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YARN

Characterisation of Air-Jet Textured Yarns M. Y. Gudiyawar* and Pooja D. Anade Department of Textiles, D.K.T.E.S Textile & Engineering Institute

Abstract Air-jet textured yarns are widely used for furnishing fabrics and apparel applications. The characteristics of air-jet textured yarns are stated with special reference to loop stability, yarn bulk, and loop configuration. Researchers have developed various methods for the evaluation of these characteristics. The test methods used in industries and various researches to determine loop instability, yarn bulk of air-jet textured yarns are critically reviewed in this article. This review confirms that there is no consensus on a standard method for the measurement of these characteristics and the industries are required to adopt a method based on the end user requirements. Keywords Air-jet textured yarn, Instability, Loop configuration, Physical bulk.

2. Loop Stability Loop stability refers to the behaviour of the air textured yarn under applied load. In other words loop stability refers to the retention of loops under the application of load such as those encountered in processing the yarns into fabric. There are several approaches developed for the measurement of loop stability of airjet textured yarn. One is based on the permanent elongation of yarn after removing a specific load applied for a constant time, while second is the measure of yarn extension due to the application of load. The second approach is based on the principle of the repeated loading. There are no commonly agreed test procedures or standardization of testing parameters for the measurement of loop stability [3].

Bulk is an important characteristic of air-jet textured yarns and the structure of yarn comprises of a compact core with entangled filaments and surface with protruding filaments in the form of loops. A great deal of interest is shown in investing various properties of air textured yarns [2]. The stability of air textured yarn is solely dependent on the characteristics of core and influences the retention of surface loops. If the loops are not stable in fabric forming process, yarn *All correspondence should be addressed to, M. Y. Gudiyawar Department of Textiles D.K.T.E.S Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji - 416 115. E-mail - gudiyawar@yahoo.com November - December 2012

The loop stability of air textured yarns is based on the 215

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bulk and surface loops can be reduced under working tension leading to reduced fabric bulk and higher fabric irregularity. Higher loops instability of air-jet textured yarns also affects surface and other low stress mechanical properties of fabrics [1]. Therefore, knowledge of characterisation of air jet textured yarns is important before processing them into fabrics. Proper assessment of loop stability, yarn bulk and its control is important from the point of view of handle, appearance and comfort characteristics of fabrics made from airtextured yarns. This article presents a critical review of various test methods used to assess the loop stability, yarn bulk and loop configuration of air-jet textured yarns.

1. Introduction Warmth, handle, natural texture, and appearance are desirable properties of textile yarns. Texturising process improves these desirable properties of continuous filament yarns. Texturing can be described as a technique in which closely packed parallel arrangement of the continuous synthetic filaments are changed into more voluminous structures. Air jet texturing is the most versatile of all known texturing methods that are used to convert filaments yarns to textured yarns. Airjet textured yarns more closely resemble conventionally spun yarns in that the yarn surface is covered with fixed resilient loops, and these serve the same purpose as the protruding hairs in spun yarns by forming an insulating layer of entrapped air between neighbouring filaments [1].


YARN principle of permanent extension. A basic load W1 of approximately 0.01 gf/den is hung at the end of the yarn held at the top in a clamp and left on the specimen throughout the test. One metre section on this tensioned specimen is marked. The specimen is then subjected to a higher load W2 of 0.33gf/den for 30 seconds. The permanent elongation in the length of specimen is measured 30 seconds after the load W2 has been removed, by using one metre mark as reference. This permanent elongation is referred as loop instability. This percentage elongation is taken as the direct measure of the loop stability. Du Pont has suggested that for a satisfactory textured yarn, the instability value should be less than 5%.

Instability I (%) = [(b-a)/a]*100 Instability II (%) = [(c-a)/a]*100 Instability-I measures the percentage elongation of the yarn under a specified load. Instability-II measures the permanent elongation of the yarn, similar to Du Pont method [3,4]. The measurement of air-jet textured yarn extension is more important in contrast to the measurement of permanent elongation of the yarn. In this method, the tensile testing machine is set in such a way so as to extend the yarn until it reaches the required load, the action being immediately reversed when the load is reached so that the conditions revert to zero loading. The permanent elongation of the textured yarn can be measured from this method. The advantage of using the tensile testing machine is that it is more accurate, faster and relatively easier to perform than the weight hanging methods [1]. From the load elongation curve of the constant rate of extension (Instron tensile tester), the percentage loop stability of the yarn was defined as the difference between the extension percentage of the textured yarn and the corresponding feeder yarn at a constant load of 0.33gf/den [5].

Figure 1: DuPont's stability test method

The Company of Switzerland uses a hank of air-jet textured yarn instead of a single yarn specimen on a wrap reel of 1 meter circumference; the yarn is wrapped to form a hank of 2500dtex.

The load-elongation curves from a tensile testing machine (Instron) were used for loop instability measurement of air-jet textured yarns. The basic load (W1) of 0.01cN/dtex and a higher load (W2) of 0.5cN/dtex were used and the percentage instability was measured as the percentage elongation between the higher and basic load. It is also noted that, the elongation of textured yarn under applied loads was taken as a measure of instability rather than the difference of elongation of the textured and supply yarns, because the extent of contribution of the extension of load bearing straight and parallel filaments of the textured yarn to the overall elongation is difficult to account for [6]. A method based on repeated loading principle gives a realistic picture about the structural instability of air-jet textured yarns. The yarns and the fabrics made from them undergo repeated loading during processing. This method consists of subjecting the air-jet textured yarns to cyclic loading between 0.01 to 0.33 gf/den, till the area under the curve becomes more or less constant. The percentage decay can be calculated as follows [7].

No. of wraps = 2500/nd

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

Where n is number of legs (=2) and d is the dtex of the yarn under the test. The recommended basic load (W1) and higher load (W2) and time duration are 0.01cN/dtex, 0.5 cN/dtex and 60 seconds respectively. The loop instability (I) is the extension (%) after 60 seconds at the load of 0.5 cN/tex; whereas the loop instability (II) is the permanent extension percentage measured 60 seconds after the removal of the higher load, as shown in Figure 2.

Percentage Decay = (Work done in first cycle - work done in the last cycle)/ Work done in the first cycle X100.

Figure 2: Heberlein's loop instability test method 216

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YARN A quicker method was devised using a Strainometer for the measurement of instability. In this method, a five percent constant strain is imposed on the yarn as it passes continuously over two rollers, and a third roller between these two acts as a sensor to measure the tension in the yarns, which enables one to calculate the loop instability [5]. Another way is to measure the thread tensile force in the stabilizing zone of the texturising machine on a running yarn [8]. With constant draw ratio, the firmer the loops are tied into the yarn, the higher will be the resulting tensile force. In fact, the thread tensile force decreases the instability of the yarn shown by Du Pont's instability test increases [8]. The stabilizing tension is the measure of the stability of the textured yarn [9].

of yarns so far. A method for measuring bulk of air textured yarns, which compares the package densities before and after air texturing. In this method, length of yarn weighing 85gms is wound onto a package before texturing and similar package of textured yarn is then wound at the same tension. The ratio of the net weight of parent yarn to net weight of textured yarn expressed in percentage gives the physical bulk. Another variation of this method is to calculate the ratio of the package densities of the parent yarn to the package density of textured yarn which multiplied by 100, gives physical bulk. [4] Package density of parent yarn [g/cc] Physical = × 100 Bulk (%) Package density of textured yarn [g/cc]

Where, Package density [g/cc]= [M(b+y)- Mb]/[L (R2(b+y)- R2b)]

A method based on scanning the yarn in an optical scanning device, which uses photodiode cells prior to and after the tensile stressing of the air jet textured yarn. Through the study of loop size and configuration before and after tensile stressing, loop stability of the air jet textured yarn can be predicted [10]. An online loop stability measuring test instrument developed at Loughborough University of Technology has been reported [11]. In this method, a tension sensor measures the tension in the yarn in between two rotating rollers and records the tensile force during stretching yarn. Depending on the requirement, degree of stretch can be varied through changing speed of the rollers. This test instrument comprises a micro-computer for continuous monitoring of yarn quality, has been fitted to the texturing machine to provide online measurement. The parallel and core-effect structures have greater stability than single-end textured structures, the reason being the large number of filaments [12]. The stability of an air textured yarn shows up in the visual appearance of the yarn. According to him, a stable single yarn is more compact than an unstable yarn [13].

Where, W is the net weight of yarn wound on the package; Df is the outside diameter of the final package; Di is the diameter of the empty package; and the subscripts p and b indicate the parent and bulk yarn respectively [14]. It is reported to wind the parent and corresponding textured yarns on a package for 20 minutes at a constant tension level of 3 gf on the winding unit of the texturing machine operating at a linear speed of 300m/ min. The package density was calculated using the formula [15].

3. Physical Bulk Bulkiness, in a conventional sense, is the volume in a given mass. Like loop stability, the bulkiness or bulk of air textured yarns is also a key property. As different end products like industrial, apparel and technical fabrics demand different levels of yarn bulking; the proper assessment of bulk has assumed greater significance. Many techniques have been reported regarding the measurement of bulk of textured yarns; however there is no standard technique for the measurement of bulk November - December 2012

Package Density (g/cm3) = [ Mc+y - Mc] / πL (Rc+y2 - Rc2) Where, Mc+y = total weight of cheese and yarn Mc = weight of the cheese alone L = traverse length on the cheese Rc+y = overall radius of the cheese with yarn on it, and Rc = radius of the cheese alone 217

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M (b+y) = total weight of bobbin and yarn Mb = weight of bobbin alone L = length of yarn on package R b+y = the radius of bobbin with yarn Rb = the radius of bobbin alone A refined version has been reported which incorporates a more accurate measurement of the various diameters. Wp (Df2-Di2)b Physical bulk (%) = × ×100 (Df2-Di2) p Wb


YARN The characteristics of air-jet textured yarn and parent yarn are important for evaluation of physical bulk. The parameters like winding time, package diameter and winding tension affect the measured values of bulk. He suggested that while building packages either based on the equal winding time and equal diameter, package size should be reasonably large so that parent and textured yarn package densities do not change much with change in diameter or time corresponding to a particular winding tension. It is therefore recommended to wind parent and textured yarn packages of larger diameter in the case of equal diameter winding.

ness for a given construction was used for the evaluation of bulk. However, the use of this method was restricted for comparison of air textured yarn of same final denier only. A water absorption test is suggested for the measurement of physical bulk of textured yarns. A constant length (400 yards) of yarn is allowed to pass through a water bath at constant speed (40 yards/ min) and a tension (0.1gf/den). The amount of water absorbed by the yarn is ascertained. The same method is used for both the parent and textured yarns [18]. When water uptake method and package density method are compared for assessing physical bulk of textured yarn from filament of variable linear density, it was found that, the bulk measured by water absorption method was comparable to those obtained by Du Pont package density method. This work highlighted that percentage increase in water uptake of textured yarn is quite dependent on spin finish type and levels and on the characteristics of core of the yarn [19]. It is defined that a bulking factor is in relation to the specific volume of the yarn. This, in turn depends on diameter (d) and length (l) of sample. Specific volume V= πd2l/4 and Bulk - factor (θ) = Vt/Vy Where Vt is the specific volume of the textured yarn and Vy is the specific volume of parent yarn. As applied tension affects the diameter considerably, standard loading of 0.00536g/den is used [20]. However, it is commented on the method of measurement that bulk is the latent property of the yarn, whose full significance becomes apparent only at the wet treatment stage. The bulk and handle characteristics of the fabric would be greatly influenced by the severity of the wet treatment [21].

In Electronic Inspection Board (EIB), yarn is scanned between the light source and the camera at the rate of 2 scans/mm when operating at 100 m/min. The information from the camera is digitized and transmitted to the computer. The yarn profile test mode produces an image of the yarn and also a graph showing the variation in yarn diameter. The variation in yarn diameter due to the presence of loops in the air-textured yarn is detected. "Bulk-index" is developed by incorporating loop frequency, size and total number of loops present in the air-textured yarn [16].

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

The image analysis is used to evaluate the physical bulk of yarn by using the projected image of yarn to obtain core and total projected area of air textured yarn. The specific volume of the textured yarn was derived from the projected area of air-textured yarn and its linear density. He used standard deviation of the textured yarn as a measure of physical irregularity of the yarn [17]. A measure of physical bulk of air textured yarn is the ratio of the density of parent yarn fabric to the density of textured yarn fabric (both fabrics woven of similar construction with parent and textured yarns as weft) multiplied by 100. The density of the fabric is given by the ratio of weight per unit area (W) to the thickness (T) of the fabric [5].

4. Loop Configuration The surface properties of the textured yarn, such as loop size and loop frequency are also important. The bulk of air-textured yarn is a function of frequency and the size of the loops protruding from the yarn core. These individual characteristics can be measured by microscopical and graphical techniques. The measurement of these properties involves the tedious work of counting the loops, assessing their sizes, and estimating the over-all and core diameters of the yarn [3]. The overall diameter and core diameter are defined in the Figure 3. Loop size = [Overall diameter - Core diameter] / 2

Physical Bulk (%) = [Wp × Tt × 100] / [Tp × Wt] Where, "p" refers parent yarn fabric and "t" refers textured yarn fabric. The bulk of textured yarn was also evaluated through measuring thickness of plain knitted fabric. As the thickness of fabrics largely depends on the bulkiness of the constituent threads, measurements of fabric thick218

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YARN

References 1. Demir A., Acar M., and Wray G. R., Textile Research Journal, 56, (4), 191-202, (1986). 2. Mukhopadhyay A., Kaushik R. C. D., and Kothari V. K., Textile Asia, 23-25, (1999). 3. Gandhi R. S., Man Made Textile Research Association, India, pp 90-94. 4. Du Pont Technical Information Bull., X154, Oct., 1961. 5. Wray G. R., Journal of Textile Institute, 60, (1), 102 -126, (1969). 6. Acar M., Alexander A. J., Turton R. K. and Wray G. R., "Texturising Today" Shirley Institute Publications, S-46, pg. 207,Manchester, (1983). 7. Sengupta A. K., Kothari V. K., and Roy A. K., Textile Research Journal, 54, (1), 125, (1984). 8. Bock G., International Textile Bulletin Spinning, (4), 359, (1981). 9. Acar M., Turton R. K., and Wray G. R., Journal Of Textile Institute, 77, (4), 247-254, (1986). 10. Fisher K., International Textile Bulletin, 25, (1), 17-24, (1979). 11. Demir A., Melliand Textiberich, 660, E303, (1990). 12. Sankhe M. D., Man-made Textile in India, XLIII, (6), 257-261, (2000). 13. Artunc H, Bocht B and Weinsdorfer. H, Chemifasern/Textilindustrie E118-E120, (1979). 14. Wray G. R. And Sen H., Journal of textile institute, 23, (1), 237-240, (1970). 15. Kothari V. K., Mukhopadhyay A., and Kaushik R. C. D., Indian Journal Of Fibre and Textile Research, 25, (2), 83-86, (2000). 16. Ghosh S, Grindle R and Hill M., Chemical fibres international, 436-438,150, (1999). 17. Mukhopadhyay A., Kaushik R.C.D. and Kothari V.K., Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research, 25, (4), 264-270, (2000). 18. Wray G. R. And Sen H., Journal of textile institute, (23), (1), 237-240, (1970). 19. Mukhopadhyay A., Kaushik R.C.D. and Kothari V.K., The Indian textile journal, 110, (8), 914,(2000). 20. Burnip M. S., Hearle J. W. S., and Wray G. R., Journal of Textile Institute, 52, (8), 343369,(1961). 21. Acar M, King T.G, and Wray. G.R, Textile Asia, 62-70, (1986). 22. Acar M., Turton R. K., and Wray G. R., Journal of textile institute, 77, (6), 359-360, (1986). ooo

Figure 3: Various dimensions of air-textured yarn

50 mm long specimens are mounted on a microscope slide in a tensionless state and the yarn and core diameters are measured at sections of 0.6 mm wide. For loop frequency, specimens are flattened between two microscopic slides to flatten the loops into one plane. After defining a section of 2.5 mm, the number of loops are counted to determine the loop frequency. Microscopic method was used to find out yarn core diameter and overall diameter. The method was extremely tedious and prone to many subjective errors [5]. This technique was improved by using a micro projector and the yarn is mounted by clamp and weight, and pulled it through to be imaged by using a movable stage and toggle device. A graphical recording device was devised for assessment of core diameter and overall diameter. The overall diameter was recorded by making a mark on paper tape on the outermost limits of the loops on either side of the yarn from its magnified image projected on to a screen. Similar method was used for core diameter [22]. An opto-electronic instrument was used to assess the loop size and frequency, wherein the shadow of textured yarn was projected on to a line of diodes and the corresponding light impingement on the individual diodes was evaluated electronically [8]. A microdensitometer technique is a microscopic method where, for every 2-meter interval along the textured yarn, a small portion was cut, placed between two micro glass covers and magnified 50 times on a projection microscope. A small section 0.8 mm long, equivalent to 4 cm on the screen, was defined randomly [19]. The loops greater than or equal to 2 mm height on the screen and originating from that 0.8 mm section were counted for loop frequency length and height [16]. 5. Conclusion Air-jet textured yarns resembles more closely to conventionally spun yarns and are characterised on loop stability, yarn bulk and loop configuration. On studying the different methods of characterisation of air-textured yarn, unfortunately, it was found that there was November - December 2012

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no consensus between them to have standard norms for the benefit of industry.


DYEING

Dyeing of Polyester with Microencapsulated Disperse Dyes Leena Mishra, Chet Ram Meena, Avinash K. and R.V. Adivarekar* Department of Fibres & Textile Chemical Processing Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology Abstract Disperse dye was microencapsulated using three different methods namely Simple Coacervation, Complex Coacervation and Spray drying. The evaluation of parameters microencapsulation of the dye was done by Thermal analysis (DSC), Particle size analysis, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis and Image analysis. Dyeing performance of the microencapsulated disperse dye without any auxiliaries was studied in comparison to the conventional disperse dye (dye with same chemical structure but formulated using conventional technique and available commercially) on polyester using HTHP method of dyeing keeping the dyeing conditions same. Depth of dyeing of fabrics dyed with microencapsulated disperse dye were found to be more than the dyeings using conventional disperse dyes due to sustainable/control release of disperse dyes from the microcapsules. The fastness properties of the microencaspuled dyed samples were found to be comparable to conventional disperse dyed sample. Keywords Disperse Dyes, Simple Coacervation, Complex Coacervation, Spray Drying, Microencapsules, Fastness.

polyester fibre which are swollen [2] by the application of high temperature and high pressure. Reports on controlled release of surface finishes (chemical/biochemical) of textile material using microcapsule technology are also available [3, 4, 5, 6- 9]. Some reports are available on disperse dyeing of PET by different methods with microcapsules. However, comparative performance reports on use of different microencapsulated methods are scanty [10, 11].

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

1. Introduction Colouration with microencapsulated dyes is a fascinating area of research for a long however couldn't gain commercial success as yet. The technology allows much even development of colour on textile with higher exhaustion over conventional disperse dyeing. The requirement of many auxiliaries can also be minimized or avoided by the use of dye microcapsules, for obtaining same colour properties. Thus it resolves the major problem of disposal of large volume of effluent generated from conventional dyeing method. The recycling of effluent is costlier and leads to another problem of sludge disposal [1]. So, limiting the use of water or even reusability of the same water after dyeing, microencapsulated disperse dyes are projected to be very efficient.

The present paper reports the characteristic properties of micro encapsulated disperse dye formed by three different methods, simple and complex coacervation and spray drying for dyeing of polyester. The work was carried out based on three important criteria; (i) simple microencapsulation method, (ii) involvement of user friendly and low cost equipments and (iii) availability of common coating materials, for the formation of microcapsules. The microencapsulated disperse dyes formed was characterized in terms of their efficiency of microencapsulation, average particle size and its distribution, thermal properties, rate of release of dye (core), and morphological structure of capsules through scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy inter phased with computerized image analysis system.

The technique of microcapsulated dyeing is based on its sustained and controlled release properties of dye in the whole dyeing cycle. So at each moment there will be similar amount of dye available in the transition (dispersion) phase to get sorbed into the micro pores of *Correspondence should be addressed to, R.V. Adivarekar Department of Fibres & Textile Chemical Processing Technology, ICT, Matunga, Mumbai - 400 019. Email - rv.adivarekar@ictmumbai.edu.in

Hence, objective of this work is to attain a sustained and controlled release of disperse dyes from a system 220

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DYEING which will be cheaper in comparison to conventional disperse dyeing, as no auxiliaries are used and at the same time improving the quality of dyeing by uniform dyeing and higher exhaustion of dye particles into the fibre. This technique can also provide an alternative approach for water conservation in textile industry.

at 100ºC for 3 hr.

2. Materials and Methods 2.1. Materials The fabric used in this study was 100% polyester with a plain weave structure with GSM - 61, ends per inch - 76, picks per inch - 68, width - 142 cm. This fabric was supplied by Piyush Syndicate, Mumbai (India).

2.2.3. Spray Drying Gum acacia emulsion was prepared using an ultrasonic generator for 30 sec. This solution is left inside a test tube for 36 hr to study the stability of the solution. The emulsion was then passed through spray dryer at an inlet temperature of 180º C, aspiration 35-43 and feed rate 30 ml/min to obtain dry microcapsules [12, 13].

In another method, the hardened wet microcapsules were fed into the spray dryer to get fine and dry microcapsules within much reduced time, 15 min and also to prevent agglomeration of microcapsules.

Chemicals used for the microcapsule formation are Gelatin - A (alkali extracted high IEP 8.7) and Gum Acacia (supplied by Aragum Flavor) were used as coating agents. Disperse dyes Cbene Yellow SGL (C.I. Disperse Yellow 114, Max = 410 nm) was used as core for formation of microcapsules and NKS (Dispersing Agent) were supplied by Colorband Dyestuff Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai. Sodium sulphate, Formaldehyde, Acetic acid, Sodium hydroxide, Sodium hydrosulphite, Sodium alginate, Urea all of AR grade and were supplied by S.D. Fine chemicals for making of microcapsules. Auxipon NP (non ionic detergent, supplied by Auxichem Ltd. India) was used for after treatment of the fabric. 2.2. Methods for Microcapsules Formation 2.2.1. Simple Coacervation Dye-encapsulation with gelatin by simple coacervation was carried out at 10ºC using 20% solution of sodium sulfate as dehydrating agent and 1% dispersing agent to attain a core to coat ratio 1:3. The microcapsule precipitates were then washed to remove unused sodium sulphate and then aged with formaldehyde for 15 min to harden the outer coating. The microcapsules were then cured at 50º C for 5 hr, washed with water before air drying.

For measurement of rate of release, microencapsulated samples of 10 +/- 0.005mg were extracted in above solvent (20 ml) at ambient temperature separately. The extract was assayed for its absorbency in every 20 min at the maximum absorption wavelength (?max) mentioned above. After each measurement, the extract was returned to the original solution immediately and a curve of time against absorbency was drawn.

2.2.2. Complex Coacervation In case of complex coacervation, dye-encapsulation was done by using aqueous solution of gelatin and gum acacia (in the ratio of 1:1) with surfactant to obtain a stable dispersion of dye and gelatin. Acetic acid was added to maintain the pH 4.1- 4.5. The microcapsules were hardened with formaldehyde for 15 min and then increasing the temperature to 50º C and pH to 9.0 by adding sodium hydroxide to the solution. Microcapsules were washed with water by centrifuge and then dried November - December 2012

2.3.2. Thermal Analysis (DSC) DSC analysis of samples was done using a Shimadzu Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC-50), under flowing nitrogen (flow rate 50 cm3/min) cover at a heating rate of 5° C/min, using a sample size of 2 mg over a temperature range of ambient (30° C) to 250° C.

