Issuu on Google+

RIC-6696 4.5/1227


Australian curriculum science (Year 3) Published by R.I.C. Publications® 2011 Copyright© R.I.C. Publications® 2011 ISBN 978-1-74126-990-1 RIC– 6696

Copyright Notice

Titles in this series: Australian curriculum science (Foundation) Australian curriculum science (Year 1) Australian curriculum science (Year 2) Australian curriculum science (Year 3) Australian curriculum science (Year 4) Australian curriculum science (Year 5) Australian curriculum science (Year 6) Australian curriculum science (Year 7)

Blackline masters or copy masters are published and sold with a limited copyright. This copyright allows publishers to provide teachers and schools with a wide range of learning activities without copyright being breached. This limited copyright allows the purchaser to make sufficient copies for use within their own education institution. The copyright is not transferable, nor can it be onsold. Following these instructions is not essential but will ensure that you, as the purchaser, have evidence of legal ownership to the copyright if inspection occurs.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

For your added protection in the case of copyright inspection, please complete the form below. Retain this form, the complete original document and the invoice or receipt as proof of purchase. Name of Purchaser:

Date of Purchase:

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

This master may only be reproduced by the original purchaser for use with their class(es). The publisher prohibits the loaning or onselling of this master for the purposes of reproduction.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Supplier:

w ww

. te

Signature of Purchaser:

m . u

School Order# (if applicable):

o c . che e r o t r s super

Internet websites In some cases, websites or specific URLs may be recommended. While these are checked and rechecked at the time of publication, the publisher has no control over any subsequent changes which may be made to webpages. It is strongly recommended that the class teacher checks all URLs before allowing students to access them.

View all pages online PO Box 332 Greenwood Western Australia 6924

Website: www.ricpublications.com.au Email: mail@ricgroup.com.au


Foreword Australian curriculum science – Foundation to Year 7 is a series of books written specifically to support the national curriculum. Science literacy texts introduce concepts and are supported by practical hands-on activities, predominantly experiments. All Science Understanding and Science as a Human Endeavour substrands for each level are included. Science Inquiry Skills and overarching ideas underpin all topics. Australian curriculum science is a complementary resource to the previously released R.I.C. series, Primary Science.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Contents

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Titles in this series are: Australian curriculum science – Foundation Australian curriculum science – Year 1 Australian curriculum science – Year 2 Australian curriculum science – Year 3 Australian curriculum science – Year 4 Australian curriculum science – Year 5 Australian curriculum science – Year 6 Australian curriculum science – Year 7

How can changing materials from solid to liquid be useful? ........................................................... 43–45 Investigating harmful solids and liquids .............................. 45

Teachers notes ................................................................ iv–vi Science inquiry skills overview ........................................... vii Report format ................................................................... viii Basic experiment format ..................................................... ix

Earth and space sciences ................................... 46–65 What are some of the objects we can see from Earth? ... 46–48 Our solar system ................................................................ 49 Why do we have days, nights, years and seasons? .......... 50–52 How does the Earth rotate and revolve? .............................. 53 How does the sun make shadows? ................................ 54–56 How does a sundial work? .................................................. 57 Why does the moon change shape? ............................... 58–60 Observing the moon ........................................................... 61 How did ancient peoples use astronomy? ..................... 62–64 Stories about the sky .......................................................... 65

Biological sciences ..................................................... 2–33 Is it living, non-living or once living? ................................ 2–4 Can a plant move like a living thing? ..................................... 5 How are animals and plants different? .............................. 6–8 Animal and plant investigation .............................................. 9 How can animals be grouped? ...................................... 10–12 Grouping animals ............................................................... 13 How can plants be grouped? ......................................... 14–16 Grouping plants .................................................................. 17 What does a palaeontologist do? ................................... 18–20 Be a palaeontologist for a day! ............................................ 21 How did the dinosaurs live? .......................................... 22–24 Dinosaur report ................................................................. 25 What do indigenous people know about the natural environment? .................................................... 26–28 How did indigenous people use their knowledge of plants and animals? ............................................................ 29 How can science help plants and animals? ................... 30–32 Science in the community ................................................... 33

w ww

. te

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Physical sciences ...................................................... 66–81 What is heat and how is it produced? ............................ 66–68 Handy experiments ..............................................................69 How does heat travel? ....................................................70–72 Spoonfuls of experiments ................................................... 73 What is a thermometer? ................................................ 74–76 What’s the temperature? ..................................................... 77 How can heat affect us and things around us? ............... 78–80 Magic balloon trick ............................................................ 81

o c . che e r o t r s super

Chemical sciences .................................................... 34–45 What is the difference between a solid, a liquid and a gas? ........................................................ 34–36 Do solids, liquids and gases have weight? ........................... 37 What happens when solids and liquids are heated and cooled? .................................................................. 38–41 The chocolate experiment .................................................. 42

R.I.C. Publications®

www.ricpublications.com.au

iii

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE


Teachers notes Each book is divided into four sections corresponding to the four substrands of the Science Understanding strand of the curriculum. Shaded tabs down the side of each book provide a quick and easy means to locate biological sciences, chemical sciences, Earth and space sciences or physical sciences substrands. Science as a Human Endeavour units or questions, as set out in the Australian Curriculum, are included in all substrands. Science Inquiry Skills are included in all units. The skills utilised are listed on each teachers page. The six overarching ideas (Patterns, order and organisation; Form and function; Stability and change; Scale and measurement; Matter and energy; and Systems) underpin each science literacy text page and are included as much as possible throughout the comprehension pages.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Each substrand is divided into a number of four-page units, each covering a particular aspect and following a consistent format. The four-page format of each unit consists of: • a teachers page

• student page 1, which is a science literacy text about the concept with relevant diagrams or artwork

• student page 3, which involves a hands-on activity such as an experiment. FOUR-PAGE FORMAT Teachers page

The first page in each four-page format is a teachers page which provides the following information:

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

• student page 2, which includes comprehension questions about the literacy text

• Preparation states any material or resources the teacher may need to collect to implement a lesson, or carry out an experiment or activity.

• The title of the four-page unit is given.

Š R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Is it living, non-living or once living? Preparation

s #OLLECTSOMEOFTHEITEMSINTHELASTTWOPARAGRAPHSONPAGE s #OLLECTTHEMATERIALSLISTEDFORTHEEXPERIMENTONPAGE

Inquiry skills focus: 1UESTIONINGANDPREDICTING 0LANNINGANDCONDUCTING 0ROCESSINGANDANALYSINGDATAAND INFORMATION %VALUATING #OMMUNICATING

The lessons s 0AGESANDSHOULDBEUSEDTOGETHER s TAKETHESTUDENTSONA@NATUREWALKOUTSIDESOTHEYCANOBSERVETHEIR SURROUNDINGS TO IDENTIFY LIVING AND NON LIVING OBJECTS AND TO TAKE NOTEOFANYTHINGSTHEYARENOTSUREABOUT3HOWSTUDENTSSOMEOFTHE ITEMSCOLLECTEDINTHELASTTWOPARAGRAPHSONPAGE

Background information

w ww

• The Inquiry Skills focus covered within the four pages is set out. • A shaded tab gives the Science Understanding substrand.

s 4HEAIMOFTHEEXPERIMENTONPAGEISFORSTUDENTSTOUNDERSTAND THAT LIKE ALL LIVING THINGS PLANTS CAN AND DO MOVE 0LANTS USUALLY MOVESOSLOWLYTHATWEDONTNOTICE0LANTSRESPONDTOANUMBEROF DIFFERENTCUESINTHEIRENVIRONMENTWITHMOVEMENT4HESEMOVEMENTS ARECALLED@TROPISMSANDINCLUDEGRAVITROPISMRESPONSETOGRAVITY HYDROTROPISMRESPONSETOWATER ANDPHOTOTROPISMRESPONSEto LIGHT 

s 4HEMAJORDIFFERENCEBETWEENLIVINGANDNON LIVINGTHINGS WHICHIS TOOCOMPLEXTODESCRIBEINDETAILFORSTUDENTSOFTHISAGEGROUP IS THATALLLIVINGTHINGSAREMADEUPOFONEORMORECELLS,IVINGTHINGS CANBECLASSIlEDASSHOWINGTHEFOLLOWINGMAINLIFEFUNCTIONSATSOME TIME − GROWTH,IVINGTHINGSINCREASEINSIZEANDREPAIRSOMEDAMAGED PARTS

. te

s $ISCUSS WITH THE STUDENTS AFTER THE ACTIVITY HOW THE EXPERIMENT WORKEDORDIDNTWORK WHATMIGHTHAVEGONEWRONG ANDWHATTHEY WOULDCHANGETOMAKEITBETTER$IGITALPHOTOGRAPHSCOULDBETAKEN

− -OVEMENT ,IVING THINGS CAN CHANGE THEIR POSITION IN THEIR ENVIRONMENT BY THEMSELVES 0LANTS WHILE SLOWER AND MORE LIMITEDINTHEIRMOVEMENT CANMOVE

Answers

− REPRODUCTION ,IVING THINGS CREATE SIMILAR ORGANISMS to THEMSELVES

o c . che e r o t r s super Page 4

− 3ENSITIVITY,IVINGTHINGSCANSENSEANDRESPONDTOSTIMULIINTHEIR ENVIRONMENT

 A nB !NSWERSMIGHTINCLUDEITEMSTHATMOVEORHAVEMOVING PARTSEGCLOCK SUN CLOUDS C !NSWERS COULD INCLUDE BECAUSE IT DOESNT TAKE IN FOOD OR NUTRIENTS BREATHE HAVEOFFSPRING GIVEOFFWASTESETC  TEACHERCHECK  2EFERTOC  4HEYWEREBOTHONCELIVING  ,IVINGD E G H .ON LIVINGA B F I /NCELIVINGC J K  0OSSIBLEANSWERSPAPER WOOD MILK CHEESE mOUR

− RESPIRATION,IVINGTHINGSCONVERTENERGYFROMTHEENVIRONMENT FOOD FORUSE APROCESSUSUALLYREQUIRINGOXYGEN

− ELIMINATION%XCRETION,IFEFUNCTIONSCREATEWASTESWHICHMUSTBE REMOVEDFROMTHEORGANISM

− &EEDING.UTRITION)NALLLIVINGTHINGS THEREISACONTINUALNEEDTO TAKEINFOODFORTHENUTRIENTSWHICHAREREQUIREDFORGROWTH AS WELLASENERGY s .ON LIVINGTHINGSDONOTREPRODUCE4HEYMAYCHANGEANDINCREASE INSIZEDUETOCERTAINNATURALPROCESSES BUTDONOTDEVELOPANDADAPT TOTHEENVIRONMENT4HEYDONOTRESPONDTOSTIMULIORREQUIREAIR FOODORWATER

Page 5

n TEACHERCHECK  YES4HEPLANTSTHATWEREFURTHERFROMTHELIGHTSHOULDHAVEMOVED THEIR STEMS TOWARDS THE LIGHT AND BE ON AN ANGLE 4HOSE DIRECTLY UNDERTHELIGHTSHOULDHAVEGROWNSTRAIGHTUP  !NSWERSWILLVARY3OMESTUDENTSMIGHTRECALLTHATPLANTSNEEDLIGHT SOTHEPLANTGREWTOWARDSTHELIGHT/THERSMIGHTMENTIONTHATTHE PLANTSJUSTGREWTOWARDSTHELIGHTBECAUSEITWASSHINING  A PLANTSCANMOVETHEIRSTEMSTOWARDSLIGHT

s 4HINGSTHATWEREONCEPARTOFALIVINGTHING SUCHASWOOD FRUITAND CUTGRASS AREUSUALLYCLASSIlEDAS@ONCELIVING!NYTHINGDEADISALSO ONCE LIVING.ON LIVINGISTHECONDITIONOFNEVERBEINGALIVE s 5SEFULWEBSITES HTTPWWWZEPHYRUSCOUKCHARACTERISTICSHTML HTTPWWWTEACHERSDOMAINORGRESOURCETDCSCILIFECOLT ALIVE HTTPVIDEOSHOWSTUFFWORKSCOMDISCOVERY LIFE CREEPER PLANTS CLIMB TREES VIDEOHTM3HOWSTIMELAPSEPHOTOGRAPHYOFA PLANTMOVINGUPWARDTOWARDSLIGHT#OULDHELPSOMESTUDENTSTO UNDERSTANDTHATPLANTSDOINFACTMOVE

• Background information, which includes additional information for teacher and student use and useful websites relating to the topic of the section, expands on the unit.

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

• The lessons provides information relating to implementing the lessons on the following student pages.

m . u

Biological sciences

• The content focus (the particular aspect of the unit covered in that set of four pages) is given.

Content focus: $IFFERENCEBETWEENLIVING NON LIVINGAND ONCELIVINGTHINGS

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

www.ricpublications.com.au

2

iv

R.I.C. PublicationsÂŽ

• Answers and explanations are provided where appropriate for student pages 2 and 3 (the comprehension questions relating to the text and the final activity in the set of four pages).

www.ricpublications.com.au

R.I.C. PublicationsÂŽ


Teachers notes FOUR-PAGE FORMAT (continued) Student page 1 The second page in the four-page format is a science literacy text which introduces the topic. This page provides the following information: • The title of the unit is given. This is in the form of a question to incorporate science inquiry skills and overarching ideas.

Read the text. How can you tell if something is living or non-living? Look around your classroom and decide what might be living and non-living. You would be likely to say your teacher and you are living and your desk and chair are non-living. But how do you know this?

Biological sciences

Is it living, non-living or once living? – 1

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

• A shaded tab down the side gives the Science Understanding substrand.

Usually it’s easy to tell if something is living or non-living. You would probably say you are living because you can move, grow and breathe. Your desk can’t do these things so it is non-living. But sometimes, non-living things can do some of the things that living things can do. For example, clouds can move across the sky. A fire can grow and get larger.

However, for something to be called living, it must have all the features of living things. Living things like humans, other animals and plants can: • • • • •

Fire moves, grows and seems to ‘eat’ things when it burns them. But fire does not reproduce. It is non-living.

Clouds move and change colour and shape. They drop rain and can get bigger. But they do not breathe, eat or have offspring. Clouds are non-living.

Water moves and changes. While water might carry away wastes, it does not make waste or reproduce. Water is non-living.

What about things like a bouquet of flowers and fruit you buy in a supermarket? The cut flowers are ‘once living’, once part of living plants. Fruit is also once living. Fossils are the remains of once living animals. Dead animals or plants are also once living.

• The science literacy text is provided.

There are many products made from living things. Paper and wood were once part of living trees. Milk and cheese come from animals such as dairy cows. Flour is produced from wheat. Can you think of other products made from living things?

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

• Instructions are given for reading the text.

breathe (take in oxygen) • grow and change take in food or nutrients • give off wastes respond to things around them, like light or heat move (by themselves, either whole body or part of their body) reproduce (have ‘offspring’ like babies, or grow from seeds or spores)

• Relevant diagrams or artwork enhance the text, or are used to assist student understanding of the concepts.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• R.I.C. Publications®

www.ricpublications.com.au

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

3

Student page 2

The second student page consists of a series of questions or activities relating to the literacy text. They aim to gauge student understanding of the concepts presented in the text. Many of these questions relate to overarching ideas relevant to that age level as stated in the Australian Curriculum Science.

• Questions or activities follow. These relate to the text on the previous page.

Use the text on page 3 to complete the following. 1. (a) Write the name of one non-living thing you can see that can do something a living thing can do. (b) What can it do?

(c) Why is it non-living and not living?

2. Write the names of two non-living things that can change.

m . u

. te

• The title, which is the same as the text page, is given.

Is it living, non-living or once living? – 2 Biological sciences

w ww

• A shaded tab gives the Science Understanding substrand.

o c . che e r o t r s super 3.

Why is ice non-living?

4. What is similar between a bouquet of flowers and a dead animal?

5. Write L in the box if the thing is living, N if it is non-living and OL if it is once living. (a) desk

(b) sun

(c) fossil

(e) cat

(f) water

(g) tree

(i) fire

(j) leaf on the ground

(d) baby (h) fish (k) fruit in a bowl

6. List three things that are products of living things.

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

www.ricpublications.com.au

4

R.I.C. Publications®

Where relevant, a question relating to Science as a Human Endeavour may be included as the final question on this page. This assists in keeping the strands interrelated. This question is indicated by the icon shown to the left. R.I.C. Publications®

www.ricpublications.com.au

v

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE


Teachers notes FOUR-PAGE FORMAT (continued) Student page 3 The third student page provides a hands-on activity. It may be an experiment, art or craft activity, research activity or similar.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

• A shaded tab gives the Science Understanding substrand.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

• The title is given. This will be different from the previous two pages, but will be a related to the concept focus of the unit.

• An adapted procedure for an experiment, craft activity or a research activity is given.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Science as a Human Endeavour units and questions Those four-page units which are related specifically to Science as a Human Endeavour substrands are indicated by the icon shown.

. te

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

m . u

w ww

Where Science as a Human Endeavour questions occur within Science Understanding units, they are also indicated by the use of the icon. Explanations and answers relating to these questions are given on the appropriate teachers page.

o c . che e r o t r s super

vi

www.ricpublications.com.au

R.I.C. Publications®


Science inquiry skills overview Biological sciences PAGE

Questioning and predicting

Planning and conducting

Processing and analysing data and information

Evaluating

Communicating

2–5 6–9 10–13 14–17 18–21

26–29 30-33

PAGE

34–37

38–41 42–45

Chemical sciences

Questioning and predicting

Planning and conducting

Processing and analysing data and information

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

22–25

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Evaluating

Communicating

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Earth and space sciences Evaluating

46–49

50–53

Questioning and predicting

w ww

. te

54–57 58–61 62-65

Planning and conducting

Communicating

m . u

Processing and analysing data and information

PAGE

o c . che e r o t r s super Physical sciences

PAGE

Questioning and predicting

Planning and conducting

Processing and analysing data and information

Evaluating

Communicating

66–69 70–73 74–77 78–81

R.I.C. Publications®

www.ricpublications.com.au

vii

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE


Report format Title Classification What is it?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Description

w ww

. te

Conclusion What I think about it

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

viii

www.ricpublications.com.au

R.I.C. Publications®


Experiment format Title Goal Materials

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Steps

w ww

Results

. te

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

Conclusion

R.I.C. Publications®

www.ricpublications.com.au

ix

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE


Is it living, non-living or once living? • Collect some of the items in the last two paragraphs on page 3. • Collect the materials listed for the experiment on page 5.

