techcentury A PUBLICATION OF THE ENGINEERING SOCIETY OF DETROIT
V.22 | N.1 SPRING 2017
Detroit Engineers TALK ABOUT YESTERDAY, TODAY AND TOMORROW
Baker College’s New High-Tech Engineering Facility 14
A Look at the Evolution of Patents
Engineering’s Grand Challenges of the 21st Century 27
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The team from St. Valentine Catholic School in Redford presents during the final round of the Michigan Future City Competition. See page 10.
techcentury A PUBLICATION OF THE ENGINEERING SOCIETY OF DETROIT
3 PUBLICATION NOTES 4 PRESIDENT’S MESSAGE 5 UPCOMING EVENTS & DEADLINES 8 NEW CORPORATE MEMBER PROFILES 9 IN MEMORIAM 10 OUTREACH: FUTURE CITY 12 MONEY: TONY LOTT 38 DONORS: THANK YOU! 39 MEMBERS IN THE NEWS 40 ESD CORPORATE MEMBERS
14 Baker’s High-Tech Engineering Facility Focuses on Manufacturing, Space For High School Programs 18 In Their Words: Detroit’s Engineers Talk about Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow 24 From Copper Mines to Creative Arts: Michigan Tech Chisels Out Reputation as Top Tech School BY MARK WILCOX
27 Patent Pending: Creativity as the Mother of Invention—A Look at the Evolution of Patents BY MICHAEL STEWART
30 Ethics In Engineering COVER: ESD Members profiled in this issue. Front, from left: Frenae Smith; Dr. Richard Marburger; Shani Allison; Nancy Faught. Back, from left: Kirk T. Steudle; Steve DiBerardine; and Edward C. Levy, Jr., with ESD Executive Director Robert Magee. Page 16.
BY WILLIAM MOYLAN
32 Grand Challenges of Engineering in the 21st Century—Problems and Potential Solutions, Part One: Water
BY GARY KULECK, ALEXA RIHANA-ABDALLAH, AND UTPAL DUTTA
36 Make Room for Old-School in Modern Business Communication BY JENNY TATSAK
www.esd.org | The Engineering Society of Detroit | 1
to Succeed University of Detroit Mercyâ€™s College of Engineering & Science offers flexible Professional and Graduate programs that prepare engineers to become industry leaders and executives in Fortune 500 companies. Working professionals can obtain a respected, high-caliber education that is conveniently offered and within your companyâ€™s tuition reimbursement plan. Advance your career with one of our Professional or Graduate programs: Advanced Electrical Vehicles (AEV), Master of Science in Technical Management, Master of Science in Product Development (MPD) and Six Sigma Certification.
Tech Century_DetMercy 022017.indd 1
College of Engineering & Science 4001 W. McNichols Road Detroit, MI 48221-3038 firstname.lastname@example.org 800-635-5020 udmercy.edu/engineering
2/6/17 4:21 PM
techcentury V.22 I N.1 SPRING 2017 20700 Civic Center Drive, Suite 450 • Southfield, MI 48076 248–353–0735 • 248–353–0736 fax • email@example.com • www.esd.org
TechCentury Editorial Board
CHAIR: Gary Kuleck, University of Detroit Mercy Jason Cerbin, Honeywell Energy Services Group Sandra Diorka, Delhi Charter Township Thomas M. Doran, PE, FESD, Hubbell, Roth & Clark, Inc. (Retired) Utpal Dutta, PhD, University of Detroit Mercy William A. Moylan, PhD, PMP, FESD, Eastern Michigan University John G. Petty, FESD, General Dynamics (Retired) Dan Romanchik Matt Roush, Lawrence Technological University Larry Sak, Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Michael Stewart, Fishman Stewart Intellectual Property Filza H. Walters, Lawrence Technological University Cyrill Weems, Plante Moran CRESA Anne Williams, Baker College Yang Zhao, PhD, Wayne State University
ESD Board of Directors
PRESIDENT: Douglas E. Patton, FESD, DENSO International America, Inc. VICE PRESIDENT: Daniel E. Nicholson, General Motors Company TREASURER: Steven E. Kurmas, PE, FESD, DTE Energy SECRETARY: Robert Magee, The Engineering Society of Detroit IMM. PAST PRESIDENT: Kouhaila G. Hammer, CPA, Ghafari Associates, LLC MEMBERS AT LARGE: Larry Alexander, Detroit Metro Convention and Visitors Bureau
Katherine M. Banicki, FESD, Testing Engineers and Consultants Michael D. Bolon, FESD, General Dynamics Land Systems (Retired) Patrick J. Devlin, Michigan Building Trades Council Robert A. Ficano, JD, Wayne County Community College District Farshad Fotouhi, PhD, Wayne State University Alec D. Gallimore, PhD, University of Michigan Lori Gatmaitan, SAE Foundation Malik Goodwin, Goodwin Management Group, LLC Marc Hudson, Rocket Fiber Alex F. Ivanikiw, AIA, LEED AP, Barton Malow Company Ali Jammoul, Ford Motor Company Leo C. Kempel, PhD, Michigan State University Scott Penrod, Walbridge Bill Rotramel, AVL Powertrain Engineering, Inc. Kirk T. Steudle, PE, FESD, Michigan Department of Transportation William J. Vander Roest, PE, ZF TRW Lewis N. Walker, PhD, PE, FESD, Madonna University Terry J. Woychowski, FESD, Link Engineering Company
PUBLISHER: Robert Magee, Executive Director CREATIVE DIRECTOR: Nick Mason, Director of Operations EDITOR: Susan Thwing GRAPHIC DESIGNER: Keith Cabrera-Nguyen
Technology Century (ISSN 1091-4153 USPS 155-460) , also known as TechCentury, is published four times per year by The Engineering Society of Detroit (ESD), 20700 Civic Center Drive, Suite 450, Southfield, MI 48076. Periodical postage paid at Southfield, MI, and at additional mailing offices. The authors, editors, and publisher will not accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made in this publication. The publisher makes no warranty, expressed or implied, with respect to the material contained herein. Advertisements in TechCentury for products, services, courses, and symposia are published with a caveat emptor (buyer beware) understanding. The authors, editors, and publisher do not imply endorsement of products, nor quality, validity or approval of the educational material offered by such advertisements. Subscriptions to TechCentury are available to nonmembers for $25 per year. ©2017 The Engineering Society of Detroit
NOTES Gary Kuleck, PhD Dean, College of Engineering and Science at University of Detroit Mercy. Greetings to all ESD members and readers of TechCentury. I am delighted to serve as the new Chair of the Editorial Board of TechCentury and hope to build on the track record of the magazine as one that deals with pressing and cutting-edge issues revolving around engineering and its applications in Michigan. The current outstanding publication is due to the contributions of the peerless ESD staff, the distinguished members of the Editorial Board and Board of Directors, and to the leadership of Tom Doran and the previous chairs of this board. I can only hope to tread their successful path. As a newcomer to Michigan (2012), I relish its engineering prowess, boasting the second highest concentration of engineers in the U.S. I grew up on the East Coast and spent my early career on the West Coast before migrating to Detroit to become Dean at the University of Detroit Mercy. The rich tradition of engineering excellence, technological and scientific advancement that characterizes Michigan will continue to be a focus of TechCentury. That includes exploring the Grand Challenges for Engineering in the 21st Century. We will highlight one in each issue by providing the global, national and local issues that need to be confronted. In this issue, we focus on “Providing Access to Clean Water” by focusing on the major obstacles and the potential solutions to this challenge. We hope to encourage and inspire current and future engineers, working with their counterparts in other disciplines, to address these barriers. ESD and TechCentury will continue to be at the vanguard of engineering leadership necessary for success.
www.esd.org | The Engineering Society of Detroit | 3
ESD PRESIDENT MESSAGE
CHANGE IS AT HAND
Engineering is entering an exciting time!
hat an exciting time to be an engineer. Almost every segment of the industry is seeing growth, development and transition. We are seeing new fields, new types of careers and tremendous opportunity. This is the biggest time of change we have seen in decades—especially in the auto industry—take a look at some of the other new opportunities: Software engineers—This is a field no longer for just game designers, PC programmers or main frame developers. Now many opportunities in transportation, aerospace, medical/healthcare and construction are emerging. In the automotive industry, autonomous drive, artificial intelligence, infotainment or instrument clusters are key areas to watch. Cyber security—Engineers in this field are a growing breed. Currently the demand is high and the supply is very limited. Manufacturing—With the development of 3D printing and the Internet of Things (IoT), many, many new opportunities exist. Mechanical—A big change is coming in the evolution of mechanical systems (controlled by hardware) to electrical mechanical systems (controlled by software). This offers flexibility to add features and more easily improve operations, but it also adds security risks. Mechanical experts are needed for this integration. Big data analysis—With technological growth comes information. A lot of it. A lot of data. We will need people with the know-how to analyze data, both from a business standpoint (what does the data mean to our services?) and from an engineering standpoint (how do we correlate, analyze and extract relationships in the data?) What’s next on the horizon? It seems the sky is the limit! It’s an exciting time for engineers. Let’s make sure we stay involved and informed to make the most of new developments and the entrepreneurial spirit embracing our industry today.
Douglas Patton, FESD President, The Engineering Society of Detroit Executive Vice President & CTO, DENSO International America, Inc.
4 | TechCentury | SPRING 2017
ESD UPCOMING EVENTS Engineering + Technology
TailoredJOB eventFAIR specifically for engineering and technology professionals.
Monday | May 1 | 2pm - 7pm
2017 Energy Efficiency Conference and Exhibition
Engineering & Technology Job Fair Suburban Collection Showplace MAY 1, 2017
46100 Grand River Avenue, Novi, MI 48374
EMPLOYERS: Meet Prime Engineering and Technology Move Your Career Forward Candidates Hundreds of Opportunities;
ExhibitMichigan space is available for Major Companies
those looking to hire. ESD job fairs you’re regularly draw hundreds of Whether a seasoned professional, a recent graduate or an in-between jobcollege seeker, you’ll professionals andcareers recent find your next position at The for Engineering Society graduates looking full and of Detroit’s (ESD) positions, Engineering and Technology Job part-time internships and Fair. The ESD job fair is your best opportunity to: co-op opportunities. your career or start a new one • GrowThe job fair will take place at the Learn about job openings in your field • Suburban Collection Showplace in Meet employers looking to hire—with possible • Novi from 2:00–7:00 p.m. on-the-spot interviews
MAY 9, 2017 JOB SEEKERS: Move Your Known for being the premier recruitment event, Career Forward; Hundreds ofthe In its 20th year and hosted job fair will feature more than 40 of Michigan’s top Opportunities engineering, technology and management companies by DTE Energy and ESD, this
Whether a seasoned hiring for fullyou’re and part-time positions, internships and professional, a Past recent graduate co-op opportunities. companies have included: or an in-between careers Daifuku/Jervis B. Webb Co., DENSO,job DTE Energy, Ford, Huf North you’ll America,find Hyundai, Linknext Engineering, Magna seeker, your and Michigan of Transportation. position atDepartment ESD’s Engineering & Technology Job Fair. Known for Cost to being theAttend premier recruitment ESD Members: Free event, ESD’s job fair is your best Non ESD members: $15 if registered before April 21, opportunity to meet one-on-one 2017; $20 if registered after April 21, 2017 with representatives from leadingto ESD. Registration includes a one-year membership engineering and (Offer good for new firsttechnology time members only.) companies.
conference, the only one of its kind in Michigan, is designed to educate small-to-large commercial and industrial businesses on energy technology, products, and services that will assist them in successful energy management. This year’s conference will feature:
Luncheon featuring a panel presentation focusing on • leading engineering and technology companies Michigan-made LED lighting Added Bonus Educational tracks—technology, Job seekers are encouraged their resumes Costtotoenter attend: industrial, commercial and into the ESD Job Bank, FREE jobs.esd.org, free of charge. for ESD financial—offering informative Recognized as the premier recruitment resource for members; $15 for 30-minute presentations the industry, the job bank provides confidential non-members if Dozens of exhibitors offering resume posting and is easy to use. registered by energy-related products and April 21, 2017; $20 services For more information or to register, visit www.esd.org. thereafter. Major awards recognizing energy More details can efficiency initiatives be found at A ride-and-drive featuring a fleet www.esd.org. of new vehicles, as well as energy efficient vehicles The conference will take place at the Suburban Collection Showplace in Novi. For more information or to register online, visit www.esd.org Some ESD programs, conferences, classes and or call 248-353-0735 to register tours may qualify for continuing education hours or by phone. Visit one-on-one with representatives from
professional development hours—check with your licensing agency for more information. ESD will provide certificates of attendance to participants upon request.
