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Ages 6–8

RIC-6514 4.5/380


HANDS-ON SCIENCE (Ages 6–8) Published by R.I.C. Publications® 2007 Copyright© R.I.C. Publications® 2007 ISBN-13 978-1-74126-538-5 RIC–6514

Additional titles available in this series:

Copyright Notice Blackline masters or copy masters are published and sold with a limited copyright. This copyright allows publishers to provide teachers and schools with a wide range of learning activities without copyright being breached. This limited copyright allows the purchaser to make sufficient copies for use within their own education institution. The copyright is not transferable, nor can it be onsold. Following these instructions is not essential but will ensure that you, as the purchaser, have evidence of legal ownership to the copyright if inspection occurs.

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For your added protection in the case of copyright inspection, please complete the form below. Retain this form, the complete original document and the invoice or receipt as proof of purchase.

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HANDS-ON SCIENCE (Ages 9–10) HANDS-ON SCIENCE (Ages 11+)

This master may only be reproduced by the original purchaser for use with their class(es). The publisher prohibits the loaning or onselling of this master for the purposes of reproduction.

Name of Purchaser:

Date of Purchase:

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Supplier:

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Signature of Purchaser:

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School Order# (if applicable):

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Internet websites

In some cases, websites or specific URLs may be recommended. While these are checked and rechecked at the time of publication, the publisher has no control over any subsequent changes which may be made to webpages. It is strongly recommended that the class teacher checks all URLs before allowing students to access them.

View all pages online PO Box 332 Greenwood Western Australia 6924

Website: www.ricgroup.com.au Email: mail@ricgroup.com.au


Foreword Hands-on learning is ‘learning by doing’. It requires students to become active participants as they investigate, experiment, design, create, role-play, cook and more, gaining an understanding of essential scientific concepts from these experiences. Hands-on learning motivates students and engages them in their learning. Instead of being told ‘why’ something occurs, they see it for themselves, directly observing science in action. The fun, student-oriented activities in the Hands-on science series teach scientific concepts and skills, while promoting student participation, enthusiasm and curiosity about science. Easily integrated into any primary science program, Hands-on science provides clear, step-by-step instructions for each activity and comprehensive background information for the teacher. A glossary of scientific terms used is also included.

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Hands-on science provides students with the opportunity to enhance their knowledge of the world around them and to engage in collaborative, fun learning that makes science interesting and exciting!

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are: Science Science Science

Ages 6 – 8 Ages 9 –10 Ages 11+

Contents

Energy and change

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Titles in this series Hands-on Hands-on Hands-on

20–37

A sweet car Design a toy that moves Springy jack-in-the-box Circle glider Design a parachute Suncatcher Sounds like rain! Dancing paper Popcorn

Why ‘hands on’? Safety Assessment

vi vi vii

Curriculum links

vii

Frameworks

viii – xv

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Assessment Science reflection Science report Science recount Science investigation Science journal Before and after Scientific diagram

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Glossary Earth and beyond Cloud watch

viii ix x xi xii xiii xiv xv

Life and living Guess what? Hairy caterpillar Build a bird’s nest Living or non-living? Sweet-smelling flowers Clara the cow Plant and animal hunt Animal coverings Measure me!

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iv –u vii b © R. I . C.P l i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Teacher information

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Hot- and cold-weather dishes Make a weather vane Day and night artwork Design a shadow-maker Water is special Mini water cycle Sink or float Internet water poster R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricgroup.com.au

xvi – xvii

2–19

2–3 4–5 6–7 8–9 10–11 12–13 14–15 16–17 18–19

Natural and processed materials Garden collage Scavenger hunt Testing properties Wrap it up! Natural or not? What can it do? Microwave science Make a tidy-up train Design a recycling bin

Hands-on science

20–21 22–23 24–25 26–27 28–29 30–31 32–33 34–35 36–37

38–55 38–39 40–41 42–43 44–45 46–47 48–49 50–51 52–53 54–55

56–73 56–57 58–59 60–61 62–63 64–65 66–67 68–69 70–71 72–73 iii


Teacher information Each book in the Hands-on science series is divided into four sections, drawn from the national science strands: • Earth and beyond • Energy and change • Life and living • Natural and processed materials Each section contains nine activities chosen from the most popular topics in the four science strands. Each activity is accompanied by a teachers page which includes information to assist the teacher with the activity.

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The required materials are listed clearly so the teacher is aware of what is needed to complete the activity.

Ideas listed under the motivate heading include suggested short activities or discussion topics designed to capture the students’ attention and spark an interest in the lesson. By listening to student responses and through observation, teachers will become aware of their students’ background knowledge.

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One or more indicators are given for each activity page, providing the teacher with the focus of the activity and the behaviours students should demonstrate by completing the activity.

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A ‘Before and after’ framework, located on page xiv, can also be used to elicit students’ prior knowledge on a topic.

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The explain section introduces the conceptual tools students need to interpret evidence and construct explanations, allowing them to record, discuss or present their understanding of the scientific concept experienced. It also provides the teacher with important background information about the topic (highlighted in the box).

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The experience section provides easy to follow instructions for the hands-on activity.The accompanying worksheet may list step-by-step instructions or be where students record their observations and ideas after completing the task.

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Another opportunity for students to display their understanding of the concept is offered in the apply section. It allows students to apply their new knowledge and understanding to a different situation. The review and reflect section asks students to complete an activity that evaluates their conceptual understanding of the concept. The teacher can use the result as evidence for assessment, demonstrating if understanding of the learning outcome has been achieved. Answers may be included, where appropriate. iv

Hands-on science

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Teacher information The student pages contain a variety of activities. They may be the focus of the lesson, providing step-by-step instructions to complete the hands-on experience, or provide a structure for students to record their observations, investigations, results and discoveries.

The task is clearly stated at the top of the page, providing a focus for the students.

An icon represents the area of science the activity has been drawn from: • Earth and beyond

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• Energy and change • Life and living

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If an activity requires students to use material or a tool that is a possible safety hazard (such as hot water), the worksheet reminds them to be cautious.

• Natural and processed materials

Frameworks

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Located at the front of the book are frameworks students can use to display their understanding of a scientific concept and experience, and to reinforce concepts learned. The framework can be used to plan a new investigation or to reflect upon a completed activity. As students write science reports, recounts and investigations, they will be integrating science with literacy. References to relevant frameworks can be found on the accompanying teachers page of a hands-on activity.

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A science report framework is located on page x.

A science recount framework is located on page xi.

Students record the facts and results of their hands-on activity.

Students retell the events of their hands-on activity.

R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricgroup.com.au

A science investigation framework is located on page xii. Students plan a scientific investigation and record their observations.

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Teacher information

A science journal framework is located on page xiii.

A before and after chart is located on page xiv.

A scientific diagram framework is located on page xv.

Students keep a dated record of observations and reflections.

Students record their prior knowledge of a topic and write questions they hope to answer. Students then reflect upon this after completion.

After completing a handson activity, students draw a diagram.

© R. I . C.Pu bl i cat i ons Safety activities in the Hands-on science series are Hands-on learning is ‘learning by doing’. A hands•f or evi ew pThe ur p ose so nl ycan,•and safe for students. However, accidents on approach requires students tor become active Why ‘hands on’?

Many believe that information gained through hands-on learning is remembered and retrieved better, allowing it to be transferred to other situations more easily.

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Hands-on learning motivates students and engages them in their learning. They develop a curiosity and are interested to know ‘why’ something occurs. Instead of being told ‘why’, students see it for themselves, directly observing science in action. Hands-on learning encourages questioning about the events students observe and the results they achieve. Students improve their scientific skills, such as measuring, observing, predicting and inferring. Most of the hands-on activities in the book are conducted in groups. Collaborative learning encourages students to communicate clearly and express their ideas about science.

vi

do, happen and so safety precautions for certain activities are given on the teachers page. Some activities also have a ‘Safety note’ written on the worksheet to remind the students. It is imperative that the teacher is aware of possible safety precautions prior to an activity. If careful supervision is required during a lesson, it may be best to organise an additional adult to be in the classroom for that activity.

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participants in their learning. Students investigate and test basic scientific principles by experimenting, creating, designing, cooking and much more, gaining an understanding of the concepts from their experiences.

Hands-on science

Science safety tips:

• Try the activity yourself before you present it to the class. • Ensure that all groups understand the instructions; all students are organised and focused on the task. • Make sure students are within view at all times. • Do not hand out equipment until it is required. • Remind students that they should never taste or smell any materials in a science experiment unless permission is granted by the teacher. • If an activity is conducted in an outside area, visit the site before hand to ensure it is safe and that examples of what is to be observed are present. R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricgroup.com.au


Teacher information Assessment An assessment indicator for each activity is located on the teachers page. It can be transferred to the Assessment proforma on page viii.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S A science reflection sheet is located on page ix. It can be distributed to students after a hands-on activity has been completed. It allows students to reflect on the activity, remarking on the parts they liked and disliked. Students are also given the opportunity to comment on their group’s performance during the activity.

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The assessment proforma can be used to record evidence of a student’s progress towards achieving an outcome. The format is ideal for inclusion in student portfolios, or for reporting purposes.

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Curriculum links Pages

Vic.

SA

Qld

EB 1 EB 2 I 2.1 I 2.2 I 2.3 I 2.4

SCSC0101 SCSC0201

1.2 2.1 2.2

1.1 2.1

EC 1 EC 2 I 2.1 I 2.2 I 2.3 I 2.4

SCSC0101 SCSC0201

1.3 1.4 2.3 2.4

1.1 1.3 2.2 D2.4

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LL 1 LL 2 I 2.1 I 2.2 I 2.3 I 2.4

SCSC0101 SCSC0201

1.5 1.6 2.5

56–73

NPM NPM I 2.1 I 2.3

SCSC0101 SCSC0201

1.7 1.8 2.7 2.8

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Earth and beyond

Energy and change

Life and living

Natural and processed materials

2–19

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NSW

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Strand

ESES1.6 INVES1.7 DMES1.8 UTES1.9

INVS1.7 DMS1.8 UTS1.9

1.2 2.1 2.3, D2.5

PPES1.4 INVES1.7 DMES1.8 UTES1.9

PPS1.4 INVS1.7 DMS1.8 UTS1.9

1.1 1.3 2.2

1.2 2.1 2.3

LTES1.3 INVES1.7 DMES1.8 UTES1.9

LTS1.3 INVS1.7 DMS1.8 UTS1.9

1.1 1.3 2.2

1.2 2.1 2.3

BE S2.6 INVES1.7 DMES1.8 UTES1.9

INVS1.7 DMS1.8 UTS1.9

1.2 2.2

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Assessment

Date:

Name: Learning area: Strand: Date

Outcomes

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not evident beginning developing achieved not evident

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Indicator

beginning

developing achieved

not evident beginning

developing

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons achieved not evident •f orr evi ew pur posesonl ybeginning •

developing

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achieved not evident beginning

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developing

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achieved not evident beginning developing achieved

Teacher comment

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Science reflection

Date:

Name:

Activity name:

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Describe what you did.

The parts I liked:

The parts I didn’t like:

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stars.

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I give this activity

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My picture of the activity R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricgroup.com.au

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Science report

Date:

Name: ..................................................................... Activity title: Materials: What did you use?

What did you do?

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Method:

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What happened?

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My picture

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Results:

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Conclusion: What did you learn?

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Science recount

Date:

Name: ......................................................................

Activity title: Orientation: When did you do it?

Where did you do it?

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My picture

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Conclusion: How did it go?

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How did you feel about it?

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Science investigation

Date:

Name: ........................................................... Activity title: What are you trying to find out?

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r o e t s Bo r What materials will you use? e p ok u S What will you do?

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Science journal Name: ....................................................................... Activity title: Observations and ideas

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Date:

Data and diagrams

Date:

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Date:

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Before and after

Date:

Name: ........................................................... Topic: What I would like to know

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What I already know

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What I learned

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How I can find out the answer(s)?

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Hands-on science

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Scientific diagram

Date:

Name: ........................................................... Use this checklist to help you draw your scientific diagram. Sharp lead pencil

Ruler used for all straight lines

Labels spelt correctly

All parts are labelled

Diagram is large enough

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Title

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Could improve

Good

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Fantastic xv


Glossary arthropod .............................. a segmented invertebrate with jointed legs; e.g. insect. axis ...................................... the line about which a rotating body turns. biodegradable ....................... capable of being broken down, especially into innocuous products by the action of living things. cellophane™ ........................... a transparent, cellulose product used in packaging. charge .................................. to supply a quantity of electricity to (a battery), usually sufficient to make it fully operational again; the quantity of electricity stored in a capacitor or electrical storage battery.

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cirrus clouds ........................... high level, wispy clouds associated with fine weather conditions. They often indicate approaching fronts. They are made of ice crystals.

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compass ................................ an instrument for determining direction consisting of a free-moving needle which indicates magnetic north and south. crustacean ............................. an arthropod with a hard exoskeleton; e.g. prawn.

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condensation.......................... the act of reducing a gas or vapour to a liquid or solid form.

cumulus clouds ....................... very white clouds which form vertically and appear as fluffy, cotton wool, often in cauliflower shapes, found at different levels; e.g. stratocumulus (low level), altocumulus (middle level), cirrocumulus (high level) etc. drag ..................................... an opposing force that tends to reduce forward motion.

electric current ........................ a flow of microscopic particles (electrons) through wires and electronic components.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons evaporation ........................... the changing water p intou a gaseous state by s way o of heat. •f orr e vi ew r po se nl y•

energy .................................. capacity or habit of vigorous activity; the actual exertion of power; operation; activity; power as exerted; ability to produce action or effect. flight ..................................... the act, manner, or power of flying.

friction .................................. a force that acts against a moving object.

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force ..................................... strength or power exerted on an object.

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gas ....................................... a state of matter in which molecules are free to fill the whole space of a given container.

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germinate .............................. to sprout and send out shoots.

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gravity .................................. a force of attraction between all particles or bodies which causes them to fall towards a larger body; for example, the Earth. invertebrate ........................... an animal without a backbone; e.g. arthropod.

land fill ................................. a system of waste disposal in which rubbish is buried between layers of earth to build up low-lying land. lift ........................................ an upward force caused by air particles moving over a wing-shaped object. liquid .................................... state of matter in which molecules are free to move among themselves but not into air. mineral ................................. a naturally occurring substance usually having a crystalline form. mini beast.............................. a small creature such as an insect; others include arachnids (spiders), echinoderms (e.g. worms), molluscs (e.g. snails), rodents (e.g. mice) and amphibians (e.g. frogs). molecule ................................ a very small particle of a substance. xvi

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Glossary precipitation........................... falling products of condensation in the atmosphere; e.g. rain, snow, hail pull ....................................... to draw and tug at with force. push ..................................... to exert force upon or against (a thing) in order to move it away. recycle .................................. to process in order to regain material for human use. roll ....................................... to move along a surface by turning over and over, as in a ball or wheel. sense .................................... one of the faculties by which humans and animals see, hear, taste, smell or touch.

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sense organ ........................... one of the specialised structures humans use to perceive the world; eyes (seeing), ears (hearing), nose (smelling), tongue (tasting) and skin (touching). shadow ................................. a dark image cast on the ground or a surface by an object blocking light.