Inquiry skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Evaluating Communicating Background information

The lessons • Pages 3 and 4 should be used together. • Take the students on a ‘nature walk’ outside so they can observe their surroundings to identify living and non-living objects, and to take note of any things they are not sure about. Show students some of the items collected in the last two paragraphs on page 3.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

− Growth: Living things increase in size and repair some damaged parts.

ew i ev Pr

• The aim of the experiment on page 5 is for students to understand that, like all living things, plants can and do move. Plants usually move so slowly that we don’t notice. Plants respond to a number of different cues in their environment with movement. These movements are called ‘tropisms’ and include gravitropism (response to gravity), hydrotropism (response to water) and phototropism (response to light).

• The major difference between living and non-living things, which is too complex to describe in detail for students of this age group, is that all living things are made up of one or more cells. Living things can be classified as showing the following main life functions at some time:

Teac he r

• Discuss with the students after the activity how the experiment worked or didn’t work, what might have gone wrong, and what they would change to make it better. Digital photographs could be taken.

− Movement: Living things can change their position in their environment by themselves. Plants, while slower and more limited in their movement, can move.

Answers

− Reproduction: Living things create similar organisms to themselves.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Page 4

− Sensitivity: Living things can sense and respond to stimuli in their environment.

1. (a)–(b) Answers might include items that move or have moving parts; e.g. clock, sun, clouds. (c) Answers could include because it doesn’t take in food or nutrients, breathe, have offspring, give off wastes etc. 2. Teacher check 3. Refer to 1. (c) 4. They were both once living. 5. Living: (d), (e), (g), (h) Non-living: (a), (b), (f), (i) Once living: (c), (j), (k) 6. Possible answers: paper, wood, milk, cheese, flour

− Respiration: Living things convert energy from the environment (food) for use, a process usually requiring oxygen.

− Elimination/Excretion: Life functions create wastes which must be removed from the organism.

w ww

− Feeding/Nutrition: In all living things, there is a continual need to take in food for the nutrients which are required for growth, as well as energy. • Non-living things do not reproduce. They may change and increase in size due to certain natural processes, but do not develop and adapt to the environment. They do not respond to stimuli; or require air, food or water.

. te

Page 5

o c . che e r o t r s super

1.–2. Teacher check 3. Yes. The plants that were further from the light should have moved their stems towards the light and be on an angle. Those directly under the light should have grown straight up. 4. Answers will vary. Some students might recall that plants need light, so the plant grew towards the light. Others might mention that the plants just grew towards the light because it was shining. 5. (a) plants can move their stems towards light.

• Things that were once part of a living thing, such as wood, fruit and cut grass, are usually classified as ‘once living’. Anything dead is also once-living. Non-living is the condition of never being alive. • Useful websites:

<http://www.zephyrus.co.uk/characteristics.html> <http://www.teachersdomain.org/resource/tdc02.sci.life.colt. alive/> <http://videos.howstuffworks.com/discovery/40622-life-creeperplants-climb-trees-video.htm> (Shows time lapse photography of a plant moving upward towards light. Could help some students to understand that plants do in fact move.)

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

m . u

Biological sciences

Preparation

Content focus: Difference between living, non-living and once living things

2

www.ricpublications.com.au

R.I.C. Publications®


Read the text. How can you tell if something is living or non-living? Look around your classroom and decide what might be living and non-living. You would be likely to say your teacher and you are living and your desk and chair are non-living. But how do you know this? Usually it’s easy to tell if something is living or non-living. You would probably say you are living because you can move, grow and breathe. Your desk can’t do these things so it is non-living. But sometimes, non-living things can do some of the things that living things can do. For example, clouds can move across the sky. A fire can grow and get larger.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

However, for something to be called living, it must have all the features of living things. Living things like humans, other animals and plants can:

Teac he r

breathe (take in oxygen) • grow and change take in food or nutrients • give off wastes respond to things around them, like light or heat move (by themselves, either whole body or part of their body) reproduce (have ‘offspring’ like babies, or grow from seeds or spores)

ew i ev Pr

• • • • •

Fire moves, grows and seems to ‘eat’ things when it burns them. But © Rdoes . I . C Publ c at i ons fire not. reproduce. Iti is non-living. Clouds move and change colour and shape. They drop •f orr evi e w pur posesonl y• rain and can get bigger. But they do not breathe, eat or have offspring. Clouds are non-living.

m . u

w ww

. te

Water moves and changes. While water might carry away wastes, it does not make waste or reproduce. Water is non-living.

o c . che e r o t r s super

What about things like a bouquet of flowers and fruit you buy in a supermarket? The cut flowers are ‘once living’, once part of living plants. Fruit is also once living. Fossils are the remains of once living animals. Dead animals or plants are also once living. There are many products made from living things. Paper and wood were once part of living trees. Milk and cheese come from animals such as dairy cows. Flour is produced from wheat. Can you think of other products made from living things?

R.I.C. Publications®

www.ricpublications.com.au

3

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

Biological sciences

Is it living, non-living or once living? – 1


Is it living, non-living or once living? – 2 1. (a) Write the name of one non-living thing you can see that can do something a living thing can do. (b) What can it do?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

(c) Why is it non-living and not living?

2. Write the names of two non-living things that can change.

ew i ev Pr

3.

Teac he r

Why is ice non-living?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

m . u

Biological sciences

Use the text on page 3 to complete the following.

4. What is similar between a bouquet of flowers and a dead animal?

. t e 5. Write L in the box if the thing is living, N if it is non-living and OL ifc it o is once living. . che e r o r (a) desk (b) sun fossil (d) baby st sup(c)er (e) cat

(f) water

(g) tree

(i) fire

(j) leaf on the ground

(h) fish (k) fruit in a bowl

6. List three things that are products of living things.

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

4

www.ricpublications.com.au

R.I.C. Publications®


Plants are living things, but they canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t move â&#x20AC;Ś can they? Letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s find out! Materials: â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘

4 seedlings (such as bean plants) in small plastic pots or containers water scissors large cardboard box with lid, lined with plastic

Procedure:

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

í˘ą Cut a hole (about the size of a 50c coin) close í˘˛ Put two of the seedlings into the box directly

under the hole and two at the other end of the box.

í˘ł Put the lid on the box and place it in a bright area. Water the plants over two weeks or until they have grown a few centimetres.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

to the edge of one side of the box lid.

Š R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons â&#x20AC;˘f o rr e e wthat pare ur pfrom os elight so nl yâ&#x20AC;˘ What might happen to v thei plants far the hole?

Predictions, results and conclusions: 1.

w ww

m . u

2. Why do you think this might happen?

3. Did the plants far from the light grow differently from the plants under the light?

. te

o c . ch e 4. Why do you think this happened? r er o t s super If so, how?

5. Tick the answer that is the best conclusion. This experiment shows that: (a) plants can move their stems towards light. ................................................. (b) plants can drink and grow when a light is shining on them. ........................ (c) seeds are like a plantâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s babies that only grow with soil and light. ............... R.I.C. PublicationsÂŽ

www.ricpublications.com.au

5

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

Biological sciences

Can a plant move like a living thing?


How are animals and plants different? Page 8

Inquiry skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Evaluating Communicating Background information

1. Students should choose from four of the following: breathe, grow and change, take in food and nutrients, reproduce, give off wastes, move, and respond to things. 2. To help them move by walking, running, crawling, flying etc. 3. (a) They use a mouth, teeth or beak for eating and stomach for digesting. (b) Plants usually make their own food in their leaves. 4. Many animals have several senses and sense organs to see, hear, taste, touch and smell things. 5. Plants have coverings such as bark and leaf and stem coverings. Animals have skin, hair, hide, scales, feathers and shells etc. 6. A Venus flytrap behaves like an animal as it eats insects like some animals do.

• The question of how the approximately 14 million living things identified should be grouped has engaged researchers for centuries. In 1753, Carolus Linnaeus, a Swede, devised a system in which there were only two kingdoms—plants and animals. Modern classification has become more complex. Many biologists recognise six kingdoms—Animalia (animals), Plantae (plants), Protista (slime moulds and algae), Archaebacteria (single-celled organisms), Eubacteria (different chemical makeup from Archaebacteria) and Fungi (e.g. mushrooms, toadstools, mildew). The kingdoms are classified by the living things’ cell type, number of cells and ability to make own food. • Useful websites:

ew i ev Pr

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

• The text highlights some of the differences between animals and plants students of this age can comprehend. In simple terms, the differences discussed are those involved in movement, feeding, the use of senses and coverings.

Teac he r

Science as a Human Endeavour question Nature and development of science A zoologist is a scientist who studies animals and a botanist is a scientist who studies plants. Page 9 Teacher check

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

<http://www.ric.edu/faculty/ptiskus/Six_Kingdoms/Index.htm> (Simple explanation of six-kingdom classification.) <http://www.sciencekids.co.nz/gamesactivities/plantanimaldif. html> (Sorting living things into groups)

w ww

m . u

Biological sciences

Answers

Content focus: Comparison between structural features and function of animals and plants

<http://www.sciencenetlinks.com/interactives/class.html> (Interactive game classifying plants and animals) Preparation

. te

o c . che e r o t r s super

• Have a wide variety of animal and plant pictures available (from the internet, nonfiction books or posters) to view while discussing page 7.

• Students will need access to a dictionary or the internet to answer the final question on page 8.

• Students will need access to the internet and other reference material to complete the investigations on page 9. The lessons • Pages 7 and 8 should be used together. This unit would best be treated after pages 2 to 5. • Ensure students understand vocabulary such as ‘nutrients’, ‘reproduce’, ‘response’, ‘stimulus’, ‘senses’, ‘sense organs’ and ‘antennae’. • Page 9 could be completed individually or in pairs. With assistance, students work out how to present their final report to the class or small group. AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

6

www.ricpublications.com.au

R.I.C. Publications®


Read the text. Did you know that there are millions of different types of animals and plants on Earth? Animals and plants both belong in the same group of living things. But how do you know if a living thing is a plant or an animal? We know that all living things breathe, grow and change, and take in food and nutrients. They also reproduce, give off wastes, and move and respond to things around them like light or heat. It is usually easy to tell an animal from a plant. We know a bee, a fish and a kangaroo are animals. And we know that a gum tree, a rose and a fern are plants. Sometimes, it is more difficult to tell. For example, a plant called a Venus flytrap catches animals such as insects! It behaves a bit like an animal but is still a plant.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Here are some ways to tell the difference between animals and plants. 1. Movement Animals can move from place to place by themselves. They may have legs, limbs or wings to help them walk, run, crawl or fly. Most plants grow in soil and stay in the one place. They move as they grow or as the wind moves them. They may also move in response to a stimulus like light, such as opening their petals in the morning sunshine.

w ww

. te

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

2. Feeding Animals feed on other animals or plants. They have to catch or collect their food. Most animals have some kind of mouth, teeth or beak to help eat their food. It is digested in an area like a stomach. Most plants make their own food in their leaves and store it.

3. Use of senses Most animals use several senses and have sense organs. Many animals have eyes for seeing and ears for hearing. Some feel things through skin or antennae and have noses for smelling. Some taste things using their tongue. Plants don’t have senses in the same way animals do. They respond to a stimulus such as when an insect lands on a Venus flytrap and its trap closes. They don’t have sense organs such as eyes, ears, noses or antennae.

o c . che e r o t r s super

4. Coverings Animals have coverings such as skin (human), hair (dog), hide (rhinoceros), scales (python, goldfish), feathers (owl) or shells (snail). Plants have coverings such as bark on tree trunks, and leaf and stem coverings that can vary, such as smooth, coarse, hairy or hard. R.I.C. Publications®

www.ricpublications.com.au

7

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

Biological sciences

How are animals and plants different? – 1


How are animals and plants different? – 2 1. List four things all living things can do.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

2. Why do animals have legs, limbs or wings?

3. (a) What do most animals use to eat and digest their food?

(b) How do plants usually get their food?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons How do many animals use their senses? •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

5. How are plants’ and animals’ coverings different?

. te

m . u

4.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Biological sciences

Use the text on page 7 to complete the following.

o c . che e r o t r s sflytrap r pe 6. Why would some people think a Venusu is an animal?

Use a dictionary or internet sources to find out the difference between a zoologist and a botanist. AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

8

www.ricpublications.com.au

R.I.C. Publications®


Biological sciences

Animal and plant investigation 1. (a) Choose one animal and one plant to plan a report about. (b) Make notes next to each question about the animal and plant. (c) Add one question of your own in the blank box. Animal

Plant

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Common name Scientific name

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

What drawings or diagrams will I need and where will I find them?

What does it look like?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

. te

m . u

How does it move?

How does it eat?

o c . che e r o t r s super

Why is this an animal/plant?

2. Plan how to present your finished report to your class. R.I.C. Publications®

www.ricpublications.com.au

9

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE


How can animals be grouped? Page 12

Inquiry skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Evaluating Communicating Background information

1. Students should answer vertebrate because they have a backbone. 2. (a) V (b) I (c) V (d) I (e) I (f) V 3. (a) have live young/mother feeds young milk/have hair or fur (b) have feathers and wings/most can fly (c) most have scales and fins/breathe all life with gills (d) dry skin and scales (e) spend part of life in water and part on land 4. live in water/are invertebrates/take in food and expel wastes 5. A carnivore is an animal that eats meat and a herbivore is one that eats plants. 6. (a) it would have an exoskeleton, jointed legs and segmented body, and live in water or on land (b) have spiny skin and live in seawater (c) have a shell on inside or outside of body/live in water or on land

Page 13

• Modern scientific classification is based on the work of Swedish botanist, Carolus Linnaeus. Most scientists classify living things into seven groups. From largest to smallest these are: Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species.

ew i ev Pr

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

• The huge diversity of animals that exists in the animal kingdom allows for an equally diverse range of groupings. Animals can belong to an infinite number of different groups and to subgroups within groups; e.g. a platypus is a vertebrate; a mammal, in the subgroup of monetremes as it is a mammal that lays eggs; it can swim; it is a native Australian animal; it has a covering of fur; it is a carnivore etc. Animals can be grouped according to a specific purpose such as research and the communication of information.

Teac he r

Fish: cod Can fly: crow Mollusc: oyster Bird: crow, emu Invertebrate: oyster, ant, earthworm, sea urchin, cricket Vertebrate: crocodile, frog, lizard, crow, cod, whale, emu, horse, goanna, monkey Mammal: whale, horse, monkey Arthropod: ant, cricket Lives only on land: lizard, crow, emu, ant, horse, earthworm, cricket, goanna, monkey Has legs: frog, lizard, crow, emu, ant, horse, goanna, monkey, crocodile, cricket

• Ninety-five percent of all animals are invertebrates (animals without backbones). Of these, arthropods are the largest and most diverse of all animal groups.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

• Sponges and some coelenterates like sea anenomes are often considered plants. However, they do not produce their own food like plants and use a filtering system to sieve food in and wastes out. When sponges are in the larval stage, they move by themselves until they attach to rock or a reef. • Useful website:

m . u

Biological sciences

Answers

Content focus: Classification of animals

w ww

<http://www.brainpopjr.com/science/animals/classifyinganimals/> (Video explaining common way of classifying animals.) Preparation

. te

o c . che e r o t r s super

• Have a wide variety of animal pictures available from as many of the groups listed on page 11 (from the internet, nonfiction books or posters) as possible to view while discussing page 11.

• Students will need access to the internet and other reference material to complete the classification activity on page 13. The lessons • Pages 11 and 12 should be used together. • Ensure students know how to pronounce all the subgroups of invertebrates and vertebrates. • Page 13 could be completed individually, in pairs, in a small group or with the whole class. Students will need to revise or refer to page 11 to help them work out what each heading means. They will know where many of the animals should be placed through general knowledge and will need to research to find the remainder.

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

10

www.ricpublications.com.au

R.I.C. Publications®


Read the text. Scientists group animals by the things they have in common. This is called ‘classification’. There are many ways animals can be classified. One way is shown below. Invertebrates (Animals without backbones)

Vertebrates (Animals with backbones)

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

• Sponges live in water. Filter tiny organisms and wastes through holes. • Coelenterates live in water. Have hollow bodies. Mouths take in food and get rid of waste. Examples: jellyfish, sea anenomes. • Echinoderms live in seawater. Have spiny skin. Examples: starfish, sea urchins. • Annelids live in water or on land. Have soft bodies and no legs. Examples: worms, earthworms. • Molluscs live in water or on land. Have a shell on the outside or inside of their body for protection. Examples: snails, squid. • Arthropods live in water or on land. Have a hard outside covering called an ‘exoskeleton’, jointed legs and segmented bodies. Examples: insects (e.g. butterflies), spiders, crustaceans (e.g. crabs).

• Mammals have live young which mother feeds with milk. Have hair or fur. Examples: elephants, mice. • Birds have feathers and wings. Most can fly. Lay eggs. Examples: owls, penguins. • Fish usually have scales and fins. Breathe underwater all life with gills. Lay eggs. Examples: sharks, cod. • Reptiles have dry skin and scales. Lay eggs. Examples: turtles, snakes. • Amphibians spend part of life on water and part on land. Lay eggs. Moist or slimy skin. Examples: frogs, toads.

Teac he r

Vertebrates can be sorted into these groups:

ew i ev Pr

Invertebrates can be sorted into these groups:

w ww

. te

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

Other ways these animals can be classified are by what they eat, where they live or how they move.

Animals might be meat eaters (carnivores) like sharks, plant eaters (herbivores) like elephants or eat meat and plants (omnivores) like mice. Animals like squid and starfish live in water, some like spiders and snails live on land and others like frogs and toads live in both. Animals might fly like butterflies and owls or move around on four or more legs like crabs, mice and spiders. Can you think of other ways to classify animals? R.I.C. Publications®

www.ricpublications.com.au

11

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

Biological sciences

How can animals be grouped? – 1


How can animals be grouped? – 2 1. (a) Are you an invertebrate or a vertebrate? (b) Why? 2. Write ‘I’ if the animal is an invertebrate and ‘V’ if it is a vertebrate. (a) shark (d) butterfly

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S (b) starfish

(c) mouse

(e) earthworm

(f) snake

3. Describe one characteristic each vertebrate has that is different from other vertebrates. (a) mammal (b) bird (c) fish

(d) reptile

(e) amphibian

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

4. What is one thing a sponge and a jellyfish have in common?

5. What is the difference between a carnivore and a herbivore?

w ww

. t (a) arthropod? e

6. How would you know if an animal was a/an:

m . u

Biological sciences

Use the text on page 11 to complete the following.

o c . che e r o t r s super

(b) echinoderm?

(c) mollusc?

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

12

www.ricpublications.com.au

R.I.C. Publications®


The animals below can be placed in different groups. Most of them can be placed under more than one heading. Write each animal’s name in every box in which it belongs. crocodile

frog

lizard

crow

sea urchin

whale

oyster

emu

ant

horse

earthworm

cricket

goanna

cod

Can fly

Is a mollusc

Is a bird

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Is a fish

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S monkey

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

. te

Is a mammal

Is a vertebrate

o c . che e r o t r s super Is an arthropod

Lives only on land

R.I.C. Publications®

m . u

Is an invertebrate

www.ricpublications.com.au

Has legs

13

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

Biological sciences

Grouping animals


How can plants be grouped?

