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RIC-6428 6.3/160


Primary Australian history (Book B) Published by R.I.C. Publications® 2008 Copyright© R.I.C. Publications® 2008 Reprinted 2008 ISBN 978-1-74126-685-6 RIC– 6428

Copyright Notice

Additional titles available in this series: Primary Australian history (Book A) Primary Australian history (Book C) Primary Australian history (Book D) Primary Australian history (Book E) Primary Australian history (Book F) Primary Australian history (Book G)

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For your added protection in the case of copyright inspection, please complete the form below. Retain this form, the complete original document and the invoice or receipt as proof of purchase.

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This master may only be reproduced by the original purchaser for use with their class(es). The publisher prohibits the loaning or onselling of this master for the purposes of reproduction.

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In some cases, websites or specific URLs may be recommended. While these are checked and rechecked at the time of publication, the publisher has no control over any subsequent changes which may be made to webpages. It is strongly recommended that the class teacher checks all URLs before allowing students to access them.

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Primary Australian history

B

Foreword Primary Australian history is a series of seven books designed to provide students with an awareness of the chronology of major events in the history of Australia and the significance of these events in shaping the nation. Titles in this series are:

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S • Primary Australian history Book A

• Primary Australian history Book B

• Primary Australian history Book C

• Primary Australian history Book D

• Primary Australian history Book F

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• Primary Australian history Book E

• Primary Australian history Book G

Contents

Teachers notes ........................................................................................................................................iv – xv

How to use this book ............................................................................................................................. iv – v

Curriculum links .......................................................................................................................................... vi

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Useful Australian history resources .............................................................................................................. vii Historical literacy skills............................................................................................................................viii-ix Public holidays .............................................................................................................................................x Time line of major Australian and world events ...................................................................................... xi – xiv

Australian Prime Ministers since Federation ................................................................................................. xv A new nation.................................................. 50–73

The first Australians ....................................... 2–5

Federation ................................................ 50–53

Aboriginal Australians .................................... 6–9

Symbols of Federation ............................... 54–57

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The beginning .................................................. 2–17

Why the crocodile rolls............................... 10–13

Emblems .................................................. 58–61

Red waratah ............................................. 14–17

World War I ............................................... 62–65

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World War II .............................................. 66–69

Maritime exploration...................................... 18–21

Coming to Australia .................................. 70–73

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Exploring Australia ..................................... 18–21

Early settlement............................................. 22–37

The First Fleet ........................................... 22–25

People and politics ........................................ 74–77

Our leaders ............................................... 74–77

Convicts................................................... 26–29

Modern Australia ........................................... 78–97

The first settlement.................................... 30–33

Australian inventions................................. 78–81

Big, bad bushrangers................................. 34–37

Aboriginal Australians today ....................... 82–85

Discoveries .................................................... 38–45

Explorers .................................................. 38–41 The gold rush ............................................ 42–45 Progress ........................................................ 46–49 Early transport ........................................... 46–49

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Famous Australians ................................... 86–89 Australia and sport .................................... 90–93 Yesterday, today and tomorrow ................... 94–97

Quizzes ........................................................ 98–109 Quiz answers ............................................. 110–111

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Teachers notes How to use this book The sections of this book incorporate an introduction to some of the major events to have influenced the course of Australian history. In the early levels, the activities are intended to form a basis for future learning about historical events. The events have been arranged, in part, to follow the chronology of events from the migration of the Australian Aboriginals to the modern day. Each section contains one or more main historical events. The sections are: • The beginning

• Maritime exploration

• Early settlement

• Discoveries

• Progress

• A new nation

• People and politics

• Modern Australia

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Topics within the sections follow a similar four-page format of a teachers page followed by three (3) student pages. The three student pages may be about different individual aspects of an historical event or time or three connected activities associated with one historical event.

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• A series of quick multiple choice quizzes for each topic is provided on pages 102–116. All answers are supplied. • Outcome links for Society and environment and English are provided on page vi.

