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THAI QUANG BUI 842574 Joshua Russo - Group 5





CONTENT 1.0 IDEATION 1.1 Measured Drawings 1.2 Analysis 1.2 Reconfiguration 1.3 Sketch designs 2.0 DESIGN 2.1 Design development intro 2.2 Design proposal v.1 2.3 Precedent research 2.4 Design proposal v.2 2.5 Prototype & Testing Effects 3.0 FABRICATION 3.1 Development Introduction 3.2 Design development & Fabrication of prototype v2 3.3 Design development & Fabrication of prototype v3 3.4 Precedent Research 3.5 Prototype development & Optimisation 3.6 Final Digital model 3.7 Fabrication sequence 3.8 Assembly Drawing 3.9 Completed Skin 3.10 Official Skin 4.0 REFLECTION 5.0 APPENDIX 5.1 Credits 5.2 Bibliography 5


0.0. INTRODUCTION DESIGN BRIEF Design a volumetric wearable second skin that defines your interpretational response to the concept of personal space and its relationship to the surroundings






Elevation Scale 1:2


Elevation (When 3/4 open) Scale 1:2

Section 1 Scale 1:2

Plan (When 3/4 Open) Scale 1:2

ANALYSIS Thechosen object is a paper lantern, which is constructed by glueing many layers of very thin semi-circle panels on top of each other along horizontal lines as demonstrated in the diagram on the right. When folded / closed, it simply has the shape of a semi-circle with the diameter of 300mm, which can be easily measured by scale ruler. However, when it is opened, by rotating the paper panels around their axis, the object forms a spherical shape of a lantern. Therefore, the method of scanning/photocopying to take measurements on tracing paper unsuitable. The distance between the comb was measured using scale ruler again (picture on the right) based on section drawing 2.

Top View Opened: 180

Side View Opened

Perspective View Construction Diagram

Top View Closed.

Top View Opened: 90
















The reconfigured object was created using 4 cells that are inspired by cell 1. Cell 1 is taken directly from the object and tested out to see the effect of panel and fold. Cell 2 is when an adjustment was made, with the attempt to create different angles so that it is easier to expand 3D into space by multiplying these forms. Cell 2 allows movements in two directions along the folds. Therefore, it could possibly become necessary in positions where movements are essential just as joints and connection points. Multiplying cell 2 can create volume but the


outcome could possibly be similar to the original object. Cell 3 is the same as cell 2 but it does not allow any movements as there is a panel/ surface lies along the folds that resists folding forces. Cell 4 is basically cell 3 that is separated into two halves to create diversity so that it is easier to create exciting composition. Lastly, cell 5 is inspired from cell 3 but some panels are removed so that it allows modifications. The reconfigured object is created by glueing these cells to create volume.




Thai Bui Wong De Lester Xiaojin Huang




Personal space can be defined as the privacy zone of an individual. Where spatial violations into the space may result in the discomfort of the individual. This self-boundary of a person is determined greatly by individual distance, or the characteristic spacing between human beings. Therefore, personal space is not an absolute figure, but rather it alters depending on the relationship between individuals in different circumstances and surroundings. We decided to address the idea of a second skin with a design that responses to the idea of personal space in a very specific situation. Based on personal experience, our design focuses on an area of the body where spatial invasions happen quite often, which is the shoulder. To cater the need of such personal space, concepts of protective, edgy, abstract and quirky is considered.




To avoid body interaction around the arm/shoulder, which is an invasion into personal space that is often taken for granted. Friends and peers usually consider a nice simple pat on the arm/ shoulder a friendly meeting and greeting gesture. Nevertheless, we find this area significantly vulnerable as a consequence of over familiarity. Thus, for people who dislike this kind of association, they may also attempt to be friendly and conceal their discomfort. Therefore, that can

the concept of a sharp and edgy second skin extend and protect the vulnerable area is formed.

The second design was considered in the same manner as the first one,: focusing on the shoulder and upper back area but with a different form. The shape and pattern of the design derived from experimenting directly with the honeycomb lantern object and its cut-outs. The group saw the possibility of creating volume and dimension when utitlising the lantern to create the form by rotating cut-outs in different directions, which could possible result in variations of spontenous forms.


