, driven by Chris Amon and Jackie Stewart, has found its original bodywork. The Key offers a rare glimpse of the timeless style of this mechanical masterpiece. by Gary Watkins

* that’s not a mistake, Leonardo Da Vinci used this name. 140 MYTH AND MYTS

Monna Lisa 141

The 330 P4 #0858 in the closed version Le Mans configuration with mirrored fairings shows its power through the magnificence of the lines.


Monna Lisa 143

With tooth and nails The invaluable help of Jackie Stewart, who joined Chris Amon at Brands Hatch, gave #0858 the honour of clinching the World Title. There was a World Title at stake, and Ferrari wanted to win it. That explains Jackie Stewart’s presence in one of the three-strong fleet of Ferrari 330 P4s entered for the final round of the International Championship for Manufacturers at Brands Hatch in July 1967. Stewart had been drafted into the Scuderia’s line-up to race on a track he knew well alongside team regular Chris Amon in 330 P4 #0858, the chassis in which the New Zealander had already tasted victory at the Monza 1000km three months earlier. Stung by its narrow defeat to Ford in the previous year’s championship battle and a second straight loss to the American manufacturer at the Le Mans 24 Hours the month before, Ferrari was pulling out all the stops in a bid to overhaul a slender one-point deficit to Porsche as the eight-race world series reached its climax with the BOAC 500 six-hour race. Ferrari brought out its full flotilla of three 330 P4s for the championship decider, while Maranello Concessionaires, the marque’s British importer, backed up the factory with a 412P, the customer version of the previous season’s 330 P3 retro fitted with the P4’s new engine. Porsche was taking the race equally seriously in pursuit of its first outright world championship crown. It had tried to secure Stewart’s services for his home round of the championship, but still got no less a driver than Graham Hill to join its squad. Bruce McLaren was also brought into its roster of no fewer than five cars, two flat-eight 910s, two six-cylinder versions and a long-tail 907. It even had a spare car on hand for its 10-strong driving squad. Ferrari and Porsche were showing their commitment to a championship that had begun back in February with the Daytona 24 Hours. The Scuderia pitched up for a first all-out factory assault on the US enduro with two 330 P4s, which were backed up by a pair of 412P 330 P3/4s fielded by Luigi Chinetti’s North 144 MYTH AND MYTS

American Racing Team and Jacques Swaters’ Ecurie Francorchamps operation. The P4 bore a family resemblance to the previous season’s P3, but was in fact an all-new car from the pen of Ferrari design legend Mauro Forghieri. There were revised aerodynamics, a new gearbox, a slightly shorter wheelbase and, most significantly, a new engine. The four-litre V12 – with a capacity of 330cc per cylinder that gave the car its nomenclature – was now fitted with a three-valve cylinder head. The 330 P4 claimed a famous victory on debut, Amon and Lorenzo Bandini leading home a Ferrari one-two-three. Ludovico Scarfiotti and Mike Parkes took the runner-up position in the second factory car, while Pedro Rodriguez and Jean Guichet claimed the final spot on the podium in the NART entry. Ferrari celebrated the flying start to its bid to reclaim the world championship by lining up the cars in formation finish for the benefit of the world’s media. Ferrari opted not to enter round two in order to better prepare for Le Mans, but it was back in the winner’s circle next time out at Monza, Amon and Bandini winning again after swapping to chassis #0858 for the Italian race. Porsche then pulled out a championship lead with victories at the Targa Florio and then the Nürburgring 1000km, another race Ferrari didn’t attend. Second place for Scarfiotti and Parkes at Le Mans behind the Ford shared by AJ Foyt and Dan Gurney set up the nail-biting championship finale at Brands weeks later on the final weekend of July. Ferrari needed to beat Porsche home on the majestic 2.65-mile Brands Hatch grand prix circuit. It was a simple task, but one complicated by some heavyweight opposition to the championship protagonists. Ford, no longer in the hunt to retain its title, might have skipped the race, but Chaparral was present with its be-winged 2F, a fast but fragile contender on that year’s championship trail. A couple of Chevrolet-engined Lola T70 MkIIIs were also on the entry. The title contenders didn’t get a look-in during qualifying. The Lo-

las took the first two spots on the grid, Denny Hulme claiming the pole from John Surtees, while the Chaparral qualified by Mike Spence took the final spot on the front row. Ferrari monopolized the second row with Scarfiotti and Paul Hawkins, who was sharing the third entry with Jonathan Williams. Amon, meanwhile, was down in eighth on the grid behind the two eight-cylinder Porsche 910s. An hour into the race, and it was advantage Ferrari, though one of the P4s wasn’t leading the race. The Chaparral in the hands of Spence was at the head of the leaderboard, but Amon held second head of the best-placed Porsche, the 910 McLaren shared with Jo Siffert. Halfway through the race, Stewart led after Phil Hill brought the Chevrolet-engined Chaparral in to the pits to hand back to Spence, but the Ferrari was due a pit stop that dropped it down to third. That became second when the Siffert/ McLaren Porsche stopped for fuel and new brake pads. It was now advantage Ferrari in the championship battle, though Chaparral was slowly tightening its stranglehold on victory. There was one final twist in the tale, however: the Ferrari would need to make one final pit stop. Amon came into the pits in the closing stages and took on 26 seconds’ worth of fuel. Second position ahead of the Porsche was secure. So much so that Porsche motorsport boss Huschke von Hanstein strode down the pit lane to congratulate Ferrari team manager Franco Lini before the chequered flag had fallen. The P4 had completed the job for which it was designed. Ferrari was world champion again.

From left, Stewart and Amon conquer the world title after a difficult race. Note the window that was torn off during a pit stop to allow the drivers to breathe.

Monna Lisa 145

The classic V12 Ferrari and the exhaust pipe system of the 330 P4 #0858 which, in race configuration, produced 450 horsepower. On the left, the harmonious tapering of the rear and the driver’s seat on the right, with gearshift lever also on the right.


330 P4. How and why? The famous image of the three Ferraris crossing the finish line together at the 1967 24 Hours of Daytona 1967 is by and large considered the defining moment of the Ferrari 330 P4. In actual fact, the only P4 at Daytona was the one driven by Parkes and Scarfiotti which came second behind the P3 with the P4 engine driven by Amon and Bandini while in third position, although very similar, was a 412P driven by Rodriguez and Guichet. However, that image sparked conversations about the Ferrari P3/P4 hattrick leaving the boundaries between the models somewhat misty. In reality, as confirmed by the official Ferrari press release, the P4 was a completely new car in as much as the chassis, tubes and parts of the structural sheet metal also used for the bodywork were all new, as was the three-valve, 60 degree V12 engine with 3967.44cc, 11:1 compression ratio producing

450 horsepower. Also new was the complex exhaust system and the bodywork that had been studied in the wind tunnel under the direction of the engineer Edmondo Casoli, the man behind the styling, through his aerodynamic studies, of the ’64 GTO, LM, and Dino 206. Studies that turned out to be extremely effective because, in addition to its superlative performance, the P4 masterfully crafted by Carrozzeria Drogo of Modena, is without question one of the most seductive cars in the history of the automobile. The P4 that raced at Daytona, chassis #0856 was flanked for the International Sports Prototype Championship, by #0858, completed in December ’66 and the star of our photo shoot, and by #0860. And it was #0858 that had the honour of winning the title at Brands Hatch, on July 30, with Stewart and Amon behind the wheel, as Gary Watkins recounts in this issue.

However in August that same year, at the request of Ferrari North America who were interested in the Can Am championship, the two “fresher” cars were stripped of their bodywork and transformed into spyders for this series where, to be honest, they failed to excel against the powerful cars with big American engines. What happened to the bodywork? The current owner, several years ago, discovered, engine covers, doors and the magnificent set of the original exhausts of a P4 in a Modena workshop. Irresistible, like a sculpture, and so he acquired them. When chassis #0858 Can Am, recently certified by Ferrari Classiche, came onto the auction market in 2010 the miracle of returning it to its original condition suddenly materialized. And this is exactly what happened: bought, completely restored and completed with the original pieces, the Ferrari 330 P4 is now back and is just waiting reunite with Stewart and Amon once again to relive the glory of that hard-fought world title.

Monna Lisa 147

Two faces of the same profile. This motor racing icon competed in the 1967 season only and was then rebodied to participate in Can-Am races


Monna Lisa 149


The more things change The Brave New World of social media has opened great opportunities for the old car community. While keeping the previous opportunities as valid as ever. by Dale Drinnon

Yesterday and today. The young students of Imperial College, armed with a smartphone for social media and the James and Browne from 1902, with which they participated in the London to Brighton Veteran Car Run.

The more things change 151

Student Matthew Homburg, alum Tom Yard and current Club Chair Barty Pitt crank Bo to life for a test run. Below, clipping from Imperial student newspaper.


arry J. Lawson would have loved the smartphone. When he established in November 1896 what has officially evolved into the London to Brighton Veteran Car Run, as a PR celebration of his almost single-handed overturning of Britain’s maximum four miles-per-hour speed limit, he’d spread his reformist message quite effectively the old-fashioned way. He charmed and cajoled, face-to-face, the country’s politicians, aristocrats, celebs, business leaders, journos and editors, the full set of decision-makers and “influencers” in the analogue era. If he’d had instant access to all of humanity in the palm of his hand, who knows, he might have talked his way onto the British throne. 152 YOUNG COLLECTORS

route laid by Mr Lawson. He called it then The Emancipation Run; we typically call it now simply the Brighton Run. Either way, it’s the oldest motoring event, worldwide, going on in various forms and, a few interruptions notwithstanding, ever since November 1896. Then again, Harry was also a con-man and a thief, bent on cornering the UK auto market by any means available, who eventually served jail time for it. While the endless masses of smartphone owners snapping and posting away at the 2019 event are only bent on sharing their enthusiasm for transport more than a century old and nonetheless chugging resolutely down the same 60-mile

And it has to bode well for the old car hobby that so many of those smartphones are wielded by people quite likely younger than the last engine rebuild on most of the vehicles present. In a period when social media has become the dominant form of peer-to-peer info sharing, no matter what our successors do with old cars they’re far more likely to have their introductory exposure online than in

media of the traditional print persuasion. Most of those young posters, of course, are enjoying the Run strictly as spectators; buying, maintaining and operating machinery that meets the pre-1905 eligibility cut-off tends to be a tall order for those just reaching automotive age. But a 60-mile public road course offers endless photo-ops, all of them up close and personal, and totally free of charge. Others will experience the Run first-hand, riding along with family or friends, like 20-something Instagram-user Anna, visiting from Warsaw

and a lucky passenger on one of the day’s most illustrious cars, the 1900 Daimler Type A of John Worth. Aside from belonging to a pioneering and respected brand, this particular Daimler is essentially the sister car to a 1900 Type A secured by the Prince of Wales as the Royal Family’s first automobile, living yet in the Queens’ garage, and is of such impeccable credentials as to reportedly be the pattern by which the royal example was restored in 1977.

There’s also a luscious touch of irony attached: despite owning the Daimler UK manufacturing franchise at the time, Harry J. himself didn’t drive one in that premier Brighton journey. As he was infinitely better at talking than doing, production had lagged far behind, and he made the trip in a Panhard et Levassor. Still, younger entrants do participate directly, in a number of ways. Callum Mate, 17, and Ollie Wentworth, 26 (active on both Twitter and Instagram), are sharing a strikingly relevant piece of Veteran transportation. It’s an electric-pro-

Clock wise: entrants on public display prior to event, along London’s prestigious Regent Street; Anna and the immaculate 1900 Daimler Type A and 17-year-old Callum Mate’s first drive was with a Model T Ford.

The more things change 153


Leaving behind Wellington Arch and Buckingham Palace, participants cross the Thames on their way towards Brighton.

pelled Columbia from 1902, made in Hartford, Connecticut, USA, and owned by Bernard Holmes, a truly dedicated British enthusiast and collector who runs a number of motoring outreach activities for young people and the public at large through his charitable foundation at Bernard’s Farm. Callum’s first ever motorcar drive, in fact, was under the auspices of that concern, aged 10 years, at the wheel of a Ford Model T. Holmes furthermore regularly enters multiple cars for deserving beginners in the Run, and his generosity was recognized with this year’s Peter Foubister Award, given annually by organizers, The Royal Automobile Club, for encouraging the next generation. And while there are no participant honours for finishing order or elapsed times, beyond a simple “congrats, you made it through” badge, Ollie and Callum reached Brighton only 3.8mph off their 12mph projected average, including downtime for power-delivery issues. That

may not sound remarkable, but a significant proportion of the 425-car field didn’t match it, regardless of any experience advantages. Then again, maybe the advantage actually fell to the newcomers – with their smartphones, they could video chat with the tech experts back at base camp for advice during that downtime and, if needed, even show them live scenes of the specific widgets in question. One notable team, however, could serve as the very template for Embracing the Future while Respecting the Past, with all the quintessentially British tongue-in-cheek that implies. For nearly a century, the Veteran Vehicle Motor Club at Imperial College London, home to one of Britain’s (and the world’s) foremost engineering programme, has joined the annual pilgrimage to Brighton using “Bo”, short for Boanerges, quoted in the Gospel of Mark as the name “Sons of Thunder” given by Jesus to his preachers James and John. In their college blazers and top hats, the student crews have made Bo possibly the world’s

The more things change 155

most photographed Veteran. The original Bo, now called Old Bo by the well clued-up, was a 1908 Rover, declared Run-ineligible in 1924 due to adoption of the pre-1905 requirement. In the hallowed tradition of student unrest from time immemorial, it was driven to 10 Downing Street, disabled by means of gravel in the gearbox, and abandoned in protest of some contentious prime ministerial shenanigans. The current Bo, sometimes also called Bojangles, was bought 10 years later; it’s a 1902 James and Browne, registered AW 38, one of only two examples thought to survive from that tiny London automaker. Bo in theory makes nine horsepower from his two-cylinder, 2.5-ish litre petrol engine. In reality, that’s based on the archaic taxable-power rating system, calculated solely from bore and stroke proportions, and Bo needs considerable human assistance on the steeper hills. More to the point, Bojangles is likely the only London to Brighton regular with his own Facebook page (visit him at Bo’ AW38) which serves


as a news source for the programme and its participants, and no doubt a strong recruiting tool for new club members. It should be a valuable tool for sustaining the interest of old club members as well, and current Chair of the VVMC (otherwise known as “Team Bo”), third-year engineering student Barty Pitt, says the team benefits greatly from alumni support. Some of this is expressed in direct economic terms, with the funds donated by alums specifically for Bo’s upkeep and repairs. Probably just as important, though, is the hands-on paying-it-forward of the former students, much in evidence during last-minute prep at the club garage on the Saturday before Sunday morning’s starting flag, where some clever future engineers learn greatly about the practical application of engineering science. A steady stream of past team members circulate through, offering mechanical advice from prior experience, or some extra muscle with the heavy lifting, or just a few words of encouragement. Many will

later also help with the publicity efforts, via postings on Bo’s Facebook page or on their own assorted accounts and, of course those who follow behind with a Land Rover full of tools and spares come in quite handy when the exhaust comes loose half-way to Brighton. One suspects, too, that some of them might stick around for the inevitable post-Run pub dinner on the Sunday night. Which, much like Barty’s policy of weekly member ride-alongs and pub outings for everyone, regardless of involvement level, or the Imperial alumni pay-forwards, or Bernard Holmes’ open-door days to all with an interest, is rather the point of the whole thing. Social media has a wonderful function in sparking enthusiasm, but it works best when joined with enthusiasm shared face-to-face, one-onone and, most especially, generation-to-generation. Harry John Lawson was no saint, but he understood that, and he understood the human heart, long before it was filtered through the World Wide Web.

Team Bo ends a successful Brighton Run, as Barty put it, just in time for a nice pub lunch. Left: Problems? Fixed, in the charming setting of the English countryside.

The more things change 157

Young, different passi



ons, same enthusiasm


SILVIA Young, different passions, same enthusiasm 159

Ronnie Kessel, graduate in Management and Administration, a great passion for racing and classics, leads his dealership of Lugano, Zug and St. Moritz with the spirit and the rigour of a team principal.

Ronnie: The entrepreneur It all started with his father’s Alfa Romeo Giulia GTA 1600, around 10 years ago. From when Ronnie drove it for the very first time, he understood that classic cars had a soul and interesting stories to tell! You don’t really get the present, if you don’t go through the past first! Ronnie started racing at the age of 16 in the Ferrari GT world by setting the record of being the youngest driver ever to enter an official competition with The Prancing Horse. However, his racing career didn’t last for long as life’s circumstances required him to report for duty. Coming from a “racing family” allows him to live his hobby working in it. In the earlier days, Ronnie’s father raced in F1: it was in 1976 and 1977 … the years where “sex was safe and racing was dangerous”! After his racing career, he decided to start his own dealership: Alfa Romeo and Lamborghini at first, Ferrari afterwards. In 2010, he passed away, and Ronnie, who was 22 years old at that time, found 160 YOUNG COLLECTORS

himself with a “car lover’s playground” to manage! It certainly wasn’t an easy “task”, but thanks to passion (and very loyal colleagues) he managed to “keep the ball rolling”! Today Kessel Automotive Group counts 120 employees and is based in Lugano and Zug. The 3 main pillars of it are the dealership (Ferrari, Maserati, Bentley, Pagani), the classic department (trading & restoration) and the racing team (Ferrari Challenge & GT categories). Classic cars are definitely going to be a growing market. Given all the “new technologies”, the definition of classic car is about to commute to a wider meaning: soon, the terminology of “classic” will no longer represent the “older cars” but the “classic combustion engines” category. Ronnie’s goal is to contribute by bringing people closer to this “classic market”. In fact, this world shouldn’t be accessible only by very wealthy people; instead, everyone should be able to “have a taste of it”. As Bill Gates says: “Ferrari and philanthropy go very well together!” Speculation is a nega-

tive aspect, as an antagonist of appreciation: the first is fake and market-driven while the second one is healthy and product-driven. As with every desirable thing, good-quality cars increase in price over time but often the market is drugged from “actors” behaving like they were in the stock exchange. The aspect that Ronnie loves more is diversity! If all the cars were the same, why would one own more? Each one has its own DNA made from hundreds of chromosomes (not only 46!). Beside the ones he inherited from his father, the first personal classic car was a Lancia 037 “Stradale” (which I still have) – the one able to convey the strongest emotions. Fast, light and very dynamic, it’s capable of acclimatising to all-terrain and weather conditions by capturing the attention and receiving the applause from both children and grown-ups! Ronnie does also have a secret wish: racing the Monaco GP Historic with his father’s Brabham BT44 F1 car! His daily car? A smart “for two” … modified … of course!

Alex: The do it yourselfer “As a young driver, I was looking for a small campervan to go surfing wherever I wanted in Italy and abroad. By chance I came across an old converted Volkswagen van. It was a 1965 Bus T1 from the British company Dormobile. Luckily the owner had kept the original furniture inside, so I started restoring it and slowly became more and more passionate about the vehicle whose simplicity is, in my mind, pure genius. Over the next few years I racked up many miles with my van both in Italy and on the Atlantic coasts of France, Spain and Portugal. The more miles I travelled, the more I fell in love with my Dormobile and its kitchen, pop-up roof and 4 beds. The freedom to stop off anywhere and the practicality of such a small vehicle is absolute perfection for a surfer. It’s not a coincidence that the VW Bus has always been the vehicle most used by surfers all over the world.” And this is how Alex, PR for the Ducati Pramac MotoGP Team, a graduate

in Business Administration from Cleveland State University, and an experienced surfer discovered his passion for classic cars and motorcycles that he buys, often in America, and personally restores for his small personal museum. His first bike was a 1950 Guzzi 500 Astore sidecar. “It’s a lot of fun though it’s quite long and challenging if, like me, you take care of everything from the mechanics to the bodywork. The satisfaction of riding a restored bike or car is very much because when you do everything yourself you can really appreciate the restored bike or car because you discover every single detail and solutions used by the people who conceived, designed and built it.” Alex uses many of his vehicles (“unfortunately I can’t use them all...”), mostly his 1963 Volkswagen T1 PickUp because it is a work vehicle and can be used for many different tasks and the 1953 Guzzi Falcone Sport 500 (“the horizontal single-cylinder Guzzi with external flywheel al-

ways delivers an incredible riding experience”). The Italian bureaucracy, for paperwork and registration of vehicles – it’s a real nightmare. But there’s also the pleasure: “Going out to look for spare parts at the markets or in old workshops or traders is a bit like a treasure hunt.” The kind of hunt that recently gave rise to the perfect nut-and-bolt restoration of a magnificent Volkswagen van – a 1953 Westfalia, found in Arizona. Alex is critical of the race towards electric cars: “How can you say it’s zero emissions when the electricity used to charge the batteries is produced from coal, oil or nuclear power plants… Hydrogen produced from renewable sources is the right fuel for the future even for vintage vehicles, especially for motorcycles that cannot physically carry very heavy and bulky batteries. Amongst the many changes that will save us, we should place some hope in hydrogen.”