• A list of useful R.I.C. Publications resources for teacher support for each section of the book is printed on page vii. • An explanation of the fi ve broad historical literacy skills is provided on page viii. • A list of public holidays relevant to Australia’s history and celebrated by each state is provided on page x. • For teacher reference a time line of major Australian and world events from 1788 to the present is on pages xi to xiv. • A list of Australian Prime Ministers since Federation is given on page xv.

Teachers page

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

The teachers page contains the following information:

Indicators state literacy outcomes for reading and comprehending the informational text and outcomes relating to cross-curricular activities on other student pages.

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A time line is included to place events in chronological order and also to indicate similar or significant events occurring during the same time frame elsewhere in Australia or the world.

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The page number for the quiz questions relating to each section is given.

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The title of the text indicates the person or event in Australian history.

Worksheet information provides additional information to place the topic in context with events of the time. It also includes specific details about the use of the worksheet if required.

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Answers are provided where necessary. Open-ended tasks require the teacher to check the answers.

Further exploration activities offer suggestions for developing the knowledge and understanding of the topic or for widening the scope of the knowledge by investigating similar people or events.

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Teachers notes How to use this book The student pages follow one of two formats. The main format used contains three individual pages on a topic, each explaining a separate concept related to that topic; for example: Page 7 provides information about Aboriginal art, page 8 relates to Yowies and page 9 provides information about NAIDOC Week.

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The title of the topic is given as well as an indication of the separate concept covered on the page.

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The title of the topic is given.

The second format contains three pages relating to the same topic, with information given on the first student page; for example: Page 11 retells the Dreamtime story ‘Why the crocodile rolls’ and Pages 12 and 13 are activities relating to the story.

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Teachers notes

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Curriculum links

Society and Environment

NSW

RS1.5, RS1.6, RS1.7, WS1.9, WS1.10, WS1.11

CCS1.1, CCS1.2, CUS1.3, CUS1.4, ENS1.6, SSS1.7, SSS1.8

Vic.

ENRE0201, ENRE0202, ENRE0203, ENRE0204, ENRE0205, ENRE0206, ENWR0201, ENWR0202, ENWR0203

SOSE0201, SOSE0202, SOSE0203

WA

V2.2, V2.3, V2.4, R2.1, R2.2, R2.3, R2.4, W2.1, W2.2, W2.3, W2.4

ICP2.1, ICP2.2, ICP2.3, ICP2.4, PS2.1, PS2.2, PS2.3, R2.1, R2.2, R2.3, C2.1, C2.2, C2.3, TCC2.1, TCC2.2, TCC2.3, NSS2.1, NSS2.2, NSS2.3

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English

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State

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 1.3, 1.4, 1.7, 1.8, 1.11, 1.12

1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 1.10

Qld

Refer to <www.qsa.edu.au>.

TCC2.1, TCC2.2, TCC2.3, TCC2.4, TCC2.5, PS2.4, CI2.2, CI2.5

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Teachers notes

Useful Australian history resources

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There are a number of R.I.C. Publications’ titles which may be used to extend knowledge and develop a deeper understanding of the history of Australia.

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• Primary society and environment — a seven-book series which includes a number of relevant Primary Australian history topics • Aboriginal studies — a three-book series

• Australian studies — a three-book series • Gold in Australia — a single book for upper primary • Anzac Day — a single book for use throughout the primary school • Australian special days — a three-book series

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• Australian Aboriginal culture — a four-book series

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• Change in the 20th century — a three-book series

• Australian explorers — a single book for upper primary

• Famous Australians — a three-book series for middle to upper primary • Current affairs — a single book for middle to upper primary

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• Successful Australians — a single book for upper primary • Australia on the map 1606–2006 — a two-book series for middle to upper primary

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• Australian identity — a single book for upper primary

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• Australian politics — a single book for upper primary

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• Democracy – a single book for upper primary

State government websites are a valuable source for information about individual states. • http://www.nsw.gov.au/ • http://www.vic.gov.au/

• http://www.tas.gov.au/

• http://www.qld.gov.au/ • http://www.wa.gov.au/ • http://www.nt.gov.au/ • http://www.act.gov.au/ • http://www.sa.gov.au/

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Teachers notes

Historical literacy skills

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Historical events do not occur in isolation; therefore, it is important for students to appreciate the context as well as the content of an event. Historical literacy skills allow students to demonstrate the depth of their knowledge and understanding of an event. The five broad areas of historical literacy skills are:

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1. Understanding chronology

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• Students understand and use words and phrases linked to the passing of time.