Proposed design #1 was ideally taken from sketch model #1 and further developed. We focused on the geometric aspects of the four small folded cells and the interactions between them. Since the main characteristics of the sketch model #1 was being sharp, edgy and free-form, the development idea for proposed design #1 is to control the four types of cell and refining the composition to create a protective design. The structure is consisted of two main parts: the seven arms wrapping around the shoulder/arm/neck area acting as a second skin, and the pentagon shield at the shoulder joint connecting all the arms.



Cell 2

Cell 5

Cell 3

Cell number 2 was used in positions where movements of the arm/ shoulder joints are necessary and cell 3, 4 and 5 were mostly for purely forming volume. We further developed the design and combine a new system into our design. The connections between cells were no longer just simply involve folding and gluing but also incorporated with section and profile connections.

A module is created by connecting four pieces of cell number four to one piece of cell number two (moving cell), and each arm is created by connecting a few modules together. Therefore, the amplitude of the arms can be adjusted to adapt with different situations. Every connection of proposed design #1 is slotting, to incorporate with the assigned section and profile system.

Geometrically, the multiple prisms shapes slotted together in alternate sequence forms a sharp and edgy composition in an overshape of ‘an arm’. Multiple arms attached to a pentagonal geometry cell defines the volumetric aspect of the skin, adressing to the personal space brief. The panel and fold of the triangular surfaces forms the individual modular parts, while it defines volume with sections of the volume.



Proposed design #2 was derived from the idea of sketch model #2 and further developed. After doing experiments with the honeycomb lantern, we were very interested in the possibility of creating volume and dimension when utilising the rotations to create the form. Therefore, the structure of the design allows a lot of modifications, which allow us to form various patterns and layers in order to emphasise on the unusual and random aspects. As a whole, the composition is made out of five complex curved surfaces with different sizes, different amplitudes and transparency levels, covering the shoulder/arm/neck, acting as a second skin that focuses on the criteria of visually discouraging to avoid interactions.


DESIGN PROPOSAL V.2 Proposed design #2 was derived from the idea of sketch model #2 and further developed. After doing experiments with the honeycomb lantern, we were very interested in the possibility of creating volume and dimension when utilising the rotations to create the form. Therefore, the structure of the design allows a lot of modifications, which allow us to form various patterns and layers in order to emphasise on the unusual and random aspects. As a whole, the composition is made out of five complex curved surfaces with different sizes, different amplitudes and transparency levels, covering the shoulder/arm/neck, acting as a second skin that focuses on the criteria of visually discouraging to avoid interactions.







Vossoir Cloud - Iwamotoscott Architecture #Vault, #Shell, #FoldedGeometry Voussoir Cloud has the structural concept of a system of vaults that rely on each other to retain the compressive form. Each vault is comprised of a Delaunay tessellation that confounds the structural logics - greater cell density of connective modules, come together at the bases and at the vault edges to form ribs. What really draw our attention to the design was the three dimensional petals or reconstituted “voussoirs” that make up the arches. In the material strategy category of Iwamotoscott Architecture’s page, the petals are described that they are formed by folding thin paper-like materials along curved seams, which is very similar to the creation method of the five cells that were used to create our first sketch model.



After testing the methods to create volume using 4 types of folded cells mentioned in the blog on 2 different types of paper materials, we concluded that eventhough this strategy could create volume, it is very difficult to control the overall composition as the connection between cells are not controlled and tested on a more suitable computer program. Also, the materials did not give enough strength to the flanges to bulge out, which results in an unstable model.

However, drawing good aspects of the design, we really like how the arrangement could leave a lot of free space on the inside, as the folded cells are not as volumetric comparing to our cells. Furthermore, the curved egdes of the cells create openess and allow transparency to the composition. which could possibly an aspect to be applied to the design, since it allows people to see through and figure out the structure and categorise it only as something quirky but not dangerous.



Digital Weave - Iwamotoscott Architecture #Transparency, #Concertina, #Corrugated Digital Weave was designed for the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art Contemporary Extension. Because the project was constructed to be showcased for one night only, it had to be installed and de-installed onsite in a matter of hours. Therefore, the design engages in constructional and material investigations for such a transitory condition. It can be described as a concertina-like structure that can be compressed to a fraction of the full size. A series of woven ribs, riveted together by aluminum plates and sandwiched around an inexpensive translucent corrugated plastic sign material. They slot into the plywood floor, forming two semi-enclosed wrapped volumes in the interior of the museum. The main reason why we find Digital Weave inspirational to our design is because the structure successfully delivers the desire of creating an atmosphere larger than the installation space, which is a strategy that satisfied our respond to personal space. Even though the ribs were all fabricated digitally to a very high precision, they can be represented quite simply through