Conquered by a passion for surfing in America, where he graduated, Alex Ghini personally restores his cars and motorcycles with a weakness – as is normal for a surfer – for Volkswagen vans, which he uses regularly.

Young, different passions, same enthusiasm 161

Henry Fletcher tackles classic car races with the perfect English style that combines car care perfection with the determination to win. For him, all cars, including classics, must be driven and, if they are racing cars, raced on the track.

Henry: The Driver As clearly illustrated by the case of Henry Fletcher, winner of the 2019 FIA Masters Historic Formula One Pre-1978 Championship, passion is not the prerogative of any particular age group. Fletcher’s fascination with engines started way back. In fact, his earliest memories are linked to cars, namely the ones in his father’s collection, which included prestigious models like the Ferrari 250 Lusso, the Bentley R Type Continental, and the Frazer-Nash Le Mans. At just 7 years of age, when asked what he really wanted to do when he grew up, he replied “race at Le Mans”. This, too, was perhaps his dad’s “fault”, given that Fletcher’s father had once taken his young son for a spin in a Chevron B16 on the Knockhill circuit. Henry’s is a visceral passion fed by the pleasure and excitement of being at the wheel of cars chosen for their drivability, but also their aesthetic beauty; it is also born of an attraction 162 YOUNG COLLECTORS

for a period whose competitions are today recalled as magical events with a mystical aura about them. Today, Henry Fletcher, always in pursuit of the adrenaline rush and feeling of being alive that few truly experience, participates in the FIA Historic F1, in his 1976 March 761, and races the Chevron B16 and B24 prototypes. In so doing, he brings those 1970s exploits to life again. He admits to having some reservations about today’s classic car world, believing that vehicles should be purchased to be used and enjoyed, rather than kept in garages as an investment, and brought out only occasionally for concours d’élégance events: that is “something I have never really understood. Yes, of course, we are talking about beautiful objects, but they are meant to be driven. That is what they were designed for, not simply to win prizes or be kept clean and shiny!” The road cars he prefers are those built between 1980 and 2000. The first car he bought himself was

a 1995 Porsche 993 RS, which he replaced a few years later with a 1996 993 GT2. The fact that his everyday car is a BMW E39 530i with manual transmission shows that this is a man who wants an authentic driving experience, without filters. He still has the Ferrari F40 he bought from his father, which he looks after like a daughter. When he describes it as his ultimate pleasure, we can only wonder whether he is thinking back to the occasion, just after the delivery of the car in 1990, when his father came to fetch him from school in it: what an amazing ride home for an 11-year-old boy! For Henry, classic cars should still be synonymous with adventures: travelling with friends, getting lost and discovering new places. He will certainly be taking part in the Peking to Paris rally and the Le Mans Classic: “racing along the Mulsanne Straight will be amazing”. “If only I could race every weekend,” he ends – a simple remark that encapsulates his whole philosophy.

Silvia: The collector My father, Luciano, put together a large part of this collection; he took me around the world to visit industries and museums and what seemed to me like a beautiful game then became my life. My job is the director of the museum in Villafranca di Verona, but my passion is driving vintage cars and above all the opportunity to study the history of the brands and the men who accompanied the car to where it is today. My museum is now an academy of culture and good taste. I remember feeling ashamed when, just after I got my driving licence, I went to a disco with friends driving a 1963 Cisitalia Abarth 850GT. I didn’t understand that my father wanted me to fall in love with vintage cars. He knew that my future would be the museum. Then I started doing regularity races with a 1953 Fiat Colli Sport – what a thrill! I haven’t stopped driving classic cars. The memory of Italian films such as La Dolce Vita

by Fellini often leads me to use a magnificent 1960 Maserati 3500 GT Spider Vignale. One of the things that cemented my passion was actually taking care of the maintenance and polishing them. Going out with friends, I soon realized I was not the only one with a classic car. We felt they were ours because we made them work; we did everything, including maintenance. Today, young people are passionate but do not feed their passion by working and pampering their cars. For my future, thanks to the museum and the many initiatives we undertake, my goal is to continue to convey the message of creativity, invention and passion that historical cars bring with them. Regrettably, not all the cars on the road today are exciting. Not too long ago, this wasn’t the case. This is why my passion is to drive, not to be driven by cars, to feel their technical characteristics, even the pleasure of some of their flaws which I feel goes a long way to making them

more human! My dream for the city of Juliet and the Arena is to help tourists who come to visit the museum understand the passion behind this attraction. Now they are passionate after they enter. My goal is to transmit the passion and excitement of the story written by my father, who I miss tremendously, and that I have the privilege of continuing. Classic cars are messages of culture on an international scale which need to be told through their stories. The younger generations shouldn’t see them as mere curiosities but as chapters of an extraordinary story. We are responsible for passing these stories on. My entrepreneurial experience, the vice-presidency of Museimpresa for the international promotion of Italian heritage, and the delegation for Tourism by the Verona Chamber of Commerce, are all important channels for the energy I put into continuing to develop the museum my father left me. I know he’s keeping an eye on me from wherever he is today and that he’s happy when I do things well…

Silvia Nicolis curates, with love and absolute dedication, the magnificent museum that collects cars and memorabilia that trace the entire history of the twentieth century. To find out more:

Young, different passions, same enthusiasm 163


J-Duck, the soul of the missing Jota There are collectors who buy cars for the Concours d’ElÊgance, others who wish to participate in rallies or create their own private museums. Tamotsu Akama, in Japan, uses them to convey his passion for collectible cars to the younger generations. A magnificent story of sensitivity and culture. One to discover and imitate. by Shinichi Ekko

J-Duck, the soul of the missing Jota 165


here is an explanation for everything. And yet what explanation can there be for the fact that the Lamborghini Jota, the Miura created exclusively for competitions which never raced and was quickly destroyed, is better known in Japan than in Italy, the country where the Miura was born? For an explanation, you have to start with a Japanese enthusiast, Tamotsu Akama, an entrepreneur from Tokyo, born in 1966 who reached adolescence in the late 70’s.

In Japan there was a unique supercar boom and many kids got to know about high performance sports cars through popular Japanese cartoons. As Akama’s passion grew, he moved from cartoons to real European Gran tourism models, and, in particular, the Italians. 166 YOUNG COLLECTORS

This love became passion when, despite not having the moral support of his family who considered his cars his “toys”, he purchased… a Lamborghini Countach Anniversary.

You should know that Akama lost his older brother when he was a teenager. This left a void in him that always led him to think that his brother’s soul was still alive.

From that moment he never stopped: he once drove thousands of miles in Europe looking for the ones he really wanted. A Ferrari 512BB, a Lamborghini Urraco then the Countach LP400S, the Maserati Merak, the DeTomaso Pantera GTS and many more besides.

He doesn’t dare to tell others about it but when he read an article on the history of Lamborghini Miura Jota, he was quite impressed. He thought of his big brother.

Over the years he started wondering how his passion could be passed on to the next generation. The younger generations have less and less interest in cars these days. His family also showed no interest in his collection.

The Lamborghini Miura Jota was a unique racing prototype car. Bob Wallace, who was a passionate race car engineer and chief test driver, persuaded Ferrucio Lamborghini to let him create the Jota with some junk parts from the Lamborghini Miura after working hours. Its looks like a Miura but it was a real racing car inside and that was the only one to exist.

The custom truck set up by Tamotsu Akama to transport and display his cars at events dedicated to children.

Tamotsu Akama, together with the exhibition, organizes recreational activities related to collectible cars and the history of J-Duck.

Bob put all his energy into making the Jota but Ferruccio was against racing and banned its use in races. So, the Jota ended up being sold and, sadly, was completely destroyed in an accident shortly afterwards. Akama was impressed by the latter part of this story. The engine from the Jota was transplanted into the MiuraSV. That’s how MiuraSV with the soul of Jota was born. His feelings for his late brother overlapped with the soul of Jota living in the MiuraSV. Because he felt his brother’s soul was still alive. He wanted to tell this amazing story to children and hopefully kindle their interest in cars as well. How about making a picture book? The Jota’s front end is kind of square-jawed and looks very much like a duck. Yes, it is “Jay the duck(J-Duck)”. J-Duck, the soul of the missing Jota 167

Things happened quickly after he had the idea. He wrote a story for a picture book and published it under the title “J-Duck”. Quite a few people responded to his idea and supported the project. He even


had a song written for it. This is how the J-Duck project got rolling. And that was just the beginning: how did Akama expand his project to teach the beauty of cars and the pleasure of driving them to children through his picture book? Firstly, he ordered a brand-new, one-off car transporter to show beautiful Italian super cars from the 1970’s to children anywhere and anytime. It can hold four from his collection and is equipped with electrically operated flaps on both sides. And here it is! The “J-Duck super cars mobile museum” is now open. As he is very methodical, he has also tried to get a special driver licence for these big trucks to move the transporter by himself. Akama is very happy to drive the transporter to public squares, special support schools,

elementary schools and show his collection. Please note that he named his project “GGF-T” by putting in order the initials of the car designers: Giugiaro, Gandini, Fiorvanti, Tajarda. That’s amazing! More than a few children have enjoyed his “mini super cars museum” visit, and he has already taken it to a social welfare centre in the northern area of Tokyo, an elementary school located at Sendai-city in Akami’s home town and a public space near Imperial Palace where a number of mothers and children gathered around it. They were mesmerized by the rare and beautiful super cars they had never seen before. Akama also arranged several activities for them, such as storytelling the J-Duck picture book, and colouring several J-Duck character

drawings. For the older children, he prepared a “supercar figure rubber eraser game” which was a kind of table game that Japanese children became addicted to at schools behind their teacher’s back during the late 1970’s. “Oops”, on the other hand, nostalgic fathers may also go crazy for the game too! Yes, this is the atmosphere Akama is aiming for. Thanks to Akami’s “supercar enlightenment activities”, conversations between parents and their children can gradually increase. Of course, several kinds of media were featured at Akama’s activities, and of-

fers for the J-Duck supercar mobile museum are increasing from all over Japan. And, let’s not forget: J-Duck is the Jota, the Miura that disappeared too early but left her soul, her V12 engine, for the SV.

Car seduction, mode l games and romantic story of J-Duck who plays one of the legendary Italian cars: the Miura Jota.

Now do you understand why the Jota is better known in Japan than in Europe?

J-Duck, the soul of the missing Jota 169


An analytical, data-driven study of the classic car world, focused on three dimensions. In the 2020 Cockpit section of The Key, the TCCT Market Intelligence team has developed three interesting and very topical themes. The first one looked at the data on the Top 100 collectors and their collections. Thanks to the open and spontaneous collaboration of a number of collectors and experts, this data allowed us to enrich the rankings of the world’s Top 100 collectors, with 12 new entries, and also to complete the size of many existing collections. Separately, an accurate check on the current values of the cars was carried out, based on the official data of the major auctions and expert evaluations. The total number of cars that make up the Top 100 collections now exceeds 5,000 vehicles. Compared to 2019, the value of these collections has remained fundamentally the same, at just over $10 billion. However, the increase in the number cars went on to reduce their average value. Nevertheless, it would be erroneous to transform this figure into a proportional


reduction in market value. This depends on the types of cars in the latest collections to enter the list and the completions made. In any case, the difficulty of the moment linked to uncertainties that a year ago would have been unimaginable is an objective reality. For this reason, in parallel, the TCCT team, in the comments on the following analysis, emphasises the trend of the auction markets, which highlights how, even with declining values, sales are encouraging and provide a number of opportunities, especially for young people, to take advantage of some exceptional deals with affordable models, often sold without reserve. The first part of our Cockpit section explores these issues. For the second part of the cockpit section, we have conducted an international study on women, segmented into three categories: participants, active companions, and American and European women with a valid car licence.

For this last category, in collaboration with the international market research institute IPSOS, we have developed a global survey that is, to our knowledge, the most complete and significant survey ever conducted on the passion and interest of women for cars and classic cars. It is really surprising and motivating for the future to see the strong and heartfelt interest of women for the world of classic cars. The third part of this special chapter concerns the result of an in-depth Market Intelligence study commissioned by 1000 Miglia for TCCT to study the sporting, technical and economic prospects of what Enzo Ferrari called “The most beautiful race in the world”. The results obtained were very useful for the future development of the event. TCCT has the facilities and expertise to carry out Market Intelligence analyses in every sector of the world of classic cars and collectibles.

1 Collectors and collections: a reasoned analysis of the data of the Top 100 collections in the world and market trends.

Data and figures

2 A global survey focused on women, to understand their preferences, tastes and opinions on the current and future state of the classic car world.

She knows what she wants


What do 1000 Miglia participants love, want more of, and desire to change? What’s the best strategy for the future of this famous race? Many answers and ideas from an indepth study carried out by TCCT.

Intelligence and vision Cockpit -171-


Distribution of the Top 100 collections worldwide by geographical area





















Hong Kong






South Africa



Number of cars in the Top 100 collections by geographical area

Africa 30 Asia 300 Europe 1,700




Number of Cars

Americas 2,900

Africa 1% Asia 6% Europe 35%



Africa Americas 58%

57 of the greatest collectors listed in the 2020 Ranking lives in the United States. The data has small oscillations compared with previous years and confirms that this is the true kingdom of classic cars. For the rest of the Americas, Canada and Argentina have only four collectors in the Top 100. There is minimal penetration in Asia with just five collectors and Africa with just one. 33 are in Europe with Germany and Switzerland counting eight each.

A changing scenario Taking a photograph of a fast-moving world is an arduous task. 2020 has clearly been broken in half by the pandemic, and just how much longer it will take for us to put this unexpected turn of events behind us remains to be seen. The data proposed in the 2020 Cockpit by TCCT originates from the period before the -172- COCKPIT

The 2020 Ranking has led to a shift in the number of cars per region, with an increase in the Americas more as number than value, shifting from 67% in 2019 to 68% in 2020. Asia is also growing, while the number of cars in the Top 100 collections in Europe is decreasing, even if the decrease in value is limited to 3%.

world was brought to its knees by the health crisis, as well as from the first few months of limitations and lockdowns. As always, our intent is to provide an objective and realistic vision of the classic car universe. Indeed, our primary goal and the very mission that drives us forward is to guarantee the brightest future for the cultural heritage and passion that classic cars represent. TCCT’s team of specialists

worked with method and patience, contacting as many collectors and experts as possible to create an evidence-based comparison with the previous Cockpit published in 2019. We are truly grateful to everyone who provided us with their precious support in this endeavour and, in particular, to the many collectors who immediately grasped the importance of an instrument that allows us all to deepen our


Average number of cars per collection by geographical area

4 Distribution

of the value of the Top 100 collections by geographical area

Asia 61 7,000M



Europe 53




Americas 48











Africa 31

The number of Asian collections may be less but they contain an average of 61 cars per collection compared to 52 in Europe and 48 in the Americas. There is not always a correlation between the number of cars and their value. England is an example: the most important collections have a limited number of cars but they are of very high value.

knowledge of the market, and shared information regarding their personal collections. Thank you indeed. This research has led to important changes in the calculation base itself: in fact, 12 significant new collections have joined the list, some of them with a very large number of cars, which, in turn, has taken the total number of cars that constitute the 100 most important collections from just under

The value of the Top 100 collections in 2020 has not substantially changed compared to 2019 and exceeds $10 billion in total, while the most valuable collection, based on the prices updated to 2020 is worth $460 million. Please note that the number of cars registered in the 2020 collections is 5032, with an increase of around 20% over 2019. This implies that the average value per car is just over $2 million. The increase in the number of cars is due to both the continuous work of verifying the various realities of our survey and the invaluable collaboration with collectors and experts who provided the true consistency of many collections.

four thousand (3921), to just over five thousand (5032). The estimated aggregate value of the Top 100 collections, which has increased from $10 billion to $10.1 billion, remains broadly stable but, when this is compared to the number of cars, it actually lowers the average car price by 20% over 2019. This, it should be said, does not mean that the value of cars has fallen by this same percentage, but without ques-

tion, the phase we are going through makes corrections to the evaluations of individual models inevitable. This new reality allows us to make a series of reflections based on the results of the Top 100 collections. In parallel, it has also given us the opportunity to study market trends and related tendencies by analysing the auction values of similar cars by brand and price range from 2008 to 2020. Cockpit -173-


Distribution of the Top 100 collectors by age and geographical area



Number of cars in the Top 100 collections per country






Switzerland 360 Germany 69



14 26 19



Americas Below 50

6 13 5



60 - 69



70 - 79


by country

















Average Age

Unsurprisingly, the average age of 73 is somewhat high, with very few collectors under the age of 50: creating a large collection takes time and money – two aspects strongly related to the sector’s particular demographic. It should also be kept in mind that most of the great collections were created when car prices were significantly more affordable. Compared to the average over the previous two years, the average age has risen slightly (1.5 years).

6 Distribution


Hong Kong

Europe 50 - 59


Netherlands 250

of the value of the Top 100 collections

Number (#)



Top 10 Countries















Hong Kong















Other Total





$7B $6B $5B $4B

























Japan is one of the countries with very few collectors listed in the Top 100 rankings. Japan’s results are based on what can be ascertained about the contents of collections that are frequently not public or accessible. -174- COCKPIT

Compared to a significant increase in the number of cars in the USA due to the acquisition of large new collections and the identification of previously undetected cars, bringing the total there to 2804 vehicles, there has been a significant decrease in the number of cars in Italy, which now totals 692 cars compared to 902 in 2019 (from seven collectors to six in the Top 100). As well as in Great Britain, which has fallen to 70 cars from 103, with only four collectors in the Top 100 compared to seven in 2019, despite maintaining a very high overall value owing to the quality of the cars in the collections.

These are the main conclusions: The Top 100 collections: the United States of America confirms its absolute leadership in the world of collecting: 57 out of the Top 100 collections are located in the USA, three less than last year but signif icantly higher than the average. In fact, these collections account for roughly 66% of the overall value ($6 billion) compared to 64% in 2019. In addition to the 57 collections in the USA, two of the Top 100 collections can be found in Canada and a further two in Argentina. Europe as a whole is home to 33 out of the Top 100 collections but with a global value of just 22%. It’s interesting to note how the different styles of collecting across the globe directly impact the values and numbers of the collections themselves: there are some 980 cars in Italian and German collections combined, representing 7% of the overall value, while the 362 cars in Switzerland have a much higher aggregate value that reaches 9%.

The market and its effects on the data relating to the Top 100 collections. It would be inappropriate and ill-advised to draw conclusions in the midst of a pandemic that, for lack of events as well as for economic reasons, has heavily influenced the world of collecting. However, looking at the trends of international auctions during the most intense months of this pandemic, two things become clear: on the one hand, the market remains lively, both in terms of the percentages of cars sold in large auctions compared to the cars listed for sale (values between 60% and 75% that have reached up to 100% where cars were offered without reserve) as well as the commendable sales values achieved compared to catalogue estimates. It is also interesting to note that online auctions have yielded better-than-expected results. Having said that, this reality is quite distant from the models that make up the largest collections. In fact, very few high-value cars have been offered in recent months. The top lot of online auctions included: the class-winning Ferrari 575 GT1 Prodrive at Le Mans, which sold for $4,290,000, and the 275 GTB Long Nose, which sold for $3,080,000. In physical auctions, Bugatti dominated, with five lots amongst the

Source: TCCT Market Intelligence


2008-2020 trend of sales values at international auctions of pre-war models, curious and original cars and Youngtimers, compared to the general market trend

300 250 200 150 100 50 2008




2012 Pre-war

2013 Extravagant









Market Average

Countries from Asia and Africa are somewhat marginal with one or two most expensive: $12,600,000 for a Type 57 Sport and $ 10,400,000 for collections each listed in the rankings for a total of six. It should be noted, a Tipo 57 Atlante. Hardly negligible results and not too far from the for analytical transparency, that information relating to the collections in seven-digit targets of the models sitting at the very top of the market. Japan is often shrouded in confidentiality, meaning that our estimates, calculated on objective data, no doubt underestimate the weight of this This reality, as always in times of uncertainty, represents an opportuniparticular country that has a significant tradition in this field. ty for entry into the market, especially for new generations attracted by interesting but accessible cars. Over the years, new collectors will Collectors: it’s only natural that the average age of the world’s start to climb the charts and there will always be great moments to greatest collectors is high. There are many reasons for this: the time start. The one we’re going through right now is exactly that. required to achieve solid wealth, more free time and, something that cannot be ignored, the creation of large collections when car prices Looking at the indices elaborated by TCCT on the basis of the rewere much more affordable (until 2010). It must be said, however, sults from international auctions from 2008 to the present day, we that in more than one case the creator of the collection is flanked by can also see how pre-war models have become very interesting in or substituted by one of their children who shares the same pasterms of prices while still being a point of reference, as the Bugatti sion. What is certain, thanks also to the arrival of new and important sales clearly show. Even Ferraris, after the dizzy rise in prices, have collections, is that the number of over-70s has increased from 58 to returned to somewhat reasonable levels. From a young person’s per69 collectors. The average age of the Top one hundred collectors is 73 spective, it is also good to see how unusual and curious models are years old. Only 3 are between 40 and 50 years old but, as mentioned a fascinating draw towards this world, as is the case with the already above, this number could increase if family members involved in the established Youngtimers, whose average values continue to grow. In direct management of these collections were added. short, every situation has a silver lining. Cockpit -175-

Where are the 38 Ferrari 250 GTOs in the world?


in the USA



in the UK


in Switzerland


in Italy


in Spain


in Mexico


in Hong Kong

All GTOs produced Year





250 GTO



250 GTO



250 GTO



250 GTO



250 GTO



250 GTO-GD



250 GTO



250 GTO-GD



250 GTO



250 GTO-GD



250 GTO



250 GTO-GD



250 GTO



250 GTO-GD



250 GTO



250 GTO



250 GTO



250 GTO-GD



250 GTO



250 GTO



250 GTO



250 GTO



250 GTO



250 GTO



250 GTO



250 GTO



250 GTO-GD



250 GTO-GD



250 GTO



250 GTO



250 GTO



250 GTO



250 GTO



250 GTO



250 GTO 250 GTO





330 LM



330 LM

Ferrari 250 GTO 1962

Ferrari 250 GTO 1964

Ferrari 330 LMB 1962

According to factory documents there are 36 Ferrari GTOs in the ‘62 and ‘64 versions and two 330LM versions.

