Look Inside: Buller's Birds of New Zealand by Geoff Norman

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foreword by s tephen fry vii preface xi

introduction: f ine Bird Books, Buller & keulemans 1 list of p lates 35

A History of the Birds of New Zealand first-edition plates 41

A History of the Birds of New Zealand second-edition plates 77

Supplement to the Birds of New Zealand supplement plates 127 acknowledgements 141 endnotes 142 Bibliography 143 image credits 145 index 146



stephen fry

IT is a maTTe r of Th e G reaTesT shame that so many in the Northern hemisphere are in such a dreadful state of ignorance about the remarkable human and wildlife history of New Zealand. i f pressed, the average Briton will probably mutter something about sheep, rugby and anchor butter. it is certainly true that when i first properly visited the country i knew next to nothing about the geology and biology of these bewitching islands. i soon discovered New Zealand to be one of the most unusual and intoxicatingly beautiful places in the world. its unique geological formation and isolation gave evolution close to a hundred million years in which to play many fantastic variations on an avian theme, for this was an island group free from mammals—that is if you discount three species of bat and the seals, dolphins and whales that frisked about the shorelines. Birds occupied the niches that in other lands were filled by burrowing and gnawing mammals, such as hedgehogs and the like. aside from (deeply fascinating and varied as they are) endemic reptiles such as geckos, skinks, frogs and tuatara, the birds had it all pretty much to themselves.

i first came to New Zealand better known as a word-botcher than a bird-watcher. i trailed in the footsteps of my friend, writer douglas adams, who with zoologist mark carwardine in their book Last Chance to See had traced the plight of the critically endangered kākāpō, New Zealand’s utterly endearing fat nocturnal parrot. returning some twenty years later with mark to film a follow-up to the book, i learned much about the wider New Zealand ecosystem simply from my introduction to this one extraordinary creature, whose story teaches us such a great deal about evolution and the delicacy of uniquely shaped habitats.

i learned how the kākāpō had, over a hundred million years or so, saved effort and protected itself from birds of prey by giving up flight for bipedal night-time waddling. how it had put on mass to avoid the attentions even of owls. how it had, over scores of millions more years developed a quite preposterously elaborate ‘track and bowl’ lek-style mating ritual. in the case of the male, this involved excavating a crater, tidying a path to it and booming from a voluminous thoracic sac every night for months across the canyons and ravines of New Zealand. in the case of the female, it was a question of the acutest critical discrimination when it came to the sound of his call and highly rigorous pernicketiness in her inspection of the tidiness of the track that led to the hopeful male booming away in his bowl. all this only

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worked once every three to five years or so, according to the fruiting cycle of the rimu tree’s mast. complex, fragile and absurd, but perfectly successful because nothing threatened the uniqueness of the kākāpō’s world. even fear itself had been bred out of it: why waste calories and energy leaping and squawking at every sound when there is no creature in existence that means you harm?

w hile filming, i was treated to the sight of one randy kākāpō called s irocco attempting to ravish mark carwardine. Video of this ‘went viral’ and seemed to amuse the world as much as it had me. sirocco soon had his own facebook page and Twitter id; he was moved from zoo to zoo, wildlife sanctuary to wildlife sanctuary, attracting enthusiastic visitors keen to meet this don Juan of parrots. his one single act of desperate erotic fervour did more to tell the world what a kākāpō was and how they came into being and how they were threatened than any number of lectures could ever have done. perhaps some part of sirocco knew that the plight of his species was desperate and that desperate measures were called for. certainly, the number of applications from bird-lovers and enthusiastic amateur ecologists from all over the world eager to volunteer their time to help with the kākāpō breeding programme on codfish island exploded.

for me, s irocco the kākāpō was like a gateway drug that got me hooked on conservation and hooked on New Zealand and its story. The great don merton, who did so much to establish New Zealand’s kākāpō conservation programme, sadly died before he could see this book. at the time of writing, however, s irocco, with his many thousands of facebook fans, continues to act as an ambassador for New Zealand conservation. his place is as sure in the history of heroic New Zealand birds as that of o ld Blue, the lone female chatham island black robin that, also under the wise and diligent supervision of don, brought back her species from the absolute brink.