• Students appreciate that the past can be divided into different eras between which there are similarities and differences. • Students describe how life today is different from that in any era of the past.

• Students order events, people and eras chronologically, using dates and CE (Common Era) and BCE (Before Common Era) conventions. 2. Understanding continuity and change • Students demonstrate an awareness of people and events beyond living memory.

• Students consider reasons why certain events occurred and how decisions made affected the outcome of events.

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• Students look at events from the viewpoints of all parties involved and consider why some people had more infl uence than others. • Students compare and contrast characteristics of different eras. 3. Interpreting historical information

• Students recognise the difference between and the value and reliability of primary* and secondary* sources.

• Students understand the cause and effect of an event using a range of sources and study it from different aspects. 4. Questioning historical information

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5. Organising and communicating information

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• Students use literal, inferential and applied questioning techniques to learn about the past from a range of sources.

• Students use a range of presentation techniques to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of people, events and eras of the past.

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Developing historical literacy skills in the classroom

Young students will only be able to learn some of the historical literacy skills mentioned above. However, through discussion and correct oral questioning, a foundation can be laid to develop more difficult historical literacy skills as students mature and gain confidence. * Primary sources are usually original documents which contain fi rst-hand information about a topic. Some primary sources are diaries, letters, autobiographies, interviews, original works of art or artefacts, photographs, and surveys. * Secondary sources are second-hand versions. They are edited primary sources or commentary on, or discussion about, primary sources. Some secondary sources are bibliographies, journal articles, reports, biographies, commentaries, newspaper and magazine articles. For the purposes of this series of books, fictional primary sources have been created.

‘Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.’ George Santayana 1863–1952

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Teachers notes Organising and communicating information

Questioning historical information

Interpreting historical information

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Notes

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Name

Understanding continuity and change

Understanding chronology

Historical literacy skills class record

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Teachers notes

Public holidays

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

All states and territories of Australia observe a number of special days each year, most of which are not public holidays. While many of the public holidays celebrated are also observed in other parts of the world, such as Christmas, Easter and the Queen’s Birthday holiday, a number of them celebrate events specific to Australian history.

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Some days are observed on the same date throughout Australia, while others vary among states and territories. Public holidays are listed below. • Australia Day — 26 January — national public holiday

This day commemorates the founding of the first British settlement at Sydney Cove in 1788, under the command of Captain Arthur Phillip, by the First Fleet.

• Anzac Day — 25 April — national public holiday

This day commemorates the landing of the ANZAC troops at Gallipoli on this day in 1915, but also serves as a reminder of all who have fought or served in the defence forces for Australia. A holiday on this day is also observed in New Zealand, Tonga and Western Samoa.

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• Labour Day — fi rst Monday in October for NSW, SA and ACT; second Monday in March for Vic. and Tas.; fi rst Monday in May for Qld; fi rst Monday in March for WA — national public holiday This day commemorates the eight-hour working day which was established in 1871. • Canberra Day — third Monday in March — ACT only

This day celebrates the offi cial naming of Canberra at a ceremony on 12 March 1913 by Lady Denman, wife of Lord Denman, the Governor-General at the time.

This day celebrates the day in 1836 when South Australia was proclaimed a province.

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• Foundation Day — fi rst Monday in June — Western Australia only This day celebrates the foundation of the Swan River Colony on 1 July 1829.