Cockpit 177

Ferrari 330 GTO 4561SA 1963


She knows what she wants. Let’s open our eyes: women want cars. They want to be behind the wheel, to be part of the action, to enjoy the pleasure of a classic car, with the right outfit and the right spirit: a spirit that takes pleasure from having fun, without fury and rivalry. If we want to look to the future of car collecting, we should look at women. As companions, of course, but above all behind the wheel, proud and happy to show their talent. The Key’s dossiers. Women, the car and classic cars The protagonists with three examples of today’s participants, divided between Concours d’Elegance, authentic race challenges and pure fun.

The co-protagonists by interviewing a sample of women who attend events in the company of companions and friends, discovering their interest and ambitions.

Women, cars and classics through scientific research, on a statistically representative sample of American and European driving licence holders, who told us how important the car is to the female universe and, more surprisingly, just how attracted women are to collectible cars.

She knows what she wants. -179-

The Pleasure of Beauty The protagonists by Duccio Lopresto


She knows what she wants. -181-

Anne Brockinton Lee a woman at the top of the classic car world

In the world of classic cars, there are different ways to participate. There are racers who drive and compete on circuits around the world, judges who play a leading role in the most important elegance competitions and then there are the collectors, who safeguard and preserve the true stars of this world, the cars, from generation to generation. Among the most representative, passionate and prominent women on the global collecting scene, we find Anne Brockinton Lee. Collector and trustee of the Robert M. Lee Automobile Collection, she has given continuity to Robert Lee’s magnificent collection, showing and presenting the cars at the best Concourse d’Elegance events the world across. This is an immensely positive factor for the world of car collecting, as it shows that women can and must be real players in this world, while at the same time contributing to the preservation of the heritage that is now in their hands. To Anne, the charm of a classic car lies mostly in the evolution of the car itself, design-wise and mechanically, from the early antiques through the classic post-war cars. She is particularly interested in and attracted to certain coach builders, one-offs, prototypes and show cars, especially those from the 1930’s, 1950’s and 1960’s. Many of the designs of the later cars are timeless and could almost pass for today’s modern cars. She drives all the cars in the collection and this is obviously great fun and a thrilling experience for her. Once you have mastered driving the very early antiques and vintage cars, you’re good. The only negative for her when driving them is “road traffic”. You have to know the cars’ limitations. She is now planning to participate in more rallies and tours around the world – her late husband, Bob, always said she was an “excellent driver”. Anne’s collection has received many awards and recognition over the past 30 years, includ182 COCKPIT

ing several Best in Class and Best of Show at the most important Concourse d’Elegance events. This is highly rewarding as she and her team take great pride in the ownership of and caring for these art forms. It is a big responsibility to be the custodian of a collectible-car. But the greatest satisfaction for her was surely winning Best of Show at Pebble Beach in 2009 with the 1937 Voll & Ruhrbeck Horch 853 Sport Cabriolet, which was meticulously researched and restored by her in-house restoration team in the US. Her passionate team continuously exercises, details, and repairs all the cars in the collection. She is proud of them and grateful for the way they respect, treasure and diligently care for these treasures. Talking about the negatives, her biggest disappointment in the Car World was missing Best of Show by 1/2 point with her 1938 Figoni & Falaschi Delahaye 165 Cabriolet. That was Anne’s first time presenting alone since her husband’s passing. Had the Delahaye brought home the coveted award, it would have been a great tribute to Bob, his vision and accomplishments as a car collector. When talking about car events, Anne loves all the US and European car shows that she has attended. Each is special in its very own way. Showing the cars from the Robert M. Lee Automobile Collection and sharing them with enthusiasts is incredibly rewarding for her. She likes to explain the history and provenance and unique features of each one. When doing so, she never lacks enthusiasm, as she is genuinely emotionally attached to all of her cars. But, most of all, she cherishes the many friends she has made through this hobby over the past 30+ years at the many car events and car auction houses. This hobby is a true passion, which she enjoys every day and loves unconditionally.

of the owners. A great deal of the importance of the car, after the design and mechanics, is its provenance. Auction prices certainly reflect that. These cars are bought and maintained by ardent collectors and each one’s particular ownership certainly has great value in the scope of this hobby. Car and owner go hand in hand. For her, classic car events should not be too crowded, as this could then take away the attention from the cars, the true stars of the show. Anne does not have the solution to involve the next generation of enthusiasts, but surely she is sharing so much passion, enthusiasm and love for these objects around the globe and promoting their cultural importance that her impact on this world, in particular as a woman, is enormous. “These collectible cars have a soul and, once you understand them, they either move you or they don’t.”, she believes. For Anne, the excitement never ends.

Anne Lee brings the magnificent cars

For Anne, both cars and owners play an equally significant role at events globally. While it’s true that shows are about the cars and their marques, you cannot dismiss the involvement

of her collection to international competitions.

She knows what she wants. -183-

She is a judge, driver, journalist and wine expert. Cici is the perfect participant at major events.


Cici Muldoon

extraordinary is the new normal

Can a single person get a PhD in Physics at Oxford, create a start-up that is recognized as one of the most successful enterprises in England, be appointed as an international judge and become PR Director of the International Judges Association, all this at a young age? The answer is yes, if your name is Cecilia Muldoon. “Cici” is in fact one of the most-loved personalities in the world of classic cars. While carrying out several business projects as an entrepreneur, which take up a lot of her time, she has also managed to leave her mark in the world of cars, a passion she has been cultivating since she was a little girl, thanks to her father Jaime. A love for cars lies mostly in the history of the object itself, as each car brings with it stories that can’t wait to be discovered. She is invited, as a judge, at the finest Concourses around the world, where every car has to be studied in detail. But she finds the charm of the car not just in its history, but also in the beauty of each line and proportion, which follow a specific function. It’s something that’s intended for a purpose and ends up being beautiful to our eyes. Also the complexity – those many thousands of individual parts that, once assembled together perfectly, form a fascinating object that inspires many emotions. “In the end, I think it’s a mixture of history, engineering, aesthetics and driving pleasure.” We couldn’t agree more. Driving a classic car requires commitment, though that’s one of the most amusing experiences, as you really have the feeling that it’s you driving the car and not the opposite. She often drives the family’s Ferrari 250 Vignale one-off, renamed “Principessa”. It’s not the easiest car to drive, but what a pleasure it is to take it out on the road and hear those 12 cylinders scream loudly, she tells us. The future of car events is uncertain, as new generations approach this market and great

changes affect this world. Cici knows this only too well and she is becoming an ambassador for the next generation of enthusiasts. “Some of the events are too commercial and too business-focused, and this takes some of the passion away, which in the long term makes them unattractive for the future generations.” The crucial point is to create something that is attractive to young people, the stars of the future. Concourse organizers need to work more on the format of their events, she believes. For Cici, they should make them more fun, dynamic, reminiscent of a party in order to get the young people more excited. A good example? The Zoute GP, which is a good mix of fun, great cars and serious judging. It’s not easy to involve the next generation, she continues, as the cars that can go to such events are expensive, and most young people do not have the money, or the space, to buy and keep these cars. It’s a very expensive hobby, but one that can evoke some very strong emotions. For Cici, her love of the automobile started when she put a car back together and she realized that it was a magical experience. That’s the key to involving young people: give them a taste of why we all love these objects so much, make them understand the engineering, the mechanics, and the history behind each car.

that’s truly fascinating. It’s like a big family you can trust”. That’s another aspect that should be taken into consideration: events should be more inclusive to newcomers, less exclusive and “limited” to a select few, so that young people and outsiders can have more opportunities to participate. Classic cars are one of Cici’s biggest passions, but in daily life she is a successful entrepreneur, who skilfully mixed her educational background with business. She created a company, called VeriVin, which developed a through-barrier spectroscopic analyser for wine, spirits and other complex liquids in sealed containers. VeriVin is creating a database with the optical fingerprints of millions of bottles of wine and spirits, allowing for bottles to be authenticated, characterised and monitored over time. For this, last year she won an award from the Institute of Physics, the proudest moment in her business career. Cici makes the extraordinary normal, both in her daily life as an entrepreneur with her inventions and in her passionate life as a classic car collector, international judge and expert. She is the living proof that “if you can dream it, you can make it”, as someone in Maranello once said.

Concourses are a thing that “outsiders” have trouble understanding, as they are very static and “they are becoming less appealing, while anything that involves racing, driving these cars is something that can catch young people’s attention far more, especially because you can share the experience and create a memory together.” She then tells us about her activity as judge at events like Pebble Beach, Cavallino, Salon Prive and more. Apart from the learning experience, which is invaluable, “the great thing about judging at Concourses is that you make friends from all around the world, people with such different backgrounds and with their own stories. And She knows what she wants. 185

Katarina Kyvalova an example of Passion

The preconception that classic motorsport is a thing for men is to be completely debunked. Women are more and more present in racing and are playing an always growing role in this sport. This is confirmed by the case of Katarina Kyvalova, a classic car collector and racing driver, who now runs successfully in both rally races and on track. Not only does she cultivate her passion on a professional level, but she contributes deeply to the spread of this passion to the outside. In fact, she founded an all-female racing driver crew a few years ago, which she called Bentley Belles, that raced for the first time at Benhafield’s 24, a historic first time for an all-female crew. Katarina has a history of successes behind her, such as a podium finish at the Goodwood Revival with Phil Keen, her co-driver, and a third place at Spa Six Hours. Why is she attracted so much by these cars? For her, each classic car has its own story, history and soul. That’s what makes them incredibly charming and easy to identify with. The other aspect that makes her so attached to them is the rarity and beauty of these objects. They are real art pieces that triggers so many different positive emotions, both while driving them and while looking at them. When she is racing or driving, she finds a very close connection between the driver and the car. It’s a magic moment that start turning the car key, goes through gear changing, double clutching, heel-and-toeing, dealing with big wheels and unpredictable brakes. Being in total control of the machine is what makes it truly unique. It’s surely demanding, but they give you an incredibly awarding feeling, she tells us. Of course, there are negative sides, such as the reliability or safety, fundamental aspects, especially in the classic car racing world, which is extremely competitive and can be very dangerous. A moment she will never forget? When she was driving her 4,5 L Bentley, without any seatbelts nor a roll bar, at the Le Mans Classic, at night, at full speed, down the Mulsanne Straight. Beautiful? yes. But how scary! Talking about 186 COCKPIT

events, Katharina always prefers those where you can see cars doing what they were actually build for - driving. Le Mans Classic, Monaco Historique and Goodwood Revival are her favorites, because besides seeing wonderful automobiles being raced in the right manner, there it feels like going back in time, living legendary moments of motorsports. This is what makes them truly magical. But Katharina is not only a racing driver. She also likes to show cars at Concourses. Her favorite? For sure, Concorso d’Eleganza di Villa d’Este. The intimate atmosphere, the wonderful and limited selection of cars, the spectacular venue make Villa d’Este a one-ofa-kind occasion. A must for every aficionado. On the other side, the events that she dislikes are those kinds of “showcase” events, which are too static. They tend to keep visitors or spectators on distance and, in a way, could transmit a wrong message to the outside. “Classic cars are part of a common heritage so they should be shared in the best possible way with others who have the same passion but aren’t as fortunate as us to to own or drive beautiful cars like we do”. Her opinion is quite strong on this topic. Someone says that at classic car events people should be invited, not cars. On this topic, she has different views. When talking about car rallies, Katarina believes that the focus should be mainly on people rather than on the entered cars. To bring the right people with the same interests, culture, background and approach to cars together creates a truly unique atmosphere, which is what we all hope for when attending such rallies. For example, she is organizing intimate private classic car rallies, where since inception, the main objective was to gather people who share the same level of enthusiasm for cars. A wonderful time to spend some time together, where the car selection is only secondary. It’s like being a in a big family. Talking about Concourses, she believes the opposite. Cars should be the protagonists as they have always been the main purpose of such events, independently from car owners. Katarina, apart from

racing old Bentleys on tracks around the world, is also a successful business woman, active in the property business. She is mostly satisfied when her clients are happy. If it is the seller, buyer or the tenants, when she sees her clients satisfied, it’s her biggest satisfaction. But, as we know, business doesn’t go without disappointments. Surely, she has experienced some in her career. When, for example, business partners let her down in some ways it’s very hard to accept. But this has to be taken into account when making business and she knows it very well. Katarina cares a lot about the future of the classic car world and she believes that to preserve the quality of events and to make them more attractive, there should be more focus on the quality than on the quantity, both of cars and people. The number of classic car events has been rapidly growing over the past years, so there should be rather less events but with a higher focus on the quality of displayed or driven cars, with attractive programs for everyone around the event. “Every classic car event should be a memorable experience worth joining or travel to”, Katharina confirms. Definitely, quality over quantity! As we mentioned at the beginning, the world of classic cars is men’s domain mainly, therefore is essential to make them more open and more attractive to women and to the younger generations. To achieve this objective we have to get them involved, educate them and share our passion in a very open way. An example? Organizing father/ son-only rallies, which need to be also mother/ daughter. A way to achieve this is, also, to let women or young generations get behind the wheel, let them experience what is it all about and, hopefully, the love for Classics catches on as it did many years ago with Katharina, when she got to drive a classic car for the very first time. A moment she will never forget. Thanks Katharina, for your passion and for being so important in promoting women in this world dominated by men.

Katarina is a real driver, she participates without fear in historical races.

She knows what she wants. -187-

Women eternal goddesses Co-protagonists today by Antonio Ghini


She knows what she wants. -189-

“The study of women is difficult...” sings the suitor in Die lustige Witwe (ndr. The Merry Widow) concluding with the famous phrase “Never will in body and soul man know woman”. The interviews we have carried out, in Europe and America, with 85 women who attend Classic car events together with their husbands and companions, fully confirm that it is indeed hard to study them. Above all, how much they are precious goddesses on the greens of the Concours d’Elegance, as much as they are on board the cars involved in regularity and even speed events. Within the panorama of events to be studied we also included non-competitive ones and, in this case, we scratched the rigorous role that emerges from many of the answers given to the questions in the questionnaire. In fact, if we were able to choose a single event for all of them, most would choose a relaxing one and not a competitive race! Curiously, it is precisely this result that allows us to understand the reason for an incredible consistency in the answers regarding the events that involve some form of ranking. Regardless of age, nationality and lifestyle, almost 90% would not forgo being there, more than 70% would not complain about any inconvenience from the cold, and rain and even fatigue would not be considered a problem: only in the case of rallies is fatigue indicated by 20% of the respondents. On the contrary, it turns out that it’s the regularity tests and the rallies that they consider the most enjoyable events, with as much as 70% confirming this fact compared with values of ​​around 50% for the Concours d’Elegance and events with speed trials. In this latter case it is clear that a little tension contributes towards dampening the feeling of pure pleasure. But what exactly is the true hidden role of women that an analysis of numbers would suggest? Without question they are people who “govern” the event as a whole. Even their eagerness to declare their satisfaction in dressing appropriately for the type of engagement remains within the average, while a characteristic that emerges is the 190 COCKPIT

1) With whom did you participate in the classic car events? Sons 4.00% Alone 9.00% Friends and others 23.00%

Partner 64.00%

2) What types of events have you attended over the past two years?

Non-competitive events 81% National Concours d'Elegance




International Concours d'Elegance


Event with high speed tents












3) For the events you attend, say how much you agree with these statements To meet people with the same passion




To meet new people


Feel like a protagonist


Nice to dress consistently at the event


Is tiring There are inconveniences: rain,…

26% 28% 32% 18% 16%

11% 9%

I'd rather not go there It's boring 0





Totally agree






Quite agree




Not much

Not at all

To meet people with the same passion












To meet new people






Feel like a protagonist






Nice to dress consistently at the event











Is tiring There are inconveniences: rain, wind, etc.






I'd rather not go there






It's boring






The sample of interviewees demonstrates the interest and passion of women for classic car events.

She knows what she wants. -191-

pleasure in making sure that those accompanying them are happy (53%), transmitting joy (56%) and not hiding a certain pride in being part of a situation in which they feel like stars. The feeling of pride (72%) clearly indicates how close they feel to the person who accompanies them while being the star, which is indicated between 40% and 50% by the respondents, has a double face: in Rallies and in races with speed trials this role belongs irredeemably to the person behind the wheel. Proof of this point can be found in the answer to the question on the interest in events exclusively for women: just 27% agree and just 17% of the younger respondents, while the most requested item is the possibility to give the person in the passenger seat a real role in events. Above all when it comes to driving: 37% look for this and 31% even more firmly - young women, in particular, with 44% - ask for gender equality. An equality which, in reality, exists but has a much higher potential than it has today, as confirmed by the Survey presented on the following pages. On this issue there is a clear confirmation, with very similar data compared to the much larger study conducted on women with a driving license: the desire to try out a Classic car simulator. None of the interviewees said they would not try it, some were hesitant and did not respond and 15% said they were not interested, with peaks among the oldest respondents. But 78% were ready for the experience and of these, three quarters were very enthusiastic, particularly the younger generations, of which 72% agreed. The sample is by no means significant, but the polls do not fear contradiction. Returning to the events for women who accompany their husbands and companions, the most prominent of the pleasurable situations is the opportunity to meet people who know each other and who share the same passion as well as the opportunity to meet new people. These values, depending on the type of event, vary between 75% and 60%.


4) In general, when you participate in a classic car event, what sensations do you feel ?

Emotion 72% Pride 72% Sense of freedom


Joy 65% Pleasure to make happy the person I'm with



















5) If they could choose an event to participate as a protagonist, which one would they choose? Youth




Not Competitive Event





Demanding Rally (Ex 1000 Miglia)









Basic Rally





Rally Raid





High Speed Race





No Answer





Important Concours d'Elegance

6) Are they in favor of women-only events? 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0


17% Yes



No, give a role also to those who accompany Total

Young Women



No, eqaul role men & women

Interpreting the atmosphere of the event is pleasure that applies to both men and women.

7) What kind of classic car would you like for use in leisure?

1950/60 Sport Model


1970/80 Sport Model


1950/60 Luxury


Pre War Sport Model


1970/80 Luxury Pre War Luxury 0

2% 1% 5






35 40





8) Would you try a classic car with a simulator? 60

Given their ambition to be behind the wheel in a role they have the opportunity to exploit all too little, we tried to understand which car they would prefer. The results are quite interesting: the absolute dream is a sports car from the 50s/60s, shared by 58% of the respondents, far exceeding the 19% who prefer the 70s/80s and the 8% who have a thing for pre-war vehicles (but how nice it is that some even think of those). Only 15% would choose a luxury model from the same era with an added curiosity: as much as 34% of the respondents said these were their favourites. They are less attracted by sports cars and more by pleasure and adventure, as shown by the 28% who are attracted to Rally Raids compared to poor numbers supporting the alternatives.

