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RIC-6435 3.5/974


Comprehending our world (8–10) Published by R.I.C. Publications® 2008 Copyright© George Moore 2008 ISBN 978-1-74126-730-3 RIC–6435

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Comprehending our world (5–7) Comprehending our world (11+)

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Introduction Comprehending our world covers a wide range of thoroughly-researched topics with titles familiar to the students. The texts, questions and additional activities require the students to delve into the topics to a depth appropriate to their level of understanding.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Contents

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Titles in the series are: Comprehending our world Ages 5–7 Comprehending our world Ages 8–10 Comprehending our world Ages 11+

Teachers notes............................................................................................................................. iv – v The postal service........................................2–3

Communication.......................................34–35

The human digestive system....................36–37 © R . I . C . P u b l i cat i ons The water cycle............................................6–7 A coral reef..............................................38–39 The bat’s ecf holocation system......................8–9 A tree......................................................40–41 • orr evi ew pur p osesonl y• The human heart.........................................4–5

The human eye........................................12–13

A robot....................................................44–45

The Red Cross.........................................14–15

A healthy lifestyle....................................46–47

The earthworm........................................16–17

An earthquake.........................................48–49

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Bird migration..........................................42–43

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A garden tap............................................10–11

An avalanche...........................................18–19

The cane toad.........................................50–51

An airport................................................20–21

The human ear........................................52–53

A microwave oven....................................22–23

The steel-making process.........................54–55

The crocodile...........................................24–25

Planning a holiday...................................56–57

Australian Royal Flying Doctor Service.......26–27

The housefly............................................58–59

Desalination............................................28–29

A volcano................................................60–61

Road traffic control...................................30–31

Hibernation.............................................62–63

Lego™.....................................................32–33

A river system..........................................64–65

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Comprehending our world


Teachers notes Comprehending our world contains 32 units, each with two pages:

• Teachers page

• Students page

The teachers page provides additional information for the teacher. It contains five sections designed to help teachers when presenting the worksheets to the students. Each teachers page contains: • indicator

• teachers notes

• answers

• additional activities

• curriculum links.

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Indicator: states the objective for the reading/ comprehension activity.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Teachers notes: •f orr evi ew pur posesoprovides nl y • additional

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Answers: to the comprehension questions. Answers to applied questions require checking by the teacher. In such cases, examples of possible answers have been given.

information about the topic which may be of interest and help with the delivery of the worksheet.

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Additional activities: have been provided to encourage further research of the subject.These can be attempted by students of all abilities as each can work at his/her own level.

Curriculum links: for all states, covering the comprehension and additional activities.

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Teachers notes The students page provides:

• informative text

• comprehension questions.

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The title of the text is given

The text provides a concise, well-researched explanation of how the subject works. The subjects of the text include topics from: • the natural world—human body, plant, animal, weather

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The questions include:

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© R. I . C.Publ i ca t i ons • the social development of humans and their effects on the planet •f orr evi ew pur pos e sonl y• • technological innovations.

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• the three levels of comprehension:

– literal, in which the answers may be found directly from the text

– inferential, in which the exact answers are not given but clues are provided from which the correct answer may be deduced

– applied, in which the reader is required to think deeply about the text and incorporate his/her own personal experience and knowledge to provide a suitable answer

• vocabulary development, in which words are given and students are asked to find synonyms from the text.

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Comprehending our world


o s t al s e r v p i ce e h T Indicator

Teac he r

Reads text and answers questions to show an understanding of the postal service.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Teachers notes

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• The machine which scans words and numbers on an envelope to find the recipient’s address is called an Optical Character Reader.

• Explain that a ‘region’ could be a state (America and Australia), a province (Canada), a county (UK), a canton (Switzerland) etc.

Answers

1. house or flat/apartment number or postcode

2. Teacher check. Possible answers: supermarket, department store, library, leisure centre

© R. I . C4. .P b l i c t i on s the u huge number ofa Christmas cards posted 5. to find the letter’s destination 6. Teacher check. Possible answers: lost, stolen if found to r contain valuables, incorrectly •f orr evi ew pu po ses onaddressed l y• 3. black

7. Christmas

8. you would pay more for a stamp

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9. abroad, posted, region, transported, hire

Additional activities

• Research ‘flags’ in an encyclopedia and design a postage stamp for a chosen country.

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• Make a collection of envelopes received from overseas or other regions within the country to see the stamps, postmarks, etc.

NSW SA Qld Vic. WA

o c . Curriculum links ch e r er o t s super

English TS2.1, TS2.2, RS2.5, RS2.6, WS2.9, WS2.12 2.1, 3.1, 2.2, 3.2, 2.3, 3.3, 2.4, 3.4 Refer to curriculum documents on http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au ENSL0301, ENSL0302, ENRE0301, ENRE0302, ENWR0301, ENWR0302 LS 3.1, LS 3.2, R 3.1, R 3.2, W 3.1, W 3.2

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SOSE SSS 2.7

SRP 3 SOSE0303 NSS 3

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The postal service Read the text and answer the questions.

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hen you post a letter in a letterbox it goes to your town’s main post office. There, a machine scans the words andnumbers on the envelope to findyour letter’s destination.The machine then forwards this information to a special printer which prints a bar code on the envelope. The code is a row of bars, usually black, and tells where the letter is going. Hard-to-read adresses are photographed and deciphered in a video-coding room.

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When your letter reaches the sorting office in another part of your country or overseas, that postal system is responsible for delivering it to the correct address. At Christmas, most postal services around the world hire extra workers, usually older students, to cope with the flood of mail. 1. What numbers might be written on an envelope?

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The next stage is the sorting office where there is a large postage bag for each region in your country and each overseas country. A barcode reader reads each code to find the correct destination. Postal service trucks then take overseas mail to the airport where planes take it to various countries. Letters within a country are usually transported by internal airlines or trains. All letters sent,within your country or abroad,are stampedwith apostmark showing where and when they were posted.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons 6. Why do you think some letters might never reach their •f orr evi ew pur po s e s o n l y • 2. Where else might you see a destination? barcode machine?

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7. What is the busiest time of the year for any postal service?

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3. What is the usual colour for a barcode?

o c . c e hmain r 4. What would be the reason e o t r s supe r for extra workers at Christmas?

8. What do you think might happen if an envelope is too big or too heavy?

5. Why does the machine scan the envelope?

9. Find words from the text for: overseas, mailed, area, carried, employ

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uman hea h e rt h T Indicator

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Reads text and answers questions to show an understanding of the human heart.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Teachers notes

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• Explain that a pacemaker is a device for stimulating the heart and regulating the heartbeat.

• We inhale air which contains the oxygen our bodies need and we exhale carbon dioxide as a waste product. In the presence of sunlight, plants breathe in carbon dioxide and release oxygen. This balance of nature highlights the importance of vegetation to our existence. • When blood returns to the heart along veins it is darker as it contains less oxygen.

Answers

2. oxygen © R . I . C . P u l i cat i ons 3. a chamber 4. b an electrical signal 5. valves 6. in the lungs • f o r r e v i e w p u r posesonl y• 7. inhaled 8. exhaled

1. a pump

10. 2400

Additional activities

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• Organise a tree-planting exercise within the school/local community.

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Curriculum links

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English TS2.1, TS2.2, RS2.5, RS2.6, WS2.9, WS2.12 2.1, 3.1, 2.2, 3.2, 2.3, 3.3, 2.4, 3.4 Refer to curriculum documents on http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au ENSL0301, ENSL0302, ENRE0301, ENRE0302, ENWR0301, ENWR0302 LS 3.1, LS 3.2, R 3.1, R 3.2, W 3.1, W 3.2

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9. arteries/tubes

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Science LTS2.3 2.5, 3.5 LL 3.1 SCBS0302 LL 3

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The human heart Read the text and answer the questions.

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freshly oxygenated heart is a strong muscle about the size of a man’s fist. blood from the lungs It is a pump which circulates blood around your body. The blood, containing oxygen, is pumped along tubes called going arteries to all cells in muscles, organs, bones and tissues. blood to the lungs Blood and oxygen are both needed to make our bodies work properly. The several litres of blood then return to the heart right atrium along veins and the journey only takes about 60 seconds!

blood going back out to the body blood going to the lungs blood from the body

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left atrium

valve

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When we breathe air into our lungs the oxygen inhaled passes left ventricle into veins and makes the blood bright red.The veins then carry right ventricle the blood to the four sections of the heart called chambers. Valves in these sections allow blood to flow in only one direction, just like a one-way street! After travelling around the body and back to the heart, the heart pumps the blood to the lungs to obtain more oxygen. Groups of cells in the heart send out electrical signals through special fibres to stimulate the heart and keep it beating—just like tiny shocks of static electricity! This is the body’s natural pacemaker which changes the number of heartbeats needed, depending on whether you are running, walking or standing still. We have a wonderful ‘pump’ inside us!

© R. I . C.Publ i c at i on s ‘breathed in’? •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

1. Which machine can we compare a heart to?

7. Which word in the text means

3. What term is used for the four sections of the heart?

9. Blood is carried away from the heart along

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8. Find an antonym for your last answer.

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2. What makes our blood bright red?

o c 4. What keeps the heart beating? 10. If your heart . was beating 80 c e h r timeso er ta minute during exercise, s super work out how many heartbeats that would be in half-an-hour. 5. What ensures blood flows in only one direction inside the heart? 6. Where is the blood supplied with more oxygen?

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wa e Th

t er c y cle

Indicator

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Reads text and answers questions to show an understanding of the water cycle.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Teachers notes

• Try to organise a visit to a local water treatment plant.

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• With a wet cloth, put two damp patches well away from each other on a blackboard or other suitable surface. Get a student to fan one with a piece of cardboard. It should disappear before the other patch and show how wind causes evaporation.

• Explain how a car’s windscreen resembles a cloud of moisture when water condenses on it on a cool, humid night—like droplets rising into cooler air and forming clouds.

• Discuss that people/nations must realise water is a valuable resource.

Answers © R. I . C .Publ i cat i ons 1. Answers vary; e.g. less chance of 2. seeps polluting •beaches f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 5. a cycle

6. when it rises into cooler air

7. Answers vary; e.g. shorter showers, turn off tap when cleaning teeth etc.

8. atmosphere, pipes, heat, larger, merge

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Additional activities

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4. as air currents move them around, they join together, becoming bigger and heavier.

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3. Answers vary

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• Draw a flow diagram to show the water cycle.

• Find the meaning of ‘desalination’. Draw a simple flow diagram to show the main steps in the desalination process.

NSW SA Qld Vic. WA

English TS2.1, TS2.2, RS2.5, RS2.6, WS2.9, WS2.12 2.1, 3.1, 2.2, 3.2, 2.3, 3.3, 2.4, 3.4 Refer to curriculum documents on http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au ENSL0301, ENSL0302, ENRE0301, ENRE0302, ENWR0301, ENWR0302 LS 3.1, LS 3.2, R 3.1, R 3.2, W 3.1, W 3.2

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Science ESS 2.6 2.1, 3.1 EB 3.1 SCES0301 EB 3

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The water cycle Read the text and answer the questions.

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rey clouds often bring rain, hail or snow. It’s mostly rain which falls into rivers, lakes and oceans or onto land. We take water from lakes and rivers and also salt water from oceans to be desalinated. After treatment, the purified water is then piped to houses, factories and businesses. When the water has been used, drains carry waste water fromshowers, toilets, factories etc. to sewage treatment plants. There, it is again treated before any wastes are expelled far out to sea, using sewage outlet pipes.

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The sun’s rays heat land areas and though much rainwater seeps into the ground any shallow surface water soon evaporates into the atmosphere. Winds also help in the evaporation process. The sun’s heat also causes water in lakes, oceans etc. to evaporate as water vapour.This rises high into cooler air and cools into droplets of water to form clouds. Air currents in the clouds move the droplets around and they merge to formlarger drops.These are too heavy for the clouds to hold up and they fall as rain to fill up lakes, oceans etc.The whole cycle now starts all over again!

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons 1. Why is waste expelled far out to 5. Which word means ‘a process • f o r r e v i e w p u r po segoes so nl y •then sea? which round and repeats itself’?

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6. When does the water vapour cool and form larger drops?

2. Which word means ‘soaks slowly’ into the ground?

. te o 7. Suggest one way in which you c 3. What do you think of cities/ . could save water at home/in chuntreated e factories that expel school. r er o t wastes into rivers/oceans? s supe r

8. Give words from the text for: air, tubes, warmth, bigger, blend

4. How do large droplets form and become too heavy for clouds to hold?

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The bat’s tio n s y a c o st l o e Indicator

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Teachers notes

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Reads text and answers questions to show an understanding of the bat’s echolocation system.

• Bats are the only true flying mammal. Creatures like flying foxes glide rather than fly from tree to tree. • There are hundreds of species of bats. Most feed on insects while some feed on fruit, pollen or nectar and therefore help with the pollination of plants and the dispersal of seeds which pass through their system. Tropical America’s vampire bats feed on the blood of birds and mammals, while one bat species catches small fish and crustaceans. • The bumblebee bat is the smallest living mammal. Perhaps the students could be asked to find out how long it is—less than 3 cm in length. • In a scientific experiment, scientists strung wires crisscrossing a darkened room. When their ears were blocked, the bats kept flying into the wires but generally avoided them when their eyes were covered and their ears unblocked.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Answers

nocturnal by using scientific instruments the mouth or the nose they are too high/high-pitched

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2. 4. 6. 8.

they eat insect pests its brain no hidden, branch, quickly, devour, continually

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1. 3. 5. 7.

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• Draw a diagram to explain how ‘echolocation’ works. • Write a short report on vampire bats.

