Spanish Sojourns Educators Guide

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E D U C ATO R G U I D E This Educators Guide was designed for use in conjunction with field trips to the Spanish

Sojourns exhibition, or for use as a stand‐alone classroom resource. The materials included here contain curriculum connections aligned with Common Core and Georgia Professional Standards for 4th grade Visual Arts, Language Arts, Social Studies and Math, but are adaptable for use at other grade levels.

La Madrileñita, 1910, oil on canvas.

Calero (Antonio Baños), 1908, oil on canvas.

In Spanish Sojourns, Telfair Museums has brought together a wide range of Robert Henri‟s paintings from his many trips to Spain+ Henri himself was highly regarded as a teacher as well as an artist and instrumental in forming „The Eight‟ a group of American artists from the Ashcan School+ Like many Americans in the early 20th century, Henri was fascinated with Spain, attracted by the sunny climate and spirited people. His particular interest in the people of Spain is evident in his paintings from the country— nearly all of them portraits. Henri tended to paint certain segments of the population, of them the most predominant were dancers (or bailarinas), bullfighters and people whom he called „gypsies‟+ The artist captured each of his subjects with dignity and humanity, whether paisanos (peasants) or members of high society.

Robert Henri was born Robert Henry Cozad in 1865. Following a legal dispute the family fled to Colorado and the family members all changed their names. Robert selected the surname of Henri to acknowledge his French heritage although he insisted it was pronounced in an American way: „Hen-rye‟+ At the age of 21 Henri enrolled in the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in Philadelphia. In 1888, he moved to Paris where he studied Impressionism. During this and later trips to Paris, Henri was influenced by the work of Frans Hals, Edouard Manet and Diego Velázquez+ Upon his return to the US in 1891 Henri settled in New York to begin what would become a long and successful teaching career. He will long be remembered for his progressive teaching, preserved in The Art Spirit, a book of his sayings. At this point in his career he began experimenting with urban realist subjects painted in a bold, loose style. As a result, the Academy refused to exhibit his work and Henri instead organized his own show. In 1908, Henri mounted the nowfamous show entitled The Eight. Many of these artists were from the Ashcan School, a group of American artists who embraced realism rather than the oft-favored Impressionism. It was around this time that Henri made his first trip to Spain. Henri en route to Spain. He was drawn to the sunny countryside and its colorful people, ultimately making six lengthy trips to the country. The portraits he produced in and of the country reflect both Americans‟ somewhat clichéd views of Spanish tropes and Henri‟s own admiration for people of all walks of life+

This exhibition, Spanish Sojourns: Robert Henri and the Spirit of Spain, was organized by Telfair Museums. The exhibition was made possible by the generous support of the Terra Foundation for American Art, the National Endowment for the Arts, and the Mr. and Mrs. Raymond J. Horowitz Foundation for the Arts. The exhibition catalogue of the same name was published by Marquand Books. It includes a foreword by museum director Lisa Nellor Grove and essays by M. Elizabeth Boone, Valerie Anne Leeds and Holly Koons McCullough. The publication of the exhibition catalogue was made possible by the Telfair Academy Guild. Cover, Spanish Sojourns: Robert

Henri and the Spirit of Spain

The information in this guide about Henri and his work was adapted from the content of the catalogue as well as

Robert Henri was hardly the only one enamored of Spain in the early twentieth century. In fact Spain had become a popular destination and inspiration for artists as well as a subject of interest for writers and musicians. Authors like Washington Irving had first captured the American imagination with his mythic tales in The Alhambra, portraying Spain as a romantic and exotic locale. Carmen, an opera that tells the story of a gypsy from Seville, was wildly popular in New York in the 1890s and played on the same American notions of what it meant to be Spanish. These ideas pervaded American culture at the turn of the century and influenced both Henri‟s work and how it was seen by American audiences+ In learning more about the context in which he painted, students will have a better understanding of the significance of Henri‟s work from Spain+

Segovia, Spain

“Spain+++It is a romantic country; but its romance has none of the sentimentality of modern European romance …”

Washington Irving, 1839

Georgia Performance Standards for Social Studies SS4H6 The student will explain westward expansion of America between 1801 and 1861. a. Describe territorial expansion with emphasis on the Louisiana Purchase, the Lewis and Clark expedition, and the acquisitions of Texas (the Alamo and independence), Oregon (Oregon Trail), and California (Gold Rush and the development of mining towns). SS5H3 The student will describe how life changed in America at the turn of the century. c. Explain how William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt expanded America‟s role in the world; include the Spanish-American War and the building of the Panama Canal. English Language Arts Common Core Georgia Performance Standards RI.4.3. Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text. RI.4.9. Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.

