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RIC-6467 5.4/50


Theme 1 – Wet and dry (Ages 10+) Published by R.I.C. Publications® 2007 Copyright© R.I.C. Publications® 2007 ISBN 978-1-74126-670-2 RIC– 6467

Additional titles available in this series: Theme 2 – Democracy (Ages 10 ) Theme 3 – Australian identity (Ages 10+) Theme 4 – Climate changes (Ages 10+) +

Published 2005

Copyright Notice Blackline masters or copy masters are published and sold with a limited copyright. This copyright allows publishers to provide teachers and schools with a wide range of learning activities without copyright being breached. This limited copyright allows the purchaser to make sufficient copies for use within their own education institution. The copyright is not transferable, nor can it be onsold. Following these instructions is not essential but will ensure that you, as the purchaser, have evidence of legal ownership to the copyright if inspection occurs.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Environmental issues (Ages 10+) Natural disasters (Ages 10+) Australian identity (Ages 10+) Rainforests (Ages 10+)

For your added protection in the case of copyright inspection, please complete the form below. Retain this form, the complete original document and the invoice or receipt as proof of purchase.

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This master may only be reproduced by the original purchaser for use with their class(es). The publisher prohibits the loaning or onselling of this master for the purposes of reproduction.

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Internet websites

In some cases, websites or specific URLs may be recommended. While these are checked and rechecked at the time of publication, the publisher has no control over any subsequent changes which may be made to webpages. It is strongly recommended that the class teacher checks all URLs before allowing students to access them.

View all pages online PO Box 332 Greenwood Western Australia 6924

Website: www.ricpublications.com.au Email: mail@ricgroup.com.au


WET AND DRY ENVIRONMENTS FOREWORD Wet and dry environments is one title in a series of eight books designed specifically for upper primary students. Wetlands and deserts are two of the major biomes of the world and are vital to the Earth’s ecosystem. This book will help students develop an in-depth understanding of these ecosystems. Units covered include defining the term ‘wetlands’ and ‘deserts’, detailed studies of the plants and animals that inhabit the rainforest, exploring specific examples of each biome, investigating the people who live in one of these biomes, the impact of humans on these precious biomes and steps being taken to conserve them. The widely-varied activities in this book cross all major learning areas, with particular emphasis given to English, Society and its environment, Science and technology, Personal development/Physical education/Health and The Arts.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S • Antarctica • Natural disasters

• Democracy • Australian identity

CONTENTS

• Climate change • Rainforests

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Titles in this series: • Wet and dry environments • Environmental issues

Teachers notes..............................................................................................................................................................................................................iv – v Wetlands – overview................................................................................................................................................................................................... vi – viii Deserts – overview.......................................................................................................................................................................................................ix – xi Connected outcomes group overviews.................................................................................................................................................................................xii Quiz questions.......................................................................................................................................................................................................... xiii – xxii Quiz answers..........................................................................................................................................................................................................xxiii – xxiv Wetlands........................................................................................1–41

Deserts.........................................................................................43–83

Wetlands cover page...................................................................................1

Deserts cover page...................................................................................43

The nature of wetlands.........................................................................2–5 The nature of wetlands.........................................................................2–4 Wetlands research...................................................................................5

Deserts.............................................................................................44–47 Deserts............................................................................................44–46 Shaping the desert – weathering experiments..........................................47

Valuable wetlands................................................................................6–9 Valuable wetlands................................................................................6–8 The great wetland debate.........................................................................9

Types of deserts...............................................................................48–51 Types of deserts...............................................................................48–50 Deserts of the world...............................................................................51

Adaptations of wetland plants..........................................................10–13 Adaptations of wetland plants...........................................................10–12 Wetland plants rap.................................................................................13

Desert animals..................................................................................52–55 Desert animals.................................................................................52–54 Desert hotel...........................................................................................55

Types of wetland plants....................................................................14–17 Types of wetland plants....................................................................14–16 Wetland plant report...............................................................................17

Desert flora.......................................................................................56–59 Desert flora......................................................................................56–58 Desert plant science...............................................................................59

Wetland animals.............................................................................. 18–21 Wetland animals..............................................................................18–20 Musical mime........................................................................................21

Sahara Desert...................................................................................60–63 Sahara Desert..................................................................................60–62 Saharan tour..........................................................................................63

Amazing wetland animals................................................................22–25 Amazing wetland animals.................................................................22–24 Save the western swamp tortoise!...........................................................25

Bountiful deserts..............................................................................64–67 Bountiful deserts..............................................................................64–66 Jewel of the desert.................................................................................67

Wetland food chains and webs.........................................................26–29 Wetland food chains and webs..........................................................26–28 A wetland food web mobile.....................................................................29

Desert features.................................................................................68–71 Desert features................................................................................68–70 Sand dune science.................................................................................71

Kakadu National Park.......................................................................30–33 Kakadu National Park.......................................................................30–32 The changing seasons............................................................................33

Kalahari Bushmen............................................................................72–75 Kalahari Bushmen............................................................................72–74 Kalahari rock art.....................................................................................75

The Ramsar Convention....................................................................34–37 The Ramsar Convention....................................................................34–36 Promoting wetlands................................................................................37

Saudi Arabia – the Empty Quarter....................................................76–79 Saudi Arabia – the Empty Quarter.....................................................76–78 Desert survival.......................................................................................79

World Wetlands Day..........................................................................38–41 World Wetlands Day.........................................................................38–40 Celebrating World Wetlands Day..............................................................41

Desert conservation..........................................................................80–83 Desert conservation.........................................................................80–82 Ancient desert art...................................................................................83

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TEACHERS NOTES For the purposes of this book, ‘wetlands’ has been chosen as an example of a wet environment and ‘deserts’ has been chosen as an example of a dry environment. This book has been organised into 10 units on wet environments and 10 on dry environments, each of which follow a similar format. Each of the units is divided into four pages: • a teachers page • a student information page • a student comprehension page • a cross-curricular activity An overview for teachers has been included on pages vi–xii, with suggestions for activities to further develop the theme with the whole class or as extension work for abler students.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S TEACHERS PAGE

Indicators state literacy outcomes for reading and comprehending the informational text, and outcomes relating to the cross-curricular student page.

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The teachers page has the following information:

The title of the text is given.

Cross-curricular activities suggest further learning activities to develop the topic in the same, or another, learning area.

Page numbers for quiz questions relating to the section are given in the worksheet information section.

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Worksheet information details any background information required by the teacher for presenting specific details regarding the use of the worksheets.

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Answers are given for all questions, where applicable. Open-ended tasks require the teacher to check the answers.

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Outcome links are given for the particular Society and environment area relating to the topic, English outcomes are given for the comprehension pages and/or the cross-curricular student page; and for activities which fall into other learning areas such as PD/PE/Health, Creative arts, Science and technology.

QUIZ QUESTIONS Quiz questions with answers are provided for each unit on pages xiii to xxiv. The quiz questions are presented in a ‘half-page’ card format for ease of photocopying and may be: – given orally, with students answering on a separate sheet of paper – photocopied and given individually as a written test – combined with the other appropriate pages for the unit(s) as a final assessment of the topic, or – photocopied and used by pairs or groups of students as ‘quick quiz’ activities.

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TEACHERS NOTES Format of student pages: • The first student page is an informational text, written at the student’s level of understanding. Illustrations and diagrams have been included where necessary to assist in understanding of the topic. • The second student page is a comprehension page designed to gauge student understanding of the text. A variety of activities are provided including answering literal, inferential and applied questions, compiling information for a retrieval chart and cloze activities. • The final student page is a cross-curricular activity. Sometimes these activities may fall within the same learning area, such as English.

r o e t s Bo r e p 2o u k S STUDENT PAGES

The title of the section is given. Informational text about the particular topic is provided. Diagrams or maps that assist in explaining the particular topic are included, if relevant.

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Fact file: An interesting fact is included on the second and third student pages to extend knowledge.

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The title reflects the type of activity to be completed. Answers are provided for this page, if needed.

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Comprehension activities are provided to gauge student understanding.

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Fact file: An interesting fact is included on the second and third student pages to extend knowledge.

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OVERVIEW The following cross-curricular activities may aid in developing the theme.

WETLANDS

Mathematics

English • Write a narrative about life in a wetlands environment from the point of view of an animal indigenous to the specified habitat.

• Graph the rainfall in a particular wetland over a period of 12 months.

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• Select a wet environment under threat. Write a letter to the local council stating the problem and provide a possible solution for the issue. Clearly outline how you feel about the issue and the possible implications for the animals and plants that live there.

• Write a poem about bird migration, focusing on the importance of birds having suitable places to stop during their journey. • Create a wetlands explosion chart for display. Explain and illustrate each aspect. Use string to link each aspect back to the central topic. • Compare and contrast three different types of wetland areas.

• Research the area of the world’s wetlands and determine the current yearly rate of destruction. At this rate, how long will it take for them to disappear completely? • Research to determine the percentage of the world’s wetlands that are coastal or inland. • Tally and graph the numbers of different plants found in a wetland area near the school; e.g. reeds, grasses, shrubs, mosses, rushes, trees, flowering plants.

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• Prepare and present a five-minute talk designed to persuade others that wetlands are important, explaining why they need to be preserved.

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• Research facts to support the view that wetlands are important to the economy.

• Rank the continents according to the most and least area of wetlands found.

• Create an equation that requires the use of multiplication and division to solve. Make the answers correspond to letters of the alphabet which, when combined, provide the names of wetlands animals and insects. Give your code to another student to solve.

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• Compile a glossary of words related to wetland environments; e.g. sediment, silt, saturated, anoxic, hydrophyte. (A class quiz, testing the students on the meanings of the words, could then be held.)

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• Create a simple but informative children’s book to describe wetlands. Make it colourful and include lots of friendly wetlands characters. Give it to a younger class to share during story time.

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• Plan and create a bird’s-eye view map of a local wetland area. • Tally and graph animal and plant species that live in and around a particular wetland area.

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• Conduct an interview. One student is the interviewer, the other the interviewee (who is a wetlands plant or animal). Questions and answers must inform the listeners about problems the plant or animal encounters in the wetlands.

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• Often, wetlands are drained for agricultural growth or urban growth. Hold a debate between a person wishing to keep the wetlands and a person pushing for agricultural/ urban growth. • Research evidence to write a speech that encourages other students to value wetlands.

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OVERVIEW The following cross-curricular activities may aid in developing the theme.

WETLANDS

Human society and its environment

Creative arts

• Research Ramsar Convention - protected sites in Australia and show them on a map.

• Use watercolours to paint a wet environment. Which colours are more suited to wet environments?

• Discuss the advantages and disadvantages for people living in wetland environments.

• Role-play a confrontation between a housing estate developer and some concerned people trying to protect and conserve a wetland environment.

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• Write a report on the Mississippi floods of 1993. From your research, do you think that the damage may have been prevented or considerably lessened if the wetlands in those areas had not been destroyed?

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• Dramatise a scenario of a wetland area being destroyed to widen a waterway.

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• Map the major wetland areas of a country of your choice. Include a description of the stability of each area and how it has changed, if at all, through human interference.

• Through percussion music and movement, show how wetland plants slow the rate of water flow in coastal wetland areas.

• Create a labelled map from a bird’s-eye view of a wetland area visited.

• Create a wetlands rap or jingle that explains features found in wetlands, the importance of wetlands or a problem facing wetlands.

• Survey a local wetland area, noting any pollution concerns. Write to the local government or community newspaper voicing the concerns, if any, or praising the upkeep, if positive.

• View photographs of birds in wetland areas such as herons, ducks, flamingos, geese and gulls. Create an artwork of birds in a wetland scene using abstract art techniques with ’dibs and dobs’ of colour.

• Write an informative factual report about the Ramsar Convention.

• Visit a local wetland area. Find a spot and sit and observe for as long as possible. What do you see and hear? Sketch the wetland using art paper and charcoal.

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• Study an archaeologically significant wetland area, such as Lake Mungo, viewing photographs of artefacts such as middens and tools.

• Write a report that explains how people use wetlands; e.g. recreation, education.

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• Use the library and the Internet to find examples of paintings of wetlands in each type of art style: – Chinese/Japanese brush paintings – French impressionists’ paintings – Indigenous artists’ paintings

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• Investigate the connection between wetlands and Greek mythology.

• In a small group, create a movement piece to appropriate music that captures the atmosphere of a day in the life of a wetland area. • Create a collage that shows the different textures of objects or living things found in wetlands.

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OVERVIEW The following cross-curricular activities may aid in developing the theme.

WETLANDS

Science and technology

• Organise a group of people to spend an afternoon cleaning up a wetland environment. • Create an obstacle course situated within a wet environment.

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• Research wetland plants with medicinal properties and select one to describe and draw. • Describe some of the possible health hazards associated with living in some wetland environments. • Hold a debate to argue that all of the world’s remaining wetland areas should be protected.

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• Discuss the consequences of global warming on wet environments. • Research how plants and animals have adapted to a wet environment. • Explain the difference between emergent and submergent plants. • Draw a diagram to show how nitrogen is absorbed in wetlands and changed into a gas. • Research hydrophytes and write a report. • Design an experiment to show how wetland plants can act as filters to purify the water that passes through them. • Construct food chains and food webs for various wetland environments; e.g. marsh, bog, estuary. • Find out how introduced species such as carp or specific aquatic weeds have affected wetlands. • On a large sheet of poster paper, draw a food web showing the animals and insects found in a typical wetland and how they are connected. Choose at least 10 animals to draw and label on the web. • Using scientific terminology, explain how small wetland insects can ‘skate’ across the surface of the water. Which insects? • Create a cross-section diagram showing the different layers of soil that are found in wetlands. • Prepare a pamphlet to promote wetlands and to persuade property developers not to drain and fill them in. • Design a uniform suitable for rangers to wear when investigating a wetland area. You should consider comfort, dryness and weight. • Design and build a portable kit which can be used by scientists to monitor and check the health of wetland areas. • Create a natural history brochure for a particular wetland area. • Using a range of materials, create a 3-D plan of a wetland area. Write a guide to take visitors through the area. • Design and create a diorama of a wetland, such as a mangrove area or a swamp. • Take digital photographs of wetland areas visited. Create a display and label with information. • Visit a local wetlands or study one particular wetland area on the Internet. Design a ‘wetland walk’ for the wetland area. Include: the design of a walk through the wetland, including measurements and materials used; plants and animals seen at particular points; signs to be constructed at important points—what will they say?; cost to go on walk; brochure to advertise the walk. • Research to find out how Aboriginal people made tools in archaeologically significant wetlands such as Wyrie Swamp.

Personal development, Health and Physical education

• Design a poster which includes a list of safety precautions to take when visiting a wetland area.

• Invite a guest speaker, such as a ranger who works in a wetland or someone from an environmental organisation, to talk about problems concerning the conservation of wetland areas. Questions could be prepared beforehand. • Brainstorm and list health and safety requirements students should take on an excursion to a wetland; e.g. insect repellent, comfortable walking shoes, sunscreen, first aid kit.

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• Use the Internet to find out which of Australia’s wetlands are of important cultural value to Aboriginal Australians. • Draw a flow chart to show how wetlands provide a natural waste water treatment function.

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• Research diseases associated with wetlands (i.e. West Nile Fever from the River Nile, Egypt).

• Design a tourist brochure that promotes an environmentally friendly visit to a wetland.

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OVERVIEW The following cross-curricular activities may aid in developing the theme.

DESERTS

English • Write a shape poem about a dry environment. • Write a narrative that describes a race across a desert. Include: What is the purpose of the race? What wildlife do you encounter? What adventures do you have? Where do you find water?

• Research and compare the areas of continents which have large areas of dry habitat. Which continent has the largest area of dry land? Which continent has the smallest area of dry land?

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• Choose one well-known desert and create an information poster about it. Include a fact file, animal and plant inhabitants and artwork. Make it eye-catching!

• Based on Internet research, write a narrative with the title ‘Survival in the desert’. • Write haiku or kenning poems about the harsh desert environment.

• Create a deserts explosion chart for display. Explain and illustrate each aspect. Use string to link each aspect back to the central topic. • Compare and contrast two different types of dry environments.

• Identify times of the year when desert temperatures are at their hottest. • Create and conduct a survey to find out your school’s favourite desert animal. Present the results as a graph and display them in a communal area. • Create a ‘Race across the desert’ board game. To move across the board, students must be able to find equivalent fractions for the fraction written on the square they land on. Fractions can be mixed or improper. Create a set of challenge cards for your game.

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Mathematics

• Graph the amount of rainfall received in a particular desert area and for the area in which you live. Compare the graphs. This could also be repeated with temperature range. • Calculate as a percentage how much of Australia is desert.

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• View pictures of wet and dry environments. Draw up a chart to show the similarities and differences between the two types of environments. Consider the environment, flora, fauna and weather patterns. • Compile a speech for a debate on the topic: ‘Resources should be made available to change deserts to more habitable environments’.

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• Students compile a set of answers to questions about deserts. Other students have to compose a suitable question for each answer.

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• In a small group, devise a written or oral quiz of facts about desert environments for other groups to answer.

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• Research to determine the area of the world’s deserts. Draw a pie chart to show what percentage is covered by each of the four main types of desert: hot and dry, semi-arid, coastal, cold.

• Graph the monthly average daytime maximum and nighttime minimum temperatures of a desert over one year. • Compare and contrast rainfall and minimum and maximum temperatures in various wet and dry environments. How do they differ? Is it what you would expect?

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• Write an exposition about the exploitation of desert environments for mineral and energy resources.

• Compile a list of mathematical facts about desert regions; e.g. the Atacama Desert in Chile is the driest desert in the world, with 10 mm of rainfall (on average) per year.

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• Order the major deserts of the world from largest to smallest, giving the area in square metres.

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OVERVIEW The following cross-curricular activities may aid in developing the theme.

DESERTS

Human society and its environment • Research the process of desertification. Display findings as a poster with illustrations to explain the process. Include a map to show where the main areas of desertification are and data/ graphs of rate of change.

• Use dry brush techniques to paint a dry environment. Which colours are more suited to dry environments? • Go on a ‘rock hunt’ for rocks suitable for painting on. Students choose a plant or an animal found in the desert and lightly sketch and then paint images of their choice on the rocks. Create a desert scene in the classroom and add the rock art.

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• Investigate the possible impact of climate change on desert ecosystems. • Plan a trip which includes in all of the world’s major desert regions. Record your route on a world map and list all the countries and their capital cities that you passed through. • Choose one desert region and present a report on the communities of people who live there.

• Create a detailed map of your country showing areas of wet environments in green and dry environments in yellow. • Create a collage of a wet environment and a dry environment by collecting pictures of and textures from each environment. Discuss the differences between the two. • Construct a table to summarise information about flora, fauna, weather patterns and environmental features of wet and dry environments.

• Read legends from desert cultures and then write your own as a playscript. • Use sand and other natural materials to create a desert landscape picture.

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Creative arts

• Use a collection of natural materials to create a model of an oasis.

• Use movement and percussion music to create a visual representation of how crude oil is extracted from an oil well in a desert environment.

• Compare and contrast artworks by Frederick McCubbin and Claude Monet. Discuss the different types of environments predominantly painted by each artist. Express your ideas as to why each artist selected the particular type of environment.

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• On a map of the world pinned to a display board, label the major deserts. Using a drawing pin and wool, link each desert to a card on the edge of the display board. Add interesting facts about each desert on the cards. • Investigate how people travel through desert regions, including modifications to vehicles and safety precautions; for example, the use of camels (ships of the desert), checking the other side of sand dunes before driving over.

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• Create a soundscape for a wet environment and one for a dry environment. How do they differ? What instruments can be used for each environment? • Imagine you are a guide at a zoo. Find two pictures—one of a wetlands animal and one of a desert animal. Pin them to boards. Take a group of ‘zoo visitors’ on a walk around the ‘zoo’ and when reaching the animals, give a talk about each one. Think about the types of information people like to know about the animals they see at the zoo.

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• The inhabitants of some areas, such as Coober Pedy, who are in extreme heat all year, have opted to live underground to stay cool. Find out about other interesting housing solutions used in wet or dry environments.

• Role-play a variety of desert scenarios: – caught in a dust storm

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– negotiating your way through cactus or prickly pear plants – desperately searching for water and finally reaching an oasis

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OVERVIEW The following cross-curricular activities may aid in developing the theme.

DESERTS

Science and technology

• Make a brochure to outline safety and survival procedures for travelling in the desert. • Create a poster of desert health tips for tourists travelling to desert areas. Include tips on preventing dehydration, first aid for bites, cactus injuries, sun safety and car safety etc.

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• Draw labelled diagrams to show how extremes of temperature, such as those which occur in desert environments, affect the human body. • Investigate the three elements of survival in a harsh environment – food, water and shelter – and compile a list of statistics to present as a poster.