Inquiry skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Evaluating Communicating Background information

Answers Page 16 1. Seed plants and non-seed plants. 2. They reproduce by spores. 3. (a) N (b) S (c) N (d) N (e) S (f) N (g) S (h) N (i) S 4. A spore does not have any nutrients for the shoot to use until its roots grow and take in nutrients. 5. (a) non-seed plants/reproduce by spores/grow in damp places (b) mosses are smaller/ferns are larger//mosses have simple leaves/ ferns have spreading fronds/ferns have special tubes to carry nutrients from the roots to the leaves and mosses do not 6. yellow: has flowers, seeds grow in an ovary green: seeds grow in a cone orange: can be a tree, has seeds, special tubes that carry water and nutrients

• Angiosperms are flowering plants whose seeds mature inside a female reproductive part of the flower, called the ovary. The ovary usually ripens into a protective fruit. The vast majority of plants— approximately 230 000—are classified as flowering plants. Gymnosperms are non-flowering seed plants. The seeds mature inside a cone. • Vascular plants have phloem and xylem tubes to transport water and nutrients from the roots to the leaves. Non-vascular plants like mosses absorb through their surfaces.

Page 17

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Has flowers: rose, gum, lemon, olive, basil, carnation, parsley, broccoli, grape, ivy, daffodil Is a herb: basil, parsley Is a tree: gum, lemon, olive, fir, pine, tree fern Has cones: fir, pine Is a creeper or a vine: grape, ivy Part of the plant is a fruit or a vegetable: lemon, olive, broccoli, grape Has seeds: rose, gum, lemon, olive, basil, carnation, fir, pine, parsley, broccoli, grape, ivy, daffodil Has spores: moss, tree fern

• Seaweeds are commonly considered plants, as they have plant-like features. However, along with algae and slime moulds, they are classified in the Protista Kingdom. • Useful websites:

<http://www.brainpopjr.com/science/plants/plantlifecycle/preview. weml> (Life cycle of a flowering plant)

. te

m . u

w ww

<http://www.hhmi.org/coolscience/forkids/vegquiz/plantparts. html> (Identifying edible parts of different plants) Preparation

ew i ev Pr

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

• Modern scientific classification is based on the work of Swedish botanist, Carolus Linnaeus. Most scientists classify living things into seven groups. From largest to smallest these are: Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species.

Teac he r

Biological sciences

• Note: Except for ‘tree fern’ (as not all ferns are trees), the word ‘tree’ has been omitted from gum tree, lemon tree etc so the answer is not given away.

Content focus: Classification of plants

o c . che e r o t r s super

• Have available a wide variety of plant pictures (from the internet, nonfiction books or posters) from the groups listed on page 15 to view while discussing the page. Actual plants, if possible, would also be helpful.

• Students will need access to the internet and other reference material to complete the classification activity on page 17. The lessons • Pages 15 and 16 should be used together. • Ensure students understand terms such as ‘reproduce’, ‘nutrients’, ‘legumes’ etc.

• Page 17 could be completed individually, in pairs, in a small group or with the whole class. Students will need to revise or refer to page 15 to help them work what each heading means. They will know where many of the plants should be placed through general knowledge and will need to research to find the remainder. AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

14

www.ricpublications.com.au

R.I.C. Publications®


Read the text. Scientists group plants by the things they have in common. This is called ‘classification’. There are different ways plants can be classified. One way is shown below.

Seed plants

(Plants that reproduce by spores)

(Plants that reproduce by seeds)

Non-seed plants can be sorted into mosses and ferns.

Seed plants can be sorted into non-flowering and flowering plants.

Mosses: Mosses do not have seeds or flowers. They reproduce by spores. Spores are a bit like seeds, but they do not have any nutrients in them for the sprout to use until its roots grow and take in nutrients.

Non-flowering plants: Conifers are trees or shrubs that do not have flowers. They reproduce from seeds. These are contained in a ‘cone’ instead of a flower.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Non-seed plants

Conifers have special tubes that carry water and nutrients from the roots to the leaves. The leaves are small or needleshaped. Examples of conifers are pines, firs and cedars.

Mosses are small plants and have simple leaves. They are found growing in damp places on the ground, on rocks or on other plants. Other related plants in this group are liverworts and hornworts.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Flowering plants: Most plants belong in this group. They include most trees, shrubs, vines, herbs, flowers, legumes, fruits and vegetables. Like conifers, they have special tubes that carry water and nutrients from the roots to the leaves.

. te

m . u

w ww

Ferns: Like mosses, ferns reproduce by spores and do not have seeds or flowers. They are larger than mosses. Their spreading leaves are called ‘fronds’. Ferns are mostly found in damp places.

o c . che e r o t r s super

The seeds are grown in an ‘ovary’ which is inside a flower or fruit. Many flowers are brightly coloured and easy to see. Others are small and not brightly coloured.

Unlike mosses, ferns have special tubes that carry water and nutrients from the roots to the fronds. Another related plant is the ‘horsetail’.

Other ways plants can be classified are by where they are found; if they can be eaten, if medicine can be made from them or if they are a creeper, tree or garden flower. Can you think of another way to group plants? R.I.C. Publications®

www.ricpublications.com.au

15

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

Biological sciences

How can plants be grouped? – 1


How can plants be grouped? – 2 1. What are two main ways plants can be grouped?

2. How do non-seed plants reproduce?

(d) fern

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S (e) vine

(f) horsetail

(g) fruit

(h) hornwort

(i) fir

3. Write N if the plant is a non-seed plant and S if it is a seed plant. (a) moss

(b) pine

(c) liverwort

4. What is the difference between a spore and a seed?

5.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Describe one thing that is the same about mosses and ferns and one thing that is •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• different. (a) same:

w ww

m . u

Biological sciences

Use the text on page 15 to complete the following.

(b) different:

. te

o c . che e r o t r s suowering er 6. Use the code to colour these facts about flp and non-flowering plants. flowering: yellow

non-flowering: green

both: orange

can be a tree

has flowers

has seeds

seeds grow in a cone

special tubes that carry water and nutrients

seeds grow in an ovary

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

16

www.ricpublications.com.au

R.I.C. Publications®


Biological sciences

Grouping plants The plants below can be placed in different groups. Most of them can be placed under more than one heading. Write each plant’s name in every box in which it belongs. rose

moss

gum

lemon

olive

basil

carnation

fir

pine

parsley

broccoli

tree fern

ivy

Is a herb

daffodil

Is a tree

Has cones

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Has flowers

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S grape

w ww

Is a creeper or a vine

. te

R.I.C. Publications®

Part of the plant is a fruit or vegetable

Has seeds

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Has spores

o c . che e r o t r s super

www.ricpublications.com.au

17

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE


What does a palaeontologist do? • Pages 19 and 20 should be used together. • Students could work in pairs as ‘palaeontologists’ to solve the ‘mysteries’ behind the fossil pictures on page 21. They write their findings in the space and discuss these with others in the class. If some findings are different, they should work out if the explanation is still a possibility.

Content focus: How the science of palaeontology has enabled us to understand patterns and relationships of prehistoric living things Inquiry skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Evaluating Communicating Background information

Page 20

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

1. Possible answers: discovers fossils; studies fossils; digs out, cleans, repairs and puts fossils back together. 2. Answers could indicate ‘yes’ because the word is from a Latin one meaning ‘dug up’, which is what happens to fossils. 3. (a) bones, teeth, claws (b) animal droppings/nests/eggs/footprints 4. A plant doesn’t have hard parts like bones. 5. It must be gently covered by fine sand or mud before it decays and disappears. 6. Possible answers: (a) how old a fossil is (b) what kind of plant it was, like a fern or a palm (c) if an animal walked on two or four legs/size of animal (d) what the animal ate

• Fossils are the remains of once living animals or plants. For thousands of years, people noticed that some rocks looked like plants and animals. They thought they were the remains of recently living plants and animals. It is only in the past 150 to 200 years that scientists realised these rocks were the remains of the ancestors of today’s animals and plants.

• Developments in the study of fossils have enabled palaeontologists (scientists who study the history of life on Earth based on fossil records) to describe patterns and relationships of living things that lived long ago. There are several subdisciplines of palaeontology, including micropalaeontology (microscopic fossils), vertebrate palaeontology, taphonomy (fossil formation) and ichnology (fossil tracks and imprints).

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Page 21

Answers should indicate: 1. First fossil is a plant (as it is a frond). Second is an animal as it looks like a bone. 2. Body of an insect with a head and thin legs, and wings. Looks like a moth or butterfly. 3. Walked on two legs, had a tail, large head, large jaw, sharp teeth, claws on hands, probably a fierce creature that ate other animals. (Some students may work out it is a T-rex dinosaur skeleton.) 4. Lived in a marine environment as they are fossils of a fish, shells and a starfish. 5. The tracks show a smaller animal’s footprints being followed by a larger animal’s footprints. The larger animal caught the smaller one. They had a struggle and the smaller one was killed and eaten. The larger one walked away, leaving a few bones.

• Only a small percentage of animals and plants fossilise. Most simply decay after death. Of those that fossilise, the most common way is for it to have been buried in mud with subsequent hardening. Other ways include freezing, entrapment in tree sap and preservation in volcanic ash.

m . u

Biological sciences

The lessons

Science as a Human Endeavour substrand: Nature and development of science

w ww

• Students may be interested to know that most of the dinosaur skeletons displayed in museums are not actual fossils. They are replicas, made of lightweight fibreglass or resin. • Useful websites:

. te

o c . che e r o t r s super

<http://www.abc.net.au/beasts/fossilfun/makingfossils/> (There are other links on this website besides this one based on the theme.) <http://www.neok12.com/jigsaw-puzzles/Fossils.htm> <http://www.oum.ox.ac.uk/thezone/fossils/intro/index.htm> (Information about fossils written at primary school level) Preparation

• Source reference books, the internet or pictures on posters containing fossils and palaeontologists at work (optional) for students to view.

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

18

www.ricpublications.com.au

R.I.C. Publications®


Read the text. A palaeontologist is a scientist who studies plants and animals that lived in the past, like the dinosaurs. Palaeontologists are able to do this mainly by studying fossils. Fossils are the remains of plants or animals that lived long ago. The word ‘fossil’ comes from the Latin word, ‘fossilis’, which means ‘dug up’. Most fossils are dug up from rock layers.

small drills and chisels to clean up the fossils, carefully chipping away at the surrounding rock. The fossils are numbered, photographed and labelled and taken to a laboratory to be cleaned, repaired and studied by palaeontologists.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

Most animal fossils are made from bony parts such as bones, teeth and claws. Over time, these have been covered with sand and mud and become hard, like stone. There are also fossils called trace fossils. These are fossils made from animal droppings, nests and eggs; or marks made by animals, such as footprints.

Very rarely, a whole skeleton can become fossilised so that palaeontologists can then put it back together. Usually, bits of fossilised animal or plant parts are all palaeontologists have to study. Bones and fragments of parts of a skeleton can be put back together. A palaeontologist can work out what the missing bones would look like and have fake ones made to form a whole skeleton. Special tests on bones can show how old a fossil is. Droppings near a part of a skeleton reveal what the animal ate. A lot can be learnt with just footprints. They can show how large an animal was by their size and the length between each step. Footprints can show if a animal walked on two legs or four legs. The impression of a plant fossil tells if it was fern or a palm.

w ww

. te

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

It is harder for a plant to become a fossil as it doesn’t have hard parts like bones. However, a plant or part of a plant like a leaf can become a fossil if it is first buried under fine dirt, sand or mud before bacteria or fungi cause it to decay and disappear. The plant must also be buried with little force so it will not break apart. Over thousands of years, it can leave a pattern (impression) of what it looks like in the rock that forms around it to make a fossil.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Fossils are usually discovered when wind and water remove the layers of sand and mud over thousands of years, leaving the fossil exposed. Palaeontologists use R.I.C. Publications®

www.ricpublications.com.au

19

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

Biological sciences

What does a palaeontologist do? – 1


What does a palaeontologist do? – 2 1. Describe three things a palaeontologist does as part of his or her work. • • •

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

2. Do you think the word ‘fossil’ is a good one to choose? Why/Why not?

3. List three animal fossils made from: (a) bony parts:

(b) other things:

4. Why is it harder for a plant to become a fossil than an animal?

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

5. What must happen to a plant for it to become a fossil?

w ww

m . u

Biological sciences

Use the text on page 19 to complete the following.

. te

o c . c e hercan find out fromst r 6. Describe one thing palaeontologists each o super of these fossils. (a) bones (b) leaf imprint (c) footprints (d) droppings

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

20

www.ricpublications.com.au

R.I.C. Publications®


Imagine you are a palaeontologist for a day. You have different fossils to study to find out about plants and animals that lived long ago. 1. Study each fossil and decide which

2. Study this fossil and describe what

you see and what it might be.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

is from a plant and which is from an animal. Explain your choice.

3. Study this fossil and describe what

4. These fossils were found together.

you see and how this creature behaved.

What kind of environment do you think they used to live in? Why?

w ww

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

. te o dinosaurs. Tell the story of what probably happened. c . che e r o t r s super

5. Study these fossil footprints and bones. They are tracks from two different

R.I.C. Publications®

www.ricpublications.com.au

21

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

Biological sciences

Be a palaeontologist for a day!


How did the dinosaurs live? • Pages 23 and 24 should be used together. This unit is best treated after completing the previous unit on pages 18 to 21.

Inquiry skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Evaluating Communicating

• Ensure students understand the meaning of these words on page 23: ‘extinct’, ‘prey’, ‘prehistoric’.

Background information

Page 24

• Discuss students answers to Questions 3, 4 and 5 on page 24. • Websites such as <http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/ dinosaurs/> are useful for the students to complete the research task on page 25. Students can draw or attach an illustration of their chosen dinosaur.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

• Dinosaurs are the group of extinct animals that lived during the Mesozoic era, about 230 million years ago. They existed for about 165 million years, mysteriously disappearing about 65 million years ago.

1. (a) Dinosaurs were reptiles with tough, scaly skin. (b) No dinosaurs flew or lived in water./All dinosaurs lived on land. (c) Dinosaurs walked on two or four legs. (d) Dinosaurs did not live at the same time as humans./Dinosaurs were extinct when humans appeared. 2. A carnivore eats only meat and a herbivore eats only plants. 3. Tyrannosaurus. Reasons could include: Had a strong jaw, sharp teeth and claws for ripping flesh; strong legs for chasing prey. 4. To protect itself from dinosaurs that were carnivores. 5. Diplodocus looked like a herbivore as it was heavy and couldn’t run fast and did not have claws. Its teeth would be hard, blunt or flat.

• Students may be confused in thinking that prehistoric animals such as the flying pterodactyl and the swimming plesiosaur are dinosaurs. No dinosaurs flew or lived in water. • Through the study of fossils, palaeontologists have discovered much about dinosaurs in relation to variations in walking, speed of movement, size, feeding habits, coverings and methods of protecting themselves. Not much is known about the colours, patterns, sounds, behaviour or mating habits.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Page 25

w ww

• Scientists don’t exactly know why the dinosaurs became extinct. Some believe the climate of the world became too cold and the dinosaurs died. Others believe the meat-eating dinosaurs killed so many that the remainder were not able to survive. Another theory is that the first appearance of flowering plants caused the plant-eating dinosaurs to be poisoned. The most popular theory is that a massive meteorite hit Earth, covering it with thick clouds of dust that blocked the sun. Extremely rapid environmental changes occurred, to which the dinosaurs (and many other animals) were unable to adjust. No dinosaur fossils have been found from 65 million years ago, lending support to this mass extinction theory.

. te

Teacher check. Students should write notes in bullet form and compare the information in the two tables about each different dinosaur. They could compare their choice of dinosaurs with other students. Note: In the top section of the table, the students are asked for the meaning of the dinosaur’s name. Some are given Greek or Latin root words to describe features or behaviour; e.g. ‘triceratops’ means ‘three-horned face’. Others are named after the place they were found or by the discoverer; e.g. Albertosaurus was discovered in Alberta, Canada. Students should find a website or a reference book that gives this information.

m . u

Biological sciences

The lessons

Content focus: How studying fossils has enabled palaeontologists to classify dinosaurs according to different characteristics

• Every year, new dinosaur fossils are discovered all over the world. Approximately 700 species have been named. • Useful websites:

o c . che e r o t r s super

<http://www.neok12.com/jigsaw-puzzles/Fossils.htm> <http://www.kidsdinos.com/> <http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/dinosaurs/> Preparation

• Source reference books, the internet or pictures on posters of a variety of dinosaurs for students to view.

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

22

www.ricpublications.com.au

R.I.C. Publications®


Palaeontologists have learnt much about dinosaurs through studying fossils. They have discovered that dinosaurs were reptiles with scaly skin. The word ‘dinosaur’ comes from two Greek words—‘deino’ and ‘saurus’—meaning ‘terrible lizard’. A lizard, of course, is a reptile. But dinosaurs did not drag their bellies on the ground like lizards—they walked on either two or four legs. However, most dinosaurs laid eggs like reptiles. All dinosaurs lived on land—none flew or lived in water. Any animals that did this are known as prehistoric animals, not dinosaurs. Dinosaurs lived long before humans first appeared. There were dinosaurs on Earth for nearly 150 million years! They have been extinct for 65 million years.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

Some dinosaurs ate plants. These were called ‘herbivores’. Some dinosaurs ate other animals. These were called ‘carnivores’. A few dinosaurs were ‘omnivores’—they ate both plants and animals. Herbivores had hard, blunt teeth for tearing leaves or flat teeth for grinding plants. Carnivores had strong, sharp teeth and claws to kill and tear their prey apart. They usually had strong legs to chase their prey. Dinosaurs had tough skin covered with scales. Many of them had built-in ‘armour’ for protection against the carnivores. These included horns, armoured plates, spikes, frills and tail clubs. Large dinosaurs could be over 30 metres long and weigh as much as 40 tonnes. Some dinosaurs were only the size of a chicken. Dinosaurs are grouped according to the way their hips are shaped. There are two main groups: 1.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Saurischians

Diplodocus

(lizard-hipped dinosaurs)

. te

m . u

w ww

These could be carnivores, omnivores or herbivores. The carnivores walked on two feet and included Tyrannosaurus and Allosaurus. The herbivores were huge, with long, heavy necks and tails and mostly walked on four legs. An example is Diplodocus.

o c . che e r o t r s super

2. Ornithischians (bird-hipped dinosaurs)

These were all herbivores. Most had bony plates, spikes and other armour, like Stegosaurus and Triceratops, and walked on four legs. R.I.C. Publications®

www.ricpublications.com.au

Tyrannosaurus

Stegosaurus

23

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

Biological sciences

How did the dinosaurs live? – 1


How did the dinosaurs live? – 2 1. Rewrite these sentences so they are true. (a) Dinosaurs were mammals with tough, scaly skin.