Lead students in completing a KWL chart (with what they know [K], want to know [W] and eventually what they learned [L]), determining what they already know about America and Spain in this time period. Have students read the articles provided on the following pages, discussing the questions included. Encourage students to imagine what life was like during this period. After reading the excerpts regarding the Spanish American War, ask students to imagine headlines from newspapers during or after the conflict. In response to the latter article, have students create an image they feel represents an American view of Spain at the time. Compare these to some of Henri‟s portraits+

Adapted from a Smithsonian article. Full text available at: printable/section.asp?id=7

After the Civil War, the United States neglected its navy, which ranked twelfth in the world by 1880. Although the United States had no overseas colonies to protect, business and government leaders realized that a strong navy was essential to defend trade and growing international interests. Beginning in 1881, Congress supported a program to modernize (improve) the American Navy. By the 1890s, the U.S. Navy had converted to all-steel and -steam, and ranked among the top five navies in the world.

New York Journal, Library of Congress.

▪ How do you think Presidents McKinley and Roosevelt affected America‟s role in the world? ▪ Think about: military power, modernization, and controlling territories around the world. ▪ What do you think President Roosevelt meant by “Speak softly but carry a big stick”? ▪ How did the war impact Spain both positively and negatively?

In 1898, a mysterious explosion sank the battleship USS Maine in Havana Harbor, in Spain-controlled Cuba, triggering a war between the United States and Spain. The Maine had come to Cuba to protect American citizens while Cuban revolutionaries were fighting to win independence from Spain. President McKinley and the United States supported their cause, and after the Maine exploded, demanded that Spain give Cuba freedom. Instead, Spain declared war, and America quickly did the same, preparing to fight. The opening battle of the Spanish American War took place in the Philippines. In May of 1898, Dewey defeated the Spanish squadron in Manila Bay, sinking or capturing every Spanish ship with no loss of American life. It seemed like dramatic proof that the United States was now a major naval power. Shortly after, in 1901, Theodore Roosevelt became president. Roosevelt strongly supported American expansionism, and increased the size of the military to implement it+ He summed up his policy with the phrase, “Speak softly, but carry a big stick+” Following the fall of Cuba, the Spanish territories of Puerto Rico, Samoa, Guam, and Wake Island became American-controlled.

Adapted from a Library of Congress article. Full text available at:

The war had completely transformed the United States, which became seen as a world power. Other powerful countries began to see the US as an important political power that would have an impact in the Pacific and later in Europe as well. But the outcome of the war also transformed Spain. The end of the war became known as the "disaster" in Spain. It seemed disastrous at the time because it meant Spain had lost the last of its overseas territories. But this loss of land and power also encouraged Spain to focus on itself—developing the politics, society, and the arts and sciences of Spain. Instead of being concerned with its territories in the rest of the world, Spain could now look into the future for the first time and consider its development in the modern world+ (Spain in this era was a very poor country that hadn‟t developed many factories and industries, like many other countries in Europe.) So in some ways, the war of 1898 (or the Spanish-American War) freed Spain as well.