50 40 30 20 10 0



Yes with Yes with a enthusiasm little fear





Yes with fear of not being able

I am not interested

No, I wouldn't try it

I don't know

“The study of women is difficult…” we said. We would not say, hand on heart, that these results are definitive given the sample size of fewer than 100 respondents; we will have opportunities for new verifications, perhaps with larger samples, but several things have emerged and we should take them into account. Including which car to let them take the wheel of... “Women, women eternal goddesses”. She knows what she wants. 193

Living Energy

Women and Classic by Antonio Ghini


She knows what she wants. -195-

A representative sample of European and American motorists demonstrates not only the importance of the car for women, but above all their interest in the world of Classics. Looking towards the future of collecting, it would be unwise to underestimate their role as opinion leaders and potential stars. An IPSOS investigation for The Classic Car Trust.

a) For you, a car is above all (total answers – max 3)

63% 55%

A necessity

73% 58%

A must-have convenience

56% 61% 22%

Would those who think that 50% of American and European women with a driver’s license love cars and truly enjoy driving them, please raise your hand. Few think it, and even fewer say it for the simple reason that we humans tend to see things from our own jointed point of view. When this point of view is influenced by gender difference in a field in which men have always seen themselves as the “masters”, it becomes fatally misleading. Thinking about this and knowing how important the role of women is in bringing solidity to the world of classic and collectible cars, The Key asked IPSOS, the global leader in market research, to carry out a survey on a representative sample of randomly selected women who regularly drive a car in the United States, England, Germany, France, Italy and Switzerland. 1,100 interviews to understand just how much energy, enthusiasm and passion women have for this contemporary and important object, and measure to what extent their enthusiasm is all too hastily called into question. By way of initial example, just to give you a taste of the desire of the interviewees to play a central role in automobile experiences, we’d like to share the answers to the question about the possibility of driving a classic car with a driving simulator: as many as 60% of Americans and 53% of Europeans expressed no hesitation. Some of the respondents doubted they would be up to the challenge, but they were nevertheless ready to get behind the wheel. The data also shows, as might be expected, that the youngest respondents are those with the least inhibitions and that the over 55s are more cautious, but the reality is that practically all of the interviewees wanted to give it a try and have some fun. 196 COCKPIT


A pleasure

22% 13% 13%

A source of fun

13% 3% 3%

A status symbol

3% 5%

An obligation I could do without

5% 5% 8% 8%

A source of problems

8% 5% 4%

Other / Don't know

4% 0

10 Total










b) Agreement to statements about cars

62% I really like driving cars 58% 66% 59% I choose my car. I want it 53% to represent me 66% 55% I would love to drive a 49% sports car at least once 63% 48% Classic cars cause a lot of 60% pollution 33% 24% I'm interested in 24% motorsport 24% 0

10 Total

20 Europe







On average on total answers (base 1100 cases) Agreement

Don’t know


I really like driving cars




I choose my car, I want it to represent me




I would love to drive a sports car at least once




Classic cars cause a lot of pollution




I’m interested in motorsport




c) Agreement to statements about classic cars

d) If you had the opportunity to try a classic driving simulator, would you try it? 40

Classic cars require a lot 77% of money and 77% management, I don't… 77%

30 20










Definitely, I'd Definitely, but I would be I would be I wouldn't be love to I'd be a bit scared that I scared and interested in anxious wouldn't be would not try trying it able to do it, it

Owning and using a 63% classic car is a way to 60% stand out from the… 66%


55% I would love to drive a 49% classic car at least once 62%




Events of this kind, with 54% a classic car, are 54% definitely a great… 54%

Definitely, I’d love to



Definitely, but I’d be a bit anxious




I would be scared that I wouldn’t be able to do it




I would be scared and would not try it


I'm fascinated by classic 48% cars from the past 57% Men think that the world 45% of classic cars belongs to 46% them. This makes it… 43%

I would like to own a classic car









If well chosen, a classic 64% car can be a good 61% investment 68%





I wouldn’t be interested in trying it




Difficult to say, I do not know




e) If you were to own a classic car, which country would you like to come from?

34% 28%

America (USA)



UK, England












I would like to take part in regularity rallies for classic cars with...


I would like to take part in concours d'elegance events for classic..



17% 10 Total


Japan Other country











5% 10












America (USA)












UK, England

On average on total answers (base 1100 cases) Agreement


Don’t know












Other country




Classic cars require a lot of money and management, I don’t think I could afford it




If well chosen, a classic car can be a good investment




Owning and using a classic car is a way to stand out from the crowd




I would love to drive a classic car at least once




Events of this kind, with a classic car, are definitely a great opportunity to see new places




I’m fascinated by classic cars from the past




Men think that the world of classic belongs to them. This makes it difficult





I would like to own a classic car





I would like to take part in regularity rallies for classic cars with...





I would like to take part in concours d’elegance events for classic...


f) Have you ever attendet or participated in a vintage car event 40 30





Yes, several times






Yes, but only once



Total yes

68% Total



She knows what she wants. 197

It doesn’t take a sociologist to understand that women today feel very strongly about their equality towards the opposite sex. It is an acquired fact. However, in many fields it is not always possible for them to demonstrate it. The broad study commissioned by The Key, which starts from those women on the front line of participation – absolute parity shown – and then moves to those who follow the passion of their husbands and partners – happy, but in many cases resigned to a different role – and finally considers women drivers who do not have a relationship with the world of classic cars as defined by this specific research, unequivocally indicates that the female gender represents a formidable asset for the future of the passion for car collecting. The succession of questions of the survey administered to the sample group which gradually introduced, alongside the everyday car, the classic car, clearly shows that there are no real barriers between the two universes. At the same time, it turns out that in 11% of the families of the interviewees in Europe and in 13% of Americans, there are cars that can be classified as classics. In many cases these are merely old cars, but in others these are cars that have real collector value. The Americans often went so far as to indicate, with pragmatic pride, not just the make and model but also the year of manufacture. This fact alone suggests that potentially there is a dormant world of cars that could appear at events, perhaps even driven by women. But, without going so far, more than 10% of the women interviewed were aware of the existence of a world populated by cars from the past. Analysing the attitude towards the car, it is clear that the first answer is that the everyday car is a necessity (73% for Americans compared to 55% for Europeans) and an essential comfort (29% and 20% respectively). This means, bearing in mind that we are talking about the very first answer given, that 84% of European women and 93% of Americans fully understand how important the car is to them and express it without hesitation. But there is more: 35% of respondents, in this case in magical equality, feel that the car is a source of pleasure and fun. Too bad we don’t have the same data for men... it would be interest198 COCKPIT

ing to cross reference the curves for passion over time: how much of what men have been able to enjoy for years, often in a pretentious and selfish manner that unquestionably to demonstrate their natural power instinct, has now shifted over to women? It appears that women are no longer slaves to inhibitions and, on the contrary, aim to demonstrate that if they puts their minds to it, nothing can prevent them from being autonomous masters of a means of transport which is now very much their own. In short, just 8% of the interviewees answered “yes” to the precise question, “I don’t get any enjoyment out of them”.

good investment. 42% of Americans would like the opportunity to possess a classic car: well over 38% of Europeans feel the same way. But a note of caution: over 50% are fascinated by cars of the past and this is an important fact because it invades the territory of taste and overall look that classic cars can help confirm. Being different, out of the “pack” – 60% of Europeans with a particularly strong push from the younger generations and 66% of the Americans – highlights the growing trend to break away from social conformities that have been over exploited. The desire to drive a classic car is also very high: 55% on average,

The major differences that arise from the study are between American and European women: of those interviewed, 66% of Americans compared to 53% of Europeans declare that they choose their car because it represents them (sociological status symbol, rather than economic value, this will be confirmed once again when they talk about classic cars), although in the case of Europeans, young women are more sensitive to this issue. The same goes for the pleasure of driving, confirmed by the 66% of Americans and 58% of Europeans who agreed, a number strengthened by the answers to the question of whether they would like to drive a super sports car: 63% of Americans said yes compared to 49% of Europeans. More generally, another small indicator of how women are an intrinsic part of the world of engines: 24% declared that they were interested in Motor sport. Not bad! The in-depth analysis reveals a few surprises when the argument turned to classic cars: here the cultural difference is far more evident, even if the levels of interest and curiosity of the Europeans remain respectable. As many as 60% of the Europeans interviewed consider classics to be a source of pollution compared to just 33% of the Americans. Minimum prevalence of the Europeans also with regards the male assumption of being the custodians of both the reality and destinies of classic cars; 46% compared to 43% in agreement. Both Americans and Europeans complain about the excessive costs of these cars: 77% although 64% consider them to be a

A strong relationship.

with the Americans once again confirming that they have more petrol running through their veins than the Europeans: 62% compared to 49%. Equally divided, at 54%, is the appeal of discovering places and roads by driving a classic car, even if just 28% of Europeans – which is no small thing! are interested in competing in a real rally compared to the daredevil Americans, 42% of which were ready to set off. The Concours d’Elegance are less attractive and relatively known. Just 17% of those questions expressed an interest. The female stereotype of what a classic car is turns out to be quite interesting: the Americans have few doubts, the

classic car they would most like to possess is an American one (65%). From outside America, Italian and German cars prevail with 11% each, but they are a very distant second. For Europeans, the classic car is primarily English (27%) with Aston Martin, Rolls Royce, Jaguar and Bentley, which together triumph over their German and Italian rivals. The answers are however widely distributed and are affected by the fact that, while American respondents are somewhat familiar with classic car events (32%), Europeans are slightly more distant from them.

In conclusion, even if more detailed analyses show differences between the various European countries with French (23%) and Dutch (32%) women expressing the least interest in the car, and Italian (65%), German (45 %), British and Swiss (42 and 41%) women the most, in addition to the very solid 58% of Americans, we can now say with absolute certainty that women represent an extraordinarily vibrant energy which, if properly understood and appreciated, could go a long way towards strengthening the positive attitude regarding the universe of the automobile and its history. Women, eternal gods.

She knows what she wants. -199-


Intelligence and Vision

1000 Miglia commissioned TCCT to conduct an extensive Market Intelligence study to ensure the world’s most beautiful race fully understands how to successfully combine the precious values of the past with the expectations of those who, from around the world, know it and love it, and those about to experience it for the very first time. by Antonio Ghini

An image, a symbol: the 1000 Miglia is an exhilarating contemporary Grand Tour that allows you to cross the breathtaking Italian countryside with legendary cars.

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The market intelligence report performed by TCCT for 1000 Miglia analyses, over the course of 140 pages, both the expectations and the realities experienced by participants and is a professional tool to identify a better future for the event.


hen you are given the responsibility of managing the world’s most coveted classic car event, it’s very easy to fall into the temptation of resting on one’s laurels, perhaps in slippers, while the aspiring participants fight amongst themselves in the hope of being selected. We’re talking (of course) about the 1000 Miglia, the race that attracts tens of thousands of people year after year, who eagerly await for the spectacle to pass along the ageless streets of the event to celebrate both the cars and the participants, with its contemporary Grand Tour charm that allows us all – on board cars of 202 COCKPIT

an epic past – to discover the many wonders of Italy that are normally impossible to reach if not on foot. The 1000 Miglia, which gives participants the thrill of feeling like drivers of an era when races took place on public roads that were transformed into race tracks, is truly unique. An unforgettable experience for those who participate, which subsequently transforms into an unbridled desire to return. Faced with this situation, and there could be many other reasons to justify participating, Alberto Piantoni, Chief Executive Officer of 1000 Miglia Srl, does not need many words to make

us forget the suggestion that the organizers in Brescia are wearing slippers paid for by their success: “I am well aware of the responsibility I have towards the 1000 Miglia brand”, he says in a calm and unruffled voice, as befits his character. The response has two very clear and significant consequences: the first is that it is the responsibility of the 1000 Miglia brand to keep the magic of a legendary event alive and contemporary. He is only too aware, therefore, that this is the unwavering standpoint from which many decisions are to be made year after year, aimed at guaranteeing consistency and satisfaction throughout the years. The

second consequence is that Alberto Piantoni, someone who has occupied positions of great responsibility in important companies, fully understands that only by studying and assessing reality, by systematically and scientifically listening to those who participate, and by interpreting data objectively, can he ensure a flourishing future for the brand. With this in mind, 1000 Miglia Srl commissioned The Classic Car Trust to carry out an in-depth market intelligence study. A study that based its conclusions on three different surveys conducted through interviews with random participants from the 2019 edition immediately before the start, immediately after arrival and six months later, in order to determine their expectations, positive sensations and, of course, any negative thoughts with regards to the future of the event. A study that also considered, with meticulous precision, the starting line-up of the

1000 Miglia speed race, separated year by year up to 1957 in order to understand the role of the different categories of cars: road tourism – everyday cars brought into the race; the nascent Gran Tourism category – cars whose production was influenced by the 1000 Miglia, giving rise to characteristically sporty production cars; and sports cars – from small Fiats assembled in private garages to Ferraris and of course the Mercedes 300SRL, which established the all-time average speed record of over 156 km/h! A study which, in the end, gave an in-depth analysis of the various ways the 1000 Miglia can attract the new generations who do not share their elders’ memories of what has always been called “the most beautiful race in the world”. This foresight of 1000 Miglia Srl has also been rewarded by circumstance: the calamitous pandemic that forced the event to be postponed until October, has allowed the organ-

isers to start introducing a number of improvements requested unanimously by the majority of participants. Almost all of these, in fact, put the pleasure of this magnificent and energising journey through the rich and sometimes unknown marvels of what is known as the “il bel Paese” way before the final rankings. Without revealing the contents of the insightful TCCT report, the moment that most impressed participants of the 2019 edition was the chance of driving one’s own car into the magnificent Piazza del Campo, in Siena, the square where the famous Palio takes place. The cars, perfectly aligned on long strips of carpet so that any oil leaks would not damage the ancient pavement, remained exposed to the attentions of a large audience while the participants visited the medieval palace, with its very high tower from which this timeless city has always been ruled, for a lunch featuring some of the most exquisite local cuisine.

The enthusiasm of the public is one of the greatest rewards for those who participate.

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“The 1000 Miglia is an Italian message to the world” – indeed the most enthusiastic participants are Americans, Japanese, Australians and, more in general, those who come from further afield – “so we want to take advantage of this change of date to attract tourism in Italy by involving the Tourism Ministry as well,” explains Piantoni. All this, he underlines, without diminishing the sheer emotion provoked by the participating cars and the magnificent roar of their engines as well as the adrenaline-rich special trials that ask drivers to give their very best, even if only for a class ranking. We can only congratulate 1000 Miglia, its President Franco Gusalli Beratta, Alberto Piantoni and the entire team, for allowing The Classic Car Trust to contribute towards the creation of a better future for this extraordinary event with new ideas and observations. Ours is a very beautiful job and yet some jobs are more beautiful than in particular, those that require a combination of skill, organisation and passion to accomplish. It is a peculiarity that unquestionably unites 1000 Miglia Srl and TCCT.


A great attraction of the 1000 Miglia is the variety of cars that participate, which transforms it into a sort of extraordinary travelling museum.

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The new frontier

Defying nature, many kilometres and unexpected events. This is the true soul of the ever-changing challenges faced by vintage cars and their courageous drivers. Giorgio Schon and Enrico Guggiari, with their perfectly prepared 1973 Ferrari 308 GT4, participated in the 2019 Peking–Paris Rally for The Key , the first time ever for a Maranello car. A journal of what to expect and also what you simply don’t. Everything, that is. by Antonio Ghini


Never has a Ferrari taken part in such a gruelling Raid. Result: zero problems and extraordinary performance.

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ne day of penalty. Yes, this is very much on the cards in the Peking– Paris race if you end up in a ford and have to get pulled out by the race assistance, who then transports your car to the that night’s camp where it can be repaired. Disaster, dismay? Not to those who register for the Raid, for these adventurers know that they will have to face 34 days during which anything can happen and where the will to continue is not an option but an absolute necessity. How can you even remotely consider the possibility of remaining completely abandoned in a Mongolian desert or in the Russian wilderness? Well, the 102 cars that arrived in Paris out of the 110 participants who set out demonstrate that this resolve is indeed a reality. Automobile? This, too, is somewhat of an improper definition: at the start of the 2019 Peking–Paris – the next one will be in 2022 – there was even a Cotal tricycle from the beginning of the last century and a steam car whose greatest problem was the continuous search for water for the boiler! Coming to what can more properly be called cars, 40 were pre-war and the remainder produced from 1945 to the 70s, a limit set by the registration regulations. In this unlikely mix of archaeology, legend and memory, there are those who turn up at the start line determined to win, with cars prepared in pure Safari Rally style, and those who show up with seemingly normal cars and ask everything of them. Giorgio Schon, son of the unforgettable fashion designer Mila and “Peking–Paris Rally correspondent for The Key”, went a little further and showed up at the start line with a Ferrari 308 Gt4 prepared to face roads that were very different from those of the Principality of Monaco or Beverly Hills it was originally designed to drive on. “Thanks to the experience gained driving the Alfa Romeo Giulia in the 2016 edition, I knew exactly how the car had to be prepared for such a demanding race. You have to take care of every last detail, and I mean every last one, from the important things to the apparently secondary ones. An example? The batteries must be positioned as high as possible, so they stay dry when you’re navigating through fords, 208 EVENTS

The only time the Ferrari 308 GTS was perfectly clean: moments before the start of this great adventure. Schon and Guggiari wear strictly vintage suits.

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5-star resort? Not exactly, the stopovers may be romantic and picturesque but they’re not exactly easy to reach.

while the reels and distributor need to be well protected and sealed from dust that gets everywhere. The complete list of modifications carried out on the car prepared to win (shown here) clearly shows why this race takes place every three years. And that having the perfect car is not enough because the drivers must take into consideration the fact that they will inevitably have to face unpredictable (or almost unpredictable) circumstances. The first of these, which robbed us of any chance of success just after the start from the Great Wall, was an unexpected and unpredictable renal colic that struck Guggiari and resulted in a visit to a hospital, heavy delays and an entire day spent trying to get the poor co-pilot back on his feet, a handicap that made reaching the top ranks an impossible task. On the Mongolian border, the Ferrari number 103 made it back in the pack an attempted to move up the rankings. “The Mongolian stages are the highlights of the Rally” Giorgio says “you simply can’t imagine the driving conditions: 4,000 kilometres spent hoping the GPS 210 EVENTS

manages to pick up the control points. Special stages of 50, 60km each, where everything can happen. Additionally, there had recently been violent storms that destroyed the streets. The Ferrari was incredible, weaving between stones and mud as if it were a 4x4, leaving competitors standing still in their wake or in great difficulty.” The joys of the drive, albeit demanding, and the beauty of the landscapes, were sharply contrasted by the discomfort of the cold “arriving at the end of each stage, having found the tent assigned to us and assembling the second one, we ate things without smell or taste and then had to sleep. Below zero! Even wearing overalls, two undersuits, anoraks and putting everything that was possible on the ground, it was always freezing cold. And the next day, off once again! Magnificent in its madness.” Kazakhstan and Russia, in comparison, are less compelling. Lots of agriculture, miles and miles of straight roads, and absolutely nothing around you. Every now and then we’d have a special section, many of which were on improvised tracks, driving the Ferrari with off-road and mud tires. Each and every curve a gamble. On rest days, the car was checked: after

Mongolia, we removed 20 kilos of sand from the nooks and crannies. There were also holes in the floor made by flying stones that had to be repaired. In St. Petersburg, however, the Ferrari arrived with its mechanics in perfect shape. A single kilo of oil from Beijing to here. This might be the comeback we were waiting for: everyone started from scratch for the European Cup. Schon and Guggiari knew exactly what they wanted. And they were right, as they were always ahead, and, despite taking a wrong turn, they arrived at the gates of Paris in the lead. For a brief moment, it felt like they had it in the bag, but fate mocked them once again: victims of fatigue accumulated over 33 days, during the last petrol supply before Paris and the arrival at Place Vendome, in the noble heart of the capital, a fatal error: a full tank of V Power diesel instead of V Power petrol! Emptying the tank, cleaning the carburettors, six hours lost! Goodbye first position. At this point, one might wonder why the two flagbearers of The Key celebrated at the end

of the race, standing on the hood of their car spraying Champagne on the podium at the Parisian finish line in pure Formula 1 style. “Because the prize is getting here. All the cars at the finish have the honour of a party, as if each one had won. And, in reality, everyone has won their own challenge. Magnificent.” In fact, for all those who participate in demanding events in which the ranking is nothing more than an excuse to take part with their beloved classic car, cared for and specially prepared for the occasion, a prize for all participants should be the rule. Why not thinking about it? At that moment the gripping memories of the marathon special speed tests in Mongolia, the challenges on improvised circuits, the nights in tents with unbearable temperatures, the questionable food, the moments where navigation was no guarantee of finding control points, come together in a potent mixture of liberation and the desire to try again. Epic. Truly epic.

Historic Rally Raid – new horizons Competitions of elegance, regularity races with special prizes, real races on tracks might have been enough for collectors who want to keep their beloved cars in shape. But times change and new opportunities appear: the large spaces of unknown countries or regions can become the theatre of companies that combine adventure with discovery and that create, precisely for the commitment required, the opportunity to experience the event as part of a community that forms from the moment the race begins. These types of tests were brought to the fore by the ERA (Endurance Rally Association) animated by the unforgettable Philip Young, the creator of the Beijing–Paris who organized it five times, and who passed away in 2015. He was also responsible for the re-enactment of the Safari Rally and the Singapore–Mandalay. His experience could not be lost: ERA was purchased by Tom Vargas de Macuga and Patrick Burke and became Hero.