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English TS2.1, TS2.2, RS2.5, RS2.6, WS2.9, WS2.12 2.1, 3.1, 2.2, 3.2, 2.3, 3.3, 2.4, 3.4 Refer to curriculum documents on http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au ENSL0301, ENSL0302, ENRE0301, ENRE0302, ENWR0301, ENWR0302 LS 3.1, LS 3.2, R 3.1, R 3.2, W 3.1, W 3.2

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The bat’s echolocation system Read the text and answer the questions.

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ost bats fly at night, catching insects.Though they are nocturnal creatures, many can’t see too well in the dark as their eyes are small and hidden by fur. As they fly, bats continually send out sounds, mostly too high for human ears. These high-pitched squeaks can only be ‘heard’ by the scientific instruments used by people studying the tiny mammals.

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Some bats make the sounds through their mouth and other bats through their nose.The sound waves travel through the air and hit a flying insect or perhaps a tree branch.The sounds then bounce back to the bat’s large, sensitive ears, just as an echo bounces back to our ears. After judging the time between echoes, a bat then uses its welldeveloped brain to work out exactly where the insect or tree branch is. It can also tell how quickly the insect is moving and in which direction! This method of catching prey is called ‘echolocation’ and a bat using it can devour hundreds of mosquitoes and other insect pests each night! In experiments many years ago, scientists found bats could still hunt insects when their eyes were covered, but when their ears were covered they couldn’t hear the echoes.

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5. Which parts of their body do bats use to make sounds?

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2. How are bats useful to us?

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1. Which word tells us bats come out at night?

6. There is a saying: ‘As blind as a bat’. Are bats blind?

o c . 3. How can scientists listen to the c e her 7. s r sounds bats make? Why o can’t we hear the sounds t s r upebats make?

4. What does a bat use to locate where an insect is?

8. Find words in the text for: concealed, bough, rapidly, eat, constantly.

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arden tap g A Indicator

Teac he r

Reads text and answers questions to show an understanding of a garden tap.

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• Hold a class discussion and list on the board ways in which families can reduce the amount of domestic water used; e.g. growing native plants, taking shorter showers, trickle systems so water isn’t blown around and wasted on windy days, using washing machine ‘grey’ water on the garden, not leaving the tap running when cleaning teeth, using a bucket of water rather than a hose to wash the car and so on.

Answers

1. The water authority/board/company

2.

diagram ‘B’

4. b al ‘washerless’ tap © R. I . C.Pu i cat i ons 5. buy a ‘washerless’ tap 6. the nozzle on the hose 7. Teacher 8. r Teacher •check f orr evi ew pu pocheck sesonl y• 3. the tap drips

Additional activities

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• After group discussion, design a poster with diagrams of how to save water.

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9. change, gushes, lifts, pipe, marvellous

• Contact a local garden centre for a list of native plants which can reduce a house’s water usage.

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o c . che e r o t r s super Curriculum links

English TS2.1, TS2.2, RS2.5, RS2.6, WS2.9, WS2.12 2.1, 3.1, 2.2, 3.2, 2.3, 3.3, 2.4, 3.4 Refer to curriculum documents on http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au ENSL0301, ENSL0302, ENRE0301, ENRE0302, ENWR0301, ENWR0302 LS 3.1, LS 3.2, R 3.1, R 3.2, W 3.1, W 3.2

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A garden tap Read the text and answer the questions.

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sn’t it marvellous when you water the garden to help your parents? You turn a tap on and water gushes out!

When you turn on the tap you move a valve with a washer on it. This opens a hole at the end of a waterpipe. The water authority or company provides this pipe to supply water to your house. The more you turn on the tap, the wider the hole becomes and more water under great pressure flows out.

screw

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stem washer Diagram ‘B’

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Inside the tap is a stopper called a washer which can be made of rubber, plastic or other material. When the tap is turned off (Diagram ‘A’), the washer seals off the waterpipe’s opening and no water can flow. Turning the tap on lifts the valve and washer (Diagram ‘B’) and allows water to flow again. After some time a washer may deteriorate and allow water to drip out. Your parents would then have to replace it or buy a ‘washerless’ tap! This kind of tap has a metal ball or ceramic disc to control the flow of water. To change the jet of water to a fine spray, a nozzle on the end of your hose can be adjusted so you don’t damage your plants or waste water!

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Diagram A ‘’

handle

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons 1. Who supplies the water to your 6. What can you alter the position • f o r r e v i e w p u r po so l y •spray? house? of s in e order to n use a fine 2. Which diagram shows an open valve?

7. How many times a month do you help to water the garden?

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o c . che e r o t r s super 4. Which kind of tap has a metal 3. What happens if the washer begins to wear out?

8. Write the names of some ‘ceramic’ objects. A dictionary may help!

stopper?

9. Find words in the text for: alter, flows, raises, tube, wonderful

5. If your parents don’t want to replace a worn washer, what could they do?

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human ey e e Th Indicator

Teac he r

Reads text and answers questions to show an understanding of the human eye.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Teachers notes

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• The iris gives the colour to the eye (hazel, blue, brown etc.) due to varying amounts of pigment. • The curved surface of the lens focuses the light on the retina. Students could use a magnifying glass and a torch/the sun to show how a curved surface can focus light rays. • Warn students about the dangers of looking at the sun directly. • Invite a speaker from the Blind Society/Lions Institute to talk to the class about taking care of their eyes. • A detached retina is when the inner and outer parts separate. It is slow and painless but vision is lost in the affected part. Laser surgery fixes the problem.

© R. I . C .Publ i cat i ons Answers 1. transparent 2. in bright sunshine/bright conditions •f orr evi ew pur po se sonl y•

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optic nerve young people functions, needed, weep, centre, quickly

Additional activities

o c . Curriculum links ch e r er o t s super

• Organise a ‘dress up’ day or ‘bring and buy’ sale to raise money for the blind.

English NSW TS2.1, TS2.2, RS2.5, RS2.6, WS2.9, WS2.12 SA 2.1, 3.1, 2.2, 3.2, 2.3, 3.3, 2.4, 3.4 Qld Refer to curriculum documents on http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au Vic. ENSL0301, ENSL0302, ENRE0301, ENRE0302, ENWR0301, ENWR0302 WA LS 3.1, LS 3.2, R 3.1, R 3.2, W 3.1, W 3.2

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3. a dust particle 5. a camera 7. Teacher check. Possible answers: don’t read in poor light, regular checks by an optician 9. optician

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The human eye Read the text and answer the questions.

A

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In young people the retina is soft and pliable and allows them to focus on objects various distances away. In older people it is less pliable and spectacles may be needed to focus.

brain

pupil

retina

optic ner ve

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t the front of your eye is the cornea. Its outer layer contains cells which, if damaged, can regrow very quickly. Inside the cornea are transparent layers of tissue which allow light to pass through, just like glass in a window! Behind the cornea is the iris which functions like a camera, opening and closing.This controls the amount of light coming through the pupil, a dark section in the centre of the iris.The pupil becomes smaller in bright sunshine to allow less light in. Behind the iris is the lens.This fine tunes the light onto a point on the retina at the back of the eye. Cells on the retina collect the light and send it to the optic nerve behind the eye. This nerve passes these signals iris lens onto the brain which works out at high speed what we are looking at! cornea

Another cornea task is to protect the eye.The eyelids and eyelashes also protect it by blinking and so keeping out dust. If a dust particle affects the eyeball, the tear ducts weep and wash out the irritation.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons 1. What word describes something 6. Which people usually have a that• can be seen through? soft, pliable retina? f o r r ev i ew pur po se so nl y•

2. When does the pupil become smaller?

7. Can you think of any ways you can look after your eyes?

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. te o 3. What can irritate the eye? 8. Find words from the text for: acts, c . required, cry, middle, rapidly che e r o t r s s r u e p 4. Which nerve sends signals to the

brain?

9. Use a dictionary to find a word builder from ‘optic’, which means an eye expert.

5. If the brain is where images seen are developed, what could the iris be seen as?

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Red Cros e s Th Indicator

Teac he r

Reads text and answers questions to show an understanding of the Red Cross.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Teachers notes

ew i ev Pr

• Henri Dunant was in Italy in 1859 and saw 40 000 dead or wounded soldiers on the battlefield at Solferino. In his book published in 1862 he suggested all civilised countries should have societies which help the wounded on both sides in wartime. In 1917 the Junior Red Cross was founded in America to give children the chance to help during World War II (1914–1918).

• The International Committee of the Red Cross has been awarded several Nobel Peace Prizes, including one for Henri Dunant. • In honour of Dunant the Red Cross symbol uses the Swiss flag colours reversed.

• The International Movement of the Red Cross and Red Crescent was formed in 1986.

© R. I . C .Publ i cat i ons Answers 1. because wasv Swiss/was 2. u Answers varys depending on date the answer •Henri f oDunant rr e i ew p r po eso nl y • from Switzerland was written 5. during wartime/local conflicts

6. Teacher check. The colours in the Swiss flag are reversed.

7. Teacher check. Possible answers: floods, volcanic eruption, hurricane

8. donations, infectious, fleeing, combine, aid

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Additional activities

m . u

4. delegates

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3. Muslim countries

o c . che e r o t r s super Curriculum links

• Organise ways to raise money for the Red Cross/Red Crescent societies.

• Research to write a short report on key figures in the Red Cross society, starting with Henri Dunant.

NSW SA Qld Vic. WA

English TS2.1, TS2.2, RS2.5, RS2.6, WS2.9, WS2.12 2.1, 3.1, 2.2, 3.2, 2.3, 3.3, 2.4, 3.4 Refer to curriculum documents on http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au ENSL0301, ENSL0302, ENRE0301, ENRE0302, ENWR0301, ENWR0302 LS 3.1, LS 3.2, R 3.1, R 3.2, W 3.1, W 3.2

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The Red Cross Read the text and answer the questions.

T

his international organisation was formed in 1863 after a young Swiss, Henri Dunant, saw a battlefield covered with dead and wounded soldiers. Now there are well over 100 Red Cross societies around the world. Its top committee is formed of well-known Swiss volunteers. In Muslim countries they are called Red Crescent societies and they also aim to reduce human suffering. Both groups have around 100 million volunteers worldwide and combine to hold an international conference every four years.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Chosen members from each country’s Red Cross society and government officials from those countries attend regular meetings. They are held in Geneva, Switzerland, usually every two years, and delegates discuss any world problems and ways to solve them.

During peacetime, the Red Cross provides volunteers to aid victims of natural disasters such as earthquakes, forest fires and outbreaks of infectious diseases. It also provides blood donor services in many countries and serves in hospitals and first aid stations. In wartime, its nurses treat the wounded on both sides, and help fleeing refugees and prisoners of war.At a local level you will see its volunteers door-knocking or sitting patiently in shopping centres hoping for donations from the public.

To help the organisation, donations of money come from governments, large companies and each country’s Red Cross society—this could include a donation from you or your family!

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons 1. Why do you think the Red p 5. o When does the Red Cross help • f o r r e v i e w p u r s e s o n l y • Cross head office is in Geneva, refugees? Switzerland?

. te

2. How many years have passed since the Red Cross was formed

m . u

w ww

6. Explain the difference between the Red Cross symbol and the Swiss flag.

o c . c e h 3. In which countries is the Red 7. The Redr Cross attends many e o t r s s Cross called the Red Crescent? natural disasters not mentioned. r u e p Give examples. Name some.

4. Which word in paragraph 2 means persons who attend a meeting?

8. Find words from the text for: gifts, contagious, escaping, unite, help

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Comprehending our world


T

earthworm e h Indicator

Teac he r

Reads text and answers questions to show an understanding of the earthworm.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Teachers notes

ew i ev Pr

• The giant Gippsland earthworm in the State of Victoria in Australia can grow to over 3 m in length. • Rich, fertile farmland contains millions of earthworms and hundreds of millions of earthworms are sold around the world each year from worm farms.

• Earthworm burrows have been recorded as deep as 6 m during adverse weather conditions. One Asian species sometimes climbs trees to avoid drowning after heavy rains.

• The swollen band on its body, the clitellum, produces a cocoon for holding eggs at breeding time. After mating, the cocoon is deposited in the soil within 24 hours.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi eAnswers w pur posesonl y•

• Chemical fertilisers and spraying fields with pesticides can reduce earthworm populations.

a slimy mucus

3. two tubes

4.

at night

5. worm castings

6.

when they are too severely damaged

7. muscles

8.

decaying/decomposing

9. fluid, burrows, grip, digests, segments

. te

Additional activities

m . u

2.

w ww

1. through its skin

o c . che e r o t r s super Curriculum links

• Bring earthworms to school and keep in a glass fish tank with moist soil and rotting leaves on top. Observe them to see what happens and make notes. • Draw labelled diagrams of an earthworm and its life cycle.

NSW SA Qld Vic. WA

English TS2.1, TS2.2, RS2.5, RS2.6, WS2.9, WS2.12 2.1, 3.1, 2.2, 3.2, 2.3, 3.3, 2.4, 3.4 Refer to curriculum documents on http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au ENSL0301, ENSL0302, ENRE0301, ENRE0302, ENWR0301, ENWR0302 LS 3.1, LS 3.2, R 3.1, R 3.2, W 3.1, W 3.2

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The earthworm Read the text and answer the questions.

A

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

n earthworm has no eyes or ears but it can sense light, heat and vibrations. Unlike us, it has no lungs but breathes in any air in the soil through its skin. It moves underground by using muscles to shorten and lengthen its body and a slimy mucus secreted from its skin helps it to glide through the soil. On most body segments, hairlike bristles are thrust out from under its body to help movement and help it to grip. Its body is made up of many of these ringlike sections and lost ones can regrow as long as damage from animals or birds is not too serious. An earthworm’s body is an inner tube for digesting food and an outer tube, a body wall, with fluid in between the two. An earthworm feeds at night, and as its head is sensitive to light it goes back underground at sunrise. It eats rotting animal and plant matter such as decaying insects, decomposing leaves, grass cuttings, etc. As it eats it also digests soil and sand. These pass through its body and are left on top of the ground as ‘castings’ (worm dung). This helps to create valuable topsoil for plants. If the weather is very cold or hot, many species burrow deep into the soil. Their burrows allow air to enter the soil and also water to reach the roots of plants.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 6. When can an earthworm not 1. How does an earthworm

w ww

2. What helps it to slide through the soil more easily?

m . u

regrow lost segments?

breathe?