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• Experiment with ways to collect drinkable water in desert environments for survival purposes. • Identify the effects of evaporation on plants and animals which make dry environments their home. • Create a safety kit which travellers can take with them when travelling through desert areas. • Design a home which would be well suited to desert living. • As deserts occur when evaporation greatly exceeds rainfall, students design an experiment to show how quickly water evaporates in warm temperatures. Conduct the experiment and display the results. • Compile lists of scientific statistics about different deserts and compare. • Read about different adaptations of desert animals from different continents. • Research to find a simple method for making crystals. Follow the method and write it as a procedure. • Research to find the five essential conditions for naturally occurring crystal formation. Explain how crystals of different types and colours are formed. • Write a report to describe how reservoirs of oil were created. Refer to geological forces and the remains of organic matter. • Devise an experiment to show how deserts are created or oases are formed. • Create a retrieval chart to show how various desert plants and animals adapt to the hot, dry environment. • Explain the difference between a cold and a hot desert. • Investigate how major advances in technology in the 20th and 21st centuries have enabled the desert city of Dubai in the United Arab Emirates to become a tourist mecca. • Investigate why the Middle East, a region with many deserts, supplies much of the world’s oil. • Design a suitable outfit for travelling in the desert. Label its features. • Create a natural history brochure for a particular desert area. • Using a range of materials, create a 3-D plan of a desert area. Write a guide to take visitors through the area. • Use a drawing/painting program and clip art to create and colour a computer-generated picture of a desert landscape. Label features using a suitable font and print the finished product for mounting and display. • Research and compile a list of suitable websites for accessing information about desert landscapes. Rate them in order from reputable and most reliable, to least authoritative sites. • Research the Internet for suitable websites which offer interactive visits to a desert environment. • Create a suitable display sign using an appropriate computer program to accompany a report or piece of artwork. • Use the Internet to research and collate statistics about the amount of desert environments utilised for the collection of minerals and energy resources.

Personal development, Health and Physical education

• Design a poster to show the signs of heat exhaustion and how they can be prevented. • Create a menu for a desert snack bar. Explain why you have chosen each type of food and drink. • Compile a table showing the advantages and disadvantages of living in the desert as opposed to another selected type of environment. Write concluding statements to illustrate that all types of environments should be valued for their uniqueness.

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• Using a set of available equipment, such as bats, balls, station markers, ropes etc., groups of students devise a simple game, with rules, to utilise batting, hitting and running skills. Students should devise an appropriate name for their game such as ‘Race the desert sandstorm’ or ‘Survive the heat’ etc.

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• In small groups, students develop a sequence of gymnastics or fundamental movement skills which illustrate the habits of desert plants or animals. When ‘perfected’, students should perform these for the other groups in the class.

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• Create new names for well-known games for younger students such as ‘Lizard, lizard, scorpion’ (‘Duck, duck, goose’) etc. and enlist classes of younger students to work with groups of older students to learn and play new versions of the familiar games. • With a partner, research to find out about an environmental issue such as desertification (degradation of formerly productive land) and what can be done to prevent it. Present a report to the class. • Research the effects a dust storm or becoming dehydrated can have on a person’s body.

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CONNECTED OUTCOMES GROUP OVERVIEWS English

Human society and its environment

Science and technology

Creative Arts

PD/PE/Health

Other

2–5

6–9

10–13

14–17

18–21

Teac he r

Pages

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30–33

34–37

38–41

42–45

46–49

Mathematics –

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58–61

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66–69

70–73

74–77

78–81

54–57

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QUIZ – THE NATURE OF WETLANDS

Pages 2–5

1 Where in the world can wetlands be found? 2 Why are some animals attracted to wetland areas? 3 Tick the correct answer. (a) Mangrove swamps are

freshwater

saltwater

wetlands.

wetlands.

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(b) Tidal changes affect

inland

coastal

4 Water for wetlands come from

Teac he r

and

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5 What are riparian wetlands?

6 Name three places where inland wetlands may be found.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons –r VALUABLE WETLANDS 6–9 •QUIZ f o r ev i ew pur posesonPages l y•

w ww

2 Fill the gaps to complete the sentence. Wetland e

. te

(a)

contribute to the b

m . u

1 Give three reasons why, in the past, wetland land has been reclaimed.

(b)

of nature.

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3 Answer as ‘true’ or ‘false’.

(a) As plants and animals die, wetland waters putrefy. . ............................................... (b) Soil from flood waters is trapped by wetland plants. . ............................................. (c) Absorbing more pollutants makes wetlands better water filters. ............................. 4 Write the correct word in the box to finish the sentence. waves cyclones power

Coastal wetlands protect the coast from erosion caused by tidal

hurricanes

currents .

5 Explain briefly why wetlands are important.

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QUIZ – ADAPTATIONS OF WETLAND PLANTS

Pages 10–13

1 What is the name given to a plant that lives in water or moist soil? 2 (a) What is the main problem that a wetland plant has to cope with? (b) Briefly explain one adaptation a wetland plant uses to overcome this problem. 3 (a) A halophyte is

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

(b) Briefly describe one adaptation of a halophyte.

4 What is one way wetland plants have adapted their seeds?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons QUIZ TYPES OFr WETLAND PLANTS Pages 14–17 •–f or evi e w pur poses on l y• Example:

Name:

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(b) floats on top of the water

Name:

. te

Example:

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(c) has its roots underwater but extends above water

Name:

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1 Write the names given to each type of wetland plant and give an example. (a) has one main trunk or stem that is often buttressed

Example:

(d) grows almost entirely underwater

Name:

Example:

2 Briefly describe what the ‘knees’ of a cypress are and their use. 3 Explain two ways wetland plants assist wetland animals. xiv

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QUIZ – WETLAND ANIMALS

Pages 18–21

1 Name a way an insect could survive in a dried up wetland. 2 Answer as ‘true’ or ‘false’. (a) You would find crustaceans living in a wetland........................................................ (b) All animals only live in a wetland on a temporary basis............................................

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

(c) A wetland contains a large variety of animal species................................................ (d) The heron is a type of wetland bird.......................................................................... 3 Which adaptation do water striders have that helps them to travel across the surface of water?

4 Migratory birds use wetlands for

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

and

5 Give two reasons why some wetland animals are endangered. •

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons –r AMAZING WETLAND Pages 22–25 •QUIZ f o r ev i ewANIMALS pur poseson l y •

1 The jabiru is the only

native to Australia.

2 Tick the correct sentence endings.

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The western swamp tortoise is … critically endangered.

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very common.

m . u

.

found in WA and SA.

o c . che e r o t r s super

about 1.5 metres long.

Australia’s smallest tortoise.

3 What is the wingless young of a dragonfly called?

4 Where does a male jabiru build its nest?

5 Name two animals that western swamp tortoises eat. 6 What length of time can an adult dragonfly live for?

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xv


QUIZ – WETLAND FOOD CHAINS AND WEBS

Pages 26–29

1 Give an example of a top predator. 2 Which of these is a primary producer? (a) frog

(b) fungi

(c) algae

3 What three things do plants need to survive? (a)

(b)

(c)

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4 What is the term used for levels in a food chain?

(a)

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Teac he r

5 What two living things combine to make a food chain?

(b)

6 Primary consumers are generally

.

7 Tertiary consumers are generally

.

8 What is the role of a decomposer?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons KAKADU NATIONAL PARK Pages 30–33 •f o rr e vi ew pur poses on l y•

1 Which group of animals is the most common in the Kakadu area?

(b) birds

(c) reptiles

(d) fish

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2 Who sent spirit children into the area now known as Kakadu? 3 Answer as ‘true’ or ‘false’.

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(e) invertebrates

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(a) mammals

(a) 140 million years ago, the area of Kakadu looked exactly as it does today. .............

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(b) The southern hills and basins are of volcanic origin. ...............................................

(c) Tidal flats reach approximately 10 km inland. ......................................................... (d) Kakadu National Park lies to the west of Darwin. .................................................... (e) The land in Kakadu is as old as the Earth itself. ...................................................... 4 Which type of scientist mentioned in the text uses carbon dating? 5 What type of recreational activity is closely monitored in Kakadu National Park?

7 Aboriginal people have lived in the Kakadu area for at least

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6 How many plant species are considered rare, vulnerable or unfamiliar to botanists in Kakadu National park?

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years.

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QUIZ – THE RAMSAR CONVENTION

Pages 34–37

1 When was the Ramsar Convention originally approved? 2 How often does the Conference of Contracting Parties meet? 3 How many nations took part in the meeting in Ramsar? 4 Where is the comvention’s committee based? 5 Name two different types of wetlands.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

6 What is one of the five things that countries joining the Ramsar Convention have to agree to do?

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

7 What were the people who set up the Ramsar Convention most concerned about?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons –r WORLD WETLANDS Pages 38–41 •QUIZ f o r ev i ewDAY pur poseson l y •

2 Why is it held in this month?

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3 The theme for 2007 was ‘Wetlands and fisheries’. What was the slogan?

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1 In which month is World Wetlands Day held?

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4 What World Wetlands Day activity happened in a kahikatea swamp forest?

5 Why have boardwalks been built in some wetlands? 6 What does the Ramsar Secretariat do to help people who want to organise an event? www.ricpublications.com.au

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QUIZ – DESERTS

Pages 44–47

1 Tick the correct word to complete the sentences. (a) A desert has little or no evaporation

vegetation

erosion

.

(b) To be classified a desert, an area must have less than 250 millimetres of rain or snow per year.

centimetres

(c) The Great Sandy Desert is located south of the equator in Angola

Austria

Australia

s

2 A desert located near a mountain range is called a r

metres

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

.

desert.

3 Tick the statements that are correct.

(a) The drastic change in temperature from day to night can make survival in the desert challenging.........

Teac he r

(b) Most deserts are found at the poles because the sun is directly overhead...............................................

4 Most deserts are composed of rocky features, sand and s

d

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(c) Rock falls and rock slides are common in deserts due to a process called weathering............................

.

5 A place in a desert where plants have grown from water within the Earth which has risen to the surface .

is called an

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons QUIZ TYPES OFr DESERTS Pages 48–51 •–f or evi ew pur poses on l y• ,s

c

,f

and f

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2 Tick which type of deserts these animals habitat. (a) frogs........................coastal

. te

(c) camel..........coastal 3 Finish each sentence.

or cold

(b) seal............... polar

m . u

1 Four ways in which desert environments can vary from each other are:

or rain-shadow

o c . che e r o t r s super or sub-tropical

.

(d) llama......................polar

or coastal

(a) In sub-tropical deserts, the heat from the day escapes into the atmosphere at night causing

temperatures to rapidly

.

(b) With extreme winter temperatures, precipitation in cold deserts is in the form of

(c) Fog occurs above coastal deserts when cold winds collide with the warm air above the 4 Two types of plants that can survive in polar deserts are: m 5 An example of a rain shadow desert is the G

and f

. . .

Desert in China.

6 What type of deserts are generally found in Australia?

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QUIZ – DESERT ANIMALS

Pages 52–55

1 Write the name of one country where each of these animals is found. Bilby Dama gazelle Desert tortoise

2 Name one predator of the bilby. 3 Answer as ‘true’ or ‘false’.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

(a) Desert tortoises live in burrows. . ............................................................................ (b) There are about 20 000 dama gazelles left in the wild. ........................................... (c) Bilbies are closely related to rabbits. . .....................................................................

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Teac he r

(d) Dama gazelles eat meat. ........................................................................................ 4 List three different adaptations animals have developed to cope with desert conditions.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons –r DESERT Pages 56–59 •QUIZ f o r eFLORA vi ew pur poseson l y •

. te

m . u

w ww

1 Answer as ‘true’ or ‘false’. (a) Desert plants can store water in their leaves, roots or stems. ................................. (b) Most desert plants have shallow root systems. ....................................................... (c) Plants with large, thin leaves survive well in deserts. .............................................. (d) Prickly pear is a type of cactus. .............................................................................. (e) Some plants carry out photosynthesis at night. . .....................................................

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2 Complete the sentences.

(a) After heavy rain, the seeds of some plants germinate but the plants

.

(b) In order to not be eaten by animals, some plants

. and

(c) Two groups of desert plants are

.

(d) Two types of cactuses are

and

. .

(e) Cactuses are

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QUIZ – SAHARA DESERT

Pages 60–63

1 Name two countries the Sahara Desert covers parts of. 2 The Sahara Desert is the world’s

desert.

3 What is an ‘erg’?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

4 Tick the correct answer to complete each statement.

Teac he r

(a) Today, about 20 000

200 000

2 million

people live in the Sahara Desert.

drier than

wetter than

the same as

ew i ev Pr

(b) About 6000 years ago, the Saharan climate was

today.

(c) The most common form of transport in the Sahara Desert is the car (d) The word ‘Sahara’ comes from an Arabic word meaning desert

camel hot

horse

dry

.

.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons QUIZ BOUNTIFUL DESERTS Pages 64–67 •–f orr e vi ew pur poses on l y•

w ww

2 For each location, circle how the mineral would be mined.

m . u

1 Give a definition of mining.

(a) sandwiched as veins in hard rock . ............................................................. open-cut / underground

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(b) close to the surface .................................................................................... open-cut / underground

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(c) deep in the earth’s surface ......................................................................... open-cut / underground 3 (a) Which was the first mineral to be mined in Australia?

(b) In what year was this mineral first mined in Australia? 4 (a) Name two other metals mined in Australia. (b) Name three gemstones mined in Australia.

5 Name the two deserts, and their geographical locations, that contain a vast amount of the world’s oil reserves.

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QUIZ – DESERT FEATURES

1 Sand covers between

Pages 68–71

% and

% of the world’s hot deserts.

2 An isolated flat-topped mountain or hill in a desert can be called a or a

.

3 Where does the water in an oasis originate from?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

4 What is a ‘sand sea’?

The majority of a desert is made up of four main features. These are:

oases

gravelly plains

grasslands

alluvial fans

dry stream channels

barchan dunes

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

5 Tick the correct answers.

rocky landforms; like mountains

dry lake beds

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons –r KALAHARI BUSHMEN Pages 72–75 •QUIZ f o r ev i ew pur poseson l y •

1 In which continent is the Kalahari Desert?

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. te

3 Why don’t many people like the name ‘Bushman’?

m . u

2 Why have so many films, documentaries, books and articles been produced about Kalahari Bushmen?

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4 What did traditional Bushmen eat?

5 What did the Bushmen hunt with? 6 Why don’t Kalahari Bushmen have leaders? www.ricpublications.com.au

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SAUDI ARABIA – THE EMPTY QUARTER

Pages 76–79

1 Who was the first Englishman to cross the Empty Quarter? 2 Which explorer travelled … (a) north to south? (b) south to north?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

3 What did the Wabar meteorite do to the area it struck?

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

4 What did Philby discover while travelling through the desert? 5 Answer as ‘true’ or ‘false’.

(a) Thomas managed to avoid the sand storms.............................................................

(b) Philby started his journey in Al-Hufuf.......................................................................

(c) Both explorers completed their journey during the winter months............................ (d) Water was plentiful through the explorers’ journeys.................................................

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons QUIZ DESERT Pages 80–83 •–f orCONSERVATION r evi ew pur poses on l y•

1 Answer as ‘true’ or ‘false’.

m . u

w ww

(a) Conservation helps to preserve unique plant and animal species. (b) Desert regions need to be conserved because they are a valuable resource for tourism and recreation.

(c) Cultures of desert people have no connection to conservation of desert regions.

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(d) Desert environments have no affect on advances in technology. 2 Answer ‘yes’ or ‘no’.

(a) Education programs develop awareness of desert environments. (b) Some desert areas have been developed as conservation parks. (c) Rules and regulations for using desert regions are helpful. (d) Conservation groups have no impact on desert plant species. (e) Desert conservation groups receive lots of government funding.

(f) Desert artwork and photography can encourage people to conserve desert regions.

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QUIZ ANSWERS

The nature of wetlands...................2–5

Wetland animals ........................ 18–21

6. 97

1. Wetlands can be found all over the world except for Antarctica.

1. They could burrow under the surface of the mud or become dormant.

7. 50 000

2. Animals are attracted to wetland areas by the food they provide.

2. (a) true (b) false (c) true (d) true

The Ramsar Convention ............ 34–37

3. (a) salt water (b) coastal

3. foot pads

2. every three years

4. below the surface and precipitation

4. feeding, resting

3. 18

5. Riparian wetlands are those found inland along rivers and streams.

5. habitat destruction and invasion of introduced animals

4. Switzerland

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

6. Inland wetlands may be found along rivers and streams; in isolated sunken areas surrounded by dry land; around the edges of lakes.

Valuable wetlands.......................... 6–9 1. farming, forestry, construction 2. (a) ecosystems (b) biodiversity

Amazing wetland animals...........22–25 1. stork

2. ‘Critically endangered’ and ‘Australia’s smallest tortoise’ should be ticked. 3. a nymph 4. high in a tree

5. Answers may include: marshes, coral reefs, temporary pools, underground caves, and man-made habitats.

6. One of the following: nominate one site, protect their sites, make wetland conservation part of their land-use planning, establish nature reserves and promote education or consult with other members.

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Teac he r

1. 1975

5. Answers should include two of the following: tadpoles, crustaceans, insect larvae and worms.

7. habitat for migratory birds as well as waterbirds

5. Include: provide habitat for plant and animal species, reduce impact of flooding, purify water by absorbing pollutants and protecting from tidal movements.

6. A maximum of four months.

World Wetlands Day....................38–41

Adaptations of wetland plants ......................................... 10–13

2. (c) algae

3. (a) false (b) true (c) false 4. power

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

2. (a) living in soil/water that has little oxygen (b) Teacher check

1. crocodile

2. The Ramsar Convention was signed 2 February 1971.

3. Fish for tomorrow

4. There was an escorted field trip through the swamp forest.

3. (a) sunshine (b) water (c) nutrients

5. Boardwalks were built to make it easier for people to visit wetlands and to protect the ecology of the area.

4. trophic level 5. (a) plants

1. February

(b) animals

m . u

1. a hydrophyte

Wetland food chains and webs......................................26–29

3. (a) a plant that can live in salty water (b) Teacher check

6. herbivores

4. can remain dormant in flooded conditions/seeds can float/seeds don’t become saturated

7. carnivores

6. The Ramsar Secretariat has information on its website and it provides free World Wetlands Day materials for people to use.

8. They break down dead animals to return the nutrients to the soil or water.

Deserts.........................................44–47

Types of wetland plants .............14–17

Kakadu National Park..................30–33

1. (a) tree; example: Teacher check (b) floater; example: Teacher check (c) emergent; example: Teacher check (d) submergent; example: Teacher check

1. (e) invertebrates

1. (a) vegetation (b) millimetres (c) Australia

2. Mother of the Earth

2. Rain shadow desert

3. (a) false (b) true (c) false (d) false (e) false

3. (a) and (c)

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2. The ‘knees’ are knobby extensions from its roots that protrude above water, believed to provide extra oxygen to the roots. 3. They can be a food source and can provide a habitat. www.ricpublications.com.au

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4. archaeologists 5. recreational fishing

4. sand dunes 5. oases Types of deserts...........................48–51 1. climate, soil, flora and fauna

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QUIZ ANSWERS

Bountiful deserts ........................64–67

2. (a) frogs – coastal (b) seal – polar (c) camel – subtropical (d) llama – coastal

1. The extraction of naturally occurring minerals in the form of solid, a liquid or gas.

3. (a) drop or fall (b) snow (c) land

2. (a) underground (b) open-cut (c) underground

4. moss and fungi

3. (a) lead (b) 1841

5. Gobi Desert in China

Desert animals.............................52–55

Desert conservation....................80–83

Dama gazelle – Chad, Niger or Mali;

(b) opal, sapphire, diamond

5. Sahara Desert in North Africa Arabian Desert in the Middle East

Desert features............................68–71

Desert tortoise – Mexico or USA

1. 10, 20

2. feral cat, fox or rabbit

1. (a) true (b) true (c) false (d) false

2. (a) yes (b) yes (c) yes (d) no (e) no (f) yes

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Teac he r

1. Bilby – Australia;

5. (a) false (b) true (c) true (d) false

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S 4. (a) Choose from: silver, copper, gold, uranium, tin, zinc and iron.

6. Subtropical deserts

4. he discovered insects, birdlife, pottery, arrow heads, that the climate had been different in the past and the Wabar meteorite crater

2. mesa, butte

3. (a) true (b) false (c) false (d) false

3. Rain or snowfall from faraway mountains which has seeped into the ground.

4. Answers will vary, but should include three of the following: able to obtain moisture from food; drinking rain wherever possible; able to survive long periods without drinking water; eating the juiciest leaves of a plant; sheltering in burrows; hunting at night; long ears

4. A large group of sand dunes.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 5. gravelly plains, rocky landforms like mountains, dry lake beds, dry stream channels

1. Africa 2. They look different and people think they are interesting.

w ww

1. (a) true (b) false (c) false (d) true (e) true

Kalahari Bushmen.......................72–75

2. (a) grow and die quickly/have a short life cycle (b) grow spikes (c) cactus, grasses (d) barrel cactus, prickly pear or saguaro (e) succulents

. te

3. They think it means the people are from the bush and not as good as others.

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Sahara Desert..............................60–63 1. Answers must include two of the following: Morocco, Mauritania, Mali, Algeria, Tunisia, Niger, Chad, Sudan, Libya or Egypt. 2. largest hot

4. They ate wild animals and food like roots and tubers they gathered from the countyside. 5. They hunted with small bows and used arrows dipped in poison 6. They lived in small groups, shared everything and made decisions together.