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slinky .................................... a toy comprising a metal or plastic coil which can be manipulated in various ways.

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solid ..................................... a state of matter in which molecules are rigidly held together.

soundwaves ........................... vibrations of particles in a solid, liquid or gas causing sounds to be transferred.

speed.................................... the ratio of the distance covered by a moving body to the time taken.

spring ................................... a mechanism which stores energy able to be released, causing an object to move. static electricity ....................... non-moving electrical charges; lightning results from static electricity being discharged.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• stratus clouds ......................... usually uniform, dull-grey coloured clouds associated with overcast or rainy steam .................................... the mist formed when the gas or vapour from a boiling liquid condenses in the air

surface .................................. the outer face or outside of a thing.

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weather conditions. Stratus clouds are layered, low level clouds formed by the horizontal movement of a layer of air over another.

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surface tension ....................... a skin-like characteristic on the surface of a liquid caused by surface particles packing closely together.

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synthetic ................................ artificial; not natural; made by humans.

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temperature ........................... a property of a body or substance which determines the rate at which heat will be transferred to or from it; the degree of heat. vertebrate .............................. an animal with a backbone; e.g. bird, fish, mammal. vibrations .............................. movement of particles about a fixed position. water vapour ......................... gaseous water.

weather vane ......................... a tool used to tell if a wind is blowing and which direction it is coming from. weight................................... the force which gravity exerts upon a material body, varying with altitude and latitude; amount of heaviness of an object. wind chime ............................ a set of vertical tubes (or other object) hung to hit together and make sound when moved by the wind. wing ..................................... either of the two anterior extremities of most birds and of bats, which constitute the forelimbs and correspond to the human arms, but are adapted for flight. R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricgroup.com.au

Hands-on science

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Cloud watch

• E • ar t h yo n d e a nd b b nd ey o nd Ea r th a • E ar th an d • d n o y e b bey ond • E ar th and Indicator:

Observes the types of clouds in the sky on a number of days and decides how these relate to the weather conditions for each day.

Materials • worksheet, coloured pencils

Motivate

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• Discuss the following questions: Why are there clouds in the sky? What do they do? How are they the same/ different? What types of clouds have you seen and what was the weather like when you saw them?

Experience

• Students predict what the weather may be like for a number of days after being told the type of clouds that are expected to appear.

Review and reflect

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• Take the students outside, find a large grassy area and have the students lie on their backs and look up at the sky. Ask students to look at the clouds and tell what they see. Students may like to find pictures or objects in the clouds and give a description of them.

• Students give oral presentations providing what they found out about clouds and the weather or what they would still like to know. (Talking and listening)

• Students complete the sentences: ‘I liked/did not like drawing and writing about clouds because ...’, and ‘ I would like to find out ...’. (Reading and writing)

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• Read through and explain the task, asking students to place their worksheets in a spot where the sheets are easily accessible for five days. Students will need to have time outside each day to record the clouds in the sky.

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• Students record the type of clouds by drawing and colouring and write words describing the weather; such as ‘fine’, ‘grey’, ‘rainy’ etc.

Explain

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• The science journal on page xiii may be used to record this activity.

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• Distribute the worksheets and ensure the students have suitable pencils.

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• Students write what happened and what they learned. Students should be able to see that the different types of clouds indicate different weather conditions. • Give students some information about different type of clouds using the information below or by reading pictorial science books.

Clouds are made up of small droplets of water or tiny pieces of ice spread out within the cloud. When the water droplets get too big and heavy, they fall as rain. Stratus (meaning ‘layers’) are low clouds and can often be seen as dull-grey clouds on a rainy day. Cumulus (meaning ‘heaps’) are often associated with fine weather. Cirrus (meaning ‘curl’) are also fair weather clouds and are usually feathery.

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Hands-on science

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Cloud watch Task: To record the types of clouds observed on a number of days and match these to weather conditions.

worksheet

What to do:

coloured pencils

Complete the table below by drawing and writing. Day 3 Day 4 r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Day 1

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Day 2

Day 5

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What did the clouds look like?

You will need

What was the weather like?

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Complete these sentences.

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o c . che e (a) When the weather is fine, the (b) Whenr the weather is rainy, the o t are usually r clouds are usually clouds s super .

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What I’ve learned Write sentences to tell what you found out about clouds.

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Hands-on science

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Hot- and cold-weather dishes

• E • ar t h yo n d e a nd b b nd ey o nd Ea r th a • E ar th an d • d n o y e b bey ond • E ar th and Indicator:

Uses Internet resources to locate dishes they believe suitable for hot and cold weather.

Materials • Internet access, worksheet, pencil

Motivate

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• Discuss the following questions. Why is the dish your favourite? When do you eat it? Is it more suitable for a cold day or a hot day? Sort the recipes into two groups—dishes more suitable for a hot day and dishes more suitable for a cold day.

• Students tell or write a poem or story about the following: – being out in the sun on a hot day for a long time

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• Ask students to bring copies of their favourite recipes from home.

– stepping in a deep puddle and getting his/her shoes and socks wet on a cold rainy day – diving into a cool pool on a hot day

– sitting in front of a warm fire after coming inside on a wintry day

Experience

• Distribute the worksheets and ensure the students have suitable pencils.

• Explain why skiers and mountain climbers where thick waterproof clothes or people wear wide hats and light clothing on a hot summer day.

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• Students record the information about how they acquired their information and some details about the recipes.

• Students write a list of more suitable keywords to obtain relevant Internet information. (Writing) • Students tell about any errors they may have made accessing Internet information.

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• Read and explain the task. (This task may need to be completed by the students over a number of days if Internet access is limited or as a homework assignment.)

• Students tell how they knew if a website or recipe was suitable/not suitable.

Explain

• Students may present their information to a small group of students telling why they selected each recipe. They may also mention any good websites they found or any difficulties encountered.

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• The students may complete the Science reflection sheet on page ix.

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• As a class, assess the recipes to see if they are suitable. Explain why.

Most people like to eat hot or warm dishes (such as soup) on cold days as the temperature of the food helps to warm up their body. Conversely, most people prefer cool or cold dishes (such as salads or ice-cream) on hot days as the cold food helps to cool down their body.

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Hands-on science

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Hot- and cold-weather dishes Task: To find dishes suitable for hot and cold days.

You will need

Internet

What to do:

worksheet

Use the Internet to find two recipes you could make—one for a hot day and one for a cold day.

Teac he r

Hot day recipe

Name

Main ingredients

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r o e t s Bo r e p ok What happened? u Record your information S in the table below.

pencil

Cold day recipe

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Keywords used

Website/URL

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . What I’ve learned che e r o Explain why you thought eachr recipe best suits the type t s of day it was chosen for. super (a) hot day recipe

R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricgroup.com.au

(b) cold day recipe

Hands-on science

5


Make a weather vane

• E • ar t h yo n d e a nd b b nd ey o nd Ea r th a • E ar th an d • d n o y e b bey ond • E ar th and Indicator:

Makes a weather vane to observe wind blowing and to find the direction from which it is coming.

Materials • sewing pin, small sheet of thick cardboard, some Blutac™ or modelling clay, straw, pencil with a rubber end, scissors, directional compass, scrap cardboard

Motivate

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Apply

• Discuss the following questions: What makes the pinwheel move? Why?

• Discuss with the students why wind information is given in weather reports especially for people who go boating.

Teac he r

• Students describe why windy days are good for drying wet washing.

• Ask: What do you know about the wind? How do you know it is there? Where does it come from? What is the wind like? Is all wind the same? How can we find out where the wind is coming from?

Experience

Review and reflect

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• Make a large, colourful pinwheel. Take the class out into the playground to show them how it works.

• Students write sentences to tell what they learned by completing this activity.

• Students complete the science reflection sheet on page ix.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

• Distribute the worksheets and the materials (or ask students or small-group leaders to collect them).

• When completed, the students follow the last step and place their weather vanes in a windy location.

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Explain

• The students write their predictions and conclusions to complete the questions.

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• The students follow the steps to make the weather vane. Have the students check their weather vanes carefully to ensure that all sections are joined together firmly. The arrowhead and tail should be well secured.

o c . che e r o t r s super

• Discuss why the weather vane turns and what it is showing when it points towards a particular direction. A weather vane is also known as a wind vane. Weather vanes are used to tell if wind is blowing and from which direction it is coming. They can usually be found on top of buildings where they are able to catch the breeze. Weather vanes usually have an arrow shape, which is the part that points towards the direction of the breeze. The tail end of the arrow is usually a wide shape that is able to catch the breeze. Often, a metal rooster shape sits on top of a weather vane. The wind turns the weather vane until it catches both ends equally. The arrow will always point into the wind. If the wind is blowing from the south, the wind is usually cooler, but if it is blowing from the north, it is usually warmer. (This is only true for the Southern Hemisphere). 6

Hands-on science

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Make a weather vane Task: To create a weather vane to see the movement of the wind.

sewing pin

What to do:

small sheet of thick cardboard

Tick each step as you complete it.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Place the cardboard on the ground and use the compass to mark north, south, east and west. (An adult may help!)

Stick the Blutac™ or modelling clay firmly to the centre of the cardboard.

Blutac™ or modelling clay straw pencil with a rubber end

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Teac he r

You will need

scissors

directional compass

Push the sharp end of the pencil into the Blutac™.

scrap cardboard

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Cut a small triangle and rectangle shape from scrap •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• cardboard and slip into the ends of the straw. Cut two 3-cm slits down each end of the straw.

Place in a windy location.

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Push the pin firmly through the centre of the straw, into the rubber end of the pencil.

. te o c Write a sentence to tell what you think will happen. . ch e r er o t s super What will happen?

What happened? Complete the sentence. When the wind blew ... . R.I.C. Publications ~ www.ricgroup.com.au ®

Hands-on science

7


Day and night artwork

• E • ar t h yo n d e a nd b b nd ey o nd Ea r th a • E ar th an d • d n o y e b bey ond • E ar th and Indicator:

Creates an artwork which shows the difference between day and night.

Materials • For motivational activity: large flashlight, large polystyrene ball (or round fruit), wooden cooking skewer

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

• For students: large sheet of white art paper, oil pastels or wax crayons, yellow and black vegetable dye or runny paint, paintbrush

Apply

• Discuss the following questions to gauge the level of student understanding: Why is it dark at night? Why is it light during the day? What things can you do during the day which you can’t do at night? What types of activities are best done at night? Why?

• Students find out what a nocturnal animal is and how they have adapted to being awake at night. Students find a picture of one or two nocturnal animals on a website and print pictures and simple information.

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Teac he r

Motivate

• Demonstrate the concept of day and night using the following activity: Push a skewer all the way through the middle of a polystyrene ball. Shine a flashlight on one side of the ball and slowly rotate it on its axis (the skewer) to show the light and dark sides (day and night).

• Students find out how some competitive sporting competitions can be played at night and which sports are played.

Review and reflect © R. I . C.Pub l i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Experience

• Students write words or draw and label diagrams to answer the following questions. – Why is it dark at night-time?

• The students follow the steps to create their artwork.

Explain

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– Why is it light during the day? • Visit <http://atschool.eduweb.co.uk/toftwood/solar. html> to view computer graphics which demonstrate the concept of day and night.

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• Make all materials readily available. Ensure that students are wearing suitable protective clothing and remember the rules for cleaning and putting away equipment. Remind students to write their name on the back of their artwork before painting.

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• Discuss the types of activities students have drawn. Explain that some activities are best done while it is light outside because it is easier or safer. Activities such as sleeping are best done when the sky is dark and when the body is tired at the end of the day. • Students complete the ‘What I’ve learned’ section.

Day and night occurs when the Earth spins on its axis. The Earth turns once every 24 hours. The part of the Earth which is facing towards the sun has day, while the part of the Earth which is facing away from the sun has night.

8

Hands-on science

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Day and night artwork Task: To create an artwork which shows the difference between night and day.

You will need

a large sheet of white art paper

What to do: Tick each step as you complete it.

r o e t s Bo r e pin black oil pastel at the top ofo Write the word ‘day’ one u kother. section of the paper and the word ‘night’ at the top of the S

yellow and black vegetable dye or runny paint paintbrush

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Teac he r

Fold the art paper in half.

oil pastels or wax crayons

On the ‘day’ side, draw a colourful picture of something you only do during the day. (Fill the page and press hard with the oil pastels or wax crayons.)

On the ‘night’ side, draw a colourful picture of something you only do at night.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Paint the ‘day’ side with yellow dye or paint. Allow to dry. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Write sentences below about each part of your picture.

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What I’ve learned

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Paint the ‘night’ side with black dye or paint. Allow to dry.

. te othe sky is (a) During the day, the sky is (b) During the . night, c che e r o r st super

Complete the sentences.

so I can

so I can only

. R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricgroup.com.au

. Hands-on science

9


Design a shadow-maker

• E • ar t h yo n d e a nd b b nd ey o nd Ea r th a • E ar th an d • d n o y e b bey ond • E ar th and Indicator:

Designs and makes a simple structure to show how shadows appear when an object blocks light from the sun.

Materials • cardboard, pencils, scissors, sticky tape, glue

Motivate

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Apply

Teac he r

• Discuss the following questions: What are the images called? How are they made? If a hand can make a shadow, what else could be used to make a shadow?

Experience

• Students explain why people wear hats on a hot day, build a verandah or pergola on a house, erect a tent on the beach or plant trees on the sunny side of a house. The students draw diagrams to illustrate how these things provide shade or shadows from the sun.

Review and reflect

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• Use the light from an overhead projector or a large torch to ask selected students to create hand shadow images on a white or light-coloured background. View <http://www.kellys.com/ashley/shadow.html> OR <http://www.centres.ex.ac.uk/bill.douglas/Schools/ shadows/shadows2.htm> for some suggestions.

• Students complete the science reflection sheet on page ix, science report on page x or science recount on page xi.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

• Organise the students into pairs and ask them to collect their materials.

• After reviewing the shadow-makers made by other pairs, students can design a new structure. A science investigation sheet (page xii) can be used.

• Read the worksheet with the class to ensure the students understand what they need to do.

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• Once an idea is chosen, the pairs of students should find a suitable place to complete the worksheet. Ideas may need to be adjusted during the process of drawing and labelling the diagram. Students may need to carefully consider ways to keep their structure upright. At this stage, students may decide that they need to bring extra resources, such as a torch, from home to test their structure.

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• Allow the pairs some time to discuss what they are going to make with their limited resources and how they are going to make it.

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• Students should make and test their design and complete the ‘What happened?’ section.

Explain

• Selected pairs explain their designs, whether they were successful or not and any changes which had to be made. Time should be set aside for all designs to be displayed for others to view and discuss. Shadows are formed when objects block light from the sun or another source of light. The shadow will be similar in shape to the objects which make them.

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Hands-on science

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Design a shadow-maker Task: To design and make a simple structure to show that shadows are made when an object blocks light.

You will need

cardboard

What to do:

pencils

Complete the table with a partner.

r o e t s Bo r e p o u k How will you put it together? (Draw and label a diagram) S

sticky tape glue

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Teac he r

What will you make to block the sun?

scissors

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How will you test it?

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super What happened?

Write what happened and whether your design was successful (or not) and how it could be improved.