7. What does the earthworm use to change its body shape so it can move?

. temain tubes are in an o 3. How many c . earthworm’s body? che e r o t r 8. Give two words from the text s supe r which mean ‘rotting’.

4. When do earthworms feed?

9. Find words in the text for: liquid, tunnels, grasp, swallows, sections

5. What do they leave on top of the ground to help to form topsoil?

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avalanche n A Indicator

Teac he r

Reads text and answers questions to show an understanding of an avalanche.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Teachers notes

• Vibrations caused by thunder, gunfire or blasting can start an avalanche.

ew i ev Pr

• Rain between snowfalls creates a smoother surface when it freezes and can weaken the bond between snow layers.

• Rock avalanches (rockfalls) composed of small rock fragments, soil and dust have dammed rivers and buried towns, but the term ‘avalanche’ usually applies to snowfalls.

• Explosives are often used in ski resorts to trigger small snowfalls to prevent a larger avalanche later. Light walls of steel or concrete are often used as barriers.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Answers •f o r evi ew2. p r posesonl y• 1. the leeward side r au ‘slab’ avalanche • A high timber line helps to hold snow in place and slow down its movement.

4.

it can travel up a hill

5. a ‘slush’ avalanche

6.

temperature

7. steep, ski

8.

fatalities, breaks, huge, power, saturated

w ww

. te

Additional activities

m . u

3. a powder cloud

• Research to find countries where avalanches often occur. Locate them in an atlas.

o c Curriculum links . ch e r er o t s super

• Imagine watching an avalanche and describe the experience in a paragraph.

NSW SA Qld Vic. WA

English TS2.1, TS2.2, RS2.5, RS2.6, WS2.9, WS2.12 2.1, 3.1, 2.2, 3.2, 2.3, 3.3, 2.4, 3.4 Refer to curriculum documents on http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au ENSL0301, ENSL0302, ENRE0301, ENRE0302, ENWR0301, ENWR0302 LS 3.1, LS 3.2, R 3.1, R 3.2, W 3.1, W 3.2

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An avalanche Read the text and answer the questions.

A

n avalanche often occurs after a fierce snowstorm or heavy rain. It is a high speed fall of snow down a mountain and can cause loss of life and property damage.‘Slab’ avalanches occur when there is a strong, stiff snow layer and they cause about 90% of the fatalities.They can be hundreds of metres in size and several metres thick and move when a weak layer in the slab breaks. Another dangerous kind is the ‘slush’ avalanche when a large snow pack becomes very heavy as it is saturated with rain. Rising temperatures can cause melting inside a snow pack. This seriously weakens the upper layers of snow, especially on slopes facing the sun. Strong winds on the windward side of a slope can carry tonnes of snow to the sheltered (leeward) side. This adds enormous weight and can lead to the start of a dangerous avalanche.

Teac he r

300 km/h and carry 10 million tonnes of snow! Their power can move them along flat ground and even short distances up a slope. Snow does not build up on very steep slopes but usually on slopes that are flat enough to hold snow and also steep enough to ski on. Don’t even think about a skiing holiday!

ew i ev Pr

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u As avalanches descend they can mix with air and form a huge powder S cloud. These are the largest avalanches, which can travel at

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 1. What is the side of a slope sheltered from winds called?

2. Which kind of avalanche is most dangerous to humans?

m . u

w ww

6. Avalanches can be caused by snowstorms, heavy rain and a rise in

. tesnow mixes with air, 7. Snow builds up o on slopes that 3. When falling care . what is formed? hold snowe and che r o t r s supe enough r

4. What is unusual about the movement of a powder cloud?

to

8. Find words in the text for: deaths, fractures, enormous, strength, soaked

5. Which kind of avalanche is heavy with moisture?

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Comprehending our world


airport n A Indicator

Teac he r

Reads text and answers questions to show an understanding of an airport.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Teachers notes

ew i ev Pr

• Other steps in airport security include patrolling sniffer dogs, X-rays of luggage, CT scanners and armed air marshals boarding planes.

• Rare birds and animals can be smuggled and sold to collectors overseas for thousands of dollars. There have been many airport incidents where outgoing passengers have been caught smuggling rare, sedated lizards, snakes, parrots etc. in their luggage. • Aircraft flying below a certain height, generally 29 000 ft, and flying at the same altitude must keep a set safe horizontal distance from each other and a set safe vertical separation from planes above or below them.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi eAnswers w pur posesonl y•

• Some airports are so large moving travelators, buses or monorail systems carry passengers from a terminal to a boarding area.

2.

show passports, driver’s licence with photo ID

3. a transponder

4.

passengers in wheelchairs

5. economy passengers

w ww

6.

a terrorist

7. apron

8.

altitude, pilot, departs, area, concealed

. te

Additional activities

m . u

1. there are lots of economy passengers to be organised

o c . che e r o t r s supe r Curriculum links

• Check a newspaper’s travel section and compare economy, business and first class fares. • Imagine you are designing a new airport. Design a poster praising your airport’s new features.

NSW SA Qld Vic. WA

English TS2.1, TS2.2, RS2.5, RS2.6, WS2.9, WS2.12 2.1, 3.1, 2.2, 3.2, 2.3, 3.3, 2.4, 3.4 Refer to curriculum documents on http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au ENSL0301, ENSL0302, ENRE0301, ENRE0302, ENWR0301, ENWR0302 LS 3.1, LS 3.2, R 3.1, R 3.2, W 3.1, W 3.2

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An airport Read the text and answer the questions.

A

t a busy airport, thousands of passengers fly each day. The many economy passengers on outbound journeys must arrive at the airport several hours before their flight departs. The fewer business and first class travellers have less time to wait. Long queues at economy check-in desks can mean delays for passengers and then they have to pass through security checks as a result of terrorist activities, including proof of identity, metal detectors for concealed weapons etc. When a loudspeaker announces a plane is boarding, staff organise passengers in wheelchairs, then families with children or certain seat numbers to board first.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

Air traffic controllers coordinate the movements of planes landing, taking off or taxiing to runways from loading aprons. In the air, they keep them safe distances apart and guide them around thunderstorms, bad turbulence etc. At take-off, the pilot activates a ‘transponder’ which detects incoming signals. It then sends a signal back to the controller and provides the plane’s flight number, altitude, airspeed and destination.The controller now follows the plane’s flight path on a radar screen. When the plane leaves the airport’s control area, the radar controller passes it on to another area’s controller.You’re in safe hands when you fly off on your next holiday!

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

5. Which passengers buy the cheapest tickets?

w ww

6. Who is most likely to be carrying a concealed weapon?

. te

m . u

1. Why must economy passengers be at an airport hours before their flight leaves?

o c . 7. What is another name for a c e her r plane’s parking area where o t s super passengers board the plane? 3. Which airport device detects

2. How can passengers prove who they are?

incoming signals?

8. Find words from the text for: height, plane driver, leaves, region, hidden.

4. Who usually boards an aircraft first?

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A

crowave ov i e m

n

Indicator

Teac he r

Reads text and answers questions to show an understanding of a microwave oven.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Teachers notes

ew i ev Pr

• Microwave ovens have sealed doors and are subject to safety standards which ensure no dangerous levels of radiation escape from them. No serious health hazards are associated with these ovens.

• After cooking some food for 20 seconds at home, get the students to poke a finger into the centre of the dish and then the outside. Feel the difference! (This verifies a point in the text.) • Students to rub a finger hard on the desk to show how heat results from friction. • Microwave ovens for home use were introduced in the 1950s.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi eAnswers w pur posesonl y•

• Microwaves are used in many satellite communications systems as they pass easily through rain, smoke and fog which block light waves.

3. a rotating tray

4. vibrate

5. centre/middle parts

6. they contain more water molecules so more heat is produced

7. metal

8. rotating, rapid, centre, containers, reduces

. te

Additional activities

m . u

2. magnetrons

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1. a metal container

o c . ch e Curriculum links r er o t s super

• Write a short, imaginary story of a microwave oven which went horribly wrong.

• Conduct a class survey to work out the percentage of homes with a microwave oven.

NSW SA Qld Vic. WA

English TS2.1, TS2.2, RS2.5, RS2.6, WS2.9, WS2.12 2.1, 3.1, 2.2, 3.2, 2.3, 3.3, 2.4, 3.4 Refer to curriculum documents on http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au ENSL0301, ENSL0302, ENRE0301, ENRE0302, ENWR0301, ENWR0302 LS 3.1, LS 3.2, R 3.1, R 3.2, W 3.1, W 3.2

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A microwave oven Read the text and answer the questions.

A

microwave oven uses special electric currents called microwaves to cook food. These microwaves are absorbed by the water molecules (small groups of atoms bonded together) in food. The microwaves make the molecules vibrate rapidly which causes friction between them and heat is produced. The heat occurs inside the food and not in the air around it. This reduces the cooking time to minutes rather than a much longer time in a normal oven. Remember waiting for your Christmas turkey!

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

Microwaves travel in straight lines and bounce off the insides of the oven. A rotating tray moves the food through the energy waves so it is cooked evenly. Moist foods cook faster than drier ones but the moist outer layers usually absorb most radiated waves before they reach the centre sections. These middle parts can be only partly cooked and have to be reheated. Microwave ovens can’t brown or make outside pastry crispy so reheated pies are soggy! Microwaves pass through different materials like many kinds of glass, paper, plastic and most ceramics. They heat the food but don’t overheat the containers when they are in for a short time. Food cannot be cooked in metal containers as the metal blocks the waves and can cause sparking. Rapid progress in microwave technology led to the invention of special tubes called ‘magnetrons’, which can generate large amounts of microwave energy.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •kind f oofrcontainer r evi e w pur posesonl y• 1. What can cause sparking?

m . u

w ww

2. Which tubes generate microwave energy?

6. Why do you think moist foods cook faster?

. tethe food through 3. What moves o c the microwaves? . che e r o 7. I wouldn’t t r s use containers made super

4. Which word means ‘to shake rapidly with small movements’?

of microwave oven.

8. Find words from the text for: turning, quick, middle, receptacles, lessens

5. Which part of the food may have to be reheated as it may not be fully cooked?

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Comprehending our world


T

rocodil c e h e Indicator

Teac he r

Reads text and answers questions to show an understanding of the crocodile.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Teachers notes

ew i ev Pr

• There are 23 crocodilian species, which include alligators (US and China), caimans (Central and South America), crocodiles and gavials (northern India subcontinent). Crocodile species are the most widespread. They are found in the Americas, Australia, Asia and Africa. Some crocodilian species have been on Earth for over 200 million years. • Thousands are killed annually, mainly for their valuable skins, which provide leather for luggage or handbags etc. Skins of the saltwater crocodile are highly prized for the leather. Most countries now protect them and much of the world bans the sale of crocodilian products. Many programs are run to hatch eggs and release the babies into the wild. • Crocodiles often sun themselves in groups, but usually live alone in their own territory. They bask in the sun with mouths agape so birds can feed on leeches and other parasites in their mouth. As they are cold-blooded creatures, sunning helps to maintain their body temperature at a satisfactory 30 to 33 degrees celsius. • Predators of young crocodiles include feral pigs, turtles, sea eagles and older crocodiles. • Crocodiles can lay over 100 hard-shelled eggs resembling hen eggs but longer.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Answers

. te

2. 5. 8.

along the jaw an egg tooth tropical

3. 6. 9.

its powerful tail the female wild, predators, consume, snout, decaying

m . u

w ww

1. to overpower larger prey 4. nocturnal 7. Answers will vary; e.g. hunting/ for skins/pollution

o c . che e r o t r s super Curriculum links Additional activities

• Many crocodile species are endangered. Design a poster calling for their protection. • Research the different subspecies of crocodilians (alligators, caimans, crocodiles, gavials). Use a graphic organiser to show similarities and differences among them.

English NSW TS2.1, TS2.2, RS2.5, RS2.6, WS2.9, WS2.12 SA 2.1, 3.1, 2.2, 3.2, 2.3, 3.3, 2.4, 3.4 Qld Refer to curriculum documents on http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au Vic. ENSL0301, ENSL0302, ENRE0301, ENRE0302, ENWR0301, ENWR0302 WA LS 3.1, LS 3.2, R 3.1, R 3.2, W 3.1, W 3.2 Comprehending our world

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The crocodile Read the text and answer the questions.

C

rocodiles are among the heaviest and largest reptiles and have the most developed brain of them all. They are mainly nocturnal hunters of the tropics and, when young, eat water insects, frogs, prawns, fish etc, Older ones eat waterbirds, turtles and various mammals, sometimes hunting in groups to overpower large prey like buffalo or wild pigs who come to drink.They are ‘ambush predators’ which drift like floating logs or lie motionless in hiding near the edge of the water. Movements by its prey are detected by sensory organs along its jaw. They often seize a victim and then rotate quickly in the water tearing lumps of flesh from its body. If it can’t consume all the meal at once it returns to eat the remains later.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

A crocodile is a strong swimmer and moves its muscular tail from side to side to propel it along. Webbed feet enable it to walk on soft ground near swamps, mangroves etc. Each nostril is closed by a flap so water can’t enter when it dives. A fleshy valve in its throat closes and keeps water out of air passages when it seizes its prey. Its sharp teeth are replaced constantly by new ones, which push the old ones out. Crocodiles come ashore to build nests and lay eggs in decaying vegetation or under sand and soil. In some species the females protect the eggs from predators until they hatch. A baby crocodile has an egg tooth on its snout which helps it to break through the egg’s shell.