Adapted from Elizabeth Boone‟s essay in the catalogue, entitled “Books, Canvases, and the Built Environment: The Allure of Spain in the Late 19th and Early 20th Centuries”

When Robert Henri made his first trip to Spain in 1900, Americans had been painting, writing, and thinking about Spain for almost 100 years. Writers, artists, musicians and architects all across the country drew inspiration from Spain or their idea of it. Because the Spanish, as well as the English and various other European powers, had helped colonize America, many people had personal opinions about the Spanish people – some positive and others negative. Washington Irving, the author of famous American stories like Rip Van Winkle and The Legend of Sleepy Hollow, played a big role in launching the mania for all things Spanish. In his most famous Spanish work, The Alhambra, the author used his journey to an ancient fortress as the setting for magical legends from the past. The stories portrayed a romanticized view of Spain‟s glorious history and later decline+ Irving thought that Spain could provide Americans with what they felt was missing from life in the United States+ So Irving‟s view of Spain, and the view of others who came after him, combines the reality of Spain with elements left to the imagination. In the 1800s many American artists began traveling to Spain. Mary Cassatt painted women chatting with men in the streets and bullfighters relaxing. Another popular Spanish subject was the Spanish dancer. The same artists who painted dancers were likely influenced by the romantic story of Carmen, a very popular opera. It tells the story of a bold gypsy girl who works at a tobacco factory in Seville. The plot includes various common myths about Spain: love, violence, and an escape from the realities of everyday life. Another Carmen, a Spanish dancer who came to America, was becoming popular in the 1890s. Music including variations of the name Carmen or Carmencita began to appear in all different kinds of songs and dances. The Spanish colonization of land that became part of the continental United States even earlier also contributed to the American attraction to Spain. Areas of Florida, Texas, land to the West had all been originally controlled by the Spanish. Even though Spain no longer controlled these lands by 1900, there were still strong ties to the Spanish people and architecture. There were even sizable Spanishspeaking communities (colonias) and Spanish-language newspapers began opening in New York. States like Florida, Texas and California had many theaters, hotels and homes that were built in the Spanish style. There were even buildings in Georgia that were made to look Spanish, although they did not fit in with other architecture that was made to look English or classical.

Spanish Dancer, the Cigarette, 1904, oil on canvas.

▪ How would most Americans have heard about Spain in the early 1900s?

▪ Do you think there are other cultures or countries today that have a similar influence on American popular culture?

Nearly all of the works in this exhibition—and most of Henri‟s paintings—are portraits. While he may have been inspired by different places it was the people who fascinated him. In Spain Henri painted a number of different „types‟ of people, whose paintings you can see grouped together in the exhibition. Henri was particularly fascinated with people like dancers, bullfighters, or those he would have called „gypsies+‟

Henri and model in his Madrid studio.

Henri selected certain groups of people to paint and depicted them a particular way. A stereotype is something that is assumed to be true about a group of people+ In Henri‟s day, for example, people might have assumed that bullfighters were strong and confident or that ‟gypsies‟ were dirty and uneducated+ While Henri did tend to paint certain ‟types‟ of people, he also painted them in a way that made them look like individuals; some might say he painted people with dignity.

English Language Arts Common Core Georgia Performance Standards RI9. Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably. W7: Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic. SL4: Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience in an organized manner, using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace. Georgia Performance Standards for Fine Arts Education VA4MC.3/VA5MC.3 Selects and uses subject matter, symbols, and/or ideas to communicate meaning.

Engage students in a discussion of stereotypes and making assumptions. (This could begin with a discussion of labels like ‟nerd‟ and how they‟re applied to people+) Referencing the information above, discuss the images on the following page. Have students talk about how these images reinforce certain stereotypes and in what ways they might not. (Think about: dress, posture, expression.) As an extension, have students discuss stereotypes of other places besides Spain. Ask students to think about the concept of „exotic+‟ Have each student (or groups of students) select a place that they know little about. Students can first identify and record their own assumptions about that place (taking care not to be negative). Through independent research students will learn more about the location they have chosen and report what they have found to the class. Ask students what surprised them in their research and what larger lesson they can apply those ideas to.


El Segoviano, 1923, Oil on canvas.

Wild Spanish Gypsy, 1912, Oil on canvas.


Segovia, Spain


“Henri‟s portrayal of these „typically Spanish‟ subjects was rooted in his personal and professional


devotion to representing

subjects, and to expressing the unique personality and fundamental essence of his La Reina Mora, 1906, Oil on canvas.