R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricgroup.com.au

Hands-on science

11


Water is special

• E • ar t h yo n d e a nd b b nd ey o nd Ea r th a • E ar th an d • d n o y e b bey ond • E ar th and Indicator:

Observes what happens to water when it changes state through heating and freezing.

Materials • 3 large plastic containers, large jug of water, electric kettle, refrigerator, power source

Motivate

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

• Ask students: What shape is water?

Teac he r

Experience

• Organise the students into groups (each with an adult or older student helper) and distribute the materials. Each group should label its containers correctly to prevent confusion.

Water is special because it is the only natural substance found in all three states—liquid, solid (ice), and gas (steam)—at the temperatures normally found on Earth. Water as a gas, is invisible, but as it leaves the kettle and is cooled, it changes back into tiny water droplets which can be seen as steam. Water can be changed into different states by heating or freezing.

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• Fill a variety of different containers with water from a tap or jug. Discuss the students’ conclusions. (Water does not have its own shape—instead it takes the shape of the containers in which it is poured!) What else could we find out about water? (Complete a ‘Before and after’ chart from page xiv)

Pure water has almost no colour, taste or smell.

Apply

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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• Students should record observations about the water in the kettle as soon as some visible results can be seen. The observations about the water in the other containers can be done at a later time to allow time for the water in the freezer to freeze. Safety note: Care should be taken when using an electric kettle to boil water. Only the adult helper should operate the kettle and handle containers of boiling water.

Explain

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• Discuss with students what forms on the lid of a saucepan when water is boiled: What happens when the water cools again?

Review and reflect

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• Read the worksheet with the class and ensure that they understand what to do.

• Students explain how ice cubes are made. Write a simple ‘Design and technology’ task to create ice cubes with interesting shapes.

• Students complete a scientific diagram (see page xv) to illustrate what happened in either the freezing or heating of the water. • Students relate home experiences involving the processes of freezing or heating water, such as making a cup of tea or making ice cubes to cool down drinks.

o c . che e r o t r s super

• The students write and draw about what has happened as soon as the water in the freezer has frozen. • As a class, discuss what has happened and why. (The water was changed by heating and freezing.)

12

Hands-on science

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Water is special Task: To find out about water.

You will need

3 large plastic containers

What to do: Tick each step as you complete it.

large jug of water

r o e t s Bo and r e Place one container in the freezer of the refrigerator p o u leave for at least 2 hours. k S Leave one container out on the table or bench.

electric kettle refrigerator power source

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Teac he r

Pour an equal amount of water into each of the 3 containers.

Pour the water in the third container into the electric kettle and bring to the boil. (An adult will need to help!) Watch to see what comes from the spout of the kettle.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Take the container of water from the freezer and see what it looks like.

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What happened?

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Look at the water in the third container.

Draw and write what happened to the water in the three different containers.

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The water left on the table

R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricgroup.com.au

The water which was frozen

The water which was heated

Hands-on science

13


Mini water cycle

• E • ar t h yo n d e a nd b b nd ey o nd Ea r th a • E ar th an d • d n o y e b bey ond • E ar th and Indicator:

Creates a simple device to show how the water cycle works.

Materials • small paper cup, large sandwich bag or plastic bag, sticky tape, water, jug

Motivate

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Apply

Teac he r

• Visit <http://www.teachtsp.com/products/ productextras/SCISCI/watercycle.html> to view a cartoon which may be used to motivate the students.

Experience

• Explain to students how the principle of the water cycle is used to water plants in a terrarium. • Ask students to research and explain why it is possible to draw and write words on a window with your fingers on a cold day and why car windows fog up on winter days.

Review and reflect

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• Discuss with the students the following questions: What is rain? Why does it rain? Where does the rain go after it falls? What happens to puddles after it rains? Students record information on a ‘Before and after chart’ from page xiv.

• Students complete the final column of the ‘Before and after’ chart on page xiv.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

• Students carry out the experiment as directed, ticking each step as it is completed, and record what they think will happen.

• Students find a partner and discuss what they think will happen.

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Explain

• After a few hours or at the end of the day, the students check their experiment and then draw and label their diagram to show what happened.

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• Students draw a series of pictures to illustrate the water cycle; including arrows and placing the pictures correctly in a circular format.

• View <http://www.epa.gov/safewater/kids/flash/ flash_watercycle.html> for an interactive display about the water cycle OR to view an animation about the water cycle visit <http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/ riversandcoasts/water_cycle/rivers/pg_02_flash. shtml>.

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• Students will need to collect their equipment before beginning their experiment.

• Students find a simple, but clear, diagram on the Internet to print which illustrates the water cycle.

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• Students compare their diagram with a partner.

Water from oceans, lakes, rivers, plants and people evaporates into the air and rises, because of the heat from the sun, to form water vapour. The water vapour condenses into millions of tiny droplets of water to form clouds. Clouds drop precipitation in the form of rain or snow. The rain or snow goes into the ground, or is collected in rivers or oceans. Plants soak up water from the ground, which then becomes water vapour by the process of transpiration through the plant’s surfaces (leaves). Water in rivers and oceans is evaporated into the atmosphere. The water cycle continues.

14

Hands-on science

R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricgroup.com.au


Mini water cycle Task: To create a simple device to show how the water cycle works.

You will need

small paper cup

What to do:

large sandwich bag or plastic bag

Follow and tick each step as you complete it.

r o e t s Bo r e Place the cup carefully into the bag and close it tightly. p ok u Sto a sunny window. Tape the bag

What will happen?

Write a sentence to tell what will you think will happen.

sticky tape water jug

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Teac he r

Pour a small amount of water into the cup.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• What• happened?

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Draw and label a diagram to show what happened.

o c . che e r o t r s super

R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricgroup.com.au

Hands-on science

15


Sink or float

• E • ar t h yo n d e a nd b b nd ey o nd Ea r th a • E ar th an d • d n o y e b bey ond • E ar th and Indicator:

Makes a paperclip float on water to illustrate the concept of surface tension.

Materials • 2 small paperclips, bowl of water

Motivate

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

• Discuss results as a class and form some conclusions. • Discuss the following questions: What would happen if we placed a paperclip in the water? Would it float or sink? Do you think it is light enough to float?

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• Provide a large container filled with water for the students. Ask students to gather a number of suitable objects from around the room to find out which objects will sink or float in water (Ensure items are waterproof). Predict which objects will sink or float before testing each one as a class. Record two lists—one list of objects that float and one of objects that sink. (Note: Do not use a paperclip.)

Water molecules bond together very tightly at the surface. This creates an invisible skin or film called water surface tension. Surface tension allows water to hold up some substances and objects which are heavier or denser than itself. Some insects can ‘walk’ on water because the surface tension is strong enough to hold them up. The feet of these insects (such as the water strider) dent the surface of the water but do not break it. Surface tension is important, it enables energy to transfer from wind to water to create waves.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Experience •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Apply

• Discuss with students why water droplets ‘bead’ on a freshly waxed car surface.

• Organise the students into pairs and distribute the materials.

• Read the worksheet with the class and ensure that everyone understands what is to be done.

• Discuss how surface tension enables an insect, such a water strider, to ‘walk’ on a pond surface and not sink.

Review and reflect

• The students carry out the experiment as directed on the worksheet, ticking each step as they complete it.

• Students repeat the experiment using other liquids, such as oil, milk, cordial or soft drink.

• Students complete the ‘What happened?’ section.

• Students lower a paperclip end-on-end into water instead of flat. What happens?

Explain

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o c . che e r o t r s super

• If the paperclip is carefully lowered onto the water, it will float. If some students’ paperclips sink, they may not have ‘lowered’ it with enough care. The paperclip floats because it is supported by the invisible ‘skin’ of the water (surface tension). If students look carefully, they may be able to see the ‘skin’ bending under the weight of the paperclip.

16

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• Students complete a science reflection sheet from page ix.

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• Students answer the ‘What will happen?’ section to predict what he/she thinks will happen

Hands-on science

• Students repeat the experiment using other objects of their own choosing which could affect a similar result. List them for others to try.

R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricgroup.com.au


Sink or float Task: To make a paperclip float on water.

You will need

2 small paperclips

What will happen?

bowl of water

I think the paperclip will …

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S float

What to do:

Tick the box as you complete each step. Bend one paperclip into an ‘L’ shape.

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Teac he r

sink

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orther e vi ew pur pthe os es nl y• Gently lower second paperclip into bowl ofo water. Lay the other paperclip on top.

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Complete the sentence. The paperclip

.

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What happened?

. tlearned What I’vee o c . Write sentences to tellc what you learnt about the surface of water. e her r o st super

R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricgroup.com.au

Hands-on science

17


Internet water poster

• E • ar t h yo n d e a nd b b nd ey o nd Ea r th a • E ar th an d • d n o y e b bey ond • E ar th and Indicator:

Creates a poster to encourage others to use water sensibly.

Materials • For motivational activity: cup; large, clear, wide-mouthed container; 4 large sponges – each cut into eight pieces (for each student); black marker; bucket

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

• For student activity: computer, word processing program, Internet access, large sheet of white art paper, coloured crayons, scissors, glue

• Demonstrate the amount of water used by many individuals by carrying out the following activity with the students.

Pour about four large cups of water into the container. Supply the students with the pieces of sponge. The students are to imagine that the water in the container represent all the available water resources on the Earth. Mark the level of the water on the side of the container with a black marker. Discuss the many different uses of water. Drop a piece of sponge to indicate your water usage for one day in the container of water and observe any change in the water level. It should not change very much.

• Students record the information about his/her heading and pictures on the worksheet.

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Teac he r

Motivate

• Students type and print their heading in a suitable font. • Students complete the Internet activity, gathering the image and recording the best websites where they obtained their pictures.

• Students compile his/her poster by cutting and gluing the computer-generated heading and printed pictures. They may then add any additional material; such as labels, 3-D water drops, drawn diagrams etc.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Explain •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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• Students relate interesting information they have discovered while finding their pictures.

Apply

• Students use similar processes to construct a poster about water pollution or endangered water creatures.

o c . che e r o t r s super

• Discuss the activity with students and relate the outcome to ‘real life’.

Experience

• Selected students tell what keywords they then used to locate their pictures. Students then display and discuss his/her poster, explaining why particular fonts, pictures or additions were chosen.

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Next, ask the students to state one way he/she has used water that day. Each then drops his/her sponge into the container of water. The students should begin to see the water level rise. Remove all of the sponges carefully, without wringing out, and place them in the bucket. Mark the change in the water level. Discuss the fact that the water level has changed significantly. Note that the demands of one individual may not be very noticeable, but the water used by many people has a big effect on water usage.

• Distribute the worksheets and ensure the students have suitable pencils.

• Read and explain the task. (This task may need to be completed by the students over a number of days or as a homework assignment if Internet access is limited.) • Discuss with students what headings would be suitable and list some on the board. • Discuss how to type in and change fonts of headings when using computer programs. • Brainstorm ideas for suitable pictures students could include on the poster and what keywords should be entered into a search engine to find the images.

Review and reflect

• Students discuss advantages and disadvantages of creating a poster by compiling components printed from the computer. • Discuss keywords which may not have been good choices and those which were good choices. • As a class, choose a selection of the best posters.


Internet water poster Task: To create a poster to encourage others to use water sensibly.

You will need

computer Internet access

What to do: 1. Complete the answers below.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u (b) Which computer font will you use to type and print out S your heading?

coloured crayons scissors glue

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Teac he r

(a) What heading will you put on your poster?

large sheet of white art paper

(c) Which pictures will you find, print and glue onto your poster?

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(d) List websites where you found suitable pictures.

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s su 2. Cut and glue the heading and pictures onto your paper. r pe 3. What additional material will be needed (drawn pictures, labels etc.)?

R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricgroup.com.au

Hands-on science

19


A sweet car

• E • n er g nge a y and h c an d ch a ng e E ner gy • Ene rgy an • e g n a h c d d ch ang e • Ene rgy an Indicator:

Creates a vehicle which moves to display wind power.

Materials • 3 plastic drinking straws, 4 round sweets with holes in the middle (e.g. Lifesavers™), 2 pieces of paper, 2 paperclips, tape, scissors

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Motivate

Teac he r

• Ask the students to sit on the grass to rest. While they are resting, ask them to observe things around them which are moving. (the leaves of trees, clouds, hair blowing into eyes, grass and flowers moving etc.)

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• Take the students outside on a windy day, find a large grassy area and ask them to move around in a particular way. On the command ‘change’ (or whistle), students change the way they are moving. For example, if they are running, they may begin hopping or jumping etc. Repeat a number of times so the students understand that we can use our bodies to move in different ways.

Objects can be made to move by pushing, pulling or rolling. Moving air (wind) is created when you blow. The ‘wind’ pushes against the paper ‘sail’ on the sweet vehicle and makes it move. The sail helps the sweet vehicle ‘capture’ the force of the wind. Wheels also help the vehicle to move. It takes less force to move objects which are round as they can move easily across a surface (there is less friction).

Apply

• Students explain how wind is used by other machines such as hang-gliders. Discuss how the movement or direction of such machines can be varied to suit the user.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Experience

• Distribute the worksheets and ensure the students have suitable pencils.

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• Read and explain the task.

• Students complete a labelled diagram of their experiment using the scientific diagram sheet on page xv. • Discuss any difficulties students may have encountered while completing the experiment (such as the sweets rolling off etc.). How could these difficulties be overcome to improve the experiment next time?

o c . che e r o t r s super

• Students may work in pairs for this activity.

• Ask pairs to collect their materials and carry out the experiment. • The students tick each step as it is completed.

Explain

Review and reflect

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• Discuss the following questions: What makes the leaves move? What objects use the wind to move? (sailboats, kites, hot-air balloons etc.) What other ways are there of making things move? (pushing, pulling, rolling etc.) Ask the students for examples of objects which move by pushing, pulling, rolling, stretching, springing etc.

• Students use Internet resources to find pictures of holiday makers using sand yachts (refer to <http:// www.theotherside.co.uk/tm-heritage/background/ sandyachts.htm> and other websites) and explain how these vehicles work. Students can print pictures and label the parts to compare with own experiment, if desired.

• The students record the answers to ‘What happened?’ and ‘What I’ve learned’ on their worksheet. They may also like to record how hard and how many puffs of breath it took to move their vehicle a certain distance. • Students may share their answers to ‘What I’ve learned’ and discuss similarities or differences. Discussion may include reasons for cars not moving well (or at all) as well as any suggestions as to how to make the experiment work better. 20

Hands-on science

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A sweet car Task: To create a vehicle which moves.

You will need

3 plastic drinking straws

What to do: Tick each step as you complete it.

r o e t s Bo r Place two sweetsp at e the ends of two of the straws. ok u Sa piece of paper to fit over and just under Cut and tape

the straws with one straw attached at each end.

Cut and join a triangle of paper to remaining straw with paperclips. Join sail to the centre of the vehicle with tape.

2 pieces of paper 2 paperclips tape

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Teac he r

Find a partner to work with.

4 round sweets with holes in the middle

scissors

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Blow on it!

What happened?