© R. I . C.Pub l i cat i ons 6. Which crocodile protects the eggs from predators like large •f orr evi ew pur po s e s o n l y • birds?

1. Why do crocodiles work together when hunting?

m . u

w ww

7. What do you think reduces crocodile populations around the world?

2. Where are the organs which detect movement?

. t ethe crocodile use to o 3. What does c . swim along? c e her 8. s r Do crocodiles live in polar, o t super temperate or tropical climate zones.

4. Which word tells us that crocodiles mainly hunt at night?

9. Find words in the text for: feral, hunters, eat, nose, rotting

5. What helps baby crocodiles to break out of an egg?

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Fl

ce

a l ia n R r t s u A octor S oy e D er al h g vi T in y Indicator

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Teachers notes

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Reads text and answers questions to show an understanding of the Australian Royal Flying Doctor Service (RFDS).

• The first use of planes by the RFDS was from Cloncurry, Queensland. The students could locate this on a map and find where some modern bases are. There are six RFDS sections in Australia, with the SE division (which includes Tasmania) having most bases (9). • Flynn worked with Adelaide engineer Alfred Traeger and developed a portable pedal radio with a range of 300 miles (480 km) so patients could contact medical bases quickly rather than by telegraph. • Flynn is known as ‘Flynn of the Inland’ and a monument in Central Australia commemorates his work. • Today, the service provides medical help to travellers touring the remote inland and advises them to carry satellite phones. • Similar air ambulance services have been started in Canada and Africa. Scotland has one for remote areas which is totally funded by the government. • The TV series The flying doctors gave some idea of the work of the RFDS.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

1. 3. 5. 7.

Answers vary depending on when it was read. serious cases and babies Answers vary help, donations, living, purchase, vital

. te

2. 4. 6. 8.

m . u

Answers

flares and headlights a doctor would be on board two (pilot and nurse) 19 345 000 km

o c . che e r o t r s super Additional activities

• Write a short report about John Flynn. • Design a poster to advertise the work of the RFDS in the remote inland.

Curriculum links

NSW SA Qld Vic. WA

English TS2.1, TS2.2, RS2.5, RS2.6, WS2.9, WS2.12 2.1, 3.1, 2.2, 3.2, 2.3, 3.3, 2.4, 3.4 Refer to curriculum documents on http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au ENSL0301, ENSL0302, ENRE0301, ENRE0302, ENWR0301, ENWR0302 LS 3.1, LS 3.2, R 3.1, R 3.2, W 3.1, W 3.2

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The Australian Royal Flying Doctor Service Read the text and answer the questions.

T

he RFDS is a free air ambulance service for people living in towns or on farms in remote parts of Australia. The service was begun in 1928 by the Reverend John Flynn, and was the world’s first air ambulance service. Now, its air bases are located throughout Australia, from Port Hedland in the west to Townsville on the east coast. Its head office is in Sydney and its main committee sends state and federal government funds to its various medical centres. Donations also come from large companies and individuals.They help to purchase vital equipment, pay doctors, nurses, pilots and support staff and replace ageing aircraft. All planes have pressurised cabins like passenger jets, essential for treating serious illnesses and babies.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

When picking up emergency patients from remote farms at night, the RFDS advises that a path of flares or the headlights of cars should help their plane to land safely. However, sometimes a road landing has to be made. RFDS planes usually carry a pilot and a nurse but a doctor is added for serious cases. In its first year of operation the service flew 32 000 km. It is now the world’s largest air ambulance service and in 2005, on average, its planes flew over 53 000 km each day! Its operating costs for that year were over 31 million Australian dollars! Perhaps your class could organise a fundraising event for the RFDS.

© R. I . C.Pub l i cat i ons 5. How would you like to live in a remote area, farl from hospitals? •f orr evi ew pur po s e s o n y • Why?

w ww

6. How many people are usually in an RFDS plane? Who are they?

. te

m . u

1. For how many years has the RFDS been saving lives and helping the injured?

o c . 7. Find words from the text for: c e her r assist, gifts, dwelling, buy, o t s super essential. 3. The cabins are pressurised to

2. Which two things can be used to guide in a plane at night?

help which patients?

4. How would you know an RFDS plane was flying to a seriously ill patient?

8. If an RFDS plane flew 53 000 km each day, calculate how far it would travel in a year.

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Comprehending our world


salination e D Indicator

Teac he r

Reads text and answers questions to show an understanding of desalination.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Teachers notes

ew i ev Pr

• Explain the principle of distillation as shown by the diagram on the student page. • Aristotle, the Ancient Greek scholar, knew thousands of years ago that evaporation from seawater left the salt behind. • The concentrated brine pumped into the ocean can cause plumes with no oxygen content which can kill marine life unless the plumes are dispersed by ocean currents. • Desalination plants use chemicals to kill bacteria and algae in pipes and the chemicals have to be removed before the water is drinkable. • Desalination uses so much electrical energy an Australian politician once said desalinated water was ‘bottles of electricity’. Ask students what they think he meant. • Jellyfish have been known to block the membranes when sucked in by the system. • In 2008 more than 50% of the world’s desalination plants were in the Middle East.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Answers

a membrane 2. environmental scientists 4. the membrane filter 6. Answers vary; e.g. Expensive, damage 8. to the environment 9. tiny, enormous, expensive, damaging, prevent

. te

salt boils it so it gives off clean water vapour membrane, thermal drinkable

m . u

1. 3. 5. 7.

w ww

o c . che e r o t r s super Additional activities

• Design classroom experiments that could demonstrate the principles of both methods of desalination. • Research to find which countries of the world have desalination plants. What do these countries have in common?

Curriculum links NSW SA Qld Vic. WA

English TS2.1, TS2.2, RS2.5, RS2.6, WS2.9, WS2.12 2.1, 3.1, 2.2, 3.2, 2.3, 3.3, 2.4, 3.4 Refer to curriculum documents on http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au ENSL0301, ENSL0302, ENRE0301, ENRE0302, ENWR0301, ENWR0302 LS 3.1, LS 3.2, R 3.1, R 3.2, W 3.1, W 3.2

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Desalination Read the text and answer the questions.

D

esalination is the production of clean drinking water from salt water. Some desalination plants use the thermal method which involves boiling seawater and collecting the clean water vapour rising from it.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Enormous amounts of expensive electrical energy are used in the two processes and large amounts of greenhouse gases are produced, which could contribute to climate change. Some critics say it’s like putting an extra 200 000 cars on the road! Environmental scientists support more use of radiated solar heat or wind power to create the electrical energy as they are less expensive and less damaging to our fresh water environment.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

The most common method is the membrane process, which ‘sucks up’ millions of litres of seawater but, sadly, also sucks in plankton eaten by whales, fish eggs and other small marine life. Very high pressure then forces the seawater through a synthetic mesh containing a huge number of very tiny holes. This membrane allows the water molecules to pass through the holes, but not the salt. The clean water is collected and the concentrated salt solution (brine) left behind is pumped back into the ocean in a waste flow. To prevent membranes from clogging up, solid particles are removed in a pre-treatment stage and the membrane filters are cleaned every few months. the sun

glass/plastic

salt/seawater

collecting dish

© R. I . C.Pub l i cat i ons 6. The process is used more than the •f orr evi ew pur po ses on l y •

1. What is another name for the ‘mesh’?

2. Which substance is not intended to pass through the membrane holes?

7. Name a big disadvantage to either of these processes.

process.

m . u

w ww

. t 3. Who wants the sun’s heat to e o 8. Find out the meaning of the be used in the desalination c . word ‘potable’. process? che e r o r st supe r

9. Find words from the text for: minute, huge, costly, harmful, stop.

4. What does the thermal process do to seawater?

5. What has to be cleaned on a regular basis?

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Comprehending our world


R

o

raffic con t tr ad

ol

Indicator

Teac he r

Reads text and answers questions to show an understanding of road traffic control.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Teachers notes

ew i ev Pr

• Students tally and record the cars passing by their home in 15 minutes at a given time on a particular day. Display the results for the class to complete a block graph. Discuss.

• To control the volume of traffic, some cities have special lanes only for cars which carry more than one passenger in a car-pool arrangement between or among drivers.

• The thin black cables we occasionally see on roads are when the traffic authority is monitoring the number of vehicles the road carries. • Roadway detectors are electrified wire loops that react to the metal in vehicles.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Answers •paint, f oglass/metal rr ev i ew p r p os e sto/leaving onl y • 1. reflective beads 2. u when children are going school 3. a GPS receiver

4. by using helicopters

5. during the day

6. Global Positioning System

7. ancient, glow, frequently, allowed, suburbs 8. Teacher check

w ww

. te

Additional activities

• Describe the feeling of travelling too fast over a speed bump.

m . u

• The first modern-type electric traffic signals were installed in Cleveland, USA in 1914.

o c Curriculum links . ch e r er o t s super

• Brainstorm to create an illustrated list of electronic traffic signs in use on roads today.

NSW SA Qld Vic. WA

English TS2.1, TS2.2, RS2.5, RS2.6, WS2.9, WS2.12 2.1, 3.1, 2.2, 3.2, 2.3, 3.3, 2.4, 3.4 Refer to curriculum documents on http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au ENSL0301, ENSL0302, ENRE0301, ENRE0302, ENWR0301, ENWR0302 LS 3.1, LS 3.2, R 3.1, R 3.2, W 3.1, W 3.2

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SOSE SSS 2.7

SRP 3 SOSE0303 NSS 3

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Road traffic control Read the text and answer the questions.

T

raffic moving smoothly is important today with hundreds of thousands of vehicles on our roads.The Ancient Roman emperor, Julius Caesar, even banned chariots from Rome during daytime!

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Road signs with driver information are often painted with reflective paint or covered with glass or metal beads which glow in headlights. Electronic signs may flash messages like ‘Keep in left lane’,‘Fog ahead’ etc. and are situated so they can be seen well in advance.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

On most busy roads traffic lights control the flow, usually changing after a few minutes. Where roads intersect, signals remain on green longer for those roads which carry the most traffic. Some lights are activated by vehicles passing over detectors embedded in the road. The information is then transmitted to computers which operate a suitable sequence using green, amber and red.

‘Speed bumps’ in suburbs slow down vehicles and police speed cameras enforce official road speeds, especially speeds at certain times near schools. Main roads have higher speeds allowed as they are designed to link cities. In some cities, ‘bus only’ lanes prevent frequently stopping buses holding up traffic. Radio stations use helicopters to warn listeners about congested roads and many drivers have a GPS receiver in their car to guide them to a destination. Sometimes, a recorded voice in the receiver also warns the driver when the vehicle is exceeding the speed limit.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons 1. What isf used to make road signs p 5. o When were chariots banned • o r r e v i e w p u r s e s o n l y • easier for drivers to see their from entering Rome? message?

m . u

w ww

6. Find out what GPS stands for. A dictionary could help!

. te

2. What times of the day do you think ‘certain times’ refers to?

o c . c e her st r o supe r 3. Which device helps drivers to

7. Find words from the text for: old, shine, often, permitted, districts

find their destination?

8. On squared paper, draw a block graph of the class road tally results the teacher has put on the board.

4. How are radio stations able to give up-to-date news about traffic on roads? R.I.C. Publications®

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Comprehending our world


Lego ™ Indicator

Teac he r

Reads text and answers questions to show an understanding of Lego™.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Teachers notes

ew i ev Pr

• Ole Kirk Christiansen, a carpenter from Denmark, produced the plastic bricks in 1958.

• They are made from plastic granules melted in machines in temperatures up to 232 ° C. Great pressure then forces the plastic into moulds which are cooled and ejected within seconds. Mostly machines and robots operate the systems.

• The Lego™ company has produced theme sets like ‘Star wars™’,‘Batman™’ and ‘Indiana Jones™’.

• Larger bricks (‘Duplo™’ and ‘Quatro™’) have been made for young children.

• In recent years, Lego™ has seen drops in profits because major patents have expired so rivals can compete, and possibly because of more electronic devices on the market.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Answers •f o r etov e w p2. uoverlap r po ses nl y• 1. no bricks can ber attached itsi underside or ‘stagger’ the o bricks 5. a baseplate

6. tubes and studs

7. Answers vary; e.g. a tin can, toilet roll, coin

8. miniature, spheres, thin, decorative, sections

. te

Additional activities

m . u

4. enables you to be more creative

w ww

3. an ‘arch’

o c . ch e Curriculum links r er o t s super

• Use Lego™ elements to make your own model for a classroom display. Write opinions on them. • Make a 30 m tower of cardboard tubes like California’s record Lego™ tower. Stand it up. Wow!

NSW SA Qld Vic. WA

English TS2.1, TS2.2, RS2.5, RS2.6, WS2.9, WS2.12 2.1, 3.1, 2.2, 3.2, 2.3, 3.3, 2.4, 3.4 Refer to curriculum documents on http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au ENSL0301, ENSL0302, ENRE0301, ENRE0302, ENWR0301, ENWR0302 LS 3.1, LS 3.2, R 3.1, R 3.2, W 3.1, W 3.2

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Lego™ Read the text and answer the questions.

F

or young or old, Lego™ offers the chance to be creative using different-coloured plastic bricks called‘elements’. An element has small cylinders called‘studs’ on top and they slot into‘tubes’ on another brick. Elements can be‘staggered’ so they overlap like bricks in a wall in a house.This creates a good bond between the bricks which gives the model more strength. Lego™ bricks are full of 90 degree angles but spheres or curves can still be created. Bricks with sloped sides are called‘slopes’ or ‘roof bricks’ and‘arches’ are used to make bridges, tunnels etc. while‘minifigs’ are miniature figures which can be used in model towns.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

Developed in the 1970s, ‘Technic™’ bricks include axles, gears, bricks with holes etc. which means a model can have a motor added and actually work! ‘Mindstorm’ sets let you build a robot which can be programmed with help from step-by-step instructions. Larger bricks are also made for very young children so they can’t be swallowed. Baseplates are large thin bases with an underside where no bricks can be attached. Mosaiclike patterns similar to decorative tiles in a bathroom can be arranged on them with tubes and studs facing outwards to create an interesting design. With large model towers, buildings etc. it is best to start on smaller sections first andwork from the bottom up while having a picture of the finished model in your mind.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

In2010,afamous Londondepartment storeSelfridges startedselling ‘kidult’ products of silver jewellery decorated with a Lego™ block.