familiar paper-like materials. Our aim for this task was form curves withought bending the actual object. Influenced by our prototype we saw the possible development of this idea for our design. The possiblility of creating folds and creating volume of space with small amount of material. The object was assembled together using flat and cut curved panels of various size. They are joined together using staples, which we thought worked compatible with the paper material we used. The marerial selection was much more ductile than of the tissue paper we used in our refined model. However, thorugh the group’s discussion a stronger form of material should be applied to create a larger surface, that is more stuitable to be attached to the arm. Relating to the second skin concept that was focused, the prominent pattern and transparent aesthetics of the created object correlated to our focused idea of building a discourage and quirky look. The group plans on further developing this idea thorugh introducing colour and buidling more layers on top of the existing object.



As our respond to personal space was re-defined and further developed, we started to move our design into a new direction. Since the final outcome is to avoid physical contact around the considered-mostly-invaded area, the visual aspect of the design must deliver the message about the user that he/she simply does not want to be touched in the zone. Therefore, we want our design to be quirky and peculiar visually so that others themselves find physical contact with the area uncomfortable, instead of having the form showing that it is dangerous to encounter with the sharp and pointy composition. To achieve this effect, firstly we decided to modify the

form, arrangement and orientation of the modules so that the overall structure look less threatening and more bizarre. Furthermore, extrusions were made as an attempt to depict the densely perforated effect that is naturally disturbing to the human eyes. The extrusions were purposely let varied in sizes to increase the visually spontaneous aspect of the design. In addition, the extrusions allow the design to be significantly transparent as we can actually see from one side to the other. Transparency is a crucial aspect to be considered in this particular situation because it helps the design to be mysterious but also saying that the design is simply for the

purpose of discomfort the master sense (vision) and it is not dangerous for them. The digital model is quite simply to be represented by just testing the 2D paneling tool on different shapes. In terms of movement, we try to make sure that the structure allows the user to be able to move his/her body comfortably. After extrusions were made, we wanted to expand the structure around the neck/back area as it is also a considered-mostly-violated space and to make the whole design attached naturally to the human body in the form of a second skin.



The lines are lofted to create a double curved surface. This surface is the general and simplified shape of our intended shape and is used as a base.

ptGridDomainNumber command is used to create a grid of points. Then the grid points are copied and offset using the command ptOffsetGrid. This creates another grid for placement of 3D custom shape onto the surface.



Custom shape is chosen to attach onto surface using the grids as guide. This gives limited transparency of the wearer. At different perspectives, it confuses the view of other people, discourages them to approach the user. The base surface and grid points are removed. Then the length of the strip is varied to create a more corrugated edge. Multiple of these surfaces are stacked above each other. The openings do not align, creating more confusion for other viewers.



In this design the team depicts a pattern of progression of curviture in the design. As the model is closer towards the arm and the upper back area it is to be more curved and bent; drawing a wider boundary for the concept of the second skin. Like section and profiling, it uses few members to define its general profile or shape. Visually it would be very confusing as the holes do not align, impairing other people’s vision on the wearer’s body. This makes them think twice when they want to tap on their shoulder. It is made up of curvy profiles instead of pointed shapes, hence seem less hostile and does not give a bad message to friends who might approach them.


Ivory card, in contrast, is thinner, weaker, lighter and therefore, allow more flexibility and less elasticity. They could be bent and folded quite easily and the whole structure is much stronger, lighter and more stable.


Polypropylene strips are thicker, stronger, heavier and therefore, allow more elasticity. However, in order to create the intended form, folds needed to be made and polypropylene does not behave well when it is folded. Furthermore, as can be seen in the picture, the strips had a strong tendency to come back to their original shape when pulled, which can make the whole structure unstable.

To emphasise on the unusual and peculiar characteristics of the design, we wanted to create additional external layers to the initial prototype. We put into consideration colours and textures to test the ambient effect to the human eyes. Overuse and inappropriate choice of colours and textures could easily result in an opposite and undesirable outcome to what was intended, which is visual attraction.

Therefore, we have chosen charcoal powder, which can be sprinkled unevenly on the glue-applied surface of the prototype. The combination of the black colour with the rough and raw texture really adapt with the quirky theme. Furthermore, we used black and grey acrylic paints to spray unevenly on the surface to serve as another layer that highlight the spontaneous aspect of the design.