Saudi Arabia – the Empty Quarter........................76–79 1. Bertram Thomas

3. A shifting sand sea in the desert.

2. (a) Harry St John Philby (b) Bertram Thomas

4. (a) 2 million (c) camel

3. left a large crater; blackened the sand; turned the sand to glass

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(b) wetter (d) desert

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m . u

Desert flora................................. 56–59

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p u S

ok ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Wetlands r o e t s Bo r e

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. te

www.ricpublications.com.au

m . u

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THE NATURE OF WETLANDS Indicators

Answers

• Reads and answers questions about the physical and chemical nature of wetlands.

Page 4 1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

• Compares and contrasts two types of wetland.

Worksheet information

2. Choose from: climate, shape of landscape (topography), rock type, soil type, movement of water, source of water, amount of water

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

3. salinity – caused by sea water; Movement – caused by tidal changes 4. (a) coastal

(b) Halophytic means ‘salt-loving’ and coastal wetlands have saline waters.

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Teac he r

• Wetlands, which make up about 6% of the world’s land mass, are one of the most biodiverse environments on the planet, third only to rainforests and coral reefs. They occur when the level of water is at or close to the land surface or when land is covered by surface water no deeper than two metres. Not all wetlands are permanently wet. Many experience a wet/dry cycle which can vary in length depending on seasonal change and periods of drought and heavy rainfall. They support a vast range of plant and animal species that have adapted to living in these conditions.

wetland land surface ecosystem variety

• Some wetlands were formed about 10 000 years ago at the end of the last ice age. As the glaciers retreated, they left depressions in the ground which allowed water to accumulate. In other areas, as ice buried within the ground melted, the water remained in place and wetlands were created. Wetlands are also formed by any action that leaves the land water-logged; for example, heavy rain leading to poor drainage and landslides.

5. Students must show: tidal mudflat occurs where a river meets the open water; tidal salt marsh along the river close to the estuary; tidal freshwater wetland further upriver than the tidal salt marsh

• Succession is the process of change that occurs within a wetland ecosystem. For example, the detritus of surface plants on a lake gradually reduces the lake’s depth and increases the viscosity of the water, reducing its rate of movement. Plants, such as reeds, that are adapted to living in the water but need to anchor their roots in the ground, can now do so. As the decaying plant matter continues to build up, the lake evolves into a wetland. By the same process, the wetland eventually clogs up and dries out, becoming dry land.

Cross-curricular activities

Page 5 Teacher check

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

• Research to find major wetland areas in different parts of the world; for example, the Everglades in Florida. Label the areas on a world map.

• Research to determine the percentage of the world’s wetlands that are coastal and inland. • Research and present a written project on the Tollund Man.

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2

m . u

• Quiz questions relating to this section can be found on page xiii.

o c . che e r o t r s super

SOSE

English

NSW

ENS3.5

RS3.5, WS3.9

Vic.

SOGE0401

ENRE0401, ENRE0404

WA

PS4.1

R4.1, R4.4, W4.4

SA

3.5/4.5

3.5, 4.5, 3.7, 4.7, 3.8, 4.8

Qld

PS4.1

Refer to curriculum documents on <http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au>

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THE NATURE OF WETLANDS – 1 Wetlands are areas of land that are covered or partially covered with water and the depth of the water is no more than two metres and the land is in this state for at least part of the year. salt tolerant (halophytic) vegetation are a common sight. Tidal freshwater wetlands are formed further upriver, beyond the salt marshes, where the salt water does not reach.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

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Inland wetlands are found along rivers and streams (riparian wetlands), in isolated sunken areas surrounded by dry land and around the edges of lakes. In some wetlands, such as bogs and fens, the water and soil levels are very close and applying pressure on the land results in the soil level A wetland ecosystem can be home to a vast array of depressing and the water level rising. The best species of microorganisms, water loving (hydrophytic) footwear for walking in such areas are gum boots! plants, insects, amphibians, reptiles, birds, fish and The table shows some of the different types of mammals. There are many different types of wetlands wetlands, divided between two main groups. and they are found in inland and coastal areas all over the world, except for Antarctica. Coastal wetlands Inland wetlands

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons bog mangrove swamp coastal marsh fen •f orr evi ew pur po s e s o n l y • salt marsh moor tidal mudflat lagoon

marsh swamp

m . u

The variety of wetlands occur because of physical and chemical characteristics, such as climate, shape of the landscape (topography), rock and soil type, and the movement and amount of water. The source of water, from below the surface or from precipitation (rain and snow), is also important. All these differences influence the type of plant and animal species that may be found in a particular wetland and so determine its food web. The food available in a wetland attracts animals that use the area for at least part of their life cycle.

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Artificial wetlands have been constructed to duplicate the processes which occur in natural wetlands. The main purpose of these wetlands is to improve water quality While a wetland is an independent ecosystem, because and prevent flooding and the of its position at the border of dry land and a water erosion of topsoil which can environment such as a lake, river or sea, it can also occur with heavy rains. support species from each of these environments.

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Flowing coastal wetlands are found at river estuaries where fresh river water blends with salty sea water, creating areas that vary in salinity. The salt water, and its varying levels due to tidal changes, make this a hostile environment for most plant species and so many coastal wetlands are sand or mudflats lacking in vegetation. However, some grasses have adapted to the saline conditions and form tidal salt marshes along the river where tidal changes are less dramatic. In tropical climates, coastal mangrove swamps with

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THE NATURE OF WETLANDS – 2 Use the text on page 3 to complete the following. 1. Use the words in the box to fill the gaps. The water in a

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and is very close to the

area covers or partially covers 3

A wetland

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for all or part of the year.

can support an immense

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of life.

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2. Name three features that create differences between wetlands.

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3. What are the two main features of the water of coastal wetlands and why do they occur? Reason

4. (a) In which group of wetlands would you find halophytic plants? Tick your answer.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons (b) Explain your choice of answer. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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5. Draw a sketch of a river estuary and show where you would find a tidal mudflat, a tidal salt marsh and a tidal freshwater wetland.

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Hydrology is the study of water on the land or under the Earth’s surface.

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WETLANDS RESEARCH 1. Choose one type of wetland from each group and research it using the Internet and other sources to find information to complete the table. Characteristics

Coastal wetland

Inland wetland

Climatic region

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Shape of landscape

Rock type

Soil type

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2. Use the information you have found to deliver a short oral presentation. In May 1950, the preserved body of a 4th-century Iron Age man was discovered in Denmark in a peat bog. He is known as the Tollund Man. www.ricpublications.com.au

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VALUABLE WETLANDS Indicators

Answers

• Reads and answers questions about the importance of wetlands in the global environment.

Page 8 1. (a) Choose from: widening rivers to accommodate increased river traffic; reclaiming the land for: farming; forestry; construction

• Prepares arguments for a debate about the importance of conserving the world’s wetlands.

Worksheet information • A lack of understanding by humans of the value of wetlands has been the ecosystems greatest threat. They are now recognised as being an ecosystem with an essential role within the global environment and also as an important resource for recreation, education and science.

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• Wetlands act like a sponge when storm and flood waters increase the size of rivers, turning them from relatively calm bodies of water to raging torrents. By holding the surplus water, they give it a chance to percolate through the soil before flowing on more gently. This reduces the likelihood of the river breaking its banks and causing damage downstream.

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• In the past, wetlands have been a regular source of water for many dry areas but this availability has been reduced as the natural processes of the wetlands have been affected by human impact. In some areas, water deficiency has been relieved by using artesian water, a naturally occurring underground water supply.

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2. Should include: A living community requires a range of plant and animal species within its food web so that any one species is not totally dependent on another. For a species to be successful, it needs to have more than one food source. The importance of one species in the food web of another species varies depending on its availability.

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Cross-curricular activities • Create a working model to show how riparian wetlands can reduce the impact of flooding.

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• While wetlands are good water filters, they cannot solve pollution problems because their capacity to absorb pollutants is reduced with each mass of pollutants they absorb. Examples of such pollutants include heavy metals such as cadmium, copper and lead and pathogenic (disease forming) bacteria and viruses. As these pollutants accumulate in the wetland’s plants and soils, they can seriously affect the health of wildlife as they penetrate the food web. In areas where wetlands are conserved and not at risk from pollutants, up to 90% of sediment can be removed from water passing through wetlands.

• Design a science experiment to show how some materials act as better filters than others. Test a range of natural and synthetic materials. • Research to find information on disasters which supports the view that wetlands are important in the global environment.

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SOSE

English

NSW

ENS3.5

RS3.5, WS3.9

Vic.

SOGE 0401

ENSL 0402, ENRE 0401, ENRE 0404, ENWR 0402

WA

NSS4.1

R4.1,R4.2, W4.2, LS4.3

SA

3.1, 4.1, 3.2, 4.2, 3.4, 4.4, 3.5, 4.5, 3.6, 4.6

3.7, 4.7, 3.8, 4.8

Qld

SRP4.5

Refer to curriculum documents on <http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au>

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VALUABLE WETLANDS – 1 In the past, the value of wetlands was not appreciated and many were destroyed for the progress of other ventures. These included, widening rivers to accommodate increased traffic and artificially drying out wetlands to reclaim the land for farming, forestry and construction.

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Wetlands have many important roles within the global environment. They:

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• reduce the impact of flooding • absorb pollutants and therefore purify water • protect coastal areas from the power of the tides. Wetland ecosystems are also recognised as playing an extremely important role in the food web, which contributes greatly to the biodiversity of nature. The dynamic nature of an ecosystem relies heavily on biodiversity so that a drastic reduction in the numbers of one species does not have a catastrophic effect on another.

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• provide a habitat for many plant and animal species

If the sediment collected by the wetlands was allowed to reach rivers, it could smother and trap fish breeding areas and aquatic life on the river bed. This would remove an important element of the food chain and affect the stability of the river’s ecosystem. Any changes within a food web do not occur in isolation as they will always create a change somewhere else.

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As plants and animals die and decompose in the water, they create an rich organic material known as detritus, which provides food for small aquatic creatures which, in turn, are food for larger animals and eventually mammals including humans. (This process is also known as the food web.) The detritus is also enriched by dissolved nutrients in water flowing into the wetland from higher ground. A wide range of animal species are dependent on wetlands for food, water and shelter, particularly during migration and breeding seasons.

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As coastal and riparian wetlands can trap pollutants in run-off water from farmland, residential and industrial areas, the effect of these pollutants in open water and river ecosystems is dramatically reduced. However, wetlands cannot absorb all pollution and as they become overloaded, their capacity for filtering the water is decreased.

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Flood water contains large amounts of soil which, if washed into lakes and rivers, can alter their chemical balance and adversely affect their ecosystems. Wetland plants create a barrier to flood water, reducing its flow rate and allowing the soil to bind with the plants’ roots and settle as sediment. The water can then continue more slowly and less destructively on its journey.

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Some coastal areas are protected from erosion by wetlands which disperse the force of currents and tides. These wetlands are particularly valuable in areas where cyclones are prevalent. Since the Ramsar Convention of 1971, environmentalists have been working towards protecting the world’s wetland areas as their importance within the global environment is fully appreciated.

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VALUABLE WETLANDS – 2 Use the text on page 7 to complete the following. 1. (a) Name two reasons why wetlands had been destroyed in the past. (b) Name two reasons why wetlands are important in the global environment.

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2. Explain the meaning of the sentence. (Use a dictionary for any words you do not understand.)

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‘The dynamic nature of an ecosystem relies heavily on biodiversity so that a drastic reduction in the numbers of one species does not have a catastrophic effect on another.

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3. Read the clues to complete the puzzle.

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4. Changing constantly

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8. Resistant to change or movement 9. A community of interacting species

Wetlands are the temporary homes and refuelling stops for one-third of all bird species.

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THE GREAT WETLAND DEBATE 1. Debate the topic: ‘Wetlands should not be sacrificed for agriculture and industry’. Divide into small groups and prepare arguments for both sides. Make notes in the table. For Evidence

Arguments

Evidence

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Against

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2. (a) Present your debate. (b) Complete the table to show which way the debate went. Total number attending Hands for Hands against Abstentions

On the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the USA, up to 90% of commercially important fish and shellfish populations depend on coastal wetlands for part of their life cycle. www.ricpublications.com.au

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ADAPTATIONS OF WETLAND PLANTS Indicators

Answers

• Reads and answers questions about adaptations of wetland plants.

P age 12 1. (a) ‘water-grower’; a plant that grows in water or very moist ground (b) soil containing small amounts of oxygen (c) tiny holes on the surface of leaves (d) pore spaces for storing air in roots and stems (e) ‘salt-growers’; a plant that grows in salt water

• Cooperates in a small group to create and perform a rap about wetland plants.

Worksheet information

2. Teacher check

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• Although some wetland areas dry up to a certain extent seasonally or during a drought, many plants’ seeds can remain dormant in dry or waterlogged soil until conditions are suitable for germination.

• Before completing the activity on page 13, students could view, listen to, discuss and learn a number of raps. Raps are a rhythmic sort of chant, where often a lead voice sets up a rhythm and another voice or harmony of voices improvises or repeats the words of the lead voice. Body percussion often accompanies a rap in the form of clapping, clicking fingers, stamping or creating sounds using the mouth or hands.

3. Teacher check

4. Possible answers:

(a) Rhizomes are stems that spread out underwater or underground and are connected to the root system of an original parent plant. They form new plants which are genetically identical to the parent plant.

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• Students may ask why plants need oxygen when they already produce it through the process of photosynthesis—green plants using the energy from sunlight along with carbon dioxide and water to form sugar, oxygen and water. But plants need to ‘breathe’ oxygen too. Each plant cell performs the process of respiration, whereby the plant takes in oxygen and uses the sugar to create carbon dioxide and water. This process releases energy, enabling the plant to live and grow.

(b) It is a beneficial adaptation for a wetland plant to have seeds that can float and not become saturated with water. (c) Some wetland plants have seeds that can remain dormant in flooded conditions if buried in sediment. P age 13 Teacher check

Cross-curricular activities © R. I . C.Pu bl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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• Compile a list of freshwater wetland plants and saltwater wetland plants. Sketch them or find illustrations.

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• Collect or purchase two or three specimens of wetland plants (reed, water lily, bullrush) and those that are not wetland plants (carnation, daisy, gerbera). (Note: Ensure they are not taken from a area where picking plants is prohibited.) Cut a cross-section of each stem and observe any differences. Place a 5-cm section of stem from each type in a glass of water. Blow air into each stem and observe what happens.

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• Quiz questions relating to this section can be found on page xiv.

o c . che e r o t r s super English

Creative Arts

NSW

LTS3.3

RS3.5, RS3.6, WS3.9, WS3.10, WS3.11

MUS3.1, MUS3.2, DAS3.1, DAS3.2

Vic.

SCB0402

ENRE0401, ENRE0404, ENWR0401

ARMU0401, ARMU0403, ARMU0404, ARD0401, ARD0402, ARD0403

WA

LL 4

V 4.1, R 4.1, R 4.4, W 4.1

AI 4, ASP 4, AR 4

SA

3.5, 4.5, 3.6

4.3, 4.4, 4.7, 4.8, 4.11

3.1, 4.1, 3.2, 4.2, 3.3, 4.3, 3.4, 4.4

Qld

LL 4.1, LL 4.2, LL 4.3

Refer to curriculum documents <http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au>

DA 4.1, DA 4.2, DDA & MU 4

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ADAPTATIONS OF WETLAND PLANTS – 1

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Wetland plants that have adapted to growing in salt water are called halophytes (saltgrowers). They have a variety of adaptations to survive in the salty conditions.

Wetland plants have adapted to growing in saturated soils in a number of ways:

• Some plants have shallow root systems. This enables the plant to access the oxygen available in the top few centimetres of the soil which is usually ‘drier’ and therefore contains more oxygen than the deeper soil.

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You may think that all kinds of plants could live in a wetland area because water is present, permanently or seasonally, and plants like water. However, to be a wetland plant, a plant must more than like water—it must love it! The plant must be a ‘hydrophyte’ (‘hydro’–water, ‘phyte’–grower) as it has to cope with hydric soil; i.e. soil that contains little oxygen. The soil is so waterlogged that there is not much room for oxygen—a requirement for all living things.

• Some absorb salt into their tissues before excreting it through leaf pores. • Others have succulent leaves which store water and use this to dilute the concentration of the salt.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons • Many have small leaves so there is minimal exposure salt. •f orr evi ew pur po setos onl y• • Other plants’ roots extend into the air to

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• Some plants have special pore spaces, called aerenchyma, in their stems and roots to store air. In this way, oxygen can enter the plant and be carried to its roots.

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• Other plants have hollowed tubes in their stems that carry oxygen to their roots.

• Others have developed a waxy covering to become ‘salt-proofed’. • Many have developed glands such as fleshy leaves in which salt is stored. The leaves are then shed.

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• Woody wetland plants can pump oxygen from their stems to their roots. Some trees have buttressed trunks which are wider at the base. This not only provides stability to the plant (due to the lack of a deep root system), but increases air space.

• Many plants absorb oxygen from the air through tiny holes in their leaves, called stomata. These are usually found on the underside of leaves, but in floating wetland plants are located on the top side of the leaves, providing greater exposure to the air.

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• Some absorb and store salt in their internal organs.

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• Finally, others have developed methods to reduce the intake of salt by their roots. This is called salt water exclusion.

Wetland plants have developed special reproductive adaptations. One is to send out rhizomes—stems that spread out underwater or underground and are connected to the root system. They form new plants which are genetically identical to the ‘parent’ plant. Another adaptation is to have seeds which can remain dormant in flooded conditions until uncovered from the sediment they are buried in or have seeds that can float and not become waterlogged. Wet and dry environments

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ADAPTATIONS OF WETLAND PLANTS – 2 Use the text on page 11 to answer the questions. 1. Explain the following terms. Use a dictionary to help you. (a) hydrophyte (b) hydric soil (c) stomata (d) aerenchyma (e) halophyte

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2. Read through the ways wetland plants have adapted to living in saturated soils. Explain the example you think is the most interesting.

3. List three ways halophytes tolerate salty conditions.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 4. Change these statements so they are true.

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(a) Rhizomes are flowers that spread out above ground and are connected to the root system. They form plants which are not identical to the parent plant.

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(b) It is a beneficial adaptation for a wetland plant to have seeds that can sink and become saturated with water.

(c) Some wetland plants have flowers that can remain dormant in flooded conditions if they are not buried in sediment.

The yellow lotus, a beautiful wetland plant, has a large seed pod in the centre of its huge flower that looks like a salt shaker. Inside the pod are seeds that can still grow centuries from now. 12

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WETLAND PLANTS RAP Team up with four or five classmates to create and perform a rap about what you have learnt about wetland plants. Here is an example of one verse:

Cheers for hydrophytes We do okay! Even though our feet Are in water all day!

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If you put the emphasis on the word parts in bold print, the rap will have a regular beat for each line. Create your rap with a regular beat, too. In the verse above, the second and fourth lines rhyme. Your rap can rhyme in the same way or that of your own choosing. Plan your rap on scrap paper, then write your final copy below. It can have more than one verse.

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When performing your rap, each group member can say and do the same actions or you can have a lead voice and other group members doing different actions. You can add movement, percussion or vocal sounds to your performance. Decide each group member’s role below. The lead voice is

has chosen to has chosen to has chosen to has chosen to

Mangroves have specialised cells that control the intake and absorption of salt. They are so efficient that if you squeeze mangroves’ leaves you will find almost pure water. www.ricpublications.com.au

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TYPES OF WETLAND PLANTS Indicators

Answers

• Reads and answers questions about types of wetland plants.

Page 16 1. (a) a trunk that is wider at the base, formed by the root and trunk of some shallow-rooted plants

• Researches and writes a report about a wetland plant.

Worksheet information

(b) a new plant grows out of the body of the parent plant

• The common cattail is also known as ‘bulrush’ and ‘red mace’. In the past, its leaves and stems were used for matting, thatching and bedding, and in the making of baskets, rafts, shoes, rope and paper. Its rhizomes were used as food by being dried and ground into flour or cooked as a vegetable, along with the stems.

(d) stems that spread out underwater or underground and are connected to a common root system

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• The coontail is also known as ‘hornwort’. As it is tolerant of water with a high calcium content, its leaves can be coated with lime, leaving them feeling crunchy to the touch.

• Bald cypress helps reduce damage from flooding and collects sediment and pollutants by causing water currents to slow down and spread. Its wood is used in housing and fence construction, boat building and cabinetry. • Quiz questions relating to this section can be found on page xiv.

(e) arranged in a circular pattern 2. Possible answers:

emergent – roots underwater, rest of plant above water; includes arrowheads, cattails submergent – almost entirely underwater, can be anchored or submerged; includes water celery, pondweed

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• Giant duckweed (and other duckweeds) grow extremely quickly, especially in warm waters filled with nutrients. In some countries, it is harvested for pig and cattle feed. It can also be used to reduce the amount of nutrients in sewage effluent.