5. What can you build an artistic design on?

w ww

m . u

1. Describe a baseplate.

6. Which two things are used to bond bricks together?

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2. How can you make sure your Lego™ model is strong?

o c . 7. Give an everyday example of a c e her r 3. Which special element/brick cylinder. o t s would you need to make s au r e p tunnel?

4. Why is Lego™ a good toy to have?

8. Find words in the text for: small, orbs, narrow, ornate, parts

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Comprehending our world


unicati m m on o C Indicator

Teac he r

Reads text and answers questions to show an understanding of communication.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Teachers notes

ew i ev Pr

• The Ancient Romans obtained news from ‘Acta diurna’—handwritten sheets posted in public. Slaves then copied them and delivered them to all parts of the Empire. • Messages sent by smoke signals and drums required the observers/listeners to be aware of what they meant.

• An eastern state in India was still trying to maintain its pigeon message service for people isolated by floods etc. as recently as 2006.

• Frenchman Louis Braille’s system, invented in 1821, was based on a similar communication method used by Napoleon’s troops to communicate silently and without lights during the night. Braille was blind as a result of an accident when he was 3 years old.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

• Explain that ‘Charades’ is based on gestures. Play it and then discuss any interesting gestures seen—those that best convey the message.

Answers

3. because the enemy would detect radio signals

4. a strong voice

5. reading books, using the written word

6. development of the human brain

7. they wouldn’t be seen because of the trees

8. animals, age, enemy, lit, flags

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m . u

2. old photos, very old paintings

w ww

1. sailing

o c . che e r o t r s supe r Curriculum links Additional activities

• Write a short account of braille or semaphore or sign language for the deaf. • Research ways used by animals to communicate

NSW SA Qld Vic. WA

English TS2.1, TS2.2, RS2.5, RS2.6, WS2.9, WS2.12 2.1, 3.1, 2.2, 3.2, 2.3, 3.3, 2.4, 3.4 Refer to curriculum documents on http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au ENSL0301, ENSL0302, ENRE0301, ENRE0302, ENWR0301, ENWR0302 LS 3.1, LS 3.2, R 3.1, R 3.2, W 3.1, W 3.2

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Communication Read the text and answer the questions.

H

ave you ever shrugged your shoulders, nodded your head or pulled a face? These are the simplest forms of communication and are used even by infants. Prehistoric tribes used such gestures before brain development made simple language possible so they could cooperate in hunting animals, making tools and building shelters. Indians on the North American plains used smoke signals which could be seen over long distances. Tribes in the African jungles sent messages by drums because trees blocked any visual communication. Town criers once walked the streets shouting messages about important community events. Old photos and centuries-old paintings communicate to us information about fashions, furniture and life in a bygone age. Writers for centuries have shared their thoughts in millions of books.

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u During wars, pigeons over long distances. For shorter distances, signal Shave carried messages flags sent silent messages in a system called ‘semaphore’ since the enemy could detect radio signals. Beacon fires along the south coast of England were lit one after the other to signal the position of the huge Spanish armada sailing to attack England in 1588.

Compare these methods with what you can use today—phone calls, e-mails, text messages; all done in a matter of seconds!

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

5. Which common methods of communication do we still use after centuries of use?

w ww

2. What can we look at to see what people wore in the recent past and centuries ago?

. te

m . u

1. Which word tells us the armada was a fleet of ships?

6. What made simple language possible in prehistoric times?

o c . c e he r 3. Why were semaphore flags used 7. Why didn’t African tribes use o t r s super during wartime? smoke signals?

8. Find words from the text for: beasts, era, foe, ignited, pennants

4. What would a town crier have needed to deliver his information?

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Comprehending our world


human e h T ive sy st e st e m g i d Indicator

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Teachers notes

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Reads text and answers questions to show an understanding of the human digestive system.

• Food that has been churned and partly digested in the stomach is a thick liquid called ‘chyme’. • The whole digestive system from the mouth to the anus is called the alimentary canal.

• The stomach glands also produce a mucus which protects the stomach lining from its own acid.

• Bile is a greenish-brown fluid.

• The small intestine is much longer than the large intestine, but has a smaller circumference.

© R. I . C .Publ i cat i ons Answers •f orr evi ew pu pliver oand se sonl y• 1. nutrients 2. r the pancreas 4.

it makes it easier to swallow

5. by muscles in the oesophagus

6.

in the liver

7. it breaks down fat into smaller molecules

8.

900 cm

w ww

9. liquid, completely, helps, require, carries

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Additional activities

m . u

3. chemicals

o c . che e r o t r s super

• Design a poster encouraging people to have a healthy diet. Include information learnt from the text.

• Draw around the outline of a volunteer student. Using reference material, draw the approximate size and location of all the body’s organs used in the process of digestion. Make a booklet giving a simple job description of each organ.

Curriculum links

NSW SA Qld Vic. WA

English TS2.1, TS2.2, RS2.5, RS2.6, WS2.9, WS2.12 2.1, 3.1, 2.2, 3.2, 2.3, 3.3, 2.4, 3.4 Refer to curriculum documents on http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au ENSL0301, ENSL0302, ENRE0301, ENRE0302, ENWR0301, ENWR0302 LS 3.1, LS 3.2, R 3.1, R 3.2, W 3.1, W 3.2

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Science LTS2.3 2.5, 3.5 LL 3.1 SCBS0302 LL 3

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The human digestive system Read the text and answer the questions.

T

his system breaks down and absorbs the nutrients your body needs for energy, growth and the repair of damaged tissues. The nutrients are the carbohydrates, proteins and fats in food. And when you go to the toilet the system also gets rid of the wastes your body doesn’t require! The whole digestive system is a collection of hollow tubes which break down food with help from the liver and the pancreas. The system stretches for about nine metres inside your body!

mouth and salivary glands oesophagus

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S liver

gallbladder

stomach bile

pancreas

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

Food smells activate the brain which sends a message large intestine small intestine to the salivary glands under the tongue. Juices are then appendix secreted to soften the food in the mouth to make it easier to anus swallow.Your teeth cut and grind the food into manageable sizes. The food slides down your throat and along the oesophagus, where muscles push it to the stomach. Glands in the stomach secrete gastric juices which include acid and chemicals called enzymes. Food is then broken down further in the small intestine with enzymes from the pancreas. Bile, a liquid produced by the liver, helps to break down the fats. When completely digested, the nutrients move through the walls of both intestines into the bloodstream, which carries them around the body. Food not digested enters the large intestine which absorbs extra fluid and produces semi-solid wastes (faeces) which are expelled in bowel movements.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

1. What is another name for proteins and fats?

w ww

m . u

6. Where is bile produced?

7. Why is bile so important?

2. Which other two organs help with the digestive system?

. te

o c . 3. What are enzymes? che e r o t r s supe r

8. Approximately how many centimetres long is the digestive system?

4. Why is the softening of food in the mouth important?

9. Find words in the text for: fluid, entirely, assists, need, transports

5. How is food sent into the stomach?

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Comprehending our world


oral reef c A Indicator

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Teachers notes

• Coral polyps are carnivores related to sea anemones and jellyfish.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Reads text and answers questions to show an understanding of a coral reef.

• Corals are often named after their shapes—stag horn coral, mushroom coral etc. • Most coral polyps are less than 2.5 cm in diameter.

• Reefs also contain the skeletons of other limestone-producing plants or animals such as algae and shellfish.

• Reefs develop very slowly, perhaps only a few centimetres a year.

Answers © R . I . C .Pu bl i cat i ons 1. the ‘crown of thorns’ starfish 2. in tropical/subtropical waters 3. a growth forms on anr adult polyp 4. r limestone • f o r e v i e w p u posesonl y• 5. Pacific Ocean 6. they use stinging cells to paralyse prey

w ww

Additional activities

• Research and write a short report on the ‘crown of thorns’ starfish.

m . u

7. microscopic, cavity, live, seize, skeleton

• Draw and colour a range of coral reef fish to display around descriptions of a coral reef.

. te

NSW SA Qld Vic. WA

o c . che e r o t r s super Curriculum links

English TS2.1, TS2.2, RS2.5, RS2.6, WS2.9, WS2.12 2.1, 3.1, 2.2, 3.2, 2.3, 3.3, 2.4, 3.4 Refer to curriculum documents on http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au ENSL0301, ENSL0302, ENRE0301, ENRE0302, ENWR0301, ENWR0302 LS 3.1, LS 3.2, R 3.1, R 3.2, W 3.1, W 3.2

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Science LTS2.3 2.5, 3.5 LL 3.1 SCBS0302 LL 3

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A coral reef Read the text and answer the questions.

C

oral polyps are found in shallow tropical seas and deeper, cooler waters but only form reefs in warmer tropical and subtropical waters. They are tiny marine creatures that secrete limestone (calcium carbonate) from their underside. This creates a protective skeleton and a cupshaped cavity where they can hide from predators.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

A polyp’s lower end is attached to a hard surface while the free end is a mouth surrounded by tiny tentacles with stinging cells. These cells can extend to seize food by paralysing prey such as microscopic plankton or very small fish. Polyps usually reduce their size during the day but extend at night when they feed. Coral reefs are mainly the limestone skeletons of millions of dead polyps. They have taken hundreds, sometimes thousands, of years to develop and it is the limestone secretions from the living polyps which also increase the size of the reef. Polyps reproduce by sending out huge numbers of eggs which develop into tiny larvae. These swim around for days, sometimes weeks, before settling on the dead coral to develop into a new colony of polyps. Polyps also reproduce by ‘budding’. Buds are growths which form on an adult polyp. When the adult polyp dies its limestone skeleton remains and the bud begins to secrete its own calcium carbonate.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Many sea creatures, thousands different species ofe brilliantly-coloured reef fish, live with •f oincluding rr ev i ewofp ur p os sonl y• 1. Which creature is destroying parts of coral reefs?

5. The reefs in which ocean have suffered damage?

w ww

m . u

crabs, eels, shellfish and starfish among the coral. Unfortunately, the ‘crown of thorns’ starfish feeds on coral polyps and has damaged large areas of reefs in the Pacific Ocean.

. te

o c . c e her r o t s supe r 3. What happens in ‘budding’? 2. Where do polyps form coral reefs?

6. How do polyps obtain food?

7. Give words from the text for: tiny, hole, dwell, grab, framework

4. What is another name for calcium carbonate?

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Comprehending our world


A tree Indicator

Teac he r

Reads text and answers questions to show an understanding of a tree.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Teachers notes

ew i ev Pr

• Some trees live longer than any other living thing. Giant redwoods are known to live over 3000 years. • The evaporation of water from leaves is TRANSPIRATION.

• The green in leaves is chlorophyll, a pigment which absorbs light to provide energy for photosynthesis. This pigment conceals other leaf colours but when the pigment breaks down in autumn the leaves die, revealing hidden colours—reds and yellows. • Leaves wilt when water is transpired through stomata faster than it enters through the roots.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi eAnswers w pur posesonl y•

1. rootlet

2.

Teacher check

3. the sap

4.

in the pith

5. the bark stretches and cracks

6.

in flowers and cones

w ww

7. dispersed, vertical, deep, thin, outer

. te

Additional activities

m . u

• Point out the value of trees in returning oxygen to the atmosphere and the folly of deforestation in the Amazon basin and Asia.

o c . ch e Curriculum links r er o t s super

• Select a tree in or near the school and draw and colour it accurately.

• Research and find out how the seeds of the sycamore tree are spread.

NSW SA Qld Vic. WA

English TS2.1, TS2.2, RS2.5, RS2.6, WS2.9, WS2.12 2.1, 3.1, 2.2, 3.2, 2.3, 3.3, 2.4, 3.4 Refer to curriculum documents on http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au ENSL0301, ENSL0302, ENRE0301, ENRE0302, ENWR0301, ENWR0302 LS 3.1, LS 3.2, R 3.1, R 3.2, W 3.1, W 3.2

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Science LTS2.3 2.5, 3.5 LL 3.1 SCBS0302 LL 3

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A tree Read the text and answer the questions.

A

tree’s roots, trunk, branches and leaves all work together so the tree can grow.

Large roots anchor the tree to the ground while the hairs on young rootlets absorb water and dissolved mineral nutrients from the soil.This solution is the sap which moves through the larger roots, then into the trunk and finally to the leaf veins. Some trees have a long, vertical taproot to absorb water deep down when there’s little near the surface.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

Leaves are the tree’s food factory. Their main task is to produce food by using sunlight in a process called photosynthesis. Air passes into the leaves through tiny pores (stomata). With the aid of sunlight, the leaves use the sap and carbon dioxide taken from the air to make sugar.The sugar is soon changed to other foods such as starch and protein. Some water evaporates and any air not used and the oxygen in it is also returned to the atmosphere through the stomata. In the trunk’s centre is a soft tissue called ‘pith’ where the tree’s food is stored. Between the wood and the bark is a thin layer of cells where new wood is formed on top of the previous year’s layer. As the wood increases in size the outer layers of bark stretch and crack. When the bark thickens and ages, outer layers drop off and leaves new bark develops. If a branch is broken, new bark canopy blossom seals up the damage.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Most trees reproduce through seeds formed in flowers or cones. The seeds are then dispersed by wind, animal droppings containing seeds, water flows and gravity.

seeds

trunk

m . u

roots

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1. What is the name for a young root?