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• Proclamation Day — 28 December — South Australia only

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Time line

of major Australian and world events (>60 000 BCE – present day) The beginning – 1799

>60 000 BCE: Aboriginal Australians are thought to have arrived in Australia 35 000 BCE: Aboriginal Australians are thought to have reached Tasmania.

1300: Marco Polo discusses the possibility of a great unexplored southern land.

1606: Luis Vaez de Torres sails through the Torres Strait.

1606: Willem Janszoon, sailing in Duyfken, makes the first European discovery of Australia.

1616: Dirk Hartog, a Dutch explorer, sails to Western Australia.

1622: Trial is shipwrecked off the coast of Western Australia.

1629: Batavia is shipwrecked off the coast of Western Australia.

1642: Abel Tasman makes the fist European discovery of Van Diemen’s Land (Tasmania).

1688: William Dampier, English explorer, arrives on the west coast of Australia.

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1701–1714: War of the Spanish Succession occurs. 1708: First accurate map of China is drawn.

1712: First practical steam-powered piston engine is invented.

1713: Britain becomes the dominant force in North America.

1715: France takes control of Mauritius.

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1705: Edmund Halley predicts the return of a comet.

1716–1720: China invades Tibet.

1719: Daniel Defoe writes Robinson Crusoe.

1721: French and English East India companies compete for trade in India.

1722: The Dutch reach the Samoan Islands and Easter Island.

1725: The Gujin Tushu Jicheng encyclopedia is printed in China.

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 1726: Jonathon Swift writes Gulliver’s travels.

1728: Danish explorer is the first European to cross the Bering Strait.

1739–1748: The War of Jenkins’ Ear is fought between Britain and Spain in the Caribbean. 1739: Highwayman Dick Turpin is hanged in Britain.

1747: British Royal Navy introduces lime rations to prevent scurvy.

1752: Great Britain adopts the Gregorian calendar.

1754–1763: The French and Indian War takes place in North America. 1755: Samuel Johnson’s dictionary is first published.

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1756–1763: The first global conflict, the Seven Years War, occurs.

1757: The sextant is invented by John Campbell.

1761: The marine chronometer is invented by John Harrison.

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1762–1796: Catherine the Great begins her reign as Empress of Russia.

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1765: James Watt develops the steam engine.

1766–1769: Frenchman Louis-Antoine de Bougainville circumnavigates the globe.

1769: Napoleon Bonaparte, later to become Emperor of France, is born.

1770: Captain James Cook lands on the more hospitable east coast of Australia and claims it for Britain.

1771: The first edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica is published.

1775–1783: The American War of Independence occurs.

1779: James Cook is murdered in Hawaii.

1788: The First Fleet, under the command of Arthur Phillip, arrives at Sydney Cove and the NSW colony is founded.

1789: Mutineers on HMS Bounty cast William Bligh adrift in an open boat on the Pacific Ocean.

1789–1799: The French Revolution occurs.

1793: The first free settlers arrive in Australia.

1798: George Bass and Matthew Flinders circumnavigate Van Diemen’s Land (Tasmania).

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Time line

of major Australian and world events (>60 000 BCE – present day) 1800–1899

1802: the first steamship, Charlotte Dundas, is built.

1804: The first steam rail locomotive is built.

1804: Hobart Town is established in Van Diemen’s Land (now known as Tasmania).

1812: Grimms’ fairy tales, by the German brothers Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, is published.

1813: Blaxland, Lawson and Wentworth locate a path through the Blue Mountains.

1816: Shaka becomes leader of the Zulus.

1818: Mary Shelley’s novel, Frankenstein, is published.

1819: Thomas Stamford Raffles founds the British colony of Singapore.

1821: Napoleon Bonaparte dies on St Helena.

1822: Tea is cultivated in India, ending China’s monopoly.

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1822: The Rosetta Stone is deciphered by Frenchman Jean Francois Champollion, the ‘Father of Egyptology’. 1823: The game of rugby is invented.