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(c) to reproduce, by natural means, from the parent stock

floaters – free-floating or rooted with leaves and flowers protruding; includes water lilies and duckweed

trees – one main trunk, often buttressed for support and air storage; includes mangroves, cypress 3. (a) false

(b) opinion

(c) true

(d) true

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• (e) true

(f) false

(g) opinion

(h) false

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Cross-curricular activities

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• Students plan an excursion to a wetland. Part of their activities would include identifying wetland plants, photographing or sketching them and categorising them as emergent, submergent, floaters or trees/shrubs etc. • Investigate how wetland plants provide a habitat for animals; e.g. rushes provide camouflage and nesting sites for birds, muskrats use cattail foliage to build their lodges.

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Science

English

NSW

LTS3.3

RS3.5, RS3.6, WS3.9, WS3.10, WS3.11, WS3.12, WS3.13, WS3.14

Vic.

SCB0402

ENRE0401, ENRE0404, ENWR0401,ENWR0402, ENWR0403, ENWR0404

WA

LL 4

V 4.1, R 4.1, R 4.4, W 4.1, W 4.2,, W 4.3, W 4.4

SA

3.2, 3.3, 3.7, 3.10

3.2, 4.2, 3.3, 4.3, 3.4, 4.4, 3.6, 4.6, 3.10, 4.10, 4.11

Qld

SRP D4.6

Refer to curriculum documents on <http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au>

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TYPES OF WETLAND PLANTS – 1 Wetland plants can be grouped according to their habitat within the wetland environment. The following four groups are commonly used. 1. Emergents: These plants’ roots grow underwater but extend above the surface of the water. Examples include arrowheads, cattails, sedges, pickerelweed, reeds, bullrushes, marsh marigold and wild rice. 2. Submergents: These plants grow almost entirely underwater. Some are anchored to the surface bottom and others are just submerged. Examples include water celery, widgeon grass, water milfoil, pondweed and bladderwort.

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3. Floaters: These plants float on top of the water. They may be free-floating or be rooted in the soil and have their leaves, flowers and fruit floating on the surface. Examples include water hyacinth, waterlilies, duckweed and starwort.

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Read the information below about one example of each type of wetland plant. Common cattail (Typha latifolia) This emergent plant is found almost worldwide in many types of wetlands. It has tall, sword-like leaves which are pale green. A cross-section will reveal a spongy structure with air channels. On top of its tall stalk is a long oval brown spike. This pops open after pollination to disperse clumps of fluffy seeds that float through the air. The cattail also produces rhizomes. It provides food and a habitat for animals such as ducks, blackbirds, wrens, geese and muskrats.

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4. Trees: These plants have one main trunk or stem with many branches. They often have buttressed (swollen) trunks at the base to support their shallow root system and to store air. Examples include mangroves, cypress, willow, ash and elm.

Coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum) This submergent plant gets it name from its thick, bushy leaves which look similar to a raccoon’s tail. Common worldwide in bodies of slowmoving water, it has whorls of olive-green to almost black forked leaves, a long stem and no roots. It sometimes anchors itself with modified leaves if the water is freely flowing. The coontail propogates by seed and plant fragments. It provides a habitat for small aquatic animals and insects and fish and provides food for waterfowl.

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Giant duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza) This floating plant differs from other duckweeds in that it has clusters of 4 to 16 roots hanging in slow-moving water bodies compared to other species that have a single root. Each individual plant is actually tiny with an oval leaf-like body named a ‘thallus’. It has no true leaves or stems and reproduces by asexual budding and seeds. Glossy-green on top and reddish-purple underneath, it looks like a huge floating mat of pumpkin seeds. Found worldwide, it is a food source for ducks, geese and fish.

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Bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) This tree gets its name from its soft, feathery needle-like leaves being shed in autumn, leaving it ‘bald’. It has a huge, tapered trunk that is buttressed for support. The cypress sends up knobby extensions from its roots, called ’knees’, which protrude from the water. The theory is that these help provide oxygen to the roots. Found in North America, China, Japan and Tasmania, its seeds are eaten by a variety of waterbirds and squirrels. It provides a habitat for birds, frogs, reptiles and mammals.

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TYPES OF WETLAND PLANTS – 2 Use the text on page 15 to answer the questions. 1. Use the text, a dictionary or the Internet to explain the following terms. (a) buttressed (trunk) (b) asexual budding (c) propogate

(e) whorl

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(d) rhizome

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2. Write keywords and phrases to describe each wetland plant category. Emergent

Submergent

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(a) A coontail has reddish-purple leaves. .................................................................. (b) A muskrat would love to live near a cattail. .......................................................... (c) Bald cypresses have root extensions that protrude above water. .......................... (d) Giant duckweed is actually very small individual plants. ......................................

(e) A cattail reproduces in two ways. ........................................................................ (f) A coontail has no true leaves or stems. . .............................................................. (g) Frogs and reptiles enjoy the habitat bald cypresses provide. ................................ (h) Duckweed lives in floodwaters. ........................................................................... Because some free-floating wetland plants such as duckweed and azolla (a free-floating fern) can look like a green mat over the water, they are sometimes confused with blue-green algal blooms. 16

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WETLAND PLANT REPORT 1. Choose a wetland plant that was not reported on page 15 to write your own report about. You can use an example listed in the text, or research another example. Plan your report below. Title: Classification (A general statement about the subject of the report.):

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Description (Provide an accurate description and facts. [Include a sketch or photo.]):

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Conclusion (A final comment about the subject of the report.):

2. Write your report and edit your work. Bladderworts are carnivorous plants. The Common bladderwort (Utricularia vulgaris) has a bladder large enough to feed on water fleas, mosquito larvae and small tadpoles. www.ricpublications.com.au

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WETLAND ANIMALS Indicators

Answers

• Reads and answers questions about wetland animals.

Page 20 1. Answers should include two of the following: as a refuge from drought or fire; as a breeding ground; to build nests and raise chicks; as a place to rest and feed.

• Plans and presents a group musical mime about wetland animals.

Worksheet information

2. Teacher check

• Wetlands provide a home for a huge variety of unique animals, as well as acting as animal breeding/nursery grounds and feeding/resting habitats for migratory birds. Many populations of wetland animals have been affected by habitat destruction, with some animals becoming endangered.

– – – –

a type of animal with a hard shell, jointed body and gills slightly salty a type of deep sleep a change in an animal’s body or behaviour to suit its habitat – a type of insect that can walk on water – a bird that journeys from one place to another according to the seasons

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• Students may need dictionaries to complete Question 3 on page 20.

Cross-curricular activities

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• Teachers will need to allow several sessions for students to complete the project on page 21. Once the students have formed groups, they will need access to resource materials about wetland animals. Once they have made notes, they will need to plan costumes and music. Costumes can be as simple as wearing clothes to suit an animal’s colouring. Additional features made from everyday materials, such as crepe paper, could also be used. Some costume items, such as masks, could be made in art classes. Finally, the students need to select music. Teachers could provide some examples of suitable tracks (classical music is suggested) or could allow students to choose their own. For ease of playback during performances, it is suggested that tracks are loaded onto and played on a computer.

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3.

• Write a detailed profile of an endangered wetland animal.

• Make a chart showing labelled diagrams of various adaptations of wetland animals

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• Quiz questions relating to this section can be found on page xv.

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SOSE

English

Creative Arts

NSW

ENS3.5

RS3.5, RS3.6, WS3.9

DRAS3.2, DRAS3.3

Vic.

SOGE0403

ENRE0401, ENRE0404, ENWR0401

ARDR0401, ARDR0402

WA

ICP4.2, PS4.2, NSS4.1

R4.1, R4.4, W4.1

ASP4

SA

4.6

4.3, 4.11

4.1, 4.2, 4.3

Qld

PS4.1, PS D4.6

Refer to curriculum documents on <http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au>

DR4.1, DR4.2

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WETLAND ANIMALS – 1 Around the world, wetlands support the life of a huge number of animals, including: • • • • • • •

birds (e.g. herons, storks and ducks) insects (e.g. mosquitoes, dragonflies and beetles) amphibians (e.g. frogs, toads and salamanders) reptiles (e.g. crocodiles, turtles and lizards) mammals (e.g. water rats, platypus) crustaceans (e.g. prawns, crayfish and crabs) fish (e.g. barramundi, perch and cod)

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Some of these smaller animals provide a food source for larger wetland animals.

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Wetlands do not always provide a permanent home for an animal–they may simply provide a refuge for it in times of drought or fire or be used as a temporary home; for example, animals such as insects and fish may use a wetland as a breeding ground. Some birds only spend time in a wetland to build their nests and raise their chicks. Migratory birds, like the curlew, may depend on a wetland as a vital point in their long journeys as a place to rest and feed. Some animals depend on moving between different types of wetland. For example, fish like barramundi spend different stages of their life in brackish swamps, saltwater estuaries and freshwater floodplains.

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Of all the aquatic biomes, wetlands contain the largest variety of animal species. Many wetland animals are unique to this habitat.

Animals thatt live year-round in a wetland have special © R. I . C.Pub l i c a i o n s adaptations to help them cope with seasonal changes. For example, when wetlands dry up in hotter months, •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• reptiles and insects may burrow under the surface

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of the mud or become dormant until the water level rises again. There are also many other wetland animal adaptations. Just a few examples of these are: • legs with claws (e.g. shrimp) to help an animal resist the water current • foot pads (e.g. water striders) to help an animal travel across the surface of the water • straight, pointed bills (e.g. sandpipers) to help an animal find food in mud • salt glands (e.g. gulls) to help an animal excrete salt from salt water which has been drunk • ability to form an airtight seal on their outer shell (e.g. some crabs and crayfish) to help an animal survive a dry season.

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Unfortunately, the loss of wetlands due to habitat destruction and the invasion of introduced animal species like cane toads is having a serious effect on wetland animals. Many are endangered or under threat.

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WETLAND ANIMALS – 2 Answer the questions using the text on page 20. 1. Give two examples of how an animal might temporarily use a wetland. (a) (b)

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2. Explain how you think the special shape of a sandpiper’s bill could help it to find food in mud.

3. Write definitions for each of these phrases or terms from the text. Use a dictionary if you need to. • crustacean

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons orr evi ew pur posesonl y• • adaptation •f

• brackish • dormant

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• migratory bird 4.

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• water strider

o c . che e r o t r s super List two ways in which you think an introduced animal could cause a native wetland animal to become endangered. Write your answers in the frogs.

Some of the birds that visit Australian wetlands have flown from as far away as Japan, China and Siberia! 20

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MUSICAL MIME Find a small group of people to plan and present a musical mime on wetland animals. Each person in your group will play a different animal. Choose your five animals from each of the five different groups mentioned in the text; e.g. birds, insects. 1. Write the type of wetland animal you will be. Research some of its key features. List them in the space below. Movements Temperament

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Diet

Specific habitat 2. Read your notes together as a group and: • decide on a simple costume you could use to suggest your animal

• decide on a piece of music you could use to represent your animal

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons • decide ao piece ofr music you could use p to represent allo thes animals interacting iny the wetland. •onf r ev i e w ur p es onl •

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Predators (if any)

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3. Rehearse your movement piece according to the synopsis below. Add any notes you need to. Beginning – Each animal emerges from its resting/hiding place and moves about.

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Middle – The animals interact (e.g. some hunt others)

Ending – The animals hear a human approaching. They freeze, then, one by one, move back to their original places.

4. When you are ready, present your movement piece to the class. More than two-thirds of the fish caught and eaten around the world are linked to coastal and inland wetlands. www.ricpublications.com.au

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AMAZING WETLAND ANIMALS Indicators

Cross-curricular activities

• Reads and answers questions about specific wetland animals.

• Research what sorts of environmental problems have led to endangered wetland animals.

• Designs promotional material for a campaign to help an endangered animal.

Worksheet information

• Create a diorama for a chosen endangered animal and its ideal habitat.

• Additional information on specific wetland animals can easily be found on the Internet by typing, for example, ‘wetland birds’ into an Internet search engine.

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• Students may like to use additional resources on the western swamp tortoise to help them complete the activity on page 25. Teachers may also like to provide some environmental campaign materials such as leaflets and logos to help the students design their own. Remind the students that their choices should be eye-catching yet simple and appropriate to the seriousness of the goal. Once the students have completed the activity, they could compare their designs with those of other students and discuss what features the best designs had. This activity could also be repeated for other endangered animals. • Quiz questions relating to this section can be found on page xv.

Answers Page 24

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Jabiru

Dragonfly

Western swamp tortoise

Type of animal

bird

insect

reptile

Physical description

1.5 m tall, black/white body, long green/purple neck, black bill, red legs

long body, shimmering wings, enormous eyes

400 g, 15 cm long, short neck, square shaped shell, can be yellow-brown to black

extinct in some areas

commonly found

critically endangered

small insects like mosquitoes, nymphs; also catch tadpoles and small fish

tadpoles, worms, crustaceans, insect larvae

Teacher check

Teacher check

Status

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Prey

fish, crustaceans, insects, frogs

Interesting fact

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2. So it is camouflaged and can therefore hide from predators. 3. Teacher check

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1.

SOSE

English

Creative Arts

NSW

ENS3.5

RS3.5, RS3.6, WS3.9

VAS3.2

Vic.

SOGE0403

ENRE0401, ENRE0404, ENWR0401

ARAR0401, ARAR0402

WA

PS4.2, NSS4.1

R4.1, R4.4, W4.1

ASP4, AR4

SA

4.6

4.3, 4.11

4.1

Qld

PS4.1, PS D4.6

Refer to curriculum documents on <http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au>

VA4.1, VA4.2

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AMAZING WETLAND ANIMALS – 1 Read about three animals you can find in an Australian wetland. Western swamp tortoise Weighing about 400 grams and measuring 15 centimetres in length, this reptile is Australia’s smallest tortoise, found only in some Western Australian swamps. It is critically endangered due to a number of factors, including habitat destruction and predation by introduced animals like foxes. In addition, young tortoises grow very slowly and only reach maturity at around 10 years. It is thought that there are fewer than 300 of these tortoises left in the wild. Conservation groups, including the World Wide Fund for Nature, are working to protect this species; for example, they are providing concrete pipes in the tortoises’ swamp homes to protect them from predators.

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A dragonfly is a commonly found insect with a long body, two pairs of shimmering wings and enormous eyes. Dragonflies catch prey (small insects, including mosquitoes) with their legs or jaws. They can reach flight speeds of at least 60 kilometres an hour, making them the world’s fastest insect.

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Dragonfly

Western swamp tortoises have short necks and square-shaped shells. The colour of an animal depends on the swamp water it lives in; in clay swamps it is yellow-brown and in sandy swamps it is black. Because the swamps in which they live dry up in warmer months, these tortoises are dormant for up to nine months a year. They feed on tadpoles, crustaceans, insect larvae and worms.

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A dragonfly has a distinct life cycle. The female lays her eggs in or near water and the wingless young (called ‘nymphs’) usually hatch within a few weeks. The nymphs live underwater, breathing with their gills. They catch insects and even tadpoles or small fish with their ‘mask’—a large lip with hooks on the end. A dragonfly nymph will live in this way for up to five years, moulting as it grows larger. Finally, it climbs out of the water and moults one last time, emerging as an adult. The adult dragonfly only lives for a maximum of four months.

o c . che e r o t r s super Jabiru (black-necked stork)

This bird is the only stork native to Australia. Standing approximately 1.5 metres tall, it is very distinctively coloured, with a black and white body, a long green and purple neck, a black bill and red legs. The jabiru is found in wetland areas, including floodplains, of northern and eastern Australia. Unfortunately, it has become extinct in much of eastern New South Wales, due to habitat destruction. The jabiru hunts for prey (including fish, crustaceans, insects and frogs) by strutting through the water, then stabbing or snatching an animal with its bill. Jabiru pairs often mate for life. A male will attract a female by building a nest high in a tree and then bobbing up and down or clacking his bill. Jabirus live in small family groups outside the breeding season.

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AMAZING WETLAND ANIMALS – 2 Answer the questions using the text on page 22. 1. Complete the chart for the jabiru, dragonfly and Western swamp tortoise. Jabiru

Dragonfly

Western swamp tortoise

Type of animal Physical description Status

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Prey

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Interesting facts

2. Why do you think the colour of a western swamp tortoise depends on where it lives?

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3. Describe the three stages in the life cycle of a dragonfly.

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A dragonfly has thousands of tiny light-sensing organs in its eyes, which are arranged so that it has close to a 360º field of vision. 24

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SAVE THE WESTERN SWAMP TORTOISE! Endangered wetland animals like the western swamp tortoise need our help. Imagine you have been asked to set up a stall at a local shopping centre to raise awareness for the plight of the western swamp tortoise. Your goal is to attract shoppers to stop and read information and/or buy merchandise to raise money for the conservation of the tortoise. Use the information on page 22 and any other resources you need to help you design different elements of your stall. You may like to plan each element on a separate sheet of paper first.

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• Design a small information leaflet to hand out to shoppers. It could begin with the words ‘Did you know?’.

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• Design an eye-catching banner that incorporates a slogan and a logo.

• Design and label three striking pieces of merchandise that people could buy; e.g. a hat.

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The western swamp tortoise has an ancestry that dates back approximately 15 million years!

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WETLAND FOOD CHAINS AND WEBS Indicators • Reads and answers questions about wetland food chains and webs. • Uses acquired knowledge to create a mobile displaying a wetland food web.

Worksheet information

6. A successful wetland environment needs: healthy plants, plenty of sun and water, consumers at every level, decomposers and no pollution.

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• Students will need a wire coat hanger, string and a hole punch to complete the mobile on page 29. It might also be helpful if the page is enlarged to A3 size and copied onto thick card for additional strength.

• Quiz questions relating to this section can be found on page xvi.

Page 29 Teacher check

Cross-curricular activities

• Students select one wetland animal and research in detail the diet and natural predators of that particular animal. Where does it fit in the food chain?

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• The balance of a wetland food chain is very delicate. The reduction or increase in any particular species can put the ecosystem out of alignment and cause irreversible damage to the wetland environment. Studies have shown that when a top predator is removed from an area, the species below them in the chain overpopulate and put too much pressure on the plants and the system in general. By having top predators, the system is kept in order and all plants and animals thrive.

5. If the plants in a wetland were to die, it would leave no food for the herbivores. These primary consumers would die out which would leave no food for the following trophic levels. This would mean that eventually all life in the wetland area would cease to exist, either by death due to starvation or they would relocate to another area where food was available.

• As a class, create a large painted and textured mural of a wetland environment. Each student is then given the task to paint an animal or plant which belongs in a wetland. Display the plants and animals in such a way as to show their place in the food web.

Answers

Page 28 1. The links in a food chain or web are called trophic levels. Each animal or plant belongs to a particular trophic level.

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3. Decomposers are important in terms of breaking down the dead animals and allowing the nutrients to return to the soil or water for the plants (primary producers) to use to grow and thrive. This, in turn, provides healthy plant life for the herbivores to eat and maintain the cycle of life. 4.

Primary producers grass reeds

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2. A food chain is made up of a single series of levels of one species eating another species for survival. Meanwhile, a food web is a complex coming together of several food chains as each species may eat a species from another food chain.

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Consumers

Decomposers

fish mosquito fungi snake larvae bacteria frog duck snail

SOSE

English

Science

NSW

ENS3.5

RS3.5, RS3.6

LTS3.3

Vic.

ENRE0401, ENRE0404, ENWR0401

SCBS0401, SCBS0402

WA

NSS4.1

V4.4, R4.1, R4.4

LL4

SA

4.6

4.3, 4.11

4.1, 4.5

Qld

PS4.2

Refer to curriculum documents on <http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au>

LL4.3

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WETLAND FOOD CHAINS AND WEBS – 1 The success of wetland areas depends greatly on the number of species which make the environment their home. Wetland areas need to be healthy and in good condition to attract a significant number of species to make it balanced and viable for survival of the species which call it home. All living things need food to be active, healthy and to grow and reproduce. Plants need sunshine, water and nutrients while animals need water, plants and/ or other animals to provide them with energy. Plants and animals combine to make up what is called a food chain.

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A food chain is made up of many links, called trophic levels. The first level in any food chain are plants. These take their energy from the sun and convert it using photosynthesis. Plants are the primary producers of the food chain. They are the most important because all trophic levels beyond this one rely on plants for survival. This first trophic level may

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be followed by several levels of consumers. Primary consumers are generally herbivores such as insects, fish and small animals which eat the plants. These are followed by secondary consumers which then eat the insects, fish and small animals. The following trophic levels are made up of larger consumers which are generally carnivores. The top of the food chain is completed by a top predator. These animals have no natural enemies and eat various smaller animals. Finally, the chain is completed when the top predator or other animals die and the decomposers (such as fungi and bacteria) move in to break down the body and return the nutrients back to the soil for the plants to use.

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sun

algae

water snail

frog

snake

primary producer

primary consumer

secondary consumer

tertiary consumer

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top predator

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Several food chains can successfully survive alongside each other in any given habitat. Many animals and insects can be eaten by any number of animals which then links one food chain to another—this is called a food web. Food webs are very complex. Nature works in such a way to ensure balance is maintained and food webs are able to survive over long periods of time.

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WETLAND FOOD CHAINS AND WEBS – 2 Answer the questions using the text on page 27. 1. Explain the term ‘trophic levels’.