Portrait of El Matador Felix Asiego, 1906, Oil on canvas.

diverse, authentic

How do these images represent the word that describes them? How do they seem like stereotypes? In what ways are they different than how someone might have expected them to look?


-Holly McCullogh

Very often one of the purposes of art is to tell a story. This can be told with a straightforward narrative scene or in more subtle ways. Portraits often help us understand the people they represent through details, like the clothes they wear, the place they‟re in or their expression+ Henri painted almost exclusively portraits, and most had very simple backgrounds. His focus was not on the setting but on the actual person represented—their character and personality. Henri was very interested in capturing the spirit of the person who was sitting for him+ This essence is best reflected in the person‟s expression, pose and costume (some of which were often added by Henri himself in the studio).

English Language Arts Common Core Georgia Performance Standards ELACC4W3/ELACC5W3: Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences. Georgia Performance Standards for Fine Arts Education VA4MC.2/VA5MC.2 Formulates personal responses to visual imagery VA4CU.2/VA5CU.2 Views and discusses selected artworks. VA5C.1 Applies information and processes from other disciplines to enhance the understanding and production of artworks. a. Makes interdisciplinary connections applying art skills, knowledge, and ideas to improve understanding in other disciplines.

It‟s commonly said that a picture is worth a thousand words+ With your students discuss different ways that images can tell stories, perhaps using more traditional examples. Switch now to portraiture. How can images that consist primarily of a person tell a story? Choose an example and have students come up with details that give clues as to the person and their profession, interests or personality+ Highlight aspects such as the person‟s clothes, expression, pose, and gaze. Have students make inferences about the person based on these details. Switch gears now to Robert Henri using the following handout. While Henri typically painted many of the same „types‟ of people, such as dancers or peasants, they are individualized+ Find similarities and differences among the three dancers, noting how Henri has captured their distinct personalities+ If it‟s useful for your students, have them try to mimic the poses and see how they make your students feel. Using any of the five images for inspiration, ask your students to come up with several adjectives that describe the people depicted, ask them to justify their responses with what they see in the painting. From these adjectives, have students develop a narrative. They can begin with a detailed description of the person and from there develop a more complex story. Have students present their work to one another. As an extension, have students describe a painting that another student then draws, based on their description. Have students switch roles.

Segovia, Spain



teaching I hope to inspire you to personal La Madrileñita, 1910, oil on

El Tango, 1908, Oil on

Spanish Dancer Sevillana, 1904,



Oil on canvas.

to present your vision+”

-Robert Henri

Maria y Consuelo, 1906, Oil on canvas.

Spanish Shepherd, 1912, Oil on canvas.

These are all Spanish dancers yet Henri has painted each of them in a very different way. Think of three adjectives that describe each of them.

activity and

Choose one of the people depicted here. Describe him/her in detail. Then make up a story about him/her. Include other characters, create a setting, set a tone.

Henri was not only a talented artist but also a passionate teacher. His years of wisdom were collected in a book called The Art Spirit, which is still used by artists and students even today. In it, he covers various aspects of painting but is particularly impassioned about the brush stroke. At a time when impressionism was coming into fashion and artists were getting more adventurous with their techniques and interpretations of nature, the seemingly unassuming brush stroke was central to these developments.

Georgia Performance Standards for Fine Arts Education VA4PR.2/VA5PR.2 Understands and applies media, techniques, and processes of two-dimensional art processes (drawing, painting, printmaking, mixed-media) using tools and materials in a safe and appropriate manner to develop skills. e. Creates paintings with a variety of media (e.g., tempera, watercolor, acrylic). VA4AR.3 Explains how selected elements and principles of design are used in an artwork to convey meaning and how they affect personal responses to and evaluation of the artwork. a. Uses art terminology with emphasis on the elements of art: space, line, shape, form, color, value, texture. d. Explains how artists use a variety of lines and color values within an artwork to achieve three-dimensional effects (e.g., dimensional line, shading techniques). h. Describes how repeated colors, lines, shapes, forms, or textures can create pattern and show movement in an artwork. j. Uses adjectives to describe texture. VA5AR.3 Explains how selected principles of design are used in an artwork to convey meaning and how they affect personal responses to and evaluation of the artwork. a. Uses art terms with emphasis on the elements of art: line, shape, form, color, space, value, texture. f. Describes how repeated colors, lines, shapes, forms, or textures can show movement in an artwork. h. Identifies the use of light to show texture, shape and form. p. Describes how textures, real or implied, affect an artwork.