. te

5. What happens when wood in the trunk grows and expands?

o c . che e 6. Where are a tree’s seeds r o t r formed? s super

2. Which do you think is the most important part of the tree? Why?

3. What is the solution of water and chemicals called?

7. Find antonyms (opposites) in the text for: gathered, horizontal, shallow, wide, inner

4. Where is the tree’s food stored?

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igratio m d r n Bi Indicator

Teac he r

Reads text and answers questions to show an understanding of bird migration.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Teachers notes

ew i ev Pr

• In 2008, Australian researchers placed satellite tracking devices on birds in a 140 000 flock about to start their annual migration to the Northern Hemisphere from Western Australia.

• Birds fly in flocks of their own species, in mixed flocks or on their own. • Tired birds on long migrations are more susceptible to attacks by predators.

• One study of warblers found that unless stars were visible for these night-migrating birds, their movements were random.

• The arctic tern has the longest migration route—a round trip of at least 40 000 km.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi eAnswers w pur posesonl y•

• Birds are also believed to use visual landmarks like mountains and the Earth’s magnetic field to guide them.

stored fat

3. at night

4.

birds in the tropics

5. the Antarctic

6.

bright, violent, frozen

7. sudden cold periods, fog, violent storms

8.

a wading bird

9. region, under, journeys/flights, position, danger

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Additional activities

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2.

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1. they can lose their way and get lost

o c . che e r o t r s super Curriculum links

• Research and write a short paragraph on the arctic tern.

• Research for information of bird migration to record on an outline of a world map. Use a colour key to denote different birds.

NSW SA Qld Vic. WA

English TS2.1, TS2.2, RS2.5, RS2.6, WS2.9, WS2.12 2.1, 3.1, 2.2, 3.2, 2.3, 3.3, 2.4, 3.4 Refer to curriculum documents on http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au ENSL0301, ENSL0302, ENRE0301, ENRE0302, ENWR0301, ENWR0302 LS 3.1, LS 3.2, R 3.1, R 3.2, W 3.1, W 3.2

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Science LTS2.3 2.5, 3.5 LL 3.1 SCBS0302 LL 3

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Bird migration Read the text and answer the questions.

M

igration involves the movement from one region to another and back again. It may happen in spring or autumn as birds flock to warmer or cooler areas. Some fly short journeys while the arctic tern travels thousands of kilometres from near the North Pole to the Antarctic.

Insect-eating birds in the tropics have a constant food supply so only migrate during unusually wet or dry periods. Birds nesting in Alaska or northern Canada need to move south as winter brings frozen wastelands. Wading birds also seek warmer climes as lakes, ponds and mudflats freeze over and food is scarce.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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Teac he r

Golden plovers can fly 3000 km over water without landing and, like other long-distance fliers, they overeat and store body fat under the skin. This provides energy for long flights. Other species obtain food on long journeys when flying over land areas. Though bird migration is not fully understood, studies suggest that daytime migrants depend on the position of the sun to guide them.Those migrating at night (most songbirds) seem to use the patterns of bright stars. Sudden cold periods may kill thousands of small birds while fog or violent storms cause many to lose their way. Humans are also a danger as they know the routes taken by the birds they shoot for sport or food.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

1. What can happen to migrating birds in fog?

m . u

6. Circle the adjectives in these text words: bright, food, violent, frozen, guide

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2. What gives the birds energy for long flights?

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7. What natural events can kill large numbers of birds?

o c . c e her 8. s r Which kind of bird finds food on o t super mudflats? 4. Which birds usually have good 3. When do most songbirds migrate?

food supplies for most of the year?

9. Find synonyms from the text for: area, beneath, trips, location, peril

5. Where is the arctic tern going to when it flies south?

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A robot Indicator

Teac he r

Reads text and answers questions to show an understanding of a robot.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Teachers notes

ew i ev Pr

• The ‘unimate’ robot was first used in the 1960s to remove dangerously hot metal from factory machines.

• The European project involves computer scientists, psychologists and engineers from seven countries and is planned to run for over four years.

• Over one million robots are used worldwide, mostly in Europe and North America.

• Honda’s ‘Asimo’ humanoid robot can recognise individual faces and can understand gestures and spoken commands because of its programming.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Answers f orr evi ew2. p ur p osesonl y• 1. jump • engineers, scientists • The ultimate aim of the experts is to create a robot that can reason and act like humans.

4. a humanoid robot

5. Teacher check

6. Teacher check

7. England

8. dangerous, required, friendly, assist, jump

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9. computer program

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Additional activities

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3. they are very accurate

o c . che e r o t r Curriculum links s supe r

• Research to find out which language the word ‘robot’ comes from.

• Use a selection of craft and recyclable materials to design and make a mechanical/humanoid robot.

NSW SA Qld Vic. WA

English TS2.1, TS2.2, RS2.5, RS2.6, WS2.9, WS2.12 2.1, 3.1, 2.2, 3.2, 2.3, 3.3, 2.4, 3.4 Refer to curriculum documents on http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au ENSL0301, ENSL0302, ENRE0301, ENRE0302, ENWR0301, ENWR0302 LS 3.1, LS 3.2, R 3.1, R 3.2, W 3.1, W 3.2

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A robot Read the text and answer the questions.

C

an you remember the robots from Star wars—fussy C-3PO and cute R2-D2? The friendly R2-D2 was a mechanical robot while C-3PO was a humanoid robot designed like a human body. At present, robots can assist doctors during complicated medical operations where fine accuracy is required. However, they can’t interact in relationships with the people who operate them. Engineers and scientists argue that in the future this will change.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

In April 2008, European experts began a project to develop robots with artificial (built) personalities. The researchers are confident that human beings will relate to these robots even though they know each personality is just a computer program. I’m sure you could relate to‘Kaspar’, a robot shaped like a two-year-old boy and designed by an English professor. Kaspar can make facial expressions, move its arms and play games like‘peek-a-boo’!

Actuators are motors which control arobot’s movements so they canassemblecars andcarryout tasks toodangerous for humans, like clearing landmines and defusing bombs. Some robots can recharge themselves and react to changes around them, but they can’t jump like you! Some Disney theme parks use robots which act like humans, and a female robot called‘Ursula’ sings, dances and speaks to audiences at Universal Studios. In 2010, a Japanese electronics company, Hitachi, announced it had produced a robot that is able to pick up human voices from background noise and talk with people.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f or etext, vi e wcan pur se so nl y•what jobs p 6. o If you had a pet robot, 1. Mentioned in r the what

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2. Which experts work on developing more advanced robots?

m . u

would you program it to do for you?

you do that a robot can’t?

7. Kaspar was designed in which country?

. te o c 3. Why are robots useful in medical 8. Find synonyms the text for: .fromamiable, che e operations? perilous,r needed, help, o t r leap s super

4. Is Kaspar a humanoid or mechanical robot?

9. A future robot’s personality would just be a

5. How many months since the European project began?

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Comprehending our world


A

h y li f e s t l a ty he le Indicator

Teac he r

Reads text and answers questions to show an understanding of a healthy lifestyle.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Teachers notes

ew i ev Pr

• ‘Trans fats’ are found in some deep-fried foods and processed foods made with butter or margarine and fat for pastry. They are created by a process called hydrogenation which converts liquid oils into solid fats for the correct consistency in cakes, pastries, pies etc. Beef, lamb and dairy foods also contain small amounts.

• Medical studies show active people have fewer heart attacks than inactive people.

• Explain to students that items like chocolate, cakes, pies and French fries are all right occasionally, but not as a regular part of a person’s diet. • Emphasise that students shouldn’t smoke in spite of pressure from peers as cigarette smoke contains hundreds of toxic chemicals harmful to their health.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi eAnswers w pur posesonl y•

• Growing boys and girls need 9 to 10 hours of sleep.

3. mouth bacteria

4. wholegrain loaves

5. active parents

6. those with added sugar

7. syrup

8. lessen, strengthen, attacks, inactive, strength

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Additional activities

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2. trans fats

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1. protein, fats and carbohydrates

o c . che e r o Curriculum links t r s super

• Design a poster advising a healthy diet and things to avoid.

• Work out two meals—one you should eat and one you shouldn’t!

English

Health and physical education NSW TS2.1, TS2.2, RS2.5, RS2.6, WS2.9, WS2.12 PHS2.12 SA 2.1, 3.1, 2.2, 3.2, 2.3, 3.3, 2.4, 3.4 2.8, 3.8 Qld Refer to curriculum documents on http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au PHIC 3.1 Vic. ENSL0301, ENSL0302, ENRE0301, ENRE0302, ENWR0301, HPIP0301 ENWR0302 WA LS 3.1, LS 3.2, R 3.1, R 3.2, W 3.1, W 3.2 SMS 3 Comprehending our world

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A healthy lifestyle Read the text and answer the questions.

T

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

After eating any food always clean your teeth, as some mouth bacteria thrive on sugar and starch particles left behind. They form acid which attacks tooth enamel and leads to fillings from your dentist!

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

o maintain good health, exercise is important but the kinds of food you eat are important too. Water is essential but so are foods containing protein, good fats and carbohydrates which provide the energy for body cells to function properly so you can grow. Foods containing vitamins and minerals are also needed to strengthen your bone structure and operate the nerve system. We know the health benefits of fresh vegetables and fruit, even fruit canned in juice and not syrup. Add to these wholegrain breads and cereals, especially breakfast foods without added sugar and eaten with skim or low fat milk. The fats to avoid are ‘trans fats’, a kind of oil used in pastries and snack foods, as they are unhealthy for your heart. In supermarkets look for items which say ‘no trans fats’!

Regular exercise is also essential as it increases muscle strength, develops coordination and improves the function of the heart, lungs and blood vessels. Ensure you have at least one hour of physical activity each day and avoid lengthy periods when you are totally inactive. Children who exercise regularly and maintain a healthy weight can lessen the risk of serious illnesses like diabetes and heart 5. Who can set a good example disease in later life. Active parents can be to encourage you to exercise good role models! regularly?

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1. Which ingredients in food help body cells to function properly?

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

6. Which breakfast foods should be avoided?

. te o 2. There are ‘good’ fats but which c . ch kind of fats should you avoid? e r 7. Canned fruit is healthier in e o t r s s r upenatural juice rather than in

3. What forms the acid which attacks tooth enamel?

8. Give antonyms from the text for: increase, weaken, defends, active, weakness

4. Which kinds of loaves should you eat?

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Comprehending our world


a r t h q ua k e e An Indicator

Teac he r

Reads text and answers questions to show an understanding of an earthquake.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Teachers notes

ew i ev Pr

• An earthquake in China in 1556, the deadliest on record, is believed to have caused over 800 000 deaths. • Earthquakes are measured on the Richter scale named after American seismologist Charles Richter. Those measuring over 6.0 on this scale are considered severe but one off the coast of Chile in 1960 was recorded at 9.5. • The point on the ground directly above the ‘focus’ is called the epicentre, where the strongest shaking is usually felt. • Japan is an earthquake-prone country and their scientists design high-rise buildings which can survive severe rocking. • Tsunamis are often called ‘tidal waves’, but scientists disagree with this name as it is not tides that cause them but (usually) earthquakes. • In San Francisco’s 1906 earthquake, fires raged for three days after the event.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Answers

tectonic and volcanic 2. molten 3. plates magma 5. where the Earth’s crust has not settled fully the Richter scale 7. no 8. fault lines sounds, huge, sudden, lesser, bend

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1. 4. 6. 9.

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o c . che e r o t r s super Curriculum links Additional activities

• Write notes on Poseidon, the god of earthquakes in Greek myths. • Find out what the ‘Ring of fire’ is. Record its location on an outline of a world map. Add any other interesting information to the map. Use the annotated map to give a talk on the ‘Ring of fire’.

NSW SA Qld Vic. WA

English TS2.1, TS2.2, RS2.5, RS2.6, WS2.9, WS2.12 2.1, 3.1, 2.2, 3.2, 2.3, 3.3, 2.4, 3.4 Refer to curriculum documents on http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au ENSL0301, ENSL0302, ENRE0301, ENRE0302, ENWR0301, ENWR0302 LS 3.1, LS 3.2, R 3.1, R 3.2, W 3.1, W 3.2

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Science ESS 2.6 2.1, 3.1 EB 3.1 SCES0301 EB 3

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An earthquake Read the text and answer the questions.

E

arthquakes happen where the Earth’s rocky crust is still not fully settled. Vibrations occur as huge rock masses called ‘plates’ slide against each other and release energy. Severe quakes, those measuring over 6.0 on the Richter scale, are ‘tectonic’ and occur along cracks in the Earth’s surface called fault lines. ‘Volcanic’ quakes set off smaller tremors caused by the sudden movements of magma (molten lava) below the surface. This can fracture rocks in areas where volcanoes are found and thousands of these lighter tremors occur daily around the world.

Teac he r DANGER

DANGER

DANGER

DANGER

DANGER

DANGER

DANGER

ew i ev Pr

DANGER

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

In severe earthquakes, the violent shaking and breaking of the Earth’s crust releases energy that travels through the ground in vibrations called primary and secondary seismic waves. Primary waves travel in all directions at about 6 km per second while secondary waves spread through the surface at a lesser speed. Both travel away from the quake’s ‘focus’, which is the area where vibrations begin and rock layers start to bend and break.These vibrations can disturb the air and produce audible sounds.

DANGER

A strong earthquake on the ocean bed can push seawater towards the shore and create huge, destructive waves called tsunamis. These waves can kill thousands, but many also die when strong earthquakes rupture gas pipes or electric power lines and fires break out.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons 1. What are the two main •f or r evi ew pur posesonl y• earthquake types? 6. On what scale is the magnitude 2. Which word means ‘hot, and in liquid form’?

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(strength) of an earthquake measured?

7. Does a recording of 3.5 on this scale indicate a severe earthquake?

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o c . che e r 8. Giveo another name for cracks in t r s super 4. What is underground molten the Earth’s surface. lava called? 3. Huge areas of rock which slide into each other are called what?