Interested in sponsoring or exhibiting? Please contact Leslie Smith, CMP, at firstname.lastname@example.org or 248-353-0735, ext. 152. www.esd.org | The Engineering Society of Detroit | 5
ESD UPCOMING EVENTS PE Continuing Education Classes AUGUST 15–OCTOBER 24, 2017
ESD’S MICHIGAN PE LICENSE REVIEW COURSES ALL CLASSES ARE HELD AT ESD HEADQUARTERS IN SOUTHFIELD
Let us help prepare you to pass the exam on your first try. Learn in a small classroom-like setting from expert instructors.
Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) Review Course AUGUST 15–OCTOBER 24, 2017
For candidates planning to take the CBT exam, classes are held Tuesdays and Thursdays, 6-9 p.m., with additional Saturday classes for Civil and Mechanical. The Saturday sessions start on August 26, 2017 (schedule will be provided to registrants).
Principles & Practice of Engineering (PE) Review Course SATURDAYS, AUGUST 26–OCTOBER 7, 2017
This Course consists of 24 hours of instruction, on six half-day Saturday sessions, focusing on problem solving techniques needed for the exam. The civil course meets 8:30 a.m.–12:30 p.m. Mechanical, environmental and electrical courses meet 1–5 p.m. The state exam is October 27, 2017. For details or to register for the review, visit www.esd.org or contact Fran Mahoney at 248-353-0735, ext. 116, or email@example.com.
FE/PE Information Session MAY 22, 2017
ESD is hosting a complimentary information session on earning your PE License. Engineering professionals will be on hand to answer your questions. The session will cover: û Why you should consider becoming a PE û State exam registration deadlines û Requirements and process for completing the State applications û Recommended study materials and steps for preparing for the exams û ESD’s Review Courses for FE and PE û Real-life experiences of PE’s who have taken the exam and passed The Session will be held from 6:30-8:30 p.m. at ESD Headquarters in Southfield. It is complimentary, but preregistration is required. For more details or to register, visit www.esd.org or contact Elana Shelef at firstname.lastname@example.org or 248-353-0735, ext. 119.
6 | TechCentury | SPRING 2017
ESD provides professional engineers in Michigan with opportunities to meet continuing education requirements. Current PEs can take ESD review course classes on an à la carte basis to satisfy state requirements. Over 50 different courses are available to choose from. The instructor-led, three and four-hour courses are taught by academic and industry professionals. All courses are held in the evening on Tuesdays and Thursdays and in the morning and afternoon on Saturdays at ESD Headquarters in Southfield. For more information or to register, visit www.esd.org or contact Elana Shelef at email@example.com or 248-353-0735, ext. 119.
Learning and Career Enhancement TWO-HOUR CONTINUING EDUCATION COURSES
APRIL 24: FUNDAMENTALS OF MASS REDUCTION / LIGHT WEIGHTING TECHNIQUES MAY 8: THE ZILWAUKEE BRIDGE: FROM THE BEGINNING TO THE PRESENT MAY 15: SYSTEM MODELING: RIGOR FOR MEDICAL, CONSTRUCTION AND OTHER ENGINEERING ACTIVITIES JUNE 5: WATER MANAGEMENT PLANS
These courses will be held from 6:30–8:30 p.m. at ESD Headquarters in Southfield. The cost for ESD members is $50 per class; Non-member cost is $75 per class. For more information or to register, visit www.esd.org or contact Elana Shelef at firstname.lastname@example.org or 248-353-0735, ext. 119.
ESD UPCOMING EVENTS
DTE Energy Fermi 2 Simulator Tour FRIDAY, APRIL 21, 2017
University of Michigan Battery Fabrication Lab Tour FRIDAY, APRIL 28, 2017
Southeast Michigan Transportation Operations Center Tour FRIDAY, MAY 19, 2017
The tour cost is $25 for ESD Members; non-members can join ESD for $99 and attend the tour free. (This offer is for new, first-time members only.) For more information or to register online, visit www.esd.org, or call 248-353-0735, ext. 222 to register by phone.
SAVE THE DATE
ESD Annual Dinner featuring the ESD Construction & Design Awards and the ESD Leadership Awards
2017 Ground Vehicle Systems Engineering and Technology & Advanced Planning Briefing for Industry
Celebrate with us at our most anticipated event of the year, ESD’s Annual Dinner. This event brings out the best, brightest, and most diverse group of engineering, design and construction professionals in Southeast Michigan. Check our website for date and location. Cost to attend: $150 ESD members; $175 non-members; $1,350 table of ten. To register, visit www.esd.org or call 248-353-0735. For sponsorship information, contact Elana Shelef at 248-353-0735, ext. 119, or email@example.com.
North American International Cyber Summit 2017, Hosted by Governor Rick Snyder
AUGUST 8–10, 2017
OCTOBER 30, 2017
OCTOBER 3O COBO CENTER
DETROIT • MI
ESD 6th Annual Golf Outing: A Day ofExpertsFun and from across the globe Best Practices Networking in Support of Engineering Emerging Trends MONDAY, JUNE 5, 2017
BY ESD’s golf outing is held in memory of David A.HOSTED Skiven, PE, in honor of his MICHIGAN GOVERNOR RICK SNYDER deep commitment to ESD and its mission. Golfers—register early as this popular event sold out last year. Don’t miss a day of fun and networking www.michigan.gov/cybersecurity while supporting this generation of engineers and fostering the next! Registration cost: $250 individuals; $165 senior individuals; $900 foursome; $85 dinner only. The golf outing will take place at Oak Pointe Country Club in Brighton. For more information and to register, visit www.esd.org or contact Mary Sheridan at firstname.lastname@example.org or 248-353-0735, ext. 222.
www.esd.org | The Engineering Society of Detroit | 7
NEW CORPORATE MEMBER PROFILES
It’s safe to say that WSP | Parsons Brinckerhoff knows Detroit, and Michigan. With a combined 130-year history—102 of that in Detroit—the international company offers expertise in areas including the environment, mining, oil and gas, power and energy, project and program delivery and strategic consulting. The company now employees about 100 people in Michigan, 70 of which are in Detroit. In the United States, the firm’s origins date back to 1885, when William Barclay Parsons founded the company that would become Parsons Brinckerhoff in New York City. Early projects included the design of the original New York City
subway system and the Cape Cod Canal. Coming to Detroit in 1915, the firm created and developed much of the city’s transit plan, including some streetcar work, according to Edwin Tatem, PE, vice president, Central Region Construction Services manager and Chairman of Parsons Brinckerhoff Michigan, Inc. “In 1929, we designed and planned the Detroit-Windsor tunnel and began a relationship with the city that was eventually incorporated in 1978,” he says. Now well into the 21st century, Tatem says global sustainability is a key factor to the continued success of Parsons Brinkerhoff. “We must evolve to meet the needs of the current climate,” he says. “Today the hot topics are connected/autonomous vehicles. We believe that 2017 will mark a
new beginning for connected and automated vehicles and want to be at the forefront of that technology industry. The coming years will be transformational, with more technological advancement in the transport industry.” In the meantime, local projects include serving as owner’s representative for metro-Detroit segments of the I-75 repairs and construction, including the creation of Michigan’s first HOV lane. The lanes, which are restricted to vehicles with at least two people during peak traffic hours, work with traffic to ease congestion and provide a safer operation. “We are working with MDOT to create safe infrastructure for both the current transportation methods, and the vehicles of the future,” says Tatem. For more information about WSP | Parsons Brinckerhoff, please visit www.wsp-pb.com.
Big, better, faster—that’s what you get with Rocket Fiber, a Detroit-based internet service provider dedicated to bringing affordable gigabit internet and an industry-leading, personalized client experience to residents and businesses in Detroit. Founded in 2014 as part of the Rock Ventures and Quicken Loans Family of Companies, the venture began when Marc Hudson and his then co-workers at Quicken Loans and Bedrock, Randy Foster and Edi Demaj, approached boss
Dan Gilbert with the idea via the company’s “Cheese Factory” suggestion box. Now, Rocket Fiber’s newly-built fiber backbone is designed to transform the way Rocket Fiber clients create, collaborate and communicate. That includes high speed Internet—up to 10 Gigabit— that Rocket Fiber has laid more than 30 miles of fiber to support. Marc Hudson, CEO and co-founder of Rocket Fiber, says, “With super-fast broadband nearly 100 times faster than the current residential average, we are poised to provide a unique service. Our 10-gig home internet speed is tied for the fastest in the country, and is the fastest in Detroit.”
But customers are the focus: “We are looking to offer our customers the white glove satisfaction and you’ll see from our Facebook ratings and feedback that we are already achieving that goal.” Two years into the endeavor, Hudson also says the company is planning to expand into the greater downtown area as well as develop and offer a cutting-edge television product to consumers. Business includes more than 100 residential and commercial buildings online in the Downtown, Midtown, Brush Park and New Center neighborhoods in the city. The company employs 53 people and is looking to expand there as well. For more, visit rocketfiber.com.
8 | TechCentury | SPRING 2017
System Strategy, Inc. (SSI), founded in 2014, is a private, minority-owned firm headquartered in Metro Detroit that is on the cutting edge of systems engineering. Vice President Troy Peterson says its uniqueness lies in the company’s expertise in digital transformation and implementing model based engineering methods to reduce risk and development time. “We partner with clients to help develop solutions for complex systems challenges. Our clients include small to large Fortune 500 businesses as well as the government,” he says. Peterson explains that in today’s world, the explosive growth of cyber-physical systems has rapidly increased the need for model based engineering
methods. “These modern systems seamlessly intertwine computational algorithms and physical components which provides organizations both tremendous opportunity and extremely complex safety, security, and performance risks.” Model based engineering methods address the limitations of document-based approaches, minimize risk and uncover previously unseen design opportunities. “The problem is that traditional methods do not appropriately address the complexity these new intelligent, interconnected systems produce. We are heavily involved in helping our clients advance their model based engineering capability. In this new era of hyper-connectivity and system-
of-systems complexity, traditional system boundaries fade and this approach to engineering is essential,” he says. SSI is currently focused in two main areas: within the defense sector and the automotive industry, including helping with the development of autonomous vehicle architectures. Internationally, the firm is supporting the effort to transform systems engineering to a model based discipline. “I believe the Detroit region has the know-how, culture, and the talent to lead the digital transformation of systems engineering and I’m excited to be a part of making it happen,” Peterson says. For more information on SSI, please visit www.systemxi.com.
IN MEMORIAM With deepest gratitude for their lifetime of service and support, The Engineering Society of Detroit acknowledges the passing of these members.