3.0. FABRICATION Thai Bui Wong De Lester Xiaojin Huang



DEVELOPMENT INTRODUCTION DETERMINED ASPECT The Pattern that has been created by the sections. Using different materials. Forming a disturbing pattern on the structure. NEED TO BE DEVELOPED ASPECT Suggestion such as apply a clean structure is recommended, the idea of applying colour and texture should also be further explored. The group should also play with different materials and creating variation in the height of the connecting sections, as well the overall shape that evolves around the body. Improvements should also be considered for the type of connection. Instead of utilising staples other method should be tested and explored. For the look of staple is not visually pleasing, at times it seems like it does not blend with the overall design of the structure. The texture applied on to the prototype does create a disturbing effect, however, the model is not physically clean. The group needs to find another way to present this idea to fully express its concept.





The use of colour and patterns was further developed. Percieving from one angle an individual may only be able to percieve one shad of colour (red in this case), on the other hand, the shade of black is visible from a different angle. From the top view for instance both colour are visible, creating dissimilar view from different view point.





The reason we applied this effect is because we want to convey viewers with distinct messages as they approach from different directions. Red and black could be considered as a combination of colour that is very provocative. The team has also decided to test out other types of joints, includind split pins and the system of weaving individual pieces through one another.




In this testing model, the group attempts to explore the idea of applying continuous curviture to the system, aswell as small twsting roatation so that the curve lines are not parralle with one another. The material used for this specific task was Ivory card, for the team want to acknowlege how ivory card performs individually with with the waves applied.



MATERIAL MIX & CONNECTIONS Maintaining the idea of using a curving surface on each layer, the team attempt to incooperate the characterists of both ivory card and polyproperlyne to asist in the horizontal streching. The polypropelyne performs with high elasticity, alowing it to have a slim opening. This may be embed areas where adjegent areas to be stretched with a bigger opening. It also alows the whole structure to gain better rigidity. On the other hand, the ivory card chosen because it is firmer than usual printing paper (high gsm). However, it has lower elasticity than polypropelyne, hence able to retain its bended shape, providing a larger opening.


Split pins

The third part that the team focused on was the connections between individual sections: Split pins: these type of joint was is easy to apply on both the ivory card and polypropelyne. We first cut an opening in the area that the pin was to be applied. Weaving: This method is extremely difficult to execute as the openings for the weaves are restrained by heights variations Gluing: Applying UHU glue on to the ivory card was rather successful. The two peices of ivory card held together firmly.





Reading Response Wk 6 Architecture in the Digital Age - Design + Manufacturing/ Branko Kolarevic, Spon Press, London c2003 Constructability of complex forms becomes a direct ability. Digital means are used not only in the case of els but also the fabrication and assembly process with a sion. Production processes are based on cutting, subtractive,

Two-dimensional cutting: laser-cutting

Two-dimeansional cutting: water-jet

function of computrepresentational modhigh degree of preciadditive and formative.

Two-dimensional cutting is the most commonly used technique that involves two-axis motion of the sheet material. Depending on the properties and thicknesses of materi- als, different techniques such as plasma-arc, laser-beam and water-jet are chosen.

Subtractive fabrication involves the removal of a specified volume of material from solid using electro, chemically or mechanically reductive (multi-axis milling) processes. The milling of three-dimensional solids is basically two dimensional cutting but add ing the ability to raise/lower the drill-bit. Drill-bits could vary in sizes (diameters) or could be done at different rotational speeds, again, depending on the materials. Under cuts can not be achieved.

Additive fabrication involves forming by adding material in a layer-by-layer manner, conversely to milling. Digital (solid) models are sliced into two-dimensional layers. Bec ause of the limitation in sizes, cost and time, in design, additive fabrication processes are used mainly for models with curvilinear geometries.

Formative fabrication involves applying mechanical forces, restricting forms, heat and steam on material, forming it into the desirable shape through reshaping and deforma- tion. The fabrication process of our design uses two-dimensional cutting technique, which is laser cutting.


Reading applied to design

For panel and folding system, the appropriate materials are usually in sheet form such as fabric, plastic, sheet metal or cardboard, with thicknesses up to 16mm. These materials are most cost effective with laser cutting fabrication. Specifically, our design is made out of optix card (and possibly polypropylene) strips that are laser cut out from 600x900mm sheets. The fabrication really helps achieving high precision for such a complex form in terms of determining the various shapes of the strips and locating the connection positions between them. However, the fabrication process of our design was significantly affected by the capacities of the Fablab’s laser cutter. Because it can only cut sheets at 600x900mm, the components (strips) that have bigger dimension needed to be cut out on Rhinoceros before being assembled into laser cutting templates (Nesting process). This result in the fact that we had to make connections within the long strips, which in our opinions, decreased the strength of the component itselfs, and the performance and behavior of the design as a whole.