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2.3. Characterisation of the Microcapsules 2.3.1. Evaluation of Efficiency of Microencapsulation (%), Dye Loading (%), and Release Rate of Dye by Spectrophotometric Method Spectro-photometric assessment [14] was conducted using a UV -Visible spectrophotometer, (Model- UV1201 of SHIMADZU, USA) with a suitable solvent for evaluation of efficiency of microencapsulation (%), dye loading (%). Microcapsules (15.0 mg) were dissolved in solvent (20 ml) at room temperature and the amount of dye concentration was determined by spectrophotometer using a calibration curve of absorption at Max 410, for Cbene Yellow SGL. The solvent used was a mixture of dimethyl formaldehyde (DMF) and water (1:1). DMF acts as a homogenizer for disperse dye and water acts as a solvent for the coating material (gum acacia).


DYEING 2.3.3. Particle Size Analysis Particle Size Analyzer -1064 (CILAS, USA) was used to analyze the particle size distribution at above 4% obscuration subjecting to an inbuilt ultra- sound sonication for 60 seconds [15].

2.7. Colour Yield Measurement Dyed samples were evaluated for the depth of the colour by determining K/S values as well as colour strength using Spectraflash SF 300 computer colour matching system supplied by Datacolor International, U.S.A. An average of four readings was taken at four different sample areas was used to calculate the reflectance values and K/S. Tone of the colour or colour difference is also measured on the same machine in terms of CIE L*, a* and b* values.

2.3.4. Morphological Structure of Microcapsules by SEM SEM was performed on JSM- 5600LV electron microscope (Jeol Japan). The microcapsules were sprinkled on to a sample plate and sputter coated with gold for examination.

2.8. Colour Fastness Measurement Colour fastness to washing was tested using the ISO Test Method 105-CO3, sublimation fastness by the AATCC Test Method 133-199 and light fastness by the AATCC Test Method 16A.

2.3.5. Image Analyzer System Image analysis system was adopted for visual assessment of the microcapsules and the particle size distribution, using BIOVIS Image Analyzer BA 300 (Exton, PA) at magnification 40x.

3. Results and Discussions 3.1 Efficiency of Microencapsulation 3.1.1 Dye Content (%) The relation between dye loading and microencapsulation method to form microcapsules with different methods is shown in Figure 1. It is clear from the figure that spray drying method encapsulates more dye compared to simple and complex coacervation method. In all the methods, increase in dye loading (ratio of dye to coating material), increased the efficiency of microencapsulation. Particularly in case of spray drying (Figure 2), increasing dye content from 20% to 40%, there is a remarkable increment in average efficiency of microencapsulation from 55.55% to 84.31%, as shown in Table 1. The better microencapsulation efficiency resulted in decreasing the quantity of unencapsulated dye of the microcapsules from 0.0025 to 0.0007. However, no pattern was observed for dye content of microcapsules and is found independent to the any parameters used in particular microencapsulation process.

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

2.4. Dyeing with Microencapsulated Dyes 2.4.1. Pre-treatment of Polyester Fabric A Mild scouring treatment was carried out with 2 g/l non-ionic detergent, Auxipon NP at boil for 45 min to remove the spinning oil and dirt. The fabric was then washed, dried and was used for further dyeing processes. 2.4.2. Method of Dyeing The dyeing was carried out using normal and microencapsulated dyes Cbene Yellow SGL of equal concentration to study the dye uptake by the polyester fabric. For this 0.0025% of normal dye solution is taken with DMF as solvent and its Optical Density (OD) was found. In the same way different concentrations of microencapsulated dye solution were prepared with DMF to match with the OD of normal Dye of 0.0025%. Required amount of dye was dispersed in dye baths and set in high temperature high pressure dyeing machine using material to liquor ratio 1:30. The dyeing was started at room temperature and the temperature was raised to 1300C at the rate of 20C/min with 1 h holding time. 2.4.3. After Treatment of Dyed Fabric After dyeing, all the samples were treated with 3 g/l sodium hydrosulphite and 2.5 g/l sodium hydroxide for 20 minutes at 700C- 800C to remove unfixed disperse dye. The samples were then given a cold wash, a hot wash, neutralized with acetic acid and cold wash before drying.

Figure 1: Relation between Dye Content and Microencapsulation Methods, Simple Coacervation (Scoa), Complex Coacervation (Ccoa) and Spray Drying (SD) 222

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DYEING

Absorbance

may be due to very quick hardening or over heating of the already hardened microcapsules coat.

Time (Minutes)

Figure 2: Effect of Dye Content on Microencapsulation Efficiency in Spray Drying Process

Figure 3: Release Rate of Simple Coacervate (Scoa), Complex Coacervate (Ccoa), Spray Drying (SD) Microcapsules (Without Surface Dye)

Table 1: Estimation of Efficiency of Microencapsulation, Dye Loading (%), Free Dye (mg) and Total Dye Content (mg) of Spray Dried Microencapsulated Disperse Dyes

Spray Drying

20 30 40

55.55 74.13 84.31

0.0025 0.0055 0.0007

0.0056 0.0021 0.0044

3.1.2 Release Rate of Dye The Figure 3 shows, the rate of release of dye from simple coacervation, complex coacervation and spray drying microcapsules. Simple coacervation and spray dried microcapsules showed an initial high absorbance and the curves show a quick enhancement of the absorbance values up to 70 min, then the curves nearly become flat indicating a very low release of dye from the capsules. The high absorbance value at the initial stage may be due to the unencapsulated dye particles adhered to the outer surface of the microcapsules. Complex coacervate microcapsules were giving almost a regular sustained release for the total time of study i.e., 160 min, followed by simple coacervation and spray drying. The reason of giving much better result for complex coacervation may be due to much regular coating, shape and sizes of the microcapsules. The curves for spray dried microcapsules showed very high release rate i.e. within 70 mins almost complete release of the dye takes place and the absorbance increases from minimum absorbance to maximum absorbance. This may be due to the inadequate, thin or/and ruptured coat of the microcapsules being unable to sustain the release of the dye. This improper coating November - December 2012

Figure 4: DSC Curves of (a) Complex Coacervation (b) Simple Coacervation (c) Spray dried microcapsules (d) Pure Gum Acacia (e) Pure Gelatin and (f) Disperse Dye (Cbene Yellow SGL) 223

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

3.2 Thermal analysis DSC results are given in Figure 4, which shows the thermal properties of microcapsules containing the dye Cbene Yellow SGL formed in three different methods vis-a-vis conventional dye. For conventional dye three endothermic peaks were obtained, the first one is for evaporation of moisture at 64.56째 C, second for the glass transition (Tg) temperature at 188.53째 C and third one showing the melting point of dye at 198.82째 C. If we compare this DSC curve of conventional dye with the DSC graph of its simple coacervation, complex coacervation and spray dried microcapsules we can see only one prominent endothermic peak showing the temperature for evaporation of moisture but no melting point. It can thus be said that the crystalline nature of the dye was modified because of the amorphous nature of the coating provided to it due to which, the stability of the microcapsules to the thermal application has been changed. This also confirms the successful formation of the microcapsules by the process and the role of coating in increasing the stability of microcapsules.

Type of % Dye Average Unencap- Total Dye Microc- Content Efficiency of sulated Content apsule Microenca- Dye (mg) [Free Dye+ psulation Dye Con tent] (mg)


DYEING 3.3 Particle Size Analysis The particle size distribution of different microcapsules is shown in Table 2 and Figure 5. The simple coacervate microcapsules have highest mean particle size 144 Îźm compared to complex coarcervate (19.97) and spray drying (1.86) microcapsules. So it may be suggested that particles of simple coacervate due to an apparently higher micron size were agglomerated [16, 17] to each other. Table 2: Particle Size Analysis of Microcapsules Prepared in Simple Coacervation, Complex Coacervation and Spray Drying Methods Types Obscur- Min Max of micro ation capsule > 4%

Mean CV %

Size Range of Microcapsules (zm) 10% 50 % 90%

Simple Coace rvation Complex 6%

35.2 253.2 144.3 8.72

35.2 128.5 253.2

Coacervation 4%

3.6

3.6 33.91 36.91

Spray Drying

0.13 2.79

1.86

0.2

Figure 5: Size Distribution of (a) Fine Spray Drying, (b) Coarse Spray Drying, (c) Simple Coacervation (d) Complex Coacervation Microcapsules (Cbene Yellow SGL) (for rest dye used Cbene Pink REL 200%)

0.13 0.62 2.79

3.4. Morphological Analysis SEM photographs of the surface of microcapsules prepared by simple coacervation and complex coacervation and spray drying methods are shown in Figure 6. In complex coacervation microcapsules, the microcapsules are more spherical and having smooth surfaces without any pores and cracks but the surface showing inward grooves. The grooves are formed because of the drying. When heat is applied to microcapsules for drying, the diffusion of water occurs at much slower rate than does the transfer of heat through the coat to the interior of the microcapsules. Due to the dissimilarities in the rate of inward heat flow and outward water diffusion in the microcapsules, the surface gets inward folding. In case of simple coacervation method, the surface of the microcapsules was rough, folded with apparent cracks but with no pores and the coat appeared intact. One can also see the microcapsule's surface covered with a non-uniform salt like crystals, which is because of the sodium sulphate salt used as coacervating agent to form microcapsules. The larger capsule size (100-400 Îźm)

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

4%

36.91 19.97 3.18

224

November - December 2012


DYEING suggests that these microcapsules may be the conglomerates of smaller microcapsules. In spray drying, the microcapsules are having very similar appearance to the complex coacervation microcapsules SEM view. We can observe the microcapsule's surface is smooth and regular without any cracks and pores. But the depth of the grooves is high and grooves are more prominently visible, may be because of application of high temperature (160° C-180° C) on spray dried microcapsules than the complex coacervate microcapsules (100° C), which leads to formation of more prominent grooves in spray dried microcapsules.

Figure 8: Particles size Analysis by Image Analyzer for Simple Coacervate (a), Complex Coacervate (b) and Spray Drying(c) at Magnification 40x

3.6. Comparison of Microencapsulated and Conventional Dyed Sample The depth of dyeing in terms of K/S and % strength of the conventional dyed and microencapsulated dyed fabrics is given in Table 3. It was found that, the microencapsulated dyed fabric showed darker shade in comparison to the conventional disperse dyed fabrics for all the microencapsulation methods. The K/S value was found to be 11.6 and 12.8, for conventional disperse dye and microencapsulated disperse dyed fabrics respectively. The relative strength of the microencapsulated disperse dyed fabrics was also about 10% more (110.16% as in complex coacervation).

Figure 6: SEM images of (a) Complex Coacervate (b) Simple Coacervate (c) Spray Drying Microcapsules

3.5. Image Analysis On image analysis (Figure 7 & Figure 8) of complex coacervation and simple coacervation microcapsules; one can easily view the outer coating and inner core but in the case of spray drying the coat and core are not visible clearly because of the smaller size of the microcapsules. According to image analysis the microcapsule size is least in case of spray drying i.e. the size of the most of the microcapsules are below 5 micron, followed by complex coacervation and simple coacervation i.e. a high number of microcapsules are present above 10 micron range of the total number of microcapsules (the number of microcapsules distributed within a certain area exposed under the analyzer) by microscope. The image analysis gave a very systematic analysis of size showing the number of microcapsules and their size in μm unit.

Table 3: Comparison of Colour values of Fabrics Dyed with Conventional Disperse Dyes and with Microencapsulated Disperse Dyes

Disperse Dye ( Cbene Yellow SGL)

K/S % Strength

Complex Conventional 11.6 100 Coacervation Microencapsulated 12.8 110.5

Spray Drying Conventional 14.0 100 Microencapsulated 16.6 118.83 3.7. Fastness Properties The fastness tests were carried out for all the dyed fabrics against conventional disperse dyed fabrics as shown in Table 4, dyed without any auxiliaries and dispersing agent. In fastness tests, it was found that the microencapsulated disperse dyed fabrics have comparable fastness values as conventional disperse dyed fabrics. This shows that microencapsulation process

Figure 7: Image Analysis of (a) Complex Coacervate (b) Simple Coacervate (c) Spray Drying Microcapsules (Magnification 40x) November - December 2012

225

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

Simple Conventional 3.67 100 Coacervation Microencapsulated 3.71 100.65


DYEING for disperse dye does not hamper the existing dyeability properties where as its application reduces the cost of dyeing and subsequent effluent is much easy to recycle and safer to discharge.

4. Leadbller P.W. and Leaver A. T. Review of Progress in Colouration and Related Topics, 19, 33 (1989). 5. Report of Committee on the Dyeing Properties of Disperse Dyes IV-Disperse Dyes on Polyester, Journal of Society of Dyers and Colourist, 93(6), 288 (1977). 6. Datya K.V. and Acharekar J.Y., Journal of Society of Dyers and Colourist, 93(11), 413 (1977). 7. Gulrajani M.L., Dyeing of Polyester and It's Blends, Raj Kamal Electric Press, Delhi, (1987). 8. Hoffman F., Textile Chemist and Colorist, 30(10), 19 (1998). 9. Greenhalgh C. W., Carry J. L., Hall N. and Newton D. F., Journal of Society of Dyers and Colourist, 110 (5), 178 (1994). 10. Etters J.N., Textile Research Journal, 64(7), 406 (1994). 11. Becerin B. and Iskender M. A., Indian Jr. of Fibres and Textile Research, 28(3), 100 (2003). 12. Leon Lachman., Herbert T. Liberman., Joseph L. Kanig., The Theory and Practice of Industrial Pharmacy, 3, 412 - 420 (1987). 13. Brian F. McNamee, E. Dolores O'Riordan and Michael O'Sullivan, Journal of Agricultural food Chemistry, 46, 4551-4555, (1998). 14. Shenai V. A., Technology of Textile Processing, VI, Shevak Publication, Mumbai, 358, (1981). 15. Becerin B. and Iskender M. A., Indian Jr. of Fibres and Textile Research, 28 (3), 100 (2003). 16. Asaji Kondo., "Microencapsulation Processing and Technology", New York: Marcel Dekker Inc, 126, (1979). 17. J. R. Nixon., "Microencapsulation", New York, 3, pp 31, 33, 36, 37, 94-100, (1979). ooo

Table 4: Washing, Sublimation and Light Fastness for Microencapsulated Dyed Fabrics against Conventional Disperse Dyed Fabrics (2 % Shade)

Fastness (Change in shade)

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

Disperse Dye Washing Sublimation Light (Cbene Yellow (180oC) SGL) Conventional

5

4-5

6-7

Complex Coacervation

5

4-5

6-7

Simple Coacervation

5

4-5

7

Spray Drying

5

4

7

4. Conclusion Disperse dye Microcapsules are formed by Simple coacervation, Complex coacervation and spray drying method using Cbene Yellow SGL. Simple coacervation method is although easier to form the microcapsules, inferior to complex coacervation and Spray Drying method due to its bigger and irregular shape and size of the microcapsules and poor sustainable release property. The surfaces of complex coacervate and spray drying microcapsules are uniform in comparison to the simple coacervate, which is rough, folded with apparent cracks. In dyeing, the encapsulated disperse dyes are giving higher dyeing depth in comparison to conventional disperse dye even without auxillaries. The microencapsulated disperse dyed fabrics have comparable fastness values as conventional disperse dyed fabrics. This shows that microencapsulation process for disperse dye does not hamper the existing textile properties where as its application reduces the cost of dyeing and subsequent effluent is much easy to recycle and safer to discharge.

Texttreasure The question for each man to settle is not what he would do if he had means, time, influence and educational advantages; the question is what he will do with the things he has. The moment a young man ceases to dream or to bemoan his lack of opportunities and resolutely looks his conditions in the face, and resolves to change them, he lays the cornerstone of a solid and honorable success. - Hamilton Wright Mabie

References 1. Zhong Yi., Fengihong J., Chen Shuilin, Coloration Technology, 121, 76-80, (2005). 2. Vaidya A.A., Production of synthetic fibres, Prentice-Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., 1, (1988). 3. Weaver M.A., AATCC Review, 3(1), 17 (2003). 226

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DYEING

Simultaneous Dyeing and Antibacterial Finishing of Soyabean Protein Fabric Using Catechu and Natural Mordants M. D. Teli*, Javed Sheikh and Maruti Kamble Department of Fibres and Textile Processing Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology Abstract Soyabean Protein Fibre (SPF) is considered to be important regenerated protein fibre for various applications in textiles because of its unique properties. However the lack of antibacterial properties of such protein containing polymers is held as a severe limitation for its applications in hygienic textiles and the need to make it antibacterial is quite intense. Although a lot of antibacterial finishes are available for textiles, there is always question on the safety and durability of such finishes. Natural tannin mordants and catechu which are known for to possess antibacterial properties can be utilized as safe antibacterial agents for textiles. In the current study, the tannin mordants were extracted from tamarind seed coats, amla (Indian gooseberry) and harda (Myrobalan fruits) and their application in natural dyeing using catechu as a dye was attempted. SPF fabric dyeing with catechu using most commonly found alum mordant was also carried out for comparison purpose. The dyed SPF fabrics were then evaluated for colour values, fastness properties and antibacterial activities. The results clearly indicate the advantages of using natural tannin mordants both in case of obtaining antibacterial functionality as well as eco-friendliness. Keywords SPF, Natural dyeing, Natural mordants, Antibacterial properties.

On the other hand the development of synthetic dyes taken place at the beginning of the twentieth century has come a long way and led to a more complete level of quality and more reproducible techniques of application. Due to wide applications on variety of fibres, and the economies of scale, considerable reduction in the dyestuff costs per kg of dyed goods has been achieved [4] making their application economical. But, during the last few decades, attraction of using synthetic dyes in unlimited areas is gradually receding due to an increased environmental awareness and harmful effects because of either toxic degraded products or their nonbiodegradable nature. In addition to above, some serious health hazards like allergenicity and, carcinogenecity are associated with some of the azo based synthetic dyes. As a result, a ban has been imposed all over the world including European Economic Community (EEC), Germany, USA and India on the use of some of the

*All correspondence should be addressed to: Prof. (Dr.) M.D. Teli, I.C.T., Mumbai - 400019 Tel. +91-022-33612811 E-mail : md.teli@ictmumbai.edu.in November - December 2012

227

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

few are also available commercially [3]. Even though the excellent antimicrobials are available, their effect on ecology is always a question. Under this backdrop some of the natural dyes reported to possess antimicrobial properties, attract the attention of the researchers in this field.

1. Introduction Textiles, especially those made of natural fibres, are an excellent medium for the growth of microorganisms when the basic requirements for their growth such as nutrients, moisture, oxygen, and appropriate temperature are present. The large surface area and ability to retain moisture of textiles also assist the growth of microorganisms on the fabric [1] which in turn results in inflicting a range of unwanted effects not only on the textile itself but also on the wearer. These effects include the generation of unpleasant odor, stains, discoloration in the fabric, a reduction in the tensile strength of the fabric and an increased likelihood of contamination [2]. In the last few decades, with the increase in new antimicrobial fibre technologies and the growing awareness about cleaner surroundings and healthy lifestyle, a range of textile products based on synthetic antimicrobial agents such as triclosan, metal and their salts, organometallics, phenols and quaternary ammonium compounds, have been developed and quite a


DYEING synthetic dyes (e.g. azo dyes) containing banned amines which finally triggered active research and development to revive world heritage and traditional wisdom of employing safer natural dyes [5]. Consumers nowadays are becoming more and more concerned about environmental issues and hence are demanding for natural product incorporating natural ingredient. Thus natural dyes are gaining increasing importance as they are obtained from renewable resources and they present practically no health hazards and some of them sometimes act as a health care products too [6].

the current work, the simultaneous dyeing and antibacterial finishing of Soyabean Protein Fibre (SPF) was carried out with catechu using natural mordants extracted from harda (myrobalan), tamarind seed coat (TSC) and amla. The colour values were evaluated and compared with those obtained using alum mordant. The antibacterial efficacy of the dyed material and hence the applicability in hygienic textiles has also been studied. 2. Material and Methods 2.1. Materials SPF yarn (30 count) was knitted to make fabric (single jersey) which was hot washed, bleached and used for dyeing. All chemicals used were of laboratory grade. Catechu was purchased from local market.

However, natural dyes in general, with few expectations are non-substantive and hence must be used in conjunction with mordants. Mordant is a chemical, which can fix itself on the fibre and also combines with the dyestuff. The challenge before the natural dyers in application of natural colour is necessity to use metallic mordants which themselves are pollutant and harmful. Due to the environmental hazard caused by metallic mordant while dyeing of textiles, there is always a necessity of safe natural mordant for application of natural dyes.

2.2. Methods 2.2.1. Extraction of mordant The 1% stock solution of alum was made by dissolving 10 gm of mordant powder in 1000 ml water. In case of natural mordants, the 1% stock solution was made by boiling 10 gm of mordant powder in 1000 ml water for 1 h. The extract was filtered and made to 1000ml and used for mordanting.

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

Although a lot of work is done on application of natural dyes on textile fabric, in most of the cases metal mordants are used which are environmentally objectionable.Tannin is an astringent vegetable product found in a wide variety of plant parts such as bark, wood, fruit, fruit pods, leaves, roots and plant galls. Tannins are defined as naturally occurring water soluble polyphenolic compounds of high molecular weight (about 500-3000) containing phenolic hydroxyl groups to enable them to form effective crosslinks between proteins and other macromolecules [7] . They are primarily used in the preservation of leather [8], glues, stains and mordants. Application of tannin based natural mordants in natural dyeing was reported earlier from our laboratory [6, 9, 10].

2.2.2. Extraction of dye The 1% stock solution of the catechu dye was prepared by boiling 10 g of catechu in 1000 ml water for 1 h. The extract was filtered and made to 1000 ml and used for dyeing. 2.2.3. Mordanting and dyeing of SPF The mordanting of SPF fabric was carried out in rota dyer (Rota Dyer machine, Rossari速 Labtech, Mumbai) keeping the liquor to material ratio of 30:1.The fabrics were introduced into the mordant solution at room temperature and slowly the temperature was raised to 950C. The mordanting was continued at this temperature for 30 min. After mordanting, the fabric was squeezed and dyed using catechu extract as a dye. The mordanted fabrics were introduced in dyebath and dyeing was continued at 900C for 1h. After dyeing, the fabrics were squeezed and washed with cold water.

Tannins are antimicrobial in nature and such properties are also displayed by catechu extract. The application of natural dyes using natural mordants hence can act in dual way of natural coloration and antibacterial finishing for textile materials. Even though tannin containing plants are available in plenty, the application of such sources for extracting mordants to be used in natural dyeing has been explored to a very limited extent. Ecofriendly natural dyeing and antibacterial finishing using temple waste marigold and natural mordants is already reported from our laboratory [11]. In

2.2.4. Colour value by reflectance method The dyed samples were evaluated for the depth of colour by reflectance method using 10 degree observer. The absorbance of the dyed samples was measured on Spectraflash SF 300 (Datacolor International, U.S.A.) equipped with reflectance accessories. The K/S values 228

November - December 2012


DYEING were determined using expression; 2

K/S = 2R

100 (B - A)

where, R is the reflectance at complete opacity, K is the Absorption coefficient & S is the Scattering coefficient

R

B where, R = % reduction in bacterial count; A = the number of bacterial colonies recovered from the inoculated treated test specimen swatches in the jar incubated for 24 hr contact period; B = the number of bacterial colonies recovered from the inoculated untreated control test specimen swatches in the jar immediately after inoculation (at "0" contact time).

Dyed fabrics were simultaneously evaluated in terms of CIELAB colour space (L*, a* and b*) values using the Spectraflash SF300. In general, the higher the K/ S value, the higher the depth of the colour on the fabric. L* corresponds to the brightness (100 represents white, 0 represents black), a* to the red-green coordinate (+ve represents red, -ve represents green) and b* to the yellow-blue coordinate (+ve represents yellow, -ve represents blue). As a whole, a combination of all these enables one to understand the tonal variations.