Describe some of the results that can be achieved by using different types of brush strokes, with an emphasis on texture. Use other examples, or demonstrate with the portrait of Antonio Baños [on following page], asking students to identify different textures and effects (like light or shadow) they can see in the painting. Looking deeper, ask students to come up with several adjectives that describe each of the four details pulled from the painting. Encourage students to come up with words that convey something about the intended material, like ‟smooth‟, ‟warm‟, or ‟glowing‟+ Cover a number of tables with dark paper. Choose a corresponding adjective (possibly from the students‟ suggestions) for each table+ Divide students up so some are at each table and ask them to experiment with different brush strokes they feel conveys that adjective. Have the groups switch until they have each experimented at each table and have covered the papers. Once the paint has dried have students cut out the paper and assemble it to create a design—perhaps reassembling a copy of Antonio Baños, or a subject of your choosing+

How would you describe these details? Come up with several adjectives to describe what you see in each of the four squares.

Calero (Antonio Baños), 1908, oil on canvas.

▪ ”There are strokes which comprehend a shape+”

▪ ”There is a fine substance to flesh+ „Just any kind‟ of a stroke won‟t render it+”

▪ ”Get the full swing of your body into the stroke+”

▪ ”It is remarkable how many functions one brush can perform+”

In this section you will find resources referred to in earlier materials as well as additional reference materials for you and your students.

Smithsonian Institute: Spanish American War The Smithsonian Museum of American History website provides wonderful resources for educators and students regarding the Spanish American war, including primary sources such as photographs and newspapers.

Library of Congress: The Spanish-American War of 1898, A Spanish View This essay provides a look at the Spanish American War from the Spanish perspective. While the essay is long and the reading level is better suited to teachers, it does provide good background information. A much shorter, adapted version of the text appears in this educator‟s guide+

National Gallery of Art: Robert Henri The National Gallery page here provides a succinct biography of Robert Henri, along with a short bibliography. Elsewhere on the museum‟s website you can find examples of Henri‟s work that are in the collection including sketches, street scenes and portraits.

New Britain Museum of Art: Robert Henri This essay provides an outline of Henri‟s life and career, as well as a lovely image that figures in the Telfair‟s exhibition+ The site also includes a list of other sources.

Metropolitan Museum of Art: The Ashcan School

This thematic essay offers a wonderful introduction to the Ashcan school, of which Henri was an influential member. It helps to contextualize the career of Robert Henri and helps us to better understand the social implications of artistic movements like the Ashcan school. The Met also provides a slideshow of artworks and links to related essays.

The Art Spirit, by Robert Henri id=o_9IRsRNiPcC The Art Spirit is a collection of Henri‟s teachings and words of wisdoms that was recorded by a devoted student of his and published after his death. It remains relevant for artists and teachers today and contains insights about painting and the nature of art.

Basic Acrylic Brush Strokes This blog provides good examples and explanations of different types of brush strokes (particularly for acrylic paint), including techniques like stippling, scumbling and impasto.

Robert Henri This website includes a short biography of Robert Henri as well as an extensive collection of images from his body of work, including several that are featured in the Spanish Sojourns exhibition.

Sullivan Goss, An American Gallery: Robert Henri This gallery website provides a thorough history of Robert Henri‟s life and career as well as an analysis of his work and list of the collections and exhibitions in which his work has appeared+ There‟s also a timeline chronicling the major events in his career.

The Educators Guide will prepare you for tour content, but what about tour procedures? Keep things running smoothly with this list.