Jubilation on arrival in Paris even if victory went elsewhere.

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A photograph. A symbol. Old-time cars, like a Bentley, for old-time scenarios driven by intrepid lovers of adventure.


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“By enthusiasts, for enthusiasts”

How and why to experience the thrill of adventure, by Patrick Burke, managing director of Hero. Our ethos is “by enthusiasts, for enthusiasts”, says Patrick Burke, managing director of Hero Events, organizer of the Peking–Paris, a “one of a kind” event, as well as an average of around a dozen classic car events each year, all designed to offer adventure. “We organize a variety of long-distance events which push the boundaries of classic endurance rallying, such as the Lima–Cape Horn, the Sahara Challenge and the Road to Mandalay. Less demanding long-distance events include the fourth Trans-America, which will run in the summer of 2021, as well as extremely popular and established medium- to short-distance events. In fact, we pride ourselves for having a wide-ranging calendar offering a different experience for virtually every expectation, from one-day events to 6-week events, endurance due to harsh territories or due to tough competition, comfort or adventure…” 214 EVENTS

As Burke underlines, endurance rallies are not a novelty but they are a focus of growing interest as “more and more people, having participated in classic car rallying numerous times, are turning to these tougher events to get that ultimate ‘fix’ and to test their machines against what is, effectively, the ultimate challenge in classic rallying.” However, it is important to realize that these events are different from traditional regularity trials, and therefore need to be approached in stages. Hero’s main objective is to offer “the right mix between social interaction, competition and a general ‘feel-good’ factor”. To achieve this, it is important to provide maximum support for newcomers to these experiences. To reduce the risk of offering participants the wrong event, he explains, they have for years used a color-coding system defining the difficulty of the event (both for the participants and for the car), rather like what happens in skiing, where you would never start a beginner on a black run! But for anyone wanting to try such an adventure, it is best to play it safe. “I would say that it takes a certain kind of people to take to the road in their classic car and head for faraway lands, embark on motoring adventures on the roughest of terrains... And then it takes yet another kind of person to organize a platform that provides and sets the stage for those adventures.” In this sense, Hero has in fact transformed the experience through a division that offers the necessary services. “Assist is a division of the group entirely dedicated to mechanical assistance problems, storage and transport logistics and on-event classic car hire. HERO Insurance Solutions provides a portfolio approach to insurance, and the HERO Store offers all the equipment needed.” In today’s world we expect professionalism as a right and, in this sense, knowing that your decision to try the thrill of an adventure will be

supported by an organized and competent team is both encouraging and reassuring. Because there is a first time for everything. We ask Patrick whether their philosophy also takes into account the expectations of the younger generations. “Classic rallying and tours in general are a way to keep these timeless machines alive, and for people to keep being part of and promoting our heritage and the legacy of many generations before us. This is especially true and important in a world where our children are taught the values of consumerism more than those of heritage and culture.” He explains that using these vehicles in classic car events is a way of promoting our individualism, which is especially important in a world where products, such as cars, are increasingly homogenized. These remarks, together with numerous others, confirm his view that it takes two if you want to do things properly. He concludes by underlining that “we will always remain democratic in offering our events, in that it is not the value of the cars that dictates our choice of events and our calendar, but the enthusiasm of our participants in our shared passion. We are all HEROs for promoting and loving historic motoring, but we accept that we do so in different circumstances characterized by different events.”

As long as it’s a classic, the car doesn’t matter. The real victory is being there, while the triumph is arriving.

Patrick Burke and Tomas de Vargas Machuca

The organizers and the programme for 2021 Feb 2021 7-11 Winter Challenge to Monte Carlo, starts Reims, through France to MC via classic Col de Turini.

Mar 2021 20 HERO Challenge One, Peak District UK for novices to intermediate skill level.

Apr 2021 9-11 Novice Trial, Bicester, ideal for novices and intermediate level. 16-18 Flying Scotsman, England to Scotland, vintage cars only, glorious scenery. 26-30 Scottish Malts, Scotland including visits to whiskey distillerie.

May 2021 16-28 Temple Rally, Athens to Rome, history and competition over great route.

Jun 2021 4-6 Summer Trial, UK through beautiful rolling hill. Good for all levels of experiencee. 26 HERO Challenge Two, Bicester, UK using lots of the quiet roads.

July 2021 4-9 Classic Marathon, adventure though Spain and Northern Portugal.

Sept 2021 20 - 1 Oct. Sahara Challenge, Europe to Morocco desert driving, shakedown for Peking Paris 2022. 25 Hero Challenge Two, Bicester, UK Novices to intermediate levels set for tough course.

Oct/Nov 2021 31 Oct-Nov 28. Lima to Cape Horn, epic adventure through South America to most southerly tip. 4-7 RAC Rally of the Tests, Leeds to Edinburgh, most competitive event of the year- relentless!

Dec 2021 4-7 Le Jog, classic endurance rally, day and night. Southern tip of England, Land’s End to John O’Groats northern tip Scotland. The calendar may have to change depending on COVID-19.

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A promoter of culture and creator of value

John Barnes, with the same clarity of vision he showed when deciding to do Ferrari a great service by promoting the history of the brand, tells the story behind the creation and development of the famous Cavallino magazine and the Cavallino Classic concours of elegance. by Massimo Delbò


In over 40 years of history, Cavallino has kept its format and style unchanged, acquiring a reassuring familiarity for those who love and read it. The black cover with the scudetto shield is from the first issue, with comments from Enzo Ferrari himself.

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ertain aspects of today’s classic car world that we often take for granted, such as the practice of identifying vehicles on the basis of their chassis number and (possibly) matching engine number, and the rigorous respect shown for original materials and their appearance during restoration work, are the result of a sometimes gradual and often difficult evolution. As recently as the early 1980s, which is just yesterday in historical terms, important vehicles would be purchased without any attempt being made to investigate their history or verify their main numbers. What is more, in some cases, purchasers even altered their lines. At the same time, thousands of photographs were archived, often without recording even the most basic information, such as when and where the picture was taken, and the identities of the people shown. As a result of this, the passing of time, and the disappearance of those directly involved, a major knowledge gap was created. Furthermore, no one ever recorded the chassis numbers of the cars pictured, almost as though the photos’ main subjects did not deserve to be identified. From a historical point of view, such errors are disastrous, as they are extremely difficult to rectify. This is the setting in which John Barnes founded “Cavallino”, a bimonthly magazine whose debut issue was dated September/October 1978. The cover was clearly intended to leave no one in any doubt as to the direction the magazine intended to follow. It showed a mosaic pattern forming the Scuderia Ferrari shield; all the parts of the pattern, however small, had a specific purpose and needed to be assembled in a precise order to create the whole. A letter sent by Enzo Ferrari himself shows that the cover did not entirely meet with his approval. In it, he referred to an earlier request, made for “very serious reasons”, not to use the words “International Ferrari Magazine” on the cover, so as to avoid any “misunderstanding which would be prejudicial to the free expression and judgment of your magazine”. Nevertheless, he was taken by the publication. After outlining some specific restrictions that had to be respected, he expressed his “sincere admiration for a beautiful publication, well done, perfectly print218 EVENTS

ed, rich in historical arguments, fresh with actuality which is interesting for the many lovers of fine mechanics who love motoring”, saying that these words could be quoted as his personal endorsement of it. How did the idea for Cavallino come about? “Like many ideas, it wasn’t the result of a sudden stroke of genius (or madness). Rather, the idea evolved. Basically, a series of events and considerations gradually led me to think that there might be a place for a magazine devoted to Ferraris. Before going any further, though, I want to make it perfectly clear that the magazine and the concours were not direct offshoots of Ferrari, and still aren’t, and also that neither has ever had a role of any kind within the Ferrari organization. They are entirely independent of it. Over the past 40 years, both Cavallino and the Cavallino Classic have been accepted by the parent company, with varying degrees of good grace depending on the times and the people involved, but they have never received any concrete support from it. Having said that, Enzo Ferrari was an attentive reader of our publication, as shown by the various letters he sent me commenting on some article or other, or simply thanking me for what I was doing for his brand. It worked in our favour that the laws in place to protect names and brands were less stringent then than they are today; it is also likely that the people at Maranello, who, as ever, had their sights set on the future, didn’t have the slightest interest in what became of their old cars, or what was being written about them. In the mid-1970s, like most men of my generation, I was car mad. At that time, while working for a publisher, my colleagues and I came across a Ferrari 375 MM owner’s handbook and maintenance manual. While we knew that this could never be turned into a bestseller, given that Ferrari had produced only 26 specimens, we also knew that its engine, albeit in different versions, had been used in various models. So, we decided to give it a go, and inserted a copy of the manual in our catalog. The first print run sold out in a matter of weeks. Encouraged by this success, shortly afterwards we printed another similar volume, and exactly the same thing happened. Having seen that there was clearly a market for books of this kind, I be-

gan asking myself why that was. Regardless of how I addressed the question, the answer I came up with was always the same: the reason was a thirst for knowledge. I know that what I am about to say now will seem strange to today’s 20-year-olds, who have grown up with the Internet and Wikipedia, but the fact is that even just 40 years ago, information was incredibly difficult to get hold of. You had to go to enormous lengths to discover what you needed or wanted to know, and there was never any guarantee you would find the answers. In the publishing world, therefore, there was certainly an opening for a magazine aimed at enthusiasts that could provide information and share knowledge about this extraordinary Italian brand. By enthusiasts I mainly mean people who had seen Ferraris in action on the race track in the 1950s or 1960s, or, if they were a bit younger, who had seen them parked in the street or on a neighbor’s driveway. These Ferrari owners were “ordinary” guys who often worked on their cars themselves and drove them whenever they could. Of course, the value of these cars was totally different back then, when the equivalent of USD 150,000 in today’s terms was enough to buy you the most beautiful 250 SWB on the market! The competition models, on the other hand, were not nearly so sought after as they could not be used on regular roads. So, while a Ferrari was still an affordable passion, it did not go hand in hand with an appropriate depth of knowledge and discernment. This, together with the lack of spare parts available for the original 12-cylinder engines, explains why these were often replaced by simpler-to-run US-made V8 ones. Therefore, Cavallino was created as a means of sharing and increasing the necessary knowledge.” Can you tell us the background to the ground-breaking decision to indicate the cars’ chassis numbers? “Cavallino was both created for and written by enthusiasts. From the very beginning we realized that it didn’t make much sense to describe a Ferrari car without saying “exactly which one” we were talking about. Prior to the mid-1970s, Ferraris were crafted or even custom-made vehicles, and even after the introduction of more

John Barnes deserves to be recognized as part of the small group of people who contributed to making Ferrari great: like Luigi Chinetti, who in America laid the foundations for the company’s commercial success, John created the foundations for the faithful conservation of the car maker’s models.

A promoter of culture and creator of value 219

serially produced models, most of them had some feature that distinguished them from the others to which, formally at least, they were identical. So, it wasn’t enough simply to state the model: it was necessary to identify the exact car. Finding that old photos were of little help when it came to trying to identify cars from their chassis, we decided that all the photos we published should, as far as possible, be accompanied by certain information: the names of any people shown, the place and date of the picture, and the vehicle chassis number. It was a natural development really. It certainly never crossed our minds that, 40 years later, in an entirely different car-collecting world where historical research is often entrusted to professionals (given that its outcome can significantly influence the valu e of cars worth tens of millions of dollars), our criteria would represent a benchmark of such historical importance. We certainly introduced a new way of writing about classic cars: nowadays, car magazines and books, if they want to be taken seriously, absolutely must indicate the chassis numbers of the cars they show. What is more, to facilitate the work of the collectors of the future, we also report the chassis numbers of “new” cars used for press presentations. Thanks to the birth of the Internet, the ultimate knowledge-sharing tool, this kind of information, often scattered, can be pooled to great effect. Indeed, putting together the knowledge of a number of people triggers an avalanche effect in which every single contribution increases the critical mass. This has allowed us to clarify obscure points and find answers to questions that previously remained unanswered. Before we publish research of this kind in Cavallino, its accuracy is always carefully verified, and it is this guarantee of accuracy that has made the magazine so special.”

Enzo Ferrari himself, always very attentive to the protection of his brand, with that subtle

Palm Beach was the setting, in 1992, for the very first Cavallino Classic, the concours d’élégance for Ferraris that, in its nearly 30year history, has helped to revolutionize the approach to judging vehicles at concours events. The Cavallino Classic was created by John Barnes and Ed Gilbertson, who is currently the chairman of ICJAG® (the International Chief Judge Advisory Group®), as 220 EVENTS

ability that made him famous encourages Barnes while launching a clear warning about what his area of activity ​​ should be. Above, two images of the traditional “Cavallino Classic” beginningof-the-year event.

well as Honorary Chief Judge or Chief Judge Emeritus at the world’s most famous concours events. How did the idea for the Cavallino Classic come about, and why did its creators decide to adopt the ICJAG (previously IAC/ PFA: International Advisory Council for Preservation of the Ferrari Automobile) judging format, making it the fourth concours (and the third Ferrari one) to do so? “The idea took root at a gathering at Stanford University organized by a Ferrari owners’ club. There was a really splendid 500 TR present at this meeting. Although, at first glance, it looked absolutely perfect, distressingly, under the hood it turned out to have a V8 Chevrolet engine in place of its original four-cylinder unit. This was the point at which I, both as an enthusiast and a journalist, seriously started asking myself whether this was an acceptable way of transmitting all the history and knowledge surrounding Ferrari to the upcoming generations and the fans of the future. Personally, I am convinced that Ferrari’s huge following, both in the past and today, is linked to what the brand symbolizes: a single man’s realization of his dreams. If you examine any of the cars produced at Maranello up until the ’70s, it is quite clear that they are the result not of some marketing or business plan, but rather of one man’s spasmodic desire to win. And what the owners of these cars have, and simple

onlookers, too, is the chance, for a period of time (long or short, it doesn’t really matter), to share in that original dream and be part of it. This is why I came to feel so strongly about the importance of restoring these cars (only when it is impossible to keep them in their original condition) to a condition as close as possible to how they were when they were originally built. Ed Gilbertson was thinking along the same lines, and applied these ideas at Ferrari meetings organized by the Ferrari Owners’ Club of California (which thus became the very first to embrace them), and then at those of the Ferrari Club of America (which became the second). We became the third Ferrari-only show to do so. Back in the early ’80s, Ed had come to realize what these events should mean: information, culture and homogeneity. He saw that concours d’élégance events were meeting points for showing cars, but that they also had the potential to become places where owners could discover their vehicles’ shortcomings and learn how to correct them. This is why, at the end of the events that use this format, the entrants have always been allowed to request the completed judging sheets. After all, it is only by learning what defects were found that they can take steps to remedy them. These sheets therefore amount to rigorous appraisals, issued free of charge, by the world’s leading experts, and they are documents from

which everyone stands to benefit. It was Ed, by drawing up a set of well-defined rules (a framework allowing the necessary homogeneity of judgment) who first set things in motion in this sense, and the Ferrari car-collecting community responded to the lesson and began to set great store by originality and attention to detail. This approach, which in more recent times has also been adopted by other brand owners’ clubs, improved the standard of Ferraris at concours events. All this explains why, when the classic car market took off, Ferraris were able to fetch far higher prices than other brands, which were still less organized and whose cars still had numerous imperfections. Another key development came when this format, also embraced by Ferrari Classiche, was taken up by the organizers of Pebble Beach. This was the first time the format had been chosen for a multi-brand event, the world’s most important concours what’s more! In 1992, we followed suit at the Cavallino Classic, albeit adding a few features of our own. Pebble Beach, for example, has only one Best in Show award, whereas the Cavallino Classic has two, for the Sport and Competition categories respectively. What is more, should two cars in a given class obtain the same score, at Pebble only one is given first place, whereas at our event they are classed as equal first and are therefore both in the running for the Best in Show award. This feature has made the Cavallino Classic the event where leading collectors like to present their freshly restored cars: they see it as a sort of trial run, before moving on to Pebble Beach. Basically, if our judges find any shortcomings, the owners still have time to do something about them. From an organizational point of view, I like to take credit for choosing The Braker in Palm Beach, Florida, as the location for our event. The timing — the end of January — is perfect, too. Since, elsewhere, the winter weather stops people from using classic cars, visitors happily come here to enjoy a few days of sunshine. What is more, this area is home to a large number of collectors. The Cavallino Classic has certainly proved to be a winning formula, so much so that next year, 2021, we will be holding our 30th concours. After that, I might perhaps think of retiring. A promoter of culture and creator of value 221

Illustrations by Massimo Grandi

Moscow Serpukhov Nizhny Novgorod


Izhevsk Togliattigrad


ZIS 110



GAZ 61/73


KIM 10/50


ZIL 111










1917 -222- CARS












ZAZ 965





Behind the Curtain

The fascinating and unknown car universe in Communist Russia from 1917 to 1989, the year the Berlin Wall came down. A story of discovery and understanding by Bernard Vermeylen

ZIL 114

ZIL 117V

ZIL 4104






ZAZ 966


GAZ 3102





ZAZ 968













Behind the Curtain -223-

1917–1945: Under American Influence ! A very tiny minority of the population was wealthy enough to own a car in Czarist Russia, even more so than in the rest of Europe. Back in 1914, there were only 9,000 cars for the whole country. Among them were luxurious Rolls-Royce, Panhard & Levassor or DelaunayBelleville… as well as about 2,000 T- Model Fords and a handful of locally-produced vehicles like the Russo-Baltic. In 1917, the People’s revolution ended up with the creation of a Socialist state. The USSR was officially born on 30th December 1922. Even though an “Automotive Scientific Research Laboratory” was created in October 1918 (and subsequently renamed “NAMI” in 1924), setting up a local car industry was not a priority for the authorities.

plan, translating Stalin’s will, listed national car production as a priority. However, only commercial vehicles were deemed necessary. As the local engineers had no previous car production experience, on 31st May 1929, the USSR signed a deal with Ford. A-Models would be built under licence in Nijni Novgorod, soon renamed Gorki. The first A-Model car left the GAZ factory (Gorki Automobile Works) on 8th December 1932 and 41,917 units were assembled there until March 1936. Though clearly inspired by the Ford V8-40, both the M1 and the 61-73 models that replaced it were locally- developed. They remained available until 1942. About 63,000 of these were produced, mostly for official uses and taxi duties. One version worth mentioning is type 11-73: it was the very first saloon with permanent four-wheel-drive ever built!

An air-cooled twin cylinder prototype named NAMI-1 appeared in 1927 but never went into production. The following year, a five-year

In 1933, the AMO truck factory was renamed ZIS (“factory to honour Stalin”). It presented a prototype strongly inspired by the Buick

The 1926/27 NAMI-1 was powered by an air-cooled two-cylinder, 22HP engine. This is the only surviving example.

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90: the L1. Eventually, the type 101 would be the first car produced there, albeit in small numbers: 8,752 units between November 1936 and 1941. Once again, it was strongly inspired by American cars. The engine was a 90 HP V8 and it was mainly aimed at the regime’s high-ranking officers. On 5th March 1939, the small KIM 10 car was launched. Clearly inspired by the then- current Opel Kadett and Ford Eifel, it was powered by a 1,172 cc four-cylinder engine. Production started at the Moscow KIM (“International Communist Youth Organisation”) factory in April 1941 and ended two months later, when the USSR entered WW II.

GAZ 61-73 evolved from the 1936 M1 saloon and was the very first all-wheel-drive saloon ever produced.

The KIM 10-50 was the first popular car in the USSR. It was launched in 1940 and just 450 cars had been assembled when WWII stopped its production.

The ZIS 110 was built between 1945 and 1958. The old Packard was lightly modified and aimed at high-ranking officials or to be used as a taxi. The torpedo version was much rarer than the saloon. However, here are four of them used as taxi.

Behind the Curtain -225-

The Pobjeda M20 was

GAZ assembled the

the first car entirely

ZIM 12 from 1950 until

developed by GAZ.

1959. It looks a bit

240,000 cars were

like a Cadillac and

produced between

was powered by the

1946 and 1957, all

3,500 cc six-cylinder

powered by a 2,112 cc

engine from the old

four-cylinder engine.

GAZ M1/ 11-73. It was

It was used by all USSR

mainly used as a taxi

administrations as

or an ambulance,

well as a taxi. The

as well as by “second

car pictured is one

rate” dignitaries.

of a tiny number that were exported to Belgium.

The Moksvich 400 catalogue is nearly a political manifesto. The car was derived from the 1939 Opel Kadett. More than 114,000 Type 400 and 401 (powered by a 1,074 cc- 23 HP engine) were

The production ver-

produced between

sion of the ZAZ 965 was launched at the

1946 and 1956.