Dan Dwyer, Sr.
Retired/Michigan Plant & Process Equipment Co./Aircentric Corp. Member since 2012
Dr. Jack E. Thompson
Retired/Director CAE & Concept Development, Chrysler Corp. Member since 1985
Harry A. Lomason, II
Retired/President & CEO, Douglas & Lomason Co. and President, Magna Lomason, Inc. Member since 1965
www.esd.org | The Engineering Society of Detroit | 9
FUTURE CITY HELPS FUTURE ENGINEERS
‘THINK OUTSIDE THE BOX’
hinking outside the box—that’s what teacher Meghan Ciechanowski says was the key to her 8th grade students at St. Valentine Catholic School in Redford Township taking first place at the 2017 Michigan Regional Future City Competition. The event is hosted and managed by The Engineering Society of Detroit. “I am most impressed with the creativity of the students’ thinking every year. They have the ability to ‘think outside the box’ and are excited to invent innovative solutions that do not exist in today’s world. Their excitement for the project is such a positive thing to see
10 | TechCentury | SPRING 2017
in a junior high classroom,” she says. The day-long event was held at the Suburban Collection Showplace in Novi on January 23, 2017. St. Valentine was one of more than 30 competing teams to participate in the event. Future City is a cross-curricular educational program where students in 6th, 7th and 8th grades imagine, design, and build cities of the future. Over four months, students work as a team with an educator and volunteer mentor to design a virtual city using SimCity software; research and write an essay addressing this year’s theme; build a model of their city using
Ciechanowski says. “Students also learn about the engineering field and how to think and act like engineers by becoming problemsolvers and designing plausible solutions. It is a very memorable experience for the 8th graders, and they are very proud when the project is completed.” Her students agreed. Eighth grader and team participant, Joe McComb, says “I really liked the teamwork aspect of the project. I liked learning during the building process. I got to do things I normally wouldn’t get to do like soldering. I also enjoyed researching new ideas recycled materials; complete a project plan, and present their city before a panel of judges at a Regional Competition in January. The year’s theme was The Power of Public Space. Students were charged with looking at and researching the best, most effective way to use public space, including parks, plazas and walkways—both indoors and outdoors. Students were able to look at sites such as abandoned buildings, old railway lines, waterways (rivers, lakes, ponds), former industrial areas, and the streets and sidewalks, to create a plan for the best spaces. Ciechanowski says the Future City program is important for many reasons. “I feel students develop skills in public speaking, mathematics and science, technology, and collaboration,’ she says “They learn how to set goals, make a plan, and execute it over a long period of time. Students gain teamwork experience as they research ideas, discuss them, and debate about which ideas are the best to include in the final project.” She adds that students also strengthen their researching skills, practice citing sources, and engage in the writing process. “They enjoy hands-on learning by learning how to build a model to scale and how to create a circuit,”
Six-time defending state champion and 2014 and 2015 national champion St. John Lutheran School of Rochester finished second. Third place went to Grand Blanc West Middle School, fourth place to Trinity Lutheran School of Utica and fifth place to Sarah Banks Middle School Team 2, Wixom.
and putting them into play for our presentation…Teamwork is key. Life isn’t always about winning because you won’t always win. What is important is working together.” Faith Emmerling, his teammate, enjoyed participating “because it was cool seeing all of the different schools competing and seeing what a great job each team did with creating their cities. I gained a lot of knowledge about engineers and what they do. I also learned how to better work with my classmates.” That feeling is echoed by Frankie Nelson-Pawlik, “It brought our class closer together and helped prepare us if we want to be an engineer. It was also really fun.” www.esd.org | The Engineering Society of Detroit | 11
A Influx of Profit on Investments? CONSIDER CHARITABLE REMAINDER TRUSTS By Tony Lott
12 | TechCentury | SPRING 12 | TechCentury | SPRING2017 2017
lthough markets can be quite volatile in the short term, buy-and-hold investors often have substantially appreciated assets in their portfolios as a result of the long-term prevailing upward trend in market values. This can present investors with a dilemma: If you sell your highly appreciated assets, you may trigger a large tax bill, leaving you with less money to reinvest, pass along to family members or donate to a favorite charity. But if you simply hold your investments, you may be incurring more risk than is prudent. That is especially true for corporate executives and business owners, whose wealth is often concentrated in one company and whose fortunes are therefore determined almost entirely by the financial health of that company. Other investors, such as retirees, often find that their current mix of investments does not generate sufficient cash flow to help fund their retirement. A charitable remainder trust (CRT) may serve as an effective solution to these and other key problems facing many affluent families. CRTs may allow investors to diversify out of highly appreciated stocks held long term or other appropriate investments, potentially reduce income and estate taxes, help supplement retirement cash flow and make a significant impact on a favorite cause. A CRT is an irrevocable, tax-exempt trust that typically receives highly appreciated assets, which the trustee often sells, re-deploying the proceeds. The trust makes periodic distributions for you or a beneficiary such as your spouse or child. When that distribution stream ends—either due to the death of the beneficiary or the end of a fixed term not to exceed 20 years—the remaining trust principal passes to one or more charitable organizations specified in the trust agreement. In short, a CRT may supplement
your cash flow at present and provide a potentially substantial philanthropic gift down the road. Therefore, having charitable inclinations is a key requirement for optimum use of a CRT. The multifaceted structure of CRTs may provide tremendous financial, estate planning and philanthropic advantages for investors with highly appreciated assets held for over one year. For example, CRTs may allow you to: Defer capital gains taxes. By donating your assets to a CRT (a tax-exempt entity) and allowing the trust to then sell those assets, you will not incur capital gains taxes at the time the donated assets are sold. While the CRT is tax-exempt, the periodic distributions carry out the trust’s income and/or capital gains to the beneficiary, who will be taxed on it. There is a four-tier tax structure governing the taxation of CRT distributions, with the most disadvantageous classes of income deemed to be distributed first. Generate annual cash flow. The trust is required to provide an annual distribution stream to you or your beneficiary. (Consult with your tax advisor on the gift-tax implications of providing such a distribution stream to a beneficiary other than yourself.) You may design the trust to make distributions over your lifetime, the combined lifetime of you and another person you designate (such as a spouse), or for a period not to exceed 20 years. That makes CRTs attractive to retirees as well as affluent investors who, for a variety of reasons, might lack steady cash flow each year. Lower your income tax bill. By donating assets to a CRT during your lifetime, you are eligible for a charitable income tax deduction in the year you make the contribution, subject
to adjusted gross income (AGI) limitations (though any excess over the AGI limit may be carried forward for up to five years if necessary). The amount of the deduction will depend on several factors, including the type of assets contributed, your life expectancy, the term of the trust and the type of charity you select. Since many donors retain the ability to change charities as beneficiaries, the issue is whether the CRT permits the naming of certain charitable organizations—such as private foundations as opposed to public charities—as beneficiaries. The deduction for a contribution of long-term appreciated property to a CRT with a public charity as the remainder beneficiary is typically limited to 30 percent of your AGI, whereas if the remainder beneficiary is a private foundation, the deduction is typically limited to 20 percent of your AGI. Reduce your taxable estate. By donating assets to a CRT, you may effectively remove from your estate both the assets and any future appreciation on them, potentially lowering your eventual estate tax bill. However, the unconsumed portion of the annual payments you received will, of course, augment your estate. Achieve broader diversification. Investors whose wealth is highly concentrated in a single stock or other asset may use a CRT to build a more diversified portfolio and reduce company-specific risk in their portfolios—without triggering immediate capital gains taxes—since the trustee can sell the stock or other asset and uses the proceeds to invest in a broader range of asset classes, sectors and investment styles. (Keep in mind that part or all of the beneficiary’s annual distribution might be taxed as capital gain under the rules addressed further below.)
Support a favorite cause. A CRT provides that a portion of your assets placed in the trust will benefit a charity or charities of your choice - including Donor Advised Funds. (The value of the charitable remainder must be at least 10% of the initial fair market value of all assets contributed to the CRT.) Donors may be inclined to give more through CRTs because those assets will be benefiting themselves and/or their families as well.
...having charitable inclinations is a key requirement for optimum use of a CRT. Anthony R. Lott, CFP, CIMA, CRPC, is Vice PresidentInvestments at UBS Financial Services Inc.
www.esd.org | The Engineering Society of Detroit | 13
The new engineering building on Baker College’s Jackson campus is officially open and providing a state-of-the-art learning environment for students preparing for careers in manufacturing.
Educating the Workforce of Tomorrow Baker’s High-Tech Engineering Facility Focuses on Manufacturing; Space for High School Programs
aker College’s Jackson campus recently opened a new, standalone engineering building that provides a state-of-the-art learning environment for students preparing for careers in manufacturing. The technology-rich, 14,266-ft² facility includes classroom/ labs and a lab/shop floor. “This engineering building provides an exceptional place to teach and learn,” says Steve Simpson, EdD, Baker College of Jackson president. “It embodies our commitment to training and educating workers to support manufacturers throughout southern Michigan, particularly in the Jackson-area’s robust manufacturing market.” 14 | TechCentury | SPRING 2017
Poised to cut the ribbon for Baker College’s new engineering building are, from left, state Rep. Earl Poleski and from Baker College: Jack Bunce, chair of the Jackson campus board of regents; Anca Sala, dean of the College of Engineering; Sanjib Chakraborty, Jackson campus engineering program director; and Steve Simpson, Jackson campus president.
At the official opening of Baker College’s new engineering building, Jackson campus President Steve Simpson explains that the building is part of an initiative to support area manufacturers with a highly educated workforce.
It isn’t just for Baker College students. Simpson says it’s important to expose younger students to learning opportunities in manufacturing, so the campus is pursuing partnerships with high schools and technical centers for use of the facility. In addition to the 8,000-ft² lab/shop floor, there is equipment in every classroom, making every classroom a lab. “This connects theory with practical application on a daily basis,” Simpson says. Anca Sala, PhD, dean of the College of Engineering at Baker College, says the high-tech environment provides hands-on learning opportunities that are essential to success on the job. “Technology has evolved,” she says. “We now have access to powerful computers and design and simulation programs with great
detail capabilities. Companies have adopted these tools so providing them to students is essential to hitting the ground running at their first job. “Having a wide range of equipment and software programs also helps prepare students for diverse engineering applications in new as well as rapidly growing areas, such as autonomous cars, advanced manufacturing and civil infrastructure.” Classroom labs offer equipment for the study of materials science, physics, statics/solid mechanics, fluid dynamics, heat transfer, computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing. The manufacturing lab includes computer numerical control (CNC) and manual lathes and mills, Haas CNC control simulators, belt sanders, grinders, saws, MIG (metal inert gas) and TIG
Poised to cut the ribbon for Baker College’s new engineering building are, from left, state Rep. Earl Poleski and from Baker College: Jack Bunce, chair of the Jackson campus board of regents; Anca Sala, dean of the College of Engineering; Sanjib Chakraborty, Jackson campus engineering program director; and Steve Simpson, Jackson campus president.
(tungsten inert gas) welders. Color 3-D printers and other equipment are available to test and prove product design. Sala says engineering students are enthusiastic about the hands-on experience. “They know the experience garnered in our labs and through internships prepares them to succeed. It helps them develop confidence they are in the right field and will be able to quickly contribute to the success of their future employer.” The new building supports developing students’ teamwork skills, too. There’s space to work collaboratively on designing, building and testing products. Programs focused on design and manufacturing include a bachelor’s degree in mechanical engineering, associate degrees in mechanical technology, advanced manufacturing technology and
State Rep. Earl Poleski makes comments at the official opening of Baker College’s new engineering building in front of the 8,000-ft² lab/shop floor designed to prepare students for careers in manufacturing.
www.esd.org | The Engineering Society of Detroit | 15
Baker College Dean of the College of Engineering Anca Sala says that the new engineering building is the result of studying the Jackson-area manufacturing industry and identifying the need for more engineers with bachelor’s degrees.