(b) All dinosaurs flew or lived in water.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

(c) Dinosaurs walked on two legs only.

(d) Dinosaurs lived at the same time as humans.

2. What is the difference between a carnivore and a herbivore?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Circle the dinosaur that is a carnivore and explain why you chose it. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

Diplodocus

Tyrannosaurus

. te

m . u

3.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Biological sciences

Use the text on page 23 to complete the following.

o c . che e r o t r s su 4. Why did Stegosaurus have bony plates and spikes on its back? er p 5. What kind of teeth do you think Diplodocus would have had? Explain your answer.

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

24

www.ricpublications.com.au

R.I.C. Publications®


Biological sciences

Dinosaur report Choose two dinosaurs to find and write information about in the tables below. Name:

Name:

Meaning:

Meaning:

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Picture:

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Picture:

Herbivore Carnivore Omnivore Describe some of its features.

Herbivore Carnivore Omnivore Describe some of its features.

w ww

Length:

. te

Length:

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . c e her r Weight: Weight: o t s super Other interesting facts: Other interesting facts: Height:

R.I.C. Publications®

www.ricpublications.com.au

Height:

25

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE


The lessons

Science as a Human Endeavour Unit: Use and influence of science

• Pages 27 and 28 should be used together.

Content focus: Aboriginal Australian and Torres Strait Islander people’s knowledge of their local natural environment

• Students should work in pairs or a small group to complete the research on page 29. Some suggestions have been provided below. They could refer to some of the websites listed for other topics to research.

Inquiry skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Evaluating Communicating Background information

• Suggestions: − how different boomerangs were used to catch different sized animals − how birds returning to a water source signalled rains were on the way − what wax from beehives was used for − what kind of trees were used to construct canoes (or spears) and how they were made − how water was carried − how a specific animal was caught according to their knowledge of its behaviour − how nuts, seeds and fruit were crushed

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

• Aboriginal Australian and Torres Strait Islander people’s knowledge of phenomena in their natural environment has developed over time as a result of them observing, investigating and testing ideas. Science has been a part of their everyday experiences.

• Their observance of the characteristics of plants and animals enabled them to utilise both for the purposes of food, shelter, tools, transport, weapons, bush food gathering implements and so on.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

• With assistance, students work out how to present their research to the class or small group. They could compare and discuss the information found about the same topics.

• Useful websites:

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Answers

<http://www.aboriginalculture.com.au/regionalstudies.shtml> (Photographs and information about Aboriginal life in Northern Queensland)

Page 28

1. thousands, Australians, Strait, plants, ways, catch 2. Fire makes many native plants regrow quickly, resulting in more seeds and fruits to collect. It could also be used to flush game towards the waiting hunters. 3. (a) specific yams were poisonous and had to be crushed and thoroughly washed before eating (b) It was easier to catch possums as they slept in their den/hollow during the day. (c) A long, thin trap the same shape as an eel was made to catch it. 4. Witchetty grubs provided fat in the diet. 5. Teacher check

w ww

<http://www.gondwananet.com/australian-aboriginal-food.html> <http://www.alicespringsdesertpark.com.au/kids/culture/food. shtml> <http://www.anbg.gov.au/anbg/aboriginal-trail.html> <http://www.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/welcome_to_bgt/royal_botanic_ garden/tours_education/self-guided_tours/aboriginal_walk> (These four websites will provide references to the names of specific plants and animals and other information for students to research further.) Preparation

. te

o c . che e r o t r s super Page 29

• Students will need access to the internet and other reference material to complete the research activity on page 29.

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

m . u

Biological sciences

What do indigenous people know about the natural environment?

Teacher check

26

www.ricpublications.com.au

R.I.C. Publications®


Read the text. Over many thousands of years, Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islander people have learnt much about the native plants and animals in the areas in which they lived. They discovered the best ways and the right time to collect and catch them for food. They passed this knowledge on from generation to generation. Read about some of the things they discovered.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

The Aboriginal and Islander people used a lot of energy. This meant they needed fat in their diet. They knew the times of the year when different mammals, reptiles and birds were at their fattest and would catch more of those animals during that time.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Aboriginal people set fire to certain places to clear an area of bush. Fire makes many native plants regrow quickly. This meant there would be more seeds, fruits and so on to collect, eat and store sooner than if the plants grew normally.

Other foods that provided fat were insects like witchetty grubs and begong moths; bird and reptile eggs; and mussels and oysters.

It was the women’s job to gather plants and insects to eat. Yams were an important root vegetable. One type of yam had to be properly prepared or it could make you sick.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons An eel trap was a clever way to catch long, thin Meat was put at the top •f orr evi ew pur p os eeels. so nl y• A digging stick was used to dig it up. of the closed end. Then it was placed in Then it was crushed and thoroughly washed in water to drain away the poison.

a flowing stream.

w ww

m . u

The eel would get caught and could not swim backwards against the water’s flow to get free.

It was the men’s job to hunt animals. They worked in a group using weapons like boomerangs and spears to catch animals such as kangaroos, wallabies, wombats, emus and galahs. In island and coastal communities they also fished.

. te

o c . che e r o t r s s r u e p Possums are animals

Aboriginal and Islander people knew which plants to use to make things like carrying baskets and rope. Bags made from grass stalks could be knotted so tightly they could carry honey! Loosely woven bags made from bush string could be used like sieves to sort seeds. Swamp reeds and sea grasses were woven to make carry baskets. Strong ropes were made from a special kind of palm vine. They were used to help climb trees to get bush honey and reach animals. Another use was a rope noose to catch crocodiles.

that sleep during the day. They would be caught while sleeping in their hollow or den instead of hunting them at night when they came out to feed.

R.I.C. Publications®

www.ricpublications.com.au

27

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

Biological sciences

What do indigenous people know about the natural environment? – 1


Use the text on page 27 to complete the following. 1. Use words from the first paragraph to finish this sentence. Over many

of years, Aboriginal

and Torres

Islanders have observed the characteristics of

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

and animals. They discovered the best collect and

and the right time to

them for food.

2. How did setting parts of the bush on fire help food supplies?

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

3. Briefly explain what Aboriginal people noticed about these plants and animals and how they used that knowledge to help catch or eat them. (a) a type of yam:

w ww

m . u

Biological sciences

What do indigenous people know about the natural environment? – 2

(b) possums:

. te

o c . che e r o t r s s r u e p 4. Why did a witchetty grub make a good meal? (c) eels:

5. Describe something Aboriginal or Islander people made from plants.

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

28

www.ricpublications.com.au

R.I.C. Publications®


1. Work in a group. Your teacher will help you to choose a topic to research about the knowledge Aboriginal Australians or Torres Strait Islanders have about using plants or animals. 2. Make notes for each question below to help plan your report.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Research topic title

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

What do we already know?

What do we need to find out?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

. te

m . u

What websites, books etc. will we need?

o c . che e r o t r s super

What drawings or diagrams will we need?

How will we present our report?

R.I.C. Publications®

www.ricpublications.com.au

29

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

Biological sciences

How did indigenous people use their knowledge of plants and animals?


How can science help plants and animals? • Pages 31 and 32 should be used together. • When completing the table on page 33, the students should write the name of the place and actual person who works in the job they identify in each section, if possible; e.g. Dr Martin, Greenbay Veterinary Clinic.

Content focus: How science knowledge helps people in jobs related to plants and animals Inquiry skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Evaluating Communicating Background information

Answers

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Page 32

Choose from three of the following: 1. (a) doctors, nurses, carers, paramedics, pharmacists, dentists, optometrists, physiotherapists, dietitians, trainers in a gym (b) vets, vet nurses, people who work in pet shops, people who work in pet supply stores, pet groomers, mobile dog washing services, animal walking services, wildlife experts or helpers in wildlife parks, people who work in animal sanctuaries or animal shelters, people who run boarding kennels (c) florists, plant nursery experts, farmers 2. (a) pharmacist (b) pet groomer (c) plant nursery expert (d) physiotherapist or doctor (e) florist (f) animal sanctuary worker (g) optometrist 3. A doctor treats humans and a vet treats animals. 4. Answers should indicate they use science to know how to care and treat animals that haven’t been looked after properly by their owners or are not wanted anymore. 5. Teacher check

ew i ev Pr

• The students’ local community is a familiar location for them to identify how science is used by people whose jobs are connected to plants and animals (including humans). Many people in sciencebased jobs in the community have studied at tertiary level for a degree in an area of science; e.g. doctor, dentist, vet, zookeeper. However, the knowledge and discoveries scientists have made can be used by people who do not necessarily have science degrees; e.g. workers in wildlife sanctuaries or plant nurseries.

Teac he r

• Useful websites: <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-psyixcn0sU> (This video is about a day in the life of a zookeeper.)

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

<http://ten.com.au/scope.htm> (This site is an educational TV show targeted towards 8- to 12-year-olds that has many useful links related to the theme.)

w ww

• Students could be shown segments from lifestyle shows involving science in a community; e.g. the regular veterinary presenter explaining how to care for a specific breed of dog, or the regular gardening expert explaining how to set up an organic vegetable plot. Students could also watch DVDs such as Bindi the jungle girl, starring Bindi Irwin. Preparation

. te

Page 33 Teacher check

• Source fiction and nonfiction books about the jobs of some of the people mentioned in the text. Show the students relevant pictures as you discuss the text with them. (optional)

m . u

Biological sciences

The lessons

Science as a Human Endeavour substrand: Use and influence of science

o c . che e r o t r s super

• Students could be taken on an excursion to a local shopping or community centre to identify places that use science to help them complete page 33. With permission, digital photographs of the places and workers could be taken to display and discuss. • Parents, relatives or friends of students in the class who have a job involving plants or animals (including humans) that uses science could be asked to give a talk to the class.

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

30

www.ricpublications.com.au

R.I.C. Publications®


Read the text. Many people in our community have a job involving science. A lot of them are in the area of caring for plants and animals, including humans. Think about vets, zookeepers, doctors, dentists and experts at a plant nursery. They all use science to help them in their job. Using science to help humans

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

Doctors and nurses look after us at our local medical centre or hospital. Trained carers visit the sick and elderly in their homes. There are also paramedics in ambulances who assist at car accidents and in other medical emergencies. Pharmacists are specially trained to advise us about medications. Dentists have studied how to care for our teeth and optometrists have studied how to care for our eyes. Physiotherapists care for our body by using massage, exercise and other treatments. Dietitians give advice about special diets. Science is used by trained staff in gyms so we use exercise equipment properly and train our bodies safely and effectively. Using science to help animals

Vets and vet nurses are the first people we think about who look after animals. People who work in pet shops and pet supply stores use science to advise us on how to look after our pets by suggesting specific foods, shelters, bedding, toys and so on. Other jobs involving pet care include pet grooming, mobile dog washing and animal walkers.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

. te

m . u

w ww

There are zookeepers and other animal experts who work in zoos. Wildlife experts and helpers work in wildlife parks, rearing and caring for animals. Animal sanctuaries care for sick and injured animals before releasing them back into the wild, if possible. Animal shelters, like those run by the RSPCA, take care of animals who have been mistreated or are unwanted by their owners, until new owners are found. Boarding kennels care for our pets while we are on holidays.

o c . che Using science to helpr e plants o r st s upe Florists user science in their job in knowing ways to keep cut plants alive longer in flower arrangements. They give useful advice to their customers about how to look after the cut flowers or pot plants they buy. Plant nurseries have experts who can advise on how to treat diseases plants in our garden may have. They tell us how to plant seedlings and more mature plants that suit our garden. Science has helped farmers grow healthier crops.

R.I.C. Publications®

www.ricpublications.com.au

31

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

Biological sciences

How can science help plants and animals? – 1


How can science help plants and animals? – 2 1. List three jobs involving science that can help: (a) humans (b) animals (c) plants

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

2. Which person would you see if:

(a) you had a prescription to get some medicine? (b) your pet poodle needed its coat clipped? (c) leaves on a rose bush in your garden were covered in black spots? (d) you twisted your ankle badly playing sport?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons you found a native bird with a broken wing? •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

(e) you wanted to buy a bouquet of flowers? (f)

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

(g) you needed your eyes tested? 3. What is the difference between a vet and a doctor?

w ww

m . u

Biological sciences

Use the text on page 31 to complete the following.

. te

o c . ch 4. How do you think workers in an animal shelter use science?r e er o st super

5. Describe a time when you have visited someone whose job involves science.

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

32

www.ricpublications.com.au

R.I.C. Publications®


Biological sciences

Science in the community 1. Look at the headings in the table below. Your task is to fill in the names of jobs involving science you have seen at home (on TV etc.) and in the community. In each section, write the name of the place or person who does that job. List at least two for each section if possible. 2. When you have finished, share your answers with a partner. Discuss how science helps care for plants, animals or us in each answer.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

People or places that help animals

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

People or places that help humans

w ww

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

People or places that help plants

. te

R.I.C. Publications®

Educational TV programs that teach us how to look after ourselves, animals or plants

o c . che e r o t r s super

www.ricpublications.com.au

33

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE


What is the difference between a solid, a liquid and a gas? • After discussing their observations from page 37, talk about whether any parts of the activity could be improved; e.g. scales not being sensitive enough to register weight, ball not being fully inflated.

Content focus: Properties of solids, liquids and gases Inquiry skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Evaluating Communicating Background information

Answers Page 36

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

• Solids, liquids and gases are three states of matter. (A fourth state, plasma, which is a distinct state of matter containing a significant number of electrically charged particles, is also recognised.) Matter is made up of particles called atoms and molecules. These are very closely arranged in a regular pattern in solids, and, generally, do not move. In liquids, the atoms and molecules are close together, have no regular arrangement and move freely. In gases, they move rapidly, have large spaces between them and no regular arrangement. • Because of these arrangements, solids have mass, a definite volume and a definite shape. Liquids have mass, a definite volume and no definite shape. Gases have mass, no definite volume and no definite shape. Note: The common term ‘weight’ has been used in this unit instead of the scientifically correct term ‘mass’, as it is easier for students at this level to understand. Mass is a measure of how much matter an object has. Weight is determined by gravity. (Your mass would be the same on the moon but you would weigh less as there is less gravity.) • Useful websites:

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Page 37

1. Students should say the cup is light/hardly weighs anything. Its weight should just register on the scales. 2. Students should predict the cup would feel heavier and measuring will prove that. 3. Measuring will show the cup with the solid (eraser) is heavier. 4. The inflated ball will be slightly heavier than the deflated ball because it is now filled with air. 5. Answers should indicate that solids, liquids and gases have weight.

. te

m . u

w ww

<http://www.sciencekids.co.nz/gamesactivities/gases.html> <http://www.catie.org.uk/testing_time_index.html> <http://www.abpischools.org.uk/page/modules/solids-liquidsgases/?age=Age%20Range%207-11&subject=Science> (Each is an interactive site dealing with the identification of solids, liquids and gases.) Preparation

ew i ev Pr

Chemical sciences

1. Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass (weight). 2. (a) liquid (b) gas (c) solid (d) liquid 3. They all have mass./They all take up space. 4. (a) Yes (b) No (c) No (d) No (e) No (f) Yes 5. (a) packed together tightly, hardly move (b) close together, always moving around each other (c) far apart, spread out to fill up the space 6. Possible answers: sugar, flour, rice, nuts, pepper Science as a Human Endeavour question Nature and development of science: Possible answers: car tyre, bike tyre, gas oven, gas barbecue, bicycle pump, gas hot plates, gas hot water system.

o c . che e r o t r s super

• Obtain the items mentioned in paragraph 1 of the text on page 35.

• Collect the equipment needed for the investigative activity on page 37. A basketball, netball or football could be used. The bicycle pump can be used to remove the air from the ball if it is already inflated. The lessons

• Pages 35 and 36 should be used together. Ensure students understand the meaning of the word ‘properties’.

• Display the items mentioned in the first paragraph on page 35. Place them in various locations around the classroom so students will easily see them. The last paragraph has been printed upside-down so students won’t readily be able to see the answer for the question asked in the previous paragraph. • Students could work in pairs or a small group to complete page 37. However, ensure that all have the opportunity to weigh and heft the materials, rather than simply copy the measurements or observations of other students. AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

34

www.ricpublications.com.au

R.I.C. Publications®


What is the difference between a solid, a liquid and a gas? – 1 Read the text. How many of these things can you find in your classroom? A book, a bottle of glue, a ruler, a cup of water, a chair and a blown-up balloon? They are all different types of matter. Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass (weight). Matter is all around you— even the air is a form of matter! Matter can be a solid, a liquid or a gas. These are called states of matter. We can tell the difference between solids, liquids and gases because they have different properties (things they can do).

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

A liquid has an exact size but does not have a definite shape. It changes shape according to the type of container it is in. A liquid can be poured but a solid can not. We say a liquid can flow. Some liquids are thicker than others; for example, honey is thicker than milk.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

m . u

A gas does not have a shape or size. It spreads out until it fills the container it is in. Like liquid, a gas can flow. A gas can get bigger or smaller to fit in different sized containers. A gas like the air has no colour—we cannot see it. We can feel air blowing and see bubbles of air if we blow air into a straw placed in a glass of water.

. te and gases have different properties? Matterois made up of tiny Why do solids, liquids c particles. In a solid, these particles are packed together so tightly they can hardly move. . c e That’s why a solid keeps h its shape. In a liquid, the particles are close together, but they r e o tcan flow. In a gas, the particles are always moving around each r other. That’se why a liquid s s r u p are far apart. They bounce off each other and flow so easily they can spread out to fill up any space. Try to answer this question without reading the answer! Do you think sand is a solid, a liquid or a gas? (Turn the page upside-down to find out!) ANSWER: Most children will not give ‘gas’ for an answer. Many will say ‘liquid’ because when sand is dry, it pours out of a container like a liquid. The answer is ‘solid’. Each little grain of sand is a solid. The same happens when you pour cereal out of a packet. But each piece of cereal is also a solid. R.I.C. Publications®

www.ricpublications.com.au

35

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

Chemical sciences

A solid has a definite size and shape. It can be hard like a brick or soft like a pillow. A solid can change its shape only if we do things to it like bending it or cutting it.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

All solids, liquids and gases can be weighed. A solid like a pebble won’t weigh much but it can be weighed. A gas like the air may feel like it doesn’t weigh anything at all but it too can be weighed.