don merton, who took douglas and mark to nesting sites and reserves in the 1980s and then escorted mark and me for the television follow-up twenty years later, taught me that much as the country broadly divides itself into North island and s outh island, you can think of the history of modern, mammal-infested New Zealand as being divided into two halves as well.

f irstly, seven hundred years or so ago, mammals in the form of primates now called māori soon settled in what they called aotearoa, the land of the l ong w hite cloud. some four hundred years after that, european primates arrived and decided to call the place, after some debate, New Zealand. each society brought with them, either deliberately or carelessly, their preferred selection of vicious furry aliens: dogs, cats, possums, rats, weasels, stoats, ferrets and mice. carnage was wrought upon the wholly unprepared birdlife. The gentle rhythm of their mating, so often, like the kākāpō’s, tied to the masting cycles of trees, couldn’t allow them enough time to keep up with the rate of depredation of their numbers through hunting, trapping and the scavenging of these ferocious and relentlessly greedy smaller mammals. from irreplaceably fantastic giants such as the fabled moa and the largest feathered raptor the planet ever knew, haast’s eagle, to miniatures—quick, pert passerine and robin-

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like birds—extinction stalked the islands. one single lighthouse keeper’s cat supposedly accounted for an entire species of wren on s tephens island in the marlborough s ounds.

it is easy for us to judge our ancestors and curse them for their aggression, arrogance and foolishness, but they had neither the biological nor ecological information available to us now. They acted according to their nature and the results were all but permanently catastrophic, as woodland and wetland gave way to farmland and more and more species breathed their last, wholly unable to cope with the changes in ecosystem, the threat of predators and the diminution of their natural sources of food and shelter.

The second half of this tale is picked up in the nineteenth century when taxonomy, the slow, deliberate description and cataloguing of species, revealed what unique endemic arboreal and ornithological life New Zealand possessed and how harassed and harmed to the point of total elimination it had been by the incoming species, not just of fauna, but of flora too. The delicacy and interconnectedness of habitats was slowly beginning to be understood as the work of charles darwin, alfred russel wallace and Thomas huxley pulled the curtain open and threw new light on the simultaneously simple and mind-bogglingly complex operations of the natural world. o ur feathered food slowly became our feathered friends. Today you won’t find a people more fond of or proud of their birds than New Zealanders are of their kea, tūī, kākā, takahē and, of course, kākāpō and kiwi.

The nineteenth century was a golden age of cataloguing and collecting. The latter, involving as it so often did the shooting, stuffing and mounting of specimens, is distressing to our modern sensibilities, but the cataloguing

There can be no finer example of the pinnacle of Victorian cataloguing than the stupendously fine work of walter l awry Buller and JG keulemans in their monumental collaboration A History of the Birds of New Zealand. easily the equal of John James audubon’s celebrated The Birds of America, these wondrous, perfectly fashioned volumes mark a kind of dividing line between the old New Zealand of slaughter and extinction and the new New Zealand, which may be one of the most conservation-minded, ecologically aware and environmentally progressive nations on earth. keulemans’ exquisite and unprecedentedly detailed images of every New Zealand bird that Buller could spot, catch and describe amount to a supreme work of art the like of which it is hard to find anywhere else in the realm of natural history.

The lessons of the first epoch cannot be forgotten, but the republication by Te papa press of these pioneering images with an exhaustive, deeply researched but clear and highly readable text by Geoff Norman will be welcomed by scholars, fieldworkers and enthusiasts the world over. it is a memorial to a vanished world and a reminder of the vulnerability of biodiversity—how millions of years of creation can be undone by only a few centuries of destruction. i am dizzy with pride at being offered this opportunity to introduce it to you.

This precious and beautiful book is a perfect celebration of the precious and beautiful birds of the precious and beautiful islands of aotearoa.

Wellington, April 2012

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sir walTe r lawry Buller , the New Zealand-born scientist, magistrate and businessman, completed a revised and expanded edition of his 1873 A History of the Birds of New Zealand in 1888. The forty-eight plates were prepared using chromolithography, an early colour-printing process. By contrast, the first edition contained thirty-five smaller hand-coloured plates. The artist for both editions was John Gerrard keulemans. when contracted to illustrate Buller’s first book, he was a young dutch draughtsman establishing a career in london; by the time he worked on the second edition, keulemans was the best-known ornithological illustrator of his time.