1961 Brussels Motor Show. The style was obviously inspired by the FIAT 600 but the rear engine was a 23 HP 746 cc V4. About 300 cars were sold in Belgium between 1966 and 1968.

The GAZ M21 Volga was introduced in autumn 1955 and The Moksvich 402 sold from 1956 onwards and kept the old 400 engine up to 1958. Then, it received a 1,357 cc45 HP engine with overhead valves and became the 407. The car pictured is a 410 H

gradually replaced the M20 Pobjeda. The engine was a petrol 2,445 cc four-cylinder. However, in Belgium most cars sold received a diesel engine! 638,875 cars were produced between 1955 and 1970.

that features permanent four-wheel drive and can climb

The GAZ M13 Tchaïka

up slopes with more

appeared in 1958 and used

than 30% gradients!

a 4,900 cc V8 engine. It was very close to American cars standards and remained inproduction until 1981! However, there were only eight phaetons version (Type 13B) built,

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asthe one shown here.

At the Geneva Motor Show 1960, we can see the three pillars of the Russian automotive industry aligned: the Moskvich 407, the GAZ Volga M21 and the GAZ Tchaïka M13. 487,490 units of the Moskvich 402/407/403 family were produced between 1956 and 1965.

1945–1970: developpment of the USSR automotive sector At the end of WW II, the USSR was severely damaged. However, that did not stop Stalin’s efforts to put the country back on the map as a super power to rival the USA. The February 1945 Yalta conference reinforced the USSR’s position and allowed it to monitor Eastern European countries. Time had then come to set up a real and significant national automotive industry, within the framework defined in the 1930s. Three categories of cars were supposed to cater for all the country’s needs. A medium-sized one produced by the Moscow factory; a large one made by GAZ and a luxury one made by ZIS. Starting in summer 1945, the ZIS factory produced the 110-saloon car. In fact, it was just a lightly modified and rebadged 1942 Packard. The USSR authorities had managed to buy the complete tooling and production equipment for it, thus having a new car on the road very quickly. The second car to appear was the GAZ Pobjeda (“Victory”), which was designed locally to withstand the appalling Russian roads. It was first introduced to Stalin in June 1945, but production did not start before June 1946 .The M20 type, as it was known back then, had been hastily developed and suffered from many problems and defects that were only put right by 1949. The third car, seen as the “popular” one, was the Moksvich 400. The first car left the factory in December 1946.

The prestigious ZIL 111 was launched in November 1957. Powered by a six-litre V8, it was specially made for top party dignitaries. Only 112 cars, including a few open top phaetons, were produced until 1967.

Behind the Curtain -227-

In fact, it was a 1940 Opel Kadett: the Red Army had seized all its drawings and production equipment as war compensation. The KIM factory was renamed MZMA (“Moscow Factory for small displacement cars”) and the Moksvich 400 soon evolved into a complete range of cars, including commercial models. Eventually, from 1950 onwards, the GAZ factory offered the Type 12 “ZIM” with a six-cylinder engine. Aimed at the regime’s senior officers, it sat between the Pobieda and the ZIS 110. From 1955, new models with much more modern shapes were derived from these cars and replaced them. In 1956, the Moksvich 402 replaced the 400/401 and the GAZ M21 “Volga” replaced the Pobjeda M20. Meanwhile, the ZIS factory was renamed “ZIL”, Stalin’s name being replaced by Likhatchev’s, a former director. The prototype of a new large saloon, the ZIL 111, was introduced too; production would start the following year. The large ZIM 12 got replaced by the GAZ “Tchaîka” (“Seagull”) in 1959. Obviously, all these cars were still heavily influenced by American taste and design trends. The USSR used the 1958 Brussels International Exhibition to show off its various cars, including the prototype of a small rear-engined car. Production of the Zaporojets 965 would start in November 1960 at the Zaporojié ZAZ factory in Ukraine. The SMZ bike factory in Serpukhov also built cars for the disabled between 1958 and 1997. All these cars were exported in small numbers to other European Socialist countries as well as Socialist republics all over the world. From 1951 onwards, some Moksvich and a few GAZ Pobieda and ZIM even found their way onto some Western European markets, like Scandinavia, the Benelux or Austria. Regular exports of the GAZ Volga started in 1961. Volga and Moskvich were frequently updated up to the arrival of new models during the 1960s. In 1964, the Moksvich 408 replaced the old 402/403/407 and soon a new 412 with a more modern engine was launched. In 1966, the ZAZ 966 replaced the 965. The ZIL 114 replaced the 111 at the end of 1967. Three years later, the Volga M24 superseded the M21. The GAZ M13 remained in production until 1981… however, the GAZ 14 that was meant to replace it had been in regular production since 1976! -228- CARS

The Moksvich was completely revamped in 1964. The new 408 got an up-todate body. Four years later, a 412 arrived: it was powered by an 80 HP-1,478 cc, four-cylinder engine. This version was updated many times and remained in production until 1994.

The IZH factory in Ijevsk built Moksvich cars from December 1966 onwards. In 1975, the factory introduced a five door 412. This Type 2125 came along with IZH- only commercial variants. Later on, the brand introduced its own creations.

The Bjelka (“Squirrel”) was a prototype released by the NAMI in 1956. It was very

The ZAZ 966 was

avant-garde for the

introduced in 1965

era, featuring four

and production

seats while being

started the following

just 3,3 metres long.

year. Technically, it

It also had a tiltable

was based on the 965,

cockpit, small wheels,

but looked like a NSU

ergonomic seats…

Prinz 4. Eventually, it

unfortunately it

became the 968 and

never made it

remained available

into production.

until 1994. Quite a few were exported to Italy at the beginning of the 1980s.

The GAZ Volga M24 was launched in December 1967 but only superseded the old M21 in 1970. It used the old car engine and remained in production until 1992! It is one of the most emblematic sovietic cars; 1,480,000 units were built.

The VAZ Lada 1200 was launched in summer 1970. It might be a FIAT 124 look-alike but it was thoroughly This is no Imperial

reengineered to cope

made up by Chrysler

with Russian roads.

but a ZIL 114 from

It totally rejuvenated

1967. It was meant

the Russian car in-

to replace the 111.

dustry by introducing

Its 300 HP seven-


litre V8 engine as

It was very popular

well as the opulent

in USSR as well as

interior ensured

in Western Europe

it pleased the

where it somehow


invented the “low

officials of the

cost” car concept.

regime, despite its classical style.

Behind the Curtain -229-

1970–1991 : mass motoring is the order of the day In 1965, the USSR authorities realized how badly the country’s motorization lagged behind. There were just about just six cars for every 1,000 citizens. The then current factories could not have coped with any significant production increase… they had to start from scratch. A new site located about 1,100km south- west of Moscow was selected. There, a new town was created and received the name of Togliatti, after the founder of the Italian Communist Party. How appropriate was that, as FIAT was the selected partner for this new venture? The then- recent 124 would soon be produced at the “VAZ” (“Volga Car Factory”) plant in Togliattigrad. The car was modified in order to cope with the local roads and the first “Zhiguli” (as they are known in the USSR) left the factory in summer 1970. It was not at the cutting-edge of technology, but its success was immediate and the car looked much more modern than anything else produced locally. It was introduced in Western Europe at the January 1971 Brussels Motorshow. It would subsequently be sold under the “Lada” brand,

at very attractive prices. It sold in quite large numbers to people who did not have much money to buy a car. This was a kind of “lowcost” motoring… Exactly what Renault would do more than 30 years later, with the Dacia brand. Over the years, the Lada range evolved with various bodies and engines being added. In 1977, Lada launched a keenly priced, small, go-anywhere 4X4 with a 1,600 cc engine. The Niva was an instant hit and is still produced, barely changed, today, more than 40 years later. Back in 1986, Lada introduced the Samara, a small and modern front-wheel-drive hatchback developed in partnership with Porsche. It sold very well both in Eastern bloc countries as well as in Western Europe. While Lada was growing all the time, the other Russian carmakers were still active. The ZAZ 966 launched in 1965 became the 968 in 1970. It remained available up until 1994, even though a new generation had appeared back in 1987: the 1102 or Tavria was frontwheel-drive, fitted with a five speed gearbox and displayed a smart- looking three-door hatchback body. The Moksvich 408 and derivatives (412, 2140) fought on until 1994. They had been complemented by the more

modern 2141 (known as the Aleko on some Western markets) since 1986. Strongly inspired by the Simca 1307-1308, it was in fact a bigger Tavria. Even though GAZ had introduced a more luxurious and powerful 3102 in 1981, the Volga M24 remained available up until 1992. On a more exclusive note, the GAZ 14 Tchaïka was launched in 1976 and still followed the American car design trends of the time. The ZIL remained the Nomenklatura car. It was available as the 114 from 1967 until 1985; the 117 was a shorter version sold from 1971 untill 1985. A new generation, the 115/4104 appeared in 1984 and remained in production untill 2001… but is still available as a special order in 2020! After the USSR collapsed, the local automotive industry went through very tough times: the local market was no longer captive and many Western European cars invaded it. This situation lead to the quick disappearance of Moksvich. GAZ focused on commercial vehicles rather than cars. More recently, ZAZ and Lada were taken over, Lada being the last Russian carmaker to lose its independence. Nonetheless, the USSR car industry managed to become an important part of automotive history!

Back in march 1975, Raymond Loewy had a hand in the modernization of the Moksvich 408/412, when they became 2138/2140. An estate (2137) was available but that type of body was never popular in the USSR. Bright colours were quite common on 1970s Moksvich.

Even more exclusive than the 114, the ZIL 117V convertible appeared in 1972. It was built on the short wheelbase version of the 114 and only nine cars were ever built!

-230- CARS

Back in 1987, ZAZ introduced the modern and good-looking 1102 (Tavria) along

1,114 Type 14 Tchaïka

the antiquated 968.

limos were assem-

This was a compact

bled by GAZ between

hatchback with

1976 and 1988. It was

front wheel drive

true to the tradition

that could compared

of American- inspired

favourably with Eu-

cars. A 5,500 cc- 220

ropean and Japanese

HP V8 engine was

small cars. A 53 HP

under the bonnet.

1,091 cc 4 cylinder engine powered it. Var-

Lada really innovat-

ious bodies became

ed when the brand

available, including

launched the cheap

the Slavuta saloon that remained in

and cheerful 1,600 cc

production until 2011.

engine Niva back in 1977. It sold very well in Western Europe and many are still used and abused.

ZIL upgraded its limo back in 1978, launching the new Type 115/4104. However, it did not effectively replace the 114 and 117 before 1985. It could not be called “elegant” or “delicate”, with that massive grille and a 311 HP 7,700 cc V8 engine! Production officially ended in 2003 but it is still available to special orders.

Following the 2010 and the Niva, the VAZ/ Lada 2108 was the brand’s third totally new car. The Samara was a 3-door hatch with front wheel drive powered by a 1,300 (later 1,500 cc) 4 cylinder

GAZ launched the

transverse engine

3102 to replace the

developed with the

Volga M24 at the end

help of Porsche. Over

of 1981. Both ends

the years, 4 and 5

were made longer

door bodies were

and it got a massive

made available as

grille at the same

well. The last car left

time. Its production

the factory on 24th

ended in 2002. Over

December 2013 and

the years there were

was the 5,247,008th

many engines used in

unit produced.

it, like the Tchaïka V8 on KGB cars or even a twin rotor engine!

Behind the Curtain -231-

The VNIITE (Institute for Industrial Aesthetics Research) used a ZAZ 965, measuring just 3,33 metres long, for this “Maxi” small people carrier study. Would you believe this was released back in December 1967 and predates small MPVs like the 2004 Renault Modus by more than 35 years?

Between 1950 and 1970, many “specials” were created in the USSR. Mr Kurunkov was a car mechanic by trade and made up this “Autoaéromobile” back in April 1966. According to him, it could reach 120 km/h on regular roads, 80 km/h on snow and 50 km/h on water.

This is a hardlyknown fact, but the USSR authorities allowed car racing. Many competitions were taking place all over the country and very often weird and wacky things were taking part. In 1958, this one took part in a 500 kilometre motor-way race between Minsk and Moscow.

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In 1951, the ZIS factory built this massive coupe, named “Cycklon”. It was capable of 120 MPH and took part in many local races in the USSR until the end of the 1950s.

Up to the 1970s, very few Russian citizens owned a private car. Some very inventive and gifted people built up their own cars using second-hand parts. This even turned into some sort of national sport with dedicated gatherings. This car, built by Alexius Tsurkan in 1970, used an M-72 motorbike engine.

This 1959- built weird sleigh named “Sever-2” (“North-2”) used a propeller. The body came from a Pobjeda but a 260 HP engine allowed it to easily reach 60 MPH on the snow!

Behind the Curtain -233-

Within the dreams of “Generation Z� Bugatti EB 110 GT, Ferrari Testarossa, Lancia Delta HF Integrale, Peugeot 205 T16: if you were to let your children free to choose which cars they would put in the garage, these would very likely be top of their list. Because the world of collecting also evolves and transforms. Thanks to sport, cinema, fashion... and collective memories. by David Giudici 234 CARS

Early and expensive icons, such as the 250 Testa Rossa Sport, and recent models destined to play a significant role in history, such as the 1984 Testarossa.

Within the dreams of “Generation Z� 235


hey’re called youngtimers. Keep this in mind: they are the only cars that can make a young person’s heart beat faster. Even “Generation Zs” and “Millennials” consider them objects of desire. At the same time, as you are already well aware, these are the models most likely to liven up the international auctions of the collector’s market, which is currently going through a gentle backtracking phase. As a general rule, these cars span from the late 70s to the early 2000s – the period when bumpers turned from steel blades into “resin” agglomerates or, if it’s easier to picture, when early electronics first started to make braking on wet surfaces more effective, but not to the point where the driving became “filtered” as it is today. Cars that needed strong biceps to drive if you will, capable of delivering the most delicious power oversteers when stepping on the gas and, despite not always having power steering or air conditioning, they are still the stars of recent memory, not ones relegated to those yellowed photos our grandparents keep hidden away in the attic. Another determining factor: these vehicles can still be driven without excessive effort or great limitations on movement or comfort. Can you picture a 20-year-old who doesn’t have a surname like Simeone, Louwman or Lopresto, being admired as he drives along the ChampsÉlysées in a 1930 Isotta Fraschini 8C? Yes, cool of course. But think of the same scene once again only this time from behind the wheel of a Bugatti EB 110 SS. Now perhaps the concept is perfectly clear. But why is it that these are the only cars able to capture the attention of even the youngest of fans? Let’s take a necessary step back. The answer is simple: because today’s cars are no longer attractive to the new generations. First of all, because the car is no longer experienced as something that emancipates and liberates people. “Low cost” flights and “high speed” trains have taken care of that and have transformed our way of travelling. Cars also used to be a great way of escaping from everyday life; today young people are far more obsessed with the latest generation of smartphones with three cameras and are happy posting videos on Tik Tok. If they need to move, they sign up for car-sharing services, instead of begging mum and dad for the moped or the car. 236 CARS

However, youngtimers are an exception to that rule. Born in an age in which design still had ample room for manoeuvre – pedestrian-vehicle crash regulations were not the main constraints to designing a front section back then – as did the number of cylinders under the hood – at the time the catalytic converter had only just arrived... this car category still manages to cause irresistible itches to those who appreciate them. Even among young people, because more often than not they don’t cost a fortune. A VW Golf GTI second series, a Peugeot 205 GTI, an Alfa GT 3.2 V6 can be bought for less than 10,000 euros. Then there are the giants, of course, those made immortal, for example, by big films that transformed them into legends. Think of the Ferrari Testarossa from “Miami Vice”, the DMC DeLorean from “Back to the future”, the Porsche 928 from “Risky Business”, the Lamborghini Countach from “Rain Man” and so on. Or who can forget the glorious exploits of the great rally champions, from the Audi Quattro of Rohrl, to the Lancia Delta Integrale of Biasion, to the Peugeot 205 T16 of Vatanen up to the Toyota Celica Turbo of Sainz? Uncompromising machines for people of uncompromising talent. Add to this the fact that these are the cars in the garages of the younger generations of collectors, men between 40 and 50 years of age who today move the market and who, necessarily, determine the topics of conversation between fathers and children. That’s right, fathers and children... To explore this argument further, The Key asked a significant number of young people, the children of great collectors or opinion leaders, which cars are firmly housed in their hearts and, coincidentally, the majority of them are youngtimers. In fact, we can divide them into four families: “Rally queens” with the Audi Quattro, the Lancia Delta Integrale and the Peugeot 205 T16; “Italian supercars”, which includes the Bugatti EB 110 GT, Ferrari Testarossa, Lamborghini Countach; “German dreamcars” with the BMW M1 and the Porsche 911 Turbo and, finally, the heirs of the American “Muscle car” with the Dodge Viper and Ford Mustang, 80s icons inspired by Bullitt. Let’s analyse them one by one, drawing, where possible, from the rich database of road tests by Quattroruote.

Audi quattro And to think it’s not even pretty. However, if Audi is able to compete on equal terms with BMW and Mercedes in certain markets today, much of the credit goes to this car, which single-handedly carved out the brand’s future and, of course, to the mind of the man who came up with the idea of building it in the first place. The mind of Ferdinand Piëch, the man with Porsche blood in his veins, who, after creating several masterpieces, including the stunning 917, strongly wanted the ur Quattro both to win in the rallies and to clear all-wheel drive for every-day use. “It wasn’t easy for a manufacturer like Audi to build a sports car that could dominate a difficult sector like this,” wrote Quattroruote in the early 1980s during the car’s road test. They even asked none other than world rally champion Walter Rohrl, who, at the time, had just been “symbolically” passed to Mercedes, to give them an authoritative opinion. It was almost a complete scoop, because, shortly thereafter, the German driver was hired by Audi to race with the Quattro, a car he went on to win many memorable victories with, such as at Monte Carlo in 1984 and at Sanremo the following year. Rohrl’s opinion of the Quattro road version was remarkable: “The push of the engine is what always strikes me, it is truly exceptional. Up to 3,000rpm there is a fair amount of power, then when the turbo kicks in the acceleration is truly exceptional”.

The fascination of four-wheel drive technology tuned for performance.

The 2.1-litre 5-cylinder supercharger producing 200BHP and 29Kgm of torque is in fact one of the strong points of this coupe, as much as the performance because, as Rohrl goes on to say, “with the quattro I can complete this curve more quickly than with the 131 racing Abarth”. Certainly the most beautiful compliment. “At normal speeds the average driver hardly notices he is behind the wheel of a four-wheel drive car” continues the German “without question it has a preference for snowy terrains or loose surfaces, where it demonstrates extraordinary grip and phenomenal traction”. So, the party piece of this car is the traction system, which was very advanced for its time, made possible by the use of three differentials, the central and rear of which could be locked manually by the driver or automatically when needed. The Quattro four-wheel drive system is still driving the brand forwards to this day. From a collecting standpoint, even if it does not have outstanding sports accolades, it is the refined “short wheelbase” Sport Quattro that has appreciated the most over time: there are only 164 of them, and today they exchange hands for figures close to 400,000 euros.

tion of one of the most iconic BMWs ever to come out of Italdesign. The look, in fact, is the result of the inspiration of the “designer of the century”, Giorgetto Giugiaro. Therefore it is made in Italy. Admittedly, some might say it was inspired by Paul Bracq’s “Turbo” concept from 1972, but that’s a technicality. The M1 was designed both as a halo product to sit at the very top of the BMW family tree and, at the same time, in order to compete in Group-5 racing, which required 400 road versions to be built in order to compete (about 450 were produced). To examine its characteristics, we once again refer to Quattroruote, this time to the spring of 1980, which featured the Swiss F1

“only the writing in German reminds me that I’m in a BMW”. The DNA is pure GT adrenaline: a tubular frame integrated with sheet metal reinforcements and full plastic bodywork to keep the weight down (1290kg dry), independent deformable four-side suspension, sports shock absorbers, anti-roll bars; four self-ventilating disc brakes. Only the engine, the classic 6-cylinder in-line engine increased to 3.5 litres producing 277BHP and 33.6Kgm of torque, satisfied Regazzoni... but didn’t “impress” him. What did impress him was the steering, which he considered “sharp in the corners, direct and fast even at high speeds”. The same was true of the way it behaved on the road “the

The unforgettable Clay Regazzoni, one of the friendliest and greatest Formula 1 drivers during the BMW M1 test.