What is the difference between a solid, a liquid and a gas? – 2 Use the text on page 35 to complete the following. 1. What does the word ‘matter’ mean?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

2. Write ‘solid’, ‘liquid’ or ‘gas’ next to each. (a) olive oil

(b) air

(d) water

3. What is one property that all solids, liquids and gases have?

4. Write YES or NO next to each question. (a) Does a solid have a definite shape?

ew i ev Pr

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons (c) Does a gas have a definite shape? •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• (b) Does a liquid have a definite shape?

(d) Can a solid flow? (e) Can a liquid be picked up in one piece?

w ww

(f) Can a gas get bigger or smaller?

. te

5. Write keywords to describe how the particles are arranged in a:

m . u

Chemical sciences

Teac he r

(c) chair

o c . (b) liquid. che e r o (c) gas. t r s super 6. Write two more solids, besides sand and cereal, that can be poured out of a (a) solid.

container.

Think of four things at home or school that use a gas like air or natural gas to help them work.

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

36

www.ricpublications.com.au

R.I.C. Publications®


Do solids, liquids and gases have weight? Complete this activity to investigate if a solid, a liquid and a gas have weight. Equipment:

• 2 identical clear plastic cups

• kitchen scales

• water

• deflated basketball

• bicycle pump

• eraser

1. (a) Hold one of the cups in one hand. Describe its weight.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

(b) Weigh it. Weight =

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

(a) How do you think it will feel when you hold it now?

(b) Hold it in one hand and describe its weight.

(c) Weigh it. Weight =

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f rr e i ew pur posesonl y• Weigh it.o Weight =v

3. (a) Put the eraser (solid) in the empty cup.

(b) Write the weight of the empty cup from 1.(b)

w ww

m . u

(c) What is the difference in weight between the cup with the eraser and the empty cup?

. te

o c . (b) Pump up the ball air (gas) until fully inflated. cwith e her r o t s super Weigh it. Weight =

4. (a) Weigh the deflated ball. Weight =

(c) Was it the same weight as before?

Why/Why not?

5. What did you learn from doing this activity?

R.I.C. Publications®

www.ricpublications.com.au

37

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

Chemical sciences

2. Pour water (liquid) into the cup until it is about three-quarters full.


What happens when solids and liquids are heated and cooled? Answers

Content focus: How heating and cooling can change the state of solids and liquids

Page 40

Inquiry skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Evaluating Communicating Background information

1. honey, milk, raw egg 2. Answers should indicate that margarine is a solid in the fridge or at room temperature. When heated, it becomes a liquid. When cooled it becomes a solid once more. 3. … a substance changes state and cannot be changed back again … 4. (a) No, irreversible (b) Yes, reversible 5. (a) False (b) False (c) False

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Page 41

Temperatures will vary, except for the oven which should show it has been preheated to 180 ºC. (Obviously, the students will use the gauge as a guide and not actually use the thermometer!) A summary of what should happen is provided below. Allow the students to touch the chocolate before recording to help them describe what happened. Digital photographs could be taken at appropriate intervals. (a) The chocolate in the classroom should look the same and remain a solid and be at room temperature to touch. (b) The chocolate in full sun will melt and become a thick liquid (at an interval depending on how hot the day is), could feel slightly warm if a hot day and be sticky and possibly quite runny to touch. (c) Depending on the heat of the day, the chocolate may or may not partially or fully melt. (d) Chocolate will take a very short time to melt. (Don’t allow it to stay too long in oven.) It may even bubble if it reaches boiling point. When first taken out of the oven it will be a runny liquid and quite warm to touch. (Take care it is not too hot for students to touch.) (e) Chocolate will remain solid and cool to touch.

• Most students would say that a substance like rock could never become a liquid as normal conditions do not provide enough heat. Rocks become liquid if near the extreme temperatures of the Earth’s core. If moved away from the Earth’s core due to a force such as an earthquake or volcano, they will cool and become igneous rock.

ew i ev Pr

• Some changes to these substances are physical (reversible). They may change appearance after changing from one state to another but are still the same material and can be changed back. Other changes can be chemical (irreversible). A new substance is made and cannot be changed back. • Useful websites:

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

<http://www.fossweb.com/modulesK-2/SolidsandLiquids/index. html> (Interactive game changing solids to liquids and liquids to solids)

<http://www.sciencekids.co.nz/gamesactivities/statematerials.html> (Water as a solid, liquid and gas)

w ww

m . u

Chemical sciences

Teac he r

• All liquids and solids can change states by being heated or cooled. However, the temperature needed for a solid to be melted to become liquid or cooled to change from liquid to solid varies.

Preparation

• Provide some of the examples of the substances discussed on page 39.

. te

o c . che e r o t r s super

• Collect the equipment needed for the investigative activities on page 41. The lessons • Pages 39 and 40 should be used together.

• This section is best treated after completing pages 34–37. Though several of the scientific terms are revised in the text, ensure students understand the terms ‘matter‘, ‘states of matter’, ‘substance’, ‘solid’, ‘liquid’ etc. if those pages have not been treated.

• Students can work in a small group or as a whole class for the activity on page 41. Discuss how they can ensure the test is fair or not (all chocolate bars must be the identical). • Preheat the oven to 180 °C.

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

38

www.ricpublications.com.au

R.I.C. Publications®


What happens when solids and liquids are heated and cooled? – 1 Read the text. Matter is any material that takes up space and has mass (weight). Liquids and solids are two states of matter. Examples of liquids are water, milk and honey. Wood, fruit and sugar are examples of solids.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

When a substance changes state, it can sometimes change back. This is called a reversible change. No new substance is made. If it can not be changed back again, it is called irreversible. A new substance has been made. Here is an example of each. Reversible change

Irreversible change

The margarine described above turned from a solid to a liquid through heating. It turned back to a solid when it was cooled.

Inside a raw egg is thick, liquid egg white and even thicker liquid yellow yolk. If it is cracked onto a heated frying pan, it can be heated (cooked) until it becomes a solid fried egg. (Sometimes the yolk can be left a bit runny.) It cannot become a raw egg again, even if it is left to cool.

w ww

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

. te

o c . che e r o t r s super Solids have different temperatures to which they need to be heated until they melt and become liquid. Ice blocks become solid at 0 °C. As soon as they are taken out of the freezer at 0 °C, they gradually begin to melt. A metal like gold takes an enormous amount of heat before it changes from solid to liquid—more than 1000 °C! Liquids have different temperatures to which they need to be cooled until they harden and become solid. Margarine that has been heated until it is a liquid will eventually become solid at room temperature. It will happen more quickly if put in the fridge. Oils such as olive oil or sunflower oil need to be cooled a lot more by putting them in the freezer before they will become solid. R.I.C. Publications®

www.ricpublications.com.au

39

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

Chemical sciences

A liquid can change into a solid and a solid can change into a liquid. We call this changing states. For example, a tub of margarine is a solid in the fridge or at room temperature on the kitchen bench. If it is heated in a microwave, it becomes a liquid. If it is left to cool, it will become a solid once more.


What happens when solids and liquids are heated and cooled? – 2 Use the text on page 39 to complete the following. 1. Colour the substances that are liquids at room temperature. sugar

honey

fruit

milk

raw egg

margarine

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

3. Complete the sentence to explain the difference.

ew i ev Pr

In a reversible change, a substance changes state and can be changed back again.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons as o a new substance has •f orr evi ew pur p se sonl ybeen • made.

In an irreversible change, a

4. Write Yes or No in the first space and Reversible or Irreversible in the second space.

w ww

(a) A glass of milk is left out of the fridge and goes off. Can it become fresh if it is put back in the fridge?

m . u

Chemical sciences

Teac he r

2. Using the example in paragraph 2, explain how a solid can change into a liquid and a liquid can change into a solid.

change. . te melts in the car on the way home from o (b) A tub of ice-cream the shop. Can it become solid again if put in the freezer? c . che e r o r st change. super This is because it is a/an This is because it is a/an

5. Answer True or False. (a) All solids become liquids at the same temperature. ........................ (b) Gold becomes liquid at O °C. .......................................................... (c) If olive oil is left at room temperature on the kitchen bench it will eventually become solid. ............................................. AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

40

www.ricpublications.com.au

R.I.C. Publications®


The chocolate experiment Investigate what happens to chocolate when it is placed in different areas of the school. Equipment: â&#x20AC;˘ 5 identical bars of dairy milk chocolate â&#x20AC;˘ thermometer â&#x20AC;˘ 1 ovenproof tray â&#x20AC;˘ oven â&#x20AC;˘ 4 paper plates Procedure: í˘ą Put four bars on paper plates and one on tray.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

(a) Position of chocolate and temperature: °C Temperature On the desk in the middle of the classroom What do you think will happen? Were you correct? if not, what did happen?

(b) Position of chocolate and temperature: °C Temperature Outside in the full sun What do you think will happen? Were you correct? if not, what did happen?

Š R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons â&#x20AC;˘f orr evi ew pur posesonl yâ&#x20AC;˘

. te

m . u

w ww

(c) Position of chocolate and temperature: °C Temperature Outside in the shade What do you think will happen? Were you correct? if not, what did happen?

o c . che e r o t r s super

(d) Position of chocolate and temperature: °C Temperature In the oven What do you think will happen? Were you correct? if not, what did happen?

(e) Position of chocolate and temperature: °C Temperature In the fridge What do you think will happen? Were you correct? if not, what did happen?

R.I.C. PublicationsÂŽ

www.ricpublications.com.au

41

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

Chemical sciences

í˘˛ Record temperature at each place in table. í˘ł Place chocolate in each of the locations. í˘´ Observe what happens and record in table.


How can changing materials from solid to liquid be useful? The lessons

Content focus: Practical purposes (particularly those related to recycling) of changing materials from solid to liquid and liquid to solid

• Pages 43 and 44 should be used together. • Students can work in a small group for the activity on page 45. Some of the websites listed above would be helpful in their research. Suggestions for solid and liquid materials for them to investigate could include: car batteries; outdated medicines; cooking oil; paint; specific or general cleaning products such as varnish and bleach; asbestos; electronic goods such as computers, tyres; mobile phones and televisions; glass; metal; cars and other vehicles; pesticides; boat flares; gas cylinders; pool chemicals.

Inquiry skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Evaluating Communicating Background information

• With assistance, students work out how to present their research to the class or small group. Compare and discuss the information found about the same materials.

Teac he r

• All liquids and solids can change states by being heated or cooled. However, the temperature needed for a solid to be melted to become liquid, or cooled to change from liquid to solid, varies.

Answers

Page 44

• Some changes to these substances are physical (reversible). They may change appearance after changing from one state to another but are still the same material and can be changed back. Other changes can be chemical (irreversible). A new substance is made and cannot be changed back.

1. Teacher check 2. Answers should indicate that when gold is mined it can be heated to become a liquid and poured into moulds to make ingots of a set size. These are easier to buy and transport. Ingots can be melted again to make gold products. 3. (a) plastic: Teacher check examples (b) steel: Teacher check examples (c) aluminium: Teacher check examples (d) glass: Teacher check examples 4. Teacher check 5. Teacher check

• In this unit, students will be made aware of some positive aspects of changing the state of different materials, along with some negative aspects relating to polluting the environment. • Useful websites:

ew i ev Pr

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

<http://www.ollierecycles.com.au/aus/html/recycle.html> (Information suitable for students about recycling different types of materials)

Page 45

<http://www.recycling-guide.org.uk/rrr.html> (How to safely recycle different materials)

Science as a Human Endeavour page Use and influence of science Teacher check

w ww

<http://www.ollierecycles.com.au/planet/aus/info/issue/waste.htm> (Problems incorrect waste disposal can cause)

m . u

Chemical sciences

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

<http://www.ollierecycles.com.au/planet/aus/info/info/rc_el03. htm> (How to correctly dispose of electronic products)

. te

o c . che e r o t r s super

<http://www.burkesbackyard.com.au/factsheets/Conservation-andthe-Environment/Chemical-Disposal/187> (Correct disposal of a variety of materials) Preparation

• Provide some of the examples of the materials discussed on page 43.

• Students will need access to the internet and other reference material to complete the research activity on page 45.

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

42

www.ricpublications.com.au

R.I.C. Publications®


How can changing materials from solid to liquid be useful? – 1 Read the text.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

There are reasons people in different jobs change materials from liquid to solid and solid to liquid. Think about people who work with a metal such as gold. After it is mined and treated, gold is heated until it becomes a liquid and a set amount can be poured into a container. It is cooled and becomes a solid again—it has become a gold ingot. This makes it easier for manufacturers to buy and transport. The ingot will be melted again before being made into jewellery, coins, caps for teeth and so on. Did you know that changing solids to liquids and liquids to solids is also very useful for recycling many materials? Read about how this characteristic helps four different kinds of materials to be recycled. Glass

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

m . u

Glass bottles and jars have metal lids removed and stickers taken off the outside. Then they are crushed and sent as solid pieces to a glass factory. The pieces are mixed with other materials needed to make glass and placed in an extremely hot furnace to melt. When cooled, this mixture can be moulded into new glass bottles and jars—solids once again!

Aluminium

Plastic

Solid steel objects are sent to a steelmaking plant where they are melted down with other materials. The liquid metal is poured into moulds and left to become solid. A machine cuts it into large pieces to be sent to various factories to make new steel products such as tools and car parts.

Aluminium cans are squashed into bales. These are shredded and have the paint removed. The pieces are melted then poured into containers to make ingots. These are rolled into very thin, coiled aluminium sheets and made into new aluminium cans.

Plastic bottles are sorted into different types then squashed into bales. A machine cuts them into flakes. These are cleaned, melted down, then made into new plastic items such as garden chairs, bottles and bins.

w ww

Steel

. te

R.I.C. Publications®

o c . che e r o t r s super

www.ricpublications.com.au

43

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

Chemical sciences

Solids can be changed to liquids and liquids can be changed to solids. This can be very useful in our everyday lives. A lump of solid butter can be melted to become liquid and mixed with other ingredients to make biscuits, cakes and so on. Water can be made into solid ice blocks to keep drinks cold or food cold in coolers. We can choose between a solid bar of soap to wash ourselves in the shower or a pump bottle of liquid soap. Can you think of other useful ways we change solids to liquids and liquids to solids?


How can changing materials from solid to liquid be useful? – 2 Use the text on page 43 to complete the following. 1. Give another example and use it (see paragraph 1) about a way we change a material from a solid to a liquid or a liquid to a solid.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Chemical sciences

Teac he r

2. How is being able to change a material from solid to liquid and back again useful for a person who works with gold?

3. Unjumble four different materials that can be recycled by methods involving changing solids to liquids and liquids to solids. Next to each material, write one new product that it can be made into.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• (a) lispatc

m . u

(b) leest

w ww

(c) mumunalii (d) lasgs

. te

o c . che e r o t r s super

4. Choose one of the materials above. Use three or four bullet points to summarise the steps taken in recycling this material. • • • • 5. Describe another useful way, different from those on page 43, you have changed a solid into a liquid or a liquid into a solid.

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

44

www.ricpublications.com.au

R.I.C. Publications®


Investigating harmful solids and liquids Some solids and liquids can be harmful to the environment. They can pollute the air, water or soil, resulting in harm to human health and other living things. They need to be disposed of (got rid of) properly so they do not harm the environment. 1. Work in a group. Your teacher will help you choose a solid or liquid to research the correct way to dispose of it.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Name of material

What do we already know about it?

Is there any information about how to dispose of it on the material or its packaging?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

. te

What drawings, photographs or diagrams will we need?

m . u

What else do we need to find out?

o c . che e r o t What websites, books etc. will we need? r s super How will we present our report?

R.I.C. Publications®

www.ricpublications.com.au

45

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

Chemical sciences

2. Make notes next to each question in the table to help plan your report.


What are some of the objects we can see from Earth? The lessons

Content focus: Space bodies that make up our solar system and beyond

• Pages 47 and 48 should be used together. • The following website (along with some of those listed above) would be useful to help students find the answers to Question 2 on page 49.

Inquiry skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Communicating

<http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/astronomy/planets/ index.shtml>

Background information

Answers

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Page 48

1. (a) Possible answers: clouds/aircraft/rainbows/birds (b) Possible answers: sun/moons/stars/planets/comets/asteroids/ meteors 2. (a) sun (b) comets (c) meteors (d) moon (e) planets (f) dwarf planet (g) asteroids (h) Ceres 3. A moon orbits a planet and a planet doesn’t orbit a moon. OR A moon is always smaller than the planet it orbits. 4. (a) Venus is hotter than Neptune. (b) All stars are not the same size. (c) The moon is smaller than Earth.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

• The sun is actually a star located at the centre of our solar system. Its enormous size (99.8 % of our solar system’s total mass) results in powerful gravity which is responsible for controlling all of the objects within our solar system. (Theoretically, 1 300 000 Earths could fit inside the sun and 49 of Earth’s moons could fit inside the Earth.) The following website is a short movie modelling the comparative sizes of the moon, Earth, planets, sun and other stars. <http://sizeofworldse.ytmnd.com/>

• Many of the space bodies can be viewed with the naked eye, without the need for a telescope—sun; Earth’s moon; stars; five of the planets, depending on the position of the Earth in its orbit (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn, minus its rings), comets and meteors. • Plutoids were previously categorised as dwarf planets. However, the International Astronomical Union decided to categorise celestial bodies like Pluto and Eris in orbit around the sun further than Neptune’s orbit, plutoids. Ceres is a dwarf planet as it does not orbit in this range.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Page 49 1.

Uranus

<http://videos.howstuffworks.com/nasa/3570-earth-has-a-perfectorbit-video.htm> (Video explaining Earth’s ideal position from the sun)

. te

Mercury Jupiter

<http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lgNdN9ugs3o> <http://www.videojug.com/film/the-planets-explained> (Both of these websites show a short video about the planets orbiting the sun.)

m . u

• Useful websites:

w ww

Earth and space sciences

• A meteoroid is a piece of rocky or metallic material which travels in space. Once a meteoroid enters Earth’s atmosphere and begins to burn up, it becomes a meteor. Most meteors burn up before hitting the Earth’s surface. A meteorite is a meteor or any part of it that hits the Earth’s surface without burning up.

Mars

o c . che e r o t r s super Venus

Saturn

Neptune

Earth

<http://www.kidsastronomy.com/solar_system.htm> <http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/StarChild/solar_system_level2/ solar_system.html> <http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmic_kids/AskKids/index. shtml> (These websites contain information to read about the solar system and space bodies within it.)

2. (a) Jupiter (c) Venus (e) Saturn

(b) Mercury (d) Neptune (f) Mars

Preparation • Colour photographs in reference books or charts of the solar system and the various space bodies would be useful to display while treating this section.