The second edition was an immediate and ongoing success. its 1000 copies were fully subscribed, and the quality of their printing was widely praised. over the next century, the plates became the most recognisable depictions of New Zealand birds, reproduced in natural history books and on posters, tourist guides, banknotes and a variety of commercial products. Their popularity has meant that the second-edition images have overshadowed those of the first edition, which have consequently been reproduced far less frequently. But the earlier handcoloured plates have a vitality and intensity lacking in the second-edition chromolithographs. hand-colouring employs a variety of techniques and materials developed over hundreds of years; successful illustrations using this method are vibrant and colourful, with wonderful texture. at their best, they are unique works of art. on the other hand, chromolithography in the nineteenth century was more restricted in its colours and the techniques used to apply them. The oil-based inks often have an olive cast, and generally the images are muddier and less intense than their hand-coloured counterparts.

But the shortcomings of the colour reproduction in the second edition are not apparent in the watercolour proofs keulemans prepared before printing. These full-sized originals, held at Britain’s Natural history museum, display a clarity of colour reminiscent of the first-edition images. They have only occasionally been reproduced since 1888; subsequent reproduction of the second-edition images has almost always used the printed plates, perpetuating the colour limitations of the original printing method.

Buller’s Birds of New Zealand: The complete work of JG Keulemans contains all keulemans’ colour images from the first edition of A History of the Birds of New Zealand. apart from a limited-edition facsimile privately published in 1986, this is the first time the full set has been printed in colour since 1873. keulemans’ original watercolour proofs for the second edition

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Buller’s B irds of New Zeala N d

are reproduced in full for the first time, along with the twelve proofs prepared by the artist for the Supplement to the Birds of New Zealand, completed in 1906, shortly after Buller’s death. more than a hundred years later, the ninety-five coloured illustrations that keulemans prepared for Buller’s various editions still constitute the finest set of images of New Zealand birds. This volume reminds us of that fortunate and fruitful partnership between the New Zealand ornithologist and the most celebrated bird artist of the time.

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I N trodu C t I o N

F IN e B I rd Boo K s, Buller &

Keulema N s

Hi G h-quali T y N aT ural his T ory pu B lishi NG flourished during the age of enlightenment, that remarkable time in the eighteenth century when europeans, eager to know more about the world, first ventured into the interior of africa and made voyages of exploration and discovery, including to the s outh pacific and antarctic regions. James cook’s first voyage around the world from 1768 to 1771 coincided with the start of a period of intense scientific discovery and interest, during which antoine lavoisier, w illiam and John herschel, humphry davy, michael faraday and others defined and established scientific rigour, careful observation and experimentation in their various fields. in botany and zoology, new methods of classification, most importantly that of s wede carl linnaeus, were enthusiastically adopted. The general public followed these developments through popular public lectures and patronage of newly established museums and collections, such as the British m useum and the Zoological s ociety’s gardens in l ondon.

Before the development of photography, skilled artists and draughtsmen illustrated the written work that documented this flowering of knowledge. initially the recorder and illustrator were often one and the same, but demand quickly developed for specialised professional illustrators. s cientific organisations sponsored voyages of exploration—for example, in 1768 the royal s ociety backed cook, and his company included both scientists and artists. although the primary purposes of the voyage were to observe the Transit of Venus from Tahiti and to explore the southern pacific, on board was Joseph Banks, a wealthy twentyfive-year-old botanist who paid for his own passage and that of nine assistants and servants, in order to collect, identify and record new species of plants and animals. The illustrations produced by the two artists in his entourage, sydney parkinson and alexander Buchan, had to be visually accurate, complementing and supporting the descriptions and classifications. These images, together with specimens collected on this and subsequent voyages, provided a valuable resource for natural history publications at the end of the eighteenth and beginning of the nineteenth centuries.