1824: ‘Australia’ is officially adopted as the name for the first colony.

1825: Van Diemen’s Land is proclaimed as a separate colony from New South Wales.

1829: Swan River Colony is founded.

1832: Swan River Colony is renamed Western Australia.

1833: Port Arthur opens as a penal settlement in Van Diemen’s Land.

1836: South Australia is proclaimed as a separate colony from New South Wales.

1837: Queen Victoria begins her reign.

1840: Treaty of Waitangi is signed in New Zealand.

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1845–1848: The Irish potato famine occurs.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Gold is discovered in California. The gold rush begins near Bathurst in New South Wales. Victoria is proclaimed as a separate colony from New South Wales. David Livingstone crosses Africa.

1853: Last convict transportation to Van Diemen’s Land.

1853: The railway and telegraph are introduced in India.

1854: The Eureka Rebellion occurs in Victoria.

1856: Van Diemen’s Land is renamed Tasmania.

1859: Queensland is proclaimed a separate colony from New South Wales.

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1848: 1851: 1852–1856:

1861: Archer wins the first Melbourne Cup. 1862: France begins to colonise Vietnam.

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1864: The Red Cross organisation is established.

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1865: Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s adventures in Wonderland is published. 1866: The Ku Klux Klan movement is begun in the USA.

1868: The last convicts are transported to Australia.

1873: Uluru (Ayers Rock) is sighted by Europeans for the first time.

1873: The Royal Canadian Mounted Police, the ‘Mounties’, are formed.

1876: Sioux and Cheyenne warriors defeat the American army in the Battle of the Little Bighorn.

1880: Ned Kelly is hanged in Melbourne.

1883: The Federal Council of Australasia is formed.

1885: Gold is discovered in the Transvaal (Gauteng).

1887: The Raffles Hotel in Singapore is opened.

1889: Sir Henry Parkes delivers the Tenterfield Oration.

1890: Massacre of Native Americans occurs at Wounded Knee.

1894: Rudyard Kipling’s The jungle book is published.

1899–1902: Boer War takes place in South Africa

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Time line

of major Australian and world events (>60 000 BCE – present day) 1900–1999

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1901: Lord Hopetoun proclaims the Commonwealth of Australia. 1901: Queen Victoria dies. 1902: The Franchise Act gives non-Indigenous women throughout Australia the right to vote. 1903: Wilbur and Orville Wright make the first powered flight. 1905: British New Guinea is transferred to Australian administration. 1909: Canberra chosen as capital city of Australia. 1911: Northern Territory is transferred from South Australian control to the Commonwealth. 1912: Titanic sinks during her maiden voyage from Britain to the United States. 1914: The Panama Canal in Central America opens, connecting the Pacific and Atlantic oceans for shipping. 1914–1918: Australian troops fight in World War I. 1915: ANZAC troops land at Gallipoli. 1917: Tsar Nicholas II and his family are assassinated in Russia. 1919: Amritsar Massacre takes place in India. 1920: Qantas is formed as an airline. 1920: Australia takes control of German New Guinea. 1923: Tutankhamen’s tomb is opened. 1923: Vegemite™ is first produced. 1927: The first Federal Parliament is held in Canberra.