“There is equipment in every classroom, making every classroom a lab,” says Engineering Program Director Sanjib Chakraborty. “This connects theory with practical application on a daily basis.”
and manufacturing. Industrial and mechanical engineers were ranked third and fourth, respectively, as the most-needed job groups in the state. In the Jackson area, the research showed stability and growth in electrical and industrial engineering. Nine of the region’s top 20 employers are focused on manufacturing and engineering. AE Designs Solutions LLC was the architect; Cunningham Construction Co. was the general contractor. Both are headquartered in Jackson and members of the Jackson Commercial Contractors Association. Many subcontractors are also association members.
These color 3-D printers are ready for student experimentation.
computer aided design, and a CNC machinist certificate. Simpson expects to add bachelor’s degrees in industrial and electrical engineering soon. Both are offered at Baker College’s Flint campus. Sala notes that Baker College engineering students are in high demand. “Typically, our students earning bachelor’s degrees in engineering all have jobs in the field at or shortly after graduation.” Student Brittany Marquart, of Reading, is working toward a bachelor’s degree in mechanical engineering. The recipient of the 2015 scholarship from the Jackson Chapter of the Michigan Society of 16 | TechCentury | SPRING 2017
Professional Engineers (MSPE), she believes the new facility’s offerings are good for students. “Working with machines and testing equipment that are used by a possible employer should be viewed positively,” says Marquart. “And, by having the equipment so accessible, I can become familiar with how a machine operates, for example. The process isn’t just conceptual. It’s real world.” The building was proposed following an extensive statewide market scan conducted for Baker College that showed five of the top 20 careers noted for growth and stability were in engineering
As a second-year student, Baker College engineering student Brittany Marquart was the recipient of the annual scholarship from the Jackson Chapter of the Michigan Society of Professional Engineers. Shown is Richard Cottrell, then MSPE chapter scholarship chair, at the presentation during the organization’s annual President’s Night dinner.
HOSTED BY DTE ENERGY AND THE ENGINEERING SOCIETY OF DETROIT
CONFERENCE & EXHIBITION
THIS YEAR’S CONFERENCE WILL INCLUDE: • Luncheon will feature a panel presentation focusing on Michigan made LED Lighting • Educational tracks—technology, industrial, commercial and financial— offering informative 30-minute presentations • Dozens of exhibitors offering energy–related products and services • Major awards recognizing energy efficiency initiatives • A Ride-and-Drive featuring a fleet of new vehicles, as well as energy efficient vehicles
COST TO ATTEND:
85 $ 100 $154 $
ESD Member Non-Member Non-Member—attend and join ESD at a discounted rate! (This offer is available to new, first-time members only.)
In its 20TH year, this conference, the only one of its kind in Michigan, is designed to educate small to large commercial and industrial businesses on energy technology, products, and services that will assist them in successful energy management.
Visit www.esd.org for more information and to register, or call 248-353-0735. Exhibitor and sponsorship opportunities are available. Contact Leslie Smith, CMP, at email@example.com or 248-353-0735, ext. 152 for more information.
SUBURBAN COLLECTION SHOWPLACE
MAY 9 • 2017 46100 GRAND RIVER NOVI, MICHIGAN
IN THEIR WORDS… DETROIT’S ENGINEERS TALK ABOUT YESTERDAY, TODAY AND E
ngineering. It’s a concept that has been with us since the beginning of time. Ancient engineers devised pulleys, levers and the wheel. Today’s engineers are creating automobiles that drive themselves, phones that find anything you need, and computers that interact with each other. In between, it’s an understatement to say that “a lot has happened.” And at the forefront of the evolution of technology have been the engineers—who are the best source to tell the story. TechCentury brought together seven of the multitude of talented engineers who make up the membership of the Engineering Society of Detroit, to cull their wisdom, thoughts and insights on the industry of yesterday, today and tomorrow.
HERE’S WHAT THEY HAD TO SAY: KIRK T. STEUDLE,
PE, FESD, Director of the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT), oversees MDOT’s more than $4 billion budget and is responsible for the construction, maintenance and operation of nearly 10,000 miles of state highways and 4,000 state highway bridges. He also oversees the administration of a wide range of multi-modal transportation programs statewide. A graduate of Lawrence Technological University, with a degree in civil engineering, he says 18 | TechCentury | SPRING 2017
he has always had a desire to build things. “There are photos of me at a family cottage when I was quite young making roads and bridges out of everything I could find.” That desire to build has seen him through the incredible advancements in engineering design technology from using pencil drawings to computerassisted designs to on-site tablets. “It’s incredible,” he says. “What used to take four months can happen in two days. We are able to interface immediately. And automated or connected vehicles are promising to make the roads safer and reduce congestion. So much is happening.” He says the challenge is “to keep up.” To manage that, Steudle has become a national leader in the development of connected vehicle technology, which allows vehicles to communicate with the road and other vehicles to improve safety and mobility. He partners with both government officials and auto manufacturers with organizations such as the Intelligent Transportation Society of America, the Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee, and the Michigan Mobility Transformation Center’s External Advisory Board,
among others, to determine solutions. “We are just in the middle of the biggest questions regarding the future of transportation: how to make it all work considering the changes in the auto industry, the environment, connected infrastructures, smart message boards, and how we support the many evolving aspects,” he says. “What I do know is that the many problems we are facing today, will be solved by the engineers of tomorrow, regardless of the discipline.”
RICHARD E. MARBURGER, PhD, FESD, President Emeritus at Lawrence Technological University, has a professional career spanning 65 years, including work in engineering physics at the General Motors Research Laboratories, then located adjacent to the General Motors Building. Marburger says that the engineering profession has increasingly benefited over the years via extensive collaborations with allied professions such as the sciences, architecture, management and more. “Years ago for example, a major distraction was the need to prepare reports. The engineers and the scientists at my first place of employment were required to submit ‘Tech Memos’ to inform
management of the useful results and positive impacts that were obtained from the experimental work done at the laboratories. This involved many handwritten drafts handed to squadrons of typists in the departmental offices followed by time consuming corrections and retypings,” he explains. “Now professionals ranging from beginners all the way up to executives have laptops and access to programs like Microsoft Word so that they can much more speedily prepare their own reports. This leaves much more time for experimentation and analysis.” Through the years, Marburger has witnessed many other improvements. “An astounding array of technological advances have vastly improved the quality of education. As an example, in the early 1950’s, I studied specimens in an RCA electron microscope. There was, of course, a rigorous requirement of a vacuum in the specimen chamber and the specimen itself was a very thin (so that the electrons could travel through) “replica” of a prepared surface. At the time, it was an amazing instrument,” he says. “Now, in the LTU Biomedical Engineering facilities, we have an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope operated by Dr. Yawen Li. She can study specimens in their natural state in a way which makes the instrument I worked on seem like a toy.” Marburger looks to increasing needs for fields like biomedical engineering, molecular and cell biology, chemical biology, psychology and nursing to work together. “At my age, I am convinced that my colleagues will develop devices and procedures that will extend my already astonishing longevity.” For newcomers, Marburger says, “I would advise young people to master math and read extensively. Also, I would like to point out the power of networking. Getting to know persons in the profession is most important.”
SHANI J. ALLISON,
program manager for Ford Motor Company, entered the field by studying at Pennsylvania State University in summer 1997, earning a bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering from there in 2001. In 2010, she earned a master’s in engineering management from University of Michigan. Allison embraces the field and models the words of Jackie Robinson: “ ‘A life is not important except in the impact it has on other lives.’ Every day at work, new problems appear and solutions are wanted by management. I love being part of the solution, instead of being the one who states the problem.” Since entering the industry she says “The vehicle has become smarter. It’s amazing all the technologies that have been added in the last 15 years, in that these features provide more capability and safety for our customers. Now, customers can be connected to multiple things while driving. There is still a lot of potential to bring more to the vehicle and to the customer experience.” A high point for Allison was being the design and release engineer working on the latest technology, MyFord Touch, to enhance the customer experience in the 2011 Ford Edge. “I was blessed
to be part of a team of all electrical engineers bringing this new technology to our customers.” Allison says she still sees challenges in the industry “Regarding the number of women engineers working in the industry, strides have certainly been made, but we are not quite there yet. I am happy to see Ford investing in STEM programs to help increase the number of women engineering candidates. Computer and electrical engineering majors will be needed in all industries. We need to encourage the interest of women and underrepresented students in computer and electrical engineering majors. We need to market engineering as an exciting career, and show how you can work in different industries and make a meaningful impact on someone’s life.” Encouraging new engineers is key, she says. “I’m very passionate about my volunteer work
helping to foster a new generation of engineers because I believe strongly in building a pipeline for new talent. I spend countless hours mentoring and recruiting and supporting young women and underrepresented students who aspire to be the next worldclass engineer. I speak to college students interested in engineering, along with the parents who support them.” 20 | TechCentury | SPRING 2017
FRENAE F. SMITH,
Manager of Codes & Standards and Laboratory Services at DTE Energy, holds a Bachelor’s of Science in Chemical Engineering and Material Science and a Master’s of Science in Chemical Engineering and Project Management. In her 15 years as an engineer, she has seen the industry grow with “more women and minorities in senior engineering and leadership roles. Moreover, energy has started to attract engineers to the industry through college recruitment and involvement in the community. Traditionally, engineering students want to work either in an automotive or construction fields in Michigan. DTE Energy, with the support of its
employees and the DTE Energy Foundation, has been proactively introducing students to STEM in energy through its partnerships with non-profit organizations such as United Way and Junior Achievement with various schools.” While balancing pursuing achievement in her own career with mentoring others, in 2013, Smith was awarded the Southeastern Michigan Quiet Hero Award at the 15th Annual Ford Freedom Awards for her continued work with encouraging underrepresented minorities to pursue STEM Education. Since then, her work with the next generation has been further acknowledged. Smith is enthusiastic about tomorrow’s challenges and technology advances. “Tomorrow is exciting. Most people associate engineering with automotive and construction fields, but we are experiencing a time in our lives where engineering is in every facet of our lives from communication, to food, to entertainment, to healthcare. We will need additional engineers in these growing fields,” she says. And for the students she mentors, the sky is the limit. “There are many emerging areas in chemical engineering with energy, engineered materials, nanotechnology, and biomedical needs.
The History of the Society The Engineering Society of Detroit has been a key factor in the evolution of engineering—and its success—in the city of Detroit and the entire state. Whether it’s promoting the engineering and scientific professions, providing invaluable technical assistance to the community, or supporting programs to encourage our youth, ESD is at the forefront of engineering history.
DID YOU KNOW THESE FACTS ABOUT ESD?