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Natural history books produced a hundred years earlier, in the seventeenth century, were esoteric in nature, even moralistic, their careful and often symbolic arrangement of subjects following in the tradition of the still-life paintings of rembrandt and other f lemish and d utch painters in particular. however, as more interest was shown in the exotic animals and plants of newly discovered lands, a different publishing style developed. its aim was the accurate recording and representation of flora and fauna so they could be correctly classified, even if this meant that the supporting illustrations tended to show the subjects in relatively

These two kākā, painted on James cook’s voyages to New Zealand, were among the first scientific illustrations of New Zealand birds. George forster produced the one on the left in 1773 during the second voyage. The painting on the right was the work of the surgeon’s second mate, w illiam ellis, in 1777, during cook’s third voyage.

static poses with minimal background. other artists preferred to present their subjects more dynamically, interacting with their environment; the surroundings became as important as the subject itself. most artists occupied the continuum between the two approaches, and sometimes the same artist would use different methods in different situations. for example, illustrations in a biological atlas might demand a scientific linnaean approach, whereas a commissioned painting for a wealthy patron would be more likely to show an animated depiction of the subject in a detailed environment. The two approaches are still seen in modern ornithological field guides: some illustrate their subjects with high-quality colour

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photos, showing the birds in their environment; others employ more scientific diagrams and paintings to display their subjects’ defining characteristics. mechanised printing of text had been established in europe for 300 years, and the printing of images using wooden blocks or metal plates was a standard process. however, reproducing images in colour was a difficult and expensive business, involving preparation by hand of numerous plates; a common alternative was to employ teams of colourists to hand-colour printed black and white outlines. This combination of manual and mechanical processes was complex, but where the artist, plate-makers and colourists were skilled, and the publishers conscientious in maintaining quality, the result was superbly coloured books containing images of a richness rarely matched by even the most modern printing techniques. lithography involves drawing an outline on a polished slab of fine-grained porous stone (traditionally limestone from Bavaria), using an oil-based crayon. The stone is then prepared and dampened, and an oil-based ink applied. The ink is taken up by the previously drawn-on areas of the stone but repelled by the remaining wet surface. s heets of paper are then pressed onto the stone to print mirror images of the crayon drawing. lithography had several advantages over the engraving techniques. it was quicker and, whereas engraving on a wooden block or metal plate required special skills, the technique of drawing an outline on the stone was similar to drawing on paper, meaning that many artists could undertake lithographic work themselves. usually a single stone was used to produce a black and white lithograph that could then be hand-coloured. printing in colour—chromolithography—required several stone slabs in turn, each with a different coloured ink, to build up the final fully coloured image. But this process was expensive and demanded much greater skill from the lithographer in progressively adding and aligning the colours with several carefully matched stones. handcolouring was usually the cheaper and preferred option for natural history illustration and, where done properly and consistently, was generally superior to chromolithography. There was a greater variety of pigments available for hand-colouring, and their manual application resulted in more textural variation. Gum arabic and gold and silver leaf could also be used to add lustre to the illustrations. hand-coloured lithographs for natural history publications continued to be produced into the twentieth century.

The colourists, often women, poorly paid and usually unacknowledged, performed an important role, crucial to the success of the whole process. They were frequently caught in the middle of an ongoing struggle to keep costs down, while keeping quality high. many of the earlier artists did their own hand-colouring; others had their wives and children carry out the work. as demand grew in the nineteenth century, specialist workshops were established, often by the printers. The colourists worked under testing conditions. Their tasks involved handling toxic chemicals and pigments. The good natural light they required was compromised by the short daylight hours of the english and s cottish winters; the use of candles was not encouraged for economic reasons and because the flickering yellow light could lead to unsatisfactory results.