The Royal Flying Doctor Service is established in Australia. 1929: The Wall Street Crash takes place. 1932: Sydney Harbour Bridge opens. 1932–1933: The ‘Bodyline’ cricket tour of Australia takes place. 1933: Western Australia passes a referendum for secession from the Federation of Australia, but it is rejected by the British Parliament. 1933: Australia Antarctic Territory is established. 1939–1945: Australian troops fight in World War II. 1946: The Cold War between the USA and the USSR begins. 1948: The first all-Australian car is produced—the Holden (FX) 48-215. 1950–1953: Australian troops fight in the Korean War. 1953: Mount Everest is climbed by Sir Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay. 1956: Melbourne hosts the Olympics. 1957: The Soviet Union launches the first artificial satellite, Sputnik. 1959–1975: Australian troops fight in the Vietnam War (from 1965). 1961: Russian Yuri Gagarin becomes the first man in space. 1969: Apollo 11 space mission—Armstrong and Aldrin land on the moon. 1971: Neville Bonner becomes the first Aboriginal Australian federal Member of Parliament. 1973: The Sydney Opera House opens. 1975: The Khmer Rouge take control of government in Cambodia. 1981: Asian immigration into Australia increases. 1983: Australia wins the America’s Cup. 1986: Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster occurs. 1988: Bicentenary of European settlement in Australia. The new Parliament House opens in Canberra. 1989: Tiananmen Square Massacre occurs in Beijing. 1990: Nelson Mandela is freed from captivity in South Africa after 27 years. 1991: The Cold War officially ends with the dissolution of the Soviet Union. 1994: Nelson Mandela is elected president of South Africa. 1995: Israeli Prime Minister, Yitznak Rabin, is assassinated. 1996: John Howard is elected Prime Minister. 1997: Diana, Princess of Wales, is killed in a car crash. Head of Yagan is returned to Australia. 1998: World population reaches six billion. 1999: A massive hailstorm hits Sydney, causing $1.7 billion in damage.

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Time line

of major Australian and world events (>60 000 BCE – present day) 2000–2007

2000: John Howard’s Liberal government introduces the goods and services tax (GST).

Sydney hosts the Summer Olympics.

2001: Australia celebrates the centenary of Federation of Australia.

The World Trade Centre towers in New York City are destroyed by terrorists. 2001 Mars Odyssey reaches the orbit of Mars.

2002: The euro is officially launched as the new single currency for 12 of the European Union’s member states.

Terrorist bombings in Bali nightclubs kill 202 people.

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East Timor gains independence from Indonesia.

Brazil wins the Football World Cup for the fifth time.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) spreads around the world. 2002–2003: Athens hosts the Summer Olympics.

2003: US-led coalition force invades Iraq, beginning the Iraq War.

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Space shuttle Columbia disaster occurs.

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Chinese space program launches its first manned space flight, Shenzhou 5 Almost 35 000 people in Europe die as a result of a prolonged heatwave. Australia wins the Cricket World Cup. England wins the Rugby World Cup. 2004–2005: The Orange Revolution takes place in Ukraine.

2004: Australia and the USA sign a free trade agreement.

An Indian Ocean earthquake creates a tsunami which kills more than 260 000 people. The Madrid train terrorist attack claims the lives of 191 people and injures over 1000.

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Hurricanes Charley, Francis, Ivan and Jeanne cause over 3000 deaths as they batter the Caribbean.

2005: Hurricane Katrina causes major destruction along the Gulf Coast of the US, killing almost 2000 people.

An earthquake in Kashmir claims the lives of almost 90 000 Indians and Pakistanis. The London transport terrorist attack claims the lives of 52 people and injures 700.

A terrorist attack in Delhi on the eve of the festival season kills 61 people and injures almost 200 more. In cricket, England wins the Ashes by defeating Australia. American Lance Armstrong wins the Tour de France for the seventh time. 2006: North Korea conducts its first nuclear weapons test.

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Pluto is reclassified as a dwarf planet. Saddam Hussein is executed in Baghdad. Steve Irwin, the ‘crocodile hunter’, dies after being fatally pierced by a stingray barb.

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Melbourne hosts the Commonwealth Games.

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Australia regains the Ashes from England. Italy wins the Football World Cup.

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2007: Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit is held in Sydney.

Buddhist monks in Burma protest against military rule in the country. Australia wins the Cricket World Cup.

South Africa wins the Rugby World Cup.

Kevin Rudd (ALP) elected Prime Minister.

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2008: Federal Parliament offers an official apology to the ‘stolen generations’ on behalf of the Australian Government.