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Write a sentence to tell what happened.

o c . c e her r What I’ve learned o t s super Complete the sentence. My sweet car moved/did not move because

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Hands-on science

21


Design a toy that moves

• E • n er g nge a y and h c an d ch a ng e E ner gy • Ene rgy an • e g n a h c d d ch ang e • Ene rgy an Indicator: Designs a simple toy that moves or uses movement. Materials • Internet resources, a variety of collected materials of students’ choice, glue, tape, split pins or other materials suitable for joining things together

Motivate

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Explain

Teac he r

• Groups select a speaker to display their toy and describe how it works. • Class members may ask questions to clarify understanding.

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• Set up a series of activities around the classroom which consist of a variety of toys which move or use movement to operate. If possible, include toys such as wooden cars and trucks, yoyos, stick/cup and ball games (The ball is attached to a string which is also attached to the stick or cup. Students must flick up the ball and catch it in the cup.), a small tub of water with plastic or recycled-material boats in it, a bowling game, a rocking horse (or similar), pull-along toys such as a wagon, paper gliders, kites, balls, small bicycle, train set, bubble blowers, pinwheels, skateboard etc. Ensure an adult helper is available at many of the stations for safety reasons.

Forces make objects speed up. Many toys move by being pushed, pulled or rolled. Others, such as kites, move because a force is exerted on them by wind or ‘moving air’. Toys with round wheels move with greater ease because they are not slowed by friction between the wheels and the surface.

© R. I . C.Pub l i cat i ons Apply •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

• Divide the class into small groups and allow groups to rotate around the activities, spending a short time at each and discussing how each toy (or group of toys) moves or uses movement to work. (Students may be given time to use the toys at a later point.)

• Students select a toy from home to bring to school to describe how it moves or uses movement to work.

Review and reflect

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• Distribute the worksheets and ensure the students have suitable pencils. • Read and explain the task. (Some aspects of this task may need to be completed by the students over a number of days or as a homework assignment if Internet access is limited.)

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• Allow students to spend time examining their homemade toys carefully to compare with the toys which introduced the activity.

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Experience

• The students may complete the science reflection sheet on page ix.

o c . che e r o t r s super

• Students may work in small groups for this activity.

• Students may complete their research individually and come together to relate information. They can choose and discuss the toy which they intend to make and work out materials needed.

• Students record the information on their worksheet and collect materials. • Set aside a particular time for students to create their toy using their design specifications. Ensure that each group knows whether their toy is pushed, pulled, uses wind to move, rolls, spins etc. • Students must test their toy to ensure that it works.

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Hands-on science

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Design a toy that moves Task: To design a simple toy that moves or uses movement.

You will need

Internet resources

What to do: 1. Use Internet resources to research different kinds of toys that move.

a variety of collected materials of your choice

2. Complete the table.

glue

Teac he r

How will it move or use movement?

tape split pins or other materials suitable for joining things together

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r o e t s Bo r e ok What toy will you p make? u S

How will you put it together? (Draw and label a diagram.)

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

How will you test it?

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Hands-on science

23


Springy jack-in-the-box

• E • n er g nge a y and h c an d ch a ng e E ner gy • Ene rgy an • e g n a h c d d ch ang e • Ene rgy an Indicator:

Creates a jack-in-the-box using manipulative skills.

Materials • worksheet, scissors, glue, 3 strips of paper, pencils or crayons, sticky tape, A4 sheet of paper, stapler

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

10. Fold front tab to form a closing lid.

Motivate

Teac he r

• Ask the students to describe how a jack-in-the-box works. What causes ‘Jack’ to bounce up? What is a spring? How do springs it make toys or other gadgets work?

Experience

11. Push ‘Jack’ carefully inside and close lid. 12. Open carefully!

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• Introduce the topic by allowing the students time to ‘spring’ on a trampoline or jump or hop during a physical education lesson. (Ideally, a toy jack-in-thebox, if available, could be shown to the students.)

Explain

• The students should write sentences or give an oral report to explain how the jack-in-the-box works.

A jack-in-the-box is a box with a lid (which is usually latched) containing a spring-mounted puppet. When the lid is opened the puppet springs out. Springs (in this case, the plaited paper) have a springy or elastic force. When the plaited paper is forced into the box, the energy in the spring is forced down. When the lid is opened, the energy or force is released to make the paper spring back into shape.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

• Explain the task and read the instructions (see below).

• Students complete the task to make their jack-in-the-box. • Students should test their jack-in-the-box to see if it works.

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Instructions

1. Cut two strips of paper about 25 cm x 3 cm. 2. Staple ends together at right angles and fold each strip in turn to create a paper plait (see below). Staple ends.

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The paper works like an open coil spring. Open coil springs are used in ballpoint pens, mattresses and weighing scales.

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• Enlarge the template (if desired) and photocopy onto light card for each student.

A closed coil spring works like a rubber band. When it is pulled out of shape, it springs back. Closed coil springs can be found in trampolines and slinkies and can also be used to measure forces such as weight.

o c . che e r o t r s super Apply

3. Cut a strip of paper about 4 cm x 3 cm for arms.

4. Draw, colour and cut hands. Glue to ends of arm strip. 5. Tape/Glue arm and hand strip to one end of plaited paper. 6. Draw head and face of ‘Jack’, colour and cut out. 7. Tape head in place on plaited paper.

• Ask students to investigate their toys at home and, if possible, find one which uses springs to work and bring it to school. Ask each student to explain how the spring makes the toy work. If possible, allow time to play with the toys.

Review and reflect

8. Cut out box.

• Students write sentences to tell what they learned about springs by completing this activity.

9. Fold along lines of box and glue sides together on shaded areas. (Allow to dry)

• Students complete the science reflection sheet on page ix.

24

Hands-on science

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Springy jack-in-the-box Task: To create a jack-in-the-box.

You will need

worksheet

What to do:

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

scissors glue 3 paper strips pencils or crayons sticky tape A4 sheet of paper

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Teac he r

Follow your teacher’s instructions to make your jack-in-the-box.

stapler

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

Jack’s face

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Hands-on science

25


Circle glider

• E • n er g nge a y and h c an d ch a ng e E ner gy • Ene rgy an • e g n a h c d d ch ang e • Ene rgy an Indicator:

Builds a simple machine that flies.

Materials • plastic drinking straw, 1 strip of paper 3 cm wide x 13 cm long, 1 strip of paper 3 cm wide x 26 cm long, pencil, sticky tape

Motivate

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Apply

Teac he r

• Back in the classroom, display a straw and two strips of paper. Could we make a flying machine from these? How? Discuss suitable ideas and suggestions. Make one or two of the more unusual suggestions. Discuss why each did or did not work.

• Students consider how to remake the circle glider to enable it to fly longer distances. • Students consider changing the circle glider by making the straw shorter, changing the sizes of the circles or adding another circle. Predict the outcome before making one of the suggested changes. Test each one and record results.

Review and reflect

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• Give each student a sheet of paper to fold into a paper plane. Allow students to help each other, if necessary. Test each model outside and compare the designs to choose the most effective planes. Discuss why the chosen models worked so well.

• Students complete a science investigation sheet (see page xii).

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

• The students follow the steps to create their artwork.

Explain

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• Select individual students to explain how they think the circle gliders works. As a class, collate the ideas to decide the best way to describe how the circles on the glider help it to fly. Use a labelled diagram to finalise the final explanation.

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• Students complete a ‘Before and after’ chart, (see page xiv) before changing any variables of their circle gliders. (See ‘Apply’ above.) • Use Internet resources to find and print a picture of a glider. Record the URL for others to refer to.

• Find a website that shows a simple diagram of how gliders work. <http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K12/airplane/Images/glider.gif>

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Experience

• Distribute the materials and provide each student with a worksheet.

o c . che e r o t r s super

All things that fly—insects, birds, planes etc.—have wings, but not all wings are the same shape and size. The circles on the straw act as wings. A plane must have a lifting force equal to its own weight in order to sustain flight. Lift can be created by the surface of a wing. The circles direct moving air through them and across the top of the straw instead of down on the straw. This lifts the straw and the simple machine flies forward.

26

Hands-on science

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Circle glider Task: To build a simple machine that flies.

You will need

plastic drinking straw

What to do: Tick each step as you complete it.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok Tape the small u circle to one end of the straw. S Tape the big circle to the other end.

Carefully, hold glider in the middle of the straw with the small circle at the front.

1 strip of paper 3 cm wide x 26 cm long

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Teac he r

Tape each strip of paper into a circle.

1 strip of paper 3 cm wide x 13 cm long

pencil

sticky tape

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons What• happened? f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Throw gently (like a spear).

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Write a sentence or two to tell what happened.

. te o c What I’ve learned . c e he r Draw and label a diagram to r tell how your circlet glider o s works. super

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Hands-on science

27


Design a parachute

• E • n er g nge a y and h c an d ch a ng e E ner gy • Ene rgy an • e g n a h c d d ch ang e • Ene rgy an Indicator: Designs and creates a simple, working parachute using set materials. Materials: • a square of fabric; e.g. handkerchief, string, scissors, a clothes peg

Motivate

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

Safety note: Exercise great care with this activity to ensure that no student is injured!

Gravity is the force of attraction that makes objects fall toward the centre of the Earth. Air creates drag, which acts as an opposing force (on an aeroplane or other body) and tries to stop the object’s forward motion or slows it down. When an object falls in air, the air exerts an upward air resistance force (drag force) on it. The compressed air trapped under a parachute causes it to fall down to Earth slowly.

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• Divide the students into pairs. Select an area where students can fall over and not be harmed, such as a grassy area or inside on the carpet. Students stand facing each other with feet planted firmly on the ground/floor. Students will gently push each other to try to make the other move their feet and step out of place. Repeat the activity, with one student trying to gently pull/drag the other off his/her feet and out of place. The second student of the pair must try not to be pulled out of position.

Apply

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

• Many schools have army surplus parachutes which can be used to carry out physical education activities with a class. These would be an invaluable resource to demonstrate lift and drag principles.

Experience

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• Discuss the two forces of pushing and pulling. Why was it difficult to pull your partner out of place? (They were resisting or creating an opposite force to counteract the pulling action.) How does a hang-glider work? (Canopy catches the air which holds it up, so it floats.) Emphasise words such as gravity, force, drag etc. What other objects work in the same way using gravity and resistance/drag? List some on the board (including parachute).

• Students conduct an experiment using two sheets of A4 paper—one folded four times into sixteenths and the other crumpled. Holding both pieces of paper at the same level, students drop the sheets of paper to see which reaches the ground first. Students should offer reasons for the results. (When an object is dropped, the force of gravity makes it speed up as it falls, but friction with the air or drag will try to slow it down. The tightly folded paper experiences less drag than the loosely crumpled one. Shape and speed affect the amount of drag.) Note: Drop from a greater height if results are not obvious.

Review and reflect

o c . che e r o t r s super

• Read and explain the design project, ensuring students understand that they have a limited amount of resources to work with.

• Students suggest ways to make their designs more colourful, such as using painted material for the canopy or using a wooden dolly peg decorated to look like a person. • Students complete the science report on page x.

• Students should make and test their design in pairs, then complete their worksheets individually.

Explain • Selected students explain their designs, whether they were successful or not and any changes which had to be made. Some time should be set aside for all designs to be displayed for others to view and discuss. Discuss any similarities or differences.

28

Hands-on science

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Design a parachute Task: To design and create a working parachute.

You will need

a square of fabric; e.g. handkerchief

What to do:

string

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

scissors clothes peg

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

1. Draw and label your design.

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2. How did you test it?

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

What I’ve learned

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Hands-on science

29


Suncatcher

• E • n er g nge a y and h c an d ch a ng e E ner gy • Ene rgy an • e g n a h c d d ch ang e • Ene rgy an Indicator:

Creates a suncatcher using manipulative skills.

Materials • enlarged worksheet photocopied onto light card (black or red), scissors, cellophane™ in ‘warm’ or ‘hot’ colours (yellow, orange or red), sticky tape, glue, black marker

Motivate

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Explain

Teac he r

• Ask the questions: Why is it dark (or darker)? What can you see? Why is it hard to see things? How can you work out what things are around you without using your sight? What light sources have been eliminated? (light from sun through windows, light from overhead lights etc.) Gradually introduce the different sources of light which were eliminated. (Open blinds on windows, open the door, etc. Turn on light last.) Rank the light sources in order of largest amount of light to least amount of light. (e.g. 1 to 5)

• Selected students describe how they think the suncatcher works and state particular information about it; e.g. ‘My suncatcher should have been placed further over to get more sun as it is too dark where I put it up.’ ‘My suncatcher only gets sun on it ... so ... ‘etc. Discuss the best places to display craft.

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• Sit the students together in the centre of the room with the door closed, blinds down and lights turned off so the room is as dark as possible. (Ensure that students who may be nervous about sitting in the dark are close to a friend or the teacher. Students may like to hold hands with someone next to them!)

Light is a form of energy which people use. There are many sources of light, including the sun.

A suncatcher or light-catcher is a small art or craft object usually made from stained glass. It is usually hung indoors, so that it ‘catches the light’ from a nearby window. It follows the same principle as a leadlight window.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

• Show students pictures of coloured leadlight windows and ask how light is used to reveal the colours.

Experience

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Apply

• Students use a torch and black card or paper with holes (or star shapes) punched in it to create a pattern on the wall or ceiling of a darkened room. Students explain how it works.

o c . che e r o t r s super

• Students read the worksheet and collect the necessary materials.

• Students follow the instructions to complete the activity. • Students will need to display their suncatcher and observe it at various times during the day to see how effective it is. The students may complete a science journal (see page xiii) using times instead of dates.

30

A suncatcher is a visual form of a wind chime. Light from the sun, or another light source, shines through the coloured cellophane to create different coloured light.

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• Discuss ways people use light; e.g. torches etc. How do plants use light? Discuss the different kinds of light used at different times of the year; e.g. fairy lights, bonfires, Halloween lanterns, candles in religious festivals etc.

Hands-on science

• Discuss how day and night occur.

Review and reflect

• Complete a science recount (see page xi) about the activity. • Students bring in and test a variety of torches to see which ones work best and why.

R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricgroup.com.au


Suncatcher Task: To make a suncatcher.

You will need

worksheet

What to do:

scissors

1. Cut around the circle. 2. Cut out the centre and rectangles. (Ask an adult to help if you need to!)

Teac he r

5. Use a black marker to draw a sunny face in the centre. 6. Tape to a sunny window.

glue sticky tape black marker

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r o e t s Bthe back of r 3. Cut out a big piecep of e cellophane™ and glue too ok the circle. u S 4. Trim cellophane™ so that it fits around the edge of the circle.

coloured cellophane™

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

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Hands-on science

31


Sounds like rain!

• E • n er g nge a y and h c an d ch a ng e E ner gy • Ene rgy an • e g n a h c d d ch ang e • Ene rgy an Indicator: Constructs a musical instrument that makes a rain-like sound. Materials • For each student: paint (optional), brush (optional), 1/2 cup dried beans, masking tape, 2 cardboard tubes of the same size, plastic wrap, thick display pin, 2 elastic bands, scissors, lots of toothpicks with one blunt end

Motivate

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Apply

Teac he r

• Provide a variety of different homemade instruments for students to listen to and use; for example: a shaker with rice in it, a broomstick with bottle tops nailed loosely to it, a kazoo (see pages 78–79 of Primary science A – published by R.I.C. Publications®) and a drum.