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2. Explain the difference between a food chain and a food web?

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3. Why are decomposers important to the cycle?

4. Sort these into the correct trophic level. grass

fish

fungi

mosquito

snake

reeds

larvae

frog

bacteria

duck

snail

Consumers © R. I . C. Publ i cat i onDecomposers s •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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5. What would happen to a food chain if all of the plants were to die?

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Primary producers

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6. List the key ingredients for a successful wetland food chain.

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A WETLAND FOOD WEB MOBILE 1. Arrange the living things shown below to create a wetland food web mobile. Place the primary producers at the top of the mobile and continue the levels down to the decomposers. 2. Colour and cut out the pieces and attach them to a wire coat hanger with string.

r o e t s Bo r e p o u crocodile perch k S water snail primary consumer

algae

secondary consumer

primary producer

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top predator

sedges water boatman frog © R. I . C.Publ i c at i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• primary producers

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secondary consumer

midge larvae

primary consumer

fox

secondary consumer

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snake

tertiary consumer

primary consumer

tertiary consumer

plants

fungus

primary producer

decomposer

heron

tertiary consumer

reeds

primary producer

If a top predator is removed from a food web, the lower trophic levels can overpopulate an area beyond what can be naturally supported. www.ricpublications.com.au

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KAKADU NATIONAL PARK Indicators

Cross-curricular activities

• Reads and answers questions about Kakadu National Park.

• View photographs and listen to soundscapes of Kakadu National Park. Discuss the beauty and uniqueness of the area. Use the images, sounds and discussion to write a poem about Kakadu. Present and display the poems for your school community to see.

• Researches to complete a table with information about Kakadu’s climate seasons.

Worksheet information • It would be helpful to have a large map of Australia on view so students can locate Kakadu National Park.

• Saltwater and freshwater crocodiles inhabit the waterways of Kakadu. Research and complete a T-chart showing the similarities and differences of these two species.

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• Students will need access to the Internet or library resources to complete the activity on page 33.

• Quiz questions relating to this section can be found on page xvi.

Page 32 1. (a) Northern Territory

(b) Jabiru

(c) Van Diemen

2. (a) geologist

(b) botanist

(c) archaeologist

3. (a) to come back to life (c) very old

(b) something that is different or stands out (d) different kinds (e) modified to suit surroundings

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Answers

4. the floodplains

5. A number of different landforms provide different habitats which supports various plant life. The differing plant life and conditions then attract various species of animals.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

6. (a) 5000 million years

(b) 840 species

7. Answers will vary; however, students should display an understanding of the destruction of the area and the loss of habitat. Page 33

Description

Gunumeleng

mid-October to late December

the pre-monsoon season: hot weather; humidity increases, thunderstorms build in the afternoons

Gudjewg

January to March

‘true’ wet season: thunderstorms, heavy rain and flooding; hot and humid

Banggerreng

April

rain clouds disappear; clear skies; floodwater recedes; strong windy storms

Yegge

May to mid-June

cool, low humidity; early morning mist; time for managed burn-off

Wurrgeng

mid-June to mid-August

‘cold’ weather (17 °C – 30 °C); low humidity; water drying out

Gurrung

mid-August to mid-October

hot and dry; thunderclouds begin to build

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Season

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SOSE

English

Science

Mathematics

NSW

RS3.5, RS3.6

LTS3.3

NS3.2, NS3.3

Vic.

SOGE0401

ENRE0401, ENRE0404, ENWR0401

SCBS0401, SCBS0402

MANUC402

WA

PS4.1, C4.2, NSS4.1

V4.4, R4.1, R4.3, R4.4, W4.2

EB4, LL4

N4.2, N4.3

SA

4.4, 4.6, 4.8

4.3, 4.4, 4.7, 4.11

4.1, 4.5, 4.6

4.7

Qld

PS4.2

Refer to curriculum documents on <http://www. qsa.qld.edu.au>

EB4.1, LL4.3

N4.2, N4.3

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KAKADU NATIONAL PARK – 1 Approximately 133 km east of Darwin lies 683 000 hectares of World Heritage listed wetlands—Kakadu National Park. By studying formations, geologists calculate that this ancient land was formed around 2500 million years ago, which is about half the age of the Earth. Around 140 million years ago, most of Kakadu was covered by shallow sea with the escarpment forming cliffs and the Arnhem Land plateau as the visible coastline.

Darwin

Jabiru KAKADU NATIONAL PARK

Pine Creek

NORTHERN TERRITORY

Katherine

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Kakadu is famous for its diversity of land forms and plant and animal species. It is a remarkable example of a delicate ecosystem.

ARNHEM LAND

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Carbon dating used by archaeologists show that the first Aboriginal inhabitants made the wetland area their home around 50 000 years ago. The local Aboriginal people believe that, during creation, Mother of the Earth sent out spirit children. She provided waterways, food and wildlife for the spirit children. She told them what languages to speak and taught them how to hunt and gather food.

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Van Dieman Gulf

Landforms

Flora

Kakadu National Park has six distinctive landforms within its boundaries.

With such a diverse environment, it is to be expected that the area known as Kakadu should be home to a significant number of different plant species. The Heritage-listed park is home to more than 1700 different species of plants; 97 of which are considered rare, vulnerable or unfamiliar to botanists.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Some plants, such as the resurrection grasses, must survive • f o rr evi ewmuchpofu po se sThey on l y •to dehydrate 2. outliers: rocky outcrops which ther year without water. have adapted were once islands in the ancient seas.

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3. lowlands: covering around 80% of the park area. 4. southern hills and basins: found to be of volcanic origin dating back 2500 million years.

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during hot weather and then return ‘back to life’ within 24 hours of receiving rainfall. Other plants, such as the spider mangrove, have adapted their root system to survive the oxygen-deficient soils and regular salt water baths.

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1. stone country: the escarpment and the Arnhem Land plateau.

Fauna

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5. floodplains: home to the most prolific animal and plant life. 6. tidal flats: reaching from the coast line to approximately 100 km inland.

With diverse habitats comes a diverse range of fauna. Many species have successfully adapted to their environment. Facts in brief (approximate figures): Species

Total

Notable information

mammals

60

two of which are endangered

birds

280

1

reptiles

117

four species of snake are lethal

/3 of all Australian bird species

recreational fishing is closely monitored consistent high temperatures make for invertebrates 10 000 a perfect incubator fish

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KAKADU NATIONAL PARK – 2 Use the text and map on page 31 to answer the questions. 1. Look carefully at the map. (a) Kakadu National Park is located in which Australian State or Territory? (b) What is the name of the town located within Kakadu? (c) What is the name of the Gulf which borders Kakadu?

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2. The name given to one who studies … (a) rocks:

(c) people:

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(b) plants:

3. What do the following terms mean? (You may need to use a dictionary.) (a) resurrection: (b) distinctive: (c) ancient: (d) diverse:

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons 4. Where are the most number ofr flora andi fauna species within Kakadu? •f or ev ew pfound ur po sesonl y• (e) adapted:

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6. Calculate to find …

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5. Explain why Kakadu is home to such a large number of species of fauna.

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(a) the approximate age of the Earth.

(b) total number of Australian bird species.

7. When an area is listed as a World Heritage site, it is then protected under law from further destruction. Consider the impact on Kakadu National Park, if it was not listed as a World Heritage site.

The first non-Aboriginal explorer to visit the coast of what is now Kakadu was a Dutch captain by the name of Jan Carstenszoon in 1623. 32

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THE CHANGING SEASONS The local Aboriginal people of the Kakadu area recognise six climatic seasons in the region. Research to find out more about them. Record your information in the table below. When it occurs

Description

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Season

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There are more than 5000 art sites throughout Kakadu showing the history of Aboriginal culture in the area. www.ricpublications.com.au

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THE RAMSAR CONVENTION Indicators

Answers

• Reads and answers questions about the Ramsar Convention. • Researches information for a brochure promoting a wetland area.

Page 36 1. Ramsar aims to: • halt the worldwide loss of wetlands

• Designs clothing suitable for a wetland environment.

• conserve and protect the worlds remaining wetlands.

Worksheet information

2.

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• The boxes and categories provided on page 37 should be seen as a guide. Students should be encouraged to find information they believe would be relevant and to include it. They may like to work with a partner to produce their brochure. They may be able to include photographs and could use a computer to publish their work.

3. Answers will vary, but may include:

(a) To review and circulate the latest scientific information concerning wetland conservation. (b) The secretariat would be needed to evaluate, coordinate and circulate information to and between the member nations.

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• Students should understand the significance of the fact that the first international treaty for the conservation of natural resources was concerned with wetlands. Prior to this wetlands were considered to be useless, inconvenient, uncomfortable places of little commercial, social or aesthetic value and many were drained, filled in and used as building sites. Their importance for birds was initially recognised but later research revealed their roles in water drainage and filtering and as breeding grounds for fish, along with many other ecological considerations.

(a) true (b) false (c) false (d) true

4. Teacher check Page 37 Teacher check

Cross-curricular activities

• The Ramsar website: <www.ramsar.org>

• Write an acrostic poem using the letters; RAMSAR.

• Quiz questions relating to this section may be found on page xvii.

• Research to find the Ramsar site closest to where you live and label it and other Ramsar sites on a world map.

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• Find out about a nearby wetland you think should be a registered Ramsar site. Prepare a report about the site. Provide information about its name, size, location, features and why you believe it should be protected.

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Science

NSW

ENS3.5

RS3.5 RS3.6

ICS3.2 UTS3.9

Vic.

SOES0401 SOGE0403

ENRE0401 ENRE0404 ENWR0401

TEMA0401 TEMA0402

WA

ICP4.2 ICP4.3 ICP4.4 PS4.3 R4.1 NSS4.2

R4.1 R4.2 W4.1

TP4.2 TP4.4 M4.2 I4.2

SA

3.4 3.5 3.6

3..3 3.4 3.7 3.11

3.3 4.3 4.5

Qld

TCC4.5 PS4.1 SRP4.5

Refer to curriculum documents on <http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au>

INF4.1 INF4.2

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THE RAMSAR CONVENTION – 1 In February 1971, representatives from 18 nations met in Ramsar, a small town in Iran, to discuss their concerns about the world’s wetlands. They realised these valuable areas were extremely vulnerable worldwide, with many of them were being drained for building and construction sites and disappearing at an alarming rate. They believed that this was an issue of such importance that it needed to be addressed at an international level. cooperation, policy development, capacity building and technological transfer. A committee, a science review panel and a secretariat were set up to oversee the convention and is based in Switzerland.

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Countries which signed the convention made a commitment to:

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• nominate at least one site for the list of wetlands of international importance • protect the ecological character of their site(s) • make wetland conservation part of national land-use planning • establish nature wetland reserves and It was decided that the conservation and wise use promote education and training about them of wetlands would be the mission of an international organisation named, The Convention on Wetlands of • consult with other members about implementing the convention. International Importance, especially as Waterfowl Habitats. The nations all signed the convention which came into force in December 1975. It was the It was decided that a Conference of Contracting Parties would meet every three years to discuss first inter-government treaty between nations for policy and present national reports about the the conservation of natural resources and became known as the Ramsar Convention. Since then, many activities and progress being made in each country. The first of these was held in Italy. more nations have become signatories.

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The definition of wetlands used by the convention is a very broad one. It includes marshes and lakes, coral reefs, temporary pools, underground caves and man-made habitats. The benefits of wetlands to people’s livelihoods and well-being, including food, flood protection, water purification and supply were seen as being generally under-appreciated. Many nations saw them as difficult to access areas and the multitude of insects found in some wetlands made them uncomfortable places to be. Wetlands were associated with dampness, disease, difficulty and danger.

As reflected in the full title of the Ramsar Convention, the major initial concern was for the welfare of the birds that relied on wetlands for breeding and as places of rest during long migratory flights. Many people throughout the world shared this concern and the organisation BirdLife International became one of the convention’s international organisation partners. In recent years, the Ramsar committee has been involved in a broader range of policy and technical areas, including climate change, natural disasters impact reduction, economic incentives, indigenous culture and sustainable fishing.

The aim of the Ramsar Convention was to provide member nations with a framework for international cooperation that would help them halt the worldwide loss of wetlands and to conserve and protect those that remained. This was to be achieved through

The work of the Ramsar Convention is highly valued around the world and the number of countries that join and the wetland sites registered by them continue to grow.

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THE RAMSAR CONVENTION – 2 Use the text on page 35 to complete the following. 1. Name two things the Ramsar Convention aims to achieve by international cooperation. • • 2. Answer as ‘true’ or ‘false’. (a) The nations that joined the Ramsar Convention had to nominate at least one wetland site in their countries to include on the list. . ........................................

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(b) Ramsar is based in Iran. ..................................................................................................

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(c) Initially, the Ramsar Convention was mainly concerned about fish breeding in wetlands. . (d) The Ramsar committee expects member countries to present a report every three years to show their progress. . ......................................................................................... 3. (a) Why do you think Ramsar has a science review panel?

(b) Why would Ramsar need a secretariat?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 4. Read the five commitments undertaken by Ramsar signatories.

(a) Which one do you think is the most important?

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(b) Explain why you think this.

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(c) What is your opinion about the aims of Ramsar?

The United Kingdom has the greatest number of Ramsar sites (164).

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PROMOTING WETLANDS The Ramsar Convention requires its members to establish nature reserves on wetlands and to promote education and training about them. 1. Research and compile information to be used in a brochure to educate people about a particular Ramsar site. Make sure you promote the wetland in your completed brochure so people will want to visit the site. You may like to include maps and illustrations to enhance the presentation of your brochure. What to do

Things to see

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Protecting the environment

What to wear

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Location and size

Other

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2. Design and draw some clothing suitable to wear for exploring the wetland you described above. Label each article and explain briefly why it would be suitable to wear in this wetland.

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Possible dangers

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Canada has the greatest area of Ramsar-listed wetlands (over 130 000 square kilometres).

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WORLD WETLANDS DAY Indicators

Answers

• Reads and answers questions about World Wetlands Day. • Plans an activity for World Wetlands Day.

Page 40 1. (c)

Worksheet information

2. (c)

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• The Ramsar Convention aimed to focus world attention on the ecological importance of wetlands, the alarming rate at which they were disappearing and the need to care for them. Since February 1997, when the first World Wetlands Day was held, it has been the catalyst for a variety of significant activities aimed at raising awareness. The Ramsar website (www.ramsar.org) has information, including photographs, posted by different countries about their World Wetlands Day activities. This information has been preserved and is listed under the year in which the activities took place.

3.–5. Teacher check 6. (a) Answers may include: posters, stickers, videos, fridge magnets, pocket calendars, leaflets and information packs

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• Designs a T-shirt to promote World Wetlands Day. • Researches a World Wetlands Day activity and writes a report. • Compile a list of ten ways to care for wetlands.

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• World Wetlands Day has enabled Ramsar’s message to reach a wider population and has particularly focused on involving and educating children about the issues involved in preserving wetlands. World Wetlands Day material is available in Australia through the Department of the Environment and Water Resources and from: Ramsar Convention Secretariat, Rue Mauverney 28, CH-1196 Gland, Switzerland. • The following information from the USA Environmental Protection Agency may provide a useful focus for discussion about ways in which people can help to care for wetlands.

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How can I make a difference? – Find out about wetlands near your home. – Support wetlands protection initiatives. – Purchase federal duck stamps from post offices. – Encourage others to support wetlands. – Find out about ways to use wetlands without draining them. – Select other sites for development instead. – Maintain wetlands as open space. – Learn about wetland restoration – Participate in an ‘Adopt a wetland’ program.

• Quiz questions relating to this section can be found on page xvii.

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SOSE

English

Science

NSW

ENS 3.5

RS3.5 RS3.6

DMS3.8 UTS3.9

Vic.

SOES0401 SOGE0403

ENRE0401 ENRE0402 ENWR0401

TESY0402

WA

ICP4.4 PS4.3 R4.1 NSS4.2

R4.1 R4.2 W4.1

TP4.4 I4.1

SA

3.4 3.5 3.6

3.3 3.4 3.7 3.11

3.3 3.4 4.6

Qld

TCC4.5 PS4.1 SRP4.5

Refer to curriculum documents on <http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au>

SYS4.1 INF4.1

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WORLD WETLANDS DAY

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The Ramsar Convention’s website (www.ramsar. org) posts reports from more than 90 countries about their different World Wetlands Day activities, including nature walks, community clean up days, radio and television interviews and reports, lectures and seminars, children’s art contests and even sanpan races. Information about new Ramsar sites and policies is provided and new programs launched. The many ideas and photos posted on the website often help other people and organisations to select suitable activities to do themselves.

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World Wetlands Day has been celebrated on 2 February every year since 1997. It marks the adoption of the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance in Ramsar, Iran, on 2 February 1971. On World Wetlands Day, government agencies, non-government organisations and other groups of interested people conduct activities to raise public awareness of wetlands, how valuable wetlands are, the benefits they provide and to promote their conservation and wise use. The Ramsar Convention and its aims and policies are publicised too.

fishing, hiking, canoeing and photography can have a negative impact on wetlands and need to be carefully and expertly managed. Some wetlands are particularly vulnerable and measures need to be taken to exclude people from certain areas. In some places, boardwalks have been constructed to protect the wetlands and to allow easy access.

© R. I . C.Pub l i cat i ons One World Wetlands Day activity aimed to demonstrate that bogs and swamps can be as •f orr evi ew pur pos so nl y2 February • 2007, appealing ase national forests. On

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more than 200 people, ranging in age from 10 to well over 70, had a rare opportunity. They made their way through one of New Zealand’s dense kahikatea The Ramsar secretariat, in Switzerland, offers a swamp forests on an escorted field trip. They selection of posters, stickers, videos, fridge magnets, clambered over enormous tree roots hidden under pocket calendars, leaflets, and information packs native bush rice grass and, at times, plunged kneefree of charge. They also suggest a theme for deep into thick mud. The swamp forest’s unique each year. In 2007, the theme was ‘Wetlands and and finely balanced ecology was explained and Fisheries’ in recognition of the importance of fish they were told about a proposed national wetlands and fisheries around the world. The slogan was ‘Fish centre. Sadly, one of New Zealand’s most important for tomorrow’. This theme was chosen because environmental habitats has almost been destroyed the effective management of wetlands and other through agriculture and commercial development. important fish habitats is necessary in ensuring that It is estimated that only about 10 percent of the fish populations, including rare and endangered fish, nation’s wetlands are left! Many New Zealanders are protected and conserved. are unaware of this and environmental agencies It is hoped that World Wetlands Day will provide face many challengers in educating the public about opportunities to educate more people and the crisis. In 2006, World Wetlands Day was used to organisations about wetlands so they will then launch a series of paintings featuring the papango, understand what they are, why they are important a duck endemic to New Zealand. The paintings have and encourage people to do something to help been reproduced on hunting licences, stamps and care for and preserve wetlands. Some of the associated products to educate the public and to recreational activities in wetlands, such as hunting, raise money to create and restore wetlands.

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WORLD WETLANDS DAY Use the text on page 39 to complete the following. 1. When was the first World Wetlands Day? (a) 1971 (b) 2 February 1979 (c) 1997 (d) 2007 The correct answer is

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3. Why do people need to know about wetlands?

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(b) Give reasons for your answer.

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4. (a) Explain why ‘Fish for tomorrow’ was chosen as the slogan for the 2007 World Wetlands Day?

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5. (a) Would you have liked to have gone on the field trip to a kahikatea swamp forest?

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2. World Wetlands Day was established to: (a) raise money for wetlands. (b) tell people there are wetlands. (c) tell people how and why wetlands are important. (d) tell people when the convention was signed.

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(b) Make up a suitable slogan for next year’s World Wetlands Day.

(b) Which one would you most like to have?

Wetlands are very sensitive ecosystems. From the day they are created, they start to die. They are always in the process of evolving into dry land. 40

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CELEBRATING WORLD WETLANDS DAY Plan an activity to celebrate World Wetlands Day by completing the planning outline below. You may choose to use your imagination or model it on an activity you found on the Ramsar website <www.ramsar.org>. Title of activity: Venue:

Date and time:

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Who will be attending?

How will they get there?

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Will you need to provide a map?

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What do you want them to see?

What do you want them to hear? What do you want them to do during the day? What do you want them to learn? List names of any experts or guest speakers:

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Who will be helping you? •f orr evi ew pu r posesonl y• Position: Name:

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Position:

Job description:

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What costs will be involved? Who will sponsor the event?

How will you know if the event is a success?

Some economists believe that wetlands are the most valuable ecosystems on Earth, with their benefits worth more than14.9 trillion US dollars. www.ricpublications.com.au

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DESERTS Indicators

Worksheet information

• Reads and answers questions about the formation, location and shaping of deserts.

• Erosion can be seen as a continuation of the weathering process. Weathering causes rocks to crack, fragment and crumble. Erosion carries the rock fragments from one place to another using water, wind and even ice.

• Conducts experiments to demonstrate the processes of erosion and weathering.

• Quiz questions relating to this section may be found on page xviii.

Answers Page 46 1. (a) false (c) true (e) false

(b) false (d) true

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2. Match the type of desert with the cause for low rainfall in the area.