3. Results and Discussions The dyeing of SPF fabric using most commonly used metal mordant alum and natural mordants like harda, amla and tamarind seed coat (TSC) was attempted and results are summarized in Tables 1.1-1.7.

2.2.5. Washing fastness Evaluation of colour fastness to washing was carried out using ISO II methods [12]. A solution containing 5 g/L soap solution was used as the washing liquor. The samples were treated for 45 min at 500C using liquor to material ratio of 50:1 in rota machine. After rinsing and drying, the change in colour of the sample and staining on the undyed fabric samples were evaluated on the respective standard scale (rating 1-5, where 1 - poor, 2 - fair, 3 - good, 4 - very good and 5 - excellent).

Table 1.1: Effect of mordant concentration on colour values of mordanted SPF samples

Mordant Mordant conc, (%) K/S Alum

2.2.6. Rubbing fastness Evaluation of colour fastness to rubbing (dry and wet) was carried out using "crock-meter" with 10 strokes of rubbing.

Harda

2.2.7. Light fastness Dyed fabric was tested for colourfastness to light according to ISO 105/B02 [13]. The light fastness was estimated using artificial illumination with Xenon arc light source, Q-Sun Xenon Testing Chamber with black standard temperature 650C with relative humidity of the air in the testing chamber as 40% and daylight filter, wavelength, k= 420 nm. The samples were compared with the standard scale of blue wool rating (rating 1-8, where 1 - poor, 2 - fair, 3 -moderate, 4 - good, 5 - better, 6 - very good, 7 - best and 8 -excellent).

TSC

Amla

2.2.8. Determination of antimicrobial activities of dyed fabrics The antibacterial activity of the dyed fabrics was esNovember - December 2012

=

229

L*

a*

b*

5

1.245

74.29

1.439 22.537

10

1.399

73.13

0.754 20.975

15

1.412

74.69

1.544 23.659

20

1.469

73.47

4.095 23.251

5

2.94

60.72

2.096 16.725

10

2.987

63.19

2.542 19.774

15

3.778

62.78

2.533 19.132

20

3.80

63.74

2.941 20.289

5

1.824

62.61

5.474 20.257

10

1.99

62.75

6.305 20.272

15

2.288

60.85

6.411 18.329

20

2.366

60.15

7.269 17.606

5

2.872

58.16

3.883 17.081

10

3.139

59.4

3.923 18.503

15

3.804

58.90

4.216 18.3

20

4.254

58.59

4.175 17.752

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

(1-R)

timated by AATCC Test Method 100-2004 [14]. The reduction in number of bacterial colonies formed with respect to the untreated control sample was estimated by using following equation,


DYEING from 15% to 20% was lower compared to that at lower concentration. Hence 15% alum can be taken as optimum for dyeing of catechu.

Initial attempt of the study was to find the contribution of mordant and dye towards colour values of the dyed SPF fabrics. Hence SPF fabrics were initially in one case just mordanted but not dyed and in second case dyed without pre-mordanting. The results in Table 1 showed the increase in K/S values with increasing concentration of mordants. It must be noted that SPF fabrics used for dyeing were initially slightly yellowish and hence showed some colour values without any mordanting or dyeing. Alum showed least effect on colour values with increasing concentration from 5% to 20%. However the tannin mordants showed marked increase in K/S with increasing mordant concentration. Among the tannin mordants, amla tannin mordant showed highest increase in K/S followed by harda and tamarind seed coat. The effect of catechu dye concentration on colour values was also studied and results are summarized in Table 1.2.

Table 1.3: Effect of varying concentration of alum and catechu on colour values of dyed SPF fabric

Table 1.2: Effect of dye concentration on colour values of only-dyed SPF samples

Catechu, (%)

K/S

L*

a*

b*

5

5

2.9932

59.741

3.697

18.686

5

10

3.7921

61.336

11.511

28.332

5

15

5.0092

60.509

11.857

27.849

5

20

6.7854

59.76

11.598

26.885

10

5

3.7925

61.178

10.448

27.58

10

10

5.0498

60.913

11.772

28.385

10

15

5.2954

58.849

9.956

25.43

10

20

7.3869

59.264

12.677

27.038

15

5

4.1609

59.906

11.04

26.638

15

10

5.5345

60.812

11.933

28.158

15

15

5.5946

60.247

13.428

28.083

15

20

7.4543

58.652

11.718

26.082

20

5

4.5744

60.556

13.598

28.033

Catechu conc., (%)

K/S

L*

a*

b*

5

4.349

46.121

10.658

23.283

20

10

5.2931

60.381

12.869

27.989

10

4.465

51.905

8.227

24.557

20

15

6.1768

58.48

13.822

25.536

15

5.103

52.509

7.347

24.184

20

20

7.7274

60.119

12.607

27.996

20

5.184

52.853

7.932

25.304

For a constant alum concentration, K/S values were found to be increasing with catechu concentration from 5% to 20%. The colour value obtained in the case of natural dyes is a combined contribution of the effect of mordant and the dye. Hence the K/S was improved with mordant and dye concentration initially till the equilibrium was reached. The increase in concentrations of either mordant or dye beyond optimum concentrations did not significantly contribute in the improvement of the depth of dyeing which is reflected in K/S values.

In the absence of any mordant (refer Table 1.2), K/S values showed increase with increasing dye concentration from 5% to 20%. The SPF showed good dyeability towards catechu dye in absence of mordants, which might be due to the presence of amino groups in protein fibres like SPF which imparts substantivity for the dye molecules. The similar conclusions were made from earlier study of dyeing SPF with marigold as a natural dye [11]. Journal of the TEXTILE Association

Alum, (%)

After studying the effect of mordant and dye individually in absence of one of the components, the next set of experiments were carried out to optimize the concentrations of both mordant and a dye.

Textsmile TEACHER : There is a frog, Ship is sinking, potatoes cost Rs 3/kg .Then, what is my age? STUDENT : 32 yrs. TEACHER : How do you know? STUDENT : Well, my sister is 16 yrs old and she is half mad.

In case of alum mordant (refer Table 1.3), K/S values were found to be increasing with increasing alum concentration till 20%. This is quite obvious as higher the concentration of mordant, higher is absorption on the fibre and higher will be dye absorbed indicating improved colour values. However the relative increase 230

November - December 2012


DYEING The tannin mordants were varied in concentration and the effect on dyeing are summarized in Tables 1.4-1.6. Table 1.4: Effect of varying concentration of harda and Catechu on colour values of dyed SPF fabric Harda, (%)

Catechu, (%)

K/S

L*

a*

b*

5

5

5.322

49.156

6.958

23.865

5

10

5.5287

51.558

8.489

24.92

5

15

6.5062

51.253

9.405

25.417

5

20

8.7364

51.861

9.394

26.368

10

5

5.9852

48.534

8.303

25.522

10

10

6.7675

44.999

11.5

22.58

10

15

8.0222

47.367

7.982

25.333

10

20

8.9399

47.251

7.727

20.563

15

5

6.0985

45.065

11.683 22.645

15

10

7.8903

44.372

12.754 22.159

15

15

9.2244

46.848

9.917

15

20

11.2424

47.147

10.352 27.454

20

5

8.1798

47.531

7.353

24.293

20

10

8.727

47.384

8.891

26.077

20

15

10.3574

47.792

8.156

25.519

20

20

11.4548

46.794

10.061 26.737

26.566

K/S

L*

a*

b*

5

5

4.1926

47.023

10.97

21.873

5

10

5.6463

47.264

12.552

23.304

5

15

5.9929

50.128

12.652

24.315

5

20

6.9806

47.044

13.015

23.532

10

5

4.3427

49.443

11.349

22.566

10

10

5.8942

49.771

12.658

23.821

10

15

6.02

49.416

12.147

23.335

10

20

7.7274

49.779

13.546

24.481

15

5

5.0866

49.836

11.957

23.461

15

10

5.93

47.368

12.439

23.594

15

15

6.401

47.45

13.178

24.098

15

20

7.7622

50.057

13.253

24.647

20

5

5.3511

47.018

11.459

22.288

20

10

6.5905

47.095

12.909

23.562

20

15

6.7307

47.336

13.369

24.073

20

20

8.0077

47.364

14.074

24.356

November - December 2012

Catechu, (%)

K/S

L*

a*

b*

5

5

4.2779

51.09

7.697

20.709

5

10

4.7073

52.109

8.191

23.02

5

15

5.4599

49.275

10.482

23.54

5

20

6.5218

51.957

8.604

23.322

10

5

4.4784

49.234

9.703

22.873

10

10

5.0462

52.245

8.623

23.538

10

15

5.437

49.54

7.417

21.744

10

20

6.6133

51.42

7.827

22.028

15

5

4.6839

50.916

8.889

24.263

15

10

5.9337

50.078

9.74

24.025

15

15

7.1228

49.878

9.072

23.832

15

20

7.2947

50.09

9.622

24.475

20

5

4.6851

52.224

7.351

21.797

20

10

5.9604

51.555

7.127

21.368

20

15

6.3187

49.488

8.611

22.967

20

20

8.0174

48.997

11.898

24.048

Results in Table 1.4 clearly indicate the increase in K/ S values with increasing harda concentrations from 5 to 20% which was more or less similar for all the natural mordants. However the colour values got almost levelled- off for 15% mordant concentration which was also the case when SPF fabrics were mordanted (Table 1). For a constant mordant concentration, K/S values increased with increasing dye concentration. The higher K/S values resulted out of dyeing of premordanted and dyed fabric as compared to that of the fabric sample which was not mordanted before dyeing clearly showed the role of natural tannins acting as a mordant in natural dyeing. The colour values obtained using natural tannin mordants were higher than those of alum mordant and different shades were obtained using different mordants and dye combinations enabling one to have wider choice of hues from the gamut of different shades obtained in case of natural dyeing.

Table 1.5: Effect of varying concentration of tamarind seed coat and Catechu on colour values of dyed SPF fabric TSC, Catechu, (%) (%)

Amla, (%)

The results in Table 1.7 indicate the fastness properties of the dyeings obtained using various mordants. The only dyed samples showed much inferior fastness properties as compared to those which were pre-mordanted and dyed. In other words it indicates that the mordants play an important role in holding of the dye on the fabric. 231

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

Table 1. 6: Effect of varying concentration of amla and catechu on colour values of dyed SPF fabric


DYEING fabric with catechu was successfully carried out using natural mordants. The dyed fabrics displayed good colour strength, although those dyed using natural mordants showed distinctly higher colour values than those obtained using metal mordant like alum. The fastness properties were however, comparable for both types of mordants. The natural mordanted-dyed samples displayed broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. The replacement of metal mordant by the newly found natural mordents TSC and amla which individually contribute towards antibacterial property, further showed enhanced level in such property upon dyeing with catechu. The natural dyeing using natural mordants hence can be utilized as simultaneous and safe antibacterial treatment for textiles.

Table 1.7: Effect of mordant type (20%) and Catechu (20%) on fastness properties Mordant Mordant Catechu

Fastness Properties

conc.

Conc.

Washing Rubbing Light

Alum

-

20

2

3-4

2

Alum

20

20

4-5

4-5

6

Harda

20

20

4-5

4-5

6

TSC

20

20

4-5

4-5

6

Amla

20

20

4-5

4-5

6

The washing fastnesses obtained varied in the range of "very good" to "Excellent" grade. The rubbing fastness was also found to be of the grade "good" to "excellent". Light fastness was found to be quite satisfactory. The quantitative antibacterial assessment was made using AATCC-100(2004) test method and the results are presented in Tables 1.8.

References 1. Su W., Wei S., Hu S. and Tang J., Journal of the Textile Institute, 102, 150-156, 2011. 2. Gao Y. and Cranston R., Textile Reearchs Journal, 78, 60-72, 2008. 3. Joshi M., Ali S. W., Purwar R.and Rajendran S., Indian Journal of Fibre Textile Research, 34, 295-304, 2009. 4. Bechtold T., Turcanu A., Ganglberger E., Geissler S.. Journal of Cleaner Production, 11, 499-509, 2003. 5. Kumary J. K. and Sinha A.K., Natural Product Letters, 18(1), 59-84, 2004. 6. Prabhu K.H., Teli M.D. and Waghmare N., Fibers and Polymers, 12 (6), 753-759. 2011. 7. Ramakrishnan K. S., Selve R., and Shubha R., Ind. Chem. Eng. Section A, 48 (2), 88-93, 2006. 8. Swarna V.K., Venba R., Madhan B., Chandrababu N.K., Sadulla S., Journal of Cleaner Production, 17, 507-515, 2009. 9. Prabhu K.H.and. Teli M.D, Journal of Saudi Chemical Society, Article in Press. 10. Teli M. D., Sheikh J., Trivedi R., and Katkar F., Asian Dyer,. 9 (3), 37-41, 2012. 11. Teli M. D., Sheikh J. and Kamble M., Textiles and Light Industrial science and Technology, Accepted paper. 12. Trotmann, E.R.. Dyeing and Chemical Technology of Textile Fibres, England: Charles Griffin and Company ltd, 1984. 13. ISO technical manual, Geneva, Switzerland, 2006. 14. American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists. AATCC Technical Manual 2007, 76, Research Triangle Park, NC: AATCC. ooo

Table 1.8: Effect of mordant type (20%) and Catechu (20%) on antibacterial properties Mordant Mordant Alum

Harda TSC

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Amla

Catechu

Bacterial Reduction (%)

conc.

Conc.

S.aureus

E. coli

20

-

62.25

60.80

-

20

55.05

54.75

20

20

91.25

85.55

20

-

63.98

62.58

20

20

91.25

88.10

20

-

62.20

61.75

20

20

90.75

87.90

20

-

60.80

60.10

20

20

89.50

87.25

The antibacterial activity of only mordanted sample and only dyed samples as well as that of mordanted and dyed samples are given in Table 1.8. The only dyed sample showed least extent of antibacterial activity among the three categories of the samples. Only mordanted samples showed higher antibacterial property than that of the only dyed sample. Whereas, mordanted and dyed samples showed highest antibacterial property. All the three natural mordants gave more or less similar extent of overall antibacterial activity on dyeing with catechu. 4. Conclusion Simultaneous dyeing and antibacterial finishing of SPF 232

November - December 2012


DYEING

Extraction of Ecofriendly Dye from Industrial Waste and its Application in Textile Dyeing S.V. Agarkar*, S. K.Vyas and S. S. Bagade Anuradha Engineering College & S. T. Ingle School of Environment and Earth Science ABSTRACT The colourfastness properties of the dye extracted from Curcumin industrial waste on cotton fabrics have been studied using different concentration like 3%, 6% and 9% of the various mordents such as alum and Harda. The wash, rubbing, light and perspiration fastness of the dyed sample have been evaluated. It is found that Curcumin waste dye can be successfully used for dyeing of cotton fabrics. With regards to colourfastness, tested samples exhibit good fastness to washing, rubbing, light and perspiration fastness except for premordanting using Harda shows good fastness properties in alkaline media. Keywords Colourfastness, Curcumin waste, Extraction of natural dye, Mordant.

1.1 Curcumin Curcuma Longa (Turmeric) is the main species of commerce and is cultivated for its rhizome in India, China and also in Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Jamaica, and Peru. India is the major grower with almost 80,000 hectares under this crop producing 1,44,000 tonnes per annum. The plants are grown for powder, oleoresin and curcumin. Genetics improvements have been attempted high yielding curcumin varieties have been developed through tissue culture techniques [8, 9]. In addition to be beginning an important culinary spice, the dried rhizomes of turmeric also have a long history of medicinal use. Traditionally, turmeric has been used for a variety of purposes. It has found use as an appetite stimulant, a digestive aid, a general tonic, as well as for treating diarrhea, dyspeptic complaints, flayulence, and gallbladder complaints. It is also commonly used

Today, dyeing is a complex, specialized science. Dyestuffs are now produced from synthetic compounds. This means that costs have been greatly reduced and *Correspondence should be addressed to, S.V. Agarkar Anuradha Engineering College, Sakhegaon Road, Chikhli, Distt. -Buldana (M.S.), - 443201. Email - santoshagarkar@rediffmail.com November - December 2012

233

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certain application and wear characteristics have been greatly enhanced. But manufacturing of synthetic dyes involve many carcinogenic chemicals and the effluents which are discharged in the river or emitted into the atmosphere results ecological imbalance, pollution problem and disturbed environment due to the ample usage of hazardous chemicals and particularly synthetic dyes [6,7]. As a result, attention moves towards scope of natural dyes. The present work is aimed at developing ecofriendly natural dyes from Curcumin waste from Industry for textile application and assess colourfastness of dyed samples.

1. Introduction Nature, unlike any other source, has a wonderful visual device for sensing the seven shades of the colour spectrum. Hence, it is considered as the most abundant source of colors. Since the early dawn of civilization and through the history of the human race, colours have played a significant role in man's individual, family and social life [1, 2]. Archaeological findings have shown that natural colours were being used in dyeing, printing, painting and preparing cosmetics among primitive communities throughout the world [3]. Natural dyes have been vital source of coloration by craft dyers, printers since time immemorial. The colouring matters procured for roots, stems, leaves, flowers (plant origin), besides this, many dyes were procured from animals and minerals of natural origin. Most natural dyes are a non-substantive dye, which means that they have very little colouring power within themselves and require the aid of mordant to penetrate into the fiber [4, 5].


DYEING as an anit-spasmodic in different ethnic communities. The yellow-orange color of turmeric is derived from curcumin, bright yellow, phenolic pigment. Turmeric, commonly known to be an anti-inflammatory herbal remedies producing far fewer side effects than conventional pain relievers [8].

Table 1.1: Physical and Chemical Properties of Curcumin

Curcumin is the main biologically active phytochemical compound of turmeric. Curcumin consists of a mixture of three naturally occurring curcuminoids, curcumin (diferuloylmethane), demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin.

Molecular Formula

C 21 H 20 O 6

Colour

Yellow range

Molecular Weight

368.4

pH

5-8

Odour

Almost odourless

Solubility

Insoluble in water And slightly soluble in Alcohol

Heavy Metals

Heavy metals like Lead , Mer cury, Arsenic and Cadmium are absent

Microorganism

E. Coli - Absent

Curcumin has got a wide uses and applications in the field of pharmaceuticals especially in the field of herbal medicine. In the present study, we have collected waste from herbal pharmaceutical industry. The solid waste management is the problem of the industry. This waste is ecofriendly as it is generated from curcumin. Haldi oil utilized for medicinal value was extracted from curcumin by using isopropanol and then isopropanol was recoverd by vacuum distillation so the waste is free from any added chemicals.

Figure 1: The plant of Curcuma Longa

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2 Materials and Methods 2.1 Material In the present work, Curcumin waste from industry is collected for the extraction of the dye. The 100% cotton bleached cotton material is used for dyeing .The mordants like Alum and Harda are used. Depending upon mordant used, the colour was obtained on textiles from the Cucumin waste from industry. The other chemicals like acetic acid, common salt and sodium carbonate were used for the study. 2.2. Methods 2.2.1. Dye Extraction The extraction of dye from Curcumin waste and its application to fabric is carried out. The industrial waste is in solid form. This waste is converted into fine powder and screened for removal of unwanted solid materials. The fine powder thus obtained is polyphenolic in nature & therefore it is insoluble in water. To make it soluble with base like sodium hydroxide. In this method, Curcumin waste powder is pasted with small amount of water and sodium hydroxide was added into the bath and boiled for 1 hour to facilitate quick extraction of the dye. Then it was filtered and filtrate was collected in separate beaker.

Figure 2: Chemical structures of curcumin

Textsmile Teacher : How old is your father. Sunny :- As old as I am. Teacher : How is it possible? Sunny :- He became father only after I was born. 234

November - December 2012


DYEING all around four sides. The sample was soaked in the test solution (acidic) separately with M:L 1:50 for 30 Min at room temperature. The sample was then placed between two glass plates of perspirometer under load of 4.5.Kg. The apparatus was kept in oven for 4 hr at 37°C. Then specimen was removed and dried in air at temperature not exceeding 60°C and sample was assessed for change in colour using grey scale.

2.2.2. Dyeing Procedure The cotton fabric is dyed with dye extract by keeping M:L ratio as 1:10. Dyeing was carried out at 800C and continued for 1 hour. 2.2.3. Mordanting The cotton fabric samples were treated with different concentration of mordants like Alum and Harda by following method;

iv) Light Fastness [BIS No IS - 2454-1985] Colour fastness to exposure to light was determined by keeping samples in daylight. The samples were exposed to daylight for 4 hr. The fading of each samples were determined by using grey scale.

Cotton fabric is pre mordanted with alum and Harda by using 3%, 6% and 9% concentration at 80°C for 45 min keeping the material to liquor ratio (M:L=1:10).This mordanted fabric was used for dyeing without any washing. The pre-treated cotton fabric was introduced into dye bath containing required amount of dye extract and water. For better exhaustion add sodium chloride into the bath. Then dyeing was carried out for 1 hr at 800C. The dyed samples were taken out, squeezed, washed with water and dried at room temperature.

3. Results and Discussions 3.1. Preparation and Optimisation of Extract of Curcumin waste Curcumin waste powder is pasted with small amount of water and sodium hydroxide was added into the bath and boiled for 1 hour to facilitate quick extraction of the dye. Increase in the quantity of Curcumin waste powder from 1gm to 5gm per 100ml water for extraction in presence of sodium Hydroxide for 1hr at boil increased the colour yield. The colour of dye extract was yellow orange in colour.

2.2.4. Evaluation of Colour Fastness Properties Various fastness tests for dye extracted from Curcumin waste were carried out. These test asses how permanent the dye is on the fabric. These tests include following;

3.2. Dyeing Behaviour of the dye extract The cotton fabrics were dyed with synthetic and natural mordant. It was observed that, the dye uptake was found to be good in pre-mordanting method. The dye extract was found to be suitable for cotton fabric. Various shades of colours were obtained by premordanting the fabric with alum and harda. The evaluation of fabric dyed with Curcumin waste and mordanted with various concentrations of alum for their colour fastness properties viz., colour fastness to

i) Washing fastness [BIS No IS - 3361-1979 (test-2)] Colour fastness to washing of the dyed fabric samples was determined by using laundrometer following IS-3 wash fastness method. The wash fastness rating was assessed using grey scale by evaluating loss of depth of shade. ii) Rubbing fastness [BIS No IS - 766-1988] Colourfastness to rubbing (dry and wet) was assessed by using manually operated crockmeter. In this test, the dyed specimen are rubbed 10 times using a crock meter which has a weighted finger covered with the piece of undyed cotton cloth (5×5cm). For wet rubbing the cotton cloth is wetted out before being rubbed on the dyed sample. The cotton rubbing cloth is than examined for dye which may have been removed and asses by using the grey scale for staining.