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a h is T ory of T he Birds of New Zeala N d

F I rst- e d I t I o N Plates


New Zeala N d falco N Kārearea Falco novaeseelandiae

young & adult 42

Swamp harrier Kāhu Circus approximans

adult & young 43
Kea Kā K ā Nestor notabilis Nestor meridionalis

r ed-crow N ed para K eet Kā K āri K i

Yellow-crow N ed para K eet Kā K āri K i Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae Cyanoramphus auriceps


h uia Heteralocha acutirostris

female & male 48
l o N g-tailed cuc K oo Koe K oeā g re Y warbler r iroriro Eudynamys taitensis Gerygone igata adult & young

New Zeala N d quail Kore K e Coturnix novaezelandiae m

ale & f emale

New Zeala N d pigeo N Kererū Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae


p ied S tilt p oa K a Himantopus himantopus leucocephalus r ed- N ec K ed avocet b lac K S tilt Ka K ī Recurvirostra novaehollandiae Himantopus novaezelandiae


S N are S iS la N d SN ipe t utu K iwi b ar-tailed godwit Kua K a Coenocorypha huegeli Limosa lapponica


Acanthisitta chloris 89 albatross antipodean 117 Buller’s 132 northern royal 117 salvin’s 132

Anarhynchus frontalis 103 Anas aucklandica 119 Anas chlorotis 119 Anas rhynchotis 67, 121 Anthornis melanura melanura 86 Anthus novaeseelandiae novaeseelandiae 84 antipodean albatross 117 antipodes island parakeet 136

Apteryx haastii 128 Apteryx mantelli 75, 124 Apteryx owenii 76, 125 Ardea modesta 113 auckland island teal 119 audubon, John James 6, 7, 8 australasian bittern 114 australasian shoveler 67, 121 avocet, red-necked 104 Aythya novaeseelandiae 68, 122

background in natural history illustrations 2–3, 12, 23 banded dotterel 102 banded rail 61, 110 bar-tailed godwit 105 bellbird 86 Binney, don 31, 32

The Birds of America (audubon) 6, 7

The Birds of Australia (Gould) 6–7, 8, 20, 21

The Birds of Australia (mathews) 17 bishop tanager 6 bittern, australasian 114 black-backed gull, southern 69 black-billed gull 69, 106 black-fronted tern 107 black robin 139 black stilt 104 blue duck 68, 122

Botaurus poiciloptilus 114 Bowdleria punctata 54, 84 Bowdleria rufescens 54 British museum (l ondon) 1, 20

British ornithologists’ club 25 British ornithologists’ union 11 brown creeper 83 brown kiwi North island 75, 124 south island 20

brown teal 119 buff weka 60, 112

Buller, sir walter lawry 17–26, 18, 24

A History of the Birds of New Zealand (first edition) 4, 17–22, 23–25

A History of the Birds of New Zealand (second edition) 4, 17, 22–25, 31–32

Manual of the Birds of New Zealand 22 Supplement to the Birds of New Zealand 17, 24–26 Buller’s albatross 132 Buller’s shearwater 118 Bulletin (British ornithologists’ club) 25 bush wren 53, 89 North island 137

Cabalus modestus 130 Callaeas cinerea 57, 78 Callaeas wilsoni 57, 78 Charadrius bicinctus bicinctus 102 Charadrius obscurus 102 chatham island fernbird 54 chatham island rail 130 chatham island shag 115 chatham island warbler 139 Chlidonias albostriatus 107 chromolithographs 3, 4, 23–24 Chrysococcyx lucidus lucidus 92 Circus approximans 43, 98 Coenocorypha huegeli 105 collecting of native birds 20, 27–28 colonial museum ( wellington) 18–20 colourists of printed images 3, 5, 13, 21 see also chromolithographs; hand-coloured lithographs commissions 5, 10, 11, 13, 15 conservation of natural resources 28–31 cook, James 1, 2 Coturnix novaezelandiae 59, 100 crake marsh 62 spotless 62, 110 creeper, brown 83 crested penguin f iordland 74 snares 123 cuban macaw 12 cuckoo

long-tailed 49, 91 shining 92

Cyanoramphus auriceps 47, 93 Cyanoramphus malherbi 93 Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae 47, 93 Cyanoramphus unicolor 136

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darwin, charles 22, 27 dieffenbach’s rail 61 Diomedea antipodensis 117 Diomedea sanfordi 117 dotterel

banded 102 New Zealand 102 dresser, henry 18 duck, blue 68, 122

Egretta novaehollandiae novaehollandiae 65 Egretta sacra sacra 65, 113 ellis, w illiam 2

Eudynamys taitensis 49, 91 Eudyptes pachyrhynchus 74 Eudyptes robustus 123 Eudyptula minor 74 Extinct Birds (rothschild) 12, 17, 26 extinction of native bird species 26–28