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coastal • rain shadow • sub-tropical • polar desert • cold desert •

• • • • •

Wind patterns keep clouds away. Cold ocean currents prevent inland rain. The area is a great distance from any oceans. Nearby mountain ranges prevent rain to the area. The climate is so cold all water freezes.

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3. • The area receives the most intense sunlight as the sun is directly overhead. • The air is hot and dry with very little moisture. • High pressure systems are created which block storms from reaching the areas. 4. Wind erosion

As there are very few plants in the desert to bind the soil together, the wind shapes the landscape through a process called erosion. Dry winds blow sand, exposing pebbles, creating sand dunes and blasting sand against cliffs, wearing them down.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Water erosion Although rare, when rain occurs in a desert it is usually a heavy downpour. Water rushes over rocky areas without soaking in. Flash floods occur creating raging rivers which collect anything loose in their path. These powerful desert rains erode the landscape and can even shape canyons. Weathering

A process called weathering also helps to shape the desert. During the day, rocks heat up and expand. The colder night temperatures cool them down again, making the rocks contract and causing them to crack and break. Rock falls and rock slides are common in deserts.

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Page 47 Experiment 1 – Shake, shake, shake After shaking the jar, the sugar cubes will crumble easily and small parts of gravel will fragment into the jar. This is an example of physical weathering. Experiment 2 – Frozen clay The clay should become cracked and broken as the water expands and turns to ice. This is an example of physical weathering.

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Cross-curricular activities

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• Construct a descriptive haiku poem about the desert. A haiku poem must follow these rules: It is only three lines long—line one has five syllables; line two has seven syllables; and line three has five syllables.

• Students use the Internet to find another example of physical weathering that occurs in the desert. Give the hint that it occurs in the cracks of rocks after rain. (Salt crystals form in the cracks and, over time, they grow causing stress to the rock and eventually break the rock apart.) SOSE

English

Science

NSW

ENS 3.5, SSS 3.5

RS 3.5, RS 3.6

ESS 3.6

Vic.

SOGE 0401

SCES 0401, SCES0402

ENRE 0401, ENRE 0402

WA

ICP 4.1, PS 4.2

R 4.1, R 4.4

EB 4, I 3.1, I 3.2, I 3.3, I 3.4

SA

4.4

4.3, 4.11

4.1

Qld

PS 4.2

Refer to curriculum documents on <http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au>

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DESERTS – 1 What is a desert? A desert is a vast dry land with little or no vegetation and less than 250 mm of precipitation (rain or snow) per year. Most deserts have cool winters and very hot summers, some so hot that when rain falls it evaporates before hitting the ground!

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Most deserts are composed of sand, sand dunes and rocky features.

The Sahara Desert in North Africa and the Arabian Desert are examples of deserts in the north. The Peruvian Desert in South America and the Great Sandy Desert in Australia can be found in the southern band. With the sun being directly overhead of the equator, these subtropical areas receive the most intense sunlight. The air is hot and dry with very little moisture. High pressure systems are created which block storms from reaching the desert areas.

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Approximately one-third of the Earth’s surface is covered by desert regions, with deserts existing on every continent of the globe. Most deserts experience extreme temperatures. Some change drastically from severe heat in the day to often below freezing at night, such as in Australian deserts. Other deserts have cold days and nights, such as the Gobi Desert in Asia. High daytime temperatures and low night-time temperatures can make survival in deserts a challenge.

How area deserts shaped? © R. I . C.Pub l i c t i o ns As there are very few plants in the desert to bind the Deserts are formed by atmospheric conditions that soil together, thes windo shapes the landscape •Lowf o rr vi e ur p ose nl y • through prevent rain. rainfall in e a region canw be thep a process called erosion. Dry winds blow sand, result of:

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• wind patterns that form high pressure systems keeping moist air and clouds away (subtropical deserts) • the area being in the centre of a continent, a great distance from an ocean (cold deserts)

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Although rare, when rain occurs in a desert it is usually a heavy downpour. Water rushes over rocky areas without soaking in. Flash floods occur creating raging rivers which collect anything loose in their path. These powerful desert rains erode the landscape and can even shape canyons.

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• nearby mountain ranges acting as a rain barrier (rain-shadow deserts)

• cold ocean currents travelling along a coast preventing rain inland (coastal deserts) • an area being so cold that all water freezes (polar deserts).

Where are deserts found? Most deserts can be found in two bands around the Earth, one along the Tropic of Cancer, in the Northern Hemisphere, and the other along the Tropic of Capricorn, in the Southern Hemisphere.

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exposing pebbles, creating sand dunes and blasting the sand against cliffs, wearing them down.

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How are deserts formed?

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A process called weathering also helps to shape the desert. During the day, rocks heat up and expand. The colder night temperatures cool them down again making the rocks contract and causing them to crack and break. Rockfalls and rock slides are common in deserts. Weathering and erosion cause interesting and often unusual desert features such as arches, bridges and mushroom-shaped rocks. When water from within the Earth reaches a desert surface an oasis occurs, allowing plants to grow and attracting animals and people.

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DESERTS – 2 Use the text on page on page 45 to answer the questions. 1. Answer as ‘true’ or ‘false’. (a) To be classified as a desert, an area must receive exactly 250 mm of rain per year. . ........ (b) The temperatures in the Gobi Desert vary dramatically from daytime to night-time. . ....... (c) The Peruvian Desert is located south of the equator. ........................................................ (d) Erosion is caused in the desert by wind and water. ..........................................................

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(e) An oases appears in the desert after a heavy downpour of rain. . ..................................... 2. Match the type of desert with the cause for low rainfall in the area. •

• Wind patterns keep clouds away.

rain shadow • subtropical

• Cold ocean currents prevent inland rain.

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coastal

• The area is a great distance from any oceans.

polar desert •

• Nearby mountain ranges prevent rain to the area.

cold desert

• The climate is so cold all water freezes.

3. List three reasons why most deserts are found along two bands around the Earth which are close to the equator. • • •

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Wind erosion

Water erosion

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4. In your own words, explain how each of these processes help to shape the desert landscape.

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Weathering

In the Badain Jaran Desert in China and Mongolia, sand dunes are up to 500 metres tall and may be the tallest dunes on Earth. 46

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SHAPING THE DESERT – WEATHERING EXPERIMENTS Weathering is nature’s way of breaking down rocks into smaller particles. Stress placed on rocks by physical weathering can cause them to crack, break apart and crumble. Smaller particles are then carried away by wind or water erosion and will eventually become sand. Collect the relevant equipment and complete the experiments. Weathering experiment 1

Shake, shake, shake

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Materials • handful of sugar cubes

• newspaper

• handful of gravel

Results diagram – sugar

2. Put the sugar cubes in the jar and shake 20 times. Pour the contents of the jar onto the paper. Examine the contents. 3. Carefully return the sugar cubes to the jar and shake another 20 times. Pour the contents onto the paper. Draw the results. 4. Wash and dry the jar.

Results diagram – gravel

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• This experiment demonstrates weathering because …

5. Place the gravel in the jar and shake it 50 times. Pour the contents of the jar onto the newspaper. Draw the results.

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Method 1. Place newspaper over the desk.

• glass jar with screw-top lid

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Weathering experiment 2 Materials • ball of clay

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Results diagram

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• ziplock bag

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Frozen clay

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2. Place it in a ziplock bag and freeze it overnight. 3. Draw the results.

This experiment demonstrates physical weathering because … A gibber desert is when all sand has blown away and only a stony surface remains. Gibber deserts are common in Australia. www.ricpublications.com.au

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TYPES OF DESERTS POWER

TO THE PEOPLE – 2

Indicators • Reads and answers questions about the different types of deserts which occur depending on their location in the world. • Identifies the types of deserts on a world map and labels them.

Worksheet information • An atlas is required for the activity on page 51. Read the instructions for the activity clearly with the students. Encourage students to make an educated guess about the types of deserts before checking the text on page 49 or an atlas. • Parts of the Arctic, the land surrounding the North Pole, are also considered to be polar deserts. • Quiz questions relating to this section can be found on page xviii.

Answers

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Page 50 Desert

Seasons/climate

Soil

Animals and vegetation

Examples

• sand • coarse and rocky

• animals active at night • camels, lizards, coyotes, kangaroo rats • low-lying shrubs, small trees

• Sahara • Arabian • Great Victorian • Thar • Great Sandy • Kalahari

Cold and rain shadow

• snows in the wintertime • winters extremely cold (–40 ºC)

• sand, small stones, gravel

• grasses and small shrubs • animals bury themselves to keep warm • lizards, jack rabbits, scorpions

• Iranian • Great Basin • Patagonian

• Taklamaken • Gobi

Coastal

• long, warm summers • cool and short winters • climate not as harsh • fog above land

• sandy soil, allows rain to seep in ground

• cactus, grasses, salt bush, lichens • coyotes, foxes, jackals, llama, birds, snakes, amphibians

• Atacama

• Namib

Polar

• cold all year • summer temperatures – 0 ºC • winter between –40 ºC to –70 ºC

• sheets of ice • 2% rocky features

• no plants or trees • moss, lichen, fungi • visiting penguins, whales, seals

• Antarctica

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• hot and dry most of the year • mild winters with very little rain

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• Students choose the type of desert they would most like to visit and plan and write a narrative detailing an ‘I shouldn’t be alive’ survival story that centres on a group of friends who are stranded in the desert. Ask: What did they encounter? How did they stay hydrated? How did they conquer the harsh climate? etc. Students can choose an actual desert of their chosen type (coastal/polar/cold/subtropical/rain shadow) and look in an atlas to add factual names and places. • On art paper, students draw, label and colour a side view of a rain shadow desert. Students use their knowledge of the water cycle to add details and labels showing the rain cycle that is occurring with the mountain range preventing rain clouds from reaching the desert area. (Rain falls on the opposite side of the mountain to the desert.)

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SOSE

English

Science

NSW

ENS 3.5, SSS 3.5

RS 3.5, RS 3.6

ESS 3.6

Vic.

SOGE 0401

SCES 0401, SCES0402

ENRE 0401, ENRE 0402

WA

ICP 4.1, PS 4.2

R 4.1, R 4.4

EB 4, I 3.1, I 3.2, I 3.3, I 3.4

SA

4.4

4.3, 4.11

4.1

Qld

PS 4.2, PS 4.6

Refer to curriculum documents on <http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au>

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TYPES OF DESERTS – 1 Deserts form differently depending on where they are located. Desert regions can have extremely varied environments and differ in their climate, soil, features, fauna and flora. The main types of deserts include: Subtropical deserts

Coastal deserts

With less than 250 mm of annual rainfall, subtropical deserts are hot and dry for most of the year. Cloudless skies allow the heat of the day to escape into the atmosphere at night, causing temperatures to drop sharply. Soil is usually coarse and rocky or sand.

Coastal deserts are formed along the western coasts of continents due to cold ocean currents travelling from the North and South poles towards the equator. The cold, dry air above the ocean lacks moisture so little rain moves inland. Fog occurs when the cold winds collide with the hot air above the land. Long, warm summers are followed by cool, short winters. Sandy soil allows rain to seep into the ground and vegetation can grow well. Cactus, grasses, saltbush and lichens can grow.

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Animals that can survive in the desert are mostly active at night to escape the scorching heat. They include kangaroo rats, lizards, coyotes and camels. Vegetation includes low-lying shrubs and small trees.

Examples of subtropical deserts include the Sahara Desert in northern Africa, the Arabian Desert, Great Victorian and Great Sandy Deserts in Australia, the Thar Desert in India/Pakistan and the Kalahari in southern Africa.

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More types of animals can live in these deserts than in subtropical or cold deserts as the climate is not as harsh. Mammals such as coyotes, foxes, jackal and llamas can be found. Seabirds, snakes and amphibians may also be present. Examples of coastal deserts include the Atacama Desert in Chile, South America, and the Namib Desert in southern Africa.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Cold deserts are located far inland, usually at great o rr e i ew pur posesonl y• distances • fromf any oceans andv at higher latitudes. Cold deserts

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Soil can be sand, small stones and gravel. Only specialised plants can survive the bitter cold, such as certain grasses and small shrubs. Animals bury themselves to keep warm and include lizards, jack rabbits and scorpions.

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Cold deserts include the Iranian Desert in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan and the Taklamaken Desert in western China.

Polar deserts

A type of cold desert is a rain shadow desert. These deserts have formed next to mountain ranges which block rain clouds from reaching the land. The clouds lose their moisture as rain on one side of the mountain and the remaining air is blown to the desert area dry of moisture.

Antarctica, situated around the South Pole, is classified as a desert region as it receives only about 50 mm of annual rainfall and the summer temperature may be 0 ºC, with temperatures dropping to between –40 ºC to –70 ºC in winter. The ‘ground’ is made of ice with only about 2% of the land being ice-free, exposing rocky features.

Rain shadow deserts include the Great Basin Desert in the United States (near the Rocky Mountains), the Patagonian Desert (near the Andes) and the Gobi Desert of China (near the Atlay Mountains).

The mammals of Antarctica only come to visit and include penguins, whales and seals. Trees or shrubs can not survive in Antarctica. Plants are limited to moss, lichens and fungi.

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TYPES OF DESERTS – 2 1. Use the information on page 49 to write brief points to complete the table. Seasons/ climate

Soil

Animals and vegetation

Examples

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Cold and rain shadow

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Subtropical

Desert

Polar

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The Atacama Desert of South America, a coastal desert, is the Earth’s driest desert. Measurable rainfall, being 1 millimetre or more of rain, may only occur once every five to 20 years. 50

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Scale 1: 71 500 000 at 45ºN and 45ºS

0

1. Neatly label lines on the map to show the: • equator • Tropic of Cancer • Tropic of Capricorn 2. (a) Consider where different types of deserts are located in the world. Make an educated guess and classify each desert on the map (in pencil) as either: ST – subtropical; C – cold; RS – rain shadow; CS – coastal; or P – polar. (b) Use the text to check your work and make corrections. Colour each type of desert according to the colour key below. • subtropical – red • cold – blue • rain shadow – yellow • coastal – orange • polar – light blue 3. Neatly label each desert by its name.

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Use the information on page 49 and an atlas to complete the activity below.

DESERTS OF THE WORLD

In winter, Antarctica doubles in size as the dramatic drop in temperature causes the sea around the coast to freeze.

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DESERT ANIMALS Indicators • Reads and answers questions about desert animals. • Gains an understanding of opposing points of view and issues that arise from environmental debate.

Worksheet information

• Quiz questions relating to this section can be found on page xix.

• Desert animals have developed a range of adaptations to cope with temperature extremes and water scarcity. Some of these are: – sheltering in burrows, dens or caves – efficient regulation of body temperature (in mammals and birds) – being active during the cooler parts of the day or at night – aestivation (deep sleep during hotter months) – having the ability to obtain moisture from food and/or ability to cope with needing very little water – having the ability to dissipate heat through long ears – pale skin or fur, which absorbs less heat.

Cross-curricular activities

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• Make posters to encourage people to help endangered or threatened desert animals. • With a partner, role-play an interview between a journalist and an endangered desert animal.

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• Read the text on page 55 carefully with the class to make sure they understand the outlined situation. Discuss possible positives and negatives, beginning with the ones detailed in the provided text. The students can then think of their own positives and negatives before they list possible solutions and make a final decision. This activity could be completed in pairs.

Answers Page 54

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Dama gazelle

Countries found

USA, Mexico

Chad, Niger, Mali

Australia

Physical description

domed shell about 15–30 cm in length, strong front feet

graceful antelope, chestnut and white

rabbit-like, long ears, softgrey fur, black and white tail

Diet

grasses, herbs, flowers and other plantlife

shrubs, acacias, grasses

insects, seeds, bulbs, fruit, fungi

Adaptations to desert life

lives in burrows, can obtain moisture from its food, drinks as much rain water as it can

gets most of its water from food, eats juicier leaves of plants, can survive long periods of time with no water

shelters in burrows, obtains most of its water from food, hunts at night, long ears cool body

threatened (Mojave)

critically endangered

vulnerable

habitat destruction, ravens, livestock, illegal capture for pets

hunting, livestock, tree clearing, climate change

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Desert tortoise

Status

Threats

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Bilby

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habitat loss, livestock, introduced predators

SOSE

English

Health/PD/PE

NSW

ENS3.5, SSS3.7

RS3.5, RS3.6, WS3.9

PSS3.5, DMS3.2

Vic.

SOGE0403

ENRE0401, ENRE0404, ENWR0401

HPIP0402

WA

PS4.2, NSS4.1

R4.1, R4.4, W4.1

SMS4, IPS4

SA

4.6

4.3, 4.11

4.4

Qld

PS4.1, PS D4.6

Refer to curriculum documents on <http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au>

PHIC4.3, EPD4.4

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DESERT ANIMALS – 1 The harsh desert environment, with extreme temperatures and little water, is a challenge for any animal to live in. Below are three desert animals which are also unfortunately under threat.

Desert tortoise

Dama gazelle This graceful chestnut and white-coloured antelope lives in the Sahara Desert in northern Africa. It is a nomadic animal, spending the rainy season in the desert but then moving to the moister ‘Sahel’ (the border of the desert) in the dry season. The dama gazelle gains most of it water from its food– shrubs, acacias and grasses. It stands on its hind legs to reach the juicier leaves of a plant. It can survive for long periods of time without water, if necessary.

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Since the 1980s, the Mojave population of this animal has been listed as threatened. This is due to destruction of its habitat for urban development (which in turn has increased numbers of ravens, a predator of the tortoise), competition with livestock for food and illegal capture by people for pets.

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This reptile lives in the Mojave and Sonoran deserts in the USA and Mexico. It has a domed shell about 15–30 cm in length and strong front legs. The tortoise uses these to dig burrows where it spends almost all of its time. The desert tortoise eats grasses, herbs, flowers and other plantlife. It obtains moisture from its food, but when there is rainfall, it takes the opportunity to drink as much water as it can! However, an adult desert tortoise can live for about a year without any water.

Dama gazelles were © R. I . C.Publ i ca t i o nonce scommon in northern Africa, but in the 1950s, its numbers began to decline. This has been due to humans hunting •f orr evi ew pur p os es on l y•with it with modern firearms, competition

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Bilby

grazing livestock, tree clearing for farming and climate change to its desert habitat, which has become drier. Today, the dama gazelle is critically endangered. There are only a few thousand dama gazelles left in the wild. These exist in small fragmented populations in Chad, Niger and Mali.

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This small marsupial mainly lives in fragmented populations in the deserts of central Australia. Its long ears, which help it to cool itself, give it a rabbit-like appearance. The bilby’s body is covered in soft blue-grey fur and it has a distinctive black and white tail. The bilby was once common in many habitats throughout Australia, but over the last 100 years its numbers have declined and its official status is now listed as vulnerable. The main threats to the bilby are habitat loss, competition with livestock for food and introduced predators such as feral cats, foxes and rabbits. Rabbits are a particular problem because they can take over bilby burrows, which a bilby depends on for survival. One bilby may make up to a dozen burrows to shelter in during the heat of the day and each burrow may be up to three metres long! The bilby hunts for food at night, using its long tongue to find insects, seeds, bulbs, fruit and fungi. It obtains most of its water from its food. The bilby is a protected species in Australia and a national recovery program is being developed to help it survive.

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DESERT ANIMALS – 2 Answer the questions using the text on page 53. 1. Complete the chart for the desert tortoise, Dama gazelle and bilby. Desert tortoise

Dama gazelle

Bilby

Countries found

Diet

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Physical description

Adaptations to desert life

Status (e.g. ‘threatened’)

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Threats

2. (a) Give reasons why you think humans should help to protect threatened or endangered animals.

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(b) Which type of threat listed in the table above do you think is the most easy to control? Explain why.

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DESERT HOTEL Imagine that a plan to build an international hotel complex in the Australian desert is announced. The only possible site is an area where bilbies live, so building the complex would mean destroying the bilbies’ habitat. The hotel owners say that they will do their best to catch the bilbies and relocate them before building begins. The local community has mixed feelings about the proposed hotel. Many townsfolk are excited because the hotel will bring much-needed jobs and money to the community. Some are conscious only of the environment. Others can see both points of view but have yet to make up their minds.

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Proposed hotel

Positives

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You have been asked to talk to the community about the issue. You need to identify and take into account the positive and negative aspects of the proposed hotel complex and suggest a solution that will please most people—and help the bilbies too!

Negatives

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The desert tortoise spends about 95% of its life in its burrow!

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DESERT FLORA

DESERT FLORA Indicators

Cross-curricular activities

• Reads and completes answers about desert plants.

• Discuss the best ways to retain or replace water after exercise on hot days. Consider the effectiveness of using various types of sports drinks and fizzy drinks to combat thirst.

• Carries out and devises experiments to show properties of desert plants.

Worksheet information • Photosynthesis (photo=‘light’, synthesis=‘putting together’), is the synthesis of glucose from sunlight, carbon dioxide and water, with oxygen as a waste product; the process by which light energy is converted to chemical energy. It is considered to be the most important biochemical pathway known because nearly all life depends on it. It is an extremely complex process consisting of many coordinated biochemical reactions.