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Australian Prime Ministers since Federation Prime Minister

Term and length of office

Political party

Sir Edmund Barton

01/01/1901 – 24/09/1903

2 years 9 months

Protectionist

Alfred Deakin

24/09/1903 – 27/04/1904

0 years 7 months

Protectionist

Chris Watson

27/04/1904 – 18/08/1904

0 years 4 months

Labor

Sir George Reid

18/08/1904 – 05/07/1905

0 years 11 months

Free Trade

Alfred Deakin

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Protectionist

13/11/1908 – 02/06/1909

0 years 7 months

Labor

02/06/1909 – 29/04/1910

0 years 11 months

Commonwealth Liberal

29/04/1910 – 24/06/1913

3 years 2 months

Labor

24/06/1913 – 17/09/1914

1 year 3 months

Commonwealth Liberal

Andrew Fisher

17/09/1914 – 27/10/1915

1 year 1 month

Billy Hughes

27/10/1915 – 09/02/1923

7 years 4 months

Stanley Bruce

09/02/1923 – 22/10/1929

6 years 9 months

James Scullin

22/10/1929 – 06/01/1932

2 years 3 months

Joseph Lyons

06/01/1932 – 07/04/1939

7 years 3 months

Sir Earle Page

07/04/1939 – 26/04/1939

0 years 3 weeks

Robert Menzies

26/04/1939 – 28/08/1941

2 years 4 months

United Australia

Arthur Fadden

28/08/1941 – 07/10/1941

0 years 6 weeks

Country

John Curtin

07/10/1941 – 05/07/1945

3 years 9 months

Labor

Frank Forde

05/07/1945 – 13/07/1945

0 years 1 week

Labor

Ben Chifley

13/07/1945 – 19/12/1949

4 years 5 months

Sir Robert Menzies

19/12/1949 – 26/01/1966

16 years 1 month

Harold Holt

26/01/1966 – 19/12/1967

1 year 11 months

19/12/1967 – 10/01/1968

0 years 3 weeks

10/01/1968 – 10/03/1971

3 years 2 months

Liberal

10/03/1971 – 05/12/1972

1 year 9 months

Liberal

05/12/1972 – 11/11/1975

2 years 11 months

Labor

Malcolm Fraser

11/11/1975 – 11/03/1983

7 years 4 months

Liberal

Bob Hawke

11/03/1983 – 20/12/1991

8 years 9 months

Labor

Paul Keating

20/12/1991 – 11/11/1996

4 years 3 months

Labor

John Howard

11/11/1996 – 03/12/2007

11 years 9 months

Liberal

Andrew Fisher Alfred Deakin

Teac he r

Andrew Fisher Sir Joseph Cook

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05/07/1905 – 13/11/1908

Labor

Labor/Nationalist Nationalist Labor

United Australia

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Sir John McEwen John Gorton

Sir William McMahon Gough Whitlam

Kevin Rudd

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Labor

Liberal

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03/12/2007 –

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Country

Labor

Primary Australian history

xv


The first Australians The beginning

Indicator • Understands Aboriginal Australians were the fi rst inhabitants of Australia.

Worksheet information

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Time line

• Pages 3 to 5 are used in conjunction with each other. Page 3

Around 60 000 to 70 000 years ago

• Read the text by Arana, a fi ctional young Aboriginal Australian girl living a traditional lifestyle in the past. Discuss the text with the students.

Around 40 000 to 60 000 years ago Aboriginal Australians migrate to Australia.

1500–1700 CE

Macassan (Indonesian) trepang fishermen visited the north-east coast of Arnhem Land. The Macassans adopt the dugout canoe and songs and ceremonies they see.

• The diet of Aboriginal Australians varied according to where they lived. Those living in coastal areas ate fi sh and shellfi sh, sea mammals, fruits, nuts and berries. Those living in desert regions ate larger land animals such as kangaroos and gathered berries, roots and nuts. Traditionally the men hunted larger animals while women collected root crops, insects, berries and leaves. A range of boomerangs were used for different purposes, not all of them being the kind that return to the thrower.