BMW M1 It should have been a Lamborghini, but the financial problems that gripped Sant’Agata Bolognese in those days hijacked the produc-

driver Clay Regazzoni as an exceptional guest. They couldn’t have made a better choice: you will remember that the M1 also gave birth to the Procar championship which was staged on the Saturday before the GP to liven up the pre-race moments and saw all the Circus drivers battling it out on the track. But let’s get back to the car. This BMW is all “Italian”, including the way it was built: low and streamlined, with the engine positioned longitudinally behind the driver, so much so that Clay declared

car is always easy to control, because the M1 is very consistent, it has an excellent balance between the front and rear axles and perfect handling”. In short, the ideal sports car, perhaps slightly underpowered for its excellent chassis. Having one today means investing the considerable sum of 650’000 euros (720’000 dollars). Some are even close to the million mark – like the “barn find” in Sicily, restored by BMW Classic and spotted at Techno Classica in Essen in 2019. Within the dreams of “Generation Z” 237

It’s no surprise that

Bugatti EB 110 GT In a recent book entitled “Bugatti Lotus Thriller”, Romano Artioli reveals much of the background and history that inspired him in the 90s, with considerable ambition and even more courage, to buy the rights to use the Bugatti name from the French government and relaunch it onto the market. His goal was to keep it as faithful as possible to the ethos that had given the wonderful, light and fast blue racing cars seventy years before immortal status. The tale of Campogalliano, Modena, where Artioli chose to revive the Bugatti, right in the heart of the Emilian Motor Valley (the only place where it is possible to build cars like this”, he declared) dates back to 1991. His extraordinary grand tourism was presented precisely on the occasion of the 110th anniversary of the birth of Ettore Bugatti and the name is revealing: EB 110 GT. The development team consisted of the greatest minds and talent available at the time. From the engineer Paolo Stanzani, to Nicola Materazzi, to Marcello Gandini, men with whom Artioli also had strong contrasts, even going so far as to overturn the technical and stylistic choices of those “living legends” and correcting them, intervening with his own personal taste and finally entrusting the style to his cousin, the architect Giampaolo Benedini, who we must thank for that wonderfully evocative front with the small, embedded “horseshoe”. Under the skin, technology that was the stuff of dreams in the neighbouring Maranello and Sant’Agata Bolognese factories: all-wheel drive, carbon fibre monocoque bodywork, a 3.5-litre V12 engine with aluminium and magnesium casting, 5-valve distribution per cylinder and four IHI turbochargers: power was 560BHP at 8,000rpm and 62.3Kgm of torque at 3,500 rpm. Monstrous performance: 3.5 seconds from 0 to 100 per hour and a maximum speed of 342 km/h (351 for the SS). Even Michael Schumacher fell in love with it and bought one. The rest is history, boycottings, sabotage and bankruptcy... Curiously, not even Quattroruote published evidence of this extraordinary supercar. The final blow to the theatre of Artioli was the transfer of the brand to the esteemed friend Ferdinand Piëch, a man who knew exactly how to continue to nurture the dream. 238 CARS

today’s younger generations are passionate about this model that so capably links the illustrious Bugatti past with the future.

Wild horses for the pure and simple American Dodge Viper.

Dodge Viper The title of the Quattroruote test from May 1993 gives a pretty picturesque idea of what this car is all about: “The craziest of discoveries”. Only the extremely courageous and slightly mad mind of a genius could conceive a spider with a mile-long hood concealing an 8 litre, V10 cylinder engine capable of pumping out 395Bhp and good for 63.2Kgm of torque, more than enough to rip the manhole covers from the ground under acceleration. Behind this folly is the legendary Texan, Carrol Shelby, the father of the Cobra from the 60s, winner at Le Mans and someone the younger generations now knows thanks to last year’s film, “Ford v Ferrari”. But let’s go back to her, to the Dodge Viper: a deliberate “old-school America” ​​line, minimal equipment (no air conditioning here, or ABS, or electric windows…), instead a whole lot of engine – a high-performance, naturally aspirated pushrod, 2 valves per cylinder monster derived from a Chrysler pickup – that is surprisingly easy and precise to drive for a stars-and-stripes spectacle. “Thanks to all that engine torque, even with a first gear that’s long

enough to get you to 90 km/h, getting off the line is a seamless experience. The gears enter correctly and with extreme ease, thanks to the precision and sweetness of the lever”. These words are describing an American car, lest you forget... Quattroruote went on “At high speed, the Viper quickly inserts itself into the desired trajectories, leaning on the external wheels immediately and quite effectively”. But the flaws? Here is one: “The Viper shows some limits only when it exceeds 220 km/h, due most probably to the less-than-optimal aerodynamics which tends to lighten the steering. Now you know. Just as you know to watch out for the hot side exhausts when you get in and out, as they’re always ready to toast an unwary thigh. Just like it were a Harley-Davidson.

Ferrari Testarossa A major earthquake at Maranello. Taking the name of the glorious 250 TR from the 1950s, the new 12-cylinder heir to the BB designed by Pininfarina was a GT that came straight from outer space. Quattroruote defined it as Within the dreams of “Generation Z” 239

a “Formula 1 car for the highway” in its road test in February 1986, applying the fatigue test to a delicious “single bolt” and “single mirror” first series model, which is currently the most popular among collectors (over 100,000 euros, 110,000 dollars). What were its strengths? First of all the lines, drawn in the wind tunnel – a rarity at the time – resulting in a drag coefficient of 0.36cx, which was decidedly better than its predecessor’s 0.40, sharpened to the point it could claim a top speed of 300km/h (291 registered by the instruments of Quattroruote and Auto Motor und Sport on the Nuremberg motorway). Low, wide with its eye-catching air intakes in the doors to convey the air to the two radiators positioned on the sides of the passenger compartment like on a Formula 1 car. And that “backside” that was a couple of metres across and left everyone gobsmacked. Enclosed under the hood was a powerful 5-litre 12-cylinder boxer engine – even if in truth it is a 180° wide “V” – built entirely from light alloy that was also very wide, mounted on top of a second casting that contains the dry sump oil pan and transmission housing, making the mechanical block quite unique and rather unfriendly for maintenance. Power was 390bhp and 50Kgm of torque at 4500rpm. At the time, Quattroruote showered it with compliments, with particularly enthusiastic opinions of the engine (a true masterpiece of refined mechanical craftsmanship, it will without doubt occupy a place in history both for the way it excites and for the power it produces) as well as for its

The Ford Mustang is one of the great American sports stories.

acceleration (the times for 400 and 100 metres from a standing start are out of this world and among the best obtained by road cars and racing cars). Some sacrifices in comfort were necessary; “it is not designed for restful journeys” and it is “rather heavy to manoeuvre at low speeds, forcing the driver to use excessive strength”. But you couldn’t expect anything else from a mid-80s Ferrari. From a collecting standpoint, the first versions are currently preferred, rather than the less exciting, albeit more powerful, 512 TR and 512 M models.

The expressive power of the accentuated side grilles of the Testarossa unequivocally announces its great performance.

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Ford Mustang Here, perhaps a mistake for our young selectors, we have the Mustang from the 80s, which has absolutely nothing to do with McQueen’s steed from “Bullitt”. You will remember, however, that one of the examples used in the film – and that Steve McQueen himself tried to buy without success – was sold by Mecum at the beginning of the year from the stratospheric amount of 3,740,000 dollars (the video of the auction is on YouTube and we thoroughly recommend you watch it!). An absolute record for a Mustang. The fact remains that the pony car versions that came onto the market after “Bullitt” didn’t exactly exude much of that recently rediscovered original charm. Thus, starting from the second series from the 70s, the American sports car appeared trivial and soft. The worst of the bunch were the third series from the early 80s and later in the 90s and 2000s. Not even sifting through the Quattroruote test archive, do we find solace, since Ford’s coupé was never officially imported into Italy at the time, or to the major European markets for that matter, so it never fell into the hands of the testers from the esteemed magazine. From a collecting point of view, therefore, it’s far wiser to concentrate on the first series. Or maybe find some special variant, like those developed

by Carroll Shelby, a GT 350 for example, or perhaps one with special bodywork, such as a rare Zagato. Moving forwards, the fifth series started to get a little better and, towards the end of the 90s, it began to get its looks back, defined as “retro futurist” by Mays, vice president of the American giant, and a significantly improved driveability compared to the frivolous proposals from the previous years. The Mustang sports models also managed to capture the interest of fans from overseas with the latest modern classics, including the Shelby Mustang GT500 from 2007, Bullitt from 2008 (for the 40th anniversary of the film), V Boss 302 from 2013, and finally the lucky sixth generation (S-550) that first saw the light of day in 2014 and was built to celebrate 50 years from the start of production of the model. It goes without saying that it should always be chosen with the V8 engine rather than the more modest 6-cylinder or 4-cylinder variants it was recently equipped with... But now I think about it, it should not to be confused with today’s “pure electric” Mustang crossover. Oh my lord...

The revolutionary Countach, the 12-cylinder Lamborghini that replaced the Miura, during the test by the Argentine Formula 1 driver, Carlos Reutemann.

Lamborghini Countach “A one-of-a-kind car, flashy and aggressive. Almost a racing prototype, built by hand in very limited numbers, equipped with a very powerful 12-cylinder engine (375Bhp) capable of 315 km/h”. The year was 1982 and this is how Quattroruote introduced the road test of the legendary Lamborghini Countach S, making use, on this occasion, of an F1 driver. This time it fell to the Argentine driver, Carlos Reutemann. Designed by Bertone a decade earlier, at the hands of a truly-inspired Marcello Gandini, the “S” version of the Countach lost its periscope on the roof, but kept a very clean style that had evolved with the addition of the two “big ears” over the cockpit, allowing the powerful 4-litre V12 to breathe better (equipped with 6 Weber 40 DCOE dual carburettors) and wider wheel arches to fit the new P7 sports tyres (205/50 by 15” at the front and 345/45 by 15” at the rear). This model was extremely refined and, it should be remembered, was produced until 1990 when the “25th Anniversary” version was introduced to celebrate its incredible history. Once again,

taking notes from the Italian monthly magazine, we read: “in the Countach we find a front and rear axle derived from F1 and an arrangement of the mechanical components in such a way as to concentrate as much as possible of the masses at the centre of the car”. Indeed the original structural designs of the Emilian supercar placed the transmission inside the passenger compartment, between the two seats, mounting it in front of the engine for a more effective weight distribution. The wedge line designed to cut the air at its best in an era in which wind tunnels were still a long

way away guaranteed a maximum speed of over 300km/h. It is interesting to re-read Reutemann, regarding the behaviour on the road: “At the beginning of the corner there is considerable understeer which tends to make the car go straight; in the mid-section, however, it balances out with very limited drifts. But be careful at the exit: oversteer comes without warning. The Countach spins with decision”. To tame it you need the skill and dexterity of a Circus driver. But who wouldn’t do anything today to mistreat one of the most promising objects for tomorrow’s collectors? Within the dreams of “Generation Z” 241

so that the prices of the rarer versions are dangerously around the 100,000 euros mark (a Martini 5 in April 2019 was sold by RM Sothebys for 120,000 euros). And we’re not expecting it to stop rising anytime soon...

Peugeot 205 T16

The legendary Lancia Delta Integrale, heir to the magnificent heritage of the Italian manufacturer in the World Rally Championships.

Lancia Delta Integrale We are almost certain of this: the Lancia Delta Integrale is the last universally desired Italian car. Let us clarify this, without wishing to offend in the slightest Alfa Romeo, Ferrari, Lamborghini and, later on, Maserati, the Lancia Delta Integrale, especially the final Evo version, exerts all the charm of a “sex bomb” on anyone who encounters it. Thanks in no small part to the sporting victories, of course, with the five world rallies under its belt (not by the Evo, however) or perhaps to that coat of arms, which had been in the balance for years and that Marchionne himself described as a brand that “has no attractive capacity outside Italy” and that “has no history either in Europe or in the US”. Meanwhile, he had a Giallo Ginestra Evo in his garage. But let’s go straight to the opinion of Quattroruote which, in April 1992, published a comparison test with the very popular Toyota Celica Turbo “Sainz Edition” and the rare Nissan Sunny GTR. In addition to praising the look of the Deltone – “behind the wheel of this car, especially if it’s in a bright colour, there is absolutely no chance of you going unnoticed: the exasperated lateral bulges of the bodywork, the width of the tires and the striking front air intakes and the adjustable spoiler above the rear window take care of that” – the monthly magazine also highlights its refined character. 242 CARS

“ The real Delta Integrale is the one you get to know out on the road, preferably on fast mixed surfaces, full of curves and inclines. In these conditions, in fact, all the qualities of the sophisticated mechanics come out to play, which is an authentic concentration of excellent quality”. You will be hard pressed to find better words than that written about an Italian car over the following years, certainly not for a Lancia. A quick glance at the Quattroruote score card fortifies the opinion of the car even more, 5 stars (maximum) for acceleration, brakes and road holding; 4 stars for the engine and stability. In short, a racing car that’s still extremely fascinating and refined to this day. So much

These were the years of excess, perfectly embodied by the legendary “Group B” cars. 500Bhp racing monsters, weighing less than 1,000Kgs, which projected rally cars to unimaginable levels. And they made the cars uncontrollable... A crazy race to increase performance, interrupted only by a very long and tragic list of accidents. The last to fly away in flames, at the Tour de Corse of 2nd May 1986 was the Finnish driver Henri Toivonen, together with his Italian-American co-pilot Sergio Cresto, in a Lancia Delta S4. This was the final straw. From that moment, down came the curtain. Without masking the obvious pinch of cynicism, it is also for this reason that the road versions of those bombs – for homologation it was necessary to produce a series of at least 200 examples – are highly sought after and kept tucked away in the most important collections. In the case of the Peugeot 205, it had absolutely no relation to the GTI hatchback, and sent boys into raptures and dragged them out of their Golf cockpits. “A two-seater, four-wheel drive berlinetta with a mid-mounted, turbocharged 1800cc 16-valve twin-shaft engine good for 200Bhp” wrote the

Peugeot’s stroke of genius: launching the popular 205 by presenting the 16-valve Turbo version that immediately won Rallies and big Raids such as the Paris-Dakar.

Over 12 successful years, this model characterized by the accentuated muscles of its side wheel arches and the small rear wing, was offered in four different versions, all equally fascinating.

Quattroruote magazine, introducing the road test of the street-legal version of the French “monster”. “The 205 Turbo 16 is an exhilarating toy, especially on surfaces with poor grip, where it provides performance beyond the reach of traditional cars, while maintaining excellent levels of safety”. In short, traction is the main feature of the Turbo 16, as well as that brutal “racing car” spirit with which it transmits driving sensations. “The mechanical noise at all engine speeds is also notable, mainly due to the transmission and the engine being placed practically right behind the passenger compartment,” continues Quattroruote, making anyone who gets behind the wheel feel like Vatanen. More sensational, if truth be told, than authentic performance, which brings a smile to your face when you read it today: 0-100km/h in 6.6 seconds, maximum speed 212 km/h, less than a modern Abarth 595. However, the trophy line up of the 205 T16 in the 1985 world championship is an impressive one: seven wins out of ten races, champagne and the title! And if you haven’t already done so, go and watch videos of Dakar or Pikes Peak. They’ll make the hairs on your arms stand on edge. It feels like a geological era has passed since those days.

Porsche 911 Turbo (930) “The most expensive and fastest series production Porsche ever” wrote Quattroruote in the summary of the enthusiastic road test published at the end of 1980. And we can add the first extreme evolution of the original 911, enlarged and easily spotted thanks to a dramatic rear wing that transformed it into yet another absolute masterpiece from Zuffenhausen, and which has also risen in the rankings to the point where you can no longer find one for less than 200,000 euros (225,000 dollars) for the first 3.0 example. But why is the first turbocharged 911, which is clearly inspired by endurance racing cars, so memorable? Simply because at the time it introduced performance and driving emotions that had never been seen in a “road” car: “the acceleration is thunderous – said Quattroruote – the Turbo jumps to 100 kilometres per hour in 4.8 seconds” – consider that a Ferrari 308 GTB at the time was two seconds slower. Merit, it goes without saying, of the “flat six” which started out with 3 litres before growing to 3.3 with 300Bhp and 42Kgm of torque and considered

“double-natured”: that is “up to 3,000rpm it is docile, elastic, even silent”; then “from 3,000rpm up it transforms into a Grand Prix engine, capable of acceleration that ‘crushes’ (literally) both driver and passenger into their backrests. Excellent brakes too, which will go on to become a benchmark for the car manufacturer.” A defect? It’s not for everyone: “the Turbo is a sportscar that makes those behind the wheel feel uncomfortable, because its capabilities are so high, only the most experienced drivers are able to exploit them to the fullest”. In other words: if you do not respect it, you’ll soon find those six cylinders facing the wrong way... In conclusion, are the youngtimers part of a passing or expiring phenomenon destined to involve other, slightly more modern, cars that in time will become classics? Personally, I don’t think so. Indeed, I believe that this category is in some ways the last category destined for collecting as we understand it today. Modern classics are a different story entirely. A story which, in many ways, has yet to be written.

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A restoration studio is like a beauty farm where nothing is overlooked. This Alfa Romeo 1900 “La Fleche� Vignale one-off is well on its way towards perfection.

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Here are the rules of a perfect restoration From the various doctrines to small tricks that transform a restoration into a value. A story told step by step by a leading proponent of this world. by Duccio Lopresto

Here are the rules of a perfect restoration 245


ome cars more than others are authentic works of art, they deserve to be treated and respected as exhibits. Almost with cult status. This explains why it is necessary to preserve them in perfect condition, and to safeguard, as much as possible, their original state. How? By relying on recognized experts and masters of restoration who know the right techniques to apply and who are capable of reconstructing the history of the car, something that is vital to restoring its original splendour. There are several trains of thought on this matter. There are those who prefer cars to be restored completely and wholly: in other words refurbishing it. Until a few years ago, this type of approach was the one that stood out the most at many important international events. There are, however, those who adopt a different approach: to preserve the car with all of its defects and history, while conserving all of its original components. In other words, enhancing and narrating its uniqueness, almost as if it were a story. In medio stat virtus? There are those who are convinced that the perfect restoration is one that recovers the important components using the same techniques used by classical art restorers and replaces those that are no longer usable. What is certain, something the entire classic car world agrees on, is that the soul of the car lies in its history, in its past, in the signs and imperfections that contribute towards making it unique and outstanding. It is no coincidence that a car preserved in its original condition is the one that commands the highest prices on the market. One look at any recent auction results will confirm this time and time again. If the technical aspects of the restoration are important, the research phase plays an equally fundamental role: history, documentation, stories, photos and any additional data regarding the car. 246 CARS

And then there’s the sociological and cultural aspect too, and who better to reveal what work needs to be carried out to make a car truly excellent than the restoration grand maestro himself, Corrado Lopresto? The secret? Use the car’s originality to enhance it, doing as much as possible to preserve it and carefully follow each phase of the work.

PHASE 1 A thorough check of originality The first phase of any restoration begins with a preliminary investigation of the car. First of all, it is necessary to verify that the engine and chassis numbers are correct and that they match those that appear on the manufacturer’s official register, which testifies that a certain number plate corresponds to a certain type of car with a specific chassis and engine number. Checking the chassis numbers is a fundamental step because sometimes even a car that looks perfect, with certified documents, can turn out to be a re-punched chassis and, therefore, by no means original. The number, in fact, may have been punched with the original tools, making it very hard to verify the originality. By using a very special scanning instrument, which performs a metal X-ray, it is possible to understand whether the number is actually the correct period number or not. Finally, and by no means less important, a helping hand from the local vehicle registration authorities often helps reconstruct the history and ownership changes of the vehicle.

PHASE 2 Preliminary inspection If everything is OK, a thorough examination of the overall condition of the vehicle is carried out in the body shop. The proportions of the bodywork are checked, the paint colour is observed to understand whether it is original or has been repainted, the doors are opened to examine the seals and the closures as

PHASE 3 Historical investigation and documentation research well as the panel areas. It is also essential to carefully observe the conditions of the interior, in the hope that it is original and intact and not a replica. If it is not authentic, it is valuable to have the seat base, which can be used to recreate them correctly, with the right proportions. By opening the bonnet, you can carefully observe the engine, check the condition and get a feel for the amount and type of work that needs to be done. Obtaining historical documentation and research into any facts or stories related to the car is fundamental in order to carry out a flawless restoration, since it is possible to uncover particular details of the car by carefully observing period photos and documents, including otherwise unknown characteristics, such as the original colour, particular elements of the bodywork, and of course indications regarding the originality of particular pieces. Furthermore, it is important to reconstruct the sequence of the owners of the car because, going back in time, it is possible to reconstruct the complete history of the car: often the older owners have their own records of the time and can remember particular stories. In the recent restoration of the Miura, we reconstructed its chronological history completely, but certain details were missing. Through the use of an investigative company, it was possible to trace some passages and documents which were fundamental for the restoration. A true spy story.

Before starting any work, it is fundamental to carry out a painstakingly thorough research on the history of the automobile that documents its originality and the various changes of ownership.