• Research paintings of desert flora; for example, the ‘Cactus Series’ by Ron Gang and ones of cactus and yucca by Paul Brent. Discuss the use of colour and texture to create the images. Compare the colours and techniques used with those of Albert Namatjira’s ghost gum paintings.

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• Read Cactus Hotel, written by Brenda Z Guiberson and illustrated by Megan Lloyd, which tells simply how animals use the remains of dead plants for their homes. Use the format to write a book for younger children telling about other desert plants.

Answers

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• Quiz questions relating to this section can be found on page xix.

Page 58 1. store water in leaves, roots or stems; have long tap roots to reach water table; have small, thick leaves with a thick outer layer; carry out photosynthesis at night time 2. Hairy or woolly leaves shade the surface area of the plant and reduce transpiration. Silvery or glossy leaves reflect radiant heat from the sun.

3. Geophytes are plants with fleshy, bulbs which grow underground and which sprout after heavy rain, then grow and die very quickly.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

4. Desert plants grow spikes (and can smell and taste unpleasant) to deter animals from eating them. 5.

Cactuses

• large, complex root system to collect water over wide area • top dies off, roots still alive underground • retards erosion of desert soil by sand-laden winds

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• places for desert birds to nest • provide shelter • flat leaves (spines) to reduce water loss • soak up and store water • less evaporation due to small surface area • large, shallow root system

Grasses

Page 59 Teacher check

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Science

NSW

ENS3.5

RS3.5, RS3.6, WS3.9

LTS3.3, PPS3.4, UTS 3.9, ESS3.6, INVS3.7

Vic.

SOGE0401

ENRE0401, ENRE0404, ENWR0401

SCBS0401, SCB0402

WA

ICP 4.1, NSS 4.1, PS 4.1

R 4.1, R 4.4, W 4.1

I 4.1, I 4.2, EC 4, LL 4

SA

3.5, 4.4

3.3, 4.3, 3.4, 4.4, 4.11

3.5, 4.5

Qld

PS DS 4.6

Refer to curriculum documents on <http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au>

LL 4.1, LL 4.3

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DESERT FLORA – 1 Vegetation in both hot and dry and cold desert regions is sparse due to the lack of rain. However, desert plants have adapted in many ingenious and diverse ways to survive in their environment. Cactuses are the most well-known desert plants. They provide places for desert birds to build their nests and provide shelter in the same way as most trees do. The leaves of cactuses are flattened to reduce water loss, with many, in fact, being spines. Well-known cactuses include the saguaro in North and South America, the barrel cactus and the prickly pear. Cacti are succulents. Succulents soak up water when it is available and store it for use later. Evaporation is reduced due to the small surface area of the plants and a large, shallow root system allows succulents to soak up any water which may reach the ground.

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Many plants are able to store water in their leaves, roots or stems. Others have long tap roots which sink deep into the ground to reach the water table to survive. Some plants, such as succulents, protect themselves from the harsh weather by having small, thick leaves covered with a thick outer layer. Others, such as yuccas, prickly pear and agaves, only carry out photosynthesis at night when evaporation rates are lower.

Grasses are hardy plants which can be found in most environments around the world. They usually have large, complex root systems which enable them to collect water from over a wide area. Even though the part of the plant which grows above ground dies during hot, dry spells, the root system is still alive. Grasses and other desert plants play an important part in retarding erosion of desert soils by sand-laden winds.

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Plants with hairy or woolly leaves shade the surface of the plant and reduce transpiration. Those with silvery or glossy leaves are able to reflect radiant energy from the sun. (Unfortunately, these plants do not taste or smell very pleasant!)

Mention the desert and our thoughts automatically conjure the image of the stark shadow of a saguaro cactus silhouetted against a brilliant desert sunset. Rarely do we picture a mass of brightly coloured wildflowers blooming under a hot desert sun or stop to think that these unique plants have become the way they are for the simple reason that they have had to adopt their present forms in order to survive in a harsh environment.

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Other plants avoid long periods without water by only allowing their seeds to germinate after heavy rain. Then, within a few days, they grow and die. During their short life cycle, many provide a mass of brightly coloured flowers for pollination. Geophytes are similar plants, storing food underground in fleshy bulbs, complete their life cycle very quickly. Desert plants are not only able to withstand harsh conditions but can also protect themselves against being eaten by animals by growing spikes or other deterrents.

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DESERT FLORA – 2 Use the text on page 57 to complete the following. 1. List the four (4) ways mentioned in the second paragraph in which desert plants have adapted to survive in their environment. • • • •

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2. Explain the importance of having different types of leaves.

3. What are geophytes?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons f o rr vi e wp ubeing r peaten os sonl y• 4. Write one way in• which plants cane protect themselves from bye animals.

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DESERT PLANT SCIENCE Some desert plants have the ability to reflect radiant heat energy from the sun by growing silvery leaves, which reduces transpiration. Others have thick, waxy leaves, which reduce evaporation and help to retain moisture. 1. Follow the steps to complete these simple experiments. (Tick each step off as your complete them.) (a) How waxy leaves work Materials sheet of wax paper, small quantity of water in a container, eye-dropper

Materials four boxes with lids painted different colours— silver, red, black, yellow; four thermometers to place inside the boxes

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Method • Collect and drip some drops of water onto the wax paper. • Observe what happens to the drops of water. Results

Method • Place one thermometer inside each box and place the lid back on.

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(b) Why silvery leaves reduce transpiration

• Put the four boxes in direct sunlight for an hour or two.

• After the time has expired, read and record the temperature on each thermometer.

Results

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Conclusion

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NOTE This experiment can be repeated using a cutting from a succulent plant with the drops of water placed on the outer skin. The cutting may also be squeezed to see the amount of moisture contained inside.

2. On a separate sheet of paper, devise your own experiments to show: (a) how long tap roots help desert plants survive (b) how grasses help prevent erosion of desert soil. Barrel cactus can be stewed to make a food similar to cabbage. The spines can be used to make fish hooks and the pulp can be a source of water and ‘cactus candy’. www.ricpublications.com.au

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2

SAHARA DESERT Indicators

Answers

• Reads and answers questions about the Sahara Desert.

Page 62 1. Area: Av. rainfall: Highest temp: Lowest temp: Population:

• Researches to plan a Saharan Desert travel itinerary.

Worksheet information

2. Answers should indicate that the climate was wetter and there were forests, grasslands and more animals.

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• Quiz questions relating to this section can be found on page xx.

3. (a) a shifting sand sea (b) an underground water reserve (c) an area in the desert with ground water at or near the surface 4. Teacher check

Cross-curricular activities

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• To complete the activity on page 63, students will need access to the Internet (type ‘Sahara tour’ into a search engine), encyclopedias and/or travel brochures. Travel brochures would be beneficial as they clearly demonstrate the type of descriptive language required for this activity. Once the students have read their research material carefully and therefore understand what is involved in touring the Sahara (for example, their guests may need to sleep in tents and eat traditional Berber food), they can complete Question 1. Question 2 could be completed after writing a draft on a separate sheet of paper or, if teachers prefer a fuller itinerary, the space provided could be used to make notes, which the students could then use to create a more detailed itinerary or travel brochure on a separate sheet of paper or card. Illustrations could then also be added.

9 million square kilometres (approx.) less than 100 mm per year 58 ºC –6 ºC 2 million

• Write a report about the main groups of people that live in the Sahara Desert.

• Shade the area the Sahara Desert covers on a map of Africa. Compare to the size of other countries and/or desert areas around the world.

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SOSE

English

NSW

ENS3.6, CUS3.4

RS3.5, RS3.6, WS3.9

Vic.

SOGE0401

ENRE0401, ENRE0404, ENWR0401, ENWR0404

WA

ICP4.2, ICP4.3, PS4.2

R4.1, R4.2, R4.4, W4.1, W4.2, W4.3

SA

4.1, 3.5

3.3, 3.4, 3.11

Qld

PS4.3

Refer to curriculum documents on <http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au>

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SAHARA DESERT – 1 M E D IT

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Despite the harsh climate, the Sahara Desert supports a variety of plant and animal life, all of which have developed special adaptations to the desert climate. Plants that can be found in the Sahara are mostly grasses, shrubs and trees such as cypress, olive and acacia. Saharan animals include gazelles, desert hedgehogs, baboons, fennec foxes, hyenas, frogs, snakes, ostriches and a number of migratory birds.

D SE

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RS

A OF GULF N ADE

GU L F OF G U I N E A

AT L A N T I C

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AFRICA

INDIAN OCEAN 0

500

1 000

1 500

1 : 42 000 000

The Sahara Desert is the world’s largest hot desert. ‘Sahara’ comes from an Arabic word meaning ‘desert’. Covering most of North Africa, the Sahara Desert covers an area of about nine million square kilometres. When you consider that Australia covers about seven million square kilometres, you can get some idea of how vast this desert is. The Sahara is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean, the Atlas mountains, the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea and the Sahel region. It runs through the countries of Morocco, Mauritania, Mali, Algeria, Tunisia, Niger, Chad, Sudan, Libya and Egypt.

People have lived in the Sahara Desert for thousands of years. Until about 6000 years ago, desert people had a much easier life than they do today! This is because the Saharan climate was once much wetter and the region even included forests and grasslands. Archaeologists have discovered artefacts which prove that ancient Saharan people lived by hunting, farming and fishing. Animals like giraffe, elephants and hippopotamuses also lived in the Sahara. But then, within a few hundred years, climate change caused the Sahara to turn into the arid desert we know today.

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OCEAN

The desert as a whole averages less than 100 mm of rain per year. But rainfall can be torrential when it does occur, causing flash floods.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Today, about two million people •f orr evi ew pur po se s on l y(mostly • of Arab or Berber ancestry) live in the Sahara Desert. Some

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The Sahara Desert has a range of geographical features, including oases (areas with ground water at or near the surface) plateaus, mountains and plains. Most of the surface is gravel and stone. About a quarter of the Sahara is made up of shifting sand seas or ‘ergs’. Ergs can form sand dunes up to 200 metres high. In Algeria and Libya, large deposits of natural gas and oil lie under the surface.

live in villages near oases which provide water for crops like dates, barley and wheat. People also drill deep wells to access water in underground reserves called ‘aquifers’. Other desert people live as nomads, continually moving with their herds of sheep, goats, camels or cows to find water and grazing land. The most common form of transport in the Sahara Desert is the camel, which was brought to the Sahara about 2000 years ago and is well-suited to desert life.

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The harsh Saharan climate is extremely hot during the day, with average daily temperatures reaching just over 40º C but able to climb to as high as 58 ºC! Night-time is cooler and freezing temperatures have been recorded—as low as –6 ºC. www.ricpublications.com.au

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SAHARA DESERT – 2 Answer the questions using the text on page 61. 1. Complete these number facts about the Sahara Desert. Add two more of your own from the text. Area Average rainfall Highest temperature Lowest temperature Number of people

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2. Explain in your own words why people living in the Sahara 6000 years ago might have had an easier life than Saharan people do today.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons 3. Write definitions for these words. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

• erg

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• aquifer

• oasis (singular of ‘oases’)

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4. Would you prefer life as a Saharan nomad or villager? Give reasons for your choice.

More people have drowned in the Sahara Desert (from flash floods) than have died from heat or thirst! 62

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SAHARAN TOUR Imagine you work for a tour company which provides four-wheel drive and camel tours of parts of the Sahara desert. Use the Internet and other resources to plan a four-day itinerary that takes in at least three major sights or desert features. Your tour should take place in one or two Saharan countries only. 1. Begin by reading about some real Saharan tours. Use the information to help you choose which country/countries you would like to focus on and which age group you would like your tour to be aimed at. Then write notes in the spaces below.

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Country/countries:

Age group of tourists:

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Sights/features:

Mode of transport: Type of accommodation: Food:

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons o ryour e v i e winp r p os eenticing so(exciting nl y 2. Use your • notesf to help write an itinerary theu spaces below. Use and• descriptive)

language to make your tour sound as exciting as possible! Day 2

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About 1200 species of plant can be found in the Sahara Desert.

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BOUNTIFUL DESERTS

THREE GENERATIONS OF PRIME MINISTERS – 2 Answers

Indicators

• Reads and answers questions about the naturally occurring resources found in the desert.

Page 66 1. (a) solid, liquid, gas

• Researches information for an indepth understanding of one mineral found in the desert.

(b) Choose from: • solid – lead, silver, copper, gold, iron, gem stones (opal, sapphire, diamond) • liquid – oil • gas – natural gas

Worksheet information

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• Plate tectonics is also responsible for the movement of the ocean basins. Continental drift and collision with other continental plates results in the movement of the basins from the mild climate areas where the organic substances are deposited to the deserts and poles where many oil fields are located. • The process of creating fossil fuels takes millions of years, which allows sufficient time for the oil and gas reserves to migrate around the globe with the movement of the Earth’s plates. The mature oil and gas becomes accessible when it is freed from the basins by tectonic forces and then trapped in reservoirs from which it is mined.

2.

(a) false (b) false (c) true (d) true

3. The ‘Sea of Hope’ is the nickname of the Taklimakan Desert in China. It was given this name by geologists who expect it to yield large amounts of oil and gas.

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• Most of the oil and gas deposits in the world today is located in deserts, arctic areas, river deltas and offshore continental margins. These fossil fuels are the product of the rapid burial of dead micro-organisms in places lacking in oxygen. The absence of oxygen means the microbes do not decompose and their chemical bonds (hydrogen-carbon), which are essential for the production of the fuels, remain intact. Plate tectonics, which is the theory of geology that explains recorded evidence of movement of the earth’s lithosphere (the solid outer shell of the planet), create ocean basins which provide the required conditions for this rapid burial in oxygen-starved waters.

4. Include: Located in isolated places and distances too far to travel to each day from the nearest town. Services such as food, housing, recreation and medicine were required by the mine owners and their workers. 5. Include: Isolation from family, expense of transporting goods to communities reflected in their prices, not much to do in spare time, no escape from the heat. 6. Teacher check. Possibly oil, as it pervades so many areas of our lives and everyone would eventually notice the effects if it were to disappear.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Cross-curricular activities •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

• Quiz questions relating to this section may be found on page xx.

• Make a collection of pictures of coloured gem stones. Annotate each one explaining how the stone gained its colour.

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• On an outline of a world map, shade in areas to show the world’s major oil fields. Highlight those which are located in a desert region. • Write a guide for taking tourists on a trip into an underground mine. Use diagrams to explain your descriptions.

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SOSE

English

NSW

ENS3.5

RS3.5, WS3.9

Vic.

SOGE 0401

ENRE0401, ENRE0404

WA

PS 4.1

R4.1, R4.4

SA

3.5, 4.5

3.7, 4.7, 3.8, 4.8

Qld

PS4.1

Refer to curriculum documents on <http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au>

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BOUNTIFUL DESERTS – 1

Deserts appear to be barren environments, supporting only a few hardy, well-adapted plant and animal species. But scratch beneath the surface and there is another story to tell. Millions of years ago, as geological forces created the shape of the land, the Earth created many minerals which have been discovered by generations of miners.

© R. I . C.Pub l i ca t i o nshas been gold, deposits of the most famous discovery which have been found all over the country. It was first •f orr evi ew pur po se sino nl y • mined in the 1850s Victoria. Almost fifty years later,

Mining is the extraction of naturally occurring minerals in solid, liquid or gas form such as coal, gems and ores, crude oil and natural gas. The process for extracting solid minerals can occur either as open-cut, if the mineral is close to the surface, or underground, if the minerals are deep in the Earth’s surface or if they occur as veins sandwiched in hard rock.

Kalgoorlie-Boulder in Western Australia developed and thrived as a famous gold mining town.

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The Sahara Desert in North Africa and the Arabian Desert of the Middle East contain a vast portion of the For over 2000 years, hidden desert treasures have world’s known crude oil reserves. These underground been mined. The Eastern Desert, between the River reservoirs, which are now being mined by the world’s Nile and the Red Sea, was rich in minerals and the oil companies, were created millions of years ago. ancient Egyptians mined the ores of copper, gold and Large reserves of natural gas are found in many iron before extracting the pure metals. Depending deserts regions around the world; for example, the on the properties of each metal, they were used to Taklimakan Desert in China has been nicknamed the make jewellery, domestic and agricultural tools and ‘Sea of Hope’ by Chinese geologists as it is expected weapons. to yield vast quantities of oil and gas.

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Australia is one of the world’s leading mining nations, with substantial quantities of minerals lying close to the surface of its vast, inhospitable interior. Since 1841, when lead was the first metal to be mined in Australia, silver, copper, gold, uranium, tin, zinc, iron and many more have also been discovered and mined.

Most of the population of Australia lives close to the coast and mining occurs in isolated desert regions in which communities develop around the industry. In spite of the relatively low population of these areas, the minerals industry has a duty to protect the environment in which it works by managing it responsibly. The desert is an important biome which While precious gem stones such as opal, sapphire and supports a unique blend of plant and animal species diamond are extracted from Australia’s desert regions, whose habitat should be protected.

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BOUNTIFUL DESERTS – 2 Use the text on page 65 to complete the following. 1. (a) Name the three forms in which naturally occurring minerals can be found. (b) Give an example of a mineral found in the desert in each form.

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2. Answer as ‘true’ or ‘false’.

(a) Mining in deserts has only started recently.............................................

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(b) All mining requires underground drilling.................................................. (c) Many minerals have been mined in Australia..........................................

(d) Gem stones occur in deserts................................................................... 3. Where is the ‘Sea of Hope’ and why is it so-called?

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5. What disadvantages do you think there would have been to living in an isolated mining community in the 19th century?

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6. Of all the deserts’ minerals, which do you think is the most important? Explain your answer.

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JEWEL OF THE DESERT 1. (a) Choose one mineral which can be found in the desert. (b) Research information to complete the table. On separate paper, draw diagrams and maps if appropriate. Mineral

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Where it is found

How it was formed

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2. Present the information in the table as an oral report. Coober Pedy in South Australia is recognised as the world’s largest producer of opals.

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DESERT FEATURES Indicators

Cross-curricular activities

• Reads and answers questions about common physical features of deserts.

• Create a desert diorama using a shoebox.

• Performs experiments to discover how wind affects sand dunes.

• View pictures of different types of sand dunes. Use their shapes to inspire abstract artworks.

Worksheet information • Some of the sand dune types found in deserts include barchan, longitudinal, transverse and star.

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• To complete the activity on page 71, students will require a large, clear floor space covered in newspaper. The experiments could be completed outside, provided they are conducted in a sheltered area with no wind. Ensure that students are wearing goggles and use the hairdryer on a cold setting.

Answers

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• Quiz questions relating to this section may be found on page xxi.

Page 70 1. Answers will vary but should include six of the following: sand dunes, mesas, buttes, oases, gravelly plains, dry lake beds, dry stream channels and mountains. 2. (a) Through wind and water erosion. (b) From snow or rainfall on faraway mountains which has seeped into the ground.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

(c) When fast-flowing water in stream beds erodes desert mountains and carries gravel and minerals to a canyon or valley, forming fan-shaped deposits. 3. Teacher check

4. Answers should indicate that their shape varies according to the wind and the surface of the land.

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5. Because they occur over such vast areas that they resemble moving ocean waves. Page 71 Overall, students should discover that:

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• vegetation, rocks and other materials in/on a sand dune means less wind erosion • sand dunes will migrate if the wind is at the right angle

• wind can change the shape of a sand dune through erosion.

SOSE

English

Science

NSW

SSS3.7

RS3.5, RS3.6, WS3.9

ESS3.6, INVS3.7

Vic.

SOGE0401

ENRE0401, ENRE0404, ENWR0401

SCPS0402, SCES0401

WA

PS4.2, NSS4.1

R4.1, R4.4, W4.1

I4.2, EB4, EC4, NPM4

SA

3.5

4.3, 4.11

4.7, 4.8

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PS4.2

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NPM4.2, EC4.1, EB4.1

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DESERT FEATURES – 1

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There are many hot deserts in the world, all of which have their own distinctive features. But hot deserts also have many features in common. These features have been formed by wind, water and deposits of different sediments and include sand dunes, mesas, buttes and oases.

© R. I . C.Pub i c at i on sof water having an effect It l may sound strange to think on desert landforms when you consider that average •f orr evi ew pur po se o l yBut, •apart from the yearly rainfall is s so low inn a desert!

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The majority of a desert is made up of gravelly plains, dry lake beds and stream channels and rocky landforms such as mountains, mesas and buttes. Mesas and buttes are isolated flat-topped hills or mountains found in arid regions of the world, with mesas being generally larger than buttes. Both of these landforms are formed by wind and water erosion. www.ricpublications.com.au

fact that mesas and buttes can take millions of years to form, it is important to remember that when rain does fall in a desert, it can be extremely heavy. In fact, it can be so heavy that it can fill dry lake beds, creating temporary lakes, and also fill dry stream channels, sometimes causing flash floods. The fast-flowing water in the stream beds also gradually erodes the rocks of desert mountains and carries gravel, sand, silt and other minerals to canyons or valleys. These deposits can form a fan-shape known as an ‘alluvial fan’.