A man should have any number of little aims about which he should be conscious and for which he should have names, but he should have neither name for, nor consciousness concerning, the main aim of his life. - Samuel Butler

iii) Perspiration Fastness [BIS No IS - 791-1983] Colourfastness to perspiration was assessed; composite specimen was prepared by placing the test specimen between two adjacent pieces of cotton and stitched November - December 2012

235

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

Texttreasure


DYEING Table 3.1: Colour fastness properties of Curcumin waste (CW) applied on cotton fabric sample using different concentration of Alum

Concentration of Mordant

Washing Fastness Rubbing Fastness

Perspiration

Light Fastness

Rating

Remark

Wet Dry Remark Rating Remark Rating Remark

100% CW

2

Poor

2

2

Poor

3

fair

2

Poor

3%

3

Fair

3

2

Poor

2

Poor

4

Good

6%

3

Fair

3

3

Fair

4

Good

4

Good

9%

3

Fair

3

3

Fair

4

Good

4

Good

washing, rubbing, perspiration and light are presented in Table 3.1. Fabric treated with 3% alum shows fair washing and wet rubbing fastness whereas poor for dry rubbing and perspiration fastness. Wash fastness of fabric treated with 6% alum is same as that of fabric treated with 3% concentration of alum. Colourfastness to rubbing (dry & wet) and perspiration shows fair to good rating. Wash fastness of fabric treated with 9% alum is same as that of 3% concentration whereas fastness to rubbing (dry and wet) shows fair rating and fastness to perspiration & light indicates good fastness rating. The evaluation of fabric dyed with Curcumin waste and mordanted with various concentrations of Harda for their colour fastness properties viz., colour fastness

4. Conclusion In present research work it is found that Curcumin industrial waste can be used for colouring textiles. Various shades in various tones & hues can be obtained using synthetic and natural mordant. The parameters viz., concentration of dye, dyeing temperature and dyeing time for dyeing were also optimised for better results. With regards to colourfastness, samples exhibit good fastness to washing, rubbing, light and perspiration. Heavy metals such as antimony, arsenic, cadmium and lead were not present in the dye extract so this dye will not cause any skin problem to wearer and also not pollute the environment. Acknowledgements The authors are thankful to management of AEC, Chikhli

Table 3.2: Colour fastness properties of Curcumin waste applied on cotton fabric sample using different concentration of Harda

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

Concentration of Mordant

Washing Fastness Rubbing Fastness

Perspiration

Light Fastness

Rating

Remark

Wet Dry Remark Rating Remark Rating Remark

100% CW

2

Poor

2

2

Poor

3

fair

2

Poor

3%

4

Good

2

2

Poor

2

Poor

4

Good

6%

4

Good

4

4

Good

4

Good

4

Good

9%

3

Fair

2

3

Fair

2

fair

4

Good

to washing, rubbing, perspiration and light are presented in Table 3.2. Fabric treated with 3% Harda shows good washing fastness as compared to 3% alum mordanted fabric however it shows poor rating for rubbing and perspiration fastness. Fabric treated with 6% harda shows good fastness to washing, rubbing and perspiration whereas with 9% harda, it shows fair washing, rubbing, perspiration and good Light fastness property. Among all mordants used for study, it was found that, 6% concentration of Harda gave better result as compared to alum mordant. It is found that Curcumin waste dye can be successfully used for dyeing of cotton fabrics.

for providing laboratory facilities & special thanks to Konark Herbals and Healthcare, Mumbai for providing Curcumin Industrial waste for study. References 1. Ashish kumar, Priti Agrawal, Indian J. Fibre Text. Res., 34 (12), 384, (2009). 2. Kamat SY &Alat D.V, Indian Textile Journal, 3(1), 66, (1990). 3. R. Siva, Current Science, 92(4), 986, (2007). 4. Avwioro OG, Aloamaka PC, Ojianya NU ,Oduola T, Ekpo EO, African journal of Biotechnology, 4(5), 460, (1999). 236

November - December 2012


DYEING 5. S. Ganesh, Indian journal of traditional knowledge,7(1),125, (2008). 6. Kumarsen M, P.N.Palanisamy, P.E.Kumar, Indian J. Fibre Text. Res., 37(6), 194, (2012). 7. Saravan P., Chamndra Mohan G., Universal journal of Evironmental Research and Technology

1(3), 268, (2012). 8. http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/agns/pdf/ jecfa/cta/61/Curcumin.pdf 9. Saima Umbreen, Shaukat Ali, Tanveer Hussain, Rakhshanda Nawaz, RJTA, 12(4), 1,(2008). ooo

November - December 2012

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A-6 A-15 A-17 A-8 A-3 P-237 P-241 P-267 Cover-II A-14 Cover-IV A-9 A-2

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TEXPERIENCE

Innovation in Textile Processing: The Need for a Change in Mind-Set

Mr. Prasad Pant Mr. Prasad Pant has completed his B.Sc in Chemistry from Mumbai University in 1983 and B.Sc(Tech) in Textile Chemistry from erstwhile University Department of Chemical Technology (UDCT) - now ICT, in 1986. Subsequently, he completed his Diploma in Management from NMIMS in 1988. His work experience spans over 25 years in the textile industry. He started with a brief stint of 4 months at Madhavnagar Cotton Mills, Sangli as a management trainee, where he was exposed to weaving and processing. He then got an assignment with Chemiequip Ltd, a reactive dyes manufacturing company at Ambernath in their Technical Services Department. He conducted a lot of bulk trials for their newly introduced "Chemistron" range of dyes.

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

He then joined Indian Dyestuffs Industries Lts, a Mafatlal Group as a Technical Sales Representative, and rose to the level of Zonal Manager(West). After 8 years with IDI, he was transferred to the joint venture company of IDI & Ciba Specialty Chemicals. he worked there as Regional Manager and South Asia Technical Head for Polyester & blends. After 6 years at Ciba, he joined Atul Ltd - a Lalbhai Group company - as Head of Marketing in their Colors Division. Subsquently he worked at Colourband Dyestuffs Pvt Ltd as VicePresident (Marketing) and now has joined NimkarTek Technical Services Pvt Ltd - an environment consulting company- as their CEO. He has vast experience in technical marketing of dyes & chemicals, team building, strategy formulation, product innovation and environmental compliance issues in the textile supply chain.

The textile industry is extremely traditional. The processing sector has not really seen any path-breaking innovation or change in the past few decades. There have been developments in technology such as the E-Control from Monforts, or Ink Jet printing. But, more or less, textile processing methods, machines and chemicals usage has remained static in terms of innovation. During my 25 years' experience in the textile industry, I have a feeling that the dye house managers and technicians also really do not want to take risks and innovate. Most like to remain in their "comfort zone" - unable to move out and try take risks & adopt new changes. Even when new techniques are promoted and they see the benefits of the same, the tendency is to stick to the old 'tried and tested' methods, rather than to accept and implement the new. My observation can be illustrated with my following experiences:

duced, as the oligomers formed are saponified under alkaline conditions u Brighter shades are obtained u The reduction clearing process is minimized The alkaline dyeing of polyester is greatly suited to the dyeing of sarees in Surat, where a weight reduction pre-treatment with caustic soda is given prior to dyeing, to obtain lustre and smooth surface feel on the fabric. Since this is done under high pH conditions (pH12), it is imperative to neutralize the fabric with strong acids to ensure acidic conditions prior to starting disperse dyeing. In order to help save time & chemicals and reduce environmental impact, I tried to push alkaline dyeing of polyester in the Surat market. During initial discussions, I met with scepticism and disbelief that polyester can be dyed in alkaline medium. After some efforts, a trial at a particular mill was arranged. The process was as follows:

Alkaline Dyeing of Polyester During my stint at Ciba Specialty Chemicals, we had developed a range for alkaline dyeing of polyester. These were specialty disperse dyes that were stable upto the pH of 10.5. (Disperse dyeing is done at acidic pH (4.5-5.5) as the stability of disperse dyes beyond a pH of 8 is poor). Alkaline dyeing has many advantages: u The problem of oligomers that are generated during the HT dyeing process is drastically re238

Weight reduction ---->Hot wash @ 80oC for 10 min----> Add alkaline buffer and Terasil AD disperse dyed----> Dye at 130'C at pH 10.511----> Hot wash @ 700C for 15 min----> Neutralize with acetic acid This process saved almost 3-4 baths compared to the established process, alongwith reduction of core alkali neutralizing acid & acetic acid+ sodium acetate buffer used in the dyebath. The dye house manager of the mill where the trial was fixed was November - December 2012


TEXPERIENCE greatly surprised when he saw the results of the trial. He asked me to conduct more trials in some dark shades and could not believe the results. Although the prices of the dyes + buffer used were higher than his conventional disperse dyeing system, I could demonstrate to him that total cost of dyeing - including water, energy, chemical and ETP costs- was not far from his current costing. However, inspite of constant follow-up, persuasion and conviction, he did not change from his current set-up ! Grey stage dyeing of cotton knits Processing of cotton knits involves a lot of steps, starting with scourbleach operation to the finishing operation. The normal sequence for dark shades is as follows: Grey Knit Fabric Scour & Bleach

Clays are inorganic substances, primarily containing elements like Si, O, Al, Mg and Ca. The clays differ by the ratio of these elements in the deposits. The exchange of Aluminum by other metals or silicon in the crystalline structure gives the clay a negative charge on the surface of the sheets (deficit of charge). In the presence of water, this negative charge develops and the sheets of clay automatically separate out, exposing a huge surface area for adsorption of metal ions and all kinds of weakly cationic impurities, including pectins and hydrophobic waxes.

Tirupur, as also at a reputed yarn dyeing unit at Bhilwara. Many shades - from medium grey to black - were tried with the above process and results obtained in terms of shade reproducibility, fastness & other quality parameters and costing were excellent.

Clays - unlike surfactants - are insensitive to pH, temperature or electrolyte (they do not have a cloud point), and this opens up possibilities of newer processes such as SINGLE BATH SCOURING & DYEING. Thus, by using clay products, it is possible to scour and dye in a single bath - and thus save 4 drains! The process is as follows:

We keep lamenting that there has been no path- breaking innovation in our textile processing industry and new technologies are not being made available for upgrading the existing processes. But my "Texperience" suggests that the technicians in our industry must first be ready to change their mind- set and accept new initiatives with an open mind, take risks in trying new things and introduce innovations constantly in their daily operations. Only if we are ready to take these small steps, we can be ready for path-breaking innovations!

Hot Wash

Yet, after all these efforts, I found a general reluctance to shift to this new process- where enormous amount of water and time could be saved! Some of the mills did start usage, but it took a long time and constant follow-up to change their mind- set!

Peroxide Quenching

Start Dyeing There are at least 4 drains that go to the waste water treatment plant in this sequence. When working with an erstwhile company, we started promoting their CLAY - BASED products for pretreatment of cotton, usage of which could substantially alter this process. November - December 2012

Let us hope that the technicians of the new generation are ready to accept the challenge!

ATTENTION TAI UNIT HEADS Please send your Unit Activities, event reports immediately as soon as an event held Also Please send all forthcoming events & Programmes in advance for publishing in JOURNAL OF THE TEXTILE ASSOCIATION taicnt@mtnl.net.in; somajb@mtnl.net.in 239

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Hot Wash

I successful conducted bulk trials on black shades in many mills in


TEXNOTES

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

Thermomigration and its Effect on Wet Fastness of Disperse Dyes Thermomigration is the term used to describe the movement of disperse dyes out of synthetic fibers during heat treatment and their accumulation on the fiber surface. It is the movement of dye during post-heat treatment of a polyester substrate, resulting in the accumulation of dye at the fiber surface as well as the limited sublimation of the dye to the surrounding atmosphere. Thermomigration involves the desorption of dyes from the fiber and their transfer into preparation and finishing chemicals under the influence of heat and time. This impairs the light fastness, rubbing fastness, wet fastness to perspiration and fastness to dry cleaning. Shade changes may occur, and the adjacent materials may get stained during subsequent heat treatments such as ironing and pressing. Polyester does not contain any groups that can be used to fix a dye, either by reaction or by attractive processes, hence the dye is merely held in solid solution. It follows that a dye that is readily taken up by the fibre is equally vulnerable to come out from fibres, gives rise to thermal migration, a serious problem in polyester colouration. The fastness properties of polyester and polyester blends dyed with disperse dyes are impaired by drying and heat-fixation processes, finishing chemicals or a combination of both and softeners during curing. The complex problems surrounding this subject are often loosely summed up by the term 'thermomigration'.

Figure 1: Causes of fastness problem on polyester during the dyeing, finishing and distribution processes

Many a times there is confusion over terminology "thermomigration" and just "migration". By migration we mean in general terms the movement of dye in or on a textile fibre under certain treatment conditions, which is generally favourable leading to level dyeing thermomigration is specific to disperse dye leading to post treatment faults. Thus, migration processes play part in; u Levelling in exhaust dyeing: Levelling. u Drying of padded textiles: Migration. u The movement of the dye into the inside of the fibre: Diffusion. u The movement of the dye from inside to outside of a fibre when dyed textiles come in contact with certain auxiliaries. u No temperature effect: Solvent bleeding or desorption. u The movement of the dye from inside to outside of a fibre when 240

dyed textiles come in contact with finishing agents and softeners etc. during curing and in dyeing and heat fixation processes generally: Thermigration. The Causes of Thermomigration may be Summarised as u Spinning preparations (coing oils) u Substrate and depth of colour u Fibre blend ratio u Drying/setting temperature u Sublimation fastness of dyes and type of fibres u Dye concentration u Dyeing procedure, dyeing auxiliaries and after treatment u Finishing chemicals and conditions u Time and temperature u Residues of preparation and dyeing auxiliaries Test Method for Thermomigration Reliable tests, which simulate plant conditions, are an important prerequisite for solving thermomigration problems. Disperse dyes that are present on the fibre surface after November - December 2012


TEXNOTES Thermomigration can be dissolved with acetone or dimethyl formamide at room temperature and determined by photometric or chromatographic methods. However, it is to be noted that, the quantity of dyes dissolved out is not always proportionate to the deterioration in fastness. Measures to Prevent Thermomigration

The key factors for restricting thermomigration are correct dye selection, well penetrated dyeing,

least possible amount of carrier and levelling agents, through reductive clearing, washing off after soaping of cellulosic dyeing, curing at low temperatures using low temperatures curing catalyst and use of non-extracting softeners. This shows that the problems caused by thermomigration are not insurmountable. If advantage is taken of all the possibilities available to counter; then a high standard of fastness can be achieved, even with critical shades and enables one to stay ahead of the competition. - By Chet Ram Meena

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

The knowledge of the manifold causes and circumstance that lead to problems with fastness properties provides the necessary foundation to come out with all mea-

sures that can be taken to tackle the problem. u Dye selection u Choice of finishing chemicals u Curing and/or thermofixation conditions (time and temperature) u Application of special chemicals u Special dyes u After treatment of the finished fabric u Application of polyester for basic dyeing

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UNIT ACTIVITIES The Textile Association (India)

DELHI-UNIT 4th Managing Committee Meeting of Delhi unit was held on October 27th, 2012 at 5:30 PM at The Textile Association (India) - Delhi Unit

Office. The Managing Committee congratulated Mr. R.K. Vij on receipt of Industry Excellence Award and Mr. Sudhish Aggarwalla on receipt of Service Memento Award from The Textile Association (India) during 68th AITC. It was unanimously decided to adopt four year term w.e.f. existing term for Governing Council Members. Regard-

ing term for Office Bearers and Managing committee, it will discuss and will take the appropriate decision. It was decided to organize National Textile Seminar during JanFeb '13. Further, Mr. D.K. Singh, Director, NOYFIL SA has been coopted member in managing committee.

Job Opportunity Bekaert N.V, Headquartered in Belgium, a global market leader in drawn steel wire products and applications, serving customers in 120 countries & having a combined sales turnover of 4.6 billion euros. We invite applications from young, dynamic, target oriented individuals for the position of Sales & Service Engineer (Non-woven Business) salescordinator@colorbandindia.com, for the Textile sector where Bekaert supplies carding metallic wire products to customers in textile industry. This position will be reporting to the Sales Director (South Asia &Southeast Asia). Education: any graduation or diploma engineering. u

Location: Ahmedabad.

Key Skills

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

u u u u u u u

Diploma or degree in Textile or Mechanical Engineering 3-5 years of experience in mounting & fitting of non-woven wires. Process knowledge of non-woven wires, fitment, mounting services. Trouble shooting on non-woven cards. Commercial knowledge. Customer handling, negotiation skills. Good command over English & Hindi.

Primary Responsibilities u u u u

Mounting & fitting of non-woven wires at customer site. Trouble shooting, technical services to non-woven customers. Day to day sales follow up, generating new business, customer development Carry sales target.

Salary is not a constraint for the right candidate. Interested candidates please email your resume to hr.india@bekaert.com as early as possible 242

November - December 2012


and most prominent Industries in India. Present during the inauguration were Mr. R. S. Bachkaniwala, Chairman and Ms. Seema Srivastava, Executive Director and Mr. Sanjeev Lathia, Treasurer, India ITME Society, who had made this as an official Conference of India-ITME 2012. Prof (Dr.) G. D. Yadav, Vice-Chancellor, Institute of Chemical Technology, present on the occasion took us through the journey of eighty years of ICT's royal academic and research excellence with a number of laurels. Mr. Sanjay Chawla, Founder, DFU Publications adorned the dais during inaugural ceremony, being associate organiser of TexSummit 2012. The Book of Papers/Conference Proceedings, Edited by Prof. Teli and Dr. Sujata Pariti, was formally released during the inaugural function, which was concluded with the vote of thanks which was ably delivered by Dr. Sujata Pariti, Adjunct Professor, of the Department.

bottles and how RIL is carrying out this activity. Mr. Manohar Samuel, Joint President, Birla Cellulose, explained in depth the sustainability being at the core of Viscose staple fibre. Mr. Bernd Plankenhorn, Sales Manager, Benninger AG, Switzerland, expressed the need to look at various machineries in Textile processing from the point of view of their ability to produce textile materials with least of Carbon footprints. He spoke on thus "Getting Ready for the New Carbon Footprint Regulations". Last, but not the least, speaker of this first session was the eminent Prof. Subhash Anand, Professor of Technical Textiles, The University of Bolton, U.K., who made presentation on the topic, "Designer Natural - fibre Geotextiles: A New Concept". Increasingly the natural fibres due to biodegradability and sustainability aspects are going to be more and more important, opined Prof. Anand. In his summing - up Prof. Teli, stressed the need to remain always cognizant of the issues related to sustainability in all the levels of value chain in Textiles and apparels.

While playing a duel role of Chairman cum Speaker, Prof (Dr.) M. D Teli set the first Technical session in motion by presenting the Theme paper "Building a Sustainable Value Chain through Green Technology". The growing organization should see competitive business opportunity while putting stake holders-model for creating value in their business was his message. Then followed a talk by Dr. Anup Rakshit, Vice President, Polyester Staple Business, Reliance Industries Limited, on "Sustainable Efforts in developing Fibrous Polymers wherein he dwelled deep in the need for recycling of polyester

Chairman of the Second Session was Dr. P. R. Roy who is currently a Chairman of Diagonal Consulting (India). Dr. Roy enthusiastically guided all through this session, which comprised of the first speaker, Dr. Gerard de Nazelle, CEO, Polygenta Technologies Limited, who spoke on the necessity of today's Polyester. The title of his paper "Completely Recycled, but Equivalent to Virgin Polyester for Sustainability" aptly described efforts of Polygenta in developing colour-free polyester from recycled PET bottles. Next was Mr. Manuj Kanchan, Director, South Asia, Jeanologia Management, Spain,

ICT's TexSummit 2012: A Sustainability Conference with Difference! December 05, 2012 - The Department of Fibres and Textile Processing Technology of the Institute of Chemical Technology (ICT), Matunga, Mumbai, on December 05, 2012, organised an International Conference on the theme, 'Building a Sustainable Value Chain through Green Technology - Flourish or Perish?', at the Bombay Convention and Exhibition Centre, Goregaon, Mumbai. The Convenor of this Conference called TexSummit 2012 was an elite personality in himself, Prof. (Dr.) M. D. Teli, a Professor at the Department and also an ex-Dean of ICT and former Head of the Textile Department. He welcomed the dignitaries and explained the background of selection of the subject of sustainability and how the Conference unfolded. While expressing his gratitude for the presence of eminent personalities, he also narrated with appreciation the tireless efforts of his team under the leadership of present Head of the Department, Prof. (Dr.) R. V. Adivarekar and the faculty colleagues. The Conference was inaugurated by the Chief Guest Shri A.B.Joshi, an esteemed Commissioner of Textiles, Ministry of Textiles, Government of India. Shri R. D. Udeshi, President Polyester Division, Reliance Industries Ltd. and Shri. Pawan Poddar, Joint Managing Director, Siyaram Silk Mills, were the eminent Guests of Honour. The Chief Guest as well as the Guests of Honour voiced their opinion on the existing perils of having non Sustainable Practices in the Textile Industry, which is one of the oldest November - December 2012

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NEWS


NEWS whose lecture on the dirty habits in Denim Washing, i.e., "The New Era of Washing: Responsible Technologies", was well appreciated by the delegates attending the conference. Mr. Ganesh Srinivasan, Head of Technologies, Resil Chemicals Pvt. Ltd., spoke on the, "Role of Particulate N9 Pure Silver, Antimicrobial for Sustainable, Odour-free and Hygienic Textile Applications", wherein he discussed the importance of having sustainable antimicrobials for the processing of textiles. Mr. Jayant Khera, Regional Industry Sales Manager, Novozymes South Asia Pvt. Ltd., in his turn, spoke very ably on the "Need for Clean Water and Contribution of Enzymes". The 'hi-tech' topic of "Membrane Application for Textile Processing Industry" was discussed by Mr. John Morrison, Senior Vice-President, Koch Membrane Systems, USA and he cited very good experiences of applications of this technology.