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

46

www.ricpublications.com.au

R.I.C. Publications®


What are some of the objects we can see from Earth? – 1 Read the text. Think about what these words have in common—clouds, stars, the sun, the moon, aircraft, rainbows and birds. Can you guess? They are some of the objects we can see from Earth. Some, like the clouds, are closer to us in the atmosphere. Others, like the stars, are far away in outer space.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Plutoids and dwarf planets Comets are chunks of © R. I . C . P u b l i c a t i o n s orbit the sun like the planets. dirty ice, dust and gas. Like planets, they have When ap comet gets too •f orr evi e w u r p o s e s onl y• enough gravity (force) to close to the sun, the ice

. te

starts to melt. This pushes out from the comet with other material to form a ‘tail’.

pull themselves into a round shape. But they don’t have enough gravity to control other space bodies around them. Examples of plutoids are Pluto and Eris. Ceres, found in the asteroid belt, is a dwarf planet.

m . u

w ww

There are eight planets in our solar system: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune and Uranus. All the planets orbit the sun at different distances from it. Those like Mercury and Venus that are closer to the sun are much hotter than those like Neptune and Uranus that are much further away.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Most of the planets have one or more moons. A moon is a space body that orbits a planet as it orbits the sun. All of a planet’s moons are smaller than it. Earth has one moon. Jupiter has the most discovered so far—63!

Asteroids are chunks of rock which orbit the sun, mainly in a belt between Mars and Jupiter. They can be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a small planet.

The twinkling stars we see are far beyond our solar system. They are not all the same as our sun—they can be bigger, smaller, hotter or cooler.

Meteors are pieces of rocky or metal material which come into the Earth’s atmosphere and burn up. They look like bright streaks of light. Sometimes we call them falling stars or shooting stars, but they are not really stars. R.I.C. Publications®

www.ricpublications.com.au

47

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

Earth and space sciences

The sun is the centre of the solar system and is actually a star. It is made up of extremely hot burning gases. It gives Earth heat and light. Although the sun is enormous compared with Earth, it is only a medium-sized star. It looks bigger and brighter than the other stars because it is so much closer to Earth.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Outer space is made up of space bodies such as the sun, stars, moons, planets, dwarf planets, comets, asteroids and meteors. Except for the stars, all of these space bodies are found in our solar system. That is the name we give to the sun and all the space bodies that orbit (travel around) it. To see many of these objects, we need to use a powerful telescope.


What are some of the objects we can see from Earth? – 2 Use the text on page 47 to complete the following. 1. List three objects you can see in: (a) Earth’s atmosphere. (b) outer space.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

2. Read each clue and name the space body it describes.

(b) Chunks of dirty ice, dust and gas.

(c) Rocky or metal material which enter the Earth’s atmosphere and burn up. (d) Earth has one of these. (e) There are eight of these in our solar system.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

(a) The star at the centre of our solar system.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f o rr eMars vi e wJupiter. pur posesonl y• (g) Found mainly between and (f) One of these is named Pluto.

. te

m . u

3. Describe one difference between a moon and a planet.

w ww

Earth and space sciences

(h) Name of a dwarf planet.

o c . che e r o 4. These sentences are false. Rewrite them so they are true. t r s super (a) Venus is cooler than Neptune. (b) All stars are the same size.

(c) The moon is the same size as Earth.

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

48

www.ricpublications.com.au

R.I.C. Publications®


Our solar system

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

1. Label the map of the solar system correctly. Use the words in bold print. In order from the sun, the planets are: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. The asteroid belt is between Mars and Jupiter.

o c . che e r o t r s super

2. Research to find out which planet: (a) is the largest.

(b) is the smallest.

(c) is the hottest.

(d) is the coldest.

(e) has huge rings.

(f) appears red.

R.I.C. Publications®

www.ricpublications.com.au

49

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

Earth and space sciences

w ww

. te

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•


Why do we have days, nights, years and seasons? Answers

Content focus: Significance of the rotation of the Earth on its axis and its revolution around the sun

Page 52

Inquiry skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Communicating

1. Teacher check 2. (a) 24 hours (b) 365 days/1 year 3. We have night-time because the Earth rotates. The part of the Earth not facing the sun experiences night-time. 4. Possible answers: Earth rotates, sun does not/Earth revolves around the sun, sun does not/sun is a star, Earth is not/sun is made of hot burning gases, Earth is not/Earth appears blue from space, sun appears yellow/sun is much larger than Earth 5. summer 6. four, sun, axis, Earth, sun, winter Science as a Human Endeavour question Nature and development of science An astronomer is a scientist who studies space and all the things in it.

Background information

Teac he r

• Because the Earth is tilted at 23.5º on its axis, different parts of the Earth are more directly facing the sun at different times of the year, resulting in the seasons. One revolution or orbit of the Earth around the sun takes 365 days, 6 hours, 9 minutes and 9.54 seconds. The extra hours, minutes and seconds are added up every four years to create a leap year, when an extra day is added to the month of February.

Page 53

• Useful websites:

Teacher check If the unit on pages 46 to 49 has not been covered, explain to the students the comparative size of the sun and the Earth before completing this activity. (Refer to the information on page 46.)

<http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/space/solarsystem/earth/ solsticescience.shtml> < http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=knK87GoNyGo> (Shows sun shining on Earth as it slowly rotates causing day and night)

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

<http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DuiQvPLWziQ> (Shows how the tilt of the Earth causes the seasons) Preparation

ew i ev Pr

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

• As the Earth rotates in an anticlockwise direction, the sun ‘rises’ in the east and ‘sets’ in the west. The sun appears to move across the sky because of this rotation but it is actually the Earth that is moving.

The lessons

. te

m . u

• Collect the equipment needed for the investigative activities on page 53. If polystyrene balls are not available, soft round fruit such as oranges could be used.

w ww

Earth and space sciences

• Reference books or the internet will need to be available for students to answer the final question on page 52.

o c . che e r o t r s super

• Pages 51 and 52 should be used together. A globe of the Earth would be useful in helping to show rotation, along with a torch to represent the sun.

• As a further extension to the investigations on page 53, do the following activity with the students to assist with understanding the seasons. Place the large ball on a table to represent the sun. Use the Earth prop with the clay attached and rotate it on its axis while you slowly revolve around the sun. Stop the clay bob at each ‘season’ to show what is happening according to whether it is facing more or less directly towards the sun.

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

50

www.ricpublications.com.au

R.I.C. Publications®


Why do we have days, nights, years and seasons? – 1 Read the text. From outer space, the Earth looks like a gigantic ball. You would see some white clouds surrounding it, lots of blue sections which are the oceans and brown parts which are the continents. The Earth does not stay still. It is continuously spinning round and round on its axis. We call this ‘rotating’. The Earth’s axis is an imaginary line drawn through the centre of the Earth from the North Pole to the South Pole. It takes 24 hours to spin the whole way round or make one rotation. The time it takes to do this is called a ‘day’.

Teac he r

We can see the sun from Earth. The sun is an enormous ball of hot, burning gases. It looks small to us because it is so far away. If you drove to the sun at 100 kmh, without stopping, it would take over 170 years to get there! The sun gives us our heat and light so living things can grow and survive. Without the sun, Earth as we know it would not exist. It would be a dark, frozen place without any life. However, if the sun was much closer, it would be too hot for most people, animals and plants to live.

North Pole axis

night-time

ew i ev Pr

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Sun

daytime

South Pole

the sun, it is night-time.

m . u

w ww

As the Earth is rotating and we have day and night, it is also moving around the sun. It takes one year—365 days—to move or revolve around the sun. We call this ‘orbiting’. Most places on Earth have four seasons—spring, summer, autumn and winter. As was explained above, the Earth revolves around the sun. It does this tilted on its axis. This means that at different times of the year, one part of the Earth is leaning more towards the sun than other parts. Because of this, it gets Summer more heat. It is summer. At the same time, the opposite part of the Earth is leaning away from the sun and gets less heat. It is winter. So when children in a place like Australia could be at the Winter beach in their summer, children in a place like Britain could be axis throwing snowballs at each other in their winter!

. te

R.I.C. Publications®

o c . che e r o t r s super

www.ricpublications.com.au

51

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

Earth and space sciences

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons We can see the sun and feel itse heat for about halfo ofs each day. As the Earth rotates, one • f o r r e v i w p u r p e s o n l y • side of it faces the sun for half a day, making it daytime. When that side faces away from


Why do we have days, nights, years and seasons? – 2 Use the text on page 51 to complete the following. 1. Label the diagram with these words: North Pole

South Pole

axis

sun

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S night-time

2. How long does it take for the Earth to:

(a) rotate once on its axis? ......................................................... (b) revolve once around the sun? ............................................... 3. Why do we have night-time?

5. If it was winter in Australia, what season would it be in Britain?

. te

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Describe one way the Earth and the sun are different.

w ww

Earth and space sciences

4.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

daytime

o c . The reason most places on Earth have seasons is because the ch e r o Earth revolves around the e tilted on its . This r st supwhile r e means at different times of the year, one part of the is leaning

6. Fill in the missing words.

more towards the

than other parts. That part gets more heat so

it is summer. The opposite part of the Earth will be having

.

Find out the name of the scientists who study space and all the things in it.

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

52

www.ricpublications.com.au

R.I.C. Publications®


How does the Earth rotate and revolve? You need to work with a partner to complete these activities. Follow the instructions and tick the boxes as you complete each step or activity.

Investigation 1 This activity will help you understand how the Earth rotates on its axis and we get night and day. Equipment:

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S wooden skewer; large styrofoam ball; small piece of modelling clay; torch

Teac he r

2. Press the clay onto the part of the Earth where you live.

ew i ev Pr

1. Carefully push the skewer through the middle of the foam ball. The ball is ‘Earth’ and skewer is Earth’s ‘axis’.

3. One of you holds the Earth on a slight tilt. Slowly rotate the Earth on the tilt. The other shines the torch (sun) at the Earth as it rotates. When the sun shines on the modelling clay, it is daytime where you live.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

4. Swap places and repeat step 3.

w ww

m . u

Extra! Extra!: You need another person as well as yourselves. The extra person swivels the ‘Earth’ in the chair (so the Earth is rotating) while slowly revolving it around the ‘sun’ to orbit it.

Investigation 2 . This activity t will help you understand how the Earth e o c revolves around the sun while rotating on its axis. . c e he r Equipment: the Earth prop from Investigation 1,o t r s up er large plastic ors leather ball North Pole

Night-time

Daytime

South Pole

1. One student holds the large ball on his or her head. This is the ‘sun’. 2. The other holds the Earth and slowly rotates it while tilted on its axis. While you are doing this, slowly take small sidesteps as you move (revolve) around the sun. It will take a ‘year’ to orbit the sun. 3. Swap places and repeat Step 2.

R.I.C. Publications®

www.ricpublications.com.au

53

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

Earth and space sciences

Extra!: One of you pretends to be the ‘Earth’ and sits on a swivel chair. The other holds a torch and is the ‘sun’. The sun shines on the Earth as it rotates (as the chair swivels).


How does the sun make shadows? Answers

Content focus: The sun can form shadows and their length changes during the day Investigating how sundials work

Page 56 1. A shadow is made when an object blocks out light, such as from the sun. 2. It leaves a dark area because it is a space where no light can reach. 3. (b) 4. (a) The sun should be to the left of the picture and low in the sky. (b) The sun should be directly over the dog in the picture. 5. Answer should indicate that your shadow can’t be seen as the clouds block much of the sun’s light so the light isn’t bright enough to form a shadow. 6. (a) behind you (b) in front of you (c) to your left

Inquiry skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Evaluating Communicating Background information

Teac he r

• Not all objects block light waves. Light can pass through clear objects such as glass and water. These are called ‘transparent’. Other objects let some light through but you cannot clearly see what is on the other side; e.g. waxed paper and frosted glass. These are called ‘translucent’. Some things do not let any light through; e.g. buildings, cars, people. These are called ‘opaque’ and can make shadows.

Page 57

ew i ev Pr

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

1. For students to have predicted correctly, they should draw a line from the pencil to the edge of the card at a slightly higher interval from the 9 am measurement. 2. The results should look similar to this diagram.

• The position of the sun changes as the Earth rotates on its axis. It is not the sun that moves. The sun appears to rise in the east and set in the west because the Earth spins west to east (anticlockwise) on its axis. • Throughout the ages, the sun has been used by many cultures to tell the time. Before shadow sticks and sundials, Ancient Egyptians built tall towers called obelisks to tell the time by looking at the shadows.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

3. Answers should indicate that at each hour, the pencil cast a shadow further away from the previous hour. The intervals look similar to those on a clock. 4. Possible answers: A sundial can only be used to tell the time on a sunny day. It’s hard to tell the exact time between the hours. The sundial isn’t as accurate as a clock. It would be hard to use a sundial inside. Note: If students repeat this activity in exactly the same way more than two weeks later, they will find the shadows are different and don’t align with the marks on the card from the previous activity. This is because the position of the sun changes throughout the year, due to the Earth’s elliptical orbit and its axial tilt.

m . u

• Useful websites:

w ww

Earth and space sciences

• In the activity on page 57, the students are, in essence, making and monitoring a shadow stick, rather than a sundial. A commercial sundial is usually made of a dial plate marked out with hour lines and a raised section called a ‘gnomon’ that casts a shadow. A sundial must be made specifically for the position where it will be used and pointed in the right direction.

<http://www.childrensuniversity.manchester.ac.uk/interactives/ science/earthandbeyond/shadows.asp> (Interactive site exploring shadow length)

. te

o c . che e r o t r s super

<http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lcL2f-KInWI> (Demonstration showing how to make a sundial using a different method from that on page 57) Preparation

• Collect the equipment needed to make the sundial on page 57. Choose a sunny day without wind or rain to carry out the activity. The lessons • Pages 55 and 56 should be used together. • Follow the suggestion in the final sentence on page 55, so students can actually see the sun shadow facts in real life. Ensure you work with them on this page on a sunny day!

• Students can work in a small group to make and monitor the sundial on page 57.

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

54

www.ricpublications.com.au

R.I.C. Publications®


How does the sun make shadows? – 1 Read the text. On a sunny day, have you ever played a game outside with someone where you try to jump on each other’s shadow? Do you know how a shadow is made? A shadow is made when an object blocks out a bright light, such as the sun, a torch or a streetlight. When you stand outside on a sunny day, your body blocks out some of the sunlight from reaching the ground. Light travels in a straight line. It cannot bend very well around you. Your shadow is the dark area on the ground in the shape of your body. It is dark because it is a space where light can’t reach.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

Have you noticed that your shadow can change size? Sometimes it looks long, other times it looks short and sometimes it has almost disappeared. It depends on where the sun appears in the sky. Early in the morning the sun appears low in the sky. Your shadow will be long at this time of the day. Later in the morning, the sun appears higher in the sky. Your shadow will be shorter. By noon, in the middle of the day, the sun appears almost directly overhead. Your shadow is the shortest at this time of day. The same pattern happens in the afternoon. Your shadow gradually gets longer as it gets later in the afternoon and the sun appears lower in the sky.

. te

o c . c e her 12 noon st r 9 am 3 pm o super Did you know it is not the sun that moves across the sky during the day? It is the Earth that moves. The Earth rotates—spins—once every 24 hours. Because it is spinning, it makes the sun appear to move. Another fact you will notice about your shadow is that when you are facing the sun, your shadow is always behind you. When the sun is behind you, your shadow is always in front of you. If you are standing sideways, your shadow will be to one side. If your left side is facing the sun, your shadow is on your right. If your right side is facing the sun, your shadow is on your left. Go outside at different times of the day and check these facts for yourself! R.I.C. Publications®

www.ricpublications.com.au

55

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

Earth and space sciences

w ww

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•


How does the sun make shadows? – 2 Use the text on page 55 to complete the following. 1. Describe how a shadow is made.

2. Why does a shadow leave a dark space?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

3. Tick the drawing that shows a tree’s shadow at 4 pm.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Draw the position of the sun in each of these pictures. •f orr evi ew pu r posesonl y• (a) (b)

w ww

Earth and space sciences

m . u

4.

(b)

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

(a)

. te

o c . c e r 5. Can you see your shadow h when sky is overcast? o ethe t r s super Why/Why not? 6. Complete these sentences. If you are standing: (a) facing the sun, your shadow is

.

(b) with your back to the sun, your shadow is

.

(c) with your right side to the sun, your shadow is

.

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

56

www.ricpublications.com.au

R.I.C. Publications®


How does a sundial work? Long before clocks and watches were used to tell the time, people used sundials. Follow the directions below to make and use your own sundial. Materials: â&#x20AC;˘ large, thick sheet of white or coloured card â&#x20AC;˘ pencil or length of dowelling â&#x20AC;˘ lump of plasticine â&#x20AC;˘ ruler â&#x20AC;˘ felt-tipped marking pens â&#x20AC;˘ stickers Procedure:

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

í˘ą Choose a position on a flat area within the school grounds that will get sunlight all day.

í˘˛ At 9 am, place the card on the ground. Attach the pencil/dowel

Teac he r

to the middle of the card with the plasticine. along the shadow made by the pencil.

ew i ev Pr

í˘ł Use a ruler and a marker to draw a line to the edge of the card

í˘´ Put a sticker at the end of the line and write â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;9â&#x20AC;&#x2122; on it to represent 9 am. í˘ľ Do the same at every hour during the school day.

Predictions, results and conclusions:

m . u

w ww

. te

o c . che e r o t r s sthep r 3. Explain what happened between u firste and last measurement.

4. On the back of this sheet, explain some problems with using a sundial to tell the time instead of a clock. R.I.C. PublicationsÂŽ

www.ricpublications.com.au

57

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

Earth and space sciences

Š R. I . C.Pub2.l i c at onafter s the last Take ai photo measurement and attach it to this â&#x20AC;˘f orr evi ew pur po se othe nl yâ&#x20AC;˘below. sheet ors draw results

1. Draw what you think will happen at 10 am.


Why does the moon change shape? • Students could work in pairs on the observation activity on page 61. Ask them to predict what they think the moon will look like before they check each night. Explain to the students that the first observation they make of the moon on the first day of the chosen month will not necessarily be of a new or full moon.

Content focus: Phases of the moon Inquiry skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Evaluating Communicating

• Students should compare and discuss their observations in the table with others in the class. Answers

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Page 60

Background information

1. 24, one, 29, one, one 2. We see the moon because it reflects light from the sun. 3. We see the moon change shape/go through different phases because different amounts of sunlight are reflected off it as it orbits. 4. (a) New moon (b) First quarter (c) Waxing gibbous or Waning gibbous 5. The sliver of light we see is on the left side of the moon in the waxing crescent phase and the right in the waning crescent phase. 6. Because the Earth is between the sun and the moon. Science as a Human Endeavour question Nature and development of science Some things Galileo Galilei discovered with his telescope were the rings of Saturn, four major moons of Jupiter (Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto), the phases of Venus, sunspots and that the moon was not smooth but covered with craters and mountains.