• Students use a clean, recycled tin; some plastic wrap; elastic bands; some small, crumpled pieces of paper and a large spoon to show how a drum works. (When hit, the drum vibrates, making sound within the tin.)

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• Students experiment making different sounds with their mouth and throat to provide the beat to accompany favourite songs. Students use gentle touches to feel their faces and throats while making different sounds to identify the differences from when they are not making sounds.

• Students brainstorm other ways of creating vibrations to make sounds, then use the science investigation sheet on page xii to record their investigation. Examples may include plucking, using a bow, shaking, banging, blowing etc.

Review and reflect

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

• Students read the worksheet and, if unsure about any details, ask the teacher to clarify information. • The students collect their materials and follow the steps to make a rainstick, ticking each step as it is completed.

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Explain

• After completing the activity, discuss with students how the sound was made: Did it actually sound like rain? If not, why not? What did the toothpicks do?

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• In small groups, students create and use musical instruments to accompany a well-known class song.

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Experience

• The students use Internet resources to investigate instruments from other countries. Student identifies each by the method used to create the sounds and then gives an oral report to the class with the accompanying picture or labelled diagram.

o c . che e r o t r s super

• Students complete the ‘What happened?’ section.

Sound is a form of energy. Sound is made by vibrations. Vibrations create soundwaves which travel through the air to our ears. Our ears detect the soundwaves and the brain determines what the sound is.

There are many different sources of sound. We hear sounds using our sense of hearing. There are many different ways of making sounds; for example: using hands, feet, tongues, talking, whistling, singing, birds singing, car engine starting etc. Noise and sound are the same but ‘noise’ usually refers to unpleasant sounds. There are also many ways of describing sounds; for example:, rattle, plink, bang, blow; high, low, loud, soft etc. 32

Hands-on science

R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricgroup.com.au


Sounds like rain! Task: To construct a musical instrument that makes a rain-like sound.

You will need

paint (optional)

What to do:

brush (optional)

Follow the steps to make your rainstick.

r o e t s Bo r e p to make one long tube. ok Tape the tubes together u S Use the pin to make lots of holes all around the tubes,

masking tape 2 cardboard tubes of the same size

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Teac he r

Collect tubes. Decorate with paint and allow to dry. (optional)

/2 cup dried beans 1

about 2.5 cm apart in a spiral pattern.

Push the sharp end of each toothpick into the holes as far as each will go. Put plastic wrap over one end and hold in place with an elastic band.

plastic wrap

thick display pin 2 elastic bands scissors

of toothpicks © R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons lots with one blunt end •the f o rr e e w pur posesonl y• Place beans in v thei tube.

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Tip the rainstick up and down to listen to the rain.

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Cover the open end with plastic wrap and an elastic band.

. te to describe the noises your rainstick makes;oe.g. plink. Write sound words c . che e r o r st super What happened?

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Hands-on science

33


Dancing paper

• E • n er g nge a y and h c an d ch a ng e E ner gy • Ene rgy an • e g n a h c d d ch ang e • Ene rgy an Indicator:

Makes static electricity to identify electricity as a form of energy.

Materials • balloon, sheet of paper, hole punch

Motivate

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

• Discuss which everyday household appliances use electricity from a socket and which use batteries. Discuss what safety precautions need to be observed when using electricity. • Ask: What sort of electricity can be felt on a cool, dry or windy day? (static electricity) Discuss students’ personal experiences of static electricity.

Explain

• The students complete the ‘What happened?’ section of their worksheet.

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• Display a torch. What is this and what does it do? How does it work? Take it apart to show the batteries inside. What does a battery do? How does the bulb light up? What does the switch do?

• Ask selected students to explain what they think happened.

Rubbing the balloon against the hair creates friction which causes some electrons to rub off and stick to the balloon. The balloon attracts the paper. (The balloon’s electrons will have a negative charge and the paper’s have a positive charge—opposites attract!)

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Experience •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Electricity is a form of energy. Batteries are a safe source of electricity.

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• Students should ensure that the balloon fits easily into their hand so that is can be grasped for rubbing over the hair. They should ensure that they do not press too hard when rubbing their hair. Hair should be clean, dry and oil-free. • The balloon should not actually touch the paper circles but be held close (about 1 cm away).

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An electric current is a flow of microscopic particles (electrons) through wires and electronic components. Static electricity is electricity at rest and can be produced by friction, causing electricity to build up in the atmosphere or on an object.

Apply

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• The students collect their materials and conduct their experiment, following the instructions on the worksheet and ticking each step as it is completed.

• Students investigate how to make a comb pick up items such as small pieces of paper or tissue.

o c . che e r o t r s super Review and reflect

• Students complete a science investigation on page xii for a new experiment examining static electricity, such as trying to bend a small, steady stream of water from a tap with a comb (without touching it).

34

Hands-on science

R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricgroup.com.au


Dancing paper Task: To make static electricity.

You will need

balloon

What to do:

sheet of paper

Tick each step as you complete it.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u Tie a knot at the opening of the balloon. S

hole punch

Use the hole punch on the sheet of paper and collect the small circles of paper. Rub the balloon gently back and forward on your hair about ten times.

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Teac he r

Blow up the balloon until it is just big enough to fit easily in your hand.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• What• happened? Hold the balloon close to the paper circles.

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Complete a labelled diagram to show what happened.

o c . che e r o t r s super

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Hands-on science

35


Popcorn

• E • n er g nge a y and h c an d ch a ng e E ner gy • Ene rgy an • e g n a h c d d ch ang e • Ene rgy an Indicator:

Makes popcorn using a few simple materials.

Materials • electric frypan with a lid, 1 tablespoon oil, 1/4 cup popcorn kernels, bowl

Motivate

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Apply

Teac he r

• Students investigate what a steam cooker is and how it works using Internet resources. Complete a scientific diagram using page xv.

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• Show the students two raw eggs. Crack one open into a plastic bowl. Demonstrate what happens when the remaining egg is heated in boiling water for five minutes. (The egg changes into a solid form when cooked.) Discuss other foods which change when heated. Examples may include cooking rice which expands and softens, cooking hard vegetables or pasta to make them soft enough to eat, leaving bread dough in a warm place for the yeast to expand and rise, baking cake batter, prawns changing colour when cooked etc.

• Students use Internet resources to find the procedure for a solar cooker constructed from tyres which uses solar heat to cook a meal. <http://solarcooking.org/ images/tirecooker.jpg>

Review and reflect

• Students use Internet resources to create a safety poster to remind other students to take care when using electrical appliances. (Refer to pages 18 and 19.)

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Experience

• Complete the first three sections of the ‘Before and after’ sheet on page xiv.

• Students make popcorn in a wok and compare with the method of cooking in an electric frypan.

Safety note: Special care should be taken when using electrical cooking appliances.

w ww

• Groups collect their materials and complete the cooking procedure, ticking each step as it is completed.

E Expla in

. te

• Visit <http://atschool.eduweb.co.uk/toftwood/ electricity.html> to play a simple, interactive game in which students identify objects which use electricity.

m . u

• Divide the class into small groups, each with an adult supervisor.

o c . che e r o t r s super

• Students complete the ‘What happened?’ and ‘What I’ve learned’ sections of the worksheet individually, then compare their answers with a friend. • Students complete the final section of the ‘Before and after’ sheet on page xiv. Heating can change some materials. Popcorn kernels contain water. When the corn is heated, the water in the centre of the corn kernel expands and cannot escape because the popcorn has a hard coating. The water expands until the corn kernel can no longer contain it, so the corn explodes or ‘pops’.

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Hands-on science

R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricgroup.com.au


Popcorn Task: To make popcorn.

You will need

electric frypan with a lid

What to do: Tick each step as you complete it with your teacher’s help.

1 tablespoon oil

r o e t s Bo r e Place two or threep kernels in the oil to test heat (lido on). u k S When kernels pop, add remaining kernels (lid on). When popping stops, turn off frypan and remove lid. Place popcorn in a bowl to enjoy!

Safety first! Take care when using hot oil.

/4 cup popcorn kernels 1

bowl

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Carefully heat oil in frypan with lid on.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons What happened? •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

. te

m . u

Use diagrams and labels to tell how corn pops.

o c . che e r o t r s super

What I’ve learned Write a sentence to tell how heat was used to popcorn.

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Hands-on science

37


• Lif

e an

d livin

Indicator:

Guess what? g • Liffe

and living •

n d li Liffe and living • Life f and living • Liffe a

vin g

nd l • Life a

iv in g

Explores the five senses by using each of them individually to solve guessing games.

Materials • worksheet and pencils for students • Materials will vary depending on the games chosen; see ‘Experience’ below for some suggested games.

Motivate

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

• After returning to class, brainstorm to list, in written or pictorial form, all the things they remembered. • Discuss the term ‘sense organ’ with the students. Ask them to point to the sense organ they use to see with, hear with etc.

• Students can draw or write words or numbers to record their guesses. Once everyone has completed the guessing game using a specific sense, reveal the answers so students can write the number of activities they guessed correctly.

ew i ev Pr

• Take the students around the school grounds, where they use their senses to experience and remember what they saw, heard, smelt and touched. (Explain that it would not be safe to use their sense of taste in this situation.) If appropriate, students could be barefooted to enhance their sense of touch.

Touch: Place a specific number of tennis balls or golf balls in a ‘feely’ bag. Blindfold students and allow them to guess, only by touch, how many balls are in the bag.

• Students rate how easy or hard it was for them to use each sense to make the right guesses in the ‘What I’ve learned’ section.

Explain © R. I . C.Pub l i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

• Distribute the worksheets to the students. Explain they are going to use each sense, one at a time, to play guessing games. This activity will take more than one lesson to complete. If students complete the activity in groups, ensure they can not see (or smell!) objects to be used with another sense. • Suggestions for guessing games:

w ww

Sight: Make a sheet of (or cut out) silhouette shapes of familiar objects such as a toothpaste tube, animals, a pencil etc.

. te

Hearing: Make the following sounds behind a screen, or record and replay to students. Ring a bell; tap foot or clap hands a specific number of times; scrunch newspaper; bounce a ball; record a baby crying, laughter or door banging.

We learn about ourselves and the world around us using the five senses. Nerve endings in the sense organs send information to our brain which then works out what is going on; for example, we hear the doorbell ringing or we smell toast cooking. Sight is the sense most often used, but we usually use more than one sense at a time.

Apply

• Discuss how people who can not see or can not hear use other senses to help them. For example, a vision impaired person uses touch to read by Braille and can listen to tapes or CDs of books. A hearing impaired person may have a flashing light connected to their telephone so they see when it’s ringing. They can also lip read to understand what someone is saying.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Smell: Cook toast behind a screen or blindfold groups of students and allow them to smell soap, vinegar, peanut paste, popcorn etc. Caution: Don’t use items such as onion or pepper as these can cause reactions such as sneezing or watering eyes.

Taste: Blindfold students and allow them to taste sugar, tiny slices of various fruit, savoury or sweet biscuit etc. Don’t let students pick up the samples to place in their mouth as their sense of touch might help them guess. Use a plastic spoon, fork or toothpick. Caution: Don’t use high allergy foods such as peanuts or any with a very strong taste such as curry powder.

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• Discuss the information below with the students.

m . u

Experience

Hands-on science

Review and reflect

• Students can complete the science reflection worksheet on page ix about the guessing game activity. • Compile a pictograph of sights, sounds, smells, tastes and touches students like and dislike.

R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricgroup.com.au


Guess what? Task: To use each of the five senses in guessing games. What to do: Record your guesses in the table below.

Ears

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Nose

Tongue

Number correct

My guesses

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Sense organ used Eyes

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

. te

What I’ve learned

m . u

Skin

o c . Easy c e her r o t s super

Circle how easy or hard it was for you to use each sense to make the right guesses.

Sight

Hard

Hearing Smell Taste Touch R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricgroup.com.au

Hands-on science

39


• Lif

e an

Hairy caterpillar d livin

g • Liffe

and living •

n d li Liffe and living • Life f and living • Liffe a

vin g

nd l • Life a

iv in g

Indicator: Follows directions to make a birdseed ‘hairy caterpillar’ and observes the changes that occur. Materials • Refer to the materials needed on the student worksheet. Thick tights can be used in place of dishcloths. Ensure dishcloths are porous enough for purposes of the experiment. Instead of making individual caterpillars, students could form groups of six and make one caterpillar per group.

Motivate

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Apply

Teac he r

Experience

• Distribute individual or group materials required to make the caterpillars. • Read and explain to the students how to make the caterpillars. Show an example of a completed caterpillar where the seeds have not yet germinated and begun to sprout through the holes in the cloth. Assist the students where necessary. Adult helpers or older students may come in handy!

• Students plant fast-germinating seeds, such as beans or wheat, in soil in the bottom of milk cartons instead of on cotton wool and record observations.

ew i ev Pr

• Cut a tomato in half to show the seeds and ask students about their observations. Discuss how a tomato plant can grow from a seed. Ask the students if they have seen tomatoes or other plants grow from seeds. What does the seed need to grow?

• Students make another four hairy caterpillars. Place three in a sunny position. Water one of these normally, one with water and soluble fertiliser and don’t water the other. Place the fourth caterpillar in a cupboard and water normally. Record observations.

Review and reflect

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

Explain

• Students complete the ‘What I’ve learned’ section on the worksheet.

. te

• Compare the lengths of each caterpillar’s ‘hair’. Why do they think some are growing hair quicker than others? (Possible answers: Some are in a sunnier position, some aren’t being watered enough.)

• Students observe plants in the school grounds or at home. Which plants are growing well and which are not? Can they suggest reasons for each scenario?

m . u

• Students measure their caterpillar’s ‘hair’ each week in centimetres or in arbitrary units.

• Students complete the science journal worksheet on page xiii.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Like humans, plants are living things. They need air, water, sunlight and food (usually from minerals in the soil) to grow. If the students place their caterpillars in sufficient sunlight and water them to keep moist, they will germinate and sprout ‘hair’ through the cloth. They will continue to grow for some time, but will eventually die as they are only receiving water and not food. The cotton wool does not contain the minerals needed for sustained growth.

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Hands-on science

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Hairy caterpillar Task: To create a ‘hairy caterpillar’ and watch how plants grow from seed.

dishcloths

What to do: 1.

2.

birdseed

3.

Teac he r

Tie off each circle with an elastic band to form a small ball. 5.

cotton wool scissors tray elastic bands odds and ends for decorations (pipecleaners, buttons, toy ‘goggle’ eyes, felt)

ew i ev Pr

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Use the odds and Cut six circles of different sizes from the cloths. Fill each circle with birdseed. 4.

You will need

ends to glue a face and feelers onto the second largest ball.

craft glue

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons pencil •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

m . u

w ww

Place cotton wool on the tray. Arrange the caterpillar on top.

Place in a sunny spot. Keep damp by watering the cotton wool when needed.

. What I’ve learned te o Measure your caterpillar’s ‘hair’ each c . che e week. r o t r s super Week 1 What happened?

Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricgroup.com.au

Hands-on science

41


• Lif

e an

Build a bird’s nest

d livin

g • Liffe

Indicator:

and living •

n d li Liffe and living • Life f and living • Liffe a

vin g

nd l • Life a

iv in g

Designs and builds a nest suitable for a bird to lay eggs in.