Falco novaeseelandiae 42, 99 falcon, New Zealand 42, 99 fantail, New Zealand 30, 85 fernbird 54, 84 chatham island 54 f iordland crested penguin 74 foster, George 2

Gallirallus australis australis 111, 112 Gallirallus australis greyi 60, 111 Gallirallus australis hectori 60, 112 Gallirallus dieffenbachii 61 Gallirallus philippensis assimilis 61, 110 Gerygone albofrontata 139 Gerygone igata 49, 91 godwit, bar-tailed 105 Gould, John 6–7, 8, 11, 18, 20, 21, 22 great spotted kiwi 128 grey-faced petrel 70 grey parrot 12 grey warbler 49, 91 gull black-billed 69, 106 red-billed 106 southern black-backed 69

hammond, Bill 32, 33 hand-coloured lithographs 3, 20–22, 23–25 harrier, swamp 43, 98 hartert, ernst 15, 16 hector, James 18, 21, 28 Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae 58, 101 heron

reef 65, 113 white 113 white-faced 65

Heteralocha acutirostris 48, 79 hihi 51, 88

Himantopus himantopus leucocephalus 104 Himantopus novaezelandiae 104

A History of the Birds of Europe (dresser and sharpe) 18 A History of the Birds of New Zealand (Buller) (first edition) 4, 17–22, 23–24

A History of the Birds of New Zealand (Buller) (second edition) 4, 17, 22–24, 31–32 hoiho 123 hooker, Joseph 13, 18 huia 8, 27, 48, 79 Hymenolaimus malacorhynchos 68, 122

Ibis (British ornithologists’ union) 11, 25, 25 Illustrations of the Family of Psittacidæ, or Parrots (lear) 6, 7 illustrators see natural history illustrators indigenisation 28 iterson, f van 24

kāhu 43, 98 kākā 21, 29, 30, 31, 46, 94, 135 by artists other than keulemans 2, 8 kākāpō 45, 96 kākāriki 7, 47, 93 kakariwai 82 kakī 104 kārearea 42, 99 karoro 69 kāruhiruhi 115 kawau paka 71 kawau tikitiki 72, 116 kea 30, 30, 31, 31, 46, 95 kererū 28, 29, 58, 101 keulemans, John Gerrard 9–17, 11 anglicised christian names from Johannes Gerardus 10 commissions 15–17, 18 illustrator of Buller’s first edition 18, 20–22 illustrator of Buller’s second edition 23–24 illustrator of Buller’s supplement 25 A Natural History of Cage Birds 12 Onze Vogels in Huis en Tuin (o ur Birds in house and Garden) 10 remuneration for images 13–15, 21 reviewers’ comments on illustrations 22, 24 style of illustration 11–12 king shag, New Zealand 71 kingfisher, New Zealand 10, 90 kiwi 13, 21, 30, 32 great spotted 128 little spotted 76, 125 North island brown 75, 124 south island brown 20 kiwi pukupuku 76, 125 koekoeā 49, 91 koitoreke 62

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Buller’s B irds of New Zeala N d

kōkā 57, 78 kōkako North island 57, 78 south island 57, 78 koreke 59, 100 korimako 86 kororā 74 kōrure 118 kōtare 10, 90 kōtuku 113 kuaka 105 kuruwhengi 67, 121

lady amherst’s pheasant 9 Larus bulleri 69, 106 Larus dominicanus dominicanus 69 Larus novaehollandiae scopulinus 106 laughing owl 44, 97 North island 26, 134 l ear, edward 6, 6, 7, 12 Leucocarbo carunculatus 71 Leucocarbo onslowi 115 Limosa lapponica 105 linnaeus, carl 1 lithographs 3, 4, 5, 5 see also chromolithographs little penguin 74 little shag 71 little spotted kiwi 76, 125 living specimens, images sketched from 20–21 long-tailed cuckoo 49, 91 lyall’s wren 25, 25–26, 138