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

At the end of this session Dr. P. R. Roy not only summarised the topics under discussion, but also opined his views on the critical state of today's textile process houses and the steps which should be taken to remedy this situation. The Chairman of the Third Session, Mr. Ullhas Nimkar, who is the dynamic Chairman and Managing Director of Nimkartek Technical Services Pvt. Ltd., most ably took the already enthralled audience through the papers presented in this last session. The first speaker of the session was one of the oldest Alumini of the Department of Fibres and Textile Processing Technology, ICT; Prof. (Dr.) Roshan Shishoo, Director, Shishoo Consulting AB Sweden, who delivered his lecture on the topic, "Sustainability

Aspects of Some Elements in the Technical Textiles Value-Chain". Mrs. Ruparani Trivedi, Managing Director, Adiv Pure Nature Pvt. Ltd., spoke on the moral duty of all, through her topic, "A Project Based on Building Sustainability with Social Responsibility at all Stages of Enterprise ". Her's is a social enterprise ably assisted by ICT's Textile department. The next speaker Dr. Charu Jain, Global Sustainability Manager, DyStar Singapore Pte. Ltd., gave "Innovative Solutions to bring Sustainability in Textile Supply Chain" where in she spoke on kind of efforts DyStar is engaged in this direction. Mr. Stefan Thumm, Head - Effect Chemicals, Rudolf GmbH, Germany, spoke on the finishing aspects of textile processing through, "New Quaternary Performance Silicone Softeners". The very last speaker of the day Dr. Varalakshmy Chaudhari, Manager - Sustainability Services, SGS India Pvt. Ltd., wrapped - up the session by speaking on, "Greening the Future: Product Carbon Labels". Mr. Nimkar at the end of this last session summed - up the lectures presented very lucidly and appreciated the efforts being taken by various companies while expressing the need of many more steps required to be further taken up for the cause of sustainability in the future. The vote of thanks was given by Dr. R. D. Kale, an Assistant Professor, at the Textile Department, wherein he especially thanked all the Donor Companies like Reliance Industries Limited, Siyaram Silk Mills Limited, Resil Chemicals Pvt. Ltd., Bombay Rayon Fashions Limited, DyStar India Pvt. Limited, BASF India Limited, Benninger AG, 244

CHT (India) Pvt. Ltd., Polygenta Technologies Ltd., Rudolf Atul Chemicals Ltd., Colourtex Industries Limited, Novozymes South AsiaPvt. Limited, Sarex Chemicals, Alok Industries Ltd., Rossari Biotech Ltd., Colorband Dyestuff (P) Ltd., Chemistar Intermediates Pvt. Ltd., NimkarTek Technical Services Pvt. Ltd., Bombay Dyeing, L. N. Chemical Industries and the companies who placed their advertisements in the Conference Proceedings. He also thanked the very charming as well as highly intellectual, Compeer Ms. Shaddha Teli, an MBA on the subject of sustainability, from the University of Exeter, U.K., who very enthusiastically guided all, through the day. The conference was well attended by more than 500 delegates from all walks of the Industry. This kind of response is certainly not seen anywhere today especially as it was a whole nine hour long conference, which itself speaks for the ability of successfully organising conferences by the team of experienced experts and faculty at the Department like Prof. Dr. M. D. Teli, Prof (Dr.) S. R. Shukla, Prof. (Dr.) R. V. Adivarekar, Dr. (Mrs.) Usha Sayed, Dr. R. D. Kale and Dr. Sujata Pariti and the staff and students of the Department of Fibres and Textile Processing Technology alogwith Mr. Sanjay Chawala and Ms. Shraboni Mukherjee of DFU publications. Report by- Dr. Sujata Pariti, Adjunct Professor, ICT, Email : sujata.pariti@gmail.com

Texttreasure The future belongs to those who believe in the beauty of their dreams. - Eleanor Roosevelt November - December 2012


NEWS

Technology Going Places

The event conducted by Resil in honour of The ICT at The Orchid, Mumbai on the 5th of December 2012 was truly a grand success. Besides a felicitation to commemorate 80 years of The ICT, the very latest in anti-microbial technologyN9 Pure SilverTM was also introduced on this prestigious occasion. The event which was graced by eminent professors from the ICT included a sneak peek into the ICT's journey by Prof (Dr.) M D Teli and a Technical Overview on the myriad of benefits enabled by the usage of N9 Pure SilverTM within the Textile industry. The enlightening presentations were followed by Cocktails and Dinner.

training, research and industrial collaboration in chemical engineering, chemical technology, applied chemistry, pharmacy, biotechnology and bio-processing. The ICT has nurtured some of India's most gifted minds. Its distinguished alumni have excelled in every sphere. It is ranked as the best chemical engineering and chemical technology teaching and research institute in India and among the 10 top institutions in the world in an annual ranking of chemical engineering programs conducted by the Georgia Institute of Technology, USA. Resil Chemicals Pvt Ltd is a wellknown and trusted name in the Asian textile space as a high-qual-

N9 Pure Silver™ is a silver-based antimicrobial application that can be effectively used on textiles and other material. It consists of pure, metallic silver in pure, de-ionised water. As an antimicrobial, it not only keeps the treated surface clean, safe and hygienic, but also offers a safe and natural way to keep textiles, clothing, leather, jute and upholstery odour-free and fresh. N9 Pure Silver™ is an Oeko-Tex listed product - the only one in India. Among the brand names that have already experienced N9 Pure Silver™ are DIM, Marks & Spencer, Louis Philippe, Urbana, UTC Towels (UK), George Shirts (Bharti Walmart), Raymond, Amanté, etc. Resil continues to invest research and resources into growing the possibilities of N9 Pure Silver™. The company is also venturing outside the textile space, into the domestic, healthcare and hospitality industries to reach out to more people. Some of these areas include cleaning products and disinfectants, fragrances and fresheners , mosquito repellents, auto detailing, agriculture and pharma.

Established in 1933, with a focus on taking India's repository of knowledge in the field of chemical science and technology to the global level, the ICT has grown to become one of Asia's premier institutions devoted to education, November - December 2012

ity manufacturer of silicone products and solutions. It closely follows world trends and technologies, and works towards creating and offering global solutions indigenously - with support from their in-house Application Research Cen245

Textsmile Teacher: Paul, what is the chemical formula of Water? Paul: H,I,J,K,L,M,N,O Teacher: What is this? Paul: Well!! you said it is H2O.

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

Celebrating 80 years of ICT and introducing N9 Pure Silver™

tre (ARC) and R&D labs. The latest global offering to emerge from these research initiatives is N9 Pure Silver™. N9 Pure Silver™ is launched and marketed through a joint venture organization N9 World Technologies Pvt Ltd.


NEWS

Textile Students of Government Polytechnic, Nagpur bag first prize in National Paper presentation competition Mr. Sohail Sheikh and Ms. Rohini Nimje, students of final year Diploma Programme in Textile Manufacture of Government Polytechnic, Nagpur won first prize in National level Paper writing competition organized by The All India Federation of Co-operative Spinning Mills Ltd. and DKTE Society's Textile and Engineering Institute , Ichalkaranji recently. The award comprises of cash prize of Rs.5,000/-, trophy and a citation. The students received the prize at

the hands of Mr. Anchal, CEO Alok Industries Ltd. in a function held during ITME 2012, Mumbai.

L to R: Prof. Deepak Kulkarni, Awardees Mr. Sohail and Ms Rohini, & Principal Dr. R.S. Naidu

40 papers were submitted by stu-

New R 60 Rotor Spinning Machine - Technological Progress

Dr.Stefan Weidner-Bohnenberger

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

Head Product Management Rotor Spinning The innovative spinning technology of the new automatic R 60 rotor spinning machine from Rieter ensures better, more uniform and softer yarns. The R 60 sets new standards for speed, low energy consumption and high efficiency. At the ITMA 2011 in Barcelona, our customers clearly recognized how easy, operationally reliable and clearly designed this rotor spinning machine is compared to other machines.

Figure1 : R 60 Rotor Spinning Machine

High yarn quality is the basis for the success of a spinning plant The new S 60 spinning box of the R 60 features all the proven advantages of its predecessor the SCR version and has been further improved. Noticeable is the absence of a delivery tube. The new TWISTunit of the R 60 unites delivery nozzle, TWISTstop and channel insert in one construction. The unit and its elements are very easy and quick 246

dents of textile courses for the competition from different textile institutes in the country. The major areas of paper submitted were 'Future of Spinning industry in 2020', 'Yarn quality requirement for high speed weaving', 'Work practices and measures to improve productivity of spinning mill', 'Value addition in Spinning and Marketing strategy for long term sustainability'. The title of their paper was "Role of energy conservation in Spinning mill". Deepak Kulkarni, Head, Textile Manufacture, guided the students. Dr. R.S. Naidu, Principal, of the institute congratulated the winners. to replace, even without tools. The new construction prevents fiber accumulations or spinning vacuum from changing the spinning conditions. The box no longer has any covers under which fibers can accumulate. The optimized spinning geometry reduces the spinning tension and improves the spinning stability. This can clearly be seen with critical applications such as softturned yarns or with the increased use of short fibers such as comber noil, card and blowroom waste. Thanks to the "cool nozzle technology" heat dissipation to the nozzle is good which leads to a cooler surface. This provides further potential for higher productivity with synthetic fibers and their blends.

Figure2 :R 60 - Nm28/Ne17, 100% Cotton Weaving Yarn November - December 2012


NEWS

Savings with raw material Again the further developed Rieter spinning technology proves its strength, particularly with a high proportion of short fibers or with high trash content in the feed sliver. The adjustable bypass, the reduced spinning tension and the new automatic, individual centering of the exit nozzle and rotor improve the spinning stability. The mechanical rotor cleaning by the robot with the unique VARIOclean is effective with every piecing and doffing cycle. This ensures that the spinning position subsequently continues production at the highest quality level with thoroughly cleaned rotor grooves.

Piecing quality is particularly important with a high rate of yarn breakages The ends down rate when spinning with the R 60 is reduced by lowered spinning tension. The 25 % quicker robot, in comparison to the R 40, can deal with a far greater number of ends down and maintain the high efficiency of the machine. The robots need only 20 seconds for the complete cycle including complete rotor cleaning and doffing. With the unique AEROpiecing速 technology, almost yarn-like piecings in mass and strength are achieved. Only this can prevent more piecings generating substantial costs in downstream processing. Faulty piecings create high costs A sample calculation shows the following: a typical Ne 12 denim weaving yarn contains around 0.5 piecings per kg of yarn. Just one yarn break in the weaving plant today costs - worldwide - approx. 2 EUR, as alongside the efficiency, the fabric quality is very quickly also influenced. Such faults in the fabric are paid for by the buyers with expensive compensation. Under these circumstances, with only a 1 % lower rate of faulty piecings in the weaving plant, already 0.01 EUR per kg of yarn can be saved. This leads to significant savings or even better, to higher profits for the spinner. Central drive consumes less energy The modern concept of the R 60 was specifically optimized for low

energy consumption. The greatest energy consumers of the rotor spinning machine are the drives for rotor, suction and opening rollers. For the rapidly turning rotors and opening rollers, optimized tangential belt drives have continued to prove energy saving. For the central suction the R 60 exhibits advantages, as the electronically-controlled vacuum combined with the automatic filter cleaning avoids unnecessary losses. The life cycle of the electronic components can be extended by specific heat dissipation. For instance, in the R 60 the drive inverters were concentrated in an area that is specifically cooled by innovative heat dissipation. Measurements taken at customers have, in comparison to competitive machine concepts, confirmed energy consumption at least 10 % lower. The longest machine offers flexibility with independent sides With up to 540 rotors, the R 60 is the longest rotor spinning machine on the market. With independently producing machine sides, it can still be as flexibly operated as a short machine. Producing two different yarn qualities on one machine could create the risk of confusion. On the R 60 this is excluded by the double tube loaders, the two package transport belts and the clear allocation of the machine sides on the display.

VISIT YOUR WEBSITE www.textileassociationindia.org for u Advertisements on webpage Banners u Advertisements in Journal of the Textile Association November - December 2012

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Journal of the TEXTILE Association

New spinning technology for superior yarns and lower energy consumption Several customers could already experience the technological benefits of the new spinning box in the form of better yarn strength and evenness. In direct comparison to the latest competitor models, the innovative spinning technology of the R 60 is already a step ahead by up to 0.75 cN/tex and by 20 % higher IPI values. In the example shown (Fig. 2) - Ne 17 weaving yarn of 100 % cotton - this advantage in strength can be transformed into a productivity increase of 9 %. The originally required yarn strength can be achieved by a constant rotor speed with appropriately lower twist. This additionally results in a further reduction of the energy consumption per kg of yarn to an equivalent of 9 %.


NEWS

ICTA 2012 Ends with Resolutions for 'Efficient use of Resources in Textiles Production'

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

The 2nd International Conference on Textile & Apparel (ICTA)-2012 was organized by Amin & Jahan Corporation Ltd on 23-24 November 2010 at the Lake Shore Hotel, Gulshan, Dhaka. This convention is the biggest platform for presenting research papers and innovations on Textile and Apparel in Bangladesh. The conference was segmented in several technical and strategic sessions with the theme of Efficient Use of Resources in Textile and Apparel. The two days-long conferences were attended by renowned industrials, academician, freelancer researchers and experts from home and abroad. Attended participants showed special interest in honorary conference speaker, renowned fashion designer 'Bibi Russell'. In the closing session, the conference awarded the first three best participants of the 3rdsesson

of Textile Talent Hunt (TTH 2012). TTH is another program of Amin &Jahan Corporation Ltd to search out best prospective textile graduates in the field of research. Mr. John T Smith, International Coordinator & Long Term Advisor of UNIDO-BEST program summed the conference up before the closing session. ICTA 2012 has been supported by BEST program UNIDO too. This report will summarize the key findings of the conference even though all the presentations are available at www.icta.textiletoday.com.bd and all papers have been published along with 'Bangladesh Textile Today', (www.textiletodaybd.com) November 2012 issue. The conference was presented by Bangladesh Textile Today, in association with Bangladesh University of Textiles, The Textile Institute UK and The Textile Association (India).

Guests are seen on the stage at the opening ceremony of ICTA 2012. From left to right Prof. Dr. Engr. Ayub Nabi Khan, Member Secretary, ICTA 2012 Review Committee, Pro-VC, BGMEA University of Fashion & Technology, Engr. Md. Shamsuzzaman, Director, Bangladesh Knitwear Manufacturers and Exporters Association (BKMEA), Professor Dr. Nitai Chandra Sutradhar, Vice Chancellor, Bangladesh University of Textiles, Rebecca Unsworth, Director of Professional Affairs, The Textile Institute, Dr. Anil Gupta, National Vice President, Textile Association India (TAI), John T. Smith, International Coordinator/Long Term Advisor, UNIDO-BEST Program, and A S M Tareq Amin, Editor & Publisher, Bangladesh Textile Today 248

Bangladesh is The Crux of the Surprise! Professor Dr. Nitai Chandra Sutradhar, honorable Vice Chancellor, Bangladesh University of Textiles (BUTex) inaugurated the conference with a special note on the necessity of the such International Conference. He addressed the burning issues in the textile and apparel industry of Bangladesh and urged all the stakeholders of the industries to take all possible actions to improve valuable natural resource utilization.

Prof. Dr. Nitai Chandra Sutradhar, Vice Chancellor, Bangladesh University of Textiles, declared the conference open as special guest of the opening ceremony.He urged all to take care surrounding environment of the factories

Renowned speakers from home and abroad delivered their academic findings, research findings, innovations, solutions of problems through their expertise through their presentations. In the welcome speech Prof. Dr. Engr. Ayub Nabi Khan, Member Secretary, ICTA 2012 Review Committee, Pro-VC, BGMEA University of Fashion & Technology, thanked all for joining the conference. He stressed that we can already some impact of our 1st International Conference on Textile and Apparel, ICTA 2010 in the industry and we hope that the 2nd one will be more beneficiary for all. Engr. Md. Shamsuzzaman, Director, Bangladesh Knitwear Manufacturers and Exporters AsNovember - December 2012


NEWS A&J has a consultancy division that can help industries to adopt technologies to improve resource efficiencies

Mr. Amin mentioned that over the years natural gas, abundant good quality subsoil water and huge population have been Bangladesh's core competencies but now in a changed local scenario these has become core challenges along with other challenges rightly summed up in McKinsey and co.'s report. He urged the present audiences in the conferences to keep continue discussion and find possible solution of these challenges. He reiterated that efficient use of raw materials, natural resources, ensuring quality, adding value in products and services as well as decreasing environment footprint only can guarantee sustainable textile and apparel sector in Bangladesh.Mr. Amin ended up revealing the reason behind the success of Bangladesh referring The World Bank report where it was explained that how Bangladesh has been growing well riding the hard works of garment workers, expatriates and the farmers. And that's why it has been termed that 'Bangladesh is The Crux of The Surprise'. BUTex can be the real centre of excellence for Textile Education The conference actually started

A S M Tareq Amin, Editor & Publisher, Bangladesh Textile Today and Managing Director of Amin & Jahan Corporation Ltd. (A&J) introduced the theme of the conference & put up the agenda of discussion for the two day long program. He informed that November - December 2012

with the tea reception of the foreign delegates at Bangladesh University of Textiles (BUTex) on 22 Nov. Around thirty international participants of the conference visited all the facilities of the university. While sharing with university vice chancellor Prof. Dr. Nitai Chandra Sutradhar, most of the delegates expressed their satisfaction seeing workshop and laboratory facilities of the university. They echoed that the university has nice blends of textile machinery and equipments which is not that available in any institute anywhere in the world. It is to be mentioned that Bangladesh University of Textiles is one of the co-organizers of the conference. Foreign delegates visiting BUTex were from India, Mauritius, England and Scotland. Dr. Anil Gupta, National Vice President of The Textile Association India was leading a big delegate from India in the conference. Dr. Gupta expressed that the university is a great resource of the country and termed that it can extend all possible researches in textiles partnering with national and international institutes and universities to ensure greater utilization of the university. The reception given by BUTex brought up an opportunity for exchanging ideas between the faculty members of the university and the foreign delegate.

Bangladesh University of Textile (BUTex) extended a tea reception to the international delegates of ICTA 2012. The 30 member delegate had a tour to the university facilities and later on university Vice Chancellor expressed his interest to collaborate with different international organizations to strengthen university activities 249

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

sociation (BKMEA), while speaking as special guest on the occasion articulated the importance of value addition by doing new fabric development. He uttered his willingness to organize more knowledge and idea sharing programs under his scope in BKMEA. He mentioned that currently Bangladesh has abundant of experts to lead this industry hence now we don't need any foreign experts to work here in Bangladesh rather we need such conferences more. ASM Tareq Amin, ICTA 2012 Organizing Committee Secretary General, as the first presenter on the dias to introduce the theme of the conference 'Efficient Use of Resources in Textile and Apparel' under discussion and showed current pictures of natural resources use in Bangladeshi textile factories. He put more emphasis on the uses of modern technologies, processes and methods to ensure efficient and effective use of non-renewable natural resources like gas, water, and power. Sustainable industry can be developed only with efficient and effective use of the resources and this can ensure a better life for the families of more than 5 million people who are working in this textile and apparel industrial chain.


NEWS

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

Greener alternatives for textiles production Right after the inaugural session on 23 November at the Lake Shore Hotel, Mr. Asif Muhammad Sami, CEO - EuroAsiatic Resources, Chairman - SS Vision Ltd & Textile Consultant - Perseus Ltd. Started the introductory session with his presentation on "Technology of eco-friendly Textile processing - A route to sustainability". He said the processing of textiles should be cost effective and environmentfriendly. Innovative and efficient strategies to achieve these goals are needed. He presented a paper that reports various problems in different stages of processing textile materials and their 'green solutions' the alternatives by which the problems can be avoided through innovative techniques and various measures of textile 'cleaner production'(CP) which ensures textile processing "eco-friendly", "cost effective" and "sustainable business". He also introduced Electron Beam Method Combination with Biological System ETP, that is running on test at Ecotex (a composite textile industry) and they are hopeful for its success. The sludge of the Electron Beam Method is sent for laboratory test and it is said that it can be used as fertilizer in the fields. He flashed on full textile processing chain and presented the eco-friendly options in each stage.

Engr. Asif Mohammad Sami showed intelligent way of applying latest tech-

nological innovations in a customized way as per the necessity of Bangladeshi industry for implementing greener alternatives in terms of resource usage. He has been applying such techniques in a 'green' factory he is currently working with

Awarding the 'Fashion for Development' campaign Key attention of this year's ICTA was Bibi Russell, the renowned fashion designer from Bangladesh who has been fighting through his life for the betterment of the weaving and other handicrafts artisans of the country working in different spares of the country. Acknowledging her outstanding contribution for developing handloom sector of Bangladesh, she has been awarded with ICTA 2012 Design Award. After receiving the crest and certificate, she expressed her gratitude politely terming the award as a stimulating one as she receives it for the artisan she works with. She dedicated the same for the people who have been making many delicate fabrics to build positive reputation of the country. Bibi Russell, the astounding model who rose to stardom in the late 70s and early 80s, now works to establish a cause that is much closer to her heart "the plight of the hand woven textile industries and their workers in her native Bangladesh". Bibi Russell is internationally renowned Bangladeshi fashion designer, entrepreneur and model. Even though her work has been recognized by many organizations and she was awarded in many forums, receiving ICTA 2012 design award she found it special as she was telling, it is very special for me as I receiving it from the industry. She urged such a big 20 billion industry to consider spending a bit of it for the handloom sectors in terms of 250

CSR. Because she observed that how an enable artisan make development in rural village. An extra bit of earning for a poor weaver encourage them to send their children to the school, make them cautions on health, family planning etc.

Bibi Russell is receiving award from the ICTA organizers. From left to right A S M Tareq Amin, Editor & Publisher, Bangladesh Textile Today, Prof. Dr. Md. Humaun Kabir, Technical Editor, Bangladesh Textile Today, Principal, National Institute of Textile Training Research & Design, Bibi Russell and Prof. Dr. Engr. Ayub Nabi Khan, Member Secretary, ICTA 2012 Review Committee, Pro-VC, BGMEA University of Fashion & Technology

At the special honorary conference speech from Bibi Russell on 'Fashion for Development' she expressed I have been designing using our handloom fabric and trying to promote. It is their work on which I am trying to add value to offer them better return. But everything needs money, and as I didn't found any corporate spending here, it was difficult for me to promote their products in global arena. She urged the textile and garment factory owners to look into these designs and requested to consider replacing even less than 1% of their fabric by handloom fabric that could change the livelihood of around 1 million handloom artisans and their family and that will be the real development of the country. She stressed the importance of 'Green' November - December 2012


NEWS

In her short but heart touching speech, Bibi Russell, explained what real development means. Being the symbol of development she showed her success stories in short vedio. Development of rural handloom artisans is her only motto and she promises to work for them until the end of her life

Garmenting cost and quality control emphasized Then the technical session started on efficient garmenting with presentations from Mr. Razvan Ionele, Head, Gherzi Garmenting, Switzerland and ATM Mahbubul Alam, Executive Director, Masco Group. Mr. Razvan delivered his speech on Cost controlling in Garmenting. He stated that with the current setup in most of the garment industries, at least 2-5% cost reduction is possible without any additional investment only by optimizing some processes. Mr. Razvan November - December 2012

stressed the techniques how lead time con be reduced, how 2nd quality level can be reduced, how fabric utilization and workers efficiency can be increased to make garment industries more productive, resilient and profitable. He brought some factories in Turkey which are following their advising and therefore controlling cost and increasing efficiency in garment assembling. Mr. Razvan showed that average Turkish factories are around three times efficient than average Bangladeshi factories. But he stressed that such gap can be reduced by adopting some changes. Later he explained some of those techniques. However, renowned industrialist Mr. Engr. Md. Shamsuzzaman, Director, Bangladesh Knitwear Manufacturers and Exporters Association, (BKMEA) as a penal discussant shared his experience in this issue and showed that piece based wage is better for improving workers' productivity where one garment operator can earn as much as TK. 25000 (USD 300) per month.

presentation on Developing a sustainable Quality Management Culture and Reducing Cost of Quality by Implementing Modern Techniques of Quality Management. Mr. Mahbub has been implementing a lot of experiments in Masco group for cost efficiency and has been successful to a good extent. He shared his experience and explained how to use the modern quality management techniques to reduce cost and develop sustainability.

Engr. ATM Mahbubul Alam shared his success story in Masco Indsutries Ltd. interms of Quality Management System. His practical way of implementing quality tools in a Bangladeshi garment industry to lead it towards a quality culture can be the right example for other factories around him

Razvan Ionele from Gherzi Consulting, Switzerland compared his cases in Bangladesh and Turkey and summed up that Bangladeshi factories can adopt necessary changes to reach to the level of Turkey. He stressed the necessity of approaching towards value added products, use of automation technologies & software and adopting right techniques from proper training

A lively panel discussion and Q&A session took place after the presentations and the delegates present took part in the discussion with their queries and clarifications on the respective topics. The first day of ICTA-2012 ended with the conference dinner after the long technical session on efficient garmenting. The panel was moderated by Prof. Dr. Md. Saifur Rahman, Chairman, Department of Textile Engineering, Green University of Bangladesh. As panel discussant speeches were given by Engr. Md. Shamsuzzaman, Director, Bangladesh Knitwear Manufacturers and Exporters Association, BKMEA, Engr. Shafiqur Rahman, Managing Director, Hams Group.

Mr. ATM Mahbubul Alam gave his

Efficient dyeing & finishing of

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production as well and mentioned in all her production she keeps environment as priority. She elaborated that handloom is the sector where human resources is the key other than electrical or thermal hence the sector is not asking any additional capacity in gas & electricity. Value addition and promotion of the handloom fabrics can make real socio-economic development of the country. She termed that the handloom weavers have magic in their hands and they only need a helping hand to flourish. Her mind-blowing speech with visuals of her efforts to promote the rural textiles amazed the attendants of the conference.