Materials • Students decide for themselves what they will use to build their nest. Suggested materials: twigs, leaves, bark, string, twine, straw, wool, mud, grass, coconut fibre from hanging baskets, reeds, plastic, paper, tissue, glue, tape. Plastic sheets or newspaper will be needed to protect the work stations.

Motivate

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

Experience

• Make all materials readily available. Alternatively, after the ‘Motivate’ activity above, students could collect suitable materials from the school grounds or from home. They should only collect fallen or dead items from trees, bushes and plants.

ew i ev Pr

• If possible, show an actual bird’s nest to the students for them to carefully study to see how it was made and the materials used. Show pictures of various nests to compare and contrast.

Birds use a variety of natural and human-made material to build nests. A close inspection of many birds’ nests can reveal not just natural material but coloured wool, bits of plastic and even bits of packaging previously wrapped around ice-creams. It is important that birds’ nests should not be interfered with, especially if eggs have been laid in the nests and the parents are taking turns to keep the eggs warm or feeding the babies. Many birds return to the same nesting place each year and may reuse or repair their previous nest.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

• After their nests are complete, students test to see how suitable it is by placing it in a suitable tree branch in the school grounds or at home. The nest may need to wedged among some branches or attached securely with string etc.

w ww

• Students draw and write about what happened to their nest.

Explain

. te

Apply

• Complete this activity at different times of the year to see if birds are more likely to use the nests during breeding times.

Review and reflect • Students complete the science report worksheet on page x.

m . u

• This activity could be completed individually or in pairs. Students can list or draw and label the materials they have decided to use to build their nest.

• Discuss how effectively birds use their beaks to build their nests. What difficulties did the students experience using their fingers and hands for this task?

o c . che e r o t r s super

• Students complete the ‘What I’ve learned’ section of their worksheet. This could include interesting facts they learnt or improvements they could make to their nest.

• Compare what happened to students’ nests. Which nests blew away? Why? Was the nest strong enough/ attached securely enough? Was the tree in a sheltered enough position? Did birds investigate or lay eggs in the nest? (Ask students for possible reasons for both positive and negative outcomes.)

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Hands-on science

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Build a bird’s nest Task: To design and build a bird’s nest. What to do:

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

2. Collect the materials you need and build your nest. 3. Test your nest by placing it in a tree branch. Leave it for a few weeks and see what happens.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

1. List the materials you will use to build your nest.

w ww

. te

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons What happened? f owhat rr e vi ewto p unest. r posesonl y• Write and• draw happened your

o c . che e r o t r s super

What I’ve learned

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Hands-on science

43


• Lif

e an

Living or non-living?

d livin

g • Liffe

Indicator:

and living •

n d li Liffe and living • Life f and living • Liffe a

vin g

nd l • Life a

iv in g

Identifies and tallies living and non-living things in the classroom and playground.

Materials • pencils, worksheet, magnifying glass (optional), clipboard or similar to lean on

Motivate

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

Experience

• Students can complete this activity in pairs.

Apply

ew i ev Pr

• Show a ball to the students. Ask them if they think it is alive (living) or not alive (non-living). Discuss the reasons they think this. List the criteria students brainstorm; e.g. breathes, doesn’t breathe. Show other examples such as a pot plant or a class pet; like a fish (or a picture of one). Test examples against the criteria discussed earlier.

• Students complete the sentences in the ‘What I’ve learned’ section. Their answers could include any of the criteria discussed that will help them decide what is living or non-living.

• Students repeat the activity, finding different examples to tally. They could go to different areas of the playground to search for examples or complete it for a different environment; e.g. at home.

• Students create a collection of living and non-living things. Pictures or photographs could be used for living things.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons and reflo ectn •f orr evi ew puReview r pos es l y•

• When the students have completed the tallies, they can write the totals.

w ww

Explain

. te

• Discuss all of the living and non-living items chosen by the students and identify any that were placed in the wrong table. The following information can be explained in detail or simplified, according to the students’ level of understanding.

• Students complete the science recount sheet on page xi.

• Make a list of ways living things can move on their own; e.g. run, swim, fly, grow, wriggle, crawl. Do the same with non-living things; e.g. be pushed, be thrown, be blown in the wind, be bounced.

m . u

• Explain to students they are going to look around the classroom and the playground for living and non-living things. (While students will be supervised, remind them of out-of-bounds areas.) They will choose four examples of each, write the names in the table and make a tally of the number of each they find. (Revise or show how to make tally marks.)

o c . che e r o t r s super

All living things are made up of tiny units called cells. They breathe oxygen from the air or water. They need food and water to grow, move, breed, for energy and to survive. They produce offspring and change as they age. They produce waste which they must get rid of. Non-living things do not have these characteristics. They can only move as a result of an outside force; e.g. a ball moves when it is rolled, thrown, bounced, hit. (Explain that while a living thing, such as a plant, moves when the wind blows [an outside force], it also moves slowly by itself as it grows.)

44

Hands-on science

R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricgroup.com.au


Living or non-living? Task: To make a tally of living and non-living objects.

You will need

pencil clipboard What to do:

r o e t s Bo r e Living thing p Tally o u k S

magnifying glass

Total

w ww

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Non-living thing Tally •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

. te

Total

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Complete the tables below.

o c . che e What I’ve learned r o t r s super Complete the sentences. (a) A living thing

. (b) A non-living thing . R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricgroup.com.au

Hands-on science

45


Sweet-smelling flowers

• Lif

e an

d livin

g • Liffe

and living •

n d li Liffe and living • Life f and living • Liffe a

vin g

nd l • Life a

iv in g

Indicator: Identifies parts of a flowering plant and follows directions to construct a flower. Materials: • scissors, glue, stapler, coloured pencils, cotton wool balls, green straws, lengths of brown wool, aerosol can lids, soil, perfume

Motivate

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Apply

Teac he r

Experience

• Distribute the materials the students will need to make their flower. Read the instructions with the students. You may like to show a completed example. Some students can then work independently to make their flower, while others may need assistance. Make sure students only put a drop of perfume on the cotton ball or the smell in the classroom will be overwhelming!

• Students carefully observe the flowering plant used in the ‘Motivate’ section. They can write words describing what they see and draw pictures of the leaves, flowers, roots, stem and seeds.

ew i ev Pr

• Use a punnet of flowering seedlings, such as petunias, or a plant that needs repotting so students can observe the plant’s root system. Alternatively, weeds can be used. Discuss the different parts of a flowering plant: flowers, seeds, stem, leaves and roots.

• Students bring a flower from their home garden (if appropriate) to add to vases. Compare the similarities and differences among the parts of the different flowers.

Review and reflect

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

• An alternative to planting their flowers in individual containers would be to ‘plant’ them in a larger rectangular pot plant as a classroom display.

Explain

. te

• Students think about what a flowering plant needs to survive. Make a list of requirements. Students could also think of things people should not do to plants; e.g. pull off leaves or petals.

m . u

• Before ‘planting’ their flower, identify the different parts to the students. Point out that the cotton wool ball is where the seeds would be on a real flower.

• Students complete the scientific diagram sheet on page xv. The plants used in the ‘Motivate’ section could be used.

o c . che e r o t r s super

The main parts of a flowering plant are the leaves, stems, flowers, roots and seeds. Each part can be broken up into different sections; e.g. flower— petal, stamen, pistil, nectar. Students need only focus on the main parts. Each part of the plant performs the following basic functions. Leaves:

make food.

Stems:

support the branches, leaves and flowers and transport minerals and water.

Roots:

anchor the plant in the soil and collect water and minerals for growth.

Flowers: are where the seeds are produced. Seeds:

46

contain a potential plant and its food supply.

Hands-on science

R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricgroup.com.au


Sweet-smelling flowers Task: To follow directions and make a flower.

You will need

scissors

What to do:

glue

1. Cut out the flower and leaves below. 2. Colour the leaves green.

r o e t s Bo r e p o u k 4. Glue a cotton ball to the centre of the flower. S 5. Add a stem by stapling the straw to the back of the flower.

coloured pencils cotton wool ball green straw lengths of brown wool

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

3. Choose your own colours for the flower’s petals. Leave the centre white.

stapler

aerosol can lid

6. Fold the leaves around the stem and staple.

soil

7. Add some roots by stapling lengths of wool.

perfume

8. Put a drop of perfume on the cotton ball.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww Fold

. te

m . u

9. Plant your flower in an aerosol lid filled with soil.

o c . che e r o t r s super Fold

R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricgroup.com.au

Glue

Hands-on science

47


• Lif

e an

d livin

Clara the cow g • Liffe

Indicator:

and living •

n d li Liffe and living • Life f and living • Liffe a

vin g

nd l • Life a

iv in g

Follows game rules to identify features in order to complete the body of an animal.

Materials • cow outline card for each player, spinner with arrow for each group, split pins, strong card, scissors, coloured pencils

Motivate

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Apply

Teac he r

• Visit a zoo or wildlife centre to observe different types of animals and identify their structure. Animals such as insects or other mini-beasts could be observed in the playground or classroom.

ew i ev Pr

• Show pictures of three different types of animals; e.g. mammal, insect and bird. Discuss similarities and different features of each. Ask questions such as: Does it have wings? How many legs does it have? How does it breathe? Does it have a tail? What kind of covering does it have?

• Students classify pictures of different animals according to their features. • Students draw and label pictures of animals observed.

Experience

• Students cut out the cow card, the spinner and arrow. They colour each piece then glue the spinner onto strong card and attach the arrow using a split pin.

Review and reflect

• Students complete the science journal worksheet on page xiii or the scientific diagram worksheet on page xv, along with the activities in the ‘Apply’ section.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

• Discuss the rules of the game. Note: In Rule 4, suggest to students that they may not have time to colour all of the body part before his/her next turn comes. • If students land on a body part that they have already coloured, they must wait until their next turn before spinning again.

w ww

Explain

. te

• Discuss how different animals have different features or body parts that perform specific functions. Ask them if they know the type of animal ‘Clara’ is (mammal). Ask students what features Clara has that makes her a mammal.

• Make a list of the ways different animals use different features/body parts; e.g. udders for storing milk (cow), wings for flying (most birds and insects).

m . u

• Organise the students into groups of two to four and ensure they have the items they need to play the game.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Most species of mammals have the following features: they breathe air, are warm-blooded, give birth to live young, nourish their young with milk, are covered with varying degrees of hair and have four limbs. The main distinguishing feature is the ability to nourish with milk; for example, a whale is a mammal even though it does not have hair or four limbs and a platypus lays eggs but still gives its young milk.

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Hands-on science

R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricgroup.com.au


Clara the cow Task: To follow rules in a game to construct a cow.

You will need

What to do: Read the rules and play the game.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Rules

1. Each player should have one Clara outline card and coloured pencils.

leg

m . u

dy

w ww

. te

bo

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons udder •f orr evi ew pur poseson l y•

l

5. First player to complete all of Clara’s body wins.

tai

Teac he r

d

he a

4. As each person lands on a part, he or she colours that part of Clara’s body on his or her outline.

ew i ev Pr

3. Players take turns to spin.

hoof

2. Spin—the first to land on Clara’s body starts the game.

two to four players spinner cow outline card coloured pencils strong card split pin

o c . che e r o t r s super

R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricgroup.com.au

Hands-on science

49


• Lif

Plant and animal hunt

e an

d livin

g • Liffe

and living •

n d li Liffe and living • Life f and living • Liffe a

vin g

nd l • Life a

iv in g

Indicator: Locates, observes and reports on an animal and a plant in the local environment. Materials • lead pencil, coloured pencils, magnifying glasses (optional)

Motivate

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

• Make up some animal and plant ‘What am I?’ clues for students to guess. Include a large animal, minibeast, flowering plant and tree, so students who are not aware that a small creature like a worm is an animal or a tree is a plant will understand this. An example could include: I have leaves. I have branches. I have a trunk. I give shade. I am a plant. What am I?

Different types of plants and animals can be found in the local environment. Some will be found all year round and some will be seasonal; e.g. butterflies and caterpillars. Within the local environment, different habitats exist to support animals and plants with varying needs; for example: snails are usually found in damp areas, birds are generally in trees or bushes, bees usually on flowers and plants and trees in a variety of soils and positions.

Experience

• This activity can be carried out in specified areas of the school grounds or on a excursion to a local park or reserve. While students will be supervised, ensure they are aware of out-of-bounds areas and the rules about handling plants and animals; e.g. don’t pull out plants, tread on them, touch spiders or annoy bees.

Apply

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

• Photographs could be taken of certain animals that may move too quickly for students to observe details.

. te

• Students may need advice as to the correct name of the plant or animal for their report. Extra information and photographs could be found on the Internet or in nonfiction material in the library.

Explain

• Graph the animals and plants found in student reports in the form of tallies, pictographs or simple line or bar graphs. Venn diagrams could also be created according to the plants and animals found in two habitats.

m . u

• Explain that students are going to be in a group (2 to 4) and hunt for an animal and a plant to report on. Discuss the worksheet with the students and what they are expected to do. Ask them to suggest some places to look for animals; e.g. under a log, on tree bark.

• Complete the activity at a different site or a different time of the year and compare the plants and animals found.

• Collect appropriate mini beasts found in the local environment and keep in a suitable storage place for students to observe. Mini beasts should be treated correctly treated and returned to their environment as soon as activities are complete.

o c . che e r o t r s super

• Compare the animals and plants students found and reported on. What was the same? Were they found in the same kind of place? Why/Why not?

Review and reflect

• Students suggest reasons why a plant or an animal was found in a specific place(s) and not others. For example, they may suggest the soil is too dry for small plants to live in an area but a tree can live there because its roots are long enough to reach water located underground. • Students can complete the science reflection sheet on page ix or the science journal on page xiii.

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Hands-on science

R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricgroup.com.au


Plant and animal hunt Task: To complete a report about a plant and an animal.

You will need

lead pencil

What to do:

coloured pencils

Complete the table below about a plant and an animal in your local environment.

Where was it found? When was it found?

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Name

r o e t s B r e oo Animal p Plant u k S

magnifying glass

Draw and label what it looks like.

w ww

. te

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

Interesting facts

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Hands-on science

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• Lif

e an

d livin

Animal coverings g • Liffe

Indicator:

and living •

n d li Liffe and living • Life f and living • Liffe a

vin g

nd l • Life a

iv in g

Identifies the different coverings of a range of animals and their purpose(s).

Materials • To make this a true ‘hands-on’ activity, examples of animals or animal coverings should be available for students to feel and/or observe. Students may be able to assist by bringing items from home (or pets). Coverings should include wool from a sheep; feathers from a bird; shell from a snail; turtle or hermit crab; scales from a fish or reptile; fur from a cat or rabbit; hair from a dog or human.

Motivate

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

• Show the objects and discuss the animals that have each covering. Discuss other kinds of animal coverings.

Experience

• This activity could be carried out in the following ways:

Vertebrates have a variety of coverings over their skin. Animals such as elephants have only a sparse covering of hair over thick, leathery skin. Whales have blubber under their skin but still have a few bristle hairs around their mouth. Many amphibians appear to have no covering (some do have a tough, horny outer layer) but secrete mucus to keep their skin moist.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Students and teacher could provide the examples as suggested in the ‘Materials’ section.