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Most of us tend to think of deserts as sandy places – but, in fact, sand only covers approximately 10–20% of the world’s deserts. The sand found in deserts is rich in minerals such as salt and uranium. Most desert sand occurs as dunes; mounds of loose sand that have been produced by the wind. Dunes can be classified into a number of different types according to how they were formed and their shape; for example, ‘barchan’ dunes are created by wind blowing across a flat surface, forming crescent-shaped dunes. Sand dunes can also migrate or move across a desert as the grains of sand are blown by the wind. Desert dunes commonly occur over vast areas, which makes them resemble moving ocean waves. For this reason, a large group of dunes is often called a ‘sand sea’. Particularly large sand seas are found in desert areas of Australia, Asia and Africa.

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Another feature which is found only in a desert is known as an ‘oasis’. This is a vegetated area where ground water is found at or near the surface of the earth, allowing wells or springs to occur. Sometimes oases are artificial and are supported by irrigation. Most oases are farming areas, supporting crops and permanent settlements. Some oases are tiny and can only sustain one family, but other oases are huge and can provide for thousands of people. The water in an oasis originates from rain or snowfall on faraway mountains which has seeped into the ground. Wet and dry environments

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DESERT FEATURES – 2 Answer the questions using the text on page 69. 1. List six common features of hot deserts.

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2. Explain how the following desert features are created. (a) mesas and buttes

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(b) oases

(c) alluvial fans

3. Write four interesting facts about rainfall in deserts you learnt from the text. • • • •

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4. Why do you think sand dunes occur in different shapes?

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5. Why is a group of sand dunes called a ‘sand sea’?

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SAND DUNE SCIENCE Try this experiment in a small group to find out how wind affects sand dunes. Materials • 2 identical deep-sided trays or pans • 2 litres of clean sand • twigs, pebbles and clumps of grass • a hairdryer Safety • goggles W ear your • newspaper Instructions

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2. Pour 1 litre of sand into each tray and level off the sand. 3. Push pebbles, twigs and grass clumps into the sand in Tray 1. 4. Switch on the hairdryer and set it to a low speed. Hold it at a 45º angle approximately 10 cm from one end of Tray 1. Leave it on for 1 minute

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1. Cover a large area with newspaper. Place the trays on top.

goggles a ta times whe ll n the hairdryer is on.

8. Move the hairdryer about 10 cm to the right or left and leave it on for a minute. Draw what the dune looks like now.

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5. Repeat Instruction 4 with Tray 2, then compare what happened to the sand in the two trays.

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6. With the sand in Tray 2, make a barchan (crescentshaped) dune that resembles the picture at the top of the page.

7. Switch the hairdryer onto a low speed and direct it at the dune at a low angle. Experiment until you can make grains of sand roll up the side of the dune. Hold the hairdryer still for about a minute. Write what happens.

Conclusions

Write two things you have learnt about wind and sand dunes from completing these experiments. Compare your conclusions with those of other groups. • •

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KALAHARI BUSHMEN

UNITED NATIONS – 2

Indicators

Answers

• Reads and answers questions about Kalahari Bushmen

Page 76 1. (b)

• Analyses and reproduces rock paintings.

2. Some rock paintings have been dated to be about 20 000 years old.

Worksheet information

3. They use arrows dipped in a deadly poison. 4. Their small bows would have a limited range.

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• The small reproductions of rock paintings on the worksheet can be used for Exercises 1 and 2, but coloured photos from books or the Internet would provide the students with a greater appreciation of the rock art.

5. Many of their names are considered to be derogatory by some people so there is disagreement and confusion. 6–7. Teacher check

Page 77 1–2. Teacher check

Cross-curricular activities

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• Europeans first encountered Bushman rock art about 350 years ago. At that time, it was considered as primitive and crude accounts of daily life, fighting and hunting, but, during the 20th century, it was appreciated for its fine detail and exquisite colour as well as its rich narrative accounts. More recently, closer examination and research have revealed that when the sharmans put paint on the rock, they believed they were capturing the spirit of the animals they portrayed, which could be called on later. Although rock painting ceased about 100 years ago, rituals to evoke the paintings are still carried out by some groups. Men dance around fires all night and women clap and sing until the spiritual power of the images ‘boil’ within them. Shaman, often bent over in pain and sometimes with blood coming from their noses, enter the spirit world becoming the animal and using its power, for example, to make rain or cure the sick. The paintings of a spirit world were usually made later, when the shaman had recovered from the experience to become a portal to that place of being.

• Write a letter from a Kalahari Bushman to his grandson, explaining why his past way of life, living in his traditional lands, was so much better than his grandson’s today. • Watch the film The gods must be crazy and write ten facts learnt about the Kalahari Bushmen’s desert environment. • Listen to a recording of someone speaking or singing in a language using the unique clicking sound and try to copy it.

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• Quiz questions relating to this section may be found on page xxi.

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SOSE

English

Creative Arts

NSW

ENS3.6

RS3.5 RS3.6 WS3.9

VAS3.1 VAS3.3 VAS3.4

Vic.

SOES0401

ENRE0401 ENRE0404 ENWR0401

ARAR0401 ARAR0403 ARAR0404

WA

ICP4.4 PS4.2 C4.1 C4.3 NSS4.2

V4.1 V4.2 V4.3 V4.4R4.1 R4.4 W4.1

ASP4 AR4 AIS4

SA

4.1 3.3 3.7

3.3 3.4 3.7 3.11

3.1 4.2 3.4 3.5 4.6

Qld

TCC4.4 CI4.5

Refer to curriculum documents on <http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au>

VA4.1 VA4.2 VA4.3

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KALAHARI BUSHMEN – 1 Some of the world’s best known groups of people are collectively known as Bushmen and live in the Kalahari, a vast desert stretching across south-west Africa. This desert is one of the most inhospitable places on Earth. There are about 100 000 Bushmen living in Botswana, Namibia, Angola and South Africa. Ancient rock paintings of their lives and times and the animals they hunted, lead researchers to believe that they are probably one of the oldest people in the world. Writers and others have found the Bushmen so different and interesting, that many films, documentaries, books and articles have been produced about them.

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Bushmen are generally very short and have yellowishbrown skin. Their noses are broad and they have prominent foreheads and cheekbones. Their ears sit flat on their heads. An interesting feature of the languages they speak is the unique clicking sound.

water pumps by elephants do not make farming easy in the difficult, dry environment. The Bushmen’s diet has changed and they now eat domesticated animals, mealie (a type of grain) and garden produce. Because of their wonderful hunting and tracking skills, some Bushmen are employed by the army to track guerillas or by farmers to track down poachers on their properties.

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The word ‘Bushman’ is considered to be derogatory and unacceptable by some people because they think it means that these people are from the bush and not as good as others. Some people prefer the name ‘San’, but others disagree because ‘San’ means ‘outsider’ in the Nama language. Other names have been suggested, but ‘Bushman’ is the probably the most widely known one.

Bushmen have traditionally made all their decisions between themselves and shared everything, including the meat they killed. Women and men are believed to be relatively equal and children are well behaved and treated kindly. Their groups have never had chiefs to make decisions or speak for them. Now many Bushmen feel they have lost control of their lands, but they have difficulty speaking in one strong voice because they lack leadership. Many Bushmen continue to fight the governments of their countries for the right to live and hunt on their traditional desert lands.

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Traditionally, Bushmen were nomadic hunters of wild animals and gatherers of food, mainly roots and tubers. They only took what they were able to carry with them, including water in ostrich shells, and lived in small bands moving around according to the seasons and the availability of food. During the dry season, groups came together near waterholes where the animals gathered because they needed to stay near the water. The Bushmen were expert archers. Their bows were only small so they had to be excellent hunters and trackers to enable them to get close to animals without being detected. They used arrowheads tipped with a deadly poison made from the larvae of a particular beetle.

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In more recent times, many Bushmen have been relocated and live in semi-permanent villages because their food sources have been destroyed by farming. Cattle have eaten the wild food plants Bushmen used to eat and they are unable to hunt on the game reserves established on their lands. In 1965, a fence was built between Botswana and Nambia which separated many of the wild animals the Bushmen depended on for food, from their water sources. Thousands of animals perished when they couldn’t get through the fence. Now, many bushmen keep cattle and grow food in their gardens, but problems like the destruction of their www.ricpublications.com.au

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KALAHARI BUSHMEN – 2 Use the text on page 73 to complete the following. 1. Kalahari Bushmen are easily identified because: (a) they are short. (b) their languages use a clicking sound. (c) their skin is yellowish-brown. (d) they have brown eyes. The best answer is

.

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5. Explain the difficulty in deciding on an acceptable name for these people.

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2. Explain why people believe Kalahari Bushmen have lived in the desert for over 20 000 years?

© R . I . C . P ubl i cat i ons 3. Why do Kalahari Bushmen only need to hit an 6. Explain what many Bushmen do, how they live animal with an • arrowf ino order to kill it? today and how their lives have changed. rr evi ew pu r p o se s o nl y•

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4. Why do Bushmen need to be able to get close to animals before they can shoot them?

7. Why do you think they want to return to their traditional lands?

The 1980s comedy The gods must be crazy is an amusing, well-known story about a Kalahari Bushman’s first encounter with a modern artefact, a Coke™ bottle.

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KALAHARI ROCK ART Rock paintings by Kalahari Bushmen have been preserved, often in caves, for thousands of years. 1. Look at the two Kalahari Bushmen paintings that have been reproduced below and answer the questions about your reactions to one or both of them.

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(b) What skills, techniques and processes have been used?

(c) How do you feel about the paintings?

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(a) What are some of the ideas expressed in the paintings?

(d) What do these paintings tell you about Bushman culture and society?

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2. Choose one of the rock paintings above or another you have researched from a book or the Internet to reproduce in colour.

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A 6-metre cave mural discovered in 1993 gave new insight into the Bushmen’s spiritual world. The paintings didn’t just tell about their lives, but were part of important rituals in which animal spirits were evoked by shaman. www.ricpublications.com.au

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SAUDI ARABIA – THE EMPTY QUARTER Indicators

Answers

• Reads and answers questions about two famous explorers of the ‘Empty Quarter’.

Page 78 1. (a) plan (b) travelled through (c) put up with (d) supplies of food, water and medicine

• Researches information related to desert survival in order to produce an information brochure for prospective desert travellers.

2. Yes; both explorers noted animal and plant life on their journeys.

Worksheet information

3. Attacks by local tribes; empty wells; extreme cold; lack of water; severe sand storms.

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• For the survival activity, students may research information from various sources, such as the Internet, park ranger services, survival guides, military personnel etc. A useful website is: <http://www.desertusa.com/mag99/mar/stories/desertsur. html>

4. Teacher check; possibly hoping to discover great wealth. 5. Teacher check; possibly to be the first to discover unknown lands; thrive on the challenge. Page 79 Teacher check

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• The ‘Empty Quarter’ is the English translation of the Arabic name Rub’ Al Khali. It is one of the largest sand deserts in the world, with an area of approximately 650 000 km2, and boasting sand dunes as tall as 330 m. The area was formed around two million years ago and is not inhabited by humans. However, the Bedouin people inhabit the area’s edges and follow an almost traditional existence. Even with extreme temperatures of 55 °C in the summer, arachnids, rodents, birds and plant life survive there and have for thousands of years. On a recent expedition by trained scientists, many unexpected discoveries were made in the desert. Scientists discovered fossilised remains of hippos, water buffalo, sheep, goats, oryxes, gazelles and camels. Clam shells and chipped stone tools were also uncovered, which supports the belief that the area was home to Neolithic humans, who hunted along the banks of great lakes.

Cross-curricular activities

• Select another desert and research any past exploration of the area. Share your information as a presentation with your class. Remember to include a map of the desert area, information on the people, any interesting facts and how they survived. • Design and make a ‘Desert survival kit’ which can be carried by a person who is stranded in the desert. It must be compact and light by design and include all necessary items for survival in a desert environment.

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• Quiz questions relating to this section can be found on page xxiii.

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SOSE

English

Science

NSW

ENS3.6

RS3.5, RS3.6, WS3.9, WS3.12

LTS3.3

Vic.

SOGE0401

ENRE0401, ENRE0404, ENWR0401, ENWR0404

SCBS0401

WA

PS4.2, R4.2, C4.1, C4.2, C4.3

V4.2, R4.1, R4.4, W4.1

LL4

SA

4.1, 4.6

4.3, 4.4, 4.8

4.5, 4.6

Qld

Refer to curriculum documents on <http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au>

LL4.3

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SAUDI ARABIA – THE EMPTY QUARTER – 1 Bertram Thomas

Harry St John Philby

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Harry St John Philby had a passion for exploring and the Arabian culture. In January 1932, he set off with a group of men and 32 camels to cross the Empty Quarter from Al-Hufuf in the north to As Sulayyil in the south.

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Bertram Thomas was the first Englishman to cross the Empty Quarter between the end of 1930 and late February 1931. He developed a plan to cross the Empty Quarter from south to north in secrecy as he thought his proposal would be rejected if he sought permission. He set off from Salalah to Ad Dawhah with his men and 15 camels packed with provisions. The plan was to travel from well to well. This was often dangerous, as this approach left them open to attack by local tribes and often wells would be dry.

During his journey, he collected specimens of insects, named birdlife and collected pottery. He discovered arrow heads and found that the climate had been much different in the past. He was keen to discover the famous lost city of Ubar—a city wealthy beyond belief. Instead he discovered the huge Wabar meteorite crater where the heat of the impact had blackened the sands and turned the area to glass. There had been no rain in the area for 30 years and the Philby party travelled for over 600 km without access to fresh water. It took them two and half months to complete their journey.

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Thomas was a keen scientist who took regular weather readings, made records of plant and animal life and navigated his way using the stars and the sun. The group travelled across huge mountains and flat gravel plains. Thomas and his men endured severe sand storms, extreme thirst and bitter cold.

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SAUDI ARABIA – THE EMPTY QUARTER Answer the questions using the text on page 77. 1. What do these words from the text mean? (a) proposal: (b) navigated: (c) endured: (d) provisions:

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2. Does life exist in The Empty Quarter? Explain.

3. What perils did Bertram Thomas face on his journey?

4. Why do you think Philby was keen to discover Ubar?

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5. What do you think makes a person want to explore such an arid region?

Extremely strong north-westerly winds called ‘shamals’ blow during late spring and early summer. Sand is blown at such a rate that it can strip the paint from a car. 78

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DESERT SURVIVAL 1. Prepare a colour brochure to provide information for prospective desert travellers on survival in case of becoming stranded. 2. Use the headings below to guide your research. Travel plans

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Preparation

General safety

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Essential survival items

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Clothing

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Vehicle

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Desert temperatures can rise to 55 °C in the summer and drop to –3 °C in winter. Water carried by explorers has been known to freeze overnight.

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DESERT CONSERVATION THE REPUBLIC

OF INDIA – 2

Indicators

Cross-curricular activities

• Reads and completes answers about conservation of desert regions.

• Find pictures of Australian Aboriginal artwork in books or on the Internet and discuss the symbols, skills and techniques used as well as what information is given about the culture through the artworks.

• Reads information about and creates images of petroglyphs.

Worksheet information • Most conservation groups carry out their work using volunteers and with very limited budgets.

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• Damage to desert regions can be caused by vandalism of signs and rock art, looting of ancient sites, illegal use of off-road vehicles, attempted removal of rock art, graffiti, illegal disposal of waste and unauthorised shooting.

• Contact by human hands can leave oils behind on protected petroglyphs on rocks in desert conservation areas. For this reason, there are strict guidelines about not touching them. Devise and conduct a scientific experiment to prove this fact is true.

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• Petroglyphs can be found in the Coso Range Canyons of California and across areas of the south-west of the USA, including Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, Colorado, Utah, Texas and California.

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• Create a brochure advising visitors to a desert conservation area how to use the area correctly, what safety aspects need to be considered, what guidelines and rules need to be observed, what facilities are available etc.

• Australian Aboriginal rock art can be found across many areas including the Kakadu region of the Northern Territory, in Arnhem Land and in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. The most well-known found in the latter region are called the Bradshaws. • Quiz questions relating to this section may be found on page xxii.

Answers

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Page 82 1. Answers will include: need to conserve the species of animals and plants who live there; they are a valuable resource for mining, road building, utility projects, tourism and recreation; they reflect the culture and traditions of the people who first lived there; they have inspired technological advancement.

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2. Teacher check 3. Answers will include: education programs, conservation parks established, rules and regulations restrict use of some desert regions to protect endangered species of plants and animals, conservation groups conduct field trips and plant surveys, volunteers give time and money to look after desert areas, some groups sponsor exhibitions of desert photography and artworks to promote awareness. (The order will vary due to individual opinions.)

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Creative Arts

NSW

ENS3.5, ENS3.6

RS3.5, RS3.6, WS3.9

VAS 3.1, VAS 3.4

Vic.

SOGE0401

ENRE0401, ENRE0404, ENWR0401

AR0401, ARAR0402, ARAR0403, ARAR0404

WA

ICP 4.1, NSS 4.1, PS 4.1, PS 4.2, PS 4.3

R 4.1, R 4.4, W 4.2

ASP 4, AR 4, AIS 4

SA

3.5, 4.6

3.3, 4.3, 3.4, 4.4, 3.6, 4.6, 4.11

4.1, 4.2, 4.3

Qld

PS DS 4.6

Refer to curriculum documents on <http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au>

VA 4.1, VA 4.2, VA 4.3

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DESERT CONSERVATION – 1 Conservation is defined as: 1 the preservation of areas which are significant, culturally or scientifically, in their natural state 2 the management of the natural environment to ensure that it is not destroyed in the process of development 3 the preservation or conserving of natural resources, such as water, coal etc.

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• Government departments and some desert conservation groups spend money on education programs about the desert environment and the plants and animals that live there. This develops awareness of the uniqueness of the environment and the need for conservation.

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What is being done to develop awareness of the need to conserve desert environments?

• Areas of some desert regions have been developed as conservation parks, allowing visitors to use and view desert environments under strict guidelines while conserving the habitat of desert plants and animals. Visitors are advised about things such as the use of off-road vehicles, waste disposal, penalties for vandalisation of signs and structures and unauthorised shooting.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons p • Environmental protection agencies have rules •f orr evi ew pur o s e s o n l y • and regulations about the use of desert regions

for purposes such as mining and development etc. This ensures that the habitat of endangered plants and animals is preserved.

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Why are deserts important enough to be conserved?

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• Deserts are the home for many unique plants and animals which have adapted in order to survive • Some desert conservation groups meet regularly to conduct field trips and plant surveys to keep there. track of species. This information helps towards • They are used for mining, grazing, road building and developing programs for conservation of utility projects and for tourism and recreation. habitats.

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• The traditions, economies and cultures of many • Adults can donate their time and money to groups of people—such as the Australian groups whose job it is to conserve areas of desert Aboriginals, the Mongols of the Gobi Desert and environments. They may be required to send out many Native American Indian tribes—are closely bulletins, act as guides in desert conservation associated with the desert. parks, solicit support and sponsorship, help with education programs for school children, clean • Because people have needed to work and survive up park areas, mark tracks or put up safety and in desert environments, advances in technology protective barriers. have been made to solve problems such as how to save or move water around or how to cope • Some desert conservation groups even sponsor with fluctuating daily and nightly temperatures art exhibitions featuring desert photography and when building. artworks as well as publishing the work of desert writers. www.ricpublications.com.au

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DESERT CONSERVATION – 2 Use the text on page 81 to answer the questions. 1. What are four reasons for conserving desert environments? (a) (b) (c)

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(d)

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2. Which of the four reasons above, in your opinion, is the most important?

3. What are six ways in which conservation of desert environments is being encouraged? List them in order from the most important to least important. (a)

(b)

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(c)

(e) (f)

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4. Of those incentives above, which would you would like to be involved in?

The California Desert National Conservation Area covers 25 million acres (>10 million hectares) and contains sand dunes, canyons, rock carvings, mountain ranges, 65 wilderness areas, the Mojave River, examples of historic desert warfare training camps and dry lakes. 82

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ANCIENT DESERT ART Sections of many desert regions have been conserved in order to maintain valuable petroglyphs found in the region. Petroglyphs are symbols and simple drawings carved into rocks found in canyons and mountains. These prehistoric images depict aspects of the lives of the people who lived in the region thousands of years ago. Some drawings are obvious while others are tribal symbols, or information about what game, shelter and water could be found. Other petroglyphs are difficult to decipher as they consist of zigzags, spirals, dots, concentric circles and other symbols which are possibly religious. Other symbols appear to be associated with the movement of the sun and planets.

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Favourite possession

Favourite food

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1. Complete the table by drawing petroglyphs to illustrate aspects about yourself or your own culture.

Favourite activity

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Favourite school subject

Family members

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Favourite animal/pet

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2. Compare your petroglyphs to those of another class member then write information about aspects of his/her life or culture which you obtained from their petroglyphs. Name of class member:

Information about him/her:

Simpson Desert Conservation Park, Simpson Desert Regional Reserve and Witjira National Park are three protected areas in the Simpson Desert of Australia. Ancient Aboriginal wells and stone implements have been found there. www.ricpublications.com.au

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Upper Primary Themes - Series 1: Wet & Dry Environments  

All four books in the series are contemporary topics which aim to develop student understanding of themselves, the world around them and how...

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