Manual of the Birds of New Zealand (Buller) 22 marsh crake 62 masefield, charles 32 mātātā 54, 84 mathews, Gregory 17 mātirakahu 130 mātuhituhi 53, 89, 137 matuku hūrepo 114 matuku moana 65, 113 Megadyptes antipodes 123 megapode, polynesian 129 Megapodius pritchardii 129 merganser, New Zealand 133 Mergus australis 133 miromiro 82 moeriki 61 moho pererū 61, 110

Mohoua albicilla 52, 83 Mohoua novaeseelandiae 83 Mohoua ochrocephala 52, 83 mōhua 52, 83

A Monograph of the Alcedinidæ, or Family of Kingfishers (sharpe) 10

A Monograph of the Phasianidæ, or Family of the Pheasants (elliot) 9 morepork 44, 97 mottled petrel 118

Nationaal Natuurhistorisch museum (l eiden) 9, 10 native bird species decline and replacement of 17, 20, 26–27 protection of 28–30, 33 Native Birds (masefield) 32 natural history illustrators see also keulemans, John Gerrard John James audubon 6, 7, 8, John Gould 6–7, 8, 11, 18, 20, 21, 22 edward l ear 6, 6, 7, 12 w illiam swainson 5–6, 6, 7, 13 Joseph wolf 6, 7–8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 18 Natural history museum (l ondon) 26

A Natural History of Cage Birds (keulemans) 12 natural history publishing 1–3, 7 Nestor meridionalis 46, 94, 135 Nestor notabilis 46, 95 New Zealand dotterel 102 New Zealand falcon 42, 99 New Zealand fantail 30, 85 New Zealand Flowers and Birds (Tourist and publicity department) 31, 31 New Zealand king shag 71 New Zealand kingfisher 10, 90 New Zealand merganser 133 New Zealand pigeon 29, 58, 101 New Zealand pipit 84 New Zealand quail 59, 100 New Zealand scaup 68, 122 Newton, alfred 18, 22 ngirungiru 82 ngutu pare 103 Ninox novaeseelandiae 44, 97 North island brown kiwi 75, 124 North island bush wren 137 North island kōkako 57, 78 North island laughing owl 26, 134 North island piopio 55, 81 North island robin 82 North island saddleback 56 North island tomtit 82 North island weka 60, 111 northern royal albotross 117 Notiomystis cincta 51, 88

ōi 70

Onze Vogels in Huis en Tuin (o ur Birds in house and Garden) (keulemans) 10 orange-fronted parakeet 93 Ornithological Miscellany (rowley) 13, 20

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laughing 44, 97 North island laughing 26, 134

pāpango 68, 122 paradise shelduck 66, 120 parakeet antipodes island 136 orange-fronted 93 red-crowned 7, 47, 93 yellow-crowned 47, 93 pāteke 119 penguin f iordland crested 74 little 74 snares crested 123 yellow-eyed 123 petrel grey-faced 70 mottled 118 white-headed 70 white-naped 131 Petroica (Miro) australis australis 82 Petroica (Miro) longipes 82 Petroica (Miro) traversi 139 Petroica (Petroica) macrocephala macrocephala 82 Petroica (Petroica) macrocephala toitoi 82 Phalacrocorax melanoleucos brevirostris 71 Phalacrocorax varius varius 115 Philesturnus carunculatus 56, 80 Philesturnus rufusater 56 photography and printing techniques in colour 15, 32 pied shag 115 pied stilt 104 pigeon, New Zealand 29, 58, 101 pīhoihoi 84 piopio North island 55, 81 south island 55, 81 pīpipi 83 pipit, New Zealand 84 pīpīwharauroa 92 pitt island shag 73, 116 pīwakawaka 85 pīwauwau 53, 89 plover, shore 64, 103 poaka 104 pohowera 102 polynesian megapode 129 pōpokotea 52, 83

Porphyrio hochstetteri 63, 109 Porphyrio melanotus melanotus 108 Porzana pusilla affinis 62

Porzana tabuensis tabuensis 62, 110 preservation of natural resources 28–31 Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae novaeseelandiae 50, 87