Front: Alex Dow
ü In 1895, 13 young engineering students from the University of Michigan formed the Detroit Association of Graduate Engineers, later known as the Engineering Society of Detroit, for one specific purpose: to demonstrate to the Regents at the University of Michigan the value of an engineering education. During the next six years, the Society’s membership expanded to include engineering graduates from other universities. ü By 1929, the membership grew to 871, but the Great Depression descended upon the nation, and within five years the Society lost 75 percent of its members. Faced with bankruptcy, then-president Harold S. Ellington, an engineer and partner in the architecturalengineering firm of Harley and Ellington, sent letters to past and present members asking for financial assistance and suggestions by which the Society could regain solvency. Bryson Horton, a trustee of the Horace H. Rackham and Mary A. Rackham Fund suggested the Society petition the Trustees for financial support to assist with its work in promoting the advancement of the engineering profession. ü That relationship continues today between the Rackham Engineering Fund and the Society. With the financial support of the Rackham Engineering Fund, the Society experienced phenomenal growth from 523 active members in 1930 to 2,396 in 1938. ü In 1942, the Society moved into its new home which was dedicated the Horace H. Rackham Memorial Building. For the next fifty years, The Engineering Society of Detroit and the Rackham Memorial Building served as the hub for metropolitan Detroit’s engineering community. ü ESD’s roster of past members reads like a “Who’s Who” of industry and civic giants from Charles Kettering and William “Bunky” Knudsen, to Henry Ford and Henry Ford II, Alex Dow, Walter Chrysler, Pete Estes, Dexter Ferry, Albert Kahn, Richard Kuhn, Stanford Ovshinsky, Ann Fletcher and Helen Petrauskas—and it continues to attract the same calibre of leaders today. ü ESD is one of the largest and oldest multi-disciplinary engineering societies in the nation. ü ESD bestows a number of awards including the Horace H. Rackham Humanitarian Award, the Gold Award, the ESD Young Engineer of the Year Award, Construction & Design Awards, and the TechCentury Image Award. ü Over 100 affiliate societies participate in ESD’s Affiliate Council ü ESD is dedicated to enhancing the profession and the community, while encouraging development of engineers for the future. www.esd.org | The Engineering Society of Detroit | 21
Engineering as a field is in high demand for all majors and we will need engineers to help create these innovations… I encourage my mentees to strive to live by the words of Malcolm X; ‘Education is your passport to the future, for tomorrow belongs to the people who prepare for it today.’ ”
EDWARD C. LEVY, JR.,
a 1952 graduate of MIT, is president of Edw. C. Levy Co. The company is a Detroit based firm that is two basic businesses: Steel Mill Services and Basic Construction Material and Road building. The company operates in a number of states in the U.S., Australia, Thailand, France and India. The Levy company was founded in 1918 by its namesake Edward C Levy Sr. as a trucking company hauling spent foundry sand. In 1922, the company began removing slag from Ford Motor Company’s first blast furnace. That steel mill in Dearborn is now on its fourth owner and Levy still handles its slag and metal recovery requirements, producing millions of tons annually of slag aggregates. In addition, the company handles other materials ranging from delivered scrap metal to coils of finished steel products. Levy Steel Mill 22 | TechCentury | SPRING 2017
Services have grown from its beginnings in the Ford Rouge Plant to 25 Steel Mills in U.S. and overseas where various services are performed, including a patented process for flame scarfing and cutting of cast steel slabs to improve surface quality and eliminate hand labor with its quality and safety problems. The construction materials and road building business consists of mining sand and gravel and quarrying limestone and granite, aggregate production, ready mixed concrete, asphalt mixture production, building and paving roads and other services. These activities are performed in Michigan and Colorado. “As with all other heavy industrial operations technology is consistently improving. Since competition is ever present Levy Company has developed equipment and techniques to meet the challenge of its work, such as a rubber tired vehicle which picks up and carries iron pots of molten slag from the point of origin to the place where the slag will be processed,” Levy explains. At all times safety is the number one consideration. “We have a Vice President and Director of Safety. Every day a report is emailed to operating and engineering personnel throughout the Levy network, in which every incident, near miss and equipment or property damage is reported. The goal is to become the safest industrial operation anywhere,” he says. The Levy Company mission statement concludes with the principle that “We will always treat others as we wish to be treated and will work very hard to gain the same treatment from others.” Our people’s training and adherence to that principle has made our company attractive as a place to work and attractive as a reliable, trust worthy source of services and product.
STEVEN R. DIBERARDINE,
PE, CDG, LEED AP, is a graduate of Michigan Technological University, a licensed professional engineer in multiple states, and president of Strategic Energy Solutions, a Berkley-based MEP engineering firm founded in 1997. As president, his focus is on marketing, client contact, and project development as he oversees the daily operations of the firm and staff management. With more than 25 years’ experience in the design and specification of HVAC, plumbing, piping and fire protection systems for commercial, healthcare, industrial, educational, telecommunications, religious and multi-tenant facilities, he is always in touch with the next development. DiBerardine also is a key player in energy efficiency, renewable energy, and sustainability, including geothermal design, energy modeling, and daylight harvesting. He has witnessed an influx of interest in these areas. Since designing his first commercial geothermal project in 1998, DiBerardine has gone on to become a nationally recognized leader in the design and implementation of commercial geothermal HVAC systems. “In my early years of 20 years ago, there wasn’t much of an eye on sustainability or renewable energy. It’s been a slow process, but people are beginning to see that the investment in these technologies equal a greater return via improved efficiency and less impact on the environment,” he
explains. “More clients are looking at not just first cost but the life cycle cost of systems taking into account operational, maintenance, and energy costs.” Technology, he says, helps with that efficiency. “When I started in the industry, we were just beginning to use 2-D CAD as a design tool. I was fortunate to catch the tail end of manual drafting which has become a lost art. We are now using 3-D building information modeling to deliver projects. This allows us to coordinate space constraints and interferences in the design phase prior to construction. This technology will eventually bring automation to the design process using artificial intelligence,” he explains. What DiBerardine sees for the future of engineering includes a challenge but he also sees a solution, “In the areas of engineering and construction there is currently a shortage of experienced labor and people entering the field from the bottom up. We need to start thinking in terms of broadening the opportunities for entry level designers and apprentices, not just college graduates. There are different paths to take with opportunities at both ends.”
NANCY M.D. FAUGHT,
PE, Executive Vice President at HRC Consulting Engineers, has over 29 years of professional experience and has served as manager and technical director for state and federally funded road reconstruction projects with construction costs totaling more than $31 million in recent years. During those years, Faught says that communication improvements have been a plus and a minus. “Communication moves fast now,” she says. “The evolution of communication methods has changed the expectation levels of all stakeholders. Fortunately, engineering software has kept the pace and we are able to meet those expectations.” With a civil engineering degree from MSU, and a dedication to mentoring the next generation of engineers, Faught finds the “constant problem-solving to find the best solution” a satisfying aspect of her chosen profession. One of those challenges to civil engineering—infrastructure—requires a commitment to educating tomorrow’s engineers with fluid and creative problem-solving skills. “Tomorrow is here and it looks like this: our infrastructure is failing due to age. There is not widespread support for a financial solution at this time, so we must be innovative at all times and, therefore, our industry is very busy trying to do as much as we can with the funds available,” she says. But tomorrow’s minds may offer new, creative solutions. “I am heavily involved in mentoring and project management training,” she explains. “I believe that properly training young engineers will aid in developing the most effective and properly designed projects for our future—in all areas of engineering.”
World IP Day 2017 INSPIRING KIDS TO CREATE!
DATE: Saturday, May 6, 2017 TIME: 10 a.m.–12 p.m. LOCATION: The Henry Ford Museum of American Innovation Do you know a young entrepreneur? Here’s how to help them find out what it takes to design a product, protect their idea, and take it to market. As part of Make Something Saturdays, the Henry Ford is celebrating World Intellectual Property Day with budding engineers. The event will include special presentations and guests from the U.S. Patent & Trademark Office and local IP specialists who will help kids decipher how to protect their great ideas. Activities will include hunts for great patents in the Museum and programming is well aligned for Boy and Girl Scout troops working on business and IP related badges.
hat moment you I you want ealize o be a scientist.
n many ways the evolution of engineering in America is exemplified by the history of Michigan Technological University. While currently recognized as one of the premiere engineering and research institutions in the country, the bably didn’t happen through graded assignments or University began life as a small schoolThe in a rural areaisfocused on a trial, error, and a ardized tests. spark lit through single industry. y dose of curiosity. The state of Michigan established the Michigan Mining Trekkers School at Michigan Technological University travel 18,000 in Houghton in 1885 specifically to train engineers for to reach more than 415,000 people—experience the wow of the local copper mines. The school e, technology, engineering, and math. featured four faculty and 23 students and was located in a local A Michigan Tech researcher collects tears from a child as part of research into the role and fire hall. Today Michigan Tech is potential uses of vitamins in tears. home to more than 7,000 students from around the world and offers more than 120 undergraduate and graduate degree programs on a 925 acre campus in Houghton, plus a research institute in Ann Arbor and a michigantech @michigantech research forest in Alberta, Michigan.
FROM COPPER MINES TO CREATIVE ARTS … MICHIGAN TECH CHISELS OUT REPUTATION AS TOP TECH SCHOOL
cal University is an equal opportunity educational institution/equal opportunity employer, which includes providing equal opportunity for protected veterans and individuals with disabilities.
By Mark Wilcox
24 | TechCentury | SPRING 2017
As the copper mining industry in the area began to wane, the school built around it began to evolve. Michigan Tech President Glenn Mroz says the evolution of engineering and technology was a driving factor in the development of the institution from a mining school into so much more. “The driver seemed largely to be the sometimes mercurial demand for mining engineers that at times resulted in low enrollment, as well as a recognition that Michigan Tech could play a role in helping to meet the demands of an expanding American economy—a post-war economy that was being changed by technological advances,” Mroz explains. In the mid-1920s a move to broaden the offerings from mining to other curricula took hold. In 1926, degree programs in metallurgy, chemistry, geology and mechanical engineering were established. A year later the school’s name was
changed to Michigan College of Mining and Technology. Wayne Pennington, dean of Tech’s College of Engineering, says the evolution from a singleindustry school to a multi-discipline institution wasn’t that big a stretch when you take into consideration the technological advancements at the time. “Mining engineering is a discipline that actually makes use of all the classical engineering fields —mechanical, chemical, electrical, civil and geological engineering,” Pennington points out. Those classical engineering fields all are needed to solve a set of interrelated problems in the mining environment. The various disciplines evolved and in some cases melded as the mining industry continued to change. “So as the mining industry matured as a technical discipline, the teaching base at mining institutions became broader
Michigan Tech’s 15-ton cloud chamber allows researchers to “bring clouds down to earth,” to study the atmosphere at ground level.
and deeper at the same time,” Pennington explains. “Eventually these classical engineering disciplines could stand on their own with independent majors providing skilled workers for fields other than mining. For Michigan Tech, the timing was apparently fortuitous as this evolution occurred while the local mining industry was in decline.” The Michigan Tech of the 21st century is far removed from those early days, but Mroz says those pioneers knew the wisdom in establishing a technological institution. “These were people who were tenacious in working the political system over a 20-year period just to get the college going. Then they fought to keep it going through some pretty rough financial times. My guess is that they’d be entitled to a pretty well-deserved ‘I told you so,’ to any number of their critics who at first didn’t think it would fly even as a mining school, and second, had no idea that the basic science math and communication skills that were taught would be transferable and embedded in nearly every process and product we touch today,” Mroz says. Pennington says one of the most significant components in the evolution of both engineering in general and Michigan Tech in particular is collaboration between disciplines. “As the classical engineering disciplines came into their own prominence, it was likely that the original cooperation in teaching mining engineering carried over into other forms of collaboration,” he suggests. Pennington believes the mindset that new interdisciplinary fields could grow from the example of the integrated aspect of mining engineering was probably in place from the beginning. “This allowed the development of such new fields as environmental
www.esd.org | The Engineering Society of Detroit | 25
Students in the Michigan Mining School (now Michigan Technological University) examine rock specimens in this undated photo.
engineering, which grew out of wastewater treatment in civil engineering, and biomedical engineering which grew out of many different fields’ expertise being required to solve health-related issues,” he says. At Michigan Tech, engineering has even merged with the fine arts to create thriving audio production and technology, sound design, theatre and electronic media performance, and theatre and entertainment technology degree programs in the University’s Visual and Performing Arts Department. In fact, Michigan Tech in the 21st century has moved so far from its roots that in 2004, the University’s bachelor’s of science in mining engineering degree was suspended, leaving the institution founded on mining engineering without a mining engineering program. As for the future, Pennington hopes scientists a half century from now will find our current disciplinary silos “quaint and old fashioned.” As engineering continues to evolve, he expects even more collaboration. “I see more of a merger between engineering and the various fields of applied 26 | TechCentury | SPRING 2017
sciences leading to more research developments than currently is the case. That is rather than having scientific research take place in one environment and engineering in another, eventually creating the translation into new products or services, the two streams will be more closely intertwined.” Pennington says a university like Michigan Tech is well-suited to take the lead in this transition due in part to its compact campus where scientists and engineers already collaborate and where the arts, social sciences and business interact easily. “The word disruptive is enjoying a great deal of use these days usually to refer to processes or technologies that apparently explode onto the popular scene, seemingly from nowhere,” Mroz observes. “But they did come from somewhere—seeds of disruption that were painstakingly harvested from current knowledge, planted and nurtured in labs by the intellects
of people. In no small way, you can look into our labs today and see what the future holds. “Sometimes it’s a matter of taking current technology and putting it to work in new ways, on new development, on new processes or new ways to solve problems of the past that have been exceptionally stingy in revealing their secrets,” he goes on to say. While Michigan Tech is hardly the one-story, four-teacher school of 1885, it has, in a sense, returned to its roots. Led by Ebrahim Tarshizi, recently awarded the Outstanding Young Scientist Award by the Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration, the University has reinstated its mining engineering program.