Teac he r

• The moon is the Earth’s only natural satellite. It is believed to have been formed from debris created after a space body the size of Mars collided with Earth. Examination of rocks brought back from the moon supports this theory.

ew i ev Pr

• Because the moon rotates once on its own axis at approximately the same time as it orbits once around Earth, only one side of the moon ever faces Earth.

• A crescent moon is so called as it is shaped like a crescent or ‘C’. The term ‘waxing’ refers to the increase in the extent of the illuminated portion of the moon before the full moon/more of the moon’s sunlit side becomes visible to Earth. The term ‘waning’ refers to the decrease in the extent of its illuminated portion after the full moon/ less of the moon’s sunlit side becomes visible to Earth. The word ‘gibbous’ means ‘protuberant’ or ‘convex’. A gibbous moon refers to when the moon appears to have a convex shape in between the full moon and half moon phases.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

• In the southern hemisphere, the moon waxes and wanes from the left. In the northern hemisphere, this occurs from the right.

Page 61

Teacher check

Preparation

. te

m . u

<http://www.childrensuniversity.manchester.ac.uk/interactives/ science/earthandbeyond/phases.asp> <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nXseTWTZlks> (Both of these websites show a short video of the phases of the moon.)

w ww

Earth and space sciences

• Useful websites:

o c . che e r o t r s super

• Colour photographs of the moon and phases in reference books or the internet would be useful to display while treating this section. • Reference books or the internet need to be available for students to complete the last question on page 60. One useful website is <http://www.zoomschool.com/inventors/1600.shtml> • Provide a chart with the labelled phases of the moon to complete page 61. Students could also refer to the diagram on page 59. The lessons • Pages 59 and 60 should be used together.

• When students study the diagram of the phases of the moon on page 59, ensure they are looking at the moon from the Earth’s position and not the sun’s.

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

58

www.ricpublications.com.au

R.I.C. Publications®


Why does the moon change shape? – 1 Read the text. Earth has only one moon. It is our closest neighbour in outer space—about 384 000 kilometres away. A spacecraft takes about three days to get there. Our moon moves in two ways. It spins (rotates) on its axis like the Earth does. However, it does this much more slowly. The Earth takes 24 hours or one day to rotate. The moon takes around 29 days or about one month! As it rotates, the moon is also travelling around (orbiting) the Earth. This also takes about one month.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

E

C B

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur poseson l y• Sun A

w ww F

. te

m . u

Earth

H

o c . che e r o A – New moon: We see no moon because the moon is between the Earth and the sun. t r s s r u e p B – Waxing crescent: We see a sliver of light on the left side of the moon. G

C – First quarter: We see the left half of the moon. D – Waxing gibbous: We see three-quarters of the moon. E – Full moon: We see all of one side of the moon because the Earth is between the moon and the sun. F – Waning gibbous: We see three-quarters of the moon. G – Last quarter: We see the right half of the moon. H – Waning crescent: We see a sliver of light on the right side of the moon. R.I.C. Publications®

www.ricpublications.com.au

59

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

Earth and space sciences

Teac he r D

ew i ev Pr

The moon has no heat or light of its own—it reflects light from the sun. From Earth, we only see one side of the moon; the other side faces towards space. We usually see the moon at night but sometimes it can be seen in the day. Have you noticed that the moon doesn’t look the same all the time? It seems to change shape as it orbits Earth. These changes in the way it looks are called ‘phases’. They occur because we see different amounts of the sun’s light reflected off the moon during the time it orbits the Earth. Each phase of the moon has a different name to describe its shape.


Why does the moon change shape? – 2 Use the text on page 59 to complete the following. 1. Fill in the missing numbers. The Earth takes

hours or

moon takes

day to rotate. The

days or about

also orbits the Earth in about

month. The moon month.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

3. Explain why we see the moon change shape or have different phases during the time it orbits the Earth.

C D

B

A

E

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

2. How can we see the moon even though it has no light of its own?

Sun

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Earth

F

H

G

m . u

(a) We see no moon.

w ww

Earth and space sciences

4. Write the name(s) given to each of these phases of the moon.

(b) We see the left half of the moon.

. te

(c) We see three-quarters of the moon.

o c . che e r o t r s super

5. What is different about what we see of the moon in the phases called the waxing crescent and the waning crescent?

6. Why can we see all the moon during the full moon phase?

In 1609, astronomer Galileo Galilei became the first person to use a telescope to view space. Find out some of the things he discovered with his telescope.

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

60

www.ricpublications.com.au

R.I.C. Publications®


Observing the moon 1. Look at the moon each night (or day if visible) from the first day of the month to see the phases of the moon. 2. Draw what you see in the ‘moon’ shapes. Colour black the part of the moon you cannot see. 3. Write the numbers 1, 2 etc. in the bottom left-hand side of each box to show the date. 4. Write the names of each phase next to the date.

r o e t s Bo r e p o u Mon. S Tues. Wed. Thurs. k Fri.

Month:

Sat.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Sun.

R.I.C. Publications®

o c . che e r o t r s super

www.ricpublications.com.au

61

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

Earth and space sciences

w ww

. te

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•


How did ancient peoples use astronomy? The lessons

Science as a Human Endeavour Substrand: Nature and the development of science

• Pages 63 and 64 should be used together. • Students should work in pairs on the recount activity on page 65. A website and some suggestions for traditional Aboriginal Australian or Torres Strait Islander astronomy stories are provided below.

Content focus: Investigating ancient peoples (especially Aboriginal Australian and Torres Strait Islanders) knowledge and use of astronomical bodies

• This website lists eight stories for students to choose to read and then plan their recount:

Inquiry skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Evaluating Communicating

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

<http://www.questacon.edu.au/starlab/aboriginal_astronomy.html> • Students should present their recount to the class, using both oral and written components. They can compare and discuss the information in recounts about the same astronomical bodies. Answers

Page 64

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Background information

• The naked eye can only see about 2000+ stars—there are thousands of millions which cannot be seen easily.

1. A constellation is a group of stars that makes a pattern or picture in the sky. 2. They gave names to the stars and the constellations to remember their location. 3. Hercules. Answers should describe him kneeling on one leg with a club raised in his right hand and left hand aimed at a target. 4. (a) It helped Aboriginal Australians and Islanders to know south. (b) It helped ancient sailors in the Northern Hemisphere know north. 5. make up calendars, tell the time at night, when to plant crops 6. Tucana, the toucan/Microscopium, the microscope

• Many cultures have different interpretations for the same constellations (named groups of stars). Even people from different groups or tribes from the same culture can have different interpretations. (Refer to the third website listed below.) • Useful websites:

<http://www.kidsastronomy.com/astroskymap/constellation_hunt. htm> (Interactive game identifying constellations)

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

<http://www.windows2universe.org/mythology/stars.html> (Links to myths about the sky, constellations and stars)

Page 65

Teacher check

m . u

w ww

Earth and space sciences

<http://www.oneminuteastronomer.com/2010/07/16/legendssouthern-cross/> (Describes interpretations of the Southern Cross constellation by different cultures, including Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders) <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australian_Aboriginal_astronomy> (Site for teachers to read and give information about different groups of Aboriginal Australians’ interpretation of constellations etc.) Preparation

. te

o c . che e r o t r s super

• Photographs or diagrams of some constellations from reference books or the internet would be useful to display while treating this section.

• Students will need access to the internet and other reference material to complete page 65.

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

62

www.ricpublications.com.au

R.I.C. Publications®


How did ancient peoples use astronomy? – 1 Read the text. If you look up to the sky on a clear night, you will see more stars than you can count. Because there are so many, if you try to count them you will forget which ones you have counted and which ones you haven’t! Long ago, people noticed that groups of stars made patterns, a bit like dot-to-dot pictures, in the sky. These groups of stars are called ‘constellations’. People gave names to the constellations and created stories about them to remember the locations of stars in the sky.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Beta

Alpha

The dot diagram shows the main stars in the constellation. The other shows a drawing over the stars of what people thought Hercules could look like. Can you see how they imagined him kneeling on one leg with a club raised in his right hand? And his left hand is aimed at a target?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• The world can be divided into the Northern Hemisphere, north of the equator, and the Hercules

w ww

. te

m . u

Southern Hemisphere, south of the equator. Not all constellations can be seen in both hemispheres. Some can only be seen at certain times of the year. It depends on the Earth’s position as it revolves around the sun. The stars, constellations and other space bodies like the planet Venus were very important to ancient cultures. Did you know they used them to find how to get from one place to another? For example, ancient sailors in the Northern Hemisphere used a star in a constellation called Little Dipper to tell them which way was north. The Southern Cross constellation in the Southern Hemisphere helped people such as Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders know which way was south.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Other reasons ancient people used the positions of the constellations at various times of the year included helping them to make up calendars, telling the time at night and knowing when to plant different crops. Today, astronomers have named 88 constellations. Many of the names are still the same as in ancient times. Some newer constellations include Tucana, the toucan, and Microscopium, the microscope. R.I.C. Publications®

www.ricpublications.com.au

63

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

Earth and space sciences

Teac he r

Gamma

ew i ev Pr

Many constellations have names from Greek and Roman myths. The constellation shown is called ‘Hercules’. He was a strong, fearless hero who defeated many beasts.


How did ancient peoples use astronomy? – 2 Use the text on page 63 to complete the following. 1. What is a ‘constellation’?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

3. Name this constellation and describe the imaginary picture. Gamma

Beta

Alpha

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

2. How did people from long ago remember where to find certain stars?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

Earth and space sciences

4. How did each of these constellations help ancient people? (a) Southern Cross

. te

m . u

Hercules

o c . che helped ancient peoples.r e 5. List three other ways constellations o r st super • (b) Little Dipper

• • 6. Name one of the modern 88 constellations.

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

64

www.ricpublications.com.au

R.I.C. Publications®


Stories about the sky Traditional Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders passed down stories from generation to generation. Many of these explain how space bodies like the sun and moon came to be. Your teacher will help you and your partner to choose one of their stories about the sky to plan and write a recount to share with the class. Use the headings below to help. (Use bullet points.) Title:

Teac he r

Website(s):

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Other resources:

Orientation: Who? Where? When? Why?

Events: What happened?

. te

o c . che e r o t r s super Conclusion: What happened at the end? How will you present your recount?

R.I.C. Publications®

www.ricpublications.com.au

65

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

Earth and space sciences

w ww

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•


What is heat and how is it produced? Answers

Content focus: Sources of heat and ways it can be produced

Page 68

Inquiry skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Evaluating Communicating Background information

1. Heat, power 2. The Earth would receive too much heat, making it too hot to survive. 3. Answers should describe making fire by rubbing two sticks together or using a flint. 4. wood, coal, oil, natural gas 5. They rub their hands together to produce warmth from friction. 6. (a) rough surfaces (b) quickly 7. (a) kettles/hot water systems/toasters/irons/ovens/heaters (b) Teacher check Science as a Human Endeavour question Use and influence of science: Students could suggest wearing long pants, sliding down on a towel or wetting the slide to reduce friction and heat.

Teac he r

• The sun is composed mainly of hydrogen and helium gases which help to produce a constant chain of nuclear explosions that give off enormous amounts of heat. This heat is radiated out to the surrounding planets, including the Earth.

Page 69

ew i ev Pr

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

• Heat is one of the important factors that ensure our survival. Our body temperature must be maintained at approximately 37 ºC or we would not live very long. The food we eat provides the ‘fuel’ needed to maintain this temperature. There would be no food without the heat (and light) from the sun. Plants and animals could not survive.

The students should discover that rubbing rougher surfaces together produces more heat than smoother surfaces. Water and lotion on their hands makes the surface of their hands softer and more lubricating so not as much heat will be felt when compared with rubbing their bare hands together, on the carpet or on the desk.

• Fire is a type of chemical reaction. Heating a fuel such as wood causes it to burn, which gives off heat. • Heat is made from friction because molecules in each material being rubbed together move faster when in motion. Energy is lost in the form of heat.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

• Other sources of heat not discussed on page 67 include nuclear reactions using uranium or plutonium, and geothermal heat—heat from underneath the Earth’s crust. • Useful website:

w ww

m . u

<http://www.brainpopjr.com/science/energy/heat/grownups.weml> (Background information and activities for the teacher) Preparation

• Provide pictures or actual items of some of the objects/appliances discussed on page 67. (Students could also identify heat-producing appliances in their classroom and school.)

. te

o c . che e r o t r s super

• Collect the equipment needed for the experiments on page 69. Note: The tap water used can be collected in a bucket and used to water plants. The lessons • Pages 67 and 68 should be used together.

Physical sciences

• Students should work individually or in pairs to complete page 69. However, ensure that each student completes the experiments and discusses any discrepancies in the results. Also discuss what makes the test fair; e.g. rubbing hands 20 times at the same speed, allowing hands to ‘cool down’ before commencing the next activity, ensuring the water used to rub hands together is the same temperature, ensuring the hand lotion is the same amount and type.

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

66

www.ricpublications.com.au

R.I.C. Publications®


What is heat and how is it produced? – 1 Read the text. Heat is a form of energy or power. Anything that gives off heat is a source of heat. The sun is the first source of heat most people think of. We feel its heat, specially on a hot day. This enormous ball of very hot gases produces a tremendous amount of heat (and light). However, only a small portion of the sun’s heat reaches Earth. If Earth was closer to the sun, it would be too hot over the entire planet for people to survive.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

On a cold day, have you ever rubbed your hands together to try to get them warm? This source of heat comes from ‘friction’. This is the same method used by people long ago to make fire. When two surfaces are rubbed together, heat is produced. The rougher the surfaces, the more heat is produced. Also, the greater the speed the surfaces are rubbed together, the greater the heat produced. Try rubbing your hands together slowly. Then try rubbing your hands together quickly. What do you notice?

ew i ev Pr

Fire is another source of heat. It is not known when fire was first used by people for warmth (and light and cooking). The first fires were probably from lightning strikes. Long ago, people learnt to make fire by rubbing two sticks together. This rubbing action made glowing wood dust. If the dust fell onto a pile of dry leaves and tiny bits of wood, a fire could be started. Later, people discovered that striking a stone called ‘flint’ against a harder rock containing iron produced sparks. Apart from wood, other fuels have been discovered that can be burnt to produce heat. These include coal, oil and natural gas. Matches and firelighters can be used to light fires instead of sticks and flint.

o c Today, electricity is. a common source of che e r energy used to produce heat. Electricity o t r s supe r is used to heat up water in kettles or in

hot water systems. It is used to heat up irons, cook food in ovens and toast bread in toasters. Many types of heaters work by electricity.

Other appliances in your home can still feel warm, even though their purpose is not for heating. Put your hand on the back of a fridge, computer or television after it has been turned on for a while. You will feel heat as some is produced in making the appliance work. R.I.C. Publications®

www.ricpublications.com.au

67

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

Physical sciences

w ww

. te

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•


What is heat and how is it produced? – 2 Use the text on page 67 to complete the following. 1. Fill in the missing words. is a form of energy or

.

2. Why couldn’t we survive if the Earth was closer to the sun?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

4. List four fuels that can be burnt to produce heat.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

3. Describe one way people long ago made fire.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

5. Why do people often rub their hands together if they are cold?

(a) use:

. te

soft surfaces

m . u

w ww

6. Friction produces heat when two surfaces are rubbed together. Tick the boxes that describe what you should use or do to the surfaces to make more heat. rough surfaces

slowly o c . 7. (a) From page 67, list two that use electricity for heating. cappliances e her r o st super (b) rub the surfaces together:

quickly

Physical sciences

(b) Write another appliance using electricity or a use for electricity not described on page 67.

If you slip down a slide with bare legs, the friction of the slide against your legs can cause a burning feeling. How could you prevent that from happening? AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

68

www.ricpublications.com.au

R.I.C. Publications®


Handy experiments When two objects are rubbed together, they produce a certain amount of heat through friction. Complete this activity to find out what heat you feel when you rub your hands in different conditions. Equipment: items described in the first column Procedure:

í˘ą For each experiment, rub hands together at the same speed, 20 times. Allow your

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

hands to â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;coolâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; down before you try the next one.

í˘˛ Complete the first experiment and rate the heat you feel between 1 and 5 (5 being the warmest).

í˘ł Before each experiment, predict whether you think you will feel more or less heat í˘´ Record your results. What to do

Rub hands together

My prediction

1

2

3

4

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

than in the first experiment.

Results

5

1

2

3

4

5

4

5

3

4

5

3

4

5

3

4

5

Š R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons â&#x20AC;˘f orr evi ew p ur posesonl yâ&#x20AC;˘ More heat

Rub hands on carpet

1

2

3

1

Rub hands on desk

. te

Less heat

2

o c . che More heat e Rub hands under cool r 1 2 o t r s su tap water r e p Less heat Rub hands with hand lotion on them

More heat 1

2

Less heat

What did you discover by doing these â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;handyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; experiments? Explain your findings on the back of this sheet. R.I.C. PublicationsÂŽ

www.ricpublications.com.au

69

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

Physical sciences

w ww

More heat

m . u

Less heat


How does heat travel? and size so same heat is contained; spoons should be placed in cup at same time and left for the same length of time; spoons should be close to the same size. Note: Ensure students take care when feeling the metal spoon as it can become quite hot to touch.

Content focus: Heat travels by conduction, convection or radiation Identifying the difference between a thermal conductor and a thermal insulator Inquiry skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Evaluating Communicating Background information

Answers Page 72 1. into, out 2. conduction, convection, radiation 3. (a) (ii) metal spoon should be ticked (b) Answers should indicate that metal is a good conductor of heat and the wood is not so the metal spoon will get hotter. 4. Answers should indicate that plastic does not let heat travel through easily so the handle will stay cool and not burn their hand. 5. insulator 6. a convection current 7. Answers should indicate we feel the sun’s heat because infrared heat rays radiate from the sun to Earth. Science as a Human Endeavour question Use and influence and science Good conductors are the metals tin, copper and steel. (The others are good insulators.)

Teac he r

• Heat energy can be transferred in three ways: by radiation through infrared rays; by convection, which transfers heat through currents in liquids and gases; and by conduction, which moves heat from warmer to cooler areas in solid objects. Heat can only travel from warm to cooler areas and not the other way around. • Useful websites:

<http://spaceplace.jpl.nasa.gov/en/kids/st8/thermal_loop/index. shtml> (Powerpoint™ about heat travel)

Page 73

<http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/ks2bitesize/science/materials/ keeping_warm/read1.shtml> (Information to read about temperature and insulating materials)

ew i ev Pr

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

The students should discover a metal spoon will be the best thermal conductor. Not only will it feel the hottest but the heat will remain there for the longest. If a ceramic spoon is used, they will find that spoon will hold less heat than the metal spoon but more than the plastic and wooden spoons. The plastic spoon will hold a slight amount of heat for a short time, while the wooden spoon will hold the least heat.