Examples could also be found and coverings identified from animals in the playground.

The activity could be done in conjunction with an excursion to a zoo or wildlife park or as part of a classroom pet parade.

w ww

• After students have had hands-on experiences investigating various animals with different coverings, they can draw an example of an animal in each box on the worksheet. It may not be possible to view an actual animal with spines, for example, so students can use their prior knowledge to list some to choose from (echidna, anteater, sea urchin).

. te

Explain

Many invertebrates have hard outer coverings or even shells to protect their internal tissues; e.g. snails, oysters, crabs, spiders, ants.

m . u

ew i ev Pr

• Place a feather or some sheep’s wool in a feely bag and see if selected students can guess what it is. On the board, write descriptive words and phrases students suggest about they experience of touching each object.

Animals need coverings for a variety of reasons and some of these coverings serve multiple purposes. Reasons may include: protection against the elements; e.g. fur of a polar bear, defence against enemies; spines of a porcupine, waterproofing; feathers of a duck, flight; the contour feathers of flying birds.

Apply

• Investigate the reasons why some animals moult or shed their covering each year or at different times of their life; e.g. many dogs moult before warmer seasons commence, lobster shed their shells as they grow.

o c . che e r o t r s super Review and reflect

• Compile a list of students’ choices by writing them on the board under each heading. Discuss why animals have different coverings.

• Students complete the science journal worksheet on page xiii, recording their observations about animals and their coverings.

• Students can now complete the ‘What I’ve learned’ section of their worksheet, filling in the missing words to summarise a reason for each different animal covering.

• Discuss how animals in a zoo may not be living in an environment suited to their covering. How does the zoo help to keep them comfortable?

Answers 1. (a) feathers (b) fur, wool, hair, feathers (c) spines, a shell 52

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Animal coverings Task: To identify different types of animal coverings.

You will need

pencil

What to do:

coloured pencils

Draw and label a picture of an animal in each box.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Wool

animals or animal coverings organised by your teacher

Spines

Shell

w ww

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Fur •f or r evi ew pur posesFeathers onl y•

Scales

. te

Hair

o c . che e r o t r s super

What I’ve learned Choose a word from the boxes above to complete each sentence. (a) Some animals have

to help them fly.

(b) Some animals have

to keep them warm.

(c) Some animals have

to protect themselves.

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• Lif

e an

d livin

Measure me! g • Liffe

Indicator:

and living •

n d li Liffe and living • Life f and living • Liffe a

vin g

nd l • Life a

iv in g

Measures and compares different parts of one’s own body and those of others to recognise variation between humans of a similar age.

Materials • pencil, tape measures, rulers, commercial wall measurement chart or appropriate height measuring device, (optional) scissors, paper strips for making comparison charts, glue, A4 sheets of scrap paper (or newspaper)

Motivate

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

Experience

• Explain that students are going to measure the parts of their body listed on the worksheet and also record two other classmate’s measurements. Ask them to predict who might have the largest/smallest measurements before measuring. Take notes of student’s predictions to refer to later in the lesson.

Students should discover that the tallest person does not necessarily have the longest foot, the largest head and the widest hand span. Tall people can have small heads. Generally, taller people have longer feet, but this may vary. Measurements don’t always correlate and follow a pattern. Variations in the range of measurements of the same body parts occur among people of the same age.

ew i ev Pr

• Show three different-sized shoes; e.g. a toddler’s, a sixto seven-year-old’s and an adult’s. Ask the students who might own each shoe, his or her age and how they came to that conclusion.

Apply

• Identify the differences in the range of measurements for each body part. Ask students if they think these variations will remain as they grow older.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

. te

• Students record their measurements (to the nearest centimetre) and those of two other students on their worksheet. They can then answer the questions about these measurements.

Explain

• Measure the length of students’ legs to make comparisons about whether those with shorter legs run faster, those with longer legs leap further etc.

Review and reflect • Make bar graphs, block graphs or pictographs showing the numbers of students with the same height, hand span, head span and foot length.

m . u

w ww

• Height can be measured on a height chart and recorded. Head size can be measured with a tape measure and hand spans and foot lengths recorded with a ruler. If all measurements are also recorded using paper strips, these can be glued in order from longest/biggest/tallest to shortest/smallest to make a comparison chart of all four measurements. Students’ names can be printed on his or her strips. If students trace around their feet on scrap paper or newspaper, these can be labelled and glued around the room in order of size for comparison.

• Students find out if their parents were tall, short or in-between at their age and if they still fall within the same category.

o c . che e r o t r s super

• Have the students identify who is tallest/shortest etc. Were any of the predictions they made before measuring correct?

• Ask students questions such as: ‘Does the tallest person have the longest foot?’ ‘Does the shortest person have the shortest hand span?’ To assist with answers, students could be lined up according to height and then in order of foot length etc. • Students can write a sentence on their worksheet to summarise what they learned from the activity.

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Measure me! Task: To measure and compare different parts of your own body and those of two other students.

lead pencil

What to do: 1. Measure the parts of your body listed in the table below. Write the measurements under Person 1.

r o e t s Bo r e p o u k Person 2 S Person 1

Height

Head size Hand span Length of foot

tape measure measurement chart ruler Person 3

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

2. Do the same with two other people in your class.

Name

You will need

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

(a) Who is the tallest?

w ww

(b) Who has the largest head?

m . u

3. Answer the questions.

. te o (d) Who has the longest hand span? c . che e r o t r s super What I’ve learned (c) Who has the longest foot?

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•N

atu ra

l and

Garden collage pr oce s

sed m ate

rials • Natural and p

rocessed materials • Natu

ral an d p

ro

ma ce sse d

te ria

ls •

Indicators: • Creates a collage using materials with different properties. • Identifies properties of materials by touching, feeling and seeing.

Materials • large piece of card; different objects for making a collage (e.g. different kinds of paper, wool, different kinds of fabric, leaves, bark, foil, small stones, sand, buttons, straw); scissors; glue; a pencil

Motivate

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Explain

Teac he r

• Explain that materials are what things are made of. Materials have properties which can be seen, smelt, felt, heard or tasted.

ew i ev Pr

• Have a range of small objects with different properties ready to place one at a time in a ‘feely bag’ (e.g. stones, paperclips, cotton wool, straw, buttons, erasers, sponges, soap, elastic bands, wool, leaves, bark, aluminium foil). Choose one student at a time to reach into the feely bag and describe what he/she can feel. Write the words on the board, then pull the object out of the bag and ask for more words. Write answers on the board. Explain to the students that the words on the board are all properties (special things about) of the object.

Materials can be natural, such as rock, clay, wool and wood; or synthetic, like plastic, fibreglass™ and nylon. Materials have properties such as shape, weight, size, texture and colour.

Apply

• Conduct activities in which the students use senses other than sight, touch and feel to investigate properties of materials; e.g. blindfold the students and have them taste different food samples. Caution: Avoid high-risk ‘allergy’ foods such as peanuts.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

• Distribute the worksheets and materials. Discuss what things we might find in a garden (e.g. grass, flowers, trees, insects, pets, soil, benches, water fountains, stepping stones, garden sheds, garden tools etc.) Ask the students for words to describe some of these things and what they could be made from on the collage; e.g. soft, fluffy pets could be made from cotton wool.

w ww

• The students can plan their collages in the space provided, thinking carefully about which materials they could use. Provide the students with a limit to the number of objects they can have in their collages—six is suggested. The describing words can be written next to and/or around each object. This should be replicated on the real collage.

. te

Review and reflect

• Students make a table display of different materials they used or would like to have used in their collages. Flashcards with appropriate descriptive words should be placed next to each object.

m . u

Experience

o c . che e r o t r s super

• Once the students have completed their plans, they can use the materials provided to make their collage. Encourage students to place all their intended objects on their collage first before they glue and write. Once the collages are complete, the students can complete the ‘What I’ve learned’ section at the bottom of the page.

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Hands-on science

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Garden collage Task: To create a collage using materials with different properties.

You will need

large piece of card

What to do:

different objects for making a collage

1. Plan a collage of things you can find in a garden using a range of different materials.

rough

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S cold prickly soft rough

bumpy

dull

bendy

heavy

flat

smooth

fluffy

light

crackly

shiny

scissors glue pencil

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

2. On your plan, label each material and write at least two words to describe it. You can use words from the word bank below.

w ww

. te

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

3. Use your plan to make your collage on a large sheet of card. What I’ve learned

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•N

atu ra

Scavenger hunt l and

pr oce s

Indicator:

sed m ate

rials • Natural and p

rocessed materials • Natu

ral an d p

ro

ma ce sse d

te ria

ls •

Participates in a scavenger hunt for objects made from different materials.

Materials • Check that a variety of objects made from all the given materials (wood, metal, plastic, paper, glass and fabric) can be found in or just outside the classroom. Additional objects may need to be spread around the classroom for the students to find. For Question 2, students need to find objects made from three other materials. These could include cotton, wool, sand, rock, cane, leaves and clay (ceramic) objects.

Motivate

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Apply

Teac he r

• Students create and label sets of objects made from particular materials.

Review and reflect

ew i ev Pr

• Play a game where individual students have to find an object made from a given material in the classroom. Each time a student retrieves an appropriate item, ask the class ‘How do we know this object is made from wood/metal/plastic etc. ?’ Encourage them to think of the object’s properties–special things about the objects the students can sense. For example, students might be able to identify a wooden object because it is hard, grainy and smooth.

• Have students design and make a toy that uses only one type of material; e.g. fabric or paper. They can then discuss what properties of the material they chose helped or hindered the effectiveness of their designs.

• Distribute the worksheets and organise the students into pairs or small groups. It is suggested that each group begins hunting for a different material on the list first to avoid too much chaos. Some objects could be placed just outside the classroom. The students can draw or write the objects they found and then describe some of the properties that helped him/her to identify each object as being made from a particular material.

w ww

• Depending on the ability of the groups, the students may require assistance to complete Question 2: some clues about what materials they could look for can be given. The answers to Questions 1 and 2 can then be shared as a class.

Explain

. te

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Experience

o c . che e r o t r s super

Some materials, whether natural or synthetic, have distinctive properties that can distinguish them from other materials. These can be detected using our senses.

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Scavenger hunt Task: To hunt for objects made from different materials. What to do: 1. In your group, hunt in or around your classroom to find two objects made from each type of material listed below. Write how you can tell the objects are made from each material.

wood

metal

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Material

r o e t s B r I can tell these objects are made from e o Objects I found p okbecause they are … this material u S

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

plastic

w ww

glass

. te

m . u

paper

o c . c e he r 2. Draw three objects from in or around your classroom made from other o t r s s r e it is made from. materials. Label each object byu thep material fabric

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•N

atu ra

l and

Testing properties pr oce s

Indicator:

sed m ate

rials • Natural and p

rocessed materials • Natu

ral an d p

ro

ma ce sse d

te ria

ls •

Tests different properties of everyday objects.

Materials • For each group: paperclip, fork, sponge, clean plastic ruler, rubber glove, cling film, magnet, small bowl of water

Motivate

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Explain

Teac he r

Experience

• Divide the students into small groups and distribute the worksheet and materials. Clearly define each property to be tested and describe the tests the students will need to perform as follows:

The property of a material is something which does not change unless you change the physical state of the material. A material’s properties need to be considered when a material is chosen for a particular purpose. It may be necessary to consider more than one property to select the most suitable material for a purpose.

ew i ev Pr

• Discuss with the students the idea that it is important to know the properties of different materials so we know how best to use them. Ask questions like ‘Glass is waterproof, so could a raincoat be made from glass? Why not?’

Apply

• Have the students design and make a toy boat, considering what materials he/she should use based on the properties investigated on the worksheet.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew puReview r pos esonl y• and reflect

Flexible/Rigid: Can they bend the object without breaking it?

Magnetic/Non-magnetic: Is the object attracted to a magnet?

w ww

Absorbent/Waterproof: Does the material change if it is dipped in water? These tests should be conducted in the order given. Ensure that students are careful with materials and do not break them.

. te

• Complete a science recount (see page xi) about the activity.

Answers 2. (a) rigid

m . u

Transparent/Opaque: Can they see through the object?

(b) opaque

(c) waterproof

(d) absorbent

o c . che e r o t r s super

• To make their predictions, the students need to write the appropriate letter on each of the pictures. For example, if they believe that the rubber glove will be flexible, they need to write ‘f’ on the picture in that box. After they test their materials, they can tick ‘yes’ in the ‘Were you correct?’ box if all their predictions were correct or ‘no’ if they were not. • Once the table has been completed, the results can be discussed as a class. Question 2 should then be discussed and completed as a class or in groups.

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Testing properties Task: To test different properties of everyday objects.

You will need

paperclip

What to do:

fork

1. Predict and test the properties listed below of each object.

sponge

or eBo st r Flexible (f) or rigid (r)?e p ok u S Were you correct? Magnetic (m) or non-magnetic (n)?

clean plastic ruler rubber glove cling film magnet

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

My predictions

yes

no

small bowl of water

yesn © R. I . C.Publ i cat i o sno •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Were you correct? Transparent (t) or opaque (o)?

. te

yes

no

m . u

w ww

Were you correct? Absorbent (a) or waterproof (w)?

o c Were you correct? yes .no che e r o r st s up 2. Which of the properties you tested would be most important to consider if you er were making each object below? (a) A table needs to be (b) A window needs to be

. .

(c) A raincoat needs to be

.

(d) A paper towel needs to be R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricgroup.com.au

. Hands-on science

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•N

atu ra

l and

Wrap it up! pr oce s

Indicator:

sed m ate

rials • Natural and p

rocessed materials • Natu

ral an d p

ro

ma ce sse d

te ria

ls •

Investigates the suitability of a variety of materials for wrapping purposes.

Materials • For each group or pair of students: 4 small boxes; e.g. jelly crystal or mini cereal boxes; 4 different materials; e.g. cellophane™, tissue paper, newspaper, wrapping paper of varying thicknesses, aluminium foil, cling wrap, cloth, thick card, plastic, sandpaper; scissors; sticky tape; pencils

Motivate

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Apply

Teac he r

Experience

• Distribute the materials needed to each pair or group of students. Explain they are going to wrap each box with one of the materials and record what happened after they attempted to wrap the box. Was it hard to make the material fold over the box? Did it tear easily? Was it difficult/hard to cut? Could they make the tape stick to the box so the wrapping didn’t come off? Was it easy to wrap the box? (Note: Students may need to cut the material into smaller pieces for wrapping.)

• Discuss with students the properties a material would need for other purposes; e.g. to be waterproof for use in an umbrella or strong if used for a door. Brainstorm to list materials suitable for different purposes.

Review and reflect

ew i ev Pr

• Display to students some small samples of the materials they will be using for this activity. Ask them for the name of each one and investigate some of their properties. For example, ask selected students to do the following things to each sample: fold, tear with hands or scissors or scrunch up. Discuss results.

• Students can complete the science reflection worksheet on page ix or the science recount worksheet on page xi.

• Consider which materials would be suitable for specific wrapping purposes; e.g. a fragile gift such as a glass vase or a very small gift such as a ring.

w ww

• Students rate how suitable each material was for wrapping in ‘What I’ve learned’. Explain that they must not judge the material for its attractiveness—just on how suitable it was for wrapping. • As a class, discuss the findings for each material.