The Continental Fire Company in Houghton, Michigan, is shown in this 1885 photo. The fire hall was the first home of the Michigan Mining School, created by the State of Michigan to provide mining engineers for the area’s thriving copper mining industry.
Mark Wilcox is a veteran Michigan journalist now working as a news writer for Michigan Technological University’s news and media relations staff.
PATENT PENDING: CREATIVITY AS THE MOTHER OF INVENTION A Look At The Evolution Of Patents By Michael Stewart
19th century Western Union internal memorandum claimed that the “telephone has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered as a means of communication. The device is inherently of no value to us.” In the same year, President Rutherford B. Hayes commented that it was “an amazing invention but who would ever want to use one?” Less than 20 years later, in 1895, the president of the Royal Society, Lord Kelvin, stated that “heavier-than-air flying machines are impossible.” Then in 1899, Charles H. Duell, the Commissioner of the U.S. Patent Office supposedly uttered that “everything that can be invented has been invented.” Even when an invention is deemed to have value, its place in the world may be seriously underestimated. Thomas Watson, then Chairman of IBM, thought in 1943 that “there is a world market for maybe five computers,” while in 1949, Popular Mechanics Magazine pronounced that “computers in the future may weigh no more than 1.5 tons.” The U.S. patent system predates the U.S. constitution. Unfortunately, such protection was spotty and inconsistent among the colonies and stories abound of inventors being unable to adequately protect their creations. A prime example is that of John Fitch’s steamboat. Therefore, the importance of providing nationwide federal protection was appreciated at the time of the country’s founding and codified with no recorded dissent in the United States Constitution. Article I, Section 8, Clause 8 states that Congress shall have the power
“to promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries.” As James Madison argued in the Federalist Papers, “The utility of this power will scarcely be questioned. The copyright of authors has been solemnly adjudged in Great Britain to be a right at common law. The right to useful inventions seems with equal reason to belong to the inventors. The public good fully coincides in both cases with the claims of individuals.” The very first United States Patent was issued in 1790 to Samuel Hopkins for a process of making potash, an ingredient used in fertilizer, and was signed by President George Washington. From this auspicious beginning, despite mistaken beliefs about the importance of innovation at various
times throughout our country’s history, the desire to protect individual creativity continues to be a crucial driver of our nation’s success. More than nine million U.S. patents have been issued since the very first one to Mr. Hopkins. In 2015 alone, nearly 600,000 utility patent applications were filed and almost 300,000 were granted. It is impossible to say what future technologies will be the equivalent of today’s telephones, airplanes or computers, but the importance of protecting intellectual property is now recognized worldwide. A comprehensive 2012 report released by the U.S. Department of Commerce found that intellectual property intensive industries support at least 40 million jobs and contribute more than $5 trillion (35 percent) to the U.S. gross domestic product. As noted by the USPTO director at that time: “Every job in some way, produces, supplies,
First US Patent to Samuel Hopkins www.esd.org | The Engineering Society of Detroit | 27
Number of US Utility Patents Issued per Year since 1790
consumes, or relies on innovation, creativity, and commercial distinctiveness . . . America needs to continue investing in a high-quality and appropriately balanced intellectual property system that will promote innovative, open, and competitive markets while helping to ensure that the U.S. private sector remains America’s innovation engine.” With creativity and perseverance anyone can become the next Elijah J. McCoy (1844-1929), a Detroit inventor who held more than 40
Elijah J. McCoy
patents for steam locomotive automatic lubricators. As noted in the ESD Centennial The TechCentury magazine from 1995: “His name is said to be the source of the expression ‘The Real McCoy,” used to advertise the products of his Elijah McCoy Manufacturing Company.” His name is also associated with the first regional U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, located here in Detroit, and is a nod to the continued intellectual prowess of our region.
Appreciating the accomplishments of the past and keeping an eye on what is to come, the future is bright for our next generations. Michael Stewart is a founding member of Fishman Stewart PLLC (formerly known as Rader Fishman & Grauer), which is celebrating its 20th year. Michael works in a wide range of technical areas and his practice includes prosecution, information technology, evaluations/due diligence as well as drafting and negotiating technical agreements.
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ETHICS IN ENGINEERING Editor’s note: The following is the first in a regular column series addressing a diversity of topics dealing with ethical issues in the engineering industry.
FREEMAN vs. FRIEDMAN: Integrity in the construction bidding process By William Moylan (This article is excerpted from a piece written by Dr. Moylan for the COAA Owner’s Perspective newsletter, Spring 2005.)
ithin the construction industry—a fractionalized group of specialty companies that work on temporary projects, executing their services though short-term contracts and temporary partnerships –the bidding process can lead to many complex questions. When addressing this issue, appropriate business ethics and proper professional conduct in construction requires an understanding of the motivations of the parties involved. To do so, the views of business gurus Friedman and Freeman — on the roles of the corporation — provide a suitable benchmark. The discussion of the enterprise as held by Milton Friedman versus that of R. E. Freeman centers on the roles of those involved; specifically, a purist focus on the “stockholders as owner” view versus the variety of “enterprise stakeholders” view. Milton Friedman focuses on the stockholders. In Friedman’s terms, increasing profits made payable to the owner-stockholders is the only social responsibility of business. Anything else is considered as the “unadulterated socialism” of anarchistic nihilists bent on destroying the free-enterprise system, democracy, and western civilization. In Freeman’s view, however, the firm’s stakeholders form an interrelated set of obligations and responsibilities to the corporation, which produce a mutual set of tensions, interrelated responsibilities, and potential conflicts between each group. By properly framing the competing forces, each stakeholder 30 | TechCentury | SPRING 2017
assumes a duty to each other and to themselves to pursue long-term goals while concurrently conducting themselves in an ethical manner. The Friedman view focuses on the owner/ shareholders gaining the highest quality facility, at the lowest price in the shortest amount of time. Construction contractors who build the facilities according to the architect’s design (quality), within budget and on time (cost and schedule) will succeed. Those contractors that cannot compete under these terms and conditions will fail. In the Freeman perspective, the bidding process requires a series of safe guards to ensure the ethical integrity of the system. That is, the competitive market for construction contracting must be open to all responsible bidders that possess the requisite technical expertise, financial capacity and management skills who are interested in pursuing the particular project. Likewise, the interested bidders must be responsive to the terms and conditions of the tender, cooperate with the owner representatives and the respective design architects and engineers during the bidding, construction and commissioning phases. The delivery method provides the owner with a high-quality facility, built on time and within budget. The facility owner must commit the necessary time and resources to project definition and actualization. The architect/engineer must design a proper facility that meets the owner needs and is build-able using conventional technologies. The contractor/supplier
prove their worth to the relationship as a responsible, competent constructor that cooperates with the owner representatives in bringing the facility design to fruition. Moreover, a harmonious working relationship of the facility owner, architect/engineer, and constructor benefits the eventual tenants and users (employees) of the facility who will enjoy a suitable environ that meets their needs in bringing their goods and services to market for their customers. The practices of bid shopping and bid rigging are considered unethical in both Friedman and Freeman terms, but for different reasons. A bid-shopping scheme destroys the integrity of the competitive bidding system by unfairly sharing information on contractor’s bid situation with unauthorized parties. Conversely, bid shopping unfairly rewards one side of the stakeholder triad (i.e., facility owner) while unjustly compensating one bidder over another without paying for the development of the priced proposal. This practice undermines the integrity of the system that breaks the bonds of trust amongst the stakeholders in the execution of the work. Bid rigging is also equally repulsive to both the Friedman and the Freeman. To Friedman, the scheme of bid rigging by an unscrupulous group of conspiring contractors redirects funds that should be paid to the stockholders as dividends. Instead, these monies are redirected to finance inflated construction costs. Again, the use of available financial funds for anything else but stockholder returns is heretical in the Friedman view. In the Freeman parlance, a bid-rigging scheme unfairly favors the supplier stakeholder while detrimentally harming the facility owner stakeholder. As with the bid shopping scenario, bid rigging unfairly rewards one side of the stakeholder triad, in this case the contractor/supplier who receives an inflated profit for their construction services, while unjustly penalizing the facility owner with higher than necessary contract costs. To both the Friedman and the Freeman point of ethical view, the competitive bidding arena suffers.
The practices of bid shopping and bid rigging are considered unethical in both Friedman and Freeman terms...
Forcing companies to risk performing their work without just compensation for their direct costs, overhead and profit potential is considered wrong by the Friedman definition of proper business conduct. In regard to the Freeman assessment, the construction contractor community (supplier stakeholder) is hurt unjustly at the expense of the facility owner. However, facility owner organizations, already pressed for improved short-term profit performance in their operations, are searching for creative financial solutions to the high cost of the capital intense projects involving new constructed facilities. One method to improve the results that reward ethical conduct in the construction industry is formulating an “integrity chain” as the link to long term profitability, which is attuned with the Freeman view of stakeholder ethics. First, a competitive bidding and contracting system must be based on integrity in which a fair process respects the rights of each stakeholder, including facility owners, the architect/engineer designers, constructors, subs, and material suppliers. The stakeholders have the responsibility to perform each project properly, without resorting to “robbing Peter to pay Paul” tactics. The integrity in the system builds a partnership of trust between the facility owner/architect/engineer–constructor triad, the supporting subcontractors and material suppliers, and the external community. The trusting relationship created amongst the stakeholders creates a legitimate construction industry whereby a successfully executed project is profitable, prized and praised. Continuing trusting relationships between the stakeholders of the construction process reward the successfully executed project built on time, within budget, and per the quality and performance specifications, with repeat business. Repeat business in the construction industry is the key to legitimate profitability and satisfying the needs of all stakeholders, as considered by both Friedman and Freeman in a business ethical context.