Don‟t worry, we will go over these again on your arrival, but it does help if students have heard them from you first. Explore with your eyes, not your hands. Telfair Museums was created in order to share art and knowledge. We take special care of the art in our collections so that it can be shared for a long, long time. Even the gentlest touches can add up to harmful results. Point with your words, not your finger. Even if you know not to touch, if you point too closely to a part of a painting or sculpture, you might accidentally touch it. Instead of pointing, describe what you want to point out using words like “in the center,” “at the bottom,” “next to the corner,” “to the right,” “above,” and “below+” Walk and move carefully. Follow your docent. Take your time, watch where you are going, and hold onto handrails while using the stairs. Listen carefully, raise your hand, speak clearly but quietly. The museum is a place for thinking and learning. The same rules that make learning easier in a classroom are used here too. Eating, drinking, and chewing gum are not allowed. Photography is not allowed.

Our docents are dedicated volunteers. Your prompt notification regarding cancellations or late arrival helps prevent mismanagement of the time they so generously donate. To cancel a tour, please call 912.790.8827 If you will be more than 10 minutes late, or are cancelling the day of the tour, please inform the Telfair Academy museum receptionist at 912.790.8871 or the Jepson Center receptionist at 912.790.8802. Before you enter the museum/get off the bus, divide into groups with an adult in each. When you check in at the admission desk, please provide the number of students and chaperones to the front desk staff and check backpacks, lunches, and jackets. Stay with the group you have been assigned to. Maintain discipline without interrupting the docent. Proximal control works great! Bathroom Breaks: Academy bathrooms are located in the basement level. There is a bathroom on the third floor in the touring area, but its use during tours interferes with student attentiveness. Reserve it for emergency use only. Please let us know about your experience. We are constantly evaluating and improving our programs. Your observations and ideas are a valuable resource. Please share them at 912.790.8827.

Showcasing a selection of everyday treasures from the Huntington Museum of Art‟s Touma Collection, Allure of the Near East features over 70 objects from a broad geographical area including the Middle East, Turkey, Indian sub-continent, North Africa, and Europe and range in date from the 1st through the early 20th centuries. Various media showcase the region, including metalwork, glass, ceramics, arms and armor, scientific instruments, textiles, furniture, books, and manuscripts. These items represent Pre-Roman, Roman, Greek, Islamic, Christian and Jewish civilizations.

Ranging in dates from the 18th to the 20th centuries, the collection includes a large variety of hollow and flat ware, including tea services, trays, coffee pots, epergne, toast rack, candlesticks, cruet set, tea and coffee urns, porringers, sauce boats, and many items included in their original cases, such as a 173-piece flatware service made by Tiffany and Company for the Kress family, which is housed within a custom-made cabinet. Other noteworthy items include a chocolate pot with cover by Samuel Kirk & Son of Baltimore, inscribed “M+ Telfair to S+H+K+”, representing Telfair Museums founder Mary Telfair or her sister Margaret, and Sarah Hull Kollock, all of Savannah; a silver spoon by the famed American patriot and silversmith Paul Revere; and, an early 19th century solid silver epergne made by the English silversmith Matthew Boulton.

The New York Accents exhibition brings together a wide variety of works that demonstrates the Telfair‟s, and Savannah‟s, various connections to New York over the last 200 years. Though the cities seem vastly different they have long shared a love of art and culture, each city housing some of the country‟s oldest major museums+ The story begins with the Telfair family, who often visited and bought decorative arts from New York and other northern hubs. Over the years the relationship grew, with the development of the Telfair‟s Savannah Art Club in the 1920s, attracting New York artists, and with prominent members of the art community like Gari Melchers and Kirk Varnedoe maintaining strong ties to both cities. The artworks collected here convey an aspect of the special connection these two historic cities share.

As an educator, you are eligible for a special membership rate. Our $35 Educator‟s Membership entitles you to all of the following: Unlimited free admission to the Telfair Museums three sites [Telfair Academy, Jepson Center for the Arts, and Owens Thomas House] 

Invitations to special members-only events and lectures

Discounted art classes

10* discount at the Telfair Museums‟ stores

Eligibility to join museum member groups

A one-time use guest pass

Telfair Museums extends its thanks to the organizations supporting Spanish Sojourns to make the exhibition and educational programming possible.