Reading Response Wk 7

Digital Fabrications: architectural + material techniques/Lisa Iwamoto. New York: Princeton Architectural Press c2009

National-Nederlanden Building (1996) Prague, Czech Republic - Frank Gehry: irregularlyshaped glass panels were cut using digitally-driven cutting machines.

Experience Music Project - EMP (2000) Seattle, USA - Frank Gehry: 21,000 different shaped metal shingles for the exterior were cut digitally.


Digital fabrication is commonly one of the final stages of the architectural process: a way of using digital data to control the fabrication process. After the success of groundbreaking projects where the digital models were translated directly into physical production by using digitally driven machines, this building method revealed that the complexity and uniqueness of the geometries did not significantly affect fabrication cost, since the required effort to make a series of unique pieces is almost equal to the effort to mass-produce identical ones. The success expanded the role of the architect to include oversight of the building, and therefore, results in Michael Speaks statement: “Making becomes knowledge or intelligence creation. In this way of thinking and doing, design and fabrication, and prototype become interactive and part of a non-linear means of innovation�. The projects instigate on this avenue of design research and shape a new generation of architects. Digital models not only plays the strong visual aspect of a project but also plays a significant role in sparking the imagination of young designers. These projects were achieved by most notably architects who know-how and willing to do material experiments, traits that have now increasingly permeated design culture.

Reading applied to design

Digital Weave University of California, Berkerley/Lisa Iwamoto (2004)

Digital technology has significant impacts on our design as it was consistently moving back and forth between physical model and digital surface model. In most of our time, we started digitally because as stated in the Digital Fabrication: Architectural and Material Technique, digital models are commonly used to test out the visual aspect of the whole system, creating oversights for each ideas. Physical models were most of the time not fully completed but used for experimental purposes and tested carefully to examine different materials. It was always a helpful practice for us to consistently review our digital models after making physical models and prototypes to see aspects that needed to be reconsidered. In terms of fabrication, even though using laser cutter allows us to create every single element of our design in high precision, our design intention always had to meet the machine capacities, such as maximum sizes/dimensions or thicknesses. Our design was greatly influenced by two fabrication methods: sectioning and folding. Our main precedent was the Digital Weave by UC Berkeley students and Lisa Iwamoto. The creation process was replicated: from Rhinoceros model with section cuts, laid out on templates for cutting, and assembled into system. Furthermore, the folds allow card materials to be closed and expanded (performance requirements) and therefore, allow the system to span distance and become partly self-supporting.

Digital Weave

Second Skin Project


Prototype development Posisitive of experimentation prototypes: The posibility of overlaying different layers to create a stucture that gnerated an unique pattern, where the density is controllable thorugh the layers and thickness of individual layer. Moveover another positive aspect includes creating a variation of curves and pattern. Colour was also embeded to create another meaning to the design. As an individual approaches from behind the colour red is used to warn others, giving them a ‘stop’ signal. Negative feedback consist of needing to explore more possibilities in the types of joinging system, because the use of the staple to connect two sections together did not seem visually pleasing and did not fit the visual effect that we attempt to create. Improvement: Material: Explore more on material system and properties. Connection: Discovering the possible joint system that assist in conveying the quirky theme applied. At this stage the group still not statisfied with the joints tested. Effect: Although creating various forms of wave was a good idea, these waves need to be dramatised for it was difficult to indicate its exisiting effect in our prototype. Effect: Introducing the idea of colour was a good idea, however, additional elements need to be added to make the use of colour more effective.


Prototype optimisation The group focused on creating curvature on the surface of each layer. These waves are visible and are created through changing the domain numbers of two groups of points. Although it does convey the idea that the group attempts to display, it has this consistent thickness, which was disappointing because when the thickness remains unchanged, the pattern created in between individual sections were not as visible on the front view it seemed flat and 2D. The material selection for this task was optix (black) 300gsm and thick paper (Red) 200gsm. When choosing these materials, the team considered the stability of the structure, what was not well considered was the flexibility for these sections. To Join the two materials together the use of PVA glue was selected, the positive aspect of such glue is when it dries it is very strong, the negative aspect is that it leaves a messy surface which leaves marks on the surface. The joining method we attempt to use was split pins, as it is easily applied, dries faster than glue and can be removed if place in the incorrect position. On one side the split pin leaves a nice shinny surface on the other side it is not the same. Hence, the group after receiving some advice decided to try the joint method riveting.