Explain

. te

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

• Discuss the information below with the students.

Materials are what things are made of. They have properties such as strength, shape, thickness, size and texture. The properties a material has make it suitable to use for some things and not others. For example, tissue paper can be suitable for wrapping but unsuitable (too fragile) for making clothes. When you use it for wrapping you must be careful the tissue doesn’t tear. Cloth can be used to make clothes and can also be wrapped around an object. However, tape doesn’t adhere very well to cloth.

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Wrap it up! Task: To use different materials to wrap a box.

You will need

4 small boxes

What to do:

scissors

1. Write the types of materials you are going to use on the chart.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u What happened? S

Complete the chart. Material used What happened 1.

2.

sticky tape pencil

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

2. Wrap each box with one of the materials. Record what happened after you wrapped the box.

4 different materials for wrapping

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

4.

m . u

3.

. te

o c . c e What I’ve learned her r o t sfor wrapping. su per Colour how suitable you think each material was very suitable

not suitable

1. 2. 3. 4. R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricgroup.com.au

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•N

atu ra

l and

Natural or not? pr oce s

sed m ate

rials • Natural and p

rocessed materials • Natu

ral an d p

ro

ma ce sse d

te ria

ls •

Indicator: To identify naturally occurring materials in the environment from those that have been treated or manufactured before being used.

Materials: • pencils, worksheet, magnifying glasses (optional), clipboard or similar to lean on

Motivate

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Apply

Teac he r

• Students investigate things that could be made from a natural substance, such as sheep’s wool (balls of knitting yarn, woollen jumpers, woollen rugs, wool carpets etc.), or wood (furniture, flooring, paper, fences etc.)

Review and reflect

Experience

• This activity can be completed individually or in pairs. • Explain to students that they are going to look around the classroom and the playground to choose eight things to draw and label on their worksheet. They can then decide if they think each object is or is not made from a natural material and put a tick or a cross in the ‘N’ column.

ew i ev Pr

• Show students a twig, a wooden spoon or breadboard and anything in the classroom made from wood. Ask them what is common among these objects and if each is or is not made from a natural material. (Students should come to the conclusion that all are made from wood, which is a natural material.)

• Students complete the science journal worksheet on page xiii.

• Students sort objects/substances (or pictures of them) into those that are found in a natural state, those that have been treated or manufactured from a naturally occurring material before being used and those that are synthetic (or a mixture).

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

• Students complete the ‘What I’ve learned’ section of the worksheet. Their answers could include any of the criteria previously discussed.

. te

m . u

Explain • Discuss the objects students chose and whether each was made or comes from a naturally occurring material. Identify any errors and their reasons for that decision.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Objects are made from different materials. Some materials are found in a natural state; e.g. air, sand, rocks, clay, oil, water and metals. Some materials come from living things; e.g. wool from a sheep, silk from silkworms, cotton and rubber from plants, wood from trees and leather from animal hides. These materials have been treated or manufactured in some way before use. Some materials have come from natural elements that have been changed; e.g. glass from sand, crockery from clay and paper from wood. Other materials are synthetic (made by humans, artificial, not natural); e.g. plastic, nylon and fibreglass™. Some objects in the environment may have a mixture of all types of materials discussed above; e.g. a building or a road. 64

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Natural or not? Task: To identify natural things in the environment.

You will need

pencil

What to do:

worksheet

1. Draw and label eight things found inside or outside your classroom.

magnifying glass

r o e t s Bo r e p o u k Object N Object S

N

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

2. Tick if you think the object is natural (N). Put a cross if you think it isn’t.

w ww

. te

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

What I’ve learned

1. Some things in the environment are natural. This means . 2. Some things in the environment are not natural. This means . R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricgroup.com.au

Hands-on science

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•N

atu ra

l and

What can it do? pr oce s

Indicator:

sed m ate

rials • Natural and p

rocessed materials • Natu

ral an d p

ro

ma ce sse d

te ria

ls •

Tests a variety of objects to observe which can be bent, twisted, stretched and squashed and if the object can return its original shape.

Materials • coloured pencils, objects to test (could include: elastic bands, rubber balls, stones, leaves, twigs, paper, ribbon, wool, pieces of kitchen sponge, pieces of foam, cotton wool, crepe paper, pieces of various woven materials, cushions, pillows, modelling clay, playdough, Blu-tack™, blown-up and deflated balloons, empty milk cartons, tinsel, rulers, erasers)

• Place two or three objects in a box and pull one out to show students; e.g. a paper plate. Explain to students that they are going to examine what happens to the object if it is bent, twisted, stretched and squashed and if it can return to its original shape. (e.g. it can be bent but will have a fold line, can be twisted but will be crumpled, will tear if you try to stretch it too hard and can be squashed but will remain flat.) More than one object may have to used for students to see results clearly.

Different objects can be physically altered by bending, twisting, stretching and squashing it. Some objects, with specific properties, can change back to their original shape; e.g. elastic band, rubber ball, sponge. Others can not change back to exactly their original shape or may break in the process; e.g. paper, pencil. An object such as a balloon can be bent, stretched, twisted and squashed when deflated but will break (burst) when blown up.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Motivate

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Experience •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

• Distribute four objects to each group. Objects may need to be replaced if one is torn or breaks during the test. Suggest that students don’t stretch or bend the objects too much and should stop before it breaks. Students can still come to the correct conclusion and record it on their worksheet.

. te

Review and reflect

• Students complete the science report on page x.

• Students complete the ‘What I’ve learned’ section of their worksheet. This should include a simple summary of the above discussion.

• As a class, students discuss their findings for each object and compare their answers for the same objects.

66

• Identify the materials an object has to be made from to be a ball. What makes it bounce? Why doesn’t it break when bounced (in essence, ‘squashed’)? Investigate balls for different purposes; e.g. tennis balls, basketballs, netballs, golf balls, T-balls, cricket balls, footballs.

o c . che e r o t r s super

• Students briefly record what happens to the object using keywords and phrases; e.g. pencil—under ‘bend’ they could write: will break.

Explain

Apply

m . u

• Explain that students they are going to work in pairs (or groups of three or four) and test four objects to see what happens to each object when they are manipulated.

The ability of certain objects to change and/ or retain its shape has practical purposes; for example: balls can be bounced and don’t break, elastic bands can be stretched over an object to secure it, crepe paper can be twisted for decorative effects.

Hands-on science

• Sort the objects investigated in the ‘Experience’ section into those that can be bent, twisted, stretched or squashed. Some will come under more than one category. Identify those that require extreme pressure to be altered from the task; e.g. a rock can be squashed under force. Identify that an object such as an elastic band will break if stretched beyond its limit.

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What can it do? Task: To test four objects to see what happens when each is bent, twisted, stretched and squashed.

You will need

pencil

What to do: 1. Name and draw the objects you will use in the table below. 2. Bend, twist, stretch and squash each object.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok 1. Tick if the objectu can do each thing. S if it can’t. 2. Write what happened

coloured pencils 4 different objects

Object

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What happened?

twist

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squash

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What I’ve learned

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Hands-on science

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Microwave science

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Indicator: Identifies how substances can change when heated and cooled. Materials • a microwave oven; fork: refrigerator; 4 microwave-proof glass bowls; plastic wrap; 5 small plastic bowls/containers per group; butter; egg; sesame seeds; milk; bag of microwave popcorn (Note: Each food needs to be heated in an appropriate container. A small sample of each will then need to be distributed to each group of students.)

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Safety notes:

Motivate

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Experience

• Show the foods to the students and ask them to describe each one. A list of descriptions could be written on the board. Discuss what the students think might happen to each food when it is heated. • Heat each of the foods in the microwave oven. The length of time needed for each food will depend on the power of the microwave oven and the quantity of food. It is important to keep in mind that the foods only need to be warm for this activity, rather than boiling hot. Specific instructions for preparing each food are given below:

• Normal safety instructions for operating microwave ovens, given in manufacturers’ operations manuals, need to be considered.

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• Discuss with students how we heat some foods before we eat them: Why do we do this? What can heat do to food? What can cooling food in a fridge do? Why do we need to cool food?

• Keep the students well away from the microwave oven. • Each food should be tested to make sure it is not too hot for the students to handle before distributing. • The students may wish to eat the popcorn after the activity; if so, ensure all surfaces, utensils and hands have been washed thoroughly.

Explain

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• Organise the students into small groups. Provide a small sample of each heated food in a container for each group, reserving some of each food to place in the refrigerator. The students can draw or write how heating changed each food. • Cool the reserved samples of each food in the refrigerator for about an hour. The students can then observe the cooled food and write whether it stayed the same as it was when heated or reverted to its original form.

• Hold a class discussion regarding the completed table. The questions at the bottom of the page can then be answered as a class (see ‘Answers’). 68

Apply

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butter: place in a glass bowl covered in plastic wrap egg: beat the egg with a fork and place in a glass bowl sesame seeds: place in a glass bowl and stir every minute until golden chocolate: place in a glass bowl (do not overheat; heated chocolate holds its shape until stirred) popcorn: follow the instructions on the bag (show the students some unpopped popcorn kernels before heating)

Heating a substance can cause it to change from one state to another. For example, when butter or chocolate is heated it changes from a solid to a liquid but returns to a solid again when it is cooled. (This is a reversible change—a new substance has not been formed.) When other substances are heated, a chemical change occurs. For example, when an egg is fried, cooling it will not allow it to return to being a raw egg again. (This is an irreversible change—a new substance has been formed.)

Hands-on science

• Find or draw pictures to add to a chart that shows what different substances looked like before and after heating.

Review and reflect

• Students complete a science recount (page xi) about the activity.

Answers What I’ve learned 1. The students should note that the butter and chocolate melted; the egg cooked (turned into an omelette); the sesame seeds went brown; and the popcorn popped. They could also note other changes, such as smell. 2. The completed sentence should indicate that some heated foods stay the same when cooled (e.g. egg, sesame seeds and popcorn) and others ‘go back to normal’ (e.g. butter and chocolate). R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricgroup.com.au


Microwave science Task: To find out how a substance changes when heated and cooled.

You will need

microwave oven

What to do: 1. Look carefully at the five types of food that have been heated in a microwave oven. Draw or write how heating changed each one.

refrigerator 5 different foods

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What happened?

After heating

butter

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5 plastic bowls r o e t s Bo r Safety note: Keep away from the microwave oven. e p o u kwhat happened. 2. Cool each heated food in the fridge for one hour. Write S After cooling

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •seeds f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• sesame egg

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chocolate popcorn

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2. Complete the sentence. When heated foods are cooled, they or . R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricgroup.com.au

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Make a tidy-up train

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Follows a procedure to use recycled materials to make a ‘tidy-up’ train.

Materials • 3 x 600 mL milk cartons, pencil, heavy string, scissors, labels and black marker pen, masking tape, scissors, ruler

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• For ‘Motivate’ activity: small empty cereal box (50 g) with perforations down the middle—usually found in an eight-pack.

Motivate

Apply

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• Fold the box back on itself. Use a black marker and add eyes and a tongue to use the box as a puppet to entertain the class. Explain to the class that something that could have been rubbish has become something useful.

Experience

• Use household materials to make a doll’s house (cereal boxes, shoe boxes etc.), or a car or truck (egg cartons).

Review and reflect

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• Show the students the empty 50 g cereal container. Ask students what is usually done with the box when the cereal is eaten. What else could be done with it?

• Students complete the science reflection framework on page ix.

• Read the procedure with the class and then again as each step is attempted. Extra adults in the classroom for this activity would be very beneficial (especially for cutting and measuring). Students will need assistance to poke a hole through the thicker end of the middle carton.

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• Students complete their tidy-up train and evaluate it. • Use a digital camera to take photographs of the students completing their craft activity and display them.

Explain

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• Organise the students into groups. Have materials ready on trays and distribute to each group.

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• Making toys and other useful things from household materials that would normally be thrown away is recycling. This activity allows students to see that resources can be used more than once and can still be useful. Recycling means to use again or to make into something different. Examples of objects that can be recycled include: old bottles, paper and tin cans. Recycling is important as we need to reduce the amount of rubbish that is dumped or make the rubbish that is deposited biodegradable. Biodegradable materials are things that will disintegrate easily. Things that aren’t biodegradable take a very long time to disintegrate and are therefore more wasteful. 70

Hands-on science

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Make a tidy-up train Task: To make a tidy-up train from recycled materials.

You will need

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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3 x 600 mL milk cartons What to do: pencil 1. Wash and dry the milk cartons and close and tape the tops flat. heavy string scissors 2. Ask an adult to cut out a side labels and black panel from each carton. marker pen masking tape scissors ruler 3. Carefully, measure and cut two pieces of string 4 cm long. 4. Use a pencil to punch holes at the end of two cartons and both ends of one carton.

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6. Cut a length of string to be the pull rope and attach it to the top of the first carton in the train.

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5. Ask an adult to help you thread and attach the string.

7. Write labels and stick them to the tidy-up train carriages.

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What I’ve learned 1. Give your ‘tidy-up’ train a rating. 2. How could you make it better? R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricgroup.com.au

Hands-on science

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Design a recycling bin

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Designs and constructs a bin which can be used to sort rubbish for recycling.

Materials • Materials that the students request for their bins, such as: cardboard containers (shoeboxes, cereal boxes, milk cartons etc); egg cartons; plastic cups; paper plates; kitchen rolls. • tape, scissors, staplers, pens etc.

Motivate

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Apply

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Experience

• Students work either individually or in small groups to design a bin suited for a student desk or for the class to use in the classroom. • Students complete their plan and have it checked by the teacher before they make their bin.

Review and reflect

• Students complete a science reflection sheet on page ix or the science recount sheet on page xi.

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• When completed, students have a few minutes to present the finished product to the class and explain how their recycling bin works.

Explain

• Lead a walk with the class around the school grounds to study the rubbish. Could a larger version of the bin they created be used in the school playground? Students work together to present a poster describing the recycling bin for the school—what it would look like? How it would work? Most importantly, how it would be emptied and who would empty it?

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• Students complete the first three columns of the ‘Before and after’ sheet (page xiv) to find out what they know and would like to know about recycling.

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Recycling means to use again or to make into something different. Recycling is important as we need to reduce the amount of rubbish that is dumped or make the rubbish that is deposited biodegradable. Biodegradable materials are things that disintegrate easily. Things that aren’t biodegradable take a very long time to disintegrate and are therefore more wasteful.

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• Students complete the final column of their ‘Before and after chart’.

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Today, many homes have two or more bins—one for household rubbish and one for recycling. Examples of objects that can be recycled include: old bottles, paper, tin cans, PET (soft drink bottles), mixed plastics.

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Hands-on science

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Design a recycling bin Task: To design and make a bin to sort rubbish for recycling. What to do 1. Plan your bin.

r o e t s Bo r e on my desk p ok u S in the classroom

What materials will you use?

Draw a sketch of your bin and label the materials used. Include a description of where different types of rubbish should be placed.

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This recycling bin will be used:

Explain how it will work.

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How will you test it?

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2. Make your bin. 3. Present your recycling bin to the class and explain how it works. R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricgroup.com.au

Hands-on science

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Hands-on Science: Ages 6-8