NEWS

Vateran textile colorist Jim park answered questions alongside his comprehensive presentation and wondered why blind dyeing will not be possible to do? He shared his experience to explain how proper use of technology can make it very easy for the industries even in Bangladesh

cesses. Azo dyes disperse dyes, formaldehyde, phenols, organotin, PVC, phthalates, nickel, lead all of them have a hazardous effect to the environment and human health hence these are restricted in different markets. He stressed the regulations on these harmful chemicals along with suggesting possible sources of such chemicals how these can come into textiles. Daniel Carreras Monros was present from Asutex, Spain to deliver their speech on 'low temperature bleaching (LTB) processes. Less water consumption, less energy expenses, less processing time and green chemicals, this is the way of efficient dyeing he stated. There are three products involved in the LTB process. All of them developed in their R&D department. The synergetic combination of three products ensures the maximum efficiency in gettings the same whiteness degree as if it is produced according to a conventional technique and also the ideal hydrofility necessary to carry out any other textile process without a special care. Only a 30' treatment at 750C is needed to carry out the bleaching process. Decreasing bleaching temperature from 980C to 750C involves less fuel consumption, this fact supposes less co2 rates released to the atmosphere. It is to be mentioned that Intertek, Austex and DysinChem are key sponsors of ICTA 2012.

Mr. Amanur Rahman, Executive Director, Dysinchem presented on Testing for color fastness to Light of Textiles. His presentation was on the new testing methods of fabric for color fastness to light. His presentation was followed by a technical presentation from Intertek by Neyamul Hasan. He introduced with the harmful substances that are widely used in the textile pro-

Amanur Rahman stressed proper technology for light fastness testing and guided how material performance for that can be improved

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

textiles The second day started with another technical session on efficient dyeing & finishing. Mr. Jim park started the session who is a renowned Color Scientist, C. Col. FSDC, C. Text. FTI. He presented on "Recent trends and issues of Hitech Wet processing". He introduced the audience with the new concepts in wet processing like the Just in time (JIT), Right first time (RFT), Quick response (QR). He emphasized on blind dyeing and cost comparison of it with the typical dyeing method. Jim park also introduced other automation technologies that can really change the dyeing process scenario all over. But he also opined that the new technologies like fluid dyeing, blind dyeing will need a strong technical back up and laboratory support as the nerve center.

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Neyamul Hasan from Intertek explained harmful impacts of restricted chemicals on human health and ecology along with the suggestions how to avoid those in the textile products

Daniel Carreras Monros (standing) from Asutex explained how bleaching temperature can be reduced to 75 degree C by using their technology maintaining all required quality parameters. The panel for the session 'efficient use of resources in dyeing & finishing' was comprised of (right to left) Mr. V.D. Zope, The Textile Association (India), Engr. Ehsanul Karim Kaiser, Executive Director, Esquire Knit Composite Ltd, Engr. Syed Ismail Hossain, Country ManagerBangladesh, Huntsman Singapore (Pte) Ltd. Sitting left most moderator of the session Dr. Md. Humaun Kabir, Principal, NITTRAD

Efficient use of materials & utilities The last technical session of the conference was on efficient use of Utilities & Materials that started with the presentation on "Energy Efficiency & Cost Savings" by Mohammed Zahin Rahman, Environmental Advisor, PSES, GIZ. He talked about the pilot projects taken by GIZ to help the textile & garment industry cope up with the energy shortage. The objective of the Energy Saving initiative project was the Promotion of energy efficiency November - December 2012


NEWS

Mohammad Zahin Rahman, presented GIZ's activities in promoting and implementing energy efiiciency in textile & garment industry. Alongside monetary gain of the participating factories the project has created local experts in energy auditing that is helping the sector in a great deal

The next presenter was Mrs. A. Vaidya Soocheta, Textile Technology Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Mauritius. Her presentation was on "Sustainable Product Development using 'Pandanus utilis' Leaf Fiber" was very interesting. Pandanus utilis plant, commonly known as 'Vacoas' in Mauritius, demonstrates a potential as a tangible textile fibre. Research findings present endless possibilities for its textile applications all of which are just waiting to be harnessed. She informed that currently the leaves of this plant find limited application for making baskets, wall hanging and other decorative items but research is going on if it can be used as a textile fibre to produce fabric. She November - December 2012

carried out study of the structure and physical properties such as morphological characterization, density, their mechanical behaviour in tensile tests, which states that it is competitive as a textile fibre.

Mrs. Vaidya Soocheta research on using 'Pandanus utilis' for making textile fibre got appreciations. She received some comments and suggestions for further research from the audience & panel

Jainal Abedin Jibon presented how Bangladeshi industries are loosing steam energy and suggested possible solutions. Proper insulation, condensate recovery and heat recovery from possible places are the keys

The last presenter of the technical session was by Md. Jainal Abedin Jibon, Steam Engineer, Forbes Marshall Pvt. Ltd. on "Efficient Use of Steam Energy in Textile Production". Forbes Marshall is an ISO 9001 company specializing in the Field of Steam Engineering & Control Instrumentation. They have an energy audit division having expertise in specific fields. Forbes Marshall has conducted over 100 detailed energy audits across the industry covering each and every process including dyeing units, washing units, denim plants etc. As per the presentation in each of their audits they identified the opportunity for savings ranging from 20% to 30%. Mr. Jibon explained about various issues regarding the boiler 253

efficiency which are normally neglected by the industry people but can be a huge resource saver if taken in consideration. Focus resource efficiency and value addition in your strategy The last session of the 2nd ICTA2012 was the strategic session where Dr. Anil Gupta, National Vice President, Textile Association India (TAI) and Mr. John T Smith gave their speeches. Dr. Anil Gupta appreciated Bangladesh's effort which has made the country the 2nd largest apparel exporter of the world. He also revealed the TAI's core objectives which were to promote the use of Scientific Knowledge in textiles, from fibers to fashion, to implement programs of continued education in textile technology and management and to help members acquire textile qualifications towards improved job performance. He revealed that textiles supply chain strategy is being changed over recent times. China is no more buying fiber from India rather they are buying a lot of yarn. Indian spinning industry is booming once again now while he elaborated also that future may be a bit difficult for Bangladesh to get cotton fibers as well. Dr. Gupta, suggested Bangladesh to keep that in mind and make the strategy accordingly. Focusing more towards synthetic fibers can be an approach. Duty free access of Bangladeshi garments has opened a new era to Bangladesh to grab he mentioned.

Texttreasure Nothing can stop the man with the right mental attitude from achieving his goal; nothing on earth can help the man with the wrong mental attitude. -Thomas Jefferson

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

in the RMG and textile sector in Bangladesh by training and coaching energy service providers, energy managers and making factory owners and decision makers aware on the advantages of energy efficiency. The result of the pilot project was great in energy saving. It is expected to save up to 40% energy savings by implementing the prescribed action plan. GIZ have already trained 174 technical staff of factories and also 5 service providers.


NEWS

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

Dr. Anil Gupta was leading a 21 members delegate from India to ICTA 2012. Purpose of which has been well explained in his speech that addressed the importance of mutual cooperation. He rightly placed Bangladesh's future mentioning "The years 2013 & 2014 will be a determining period to grab the export orders shifting from China, the largest exporter of apparels globally, as countries like Bangladesh, Vietnam, Indonesia and Cambodia are likely to be benefited." He added that "2013 & 2014 will bring a respite to the Indian consumer reeling under steep hike of garment prices. With India likely to liberalise apparel imports from Bangladesh, cotton garments, that pinched consumers with a 35% rise in a year, might suddenly look cheaper if supplies from the neighbourhood, priced at least 20% lower, flood the retail shelves in India."

ties & Planning for the Future". Mr. John T. Smith is Comp TI, CTex, FTI, CMC, MIMC, International Coordinator / Long Term Adviser, Textiles and RMG, UNIDO - BEST program & Chairman, International Events, The Textile Institute. He revealed the facts about Bangladesh textile & garment industry and pointed out actually where the country is now. He brought with him the McKinsey report and pointed out the important particulars that the country needs to emphasize on if she is to capture the upcoming opportunities. The labor productivity of Bangladesh garment industry is only 77% (if China in 100%) which can be an area of major improvement. He also talked about the SWOT analysis of Bangladesh textile & garment industry done by Mckinsey company. He pointed out the new opportunities that Bangladesh can look for with more effective production, more CAD/CAM, more design groups, more fast response/ERP, more integrated product design and more mix & match. Literate and educated workforce will be crucial according to him. He included that most of the giant apparel buyer's next potential sourcing destination is Bangladesh, so the industry must consider the major issues regarding the challenges of growth. Building infrastructure, improving gov-

ernance & administration, extending cooperation's, changing philosophies etc. will remain the key issues for Bangladesh to bag enormous opportunities that globe is offering to her. Mr. Smith also forecasted the future industry and mentioned that the country should focus; shift from knitwear to Woven items, many products from few inputs, upgraded service level (product designing to ticketing), comprehensive integrated manufacturing etc. may be the expected trends. He said, China dominated up to 2010 but the story will change and good times are coming for Bangladesh textile and garment industry if the government, the entrepreneurs and also the buyers can make a good mix. Mr. John T Smith's presentation was followed by the award giving and closing ceremony. Awards were given to the winners of the Textile Talent Hunt 2012. Memorandums were also exchanged between different institutions and associations. The closing ceremony was garlanded with speeches from Md. Enayet Hossain, Secretary General, ITET, Mr. Faruque Hassan, Vice President, BGMEA, Mr. ASM Tareq Amin, Managing Director, Amin & Jahan Corp. Ltd. And Md. Ashraful Moqbul, Senior Secretary, Ministry of Textiles and Jute, GoB.

John T Smith tried to put up the capacity & opportunities Bangladesh has. Workers efficiency increment and necessity of more 'Product Design, CAD/CAM, ERP, Quality & Value Addition' have been stressed to offer more to the workers of this industry. Value added use of natural resources like Jute, Gas, Water and Man Power capped a vital part of his recommendations

The last but a very lively presentation was from Mr. John T Smith on "Bangladesh - Strategic Opportuni-

On the closing ceremony dias, TTH 2012 winners are standing behind the distinguished guests 254

November - December 2012


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10th International & 68th All India Textile Conference Jointly organized by The Textile Association (India), Mumbai Unit & Central Office30th November & 1st December 2012, Hotel ITC Maratha, Sahar, Andheri (E), Mumbai - 400 099

Mr. C. Bose, President of TAI, Mumbai Unit welcomed the gathering and briefed about the theme of the Conference. Mr. D. R. Mehta, National President, TAI in his presidential address said that Indian textile industry is facing several challenges in terms of quality and productivity and these need to be addressed to achieve the goals. In view of this, the current conference is focusing these issues. Mr. V. C. Gupte, Chairman, TAI, Mumbai Unit briefed about the conference. He informed that there has been total evolution of global textile industry ever since the quota regime ended in 1995. Every 3-4 years have seen major changes in how the textile manufacturing shifted from one set of countries to the other. Initially, US & Europe textile business moved to China, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka & other Asian Countries, so much so that Bangladesh even overtook India in terms of exports due to the special status. The focus further moved to African counNovember - December 2012

tries and now Burma is becoming a hot spot for textile processing, as textile business is not so sustainable in many of these countries. There are no more advantages of cheap labour and other resources, like power & water, which are almost becoming on par with US & Europe. The strict regulations on pollution norms, child labors etc. are now observed in many countries, including India as major challenges. The main question is whether the global textile industry will survive all these challenges and emerge with excellence. There are many other challenges facing the Textile Industry. Increase in the oil price is changing the logistic cost every day. Textile Industry is heading for a situation where the costs are increasing every day. Apart from this, the fluctuation in the currency is making business unviable. This conference will attempt to create and combined at-

tempt of handling many issues, which are very critical for the survival of textile industry. However, the fact is that the textile industry will survive and remain in demand so long the mankind exists. In this pursuit, TAI provides this forum to churn the issues to develop the strategies to face challenges. Mr. Arvind Sinha, Advisor of the Conference said that textile business in India needs to be addressed in the global perspectives and hence it is important to understand the developments that are taking place in producer and importing countries. It is needless to emphasize that the role of developing economies like BRICS in the economic and commerce development. The Textile Association (India) conferred the Honorary Membership on Mr. Dilip Jiwrajka, Managing Director, Alok Industries Lim-

Dignitaries on Dais (L to R): Mr. R. G. Malvankar, Vice Chairman, TAI, Mumbai Unit, Mr. V. C. Gupte, Chairman, TAI, Mumbai Unit, Mr. Rajesh Balakrishnan, Vice President, TAI, Mumbai Unit, Dr. P. R. Roy, Past President, TAI, Mr. C. Bose, President, TAI, Mumbai Unit, Mr. Dilip Jiwrajka, Managing Director, Alok Industries Ltd., Mr. D. R. Mehta, National President, TAI, Chief Guest Mr. A. B. Joshi, Textile Commissioner, Ministry of Textiles, Govt. of India, Mr. R. D. Udeshi, President - Polyester Chain, Reliance Industries Ltd., Mr. R. S. Bachkaniwala, Chairman, India ITME Society, Dr. Anil Gupta, National Vice President, TAI, Mr. K. D. Sanghvi, Chairman, TAI, Mr. Arvind Sinha, Conference Advisor, and Mr. V. D. Zope, Hon. Gen. Secretary, TAI. 255

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

On the occasion of Diamond Jubilee Celebrations of The Textile Association (India), Mumbai Unit, the 10th International & 68th All India Textile Conference was organized by TAI, Mumbai Unit jointly with Central Office on 30th November & 1st December 2012, Hotel ITC Maratha, Sahara, Andheri (E), Mumbai - 400 099. The theme of the Conference was "World Textiles - Challenges towards Excellence".


NEWS ited for his valuable Contribution to the textile industry. Mr. K. L. Vidurashwatha was awarded fellow of Textile Association (FTA) and Mr. V. C. Gupte, Chairman, TAI, Mumbai Unit was awarded Service Gold Medal. Mr. Sudhish Aggarwala of TAI, Delhi Unit and Mr. H. S. Patel of TAI, Ahmedabad Unit were awarded Service Mementos for their meritorious services to the Textile Association. The Industrial Excellence Award was conferred on Mr. R. K. Vij, President, TAI, Delhi Unit. The TAI, Ahmedabad Unit received the Best Unit Trophy from the group of larger units third time consecutively.

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

The book "Fundamentals and Advances in Knitting Technology" written by Mr. Sadhan Chandra Ray, NIRJAFT, Kolkata was selected for Best Technical Book Award sponsored by Century Textiles & Industries Ltd.. Mr. Dilip Jiwrajka, Managing Director, Alok Industries Ltd. thanked the TAI for conferring the Honorary Membership and said that it was a emotional moment for him. In his address, he reiterated that India remains in the forefront in textiles. He listed the key issues for achieving excellence as innovation, Ecofriendliness, social compliance, Skill development to suit to the level of technology, and R&D. Some of major concern mentioned to achieve the desired results is currency fluctuation, raising interest rates, energy crisis and the cost. Positive aspects of Indian scenario are lower rate of increase in labour cost as compared to some of the other growing economies. Mr. R. D. Udeshi, President -

Polyester Chain, Reliance Industries Ltd. delivered the keynote address. He began his address with rise in oil prices and fluctuation in cotton prices. World demand of textile fibers is around 84-85 million tons and major natural fiber sourcecotton production is 25-27 million tons. India is following China in terms of fiber production. However, the gap is quite significant. In spite of rising price of oil, price of polyester fiber has been stable and the polyester industry has absorbed all the volatile ingredients in its operation. He reiterated that polyester remains as most affordable fiber. In terms of buying trends, he expressed the noticeable change in terms of family buying and buying for experience rather than occasional purchase. He further pointed out the younger generation being demanding in both quality and price. Man made textile fibers apart from being used in apparels are being used in technical and industrial applications such as geo-textiles, protective textiles etc. In view of various facets of the developments, he reiterated that technology is the key factor for growth. Another important aspect of the growth towards excellence is sustainability factor, which is achieved through the recycling. Addressing this, he emphasized the role of M/S Reliance industries as the world leader in polyester fiber manufacture in terms of addressing the integrated chain as also strategically manufacture recycled polyester fibers. He concluded saying that Reliance Industries is currently manufacturing 2.4 million tons of polyester and soon adding another 1,2 million tons capacity to meet the growing demand. 256

Mr. Rajnikant S. Bachkaniwala, Chairman, India ITME Society while addressing the gathering, emphasized the role of textile machineries and its interface in the technology up-gradation. He was happy that the conference is held at a time when 9th ITME exhibition is being held from 2nd December to 7th December 2012 in the Bombay Exhibition Centre. He informed that there has been overwhelming response for the exhibition with 820 participants from 50 countries showcasing their products and providing an opportunity to the textile entrepreneurship to avail of the opportunity to interface in their journey towards excellence. Mr. A. B. Joshi, Textile Commissioner, Ministry of Textiles, Govt. of India delivered the inaugural address. He emphasized the role of textile industry in India and informed that value addition is key to achieve excellence. Today 97% of the textile production is under SMEs and they have limitation of achieving the required Brand and R&D. He listed the key drives to achieve excellence as Quality, Design, Technology and high value added products to show case. It is the time to carry out the activities in a smart way with the backup of information technology. He assured the industry that government is committed to create all required policy support and act as enabler to achieve innovation, R&D, HRD and catalze sustained growth in context of global competition. In this context, he listed various schemes being implemented by the government. These include TUFs, Technology Mission for Technical Textiles, Integrated Textiles Park and Special project on use of Geo-textiles and Agri-textiles in North Eastern States and ISDS to create November - December 2012


NEWS

Chief Guest Mr. A. B. Joshi, Textile Commissioner, Min. of Textiles, Govt. of India addressing the gathering

Mrs. Jaya Row, Founder of Vedanta Vision was the Chief Guest at the Valedictory Session. She said in her address that leadership is key for achieving excellence in every walk of life including industrial development. In all 16 papers from eminent Speakers from India & abroad were presented during the conference. Some of the high lights of each session are as follows. Session - 1 : "Global Textile Situation & Asian Countries" "Textile Potential & Scenario in BRIC Countries" by Mr. Arvind Sinha, Chief Advisor & CEO, Business Advisors Group, Global Sourcing Company. "Asian Textile Scenario" by Dr. Mirza Ikhtiar Baig, Chairman, Baig Group, Industrialist and Federal Advisor on Textiles to Govt. of Pakistan "Can we do textile projects faster?" by Mr. Bhaskar Ranjan Das, Sales Director, Realization Technologies India Pvt. Ltd. November - December 2012

Session - 2 : "Current Growth & Developments in Textile Machinery" "Innovative Process Control for dyeing & finishing industry to ensure highest efficiency to reduce energy and resources input" by Mr. Thomas Hopfl, Sales Director, Mahlo. "One-stop green Innovation - The complete Finishing Treatment" by Mr. Adam Jozwik, Sales Director, Fong's Europe GmbH & Mr. Peter Tolksdorf, Head of Product Management for Dyeing and Application, A. Monforts. "Role & Effectiveness of Research & Development in a Medium Sized Textile Mill" by Mr. Peter Stahlecker, Managing Director, Business Group Premium Textile Components, Spindelfabrik Suessen GmbH, Germany "Managing water resources in the Textile Industry" by Mr. Neeraj Srivastava, President, UEM India Pvt. Ltd. Session - 3 : "Role of Banks & financial Institutions in Textile Industry / Textile Park" "Innovative Financing Solutions for Textile Sector" by Mr. Sunil Sanghai, Managing Director & Head of Global Banking, HSBC Bank. "Textile Parks and other infrastructure" by Mr. Avinash Mayekar, Managing Director & CEO, Suvin Advisors Pvt. Ltd. "Role of Banks & Financial Institutions in Textile Industry" by Mr. Umesh Jain, Director, Jawaharlal Nehru Institute of Banking & Fi257

nance (JNIBF). "Impact of Currency Fluctuation" by Mr. V. Rajagopal, Ex-Chief Dealer, ICICI Bank and Kotak Mahindra Bank. Session - 4 : "Fibre - Manmade & Natural" "Polyester Staple Fibre" by Mr. Gunjan Sharma, Business Head for Staple Fibre (Polyester Sector), Reliance Industries Ltd. "Regenerated Cellulose Fibre" by Mr. Manohar Samuel, Jt. President (Strategic Marketing), Grasim Industries Ltd. "New Organic Fibre Gongura Fibre of the Future" by Mr. Manohar Parchure, Progressive Farmer. "MicroModal by Edelweiss Technology" by Mr. T. Murugan, General Manager Sales & Marketing, Lenzing AG, India. "Polyester - The Key Game changer in Textiles" by Mr. J. Raghunath, Business Head (Polyester Textiles Yarn), Reliance Industries Ltd. All the Papers received very high response from the participants. There were two sessions of the Panel Discussions. The theme of the first Panel Discussion Session was "Denim Industry in India" which was moderated by Mr. Avinash Mayekar, Managing Director & CEO, Suvin Advisors Pvt. Ltd. The Panel comprised Mr. Aamir Akhtar, CEO - Denim (Fabrics), Arvind Limited, Mr. S. N. Kuchhal, Director, Etco Denim Pvt. Ltd., Dr. Mirza Ikhtiar Baig, Chair-

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

skilled man power. He further informed that 12th plan program will be released in few months and major emphasis is to support decentralized weaving sector.


NEWS man, Baig Group, Industrialist and Federal Advisor on Textiles to Govt. of Pakistan and Mr. M. D. Kanitkar, Werner International. The second Panel Discussion Session was moderated by Mr. Ashish Amin, Ex. CEO, S. Kumars. The theme of this Panel Discussion session was "Role of Supply Chain Management in Textile Industry". The panel comprised of Mr. Manohar Samuel, Jt. President (Strategic Marketing), Grasim Industries Ltd., Mr. Ashish Dhir, Managing Partner, WISEDGE Consulting, Dr. J. Arthur Prem, Ex. Commissioner of Customs, Mr. Vilas Gharat, Managing Director, Gharat & Associates. There was good interaction between participants, who posed many questions to panel members and were answered very promptly by the panel members. Both the sessions of panel discussions were very interesting and memorable. The delegates were intensely involved till the last session to take advantage of the panel discussion.

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

In the last session Dr. P. R. Roy, Management Consultant (Textiles) gave his impressions about the conference, and brought out some of the key factors to achieve excellence in the competitive world. The two-day Conference was attended by over 500 participants and it was a grand success. The organizers of the conference were happy to note that the objectives of the All India Textile Conference are fully achieved. Mr. R. G. Malvankar, Vice Chairman, TAI, Mumbai Unit proposed vote of thanks.

Mr. Dilip Jiwrajka, Managing Director, Alok Industries Ltd. receiving the Honorary Membership by the hands of Chief Guest, Mr. A. B. Joshi, Textile Commissioner, Ministry of Textiles, Govt. of India

Mr. K. L. Vidurashwatha receiving the Hon. F.T.A. by the hands of Chief Guest, Mr. A. B. Joshi, Textile Commissioner, Ministry of Textiles, Govt. of India

Mr. V. C. Gupte, Chairman, TAI, Mumbai Unit receiving the Service Gold Medal by the hands of Chief Guest, Mr. A. B. Joshi, Textile Commissioner, Ministry of Textiles, Govt. of India

Mr. T. L. Patel receiving the Service Memento on behalf of the Mr. H. S. Patel of TAI, Ahmedabad Unit by the hands of Chief Guest, Mr. A. B. Joshi, Textile Commissioner, Ministry of Textiles, Govt. of India 258

Mr. Sudhish Aggarwala of TAI, Delhi Unit receiving the Service Memento by the hands of Chief Guest, Mr. A. B. Joshi, Textile Commissioner, Ministry of Textiles, Govt. of India

Mr. R. K. Vij, President, TAI, Delhi Unit receiving the Industrial Excellence Award by the hands of Chief Guest, Mr. A. B. Joshi, Textile Commissioner, Ministry of Textiles, Govt. of India

The Office Bearers & representatives of TAI, Ahmedabadb Unit receiving the Best Unit Trophy in Larger Unit category by the hands of Chief Guest, Mr. A. B. Joshi, Textile Commissioner, Ministry of Textiles, Govt. of India.

Dignitaries Sitting in the Auditorium

The confereace was a grand succes. .