<http://www.sciencekids.co.nz/gamesactivities/keepingwarm.html> (Interactive activity investigating conductors and insulators)

w ww

m . u

<http://www.kids-science-experiments.com/ heatconductorsandinsulators.html> (Information to read about conductors and insulators) Preparation

• Where possible, obtain the items described on page 71 to demonstrate to the students.

. te

o c . che e r o t r s super

• Organise the equipment needed for the experiments on page 73. The lessons

• Pages 71 and 72 should be used together. This unit is best covered after pages 66 to 69. The unit on pages 34 to 37 about investigating solids, liquids and gases should also be completed or revised.

Physical sciences

• Demonstrate how a metal spoon heats up in hot water/soup by conduction and how a plastic or wooden one does not. Discuss how the water/soup gradually heats up by convection and how stirring helps this process. • Students could work in pairs or a small group to complete page 73. However, ensure that all have the opportunity to feel and compare the heat of the spoons. • Discuss how a fair test can be achieved in the experiments on page 73; e.g. when comparing results from different groups of students doing this experiment, coffee cups used should be the same thickness AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

70

www.ricpublications.com.au

R.I.C. Publications®


How does heat travel? – 1 Read the text. Heat is a form of energy or power. We can feel heat from sources like the sun or a fire; from friction when we rub our hands together; from hot water from a tap; and from appliances such as heaters, toasters and electric blankets. But how does the heat travel so we can feel it? Heat travels into and out of objects. This is called heat transfer. All objects are made up of tiny particles called atoms and molecules. If an object is hot, its molecules and atoms move quickly. If an object is cooler, they will move much slower. Heat travels from one object to another through conduction, convection or radiation.

Teac he r

Conduction is the main way heat travels through solid objects. When you stir a pot of hot soup with a metal spoon (a solid), the spoon will gradually heat up all the way to the handle. The molecules and atoms in the spoon move more quickly and bump into others. Heat travels throughout the spoon in this way and it can get quite hot to touch. Metal is a good conductor. The pot is made of metal, too, and will also get very hot.

ew i ev Pr

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

What happens if you use a wooden or plastic spoon to stir the soup? Wood and plastic are not good conductors of heat. Heat does not travel easily through them. They are called insulators. You will notice that most pots have plastic handles. This is so we can hold the pot and not burn our hand.

ART

o c . che e r o t r s super

Heater with arrows to show a convection current.

cool air

Radiation is another way of heat transfer. It is the spreading out of heat rays. The sun is the best example. Heat from the sun cannot travel by conduction or convection because space is almost completely empty. We feel heat from the sun as it travels to Earth by infrared rays. We can also feel heat from a light bulb in the same way. It radiates heat into the surrounding air.

R.I.C. Publications®

www.ricpublications.com.au

71

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

Physical sciences

w ww

. te

m . u

warm air

Gases and liquids transfer heat by convection. When a pot of cold soup is put on a hot plate, the soup (a liquid) at the bottom heats up first. This warm soup is lighter and moves up to the top where the soup is cooler. The cooler soup moves down. The warmer and cooler molecules and atoms mix until the temperature is the same throughout. The same thing happens when we turn on a heater in a cold room. The air (a gas) is heated right in front of the heater. Warm air is lighter than cool air so it rises. Cool air comes down to take its place. It gets warmed and rises. The movement of the liquid or gas is called a convection current.


How does heat travel? – 2 Use the text on page 71 to complete the following. 1. Fill in the missing words. Heat transfer is the way heat travels

and

of objects.

2. What are the three ways heat can travel from one object to another?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

3. (a) Tick the spoon that would get hotter if you used it to stir hot soup. (ii)

(b) Why did you choose this spoon?

4. Why do most pots and pans have plastic handles?

6.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons What word • in the text the opposite ‘conductor’? f o rmeans r ev i e w pofu r posesonl y•

w ww

What is the name of the way heat moves as shown by the arrows around the heater?

. te

warm air

m . u

5.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

(i)

o c . che e r o t 7. Explain how we can feel the heatr from the sun. s super cool air

Physical sciences

Find out which of the following materials would good be conductors of heat: glass, cotton wool, air, tin, copper, polystyrene foam, steel, cork, rubber. AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

72

www.ricpublications.com.au

R.I.C. Publications®


Spoonfuls of experiments Some materials allow heat to pass through them easily. They are good thermal (heat) conductors. Other materials do not allow heat to move through them easily. They are good thermal insulators. Follow the procedure to find out which type of spoon is the best thermal conductor. Equipment:

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Procedure:

1. With adult supervision, pour hot water into the mug.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

• kettle filled with hot water • 1 large coffee mug • 3 or 4 spoons about the same size made of different materials; e.g. 1 plastic, 1 metal, 1 wooden, 1 ceramic

2. Place all the spoons in the mug at the same time. Leave them for 1 minute. 3. Which spoon do you predict will feel the hottest when you take it out?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

4. Take out the spoons and quickly and carefully feel each one. Complete the table with your results.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Physical sciences

w ww

. te

Describe the heat you felt

m . u

Material spoon is made from

5. (a) Which spoon was the best thermal conductor?

(b) Was your prediction correct? YES R.I.C. Publications®

www.ricpublications.com.au

NO 73

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE


What is a thermometer? Procedure

Content focus: How thermometers work and their uses

1. As a class, choose 5 different places for each group to position their containers; e.g. freezer, fridge, classroom, outside in shade, outside in full sun. Students list in table. 2. Before they start, students rate the places (within their group) from 1 to 5—1 where they think a container will get the warmest and 5 the coolest. 3. Students take turns to pour 250 mL cold water into their group’s 5 identical containers. (All groups should have the same; e.g. glasses, glass jars, clear plastic cups. Don’t use containers that are too insulated as this may affect the water temperature too much.) The water temperature is measured and the time recorded. 4. Each container is placed in position. Note: Thermometers should not be left in the containers. Bring inside so each new reading will be unaffected by continual heat/cold. 5. Students take three more readings over the next couple of hours, and record in appropriate column. After the last reading, they rate the containers again and discuss and compare the results among the groups. Results can be recorded on graphs. (Also discuss what made the procedure a fair test.)

Inquiry skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Evaluating Communicating Background information

Teac he r

• Ice melts at exactly 0 ºC, a hot bath is about 40 ºC and fresh water boils at exactly 100 ºC. • Mercury is a metal used in traditional thermometers as it is a liquid at room temperature. It is naturally coloured silver so it can be seen against the degree markings in the thermometer tube. If colourless alcohol is used, it is dyed so it can be seen.

Answers Page 76

1. thermometer, temperature, hot, cold 2. The liquid expands and rises up the tube as the temperature rises and contracts and lowers as the temperature falls. 3. Because the heat from your hands will transfer to the glass tube and make the temperature rise (giving a false reading). 4. (a) 15 ºC (b) 5 ºC (c) 37 ºC (d) 28 ºC 5. Possible answers: Tube thermometers are harder to handle because of heat transfer/made of glass which can break; Digital reading is easier to read than that of a tube thermometer. Science as a Human Endeavour question Use and influence of science Lists could include: heaters of various forms, air conditioners, ovens, irons, electric blankets, pizza ovens, hair straighteners, hair dryers, washing machines, toasters, refrigerators, hot plates, clothes dryers, coffee makers.

• Medical thermometers used for checking a person’s temperature include ear probe models; forehead detection strips; digital thermometers for use under the tongue, under the arm or on the forehead; and traditional oral liquid thermometers. • Useful website:

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

m . u

<http://www.neok12.com/Heat-Temperature.htm> (Several short student videos explaining difference between temperature and heat, how a thermometer works and so on)

w ww

Preparation

• Collect traditional glass tube thermometers, digital and strip thermometers to show students.

. te

• Collect the equipment needed for the experiments on page 77. The lessons

ew i ev Pr

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

• Thermometers can be analog (temperature shown on a dial or scale) or digital (temperature shown as a number). The temperature can be measured in different scales—Celsius (C), Fahrenheit (F) or Kelvin (K). Celsius and Fahrenheit units are called degrees (symbol= º), while Kelvin units are called kelvins. Celsius is used in most countries today, though scientists usually use Kelvin in their investigations.

• Pages 75 and 76 should be used together.

o c . che e r o t r s super Page 77

Teacher check

• To assist in discussing page 75, show students how traditional glass tube thermometers, digital and strip thermometers work.

Physical sciences

• Students could work in a small group of up to five to complete the experiments on page 77. Instructions for the procedure for the experiments and to complete the table are provided in the next column. These could be written for students to follow, related orally or given as a mixture of oral and written format.

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

74

www.ricpublications.com.au

R.I.C. Publications®


What is a thermometer? – 1 Read the text. A thermometer is an instrument used to measure temperature. Temperature is how hot or cold something is—or the amount of heat it has. Different kinds of thermometers are used to measure the temperature of different things. A glass tube thermometer is shown below.

It contains a thin glass tube of coloured liquid. The liquid is usually mercury, which has a silver colour, or alcohol that has been coloured with a dye.

40 30 20

0

temperature falls.

– 10

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

10

r o e t s Bo r e p The liquid expands and rises okup the tube as the u S temperature rises, and contracts and lowers as the The tube containing the liquid is marked in degrees so the temperature can be read.

– 20

The thermometer shown is marked in degrees using a scale called ‘Celsius’. The temperature is 25 °C.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

. te

o c . che e r o t r s super

Knowing the temperature is useful for many reasons. A person’s temperature should be around 37 °C (Celsius). A thermometer can tell if our temperature is too high and we have a fever. Cooks and chefs measure the temperature of fridges, ovens and food so it can be cooked, stored and served correctly. Vehicles like cars, trucks and planes have instruments that show if an engine is overheating. We like to know the temperature so we can dress for the weather and plan outdoor activities. R.I.C. Publications®

www.ricpublications.com.au

75

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

Physical sciences

w ww

Some thermometers are digital. They contain a tiny device called a ‘thermistor’. This measures the temperature which is then displayed on a screen. Another type of thermometer is shaped like a strip of card. It has different inks on it which change colour according to the temperature. Digital and strip thermometers are easier to use than a tube thermometer.

m . u

If a thermometer like the one above is used to measure temperature, it should be hung or stood up vertically (upright). It should not be held with your hands around the tube while taking temperature readings as the heat from your hands will transfer to the glass and make the temperature rise. The temperature can be read by making sure your eyes are level with the top of the liquid in the tube. If you look at the reading from above or below the level, it will not be the same.


What is a thermometer? – 2 Use the text on page 75 to complete the following. 1. Fill in the missing words. A

is an instrument used to measure

Temperature is how

.

or

something is.

2. What happens to the liquid inside a glass tube thermometer?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

4. Read and record the temperature on each of these thermometers. (a)

(b)

40

(c) 40

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

3. Why shouldn’t you hold a tube thermometer in your hands when reading the temperature?

(d) 40

40

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 30

20

20

20

20

10

10

10

10

0

0

0

0

– 10

– 10

– 10

– 20

– 20

– 20

. te

30

m . u

30

w ww

30

– 10 – 20

o c °C °C °C . c e hstrip r 5. Why do you think a digital or thermometer is easier to use than a tube e o t r s s r upe thermometer?

°C

Physical sciences

List as many objects or appliances as you can at school or home that have a type of temperature control or gauge to make the temperature hotter, colder or stay the same.

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

76

www.ricpublications.com.au

R.I.C. Publications®


What’s the temperature? Have fun using a thermometer to find out how a container of water gets warmer or cooler depending on where it is placed! I am boiling.

Equipment: • 5 identical containers I am freezing. • 1 litre jug of cold water • 250 mL measuring cup • 5 thermometers • watch/timer that shows seconds

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Position of water

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Procedure: Follow your teacher’s instructions to complete the table below with your predictions and results.

Rate 1 to 5 before begin

Temperature of water at start

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Time at start •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

m . u

Temperature

Time

. te

Temperature

Time

o c . che e r o t r s super

Physical sciences

Temperature

Time Rate 1 to 5 after experiment R.I.C. Publications®

www.ricpublications.com.au

77

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE


How can heat affect us and things around us? Answers

Science as a Human Endeavour substrand: Use and influence of science Content focus: Considering some of the effects of heat in everyday life Inquiry skills focus: Questioning and predicting Planning and conducting Processing and analysing data and information Evaluating Communicating Background information

Page 80 1. Teacher check 2. (a) reverse cycle air conditioner/heater/beanie/blanket/scarf/ double-glazed windows (b) reverse cycle air conditioner/double-glazed windows/fan (c) fridge/cooler/vacuum flask (d) oven/vacuum flask/cooler (can be used, but not usually) (e) oven/toaster (f) cooler/vacuum flask/double-glazed windows 3. The liquid in a thermometer and the meatal in expansion joints both expand when heated and contract when cooled. 4. (a) make it change from a solid to a liquid (b) make it change from a solid to a liquid (c) make it change from a liquid to a solid 5. Students should describe the soles of shoes wearing out or the problems caused by friction in the moving parts of machines like bicycles or car engines.

Teac he r

• When a material or substance becomes heated, its atoms become more active and spread out. This can cause the material to expand. The opposite occurs when it cools. The atoms become less active, take up less space and the material contracts. • Useful website:

Page 81

<http://www.brainpopjr.com/science/energy/heat/grownups.weml> (Background information and activities for teacher)

1. Teacher check 2. Teacher check 3. Depending on the heat of the water, the balloon will start to inflate after a few minutes (or sooner). 4. Teacher check 5. The balloon will deflate. 6. As the air inside the balloon becomes heated in the hot water, it expands and needs more space. This stretches out the balloon. When the bottle is placed in the ice water, the air inside the balloon is cooled, contracts and needs less space, so the balloon deflates.

Preparation

• Obtain actual items or provide photographs of some of the materials/ objects discussed on page 79.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

• Collect the equipment needed for the experiment on page 81. The lessons

ew i ev Pr

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

• Pages 79 and 80 should be used together. This unit is best completed after the previous three units on pages 66 to 77 have been covered.

m . u

w ww

• Students should work in pairs or a small group to complete page 81. Photographs of each step could be taken to display. Explanations of what happened to the balloon could be displayed under each step. • Allow time for students to predict what will happen before carrying out Steps 2 and 4 on page 81. Note: Using ice cubes will cause the balloon to deflate quicker than just using cool water.

. te

o c . che e r o t r s super

• Through questioning and prompts using students’ suggestions relating to their observations, direct them to answer Question 6 in their own words.

Physical sciences AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

78

www.ricpublications.com.au

R.I.C. Publications®


How can heat affect us and things around us? – 1 Read the text. Imagine it is a very hot day. What are some of the things you could do to make yourself feel cooler? You could wear light clothing, use a fan or air conditioner to cool yourself or have a cool shower or a swim. You could play in a shady spot outside instead of in the sun. We sweat when we are hot, which helps to cool us down. Extra water should be drunk to replace the water lost from sweat.

Teac he r

reverse cycle air conditioner

oven

iron

ew i ev Pr

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

There are many appliances, machines and items we use everyday that make us warmer, make us cooler, keep things warm, keep things cool, use heat for cooking or use heat for other reasons. Read through the following list and decide how and why each is used. Can you add to the list?

gas, electric, solar or wood heater

hot water system

fridge

hair dryer

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons oven mittens kettle toaster •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• blanket

double-glazed windows

40 30 20

w ww

. te

10 0 – 10

cooler

thermos scarf

Sometimes, materials can change when they gain or lose heat. Some materials can change size by expanding when heated or contracting when cooled. Liquid inside a tube thermometer works in this way. The metal in railway lines and bridges can expand and contract with heat and cold. They have expansion joints built into them so they won’t buckle in the heat.

m . u

beanie

as a gas. If we freeze water, it becomes a solid. A block of chocolate can change from a solid to a liquid if heated. When we boil an egg, the inside changes from a liquid to a solid by heating. When two surfaces are rubbed together, heat is produced by friction. This can cause problems for us. For example, did you know that the soles of your shoes wear out because of the constant rubbing against the different surfaces you walk on? Problems can occur with the friction between the moving parts in machines such as car engines and bicycles. Oil or grease is used to reduce the friction (and heat) between the moving parts. R.I.C. Publications®

www.ricpublications.com.au

79

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

Physical sciences

o c . c e h r Materials can change state from a solid to a liquid or a gas when heated or cooled. Water e o t r s s r e p can be a liquid when we drink it. If weu boil it in a kettle, some of it comes out of the spout – 20


How can heat affect us and things around us? – 2 Use the text on page 79 to complete the following. 1. Describe two things YOU do on a hot day to keep cool.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

2. Write an example of an object or appliance that can: (a) keep us warm ...............

(c) keep food cool .............. (d) keep food warm ............ (e) be used for cooking something ...............

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons What is similar about the way a thermometer works and how expansion joints in •f o rr evi ew pur posesonl y• bridges or railway lines work?

w ww

m . u

(f) keep heat from coming in or going out ...

3.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

(b) keep us cool ..................

4. How can heat change:

. t (b) an ice cube? e

o c . che (c) a raw egg? e r o t r scan cause problems for us. sup 5. Heat can be produced by friction. Explain onee way this r (a) a block of chocolate?

Physical sciences AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE

80

www.ricpublications.com.au

R.I.C. Publications®


Magic balloon trick Find out what happens to a balloon when the air inside it is heated up and then cooled down. Equipment: • 1 empty plastic soft drink bottle • kettle of hot (not boiling) water Procedure:

• 1 uninflated balloon • 2 trays of ice cubes

• 2 saucepans • 1 cup cool water

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

1. Put the end of the balloon over the mouth of the bottle so no air can get in or out.

Teac he r

3. (a) Were you correct?

YES

NO

ew i ev Pr

2. With adult supervision, get ready to pour hot water into the saucepan and then place the bottle with the balloon on it into the water. Before you do this, write what you predict will happen.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

(b) If you were not correct, describe what did happen.

w ww

m . u

4. Place the ice cubes into the other saucepan and add some cool water. Get ready to take the bottle with the balloon from the hot water to push firmly into the cold water and ice. Before you do this, write what you predict will happen.

. te

o c . che e r o t r s sup 5. (a) Were you correct? YES NOe r

Physical sciences

(b) If you were not correct, describe what did happen.

6. On the back of this sheet, explain why each result happened. Use diagrams to help. R.I.C. Publications®

www.ricpublications.com.au

81

AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM SCIENCE


Australian Curriculum Science: Year 3 - Ages 8-9