Pterodroma cervicalis 131 Pterodroma inexpectata 118 Pterodroma lessonii 70 Pterodroma macroptera gouldi 70 Puffinus bulleri 118 pūkeko 108 pūtangitangi 66, 120 pūweto 62, 110

quail, New Zealand 59, 100

rail banded 61, 110 chatham island 130 dieffenbach’s 61 Recurvirostra novaehollandiae 104 red-billed gull 106 red-crowned parakeet 7, 47, 93 red-necked avocet 104 reef heron 65, 113 Rhipidura fuliginosa 85 rifleman 89 riroriro 49, 91 roa 128 robin black 139 North island 82 south island 82 rock wren 53, 89 rothschild, walter 12, 15, 15, 17, 25–26 rowley, George 13, 20 royal albatross, northern 117 royal society of l ondon 1, 22 ruru 44, 97

saddleback North island 56 south island 56, 80 salvage ornithologists 28 salvin’s albatross 132 scaup, New Zealand 68, 122 Sceloglaux albifacies 44, 97 Sceloglaux albifacies rufifacies 134 Sceloglaux rufifacies 26 schlegel, hermann 9–10 scientific approach to illustration 2–3, 12 A Selection of the Birds of Brazil and Mexico (swainson) 6 sewell, henry 27 shag chatham island 115 little 71 New Zealand king 71 pied 115 pitt island 73, 116 spotted 72, 116

149 245

Buller’s B irds of New Zeala N d

sharpe, richard Bowdler 10, 10, 11, 18, 20, 22, 25 shearwater, Buller’s 118 shelduck, paradise 66, 120 shining cuckoo 92 shore plover 64, 103 shoveler, australasian 67, 121 silvereye 86

skins of birds, images produced from 20 snares crested penguin 123 snares island snipe 105 snipe, snares island 105 south island brown kiwi 20 south island kōkako 57, 78 south island piopio 55, 81 south island robin 82 south island saddleback 56, 80 south island takahē 63, 109 south island tomtit 82 southern black-backed gull 69 specimens of birds, images produced from 20–21 spotless crake 62, 110 spotted kiwi great 128 little 76, 125 spotted shag 72, 116 Sterna striata 107 Stictocarbo featherstoni 73, 116 Stictocarbo punctatus punctatus 72, 116 stilt black 104 pied 104 stitchbird 51, 88 Strigops habroptilus 45, 96 styles of natural history illustration 2, 6, 11–12, 32 Supplement to the Birds of New Zealand (Buller) 17, 24–26 swainson, w illiam 5–6, 6, 7, 13 swainson’s hawk 7 swamp harrier 43, 98

Tadorna variegata 66, 120 takahē 14 south island 63, 109 tara 107 tarapirohe 107 tarāpuka 69, 106 tarāpunga 106 tauhou 86 tawaki 74 teal auckland island 119 brown 119 tern black-fronted 107 white-fronted 107 Thalassarche bulleri 132 Thalassarche salvini 132

Thinornis novaeseelandiae 64, 103 tīeke 56, 80 tītitipounamu 89 Todiramphus sanctus vagans 90 tomtit

North island 82 south island 82 toroa 117 toutouwai 82 Traversia lyalli 25, 25–26, 138 Tring library 26 tūī 23, 31, 32, 50, 87 Turnagra capensis 55, 81 Turnagra tanagra 55, 81 tutukiwi 105 tūturiwhatu 102 tuturuatu 64, 103

wallace, alfred russel 11, 13 warbler chatham island 139 grey 49, 91 watercolour paintings 5, 21, 23–24 weka buff 60, 112 North island 60, 111 western 111, 112 western weka 111, 112 whēkau 26, 44, 97, 134 whio 68, 122 white-faced heron 65 white-fronted tern 107 white-headed petrel 70 white heron 113 white-naped petrel 131 whitehead 52, 83 wolf, Joseph 6, 7–8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 18 wren bush 53, 89 lyall’s 25, 25–26, 138 North island bush 137 rock 53, 89 wrybill 103

Xenicus gilviventris 53, 89 Xenicus insularis 25 Xenicus longipes 53, 89 Xenicus longipes stokesii 137

yellow-crowned parakeet 47, 93 yellow-eyed penguin 123 yellowhead 52, 83

Zoological society of l ondon 1, 10, 20 Zosterops lateralis lateralis 86

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