November - December 2012


NEWS

DKTE'S Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji (DKTE) and Association of Italian Textile Machinery Manufacturers (ACIMIT) have signed an agreement for the establishment of an Italian Training Centre at Ichalkaranji for the benefit of Textile Sector in India.

The project includes; 1.providing on free basis use of textile machinery by interested manufacturers for a maximum period of 3 years, 2. training activities provided by the same Italian Textile machinery companies adhering to the initiative, 3. distribution of ACIMIT's digital technology manual containing Italian state-of-the-art technology and 4. awarding of scholarships to three students selected by a committee of DKTE'S faculty in order to help them to pursue their professional training. The project will be coordinated by a steering committee representing ACIMIT, which agrees to participate in all engagements held both in Italy and India, and an Indian counterpart, Raretech, which will be responsible for coordinating all onsite activities. The technology training center is a part of a larger initiative called Machines Italia, financed by the Ministry for Economic Development (MiSE), which has entrusted November - December 2012

its organization to Federmacchine (the Federation of Italian Manufacturers of Capital Equipment). Machines Italia in India aims to lend its support to the internationalization efforts of companies in the sector, in one of the world's most intensely developed industrial areas. "Through this technology training centre," ACIMIT's President Mr. Sandro Salmoiraghi summarized "ACIMIT intends to strengthen the profitable relationship which already exists with India's textile industry". The market in India is currently the third most important destination for our exports (over the first half of 2012, we exported 58 million euros worth of machinery). "This initiative aims to increase everyone's awareness of the important synergy with the territory's textile manufacturers, represented by the world of academia. The benefits in terms of image will be felt not just by individual participating Italian businesses supplying machinery, but for the whole of Italy's textile sector." The General Director for Internationalization Policies and the Promotion of Exchanges of MiSE, Pietro Celi, expressed satisfaction for the realization of the Technology Center. The Member of Governing Council of DKTE'S Textile & Engineering Institute & Former Minister of Textiles, Mr. Prakash Awade has promised all the help & support for the successful implementation of the project & expressed hope that this Training Centre equipped with state of the art Italian Textile Machinery will go a long way in ca259

tering to the needs of the Textile Industry in India & Strengthening the ties between the two countries Italy & India. General information on Italian textile machinery industry and ACIMIT ACIMIT represents an industrial sector comprising around 300 companies (employing close to 12,400 people) and producing machinery for an overall value of about 2.7 billion euros, with exports amounting to 80% of total sales. The quality of Italian textile technology is evidenced by the high number of countries in which Italian machinery is sold: around 130 countries worldwide. Creativity, technology, reliability and quality are the characteristics which have made Italy a global leader in the manufacturing of textile machinery. General information on the Ministry of Economic Development The authoritative administrative body for key sectors of the Italian economy, both with regards to the promotion and development of the competitiveness of the nation's productive system, and in the harmonization and monitoring of the domestic market. General Directorate for Internationalization Policies and the Promotion of Exchanges of MiSE is entrusted with the task of strengthening the internationalization of businesses, in particular SME, as well as promoting Made in Italy, primarily through: the coordination of stakeholders operating in support of promotional activities abroad (including the new ICE Agency), managing the Made in Italy Fund,

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

Training Center at DKTE'S Textile & Engineering Institute


NEWS dispensing grants for promotional initiatives by third parties, undertaking actions to accompany businesses in global markets, enhancing international institutional relations, conducting studies and global market trend analyses. General Information on DKTE'S Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji DKTE'S Textile & Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji (DKTE), founded in 1982, by Mr. K. B. Awade, Former Industry Minister,

M.S. enjoys a unique and prominent place amongst the Institutions that are engaged in Technical, education, training, research and consultancy. Presently it is catering to Ten Undergraduate programmes ( Five in Textiles & Five in Engineering). Three Diploma programmes in Textiles, Five P.G. programmes (Three in Textiles, Two in Engineering), Doctorate program in Textile Engineering and Two Management studies programs. The total student strength of Institute is over 3200 students and 180 dedicated faculty engaged

'INDIA ITME 2012' India's largest & Most Prestigious Textile Technology Exhibition Exhibitors' numbers hit new rise

structure background within the state.

INDIA ITME 2012, the 9th in the series and the most anticipated Textile Machinery Exhibition showcasing textile technology, machinery, accessories and services has seen the exhibitor's footfall on a rise compared to earlier years.

"Gujarat significantly contributes to the growing textile industry in the country; 30% of the total contribution to the textile industry comes from Gujarat alone. The state is also an emerging hub for technical textiles, and has a steep growth in this sector," said Mr. Kamal Dayani, IAS, Industries Commissioner, Government of Gujarat.

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

After inauguration of the exhibition on first day, the second day began with the celebration of Gujarat day followed by a seminar on how Gujarat as a state is poised to grow and contribute to the economic growth of the country. The seminar included a presentation by GIFTCL on how the government of Gujarat plans to accelerate industrial growth through its various initiatives and textile policy. GIFTCL, on behalf of the Government of Gujarat, plans to build a financial city that will help aspiring entrepreneurs to set up new businesses and have a strong infra-

Mr. Rajnikant Bachkaniwala, Chairman, ITME said, "India is also developing its export machinery market and now exports machinery worth US$50 million each month. This is a sizeable amount for an industry that was almost zero a few years back." "In long-term, outlook is very positive as GDP is growing, especially in countries like India and China, the GDP per capita is also increasing. There are also new applications for textiles which will drive 260

in Teaching & Research activities. The Institute has excellent infrastructure, Laboratories & workshops equipped with latest state of the art machinery & equipments. The vision of the Institute has been realized through intense interaction with industry through several kinds of technical and management services. By signing MoUs with overseas universities and with Industry, the institute is all set to provide top quality education with special emphasis on Training & Research.

demand for textile machinery", he added. With 820+ exhibitors from 51 countries, covering over 100,000 sqm. of exhibition area, 10 new country participation, many delegations from new textile markets, eminent technocrats and textile experts speaking at the Seminar, and 100,000 visitors, this event was the largest so far India has ever hosted with the complete exhibition space of Bombay Convention & Exhibition Centre booked from mid-November 2012 to December 10, 2012. Dr. Christian Schlinder, Director General, ITMF, Zurich, Dr. Peter Dinsdale, World President, The Textile Institute, Manchester, UK; Prof. Dr. Roshan Shishoo, Director, Shishoo Consulting AB, Sweden; Prof. Subash Anand, University of Bolton, UK; Dr. Malcolm Kirkup, UK; Mr. R.K. Jha, Director-in-Charge, GIFT City, Ahmedabad; Dr. Chandan Chatterjee, Director, CED & GM, iNDEXTb, Gujarat; and Mr. TCA Ranganathan, Chairman & Managing Director, Export-Import Bank of India, Mumbai were the esNovember - December 2012


NEWS ITME

Fifth largest consumer market." he added.

Indian Technology gains momentum at 'INDIA ITME 2012' u The market for technical textiles is expected to reach Rs 1.58 lakh crore by 2016-17 u Exim Bank urges textile industry to grow in organized clusters

Addressing the technical seminar at ITME 2012, T C A Ranganathan, Chairman & MD of Exim Bank of India highlighted the areas where the bank could extend support to the Indian textile industry. He also explained that the bank's mandate is to offer loans and services such that the export potential of the sector gets enhanced. He urged the textile industry to grow in organized clusters.

INDIA ITME 2012, the 9th in the series and the most anticipated Textile Machinery Exhibition showcasing textile technology, machinery, accessories and services has seen visitors gathering to hear how technical textiles are a propellant for India's growth story and demand is growing at a robust pace. The third day began with the note from Professor Roshan Shishoo, Director of Shishoo Consulting, an eminent speaker at the Technical Seminar quoted, "India will invest US$ 1 trillion in infrastructure in the country over the next five years, to highlight the potential for technical textiles." "India's growing middle class, which is expected to increase tenfold to 583 million people or 41% of the total population by 2025, will propel the country to become the World's

The main applications in technical textiles like geotextiles, agrotextiles, industrial textiles, protective textiles, medical & hygiene has acknowledge a huge growth at ITME 2012. Some of the spectacular development at ITME 2012 are as follows u Oerlikon has signed an agreement to divest the Natural Fibres and Textile Components Business Units from its Textile Segment to the Jinsheng Group of China. After the divestment, Oerlikon Textile will focus on the manmade fiber business, a high performing segment with less cyclicality. The transac-

tion is based on a enterprise value of around CHF 650 million and is expected to close in Q3 2013. u Kirloskar Toyata Textile Machinery ( KTTM ), a Toyota joint venture company, has officially launched the new RX1240e Ring Spinning Frame, which is claimed to be India's longest ring frame. u A .T. E.'s principal Karl Mayer launched specifically for the Indian market a machine Facnication Lace. This is a very interesting machine, which produces a completely designer sarees. u Coimbatore-based Lakshmi Machine Works has launched Card LC636 at the event. Card LC636 is designed for higher production of up to 250 kg an hour. Mr. Rajnikant Bachkaniwala, Chairman, ITME said, "I am happy to see that India ITME 2012 has kept up its tradition of very high footfall of serious business visitors. Visitors representing all segments of the manufacturing chain and from almost all Asian Textile manufacturing countries have converged here."

Contact us to know more about JTA: Publisher Tel.: 022-2446 1145, Fax: 022-2447 4971 Mobile: +91-22-9819801922 E-mail: taicnt@gmail.com, taicnt@mtnl.net.in November - December 2012

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teemed speakers at the technology seminar.


NEWS

First Steps to Consistent Quality The new USTER® CLASSIMAT 5 uses advanced sensor technology to detect potentially damaging outliers Uster, Switzerland, December 2, 2012 - The new USTER® CLASSIMAT 5 is a ground-breaking innovation, expanding the scope of the well-known CLASSIMAT® instrument beyond traditional classification - and identifying both foreign matter and polypropylene defects. As part of an integrated testing and monitoring regime from laboratory to finished package, it provides the essential framework for the production of consistent quality in spun yarns.

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

With latest-technology sensors and class-leading software, the new CLASSIMAT® can both measure and quantify a wider range of defects than ever before. It introduces automatic identification of disturbing defects - known as outliers for all fault types. This feature helps spinners understand how to eradicate these defects using yarn clearing, so they can deliver the quality their customers require. Taking quality assurance further, USTER® CLASSIMAT 5 also provides objective assessment of quality consistency, based on testing and quantifying outliers in a large sample size of 200 kilometers.

New and unique The YARN BODYTM concept is now acknowledged to be the best approach for identifying disturbing defects. It was introduced with the USTER® QUANTUM 3 yarn clearer and has proved its reliability on extensive yarn varieties. USTER® CLASSIMAT 5 shows the YARN BODYTM alongside a numeric classification of thick and thin places. The degree of contamination is also profiled, showing up graphically as a dense area for colored foreign matter and vegetable matter, as well as numerically. For the first time, polypropylene defects are classified as either short or long. Previous CLASSIMAT® generations used 23 different classes, giving good coverage of all detected faults. However, there has been enormous progress in yarn quality - yarns have become more even, with the result that smaller defects are now viewed as disturbing. These small faults can now be detected and classified by the USTER® CLASSIMAT 5, extending the existing classification table to include a total of 45 classes. To support previous classification standards - well-established in yarn trading - and allow a gradual transition to the latest level, USTER® CLASSIMAT 5 also converts test

values for thick and thin places to match earlier USTER® CLASSIMAT 3 and USTER® CLASSIMAT QUANTUM classes. Outlier classification - a new standard Even a few substandard bobbins can damage fabric appearance and seriously impact on productivity in downstream processes. Experience shows that poor quality in only a small percentage of a yarn lot can often cause an entire delivery to be rejected by the customer. These bobbins, containing defects outside the normal distribution in any fault category, are termed outliers. For the first time, they can be measured and quantified in the laboratory by USTER® CLASSIMAT 5. The outliers can then be effectively controlled using yarn clearing to remove them at the winding stage, using data from USTER® CLASSIMAT 5 to optimize clearer settings. The ultimate goal of preventing these defects by pinpointing the root causes in the spinning process is critical to ensure consistent quality. And the first step here is to measure and quantify them with USTER® CLASSIMAT 5. "With a proper assessment of outliers using USTER® CLASSIMAT 5, and tools to eliminate them, spinners have a practical and sustainable method to ensure and verify quality consistency", says Uster Technologies Product Manager Sivakumar Narayanan.

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Supply Chain Session: Cotton Incorporated's Messura Addresses Cotton's Future in the Supply Chain There is always a lot of discussion about the ongoing competition between cotton and synthetic fibers, which is to be expected. The two industries fight hard for every scrap of market share to ensure their future profitability. But the biggest threat to cotton's future viability isn't rayon, nylon, or even polyester -- it's the cell phone, education, healthcare, food and fuel. That was the primary message delivered by Cotton Incorporated's Mark Messura during his presentation at the annual meeting of the International Textile Manufacturers Federation, held in Hanoi, Vietnam Nov. 4-6. "Without question, the competition between cotton and synthetic fibers is intense, but the real concern for all of us in the textile industry is that people today have increasingly diverse expenses" that eat into their expenditures on clothing, he said. In the United States, for example, clothing's share of total consumer spending has dropped from 5.7% in 1989, to 4.7% in 1999, to 3.5% in 2011. At the same time, healthcare expenditures have grown from 5.1% to 5.3% to 6.7% during that time

period. Fuel expenditures have increased from 3.5% in 1989 to 5.3% in 2011, while education expenditures jumped from 1.3% to 2.1% during that timeframe. While cotton and synthetic fibers will continue to fight tooth and nail for market share, the bigger picture for cotton is the ability to expand its number of uses and applications. "Between 80% and 85% of all cotton produced in the world goes into clothing, and clothing will continue dominate the end uses for cotton," he said. "But it's also used in oil, ice cream, animal feed and construction materials. Textile companies might not be able to spin cotton seed, so those applications don't necessarily impact mill owners. But they are critically important to the economic health of cotton farmers, so expanding the number of applications cotton can be used in will be a driving force for production in the future. "The quality of cotton fiber is constantly changing and improving through technology," Messura continued. "Cotton isn't a synthetic fiber, but it is an enginneered fiber, and it's constantly evolving." Meanwhile, environmental friendli-

ness and sustainability -- commonly thought of as crucial factors for consumers when they make purchasing decisions -- are fundamentally supply chain issues, not market issues, he added. "Cotton Incorporated research shows that very few consumers are willing to pay a premium for clothing or home textiles that are environmentally friendly, organic, sustainable, recyclable or compostable," Messura said. "About 27% of consumers say they put effort into finding environmentally friendly apparel, and that number is lower than it was five years ago. It's not a factor that's becoming more important to consumers; it's actually becoming less important to them when they make purchasing decisions." He was careful to point out that the research doesn't mean sustainability isn't important ... only that it's a more important issue for the supply chain than it is for consumers. "People often ask: How can we strive to plant more cotton when the world needs more food? Well, in the future, the world is going to need more of a lot of things! That's why cotton has - and will continue to - improve its production practices. The industry will innovate and find ways for cotton to require less land, less water, less energy, and fewer chemicals to generate even more fiber," he said.

TAI BOOK PUBLICATIONS Book your orders with: THE TEXTILE ASSOCIATION (INDIA) - Central Office Pathare House, Next to State Bank of India, 67, Ranade Road, Dadar (W), Mumbai - 400 028 Tel.: 022-2446 11145, Fax: 022-2447 4974 Orders accepted by E-Mail: taicnt@mtnl.net.in November - December 2012

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ITMF Annual Conference 2012 in Hanoi


NEWS

Outlook for 2012 adjusted: Rieter expects in the second semester lower sales and operating profitability at around break-even level due to a challenging market environment

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

Overall, capacity utilization of spinning mills and margins continued to be stable and on a profitable level. However, downstream buying behaviour remained volatile. Financing for projects is becoming increasingly difficult, especially in China and India, leading to a generally more challenging market environment. Outlook for 2012 adjusted Rieter currently reckons in the second semester with a weaker trend in sales compared to the first semester. The decrease against the first semester is estimated at slightly above twenty percent due to the shift of machine orders into 2013, cancellations and lower component sales. Rieter expects the operating profitability (EBIT) in the second semester to follow the volume development and to show the effects of a less favorable product mix. The planned investment activity in growth projects and process improvements will further reduce the operating margin (EBIT margin) by around three percentage points. Rieter expects the operating profitability to be around breakeven level in the second semester 2012. Rieter’s product portfolio matches demand in Asia The Chinese market is generally

weaker due to locked-in raw material prices, but looking for automation, upgrade in equipment and lower energy demand. In Turkey, the government incentive program has still not yet shown large effects. In the third quarter, India has seen a pickup in investment demand, with northern India showing more interest than in the southern states. “China and India will see an increase in demand for machinery and components”, Erwin Stoller said, “offering higher productivity and quality as well as lower energy consumption. Both Rieter’s current product portfolio and its innovation strategy address this demand. With the timely execution of our investment program 2012/2013 Rieter will be ready to profit from these trends.” In the third quarter, a pickup in order intake in the Indian market has been registered. A stable third-quarter order intake in China in a difficult market confirms the attractiveness of Rieter’s product portfolio. Overall, Rieter managed to increase its order intake in the third quarter compared to the average of the two previous quarters mainly thanks to larger machinery orders. The majority of these orders will be delivered in 2013. Media Release Rieter Holding Ltd.

Klosterstrasse 32 P.O. Box CH-8406 Winterthur T +41 52 208 71 71 F +41 52 208 70 60 www.rieter.com Rieter Press Release, 30 October 2012 2/2 Please find the Media Release at www.rieter.com/en/rieter/media/ press-releases/. You can also register at www.rieter.com to receive our media releases regularly by e-mail. Future dates u Publication of sales figures for the 2012 financial year: February 5, 2013 u Results media conference and presentation for financial analysts on the 2012 annual financial statements: March 21, 2013 u Annual General Meeting: April 18, 2013 For further details please refer to: Rieter Holding AG Rieter Management AG Investor Relations Media Relations Joris Gröflin Chief Financial Officer T +41 52 208 70 32 F +41 52 208 70 60 E-mail: investor@rieter.com Cornelia Schreier Corporate Communications T +41 52 208 70 32 F +41 52 208 70 60 E-mail: media@rieter.com

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November - December 2012


Spin Finish Application - The Hidden Problems in POY and FDY Production Macclesfield, October 31st, 2012 'V On-line quality monitoring of POY and FDY yarns has been well established for many years, with the most widely used system being Fibrevision FibreTQS. The ability to eliminate faults that would result in downgrades in downstream processes provides both substantial quality benefits and process cost reductions. Spin finish regularity is the key to improved quality and efficiency in both POY and FDY production. It is widely recognised that most Spin Finish problems are invisible to conventional testing and that labo ratory testing only sees MEAN data for very short samples. To address this, Oerlikon Fibrevision have further developed their highly successful Fibrevision FibreTQS monitoring system and now offer a spin finish monitoring only system. This will identify major sources of quality problems within this process which are: Short term variation seen as transient faults or high CV levels which s

POY DTY u Tension transient faults seen by Fibrevision Unitens u Bulk and dye flashes in fabric u End breaks FDY u Broken filaments in draw process u Bulk and dye flashes in fabric (no Fibrevision Unitens to grade out) u End breaks in FDY process November - December 2012

FibreTQS Sensor Spin finish sensors are fitted prior to the first godet (after the oil dispersion jets), and measure spin finish mean level, short term variation and transient faults. The sensors are connected directly to interface electronics that are located in an IP64 enclosure located behind the sensors. The Fibrevision FibreTQS system also provides further operational benefits with: u Multi language PC software u MMC system allowing remote viewing and control of all monitored machines u Plant Integration facilities with both data export and doff number synchronisation About Oerlikon Oerlikon (SIX: OERL) is a leading high-tech industrial group specializing in machine and plant engineering. The company is a provider of innovative industrial solutions and cutting-edge technologies for textile manufacturing, drive, vacuum, thin film, coating, and advanced nanotechnology. A Swiss company with a tradition going back over 100 years, Oerlikon is a global player with more than 17 000 employees at over 150 locations in 38 countries and sales of CHF 3.6 billion in 2010. In 2010 the company invested CHF 239 million in R&D, with over 1 200 specialists working on future products and services. In most areas, the operative businesses rank either first or second in their respective global markets. About Oerlikon Textile Components Oerlikon Textile Components with 265

its well established product lines Accotex, Daytex, Fibrevision, Heberlein, Temco and Texparts is one of the world's leading suppliers of quality determining components for all filament and staple fibre spinning applications. Highest quality and reliability are the common characteristics of all products. Continuous development ensures that Oerlikon Textile Components will always strengthen its leading position as the component supplier of choice to the textile industry. Oerlikon Textile Components with manufacturing facilities and sales offices in the Americas, Europe and Asia is headquartered in Switzerland. A global network of experienced representatives ensures prompt service and close contact with our customers in spinning mills as well as with the leading machine manufacturers. For further information visit: www.components.oerlikontextile.com For more information please contact: Jorg Spahlinger Managing Director Filament T +49 9732 87 330 joerg.spahlinger@oerlikon.com Philip J Leah Head of Sales Filament T +44 1625 425355 philip.leah@oerlikon.com Enclosed: Picture with caption Fibrevision FibreTQS monitoring system now offer a spin finish monitoring only system.

Texttreasure The greatest men sometimes overshoot themselves, but then their very mistakes are so many lessons of instruction. - Tom Browne

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

NEWS


NEWS

Texparts PK 2630 SEH - The innovation of the drafting system At the end of the eighties, the ring spinning process underwent a remarkable renaissance. The limitations of the already familiar Air Jet Spinning process had become obvious as far as the technical and technological application potential and efficiency were concerned. Spinning machine manufacturers concentrated increasingly again on improving the ring spinning machine. The innovation process re-gained momentum with a speed, hard to imagine. The international exhibitions of the following years showed many new features and innovations that still today influence the market (i.e. compact spinning). The importance of flexibility in the spinning mill Yarns, as intermediate products in the textile production chain, are subject to ever more frequent fashion changes, particularly in the clothing and house-hold textiles sectors. The spinner's market has therefore become more diverse and short-term, and has clearly developed into a buyer's market. Today more than ever the customer determines yarn characteristics, yarn quality and, above all, the delivery he needs for his end-product.

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

Flexibility through modern drafting systems What possibilities do modern drafting systems offer for positively affecting flexibility in ring spinning? u Increased flexibility means the widest possible raw material spectrum, i.e. widest variety of fiber characteristics, such as length, count and origin, in order to be able to produce without costly machinery adaptation for an example

u Problem-free use of the largest possible fiber mass in drafting u Rapid adaptation of all essential drafting parameters to all the technological requirements of the fiber material to be processed in order to obtain maximum product quality u Reduction of setting-up time and the associated setting-up costs u Shortening of material flow time throughout the entire spinning mill in order to reduce large capital tie-up caused by excessive circulating capacity and to unnecessarily long delivery times. In addition to all of this, comes the requirement for the simplest possible operation of all drafting system components. The required profile for modern drafting systems deriving from this is shown in Figure 1. The two most important features, which allow reacting most effectively to spinning requirements are, the problemfree use of high total drafts and the possible use of adequately load pressures. Above and beyond that, the fitting of the weighting arm to

the ring spinning machine, the setting and the possibility of interchangeability of all drafting components must be quick and easy to ensure minimum downtime. Ergonomically designed operating elements are also important prerequisites for meeting spinning requirements. Figure 1: Requirement profile for modern drafting systems

With the new drafting systems for short-staple ring frames, the PK 2600 Series, Oerlikon Textile Components has taken all the above mentioned factors into consideration during development, and have brought more flexibility into the function and fitting of the weighting arms. With the PK 2630 SE for ring frames with round support rods and PK SEH for ring frames with hexagonal support rods Oerlikon Textile Components has truly created the world's most versatile weighting arm series. The latest addition to the series, the PK 2630 SEH is for ring frames with hexagonal support rod (Figure 2)

Figure 2 : Ring frames with hexagonal support rod

Table 1 : Requirements in flexibility of drafting systems Requirements of spinning mills

Possibilities of the drafting system

Broad range of raw material Employment of high fiber masses

Application of high drafts Application of high weighting pressures Quick adjustment to fiber material Easy adjustment of loading Suitable top apron cradle system Reduction of setting time and processing times

Easy and quick mounting Easy and quick settings Fast exchange of components

Easy operation

Ergonomic design

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NEWS PK 2600 SE series - no other weighting arm offers so many advantages: The weighting arm system offers both in assembly and during continuous spinning operation - a wealth of advantages unmatched by any other system on the market: u Rapid assembly and setting u Simple and easy operation u Expanded range of applications for fiber length and fiber type u Quick and very accurate height setting u Independent working single elements u Minimized load variation from spinning position to spinning position

Fast and flexible assembly Assembly is fast and easy thanks to the mounting from above. Each PK SEH arm can be separately mounted and replaced at every spinning position on the hexagonal support rod, as used with Rieter and LMW ring frames (Fig. 3). The previously necessary "threading" of the arms onto the support rod is not necessary anymore. Support rod is mounted on the machine empty, which makes the process much simpler and faster. The PK 2630 SEH can be fixed on the support rod easily from the front and without any complications.