In addition, going through the period papers at the Polo Storico Lamborghini, Lopresto discovered the writing of the test driver of the time who had written some notes on the back of an original technical sheet, including the words “Montare sedili sui”, written in the local dialect, or rather reassemble the seats. This note was key to the investigation, as it proved without doubt that the seats (originally white) had been dismantled and replaced with black leather replacements to shoot the famous opening scene of the film “The Italian Job” so Here are the rules of a perfect restoration 247

The search for the right colour, shades and effects and the scrupulous study of materials and fabrics are essential prerequisites for a top quality result.

as not to ruin the white ones that had been ordered by the customer who received it shortly after shooting was completed. Once the filming was over, the technicians simply replaced the original white seats, as written in the note. This constitutes further and irrefutable proof that the Miura #3586 was the same one used in the film.

PHASE 3A Disassembly of the car Alongside the historical investigation phase, the car should be brought to the bodywork to be disassembled into all of its separate components (bodywork, engine, chassis, interior etc.) and photographed and categorised, also considering specific reassembly peculiarities. Every single element, down to the very last screw, should be checked to see if everything is original. Each element is separated and sent to a specific specialist, who will take care of their respective part of the restoration process.

called in jargon a “false assembly�, that is to say the procedure in which the coachbuilder, together with the metalworker, dismantles the car completely, making all the necessary changes and correcting all the lines and proportions of the bodywork. Subsequently, by tightening and filing the metal of the bodywork, all imperfections are eliminated, and the bodywork can be checked to ensure that all alignments are perfect. Once the bodywork is ready, it is dismantled once again, and the pieces can finally be painted. The preparation phase for painting is a very important one: it is necessary to prepare the sides of the car with the doors mounted. Once assembled, the doors are filled together with the side panels and everything is finished with a very thin coat of primer. Before that, the bodywork is sanded and checked to ensure all the elements are perfectly aligned. In short, the coachbuilder adjusts the proportions of the vehicle with the car fully assembled, not focusing on the individual components of the bodywork (doors, mudguards, etc.). This is a trick used by the greatest coachbuilders. The result certainly pays off, as there won’t be any imperfections in the shape of the vehicle afterwards.

PHASE 4 Colour examination, vehicle preparation and painting As is often the case, over the years the car has been repainted and is in a non-original colour. For this reason, it is necessary to conduct thorough research in order to find the correct body colour. In this case, by searching in the colour charts at the Lamborghini factory in Sant'Agata Bolognese, it was possible to trace the original colour, since the colour of the car before the restoration was incorrect. The countercheck was performed by removing the headlights. A small trace of the first colour underneath these revealed the original tone and this sample was used to recreate the correct colour. Once the original colour had been found, the bodywork was prepared for painting. First of all, it was stripped. The door and hood closures were tested, all the mechanisms and profiles were checked, and any necessary adjustments and fillings were carried out. In this phase they do what is 248 CARS

PHASE 5 Interior restoration The interior is often in a recoverable condition. In most cars, even if at first glance it seems ruined and damaged by the course of time, it is possible to use techniques to save the original interior and preserve its soul. The process is as follows. The interior is completely disassembled from the vehicle and separated into all its individual components, which are then washed carefully using only mildly aggressive soaps. Then work is carried out on the seat shell, which must be restored, painted and welded in case it has been damaged. The springs are checked and adjusted, as well as the padding. Finally, the leather, linings and fabric are analysed to understand whether they can be salvaged or not. As far as possible, everything must be done to preserve the original materials. In the case of the Miura, the interior turned out to be the

original one. The seats were washed, cleaned and then strengthened in their weak points with silicone injections and reassembled back into the car. Thanks to these techniques, the original white interior of The Italian Job Miura were saved.

Every detail of the engine must be treated as a jewel and restored to both its aesthetic and technical perfection.

PHASE 6 Restoration of the mechanics, engine and electrical systems The restoration of the steering, mechanics and engine starts by firing up the engine at the work bench. Once the overall condition has been ascertained, it is then completely dismantled and all the individual components overhauled, including the exhaust manifolds, carburettors and related pipes and linkages, the starter motor, alternator, cables, spark plugs and distributor, clutch pack and flywheel, valve covers, and gear lever bulkheads. After doing this, the restorers move on to painting, galvanizing and weather sealing of the metal parts. The next job is restoring and adjusting the tension of the timing chain and subsequent painting of the monobloc and related parts. Once this is complete, the engine is reassembled and fired up once again on the bench for the pre-carburation and the necessary checks. The electrical system in many cases requires a complete renovation, while preserving the original gauges on the instrument panel.

PHASE 7 Final assembly, test drive, vehicle ready At this point, all the parts are sent back to the coachbuilder, who assembles the engine, mechanics, interior, bodywork, electrical systems and finishes the last details of the car. A final road test is performed to test the car on the road with the mechanic who worked on the engine, to check that everything is perfect and fine-tuned. The checks are scrupulous and very precise, and everything must work to perfection. Once this is done, the car is ready to be delivered. Here are the rules of a perfect restoration 249

PHASE 8 The icing on the cake Each car brings with it a unique story. Sometimes this story is a famous one, like that of the Miura #3586 used in the film The Italian Job: in the opening scene, Rossano Brazzi, the famous Italian actor of the time, wears a pair of glasses that are no longer on the market. As a final touch, Lopresto decided to have these particular glasses rebuilt. How? By hand using his craftsmen, based on the photos and videos of the film. An exact and faithful reconstruction which, at the Concorsi d’eleganza, the judges will listen to with interest and will not forget when it’s time for the final verdict. One final but important piece to add to the perfect work, is to interview and photograph the professionals who carried out the restoration. At the moment, it may not seem particularly useful but in 20 or 30 years’ time, when the car is taken to a competition, knowing that meticulous restoration work was carried out in 2019 will be an important element in the history of a masterpiece that will contribute to its value.

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A car that is perfectly restored in full respect of its originality is always destined to make big waves at the big international events. If there are also historical details, such as the glasses used by the actor who drove the Miura in the film The Italian Job, the score will be even higher.

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Bertone’s secrets

Discovering the story of ten cars, from the idea to their final configuration. by Mike Robinson

Courtesy of

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The difference between a single design or document and an archive lies in passing f rom a precise vision – that document in that specif ic moment – to a more dynamic perspective, which covers long periods of time and becomes history in the process. When Corrado Lopresto and Alessandro Fabiani clinched Bertone’s operational archives at auction, the ones that gather together the various stages of development of a model, they discovered much more than an entire world. Bertone, as a matter of fact, did not limit his business to just cars but, more broadly, to industrial design. The reorganization and classif ication took months and, today, The Key can f inally open a window onto the development methodology applied to ten models of considerable interest, designed under the design direction of Marc Deschamps, Luciano d’Ambrosio and Giuliano Biasio. The analysis spans the entire process, f rom the designer’s initial sketch and preliminary drawings to the f irst scaled-down style model and 1:1 scale model, and f inally the completed project. In some fortunate cases the model was presented at the various international motor shows or approved as a production car. In less fortunate cases it remained secret and conf idential. Mike Robinson, one of the world’s leading experts in Bertone, as well as the brand’s f inal Director of Design before its painful closure, accompanies us on a journey to discover the working method that has left countless marks on our lives as car lovers. The Key wishes to thank Corrado Lopresto and Alessandro Fabiani for the opportunity to examine these precious documents.

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Mazda MX-81 Aria – 1981 | A room with a view In 1981 Mazda gave Nuccio Bertone carte blanche to design a concept car that was to be built around the mechanics of the MX 323. Bertone took the donor car apart and rebuilt it with different proportions and large glass surfaces, hence the name of the car: “Aria”. Designed by Marc Dechamps, the car was a small (3.94 m long), sporty and compact four-seater coupé with a few features from the Volvo Tundra Concept, designed in 1979 by Marcello Gandini in Bertone. It had a CX of 0.29, which was remarkably low, particularly for the times. The interior was very innovative as per Bertone tradition, and offered an extraordinary surprise: at the centre of the rectangular steering wheel was a screen. Not a modern TFT or anything like that, but a good old CRT mini TV that, when switched on, still looks modern even today, 39 years later! Mazda went on to replicate certain design elements of the MX-81 Aria, such as its flat front and retractable headlights, on some of their standard production cars.

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All the phases of the creation of the Aria prototype: from the drawings to the assembly, up to the final model.

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Range Rover P38 – 1986 | Challenging Her Majesty The story of the Range Rover P38 begins when the Italians designers from Pininfarina, Italdesign and Bertone, together with Brits John Hefferman and Ken Greenley, and the Land Rover Design Centre headed by George Thomson all participated in this important design competition aimed at creating a new look for the Range Rover P38. The five 1/4 scale models they designed were all built on the imminent LSE chassis dimensions featuring a longer, 2745mm wheelbase. After the proposals were reviewed, only the Bertone proposal and the in-house Land Rover Design Centre proposal were selected and transformed into full-sized models. Then the market research phase began, and customer clinics were organized to discover which of the two designs would win. The Bertone design was judged not “Range Rover” enough. In short, the more conservative in-house design proposed by the Land Rover design team was preferred. This was no surprise to George Thomson: “The other designs provided a lot of inspiration, but our familiarity with the product and its customers gave us the advantage.” Bertone had to settle for the satisfaction of having “beaten” all the other external rivals.

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Softness and harmony for the range Rover P38 proposal.

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Lotus Emotion – 1991 | English with a French accent The Emotion concept car was unveiled at Detroit International Auto Show in January 1991. Based on the chassis of the Lotus Esprit, it had no engine. This is because it was originally a design proposal entered in the competition to design the future Bugatti EB110. However, when Bertone’s proposal was rejected in favour of a design by Marcello Gandini, who had left Bertone in 1979, Duchamp did some light restyling in order to propose it as a Lotus concept car. While there are no records of how Lotus reacted to the Emotion, a Bertone press release revealed that the intention had been to take a fresh look at the Lotus image and interpret it freely in a more modern vein. Naturally, given its background, the Emotion has the proportions of a supercar: 4 m long; 1.9 m wide and just 1 m tall. In addition, with its “cab forward” architecture finely chiselled sides and integrated adjustable rear spoiler, Bertone’s proposal has all the features of a decidedly sporty car. Originally metallic grey-green, it was later painted bright yellow.

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On the single backbone chassis of the Lotus Emotion, Bertone developed a style that is consistent with the brand’s design philosophy.

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Bertone Z.E.R. 1,2,3,4 – 1992-9394 | Less resistance, more performance Way back in 1992, Bertone, with its Bertone Blitz, started the world of electric performance vehicles that we know today. Open topped with two staggered seats and vertical doors, like those of the Countach, the Blitz showed that electric vehicles did not necessarily have to be like golf buggies. Its acceleration was spectacular. That same year, designer, engineer and inventor Eugenio Pagliano, together with Oscar de Vito, began working on a prototype called the Bertone Z.E.R., the acronym standing for “Zero Emission Record”. The car they created, absolutely beautiful, boasted an exceptional CX of 0.115. It was driven by the energy of 36 lead batteries (which seems laughable today) and two electric motors. This car was nothing short of amazing! In 1994, it smashed five world records at the Nardò race track in Apulia: 1) 100 km at 197.587 km/h 2) 199.882 km in 1 hour 3) 1 km at a speed of 301.515 km/h 4) Top speed of 303.977 km/h 5) Fuel range at 120 km/h 465 km Thirty years ago, Bertone, Pagliano and de Vito showed us the way forward with these vehicles: minimum air resistance and low weight. It is an example we would do well to follow today.

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The pursuit of maximum efficiency, with the aim of conquering records, led to the careful weight distribution of the electric-powered Z.E.R. Below, the parachute brake system in action.

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Lancia Kayak – 1995 | Old-school aristocracy The Lancia Kayak, presented at the 1995 Geneva Motor Show, was a modern take on the classic proportions of the Italian-style coupé. Slender, elegant and compact, it overcame many of the aesthetic inconsistencies that characterized its progenitor, the Kappa, such as the extremely narrow tracks and the excessively long front and rear overhangs. Although this prototype by Luciano D’Ambrosio was a true masterpiece, Fiat management did not appreciate it, preferring, instead, to make a small modification to the rear of the sedan and thus create the Kappa Coupé. D’Ambrosio’s greatest achievement was combining the long anterior hood with the very short, sloping tail. Overall, he created the effect of pushing the body and nose of the car forward, thereby imparting meaning and elegance to its lines. The only question mark concerns the horizontal grille, which was widened to the point of covering the headlights.

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The magnificent coherence between the original design and the production model and the elegant rear part of a Lancia that deserved a chance on the market.

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Opel MadMaxx – 1995 | A little chameleon For many years GM and Bertone worked together at the Bertone headquarters in Caprie, near Turin. This collaboration brought together several GM designers (from Opel, Buick, etc.) who, albeit working in the Bertone offices, designed just as they would if they were in Rßsselsheim, Shanghai, or elsewhere. Their creations were built directly by Bertone modellers and prototypists, who were among the best in the world. Maxx was one such project. In 1995 Opel unveiled three micro concept cars for city use: the Maxx 2 door, Maxx 4 door, and Mad Maxx, which was a micro speedster with just two seats. Opel wanted to leave no one in any doubt that it had adopted a bold and innovative approach in designing Maxx. The fact that most of its panels were fixed with screws and snap closures meant that Maxx had a readily modifiable configuration. Its stable light alloy structure was constructed with extruded aluminium profiles and formed a kind of externally visible cage. The idea behind Maxx was to enable Opel to turn the model into a broader and more versatile range, with two or four doors or with four or even six seats.

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Bertone has studied many versions of Opel micro cars. This open version is decidedly intriguing.

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Alfa Romeo Sportut - 1997 | Premature birth The story behind the birth of the Alfa Romeo Sportut is a pretty strange one. The project began life as the Opel G90 SUV, not as an Alfa Romeo! When Opel turned it down, it changed colour and became Alfa Romeo’s first concept SUV – but it started out as an Opel! Bertone took the concept G90 SUV turned down by Opel and transformed it into an Alfa by combining it with the Alfa Romeo 145 platform and adding two unusual mirrors on the front fenders, turning it into a different car. It was then painted red with silver bumpers. The Sportut was an exercise in styling yet the vehicle was perfectly capable of running. Despite being presented with this wonderful opportunity, Fiat chose not to pursue the idea of a small SUV, deeming it to be revolutionary and costly. But history does the talking: six years later, in 2003, Alfa Romeo returned to the SUV idea with its concept car Kamal, which, in part, was the inspiration for the current Stelvio. And this is to say nothing of the upcoming Tonale, which, 23 years on, will be the same size as the Sportut.

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Virtue out of necessity: an ingenious project originally developed for Opel but never realized, then adapted for a small Alfa that never reached the market.

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Oldsmobile O4 – 2001 The O4 represents an unhappy chapter in the history of Oldsmobile – the final one. GM had given the media a preview of its 2001 concepts a month before the North American International Auto Show in January. These included the Oldsmobile O4, a small European-style roadster. Unfortunately, the end of the division meant that the diminutive O4 became GM O4 but was presented at the show in the worst possible way: it was hidden under a staircase on the back of the gigantic stand with no press releases. The car was said to be aimed at fun-loving young people with its blend of international design and engineering. The design had been a collaborative effort between GM and Bertone. The roof featured two carbon fibre Targa tops that came off and could be stowed behind the rear seats. The rear window could also retract behind the rear seats. The name “O4” meant “oxygen” and “seating for four people”. In addition, paradoxically, the 2001 O4 had a very modern frontal design, similar in many ways to today’s electric models: no grille, and thin horizontal headlights. Too bad we lost it.

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A sensational case of lost opportunity: the magnificent Oldsmobile O4 ready for production just as the brand was taken off the market.

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Porsche 989 - 986 – 1997 Bertone has worked with numerous car manufacturers, including Porsche. The first project was the 911 spider/ roadster, a one-off prototype commissioned by an American Porsche dealer and presented at the 1966 Geneva Motor Show. The second, a concept car called the Porsche Karisma, presented at the 1994 Geneva Motor Show: a 4-seater sedan based on the 911 that anticipated the Panamera of 2002 and the Taycan of 2020. In 1997, after the Karisma success, Porsche asked Bertone to participate in two secret projects called 989 (the new 911) and 986 ( the new Boxster). Two, 1:1 scale style models were created, featuring a classic Porsche design for the front. For the rear, Bertone introduced some new and radical proposals, which differed greatly from the design of the German manufacturer, although they remained very classic. In June 1989 Porsche introduced the 911 964 series, made by the Porsche Design Studio which won this race against Bertone. The 989 project dates back to 1988 with an attempt to build a 4-seater, 4-door 911, which was later cancelled. The 986 instead was created in 1993, with the prototype presented at the LA Auto Show, which went on to become the brand new Boxster launched in 1996.

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The difficult role of Porsche’s sparring partner for the birth of the 989 - 986 models. Bertone innovated without betraying, but the strict law of Porsche continuity prevailed.

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BMW 5 – 2000 series For an external design consultant like Bertone, working for a company like BMW is an honour, especially when you have to compete with designers of the likes of Chris Bangle, BMW Design Director since 1992, and architect of the formidable transformation that brought BMW to the pinnacle of sales among the big Germans. The 5 Series, designed by Davide Archangeli in 2000 and launched in 2003, had allowed Bertone to work with BMW designers for five years, developing numerous ideas and projects for them. In this exclusive case, Bertone was asked to work on a new sedan that would help increase market share within the sector. The proposal presented lines that differed from the classic BMWs of the 90s, introducing a more modern and risky design. This concept, called “Kapp Topp� was developed in 2000 but never saw the light of day. BMW studied the same project with a design from Bangle, who convinced the German manufacturer to give up the Bertone proposal. The choice of the company was the right one, given the worldwide success of the E60. Such radical transformations rarely come from the outside, because too much internal buy-in is needed to convince the leaders to embrace such profound changes. And Bertone simply could not muster this strength.

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In 2000 Bertone was asked to participate in the new BMW 5 Series project. The result was a strong stimulus for BMW who then opted for the in-house design proposal.

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Imprint The Key - Top of the Classic Car World is the official magazine of The Classic Car Trust and is published annually. Publisher The Classic Car Trust reg., Pflugstrasse 10/12, 9490 Vaduz, Principality of Liechtenstein Editorial Board Fritz Kaiser Antonio Ghini Duccio F. Lopresto Editor-in-Chief Antonio Ghini Market Intelligence Duccio F. Lopresto 21iLAB Translations James Knight Michael Walsh Kate Singleton Proofreading Coordination Katharina Verling Project Coordinator Elisa Airaghi Pascal Rossi Art Director Pascal König Photo research and coordination Stefano Beloni Printing and Bookbinding Kösel GmbH & Co. KG, Altusried-Kruzell

Contact The Classic Car Trust reg. Pflugstrasse 10/12 9490 Vaduz Principality of Liechtenstein +423 236 52 22


Copyrights & Credits

21iLAB 1000 Miglia Srl Alamy Stock Alberto Dedè Andrea Gorzegno Archivio Bertone / Lopresto Archivio Quattroruote ARCHIVIO ZAGATO - ZED Milano Srl Blue Passion Photography Bruno des Gayets Carter Berg Centro Documentazione Alfa Romeo Cici Muldoon Consiglio Manni Courtesy of Cavallino Classic courtesy of Mr. Fabio Campetti – Iso Millennium Daimler AG David Brady Dominique Aubert Federico Bajetti Flavio Campetti – Iso Millennium Franco Meiners Archive from the book “Ferrari Prototype Era by Alan Henry” Gabriela Noris Gerard Brown Getty Images Henry Fletcher ISORIVOLTA: the men, the machines iStock Jerry Wyszatycki Julien Mahiels Karissa Hosek / Courtesy of RM Sotheby’s Kimball Studios Lopresto Collection Lukas Schnurrenberger Marco Zamponi Mark Reinwald Martyn Goddard Massimo Grandi Max Sarotto Michael Furman Michael Ives MOG Museo Nicolis Nanette Schärf Nigel Harniman onemaison RIKAKO KASAMA Paolo Carlini Paul Lund Paul Russell Personal archive of Bernard Vermeylen Peter Singhof Plan Image Remi Dargegen Renato Zacchia Photography Robert Grischek Roberto Carrer Rossocorsa Samuele Colombo Silvan Dietrich Simeone Foundation The Classic Car Trust The Peninsula Hotel Group Toby Adamson Trunk Archive - photographer Pamela Hanson

11, 58-59, 111-112, 132, 172, 190-193, 196-197, 202 204 90 78 4 253-273 234-242 79-81, 84-85 215 8 12, 14 120-131 184, 191 55 216, 220 78 136 220 112-119 244-248 82 161 161 160 206, 210-215 87, 222 159, 162 82, 86-87 88, 171, 224, 227 219 171, 200, 203, 205 83 180 99 49 160 18, 21 150-157 133-139 10, 42-57 17, 20 183 161 158, 161 159, 163 72, 73 193 165-169 68-74, 170 188 20 222-233 221 158 64, 82, 251 22-41 76 156-164 209, 211 247-250 50 93 46, 177 60-66 171, 178, 187 16




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