William A. Moylan, PhD, PMP, FESD is an Associate Professor instructor in Construction Management at Eastern Michigan University. He can be reached at email@example.com.
www.esd.org | The Engineering Society of Detroit | 31
GRAND CHALLENGES OF ENGINEERING IN THE 21ST CENTURY PROBLEMS AND POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS PART ONE:
By Gary Kuleck, Alexa Rihana-Abdallah, and Utpal Dutta
Editor’s note 1: The National Academy of Engineering, at the request of the National Science Foundation, convened a committee of leading technical thinkers to create a list of the grand challenges and opportunities for engineering facing those born at the dawn of this new century. After much input, experts, and discussion, many ideas were shared and a final conclusion was presented. As we contemplated appropriate articles for this issue, which focuses on The Evolution of Engineering, it became clear that addressing some of the challenges on these pages, from our experts’ perspective was a good fit. This is the first in a series of articles addressing The Grand Challenges of Engineering in the 21st Century. Editor’s note 2: Footnotes and citations have been omitted from this version of the article. For a version with references, please contact Susan Thwing at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Figure 1. Where does our water come from?
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nderstanding the scope and complexity of the challenges are a first step in developing solutions. Solutions must incorporate technological development and implementation, public policy and government engagement, and the impact of new technology on human and natural ecosystems. Furthermore, the unexpected consequences from applying new technologies, processes, and policies must be considered beforehand. Thus, engineers should be engaged at every level including utilizing a systems engineering approach to mitigate and ameliorate inevitable emergent behavior because of the complexity and interdependency of all elements of proposed solutions. Solutions will not, therefore, be ‘quick’ fixes but will require dedicated, persistent multidisciplinary efforts over a longer time scale. It is in this light that we examine the Grand Challenge: “Provide Access to Clean Water”. Water and its Availability Water is ubiquitous and its availability is absolutely vital for life to exist on earth. Humans need water for daily sustenance and without plentiful and reliable water availability, society would cease to function. Most of earth’s water (>96%) is in salty oceans (Fig. 1). Of the fresh water (~3%), most (~99%) is tied up in a frozen state or trapped in underground aquifers. Thus, only about 0.03 percent of total water is readily available for use. Furthermore, available fresh water is unevenly distributed with over 50 percent in just nine countries: the United States, Canada, Columbia, Brazil, The Democratic Republic of Congo, Russia, India, China and Indonesia. The difficulty of accessing fresh water, increasing its availability and accessibility, or attempting to convert salty ocean water to fresh water (desalination), are major technological barriers in solving this grand challenge. Water Consumption The world consumes more than 9,000 billion cubic meters of waters of water annually with China, India and the U.S. using approximately 38 percent of the total consumption (Fig. 2). The per capacity usage clearly shows that developed nations use far more water per capita due to higher standards of living and more indiscriminate use. These results also reflect the stronger tendency of developed nations toward greater industrial development while developing nations tend toward greater agricultural use of water (Table 1). Thus, the availability highlights some of the challenges facing the global provision of water: developed countries may have
adequate distribution systems but may not conserve water efficiently while developing nations have lessened availability and devote its use to agriculture. Both of these aspects must be addressed within the global challenge. Water Quality Access to potable water is necessary for human health. The conference board of Canada has rated water qualities of 17 developed nations using 2013 available data. The Water Quality Index (WQI) measured dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. The index ranges from 0 (lowest quality) to 100 (highest quality) and the figures display relative grades and their ranks among all 17 nations. Most developed nations have water of reasonable quality (Figs. 3 and 4), while developing nations struggle to match this capacity. The lack of clean water access in developing countries is responsible for more deaths than warfare with nearly 50 percent of the global population with inadequate clean water access and basic sanitation. Each day, nearly 5,000 children die globally from diarrhea-related diseases, according to the “Grand Challenges for Biological Engineering.” Moreover, with inadequate distribution systems, the burden of collecting water falls to women and girls. According to UNESCO, 40 billion working hours are lost annually to having to collect water for household use. These hours are not spent in school and therefore hamper the ability of women to participate in the workforce. In addition, the water is often of dubious quality perpetuating disease spread. For these nations, decreases in water quality are likely to increase disease burden, reduce educational achievements, lower worker productivity leading to higher labor costs and slower economic growth. The access to good drinking water quality presents its challenges even in the developed world, where problems of aging infrastructure lead to water contamination and losses of up to 50 percent of input water. Even water sources can be contaminated with over 25-40 percent of U.S. groundwater supply wells with enteric viruses and bacteria, as cited in the “Risk of Waterborne illness via Drinking Water in the United States.” Preventing groundwater mixing with contaminated sources can pose challenges during periods of flooding. The largest waterborne outbreak in Milwaukee in 1993 sickened nearly 500,000 with nearly 100 deaths due to the presence of a protozoan parasite. Additionally, hydraulic fracking is becoming a prevalent way to extract petroleum resources from shale beds. This controversial extraction technique injects a large amount of pressurized fresh water to release oil or gas. Its widespread use has prompted environmental concerns because of the huge amount
Figure 2. Top daily water consumption countries per capita
Figure 3. Water Quality Index of 17 developed nations
Figure 4. Global Water Quality Map
Table 1. Rate of Water Consumptions by Sectors (Based on 2010 data)
of water needed that becomes polluted after use. Another concern is the potential contamination of groundwater from the leachate of carcinogenic chemicals on site. www.esd.org | The Engineering Society of Detroit | 33
Figure 5. Projection of global access to safe drinking water
Moreover, climate change and increases in population are likely to aggravate the water access challenge (Fig. 5). Climate change is likely to exacerbate water outbreaks with more severe weather events that disrupt or overwhelm current filtration and sanitation issues and the inadequacy of inactivation and removal of biological agents. These will likely be devastating in developing nations. These undesirable outcomes cannot be taken lightly because they almost ensure continued poverty in these regions and shortened lifespans. While civil engineers have revolutionized providing good sanitation and treatment systems to urban areas in developed nations in the past century, growing populations, rising temperatures and climate change, continually challenge the engineering community to provide solutions globally. Providing clean water will substantially decrease the outbreak of waterborne disease and improve the quality of life for billions of the world population living in extreme poverty. The development of long term water availability and sanitation in a region must be a high priority if we are to achieve the promise of clean water availability. Averting this crisis is a monumental undertaking and represents one part of the Grand Challenge.
(top) Figure 6. World’s largest desalination plant Ras Ailkhair, Saudi Arabia (right) Figure 7. Global Water Stress by Country
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Water Stress Growing populations and climate change are exacerbating already extremely distributed water sources. The Water Resource Institute’s Aqueduct (Fig. 7) project explored country-level water stress based on the usage and availability of water. They ranked 180 countries and 36 countries demonstrated extremely high water stress (EHWS) (>80% of water available for use is withdrawn annually). While wealthy EHWS nations (e.g. Singapore) have exceptional water management and technology, many of the remaining countries are low-income or face political instability. This will only worsen as climate change challenges these and other nations to achieve water security. The U.S. is not immune to this challenge. The rural drinking water supply in the U.S. is ranked 64th globally, according to nicmarwater.com. Many areas face barriers in getting potable water solutions in place. Moreover, the Southwest U.S. is home to 56 million with about 90 percent of that population urban and is expected to grow dramatically in the next several decades (Fig. 8). Drought conditions are expected to continue indefinitely and worsen with temperature ranges increasing 4-8 °F by the next century, says a report by the USGCRP. Drought severity, coupled with increasing temperatures, population, and high water stress, will pose unprecedented challenges for the region and will require sustained, systematic improvements in policy, technology and public attitudes to water availability. Developed nations have worked to alleviate the water shortage problem by using desalination technology and implementing policies for recycling and reclamation of water. Desalination Desalination has been used effectively in limited circumstances in developed nations with areas under high water stress (Figures 6 and 7). However, these technologies use expensive membrane systems and substantial inputs of energy. Better technologies are
Figure 8. Drought Severity –Southwest
improve water availability, distribution and basic sanitation from a global perspective. 3. New technology solutions must prove robust, sustainable, scalable and tailored to the needs of the regions served. 4. The network of engineers, scientists, policy makers, NGOs, NPOs, government agencies and other constituents must be strengthened so that solutions can be adapted to, accepted by and implemented for the people of the region served. 5. This Grand Challenge will excite, attract and empower a new generation of engineers to become involved and take leadership in achieving this objective.
emerging to improve filtration and reduce energy needs but will reach theoretical limits soon. In addition, the byproduct of concentrated brine which is harmful to ecosystems is as hard to deal with. At its best, desalination can be but one part of a mix of solutions to the world’s fresh water needs. Recycling and Reclamation of water Traditional agriculture irrigation consumes enormous quantities of water, often in a very wasteful fashion. Drip irrigation has been employed in many high water stress areas with success but engineering solutions to fouling and the high cost of installation of the systems must be addressed. Recycled water can replenish drained aquifers and be used for non-domestic purposes, according to a report titled “Environmental Impact and impact assessment of seawater desalination.” Developing technologies that can be scaled to the area of need are strongly needed. In addition, solutions must be low-cost, sustainable locally in low-income areas and maintained by local personnel. Therefore, several conclusions can be reached: to overcome the Grand Challenge of Providing Access to Clean Water will require a systems level approach. Although we cannot foresee all of the steps necessary to achieve this objective, at the very least they will include: 1. Effective solutions will require an acknowledgement of the problem and its causes based on empirical evidence, scientific methodology and sound engineering practice. 2. Existing technology needs to be improved and implemented to
Gary Kuleck, PhD is the Dean of the College of Engineering and Science at the University of Detroit Mercy; Alexa Rihana-Abdallah, PhD is an Associate Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering at U of D Mercy; and Utpal Dutta, PhD, PE is Professor of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering at U of D Mercy.
Table 3. Long range solutions, cost and impacts
www.esd.org | The Engineering Society of Detroit | 35
Editor’s note: This is the second in a four-part series on the skill of networking and its importance to building and maintaining career—and life—goals.
MAKE ROOM FOR OLD-SCHOOL FORMALITIES IN MODERN BUSINESS COMMUNICATION By Jenny Tatsak
hen I wake in the morning, I reach for my phone before I reach for my glasses. Why bother with glasses? I don’t need to see the world around me. I only need to read my phone. I rationalize that I am incredibly efficient. From the comfort of my bed, I can answer emails and learn the news of the day. Before I shower, dress, or attend to the needs of those around me, I can be a productive professional. Does this sound like you? Typing with thumbs—and without corrective eyewear in my case—increases the likelihood of mistakes. Yet I am willing to sacrifice the old-school formalities of spelling, spacing, and grammar (requisite competencies for entry-level professionals) for the modern conveniences and rapid response times of my phone.
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As a professor of Business Communication, I recognize the critical importance of written communication in impression formation and credibility; however, I am lured to the constant connectivity of technology despite its drawbacks. A succession of correspondences, all using my “smart” phone, cast a spotlight on my own fallibility as well as our quick and often unconscious judgements of others based on their written communication. From a student “aking” [sic] me to reconsider a failing grade to a prospective employee misspelling my name on his cover letter, the final straw was my incorrect use of “you’ instead of “your” in my email reply to the failing student. Upon deeper reflection, I tend to make more errors on my beloved phone. The reasons are many. The spellcheck and grammar check features are not as robust on mobile devices in addition to the limitations of the touch keyboard and speed with which we send and receive messages. Just as we understand the physiological benefits of diet and exercise, we must be motivated to forgo ice cream and rearrange our schedule to make time to exercise.