The new design now allows to utilize the proven benefits of the established PK 2630 SE on Rieter and LMW ring spinning machines as well. This makes conversions possible in a quick and easy way. A special challenge was to keep the spinning geometry of Rieter and LMW ring frames. Now it is possible to use the full flexibility of setting possibilities for load and drafting zones with these machines, too.

Figure 3 : Safe mounting on hexagonal support rod

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

u High flexibility in weighting arm settings

The PK SEH is the dawn of a new era in weighting arms for ring frames with hexagonal support rod, where the alternatives have been more limited than for ring frames with round support rod.

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NEWS

Tire Technology Expo 2013 -Customers respond with enthusiasm to the Allma CC4 From 5 to 7 February 2013 the Tire Technology Expo in Cologne is once again the meeting place for trade manufacturers who are eager to keep in step with the latest developments. Oerlikon Saurer, Allma Product Line welcomes its customers to Stand 1015 in Hall 1. Focus is on the successful energysaving Allma tire cord cabling machine CC4, the new energy-saving retrofit package for the Allma CC3 and the ultimately flexible two-forone twisting machine, the Allma CC3-Combi.

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

Allma CC4 convinces its customers Experience in the field: Since receiving the "Award for Innovation and Excellence" in 2011, the Allma CC4 has proved its worth in the plants of many customers throughout the world. Customers confirm that the new Allma CC4 technology allows for a reduction in energy costs of up to 50%. As the energy costs account for approx. 80% of the twisting costs, this means enormous cost savings potential. The decrease in the costs

of air-conditioning technology is an additional contribution to the reduction in energy. Thanks to the perfect thread tensioning control, the yarn breakage rate can be halved which has a positive effect not only on the quality of the yarn but also on productivity. The production staff appreciate the user-friendly Allma CC4, its smooth running and in particular the substantially reduced noise level. The Allma CC4 with its outstanding technology undoubtedly meets the high expectations of its customers. New: Energy-saving retrofit packages for the Allma CC3 With the energy-saving retrofit packages for the great number of Allma CC3 cabling machines that are in use, the advantages of the new CC4 technology can be fully exploited. The energy-saving upgrade is an interesting innovation and aids customers in reducing their twisting costs for existing machines whilst simultaneously increasing the quality of their products. Allma CC3 Combi shows its superiority The unique flexibility and high pro-

ductivity of the Allma CC3 in the manufacture of 1-3 ply tire cord are decisive assets of this machine. The superior economic efficiency of the two-for-one twisting process compared to the traditional ring twisting process becomes a significant aspect. An essential advantage of the Allma CC3 are also the twice as large yarn packages in further processing which promise a considerable savings potential. The Allma exhibition team takes pleasure in welcoming its customers to Stand 1015 in Hall 1 where it looks forward to exchanging views with them on the latest developments related to energy saving.

For further information please contact: Werner Senti Marketing Oerlikon Saurer Tel: +41 71 44 75 18 8 Fax: +41 71 47 75 42 8 werner.senti@oerlikon.com

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Indo-French Seminar on Textiles & Technical Textiles Machinery French Technology And Service For The Indian Textile And Technical Textile Delhi: Tuesday, March 19, 2013, Surat: Friday, March 22, 2013

The Indian authorities fully recognize these sectors and through the Technology Upgraduation Fund Scheme (TUFS), want to promote their growth and take part in the financing. As for the French textile machinery manufacturers, for already a long time they have considered India as a lead market. Very strong ties with industrialists in India already exist and are considered as long time partnerships. Thanks to local representatives, the regular organization of seminars in the main Indian textile areas and the participation at many shows, the French machinery manufacturers can offer the service of local partners. After the 2007 and 2010 seminars, next March 2013, they offer the textile and technical textile industrialists the opportunity to meet once more. In Delhi, they are expecting indus-

trialists from Northern India (Delhi itself, Panipat, Ludhiana, Amrtisar…). In Surat, industrialists from all over Gujarat, (Ahmedabad, Silvassa, Vapi, Baroda, Vadodara …) which is considered a key region for the textile industries future growth, a region where textile is a reliant industry from the production of the fibre to fabric and garment.. What can French technology and service bring? France is the 6th largest exporter of textile machinery with annual exports of nearly 1.2 Billion USD. The French companies which will be represented are particularly strong in long fibre spinning, yarn preparation and treatment, modern weaving, dyeing and finishing (fabrics and knits), air conditioning of textile plants, recycling of textile wastes and products, these for apparel textiles, home textiles (including carpet industry), Technical textiles for such applications as the automobile, Personal protection, hygiene, agriculture, medical textiles, composites …). The machines are state of the of art technologically, the services include quick assistance, spare parts availability, special design, consulting services in such sectors as safety rules and energy sav-

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ings. AESA, ALLIANCE, CALLEBAUT de BLICQUY, DOLLFUS& MULLER, LAROCHE, N. SCHLUMBERGER, ROUSSELET, STÄUBLI, SUPERBA, VERDOl and the UCMTF teams look forward welcoming you. These seminars are free of charge but prior registration is required. For further information, please contact: French Trade Commission, Embassy of France in India Mrs Brinder RAULT, Trade Advisor, brinder.rault@ubifrance.fr Tel + 91 11 4319 6324/6300 Union Des Constructeurs De Materiel Textile De France French Textile Machinery Manufacturers' Association 92038 Paris La Defense Cedex France Tel : (33) 1 47 17 63 45 Fax : (33) 1 47 17 63 48 http : //www.ucmtf.com e-mail : info@ucmtf.com Journal of the TEXTILE Association

INDIA is a major player in the textile industry and, more and more, in the technical textiles. Growth opportunities are considerable if these industries meet the requirements of their domestic markets for higher quality products and stand up the worldwide competition to take advantage of the globalization of the markets.


NEWS at Ahmedabad. He did his further studies at the Man-made fibre division of Leeds University, Leeds (U.K.) where he obtained his B.Sc. (Textile Industries) degree, he worked with leading Dyestuff manufacturers in Europe to obtain first hand knowledge of Product Applications.

SAD DEMISE

Late Shri H. A. Shah (04.09.1934 to 24.11.2012) It is with great sorrow we would to inform you that the Past President & Chairman of The Textile Association (India), Mumbai Unit Shri Harivodan A. Shah passed away on 24th November 2012 at Ahmedabad. Shri Shah needs no introduction to the textile professionals particularly to the textile processors as he was actively involved in this field for nearly 40 years.

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

Shri H. A. Shah was Fellow of Textile Institute (Manchester) and also Vice-Chairman and Treasurer of Textile Institute, Bombay Section. He did his B. Sc. (Hons) degree and L.T.C. from V.J.T.I. Bombay and worked in the processing departments of Reputed Textile Mills

Shri Shah held different position with responsibilities ranging from functional Management to General Management. He was Chief Executive Officer of one of the N.T.C. (MN) Bombay and he worked as Processing Manager of Century Textiles, Mumbai as his last assignment, where he introduced new concept in strict quality and process control. Shri Shah has many patents to his credit. His most important contribution has been Stage Bleaching and Foam Printing Technology. Shri Shah developed many processes. Some of the important ones are: (i) Brosso/Carbonisation process for blends. (ii) Single stage bleaching process (obtained patents) minimizing energy consumption. (iii) Foam Printing Technology (iv) Anilline Black Dyeing by PadBatch Method (Patents Applied for) (v) Developed the process of COLD BLEACHING (vi) Cold Pad-Batch method of

dyeing for Direct Colours. (vii) Fancy effects in Dyed fabrics by using vat and indigo colours. He was the panel member for examination in South Gujarat University, Surat and Mumbai for textile course. He has published more than thirty technical papers. He is also the co-authors of the Chemical Processing Tablets (1) Rollers Printing (2) Quality & Process Control. Shri Shah was Chairman of The Textile Association (India), Mumbai Unit from 1977 to 1983 and President of the Unit from 1983 to 85. The Textile Association (India), Mumbai Unit honoured Shri H. A. Shah with Life-Time Achievement Award in 2007. He initiated many projects for the benefit of Textile Technicians viz. Housing Projects, Group Insurance Schemes, Book Publications and holding International Conference and Exhibition. He had widely traveled in Europe and U. S. A. and led delegation of the Association and Institute for ITME in 1983 & 1987. On behalf of The Textile Association (India), Mumbai Unit we pray to the Almighty to bestow peace to the departed soul.

TAI BOOK PUBLICATIONS Book your orders with:

THE TEXTILE ASSOCIATION (INDIA) - Central Office Pathare House, Next to State Bank of India, 67, Ranade Road, Dadar (W), Mumbai – 400 028 Tel.: 022-2446 11145, Fax: 022-2447 4974 270

November - December 2012


NEWS

ITMF's International Production Cost Comparison 2012 - Spinning, Texturing, Weaving and Knitting The International Textile Manufacturers Federation (ITMF) has released the 2012 edition of its biennial International Production Cost Comparison - the only consolidated source for benchmarking the yarn and fabric production costs prevailing in 9 of the world's most important textile manufacturing countries: Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Italy, Korea, Turkey and the USA. The report is designed to highlight the implications of the ever-increasing capital intensity of the primary textile industry, by tracing the impact of cost factors borne by manufacturers and presenting them on a standardised basis. This allows the reader to readily compare elements of total manufacturing costs across representative production facilities.

The presentation of manufacturing and total yarn and fabric costs incorporates a detailed breakdown into the various cost components per kilogram of yarn and per meter of fabric, showing their relative importance and influence in the countries under review. The International Production Cost Comparison incorporates a wide range of cost factors, from externally-determined factors like raw material and machinery prices through to the local prices of labour, energy, water, capital, and many other inputs to production. The textile industry segments analysed are Spinning, Texturing, Weaving and Knitting, and individual results are supplied for ringspun, o-e, and textured yarns, and

for fabrics woven and knitted from each of these yarn types. Manufacturing costs covered in the report are based on parameters specified by the textile machinery companies Rieter, Oerlikon Barmag, Picanol and Mayer & Cie., and thus the representative cost structure for each country is derived from both "bottom-up" (investment analysis) and "top-down" (surveyed) standpoints. While not attempting to exhaustively explain the final sales price of yarns and fabrics, the International Production Cost Comparison nonetheless provides a unique basis for considering variations in international costs on a technically robust, yet accessible, foundation. The CD-ROM of the 2012 edition of the International Production Cost Comparison (IPCC) can be purchased from the ITMF (http:// www.itmf.org/wb/pages/home/ publications.php).

Shri Rakesh Mehra New Chairman in SRTEPC Shri Rakesh Mehra, the Vice-Chairman of Banswara Syntex Ltd. has been unanimously elected as the Chairman of Synthetic & Rayon Textiles Export Promotion Council (SRTEPC) for a period of 2 years. Shri Mehra had been the Chairman of the Council earlier too and is a long standing member of the Committee of Administration.

Shri Anil Rajvanshi, the Senior Vice-President & Head Corporate Development Group, Reliance Industries Ltd. has been unanimously elected as the Vice-Chairman of the Synthetic & Rayon Textiles Export Promotion Council (SRTEPC) for a period of 2 years.

Shri Anil Rajvanshi

Shri Rajvanshi has been also the member of the National Committee of Textiles of CII and FICCI. He also associated with the Textiles Committee and represents Reliance Industries Ltd. at SASMIRA. He has many years of experience of working with major fibre producers and has been involved with the Indian man-made fibre textiles industry since 1989.

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Shri Rakesh Mehra

Shri Mehra has been a chartered Accountant engaged in the textile industry. He had traveled widely and has vast experience in international marketing of synthetic textiles spinning more than 25 years.


NEWS

SDC and SGCCI successfully organised 'Sustainability in TextilesHow we can make a change?' a Half-day seminar focused on process that needs to be adapted for producing 'Sustainable textiles'.

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

The Society of Dyers and Colourists, India (SDC India) organised its 4th half day seminar titled 'Sustainability in Textiles -How we can make a Change?' on 12th December, 2012. It was held at SGCCI conference hall in Surat. This event was the culmination in this years' series of the seminars planned by the SDC to get closer to the textile clusters. It was well attended, with over 170 delegates registering for the event. SDC's first Indian President Dr Sanjiv Kamat and SGCCI president Shri. Paresh Patel inaugurated the Conference, along with Shri Ullhas Nimkar (Chair, SDC India Trustee Board). The President of SDC Dr. S Y Kamat in his speech described the prevailing scenario in the textile industry. Elaborating on the needs for the future, he helped put the term sustainability in the right perspective. Shri Pareshbhai Patel, President of The Southern Gujarat Chamber of Commerce and industry informed that SDC can be the knowledge partner for the Surat textile industry. The technical sessions started with Mr. Vijay Sane (treasurer Mumbai region) and Mr. Yogesh Gaikwad (Technical Manager -Asia), informing the audience about SDC and the benefits that can accrue to its members in India.

Dr. Sanjay Kulkarni (Director-Sedo Treepoint) studied presentation on 'Saving resources through advanced dyeing and finishing technology'. His presentation focused on providing complete solution to a Dyehouse by demonstrating saving through material control, Integration of colour management and process management, intelligent process management and energy Management. Dr. Jaideep Dudhbhate who has 30 years of experience in water and waste management presented on innovative solutions for reducing treatment costs of ETP and recycle systems. He made the delegates aware of the commercial and technical advantages of various methods of treating a Dyehouse effluent. Elias Mohammad & Hemendra Desai from Colourtex Limited stressed on the need of using intelligent dyes and auxiliaries to improve productivity of dye houses. They gave various examples of how this can The seminar concluded with an open discussion about implementation of Sustainable technology. Dr. N N Mahapatra stressed on the use of some non-traditional fibre for manufacturing 'sustainable textiles', Dr. Ashok Athalye talked about initiatives taken by his company towards being more sustainable, Mr. Shankar spoke on challenges in manufacturing sustainable and affordable auxiliaries, Mr Anirudh Pangam informed the audience about how recycled polyester can be dyed to similar fastness levels to that of virgin polyester and how polyester can be dyed with much less demand on resources, and can also be reused. The event was commednaly supported by DyStar, CHT, Huntsman, Clariant, Britacel, Colourtex, Apex 272

Products, Sedo Treepoint and Colosperse Dyes. Images from the conference The images and other artwork from the conference will be shortly available for download on SDC India's Facebook page. Please feel free to contact the SDC India office, should you require high resolution versions of the images for publications. The image and the artwork copyright should be attributed to SDC India. About the Society of Dyers and Colourists The Society of Dyers and Colourists is the world's leading independent, educational charity dedicated to advancing the science and technology of colour worldwide. Our mission is to communicate the science of colour in a changing world. SDC India has over the past 8 years successfully organised conferences, which have been well received by the industry for the quality of topics selected. This, the eighth international conference, creates a common platform for information dissemination, bringing together national as well as global personalities & talent for the common good of the coloration industry. For more information, please visit the SDC website: http://www.sdc.org.uk

Texttreasure Every great dream begins with a dreamer. Always remember, you have within you the strength, the patience, and the passion to reach for the stars to change the world. - Harriet Tubman November - December 2012


NEWS

Congratulation!!! Municipal Corporation. He is also closely associated as member of committees on local development organizations and Banking. Mr. H.S. Patel is very actively associated with the Textile Association (India), Ahmedabad Chapter and served with various capacities since 1977. He is a Patron Member of Association and served as Member of Managing Committee, Governing Council and Vice President of Ahmedabad Chapter and also Trustee Member. Presently Mr. Hashmukh Patel is an elected Governing Council Member in TAI Central.

Shri H.S. Patel Shri Hashmukh Somabhai Patel, Governing Council Member of The Textile Association (India), Ahmedabad Chapter has won the assembly election and elected as MLA of Amaraiwadi Ward of Ahmedabad with a thumping majority.

Mr. H.S. Patel has received TAI Direct ATA Award and also he was awarded with Diamond veteran's award during the Felicitation function in celebration of Diamond Jubilee year in Nov 2008 by the hand of Shri Ashok Bhatt, Hon'ble Speaker of Gujarat Assembly, Govt. of Gujarat. He also received Service Memento from TAI donated by Khushaldas H. Shah at Unit level in 2011.

Apart from Textile Field Mr. H.S. Patel is actively associated with Bhartiya Janata Party (BJP) since 1990 and active member having responsibility in various elections of BJP. He has served with Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation. During 2005 to 2010 he was Municipal Councilor in his Indrapuri ward. Then since 2010 he was Municipal Councilor in his Vatwa ward. Also during 2005 to 2008 Mr. Patel was a Chairman of Estate Management Committee and then during 2008 to 2010 was a Chairman, Water Supply & Sewerage Committee. Now Mr. Patel is a Chairman of Housing improvement Committee of Ahmedabad

It is really a matter of highly pride to The Textile Association (India) for his success. We have confident that Mr. Patel will perform in an excellent way successfully for his constituency and Gujarat State during his tenure as MLA. TAI heartily congratulates him for scaling new height and wishes him all the success.

BUYERS' GUIDE AN IDEAL REFERENCE SOURCE FOR INDIAN TEXTILE MACHINERY, PARTS & ACCESSORIES

The Guide covers following sections viz: a) Names and addresses of manufacturers of complete textile machinery with the range of product and products-wise list. b) Names and addresses of manufacturers of components, parts & accessories along with the range of product-wise list. c) Names & addresses of exporters and dealers/suppliers of textile machinery and equipments and consultants. Illustrative Section : Sector-wise salient features and technical specifications of important textile machines, parts and accessories of different manufacturers. Addresses Section : Names & addresses of all Indian textile machinery, parts & accessories manufacturers, exporters dealers and consultants.

The Guide is also available at Association's office: Textile Machinery Manufacturers' Association (India), 53, Mittal Chambers, 5th Floor, Nariman Point, Mumbai - 400 021 Phone: +91-22-22023766, 22024238, Fax: +91-22-22028017 E-Mail: tmma@mtnl.net.in, mail@tmmaindia.net

The Guide is priced at Rs.500/- per copy plus Rs.150/- courier charges. The Guide in CD form is also available at Rs.500/- plus Rs.50/-courier charges. November - December 2012

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Descriptive Section:


FORTHCOMING EVENTS E-mail :

INDIA International Convention on Colorants - 2013 Date : 08-09, January 2013 Venue : Mahatma Mandir, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India Contact : The Dyestuff Manufacturers Association of India 296, Samuel Street, 4th Floor, Vadgadi, Mumbai - 400 003 India Tel.: +91-22 23420752, Fax: +91-22 23411036 E-mail : dmai@vsnl.com Website : http://www.dmai.org

Website :

TECHNOTEX ( India's premier show on technical textile and FICCI jointly with Ministry of Textiles) Date : 17-19th January 2013 Venue : Pragati Maidan, New Delhi Contact : Mr. Manoj Mehta, Deputy Director Mr. Amit Kakkar, Research Associate FICCI Trade Fair, Secretariat Federation House, Tansen Marg, New Delhi-110001 Tel.: +91 11 23356658, Mob: +91 9654258258 Fax : +91 11 23359734 E-mail : manojmehta@ficci.com amit.kakkar@ficci.com technotexindia@gmail.com

Igmatex-Textile Home Furnishing and Garment Machinery Exhibition Date : 01-03, February 2013 Venue : Huda Ground, Near Mittal Mega Mall, Panipat Contact : Mr. Rajesh Sinha / Mr. Manoj Sinha Igmatex Exhibitions B-504, Goodwil Gardens, Sector-8, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai - 410 201 Mob: 09324077881, 09312069048 E-mail : info@igmatexfair.com, igmatex@gmail.com Website : http://www.igmatexfair.com

InDIGO : Event for denim in South Asia InDIGO is the one and only denim trade event in South Asia, conceived to cover the entire denim value chain, from fiber to finished products, and provide an unmatched opportunity to all stake holders and segment leaders, from across the globe to show-case their offerings to the largest ever gathering of denim professionals.. Date : 19th-20th April 2013 Venue : Expocentre, Sector 62, NOIDA, India. Contact : Nitin Khushwah, Manager - Projects / Events Denim Club India Tel.: +91 9582883612

InFashion 2013 - International Textile and Ingredient Innovation Show Date : 20th-22th March, 2013 Venue : Hall No. 1, Bombay Exhibition Centre, W.E. Highway, Goregaon (E), Mumbai, India Contact : Mr. Adarsh Verma, Project Manager Images Multimedia Pvt. Ltd. S-21, Okhla Industrial Area, Phase-II, New Delhi - 110 020 India Tel.: +91 11 40525000, Fax: +91 11 40525001 Mob: +91 9999251621 E-mail : adarshverma@imagemultimedia.in, Website : www.indiainfashion.com Indo-French seminar on textile & technical textile machiner French Technology and service for the Indian Textile and Technical Textile Date : DELHI : Tuesday, March 19, 2013 SURAT : Friday, March 22, 2013 Contact : French Trade Commission, Embassy of Franch in India Mrs Brinder RAULT, Trade Advisor Tel.: +91 11 4319 6324/6300

Journal of the TEXTILE Association

evensgjarat@iccmail.in, iccgjarat@iccmail.in, www.indiainchemicalcouncil.com

ABROAD Composites Date : Venue : Contact :

2013 Jan 29-31, 2013 Orlando, Florida Composites 2013 3033 Wilson Blvd., Suite 240, Arlington, VA 22201. USA www.compositesshow.org

AATCC 2013 International Conference ( The annual AATCC International Conference offers presentations, networking, and vendor exhibits covering the entire textile and material supply chain) Date : April 9-11, 2013 Venue : Hyatt Regency, Greenville, SC. Contact : AATCC, P.O.Box 12215, Researc Triangle Park, N.C. 27709-2215 USA; Fax : + 1 919 549 8933 E-mail : nicholk@aatcc.org.

Environmental Sustainability for Colourant Industry Date : 10th January 2013 Venue : 'Nonya' Hotal Ista, Near Vastrapur Lake, Ahmedabad Contact : Aarat Sheth, Head - Events Indian Chemical Council - Gujrat 103, L A CITADEL Complex 30, Nutan Bharat Society Alkapuri Vadodara - 309 007, Gujarat. India Telefax : +91 265 2342969 Head phone.: +91 9898298304

Every effort is made to ensure that the information given is correct. You are however, advised to re-check the dates with the organizers, for any change in schedule, venue etc., before finalizing your travel plans. The views expressed in this journal are those of the authors. They are not necessarily the views of editor-publisher. All rights reserved. Neither this publication nor any part of it may be reproduced in any form or by any means, nor may it be printed, photocopied or stored on microfilm without the written permission of the editor-publisher. 274

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