5. Which are the main areas where earthquakes occur?

9. Find antonyms in the text for: silence, tiny, slow, greater, straighten

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a ne t o a c e d Th Indicator

Teac he r

Reads text and answers questions to show an understanding of the cane toad.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Teachers notes

• The South American toad was later introduced into the Philippines and Hawaii.

ew i ev Pr

• ‘Bufo’ means ‘toad’ and ‘marinus’ means ‘of or pertaining to the sea’. Cane toads are also called marine toads, giant American toads and Mexican toads. • The toad’s venom kills Australian snakes but South American snakes are not harmed. • Large toads have been measured at 24 cm long and 18 cm wide.

• In some Australian states, volunteers have been given government funding to try to eliminate the pests and have caught thousands each week.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi eAnswers w pur posesonl y•

• A university professor in Sydney found that cane toads falling behind the main advance front had a lungworm parasite which slows down adult toads and kills about 30% of toadlets. This could be a future biological weapon.

milk

3. a toadlet

4.

brackish

5. when it is a toadlet/young toad

6.

in its glands

7. a necklace

8.

predators, toxic, fluid, wider, almost

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Additional activities

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2.

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1. Teacher check

o c . che e r o t r s super

• From different sources, read about the cane toad then write a report explaining why it is considered an environmental threat. • Draw an illustrated diagram of the life cycle of the cane toad. Draw a life-size adult, labelling its main features.

Curriculum links

NSW SA Qld Vic. WA

English TS2.1, TS2.2, RS2.5, RS2.6, WS2.9, WS2.12 2.1, 3.1, 2.2, 3.2, 2.3, 3.3, 2.4, 3.4 Refer to curriculum documents on http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au ENSL0301, ENSL0302, ENRE0301, ENRE0302, ENWR0301, ENWR0302 LS 3.1, LS 3.2, R 3.1, R 3.2, W 3.1, W 3.2

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Science LTS2.3 2.5, 3.5 LL 3.1 SCBS0302 LL 3

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The cane toad Read the text and answer the questions.

C

ane toads were used in the West Indies in the 19th century to control sugar cane beetle pests in the cane fields. In 1935 they were introduced into Queensland, Australia from Hawaii for the same purpose—to kill beetles which eat the roots of sugar cane plants.They’re now spreading at an alarming rate.

Teac he r

The female toad can lay up to 30 000 eggs at a time in a long string of clear, jelly-like material resembling a necklace. The eggs are not laid in seawater but in ponds, streams and muddy puddles. However, their tadpoles will develop in brackish water which is only slightly salty. The tadpoles grow to the toadlet stage and, if not eaten by crocodiles, snakes, rats and other predators, become adult toads after about four months. The toad’s poison is toxic at all these stages of its life but less poisonous to predators at the toadlet stage.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

The poison is a milky fluid in two pouch-like glands which form bulges behind its ears on its dry, warty body. It oozes out or is squirted and is often fatal to native animals or dogs which bite or only mouth the toad. In humans, the squirted venom may cause intense pain and temporary blindness.

At night, the toads can be heard making their loud ‘purring’ sounds like a phone dial tone or a distant car engine.They eat almost anything they can swallow, like pet food in suburban gardens and household food scraps, but they mainly eat insects attracted by house lights or ants, bees, crickets etc.They’re almost as long 5. When is the cane toad less as the ruler on your desk, but much wider!

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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1. How long has it been since the cane toads were introduced into Australia?

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poisonous to predators which eat it?

. te o 2. What does the toad’s poison c . che look like? e r 7. Whato do the egg strings look t r s super like?

6. Where is the poison stored in the toad’s body?

3. What is another name for a young toad?

8. Find words from the text for: hunters, poisonous, liquid, broader, nearly

4. What word in the text describes water which is slightly salty?

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h u ma n ea e r Th Indicator

Teac he r

Reads text and answers questions to show an understanding of the human ear.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Teachers notes

ew i ev Pr

• Dr Graeme M Clarke is the inventor of the cochlear implant hearing device, invented to help his father, who was partially deaf. • ‘Cochlea’ comes from the Latin word for ‘snail’. • Bats and dogs can hear sounds too high-pitched for us to hear.

• We measure sound in decibels—a whisper(10dB), thunder(100dB), and a Boeing 747(140dB). Over 85dB can damage our ears. • Inform students never to poke sharp objects into their ear. Flush out any foreign bodies with warm olive oil.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi eAnswers w pur posesonl y•

• When old people cup their hand around their auricle,they create a larger area to catch soundwaves better.

3. receptor cells

4. after the brain analyses the nerve signals

5. they move it back and forth more rapidly

6. sounds too high for us to hear

7. helps our sense of balance

8. rigid, outer, entrance, magnify, rapidly

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Additional activities

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2. in the ear canal

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1. a snail’s shell

o c . che e r o t r Curriculum links s supe r

• Find out why we remember Australian Graeme M Clarke.

• Draw a diagram of the ear and use it to explain how the ear works.

NSW SA Qld Vic. WA

English TS2.1, TS2.2, RS2.5, RS2.6, WS2.9, WS2.12 2.1, 3.1, 2.2, 3.2, 2.3, 3.3, 2.4, 3.4 Refer to curriculum documents on http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au ENSL0301, ENSL0302, ENRE0301, ENRE0302, ENWR0301, ENWR0302 LS 3.1, LS 3.2, R 3.1, R 3.2, W 3.1, W 3.2

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Science LTS2.3 2.5, 3.5 LL 3.1 SCBS0302 LL 3

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The human ear Read the text and answer the questions.

E

ars are not just skin and cartilage flaps (auricles) to hold earrings! Inside the ear are very important organs which detect changes in our surroundings by sensing soundwaves.These waves enter a passage, the ear canal, in the outer ear and act upon the eardrum. The eardrum is a thin, sensitive membrane stretched over the entrance to the middle ear at the end of the canal.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

When soundwaves like human speech vibrate the eardrum, the vibrations pass along a chain of small bones in the middle ear—the hammer, anvil and stirrup. These magnify the vibrations which then move along to the inner ear and onto the cochlea. This is the hearing organ, and is about 3.5 cm long and shaped like a snail’s shell. Enclosed fluid in the cochlea vibrates and activates hundreds of receptor cells attached to thousands of nerve fibres. These cells send electrical nerve signals to the brain which analyses them. We then recognise the sounds as words. What a clever brain we have! High-pitched sounds move the eardrum back and forth more rapidly and sounds too high for us to hear are ‘ultrasonic’. With very loud noises, the eardrum becomes more rigid and quietens the sounds. The ear also helps our sense of balance. Too much wax in the ear can upset your balance and make you feel giddy. Glands in the lining of the ear canal produce wax to prevent the canal drying out and to protect the eardrum from dirt and other harmful objects.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

5. How do high-pitched sounds affect the eardrum?

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2. Where are the glands which produce wax?

m . u

1. What does the cochlea look like?

. te o 3. Which parts of the ear send c . che signals to the brain? e r o t r s supe 7. Apart from hearing, what other r function does the ear have? 6. What are ‘ultrasonic’ sounds?

4. When do we recognise the words people say to us?

8. Find antonyms from the text for: flexible, inner, exit, reduce, slowly

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m

s t eele h T g proc n i es ak s Indicator

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Teachers notes

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Reads text and answers questions to show an understanding of the steelmaking process.

• Stainless steels, which resist corrosion, are used in jet engines, chemical equipment, wristwatches, cooking utensils etc. • About 75% of steel produced annually has been recycled. • In the electric arc process, heat comes from arcs struck between electrodes and is used widely to make stainless steels. • Steel contains up to 1.5% carbon—higher carbon content makes cast iron. • Scrap metal containing tin or copper is not suitable for making steel as they are very difficult to remove. Old motor vehicles are less valuable for steelmaking as they are likely to contain those metals. • Electrodes are conductors which conduct electricity through material in the furnace to melt it down.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Answers

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2. 5. 8.

stainless steel it contains fewer impurities electricity

3. 6. 9.

to locate defects an electric arc furnace fewer, beams, rods, defects, located

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1. a furnace 4. by automatic machines 7. heated rods

o c . che e r o t r s super Additional activities

• With help from your parents or teacher, list the steel items in your home or school. • Draw a flow chart to show the steel-making process. Use the chart to help you describe the process to the class.

Curriculum links NSW SA Qld Vic. WA

English TS2.1, TS2.2, RS2.5, RS2.6, WS2.9, WS2.12 2.1, 3.1, 2.2, 3.2, 2.3, 3.3, 2.4, 3.4 Refer to curriculum documents on http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au ENSL0301, ENSL0302, ENRE0301, ENRE0302, ENWR0301, ENWR0302 LS 3.1, LS 3.2, R 3.1, R 3.2, W 3.1, W 3.2

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The steel-making process Read the text and answer the questions.

M

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

wheelbarrow

Products like metal sheets, railway lines and beams for buildings are produced in rolling mills, where heavy rollers squeeze heated steel slabs into the required shapes and sizes. Other processes use automatic machines to press steel into nails or screws while wire is made by forcing heated steel rods through successively smaller holes.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

odern blast furnaces are large, computer-controlled metal chambers in which material is heated up to 1600 º C using energy sources such as coal, natural gas and electricity. Iron, with the correct small amounts of carbon and piped-in oxygen, is melted in a furnace. Any impurities rise to the surface of the liquid metal where they are poured off and, after cooling, steel has been made. Adjusting the amount of carbon changes the hardness of steel, but special steels have other metals added. Stainless steel contains small amounts of chromium and nickel. In modern steel mills, oxygen rather than air is used as oxygen contains fewer impurities. In areas where there is a constant supply of cheap electricity, electric arc furnaces are used to recycle mainly scrap metal into new steel. Scrap iron is important as it is easy to remelt. surgical scissors

To test for defects in the finished products, high-pitched ultrasonic soundwaves are directed into the steel. Cracks reflect sound strongly and by timing the echo’s return any defect can be located.

© R. I . C.P ub l i ca i o nsa train or in the kitchen— Crossing a bridge, driving in at car, aboard are surrounded by steel! •f orr evwe i e w pur posesonl y• golf club

1. In what container is steel made?

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2. What kind of steel has chromium and nickel added?

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6. Which type of furnace uses mostly scrap metal?

7. What is steel wire made from?

. te o c 3. What are ultrasonic sound 8. Which cheap energy source do . c eneed? waves used for? h arc furnaces r er o st supe r

4. How are steel nails made?

9. Find words from the text for: less, rafters, bars, faults, found

5. Why is oxygen rather than air used in a furnace?

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Comprehending our world


ng a holid i n ay an l P Indicator

Teac he r

Reads text and answers questions to show an understanding of planning a holiday.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Teachers notes

ew i ev Pr

• Explain that passports are only valid within the dates noted in the document and vary in cost from country to country.

• Explain that visas are not needed for all countries depending on which passport the traveller holds. Travel agents can arrange visas or the passport holder may have to lodge a form with a country’s embassy in another city away from his/her home.

• Point out that holiday visits to other countries mean you should respect their customs (e.g. take off shoes in an Asian temple) and enjoy their hospitality. • Discuss the sort of information students will need on their posters,;e.g. name of imaginary destination, tourist attractions, holiday cost.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Answers • f o r r e v i e w pu r posesonl y• 1. on the Internet, through a travel agent 2. to earn Frequent Flyer points 5. passport, visa

6. Teacher check

7. Teacher check. Possible answers: cost, convenience

8. cheapest, enter, safety, departure, finally

. te

Additional activities

m . u

4. the date is still valid

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3. none—only continents

o c . ch e r Curriculum links t er o s super

• Design a poster to attract holiday-makers to an imaginary destination.

• Create a checklist of essential tasks that must be performed when planning a holiday

NSW SA Qld Vic. WA

English TS2.1, TS2.2, RS2.5, RS2.6, WS2.9, WS2.12 2.1, 3.1, 2.2, 3.2, 2.3, 3.3, 2.4, 3.4 Refer to curriculum documents on http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au ENSL0301, ENSL0302, ENRE0301, ENRE0302, ENWR0301, ENWR0302 LS 3.1, LS 3.2, R 3.1, R 3.2, W 3.1, W 3.2

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Planning a holiday Read the text and answer the questions.

F

irst of all—the discussions. Where shall we go? When? Escape from cold winter days or leave the summer heat and go skiing? When the destination is decided, is it our own search on the Internet for bargains or a travel agent’s experienced advice? If we decide on a tropical holiday in Asia, South America or Africa, it’s only the start! Is a visa needed to enter the chosen country and how much will it cost? Then medical advice is essential to tell us which tablets or inoculations are required for tropical diseases like malaria or dengue fever. Perhaps we’ll go skiing!

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

Soon our departure day arrives and the taxi is at the front door. Mum doesn’t like a taxi to the airport as the driver knows that the house is now empty for awhile, but Dad thinks it’s far too expensive to leave our car at the airport! After ensuring that we have our electronic games for the flight, we’re on our way—with no school or homework to worry about!

ew i ev Pr

Once we’ve checked that family passports are up to date, we have to choose an airline. Is it one with a good safety record, one with the cheapest flights or our favourite airline as we earn ‘frequent flyer’ points! Decisions, decisions. Finally, we decide what clothes are needed. Mum has a big say there but we can still sneak in our favourite T-shirts!

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons 1. What are the two ways of booking ar holiday? •f o r evi ew pur posesonl y•

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2. Why might you choose your favourite airline?

m . u

6. Would you choose the safest, cheapest or favourite airline? Why?

. t e o 7. Why might you travel to the 3. Which countries are mentioned c . airport bye taxi? in the text? che r o r st supe r

4. What is the most important detail to check on a passport?

8. Find antonyms in the text for: dearest, leave, danger, arrival, firstly

5. Which travel documents are mentioned in the text?

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Comprehending our world


e housefly h T Indicator

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Teachers notes

• The housefly has three smaller eyes between the two large compound eyes.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Reads text and answers questions to show an understanding of the housefly.