Recognizing the Costs vs. Benefits
Once we realize the benefits of wellwritten and well-formatted messages are greater than the costs of the lost time proofreading and spell checking, we will make a change. While we may not initially attribute positive attributes to the well-written message, we are quick to heap criticisms on the person and message with one or more mistakes. The adjectives we tend to attribute to grammatically-incorrect communication include lazy, uneducated, and unintelligent. The stakes are even greater for my student seeking a better grade in a Business Communication class. Likewise, we tend to be more critical of the instructor misspelling the
name of their prospective employer, especially since the employer’s name, albeit an unusual last name, comprises literally three pages of a Google search. Consequently, the mistakes undermine the reception of the messages and the credibility we seek as professionals.
additional five minutes, but the benefits may pay dividends in your credibility and the credibility attributed to your ideas. Although we are all guilty of making mistakes, we are not doomed to repeat these credibilitydepleting behaviors. Like other habits, practice helps correct the behavior. By recognizing If You Don’t Use It, the importance of proofreading You Lose It It is easier than ever before to produce and spelling, we are less likely to take the fast and easy route to well-written and well-formatted communication. We are more likely professional communication. Technology provides us with the tools to take the extra time to spell check, format, and proofread—these to correct and prevent errors. Gone are the days of writer’s manuals and essentials never go out of style. large dictionaries lining our desks. All the information contained in these necessary, and time-honored resources, is a mere Google search away. This same information is accessible at any time of day and from anywhere to anyone with an internet connection. With the wide-spread availability of information, why don’t we use it? We perceive the benefits of time saved and the quick response times as more important than the errors these forms encourage. Simply put, we get out of the habit of spell checking, proofreading, and even capitalizing the first letter of the first word of a sentence. The extra step of opening our laptop and firing up the email program to reply is usually the difference between well-written communication and poorlywritten communication. This simple step may take an
Jenny Tatsak, PhD, is Chair and Professor of Business Communications at Walsh College.
www.esd.org | The Engineering Society of Detroit | 37
THANK YOU! 2016 DONORS Thank you to all those who have supported the Society with monetary gifts during 2016 by participating in the annual fundraising campaign, fulfilling pledges, giving with their dues, or donating in other ways. It is with their generous support that we are able to fulfill our mission to keep Michigan as the engineering hub of the world. TRANSFORMATION LEVEL ($5K+) James A. Anderson, PE, FESD
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DONORS UP TO $75
Anonymous Mo Abraham John A. Awood James L. Bertram David T. Bozek Peng Brooks Mary Caruso John P. Cole, PE Donald J. Collom Stephen R. Davis, FESD Neil De Koker, FESD Thomas J. DeLaura, PE Patrick R. Dwyer Donald L. Garon, PE, LEED AP Richard P. Green, PE, CEM, LEED GA Yong Ping Gu Gary Haas (in memory of Charles M. Ayers) David L. Harrington, FESD Jerry Hendler James C. Hobson, PE Henry B. Horldt, PE Aaron T. Howard Homer Ronald Howell Jason Huber, PE Ronald Huber Victor J. Hurych Steven J. Kaercher Robert H. Kelley James Hall Kent Raymond A. Kobe, PE Wenzel F. Koch Douglas W. Komer James R. Korona, PE James Kosniewski Viji Kuruvilla Eugene R. Kutcher Harold A. Ladouceur, FESD Monique A. Lake, FESD Richard W. Lambrecht, Jr. Thomas B. Locke, PE
William S. Logan III Craig R. Love Harvey Lyons, PhD, PE Reno J. Maccardini Warner Mach Michael Mares, CEM / LEED AP Tito R. Marzotto, PE, FESD Michael R. McCarty Russell E. McLogan, PE John B. McWilliams Janice Kathleen Means, PE, LEED AP, FESD Robert L. Merriman Gary Miller Joseph C. Moceri James C. O’Rourke Robert Parcell Lawrence Parets Robert Pawlowicz Carlos A. Pertusi Alberto Pertusi Coralie Reck (in memory of David A. Skiven) Frank N. Rizzo Larry A. Rose, PE Hugh Ross, PE James W. Rush Richard E. Rutz Pranab Saha, PhD, PE, INCE Bd Cert, FESD Peter F. Salamon, PE Robertus Schmit Kenneth D. Shinn, PE Douglas W. Smith Walter Sobczak Rebecca M. Spearot, PhD, PE, FESD Charles J. Squires Jerry Stakhiv Edouard Stines, PE Lawrence A. Swan, Jr. Gerald Swietlicki Lewis H. Tann (in memory of Eugene Tann) Larry Tessari Godfrey A. Udoji, PE Michael J. Vinarcik, PE, FESD Don Walkowicz Richard Walter, PE Janice Wilhelm (in memory of Charles M. Ayers ) Wesley Williams Raymond M. Womack Thomas J. P. Wysocki Ming-Chih Yew, PE Wei Zhao
Every effort has been made to provide an accurate list of donors. If there are any errors or omissions, please contact Nick Mason at email@example.com or call 248-353-0735, ext. 127.
*GIFTS WERE MATCHED
ESD MEMBERS IN THE NEWS In February, ESD members toured Two James Spirits in Corktown, the first licensed distillery in Detroit since Prohibition. The tour, which was available to ESD Members only, included a tasting plus ample time for socializing. This is the second in an ongoing series of members-only socializing events. If you have great ideas for future tours, contact Mary Sheridan at firstname.lastname@example.org or 248-353-0735, ext. 222.
Leah Mondro, a member of The Engineering Society of Detroit’s MSU Student Chapter, won the Outstanding Society of Women Engineers Award in February at “An Evening with Industry Awards Banquet.” Mondro, of Clinton Township, is a senior majoring in Mechanical Engineering. She received the award sponsored by General Electric. The Outstanding SWE Awards are based on involvement in SWE, national membership, and ideas for future events for the SWE organization. Students apply for awards and winners are chosen by committee.
In January 2017, ESD in collaboration with the Detroit Metro Convention and Visitors Bureau invited a VIP guest list to the press conference held by Governor Snyder announcing that FIRST Robotics World Championship will be held in Detroit in 2018, 2019 and 2020. The press conference featured Dean Kamen (second from left) who is shown above with ESD Executive Vice President Robert Magee, flanked by ESD Student Chapter member LaTonya Waller and invited guest from the University of Toledo Jake Krumnauer. www.esd.org | The Engineering Society of Detroit | 39
THANK YOU TO ESD’S SUSTAINING AND CORPORATE MEMBER COMPANIES
Ford Motor Company
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AKT Peerless Environmental Services Altair Engineering American Axle Manufacturing American Center for Educational & Professional Services American Society of Employers Aristeo Construction AVL North America The Bartech Group Baker College of Allen Park Barton Malow Company Brightwing Central Michigan University Chrysan Industries Citizens Insurance Clark Hill, PLC CMS Enterprises Comfort Engineering Solutions, LLC Construction Association of Michigan Core Design Group Cornerstone Environmental Group, LLC CPCII Credit Union ONE CulturecliQ Dale Prentice Company Danlaw, Inc. DASI Solutions DENSO International America, Inc. Detroit Metro Convention & Visitors Bureau Detroit Transportation Corporation Dow Chemical Company DTE Energy DTE Energy Gas Operations Dürr Systems, Inc. Eastern Michigan University Education Planning Resources, Inc. Electrical Resources Company Electro-Matic Products, Inc. Energy Sciences Experis Farbman Group Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Financial One, Inc. FirstMerit Bank Fishman Stewart Yamaguchi PLLC Ford Motor Company Fusion Welding Solutions
40 | TechCentury | SPRING 2017
Gala & Associates, Inc. Gates Corporation GDH General Dynamics General Motors Company Gensler George W. Auch Company Ghafari Associates, LLC Glenn E. Wash & Associates, Inc. Golder Associates Inc. Gonzalez Contingent Workforce Services GZA GeoEnvironmental, Inc. Harley Ellis Devereaux Hartland Insurance Group, Inc. Hindsight Consulting, Inc. Hubbell, Roth & Clark, Inc. The Hunter Group LLC IBI Group Ideal Contracting Integrity Staffing Group, Inc. ITT Technical Institute Canton ITT Technical Institute Dearborn IBEW Local 58 & NECA LMCC Jervis B. Webb Company JNA Partners, Inc. Jozwiak Consulting, Inc. Kettering University Kitch Drutchas Wagner Valitutti & Sherbrook, PC Knovalent, Inc. Kolene Corporation Kostal North America Kugler Maag CIE North America Lake Superior State University Lawrence Technological University LHP Software Limbach Company, Inc. Link Engineering Co. LTI Information Technology Macomb Community College Maner, Costerisan & Ellis, PC Makino McNaughton-McKay Electric Company Meritor MICCO Construction Michigan Regional Council of Carpenters Michigan State University Michigan Technological University
Midwest Steel Inc. Monroe Environmental Corporation Myron Zucker, Inc. Neumann/Smith Architecture Newman Consulting Group, LLC NORR Architects Engineers Planners Northern Industrial Manufacturing Corp. NTH Consultants, Ltd. O’Brien and Gere Oakland University Optech LLC Orbitak International, LLC Original Equipment Suppliers Association Pure Eco Environmental Solutions R.L. Coolsaet Construction Co. Rocket Fiber ROWE Professional Services Company Rumford Industrial Group Ruby+Associates, Inc. SEGULA Technologies Saginaw Valley State University Special Multi Services System Strategy, Inc. Talascend, LLC Testing Engineers & Consultants Thermal-Netics TRANE Commercial Systems Troy Chamber of Commerce Trialon ZF TRW Turner Construction Co. UBS Financial Services — Lott Sheth Farber Group Universal Weatherstrip & Bldg. Supply University of Detroit Mercy University of Michigan University of Michigan-Dearborn US Farathane Corporation voxeljet America Inc. Wade-Trim Walbridge Walker-Miller Energy Services, LLC Wayne State University Western Michigan University Whitehall Industries The Whiting-Turner Contracting Company WSP | Parsons Brinkerhoff
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Nat. Soc. of Black Engineers–Detroit Alumni Extension (NSBE-DAE) Net Impact Southeastern MI (NISEM) North Am. Soc. of Chinese Automotive Engineers (NACSAE) Project Mgmt. Inst.–Great Lakes Ch. (PMI) SAE Detroit Section (SAE-Detroit Section) SAE Mid MI (SAE–Mid MI) SAE Int’l (SAE–Intl) Safety Council for SE MI (SCSM) Saginaw Valley Engineering Council (SVEC) Soc. for Industrial & Applied Mathematics–Gr. Lakes Sec. (SIAM) Soc. for Marketing Professional Services–MI (SMPS) Soc. of Am. Military Engineers (SAME) Soc. of Am. Value Engineers–Greater MI Ch. (SAVE-GMC) Soc. of Applied Engineering Sciences (SAES) Soc. of Fire Protection Engineers–MI Ch. (SFPE) Soc. of Hispanic Professional Engineers (SHPE) Soc. of Manufacturers’ Representatives (SMR) Soc. of Manufacturing Engineers–Detroit Ch. No. One (SME) Soc. of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) Soc. of Plastics Engineers–Automotive Division (SPEA) Soc. of Plastics Engineers–Detroit (SPE-DETROIT) Soc. of Tribologists & Lubrication Engineers (STLE) Soc. of Women Engineers (SWE) SE MI Facility & Power Plant Engineers Soc. (SEMPPES) SE MI Soc. for Healthcare Engineering (SMSHE) SE MI Sustainable Business Forum (SMSBF) Southeastern MI Computer Organization, Inc. (SEMCO) Structural Engineers Assn. of MI–Am. Inst. of Steel Const. (SEAMi) Student Environmental Assn.–University of MI, Dearborn (SEA-UMD) TiE–The Indus Entrepreneurs (TiE) U.S. Green Building Council–Detroit Regional Ch. (USGBC-DRC) United States Army (USARMY) United States Navy (USNAVY)
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