Colour: The group continued with the colour effect generated by the two colours black and red. Connection: The group continued with split pins as we saw this as one of the successful solution at the time.

Material: A shinny material is applied to test whether it was suitable for the quirky theme. PVA glue was applied to hold the sections together, however, it was obvious to see that the surface was altered due to the paper soaking the glue. A similar was also seen on the non shinny material as well.

Effect: The waves have been dramatised on rhino and lazer cut, however, due to the mateial selected, glue applied and also the height of the sections, the structure was rather heavy and was not flexible enough to hold the pattern in bettween it.









Numbering/Arranging Strips

Forming Volume





Combining Strips

Completing two layers 50




Connecting two layers

Trimming & Touch-up








COMPLETED SKIN While the fabrication process took quite a long time and discrepancies between digital designs and laser cut strips have caused significant amount of issues that need improvisation, generally, the final physical model represents quite successfully the team’s ambition: a final design that creates a sense of randomness and quirkiness in terms of composition, colours and textures after a very long process of non-stop prototype refining


OFFICIAL SKIN Taking the feedback from our tutor and cordinator, the team decided to change from using different colours of cable ties to only black cable ties, as it is better for the skin to represent one idea clearly and profoundly rather than containing many different strong ambitions but conflict with each other. The team also worked on touch-ups to put the final design into actual completion, making it our official proposal to The Second Skin project. Taken from its composition and constrution method, the project is named as The Weaving Skin.













Througout 12 weeks of DIgital Design and Fabrication, I realised I’ve learned so much from each week and each module because of the non-stop sprinting process of the whole course. Questions are raised from the very beginning class until the very end and challenges appear so often that push me and my team mates to work really hard and really efficiently. Module 1 revealed to me that you actually can figure out many rules and principles from pretty much any object around you by carefully, closely and accurately examining and analysing them in terms of form and function. Once I’ve discovered something, I could creatively apply them in almost any ways that I want through the reconfigured object. I was also not pulled back by the object itselfs but could transform it into actual designs by developing it based on the principles that had been discovered. Module 2 provided me with the chance to truly work in a design team and as a design team, sharing ideas and thoughts, getting into discussion and working out things together. This allowed our ideas to be further defined and developed as they increased their depth and sophistication. As a team, we need to understand ourselves and understand each others’ strength and weaknesses to allocate smaller design tasks. Efficiency is push to the maximum as our timetables and schedules are very different. Therefore, we found that with the help of the digital techniques, our proficiency had really improved. Module 3 was the most challenging and most memorable of all modules. As we were required to make the transition from digital design to physical models, we experienced all the difficulties and discrepancies from the biggest to the smallest within the process. As a group, we discovered the limitations of machines from both going through tests and fomr going through the readings. We understood that in order to take the most out of digital design and fabrication, when working digitally, designers should always reflect and refer to realistic matters such as materials behaviours or human errors / capacities. One effective way of solving these questions is to do a lot of prototypes and test-outs in real life. The sooner the recognition appears, the quicker and easier the design will get transformed into reality. Overall, we considered The Weaving Skin to be a significant and unique proposal for the brief. As going through the reading of Rifkin and Macmilan, it could be summarised that in the modern world, with the help of advanced tools and technologies, we could see the world better, and challenge the rules of existings into a world of the impossibles. 65

APPENDIX Bibliography Iwamoto, L. (2013). Digital Fabrications: Architectural and Material Techniques. Princeton Architectural Press. Kolarevic, B. (2003). Architecture in the digital age: Design and manufacturing. New York, NY: Spon Press. Rifkin, J 2011, The Sommer, R. Englewood


third Industrial Revolution.

1969. Cliffs,

Palgrave Macmillan.pp107-126

Personal space : the behavioral basis of design / Robert Sommer. N.J. : Prentice-Hall, c1969.A



DDF M4 Journal - Thai Bui - 842574  

Digital Design & Fabrication 2017

DDF M4 Journal - Thai Bui - 842574  

Digital Design & Fabrication 2017