• Small houseflies aren’t young ones but those who had insufficient food when larvae.

• The average life span for a male is about two weeks and four weeks for a female, which can lay thousands of eggs during that time. • Houseflies are thought to carry several diseases, including diarrhoea and dysentery. • The adult uses an expanding pouch on its head to break out of the pupa. • Butterflies and dragonflies are not true flies—they have four wings, not two.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Answers • f o r r e v i e w pu r posesonl y• 1. by the hard pupa case 2. spiracles • True houseflies evolved millions of years ago.

with its eyes and antennae

5. to eat food

6.

they have no legs

7. moist, dormant, vertical, liquefy, active

8.

Antenna, larva

. te

Additional activities

• Design a poster warning about health problems from houseflies.

o c . ch Curriculum links e r er o t s super

• Discuss with a partner ways to reduce fly numbers. List them.

NSW SA Qld Vic. WA

English TS2.1, TS2.2, RS2.5, RS2.6, WS2.9, WS2.12 2.1, 3.1, 2.2, 3.2, 2.3, 3.3, 2.4, 3.4 Refer to curriculum documents on http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au ENSL0301, ENSL0302, ENRE0301, ENRE0302, ENWR0301, ENWR0302 LS 3.1, LS 3.2, R 3.1, R 3.2, W 3.1, W 3.2

Comprehending our world

m . u

4.

w ww

3. in summer warmth

58

Science LTS2.3 2.5, 3.5 LL 3.1 SCBS0302 LL 3

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The housefly Read the text and answer the questions.

A

female housefly lays about 100 white eggs at a time through its ovipositor, a tube in its abdomen, and in summer warmth they hatch in a few hours. Eggs are laid in warm, moist animal droppings, rotting garbage or similar wastes which are food for the larvae (maggots) as they develop.The maggots are legless and tapered at one end. Later, each maggot’s skin hardens to become a brown, sausageshaped pupa. The adult fly emerges after a few days and doesn’t grow any further. In cold regions an adult fly usually dies in winter but a pupa may lie dormant until the following spring.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

Houseflies can only suck liquids through a thin tube (proboscis) so they spit saliva onto solid food to liquefy it.Adult flies still like to feed on rotting materials where they pick up bacteria and viruses they can bring to your house. As they eat lots of food they constantly deposit droppings—so keep them away from your dinner table!

ew i ev Pr

A housefly has two huge eyes with thousands of different lenses that detect sudden movements which threaten it. Its two antennae (feelers) also sense movement, while they breathe through airholes (spiracles) along their sides. Pads on their feet contain a sticky substance which enables them to hold on to slippery vertical surfaces like glass, or rest upside down on your ceiling! They are only active during the day and clean their eyes with their front legs when resting.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

2. What are a housefly’s airholes called?

6. Why do maggots have to wriggle around to find food?

. te

m . u

5. What does a housefly use its proboscis for?

w ww

1. How is a maggot protected in the pupa stage?

o c 3. When do eggs hatch in only a 7. Find antonyms in the text for: . c e her few hours? arid, awake, horizontal, solidify, r o t inactive s super

4. How does a housefly detect movements?

8. Larvae and antennae are plural nouns. Write down their singular forms.

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Comprehending our world


A v o lc a n o Indicator

Teac he r

Reads text and answers questions to show an understanding of a volcano.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Teachers notes

ew i ev Pr

• Materials ejected by a volcano over hundreds, perhaps thousands, of years gradually build up around the central ‘vent’ or ‘pipe’ and form a mountain or similar feature.

• The eruption of Vesuvius in 79 CE destroyed the city of Pompeii and its ancient ruins are now one of the world’s leading tourist attractions. • The word ‘volcano’ comes from ‘Vulcan’, the name the ancient Romans gave to their god of fire. • A volcano is ‘active’ if it shows signs of tremors and gas emissions. • Volcanic ash can smell strongly and damage the lungs of elderly people.

© R. I . C .Publ i cat i ons Answers 1. minerals 2. a tsunami • f o r r e v i e w p u r posesonl y• 3. thin lava 4. gas 6.

lava

7. molten, dormant, soil, apart, short

8.

superheated steam and carbon dioxide

w ww

9. 30 times

. te

Additional activities

• Research to write a short report on the famous eruption of Vesuvius in 79 CE.

o c . Curriculum links ch e r er o t s super

• Draw, colour and label a poster of an erupting volcano.

NSW SA Qld Vic. WA

English TS2.1, TS2.2, RS2.5, RS2.6, WS2.9, WS2.12 2.1, 3.1, 2.2, 3.2, 2.3, 3.3, 2.4, 3.4 Refer to curriculum documents on http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au ENSL0301, ENSL0302, ENRE0301, ENRE0302, ENWR0301, ENWR0302 LS 3.1, LS 3.2, R 3.1, R 3.2, W 3.1, W 3.2

Comprehending our world

m . u

5. fertile

60

Science ESS 2.6 2.1, 3.1 EB 3.1 SCES0301 EB 3

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A volcano Read the text and answer the questions.

A

volcano is usually a mountain formed over many years by molten rock called magma which is created by the tremendous heat deep in the Earth’s interior.The melted rock pours out onto the surface, cools down and is then called lava. This mountain-type volcano has a central opening which can be blown apart by gas under pressure in the magma. Other more common volcanoes may erupt through a crack in the Earth’s crust or on the seabed and trigger a tsunami. A very hot day is 40 °C but the temperature of white-hot magma is 1200 °C!

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

Eruptions caused by the explosions of trapped gas (mainly superheated steam and carbon dioxide) can fling out large rocks, fine dust, cinders and ash which looks like dark smoke. Light rocks called pumice, which float on water because they contain air bubbles, are also ejected. The material from eruptions contains lots of minerals which break down over the years. This means the soil is very fertile and good for crops so, in spite of the danger of future eruptions, many people return to farm the land again. There are different kinds of lava. Some are thin and flow along for many kilometres in streams of black basalt rock. The stiffer, sticky kind flows more slowly, not as far and is usually melted granite. Volcanoes normally erupt for a short time and then remain quiet (dormant). When they are no longer active they are declared ‘extinct’ if they haven’t erupted during recorded history.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 1. What is in the soil around an 5. Which word tells us volcanic soil is good for growing crops?

w ww

m . u

active volcano which makes it good for farming?

6. What is magma called when it reaches the surface?

2. An eruption on the ocean bed can cause what kind of disaster?

. te

o c . c e h r 3. Which kind of lava flows the e o t r s supe r greatest distance?

7. Find words in the text for: melted, quiet, earth, asunder, brief

8. What is the magma gas made up of?

4. What causes the violent explosions when volcanoes erupt?

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61

Comprehending our world


ernation b i H Indicator

Teac he r

Reads text and answers questions to show an understanding of hibernation.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Teachers notes

ew i ev Pr

• Creatures like bats, bears and ladybirds can hibernate in groups to take advantage of the body warmth of others.

• Scientists don’t know fully why some animals hibernate but low temperatures and the availability of food are major factors.

• Hibernation usually applies to vertebrates—bats, hedgehogs, squirrels, marmots etc. • Metabolism is the process by which living things turn food into energy. • Hibernation means ‘winter sleep’ from the Latin word ‘hibernare’.

© R. I . C .Publ i cat i ons Answers 1. in body fat 2. its heartbeat/breathing is •f orr evi ew pur po e onl y• s hard tos detect 5. Teacher check. Possible answers: body temperature does not drop, easily wakened by noise, are soon active after waking, heart and breathing rates do not drop significantly

6. their bodily functions slow down so reactions are slower

7. lizards, snakes

8. the bear

. te

9. cooler, deep, lose, hollow, safe

m . u

4. it doesn’t lose any muscle

w ww

3. aestivation

o c . che e r o t r s super Additional activities

• Calculate what you would weigh if you lost 40% of your weight.

• For a younger audience, make an illustrated booklet of animals that hibernate.

Curriculum links

NSW SA Qld Vic. WA

English TS2.1, TS2.2, RS2.5, RS2.6, WS2.9, WS2.12 2.1, 3.1, 2.2, 3.2, 2.3, 3.3, 2.4, 3.4 Refer to curriculum documents on http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au ENSL0301, ENSL0302, ENRE0301, ENRE0302, ENWR0301, ENWR0302 LS 3.1, LS 3.2, R 3.1, R 3.2, W 3.1, W 3.2

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Science LTS2.3 2.5, 3.5 LL 3.1 SCBS0302 LL 3

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Hibernation Read the text and answer the questions.

H

ibernation is a deep winter sleep where an animal’s body temperature drops as it loses heat until it’s almost as cold as its surroundings. Its heart rate and breathing slow down and can hardly be detected so the animal appears to be dead. These changes help it to conserve energy after it has selected a safe place to lie dormant during the cold winter when food is scarce. The smaller hibernators take shelter in underground burrows, caves and hollow logs, because their bodily functions slow down and they are easy prey for predators.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

Before hibernating, most species eat large amounts of food and store in fat deposits the food’s energy they need to stay alive. They live off the energy converted from the body fat and lose about 40% of their weight. They become thinner but don’t lose any muscle so are still strong enough to breed after hibernating. Hibernation is unlike human sleep where noise can wake a person who is then soon active. It takes a hibernator some time to be alert. Scientists argue that bears don’t really hibernate as their body temperature does not drop enough and when they awake they can react quickly to any immediate danger. If the temperature outside is 50 °C the bodies of cold-blooded creatures like lizards and snakes rise to the same temperature so they aestivate until the weather is cooler. Aestivation is a deep sleep similar to hibernation but it occurs in summer months during the fierce heat and 1. Where is the energy needed dryness of tropical regions like deserts. to survive stored during hibernation? 6. Why are hibernators easy prey for predators?

w ww

2. Why does a hibernating animal appear to be dead?

. te

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

7. Which cold-blooded animals are mentioned in the text?

o c . che e r 8. Which animal do some scientists o t r s s r upethink is not a true hibernator? 4. Why does a hibernating animal 3. What is summer hibernation called?

keep its strength?

5. How is human sleep different from hibernation?

9. Find antonyms in the text for: warmer, shallow, gain, solid, dangerous

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Comprehending our world


rs rive ystem A Indicator

Teac he r

Reads text and answers questions to show an understanding of a river system.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Teachers notes

• The area drained by a river and its tributaries is the drainage basin.

ew i ev Pr

• The Mississippi River in the USA and Canada’s St Lawrence River were first used by Europeans to explore the North American continent.

• River water from a high dam flows down through huge pipes, turns giant turbines and produces electricity in hydro-electric power stations.

• The word ‘meander’ comes from a winding river of that name in Asia Minor. • The flood plain of the Mississippi is over 64 km wide in some parts of the river.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi eAnswers w pur posesonl y•

• The building of the Aswan dam in the 1960s controlled the annual flooding of the River Nile. • A delta at a river mouth is so named as it is shaped like the Greek letter, delta.

alluvial soil (alluvium)

3. because the soil is very fertile

4.

Egypt

5. headwaters

6.

near the source/ in the mountains

7. tributaries

8.

magnificent, built, melted, annual, quickly

. te

Additional activities

m . u

2.

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1. timber companies

o c . ch e r Curriculum links t er o s super

• Find the names of the rivers that flow through London, Paris, Washington DC, Lisbon and Rome. • When a river winds, it ‘meanders’. Find the origin of this word.

NSW SA Qld Vic. WA

English TS2.1, TS2.2, RS2.5, RS2.6, WS2.9, WS2.12 2.1, 3.1, 2.2, 3.2, 2.3, 3.3, 2.4, 3.4 Refer to curriculum documents on http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au ENSL0301, ENSL0302, ENRE0301, ENRE0302, ENWR0301, ENWR0302 LS 3.1, LS 3.2, R 3.1, R 3.2, W 3.1, W 3.2

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Science ESS 2.6 2.1, 3.1 EB 3.1 SCES0301 EB 3

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A river system Read the text and answer the questions.

A

’ river system’ is a main river and the streams or rivers which flow into it (tributaries). For thousands of years, systems have provided people and animals water to drink and fish to eat.They have been easy trade and travel routes and timber companies have floated logs down from forests to a sawmill at the river’s mouth. We’ve even built dams on them to use the power of fast-flowing water to produce electricity!

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

The river’s source, its headwaters, is often located in mountains and starts as an underground spring fed by rain or melted glacier ice and snow. As a river flows it wears away land and carries along rocks and soil particles. Unusually heavy rainstorms in the river’s drainage area means that floods can follow. The soil particles are then deposited on its flood plain on either side of the river. This alluvial soil, rich in nutrients, forms fertile land for crops, just as the River Nile’s annual floods in the past have turned Egyptian desert into farmland. As a river meanders (winds) slowly over flat land to its mouth it forms areas called wetlands, marshes partly covered in water and often magnificent habitats for birds and other creatures like frogs, snakes and lizards. When the river water meets the sea water, it is slowed down very quickly and deposits a lot of soil which blocks the flow. The river then splits into several channels and forms a triangular-shaped delta at the river’s end.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

1. Which kind of companies uses a sawmill?

w ww

m . u

5. What is another name for a river’s source?

6. Where do you think a river would flow more quickly and not deposit too much soil?

. te

2. What name is given to river soil deposited on land during a flood?

o c . che 7. Streams flowing into a river are e r oits called t ruper s 3. Why do some people still s continue to live in flood-prone

areas?

8. Find synonyms in the text for: splendid, erected, thawed, yearly, rapidly

4. Which country has benefited from annual floods?

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Comprehending our world

Comprehending Our World: Ages 8-10  

This series covers a broad range of topics which explore the natural and technological phenomena which make up the wonders of our world. Bu...

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