• Give each student a copy of the worksheet and read the short text aloud with them. They complete the worksheet by doing the dot-to-dot boomerang, colouring it in, then colouring the foods that the men used boomerangs to catch.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Page 5

• Discuss the traditional way of life Arana’s family would have lived. Elaborate from the text and ask for suggestions as to what they may have done in their daily lives, and how this differs from the students’ lives.

A Dutchman, Jan Carstenszoon, lands Pera along the Gulf of Carpentaria in search of fresh water and encounters Indigenous people.

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1788

Page 4

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• Give each student a copy of the worksheet. Students tick the boxes of the activities that traditional Aboriginal people would have done. They then list two more activities the fi rst Australians would have done in their lives; such as cooking on a fi re, telling stories, making clothes from animal skins, dancing and any other ideas raised in class discussion. • Quiz questions relating to this section can be found on Page 98.

Answers Page 4

First European settlement in Australia.

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1623

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Teac he r

Australia joined to New Guinea and Tasmania by land bridges.

• The fi rst people to come to the landmass that is now Australia walked across to it while it was still part of the Sahul continent (connected to New Guinea via a land bridge). They came to inhabit most areas of the Australian continent, forming different groups that each came to know their area of land and develop a close connection to it.

1–2. Teacher check 3. kangaroo, possum, goanna, berry (beach cherry)

o c . che e r o t r s super Page 5–6

Teacher check

Further exploration

• Supply the students with a variety of types of nuts still in their shells, being sure to include macadamias. Have students experiment with ways of opening the nuts and order the types of nuts according to the ease of opening them. • Bring in some ‘bush tucker’ for the children to taste. Kangaroo meat can be bought from many supermarkets; damper can be made from fl our, salt and water; and sweet potato can be used instead of yam. Depending on your location, you could also try fi sh, yabby, eel, emu, crocodile or quail. • Aboriginal Australians used animals as a source of food, clothing and tools (e.g. teeth for needles, bone for spear points). Investigate the different ways we use animals for products in our society today. • Students can attempt to build a simple shelter from fallen branches and sticks found in the school grounds (under supervision).

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T he b e

The first Australians – 1

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ing

‘My name is Arana, which means “moon”. My people have been living in this land for a very long time.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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Teac he r

‘The people I live with come from many families, but we live together as one big family. Many people look after me and help me learn.

‘My people hunt, fish and collect plants for food. My dad catches the animals, like kangaroos and emus, to eat. My mum finds the berries and leaves that are good to eat. Sometimes I help her.

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3


T he b e

The first Australians – 2

gin n

ing

Aboriginal men used different types of boomerangs for hunting, fighting and music. Hunting boomerangs were big and heavy. 1. Join the dots to draw a hunting boomerang. 2. Colour it in.

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3. Colour the foods the men used boomerangs to catch.

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4. Write the name of the food on the line under each picture.

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Primary Australian history

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T he b e

The first Australians – 3

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Arana’s family lived very differently from how we live today.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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Teac he r

1. Tick the box of each picture which shows things Arana’s family did.

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Primary Australian history

5


Aboriginal Australians The beginning

Indicator • Understands that stories and art are integral parts of Aboriginal Australian cultures.

Worksheet information

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Time line

The first official reported sighting of a yowie by a European settler is mentioned in Sydney’s local newspapers.

Captain George Gray is the first European to describe the unique Wandjina images of Kimberley rock art.

1871

George Osbourne claims to see a ‘Gorilla type’ creature amble down a tree and scare his horse. He describes it as around 1.5 metres tall with black hair and being well developed.

about 1878

‘Dawn of Art’, an early exhibition of Aboriginal drawings, is held in Adelaide.

1912

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Anthropologist Walter Baldwin Spencer (1860–1929) makes the first substantial collection of Aboriginal bark paintings from Arnhem Land.

1970

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• Different Aboriginal Australian legends concerning yowies originate from over a wide area of the continent, with the largest concentration occurring throughout the eastern Australian mountain ranges. There were various names for yowie depending on the tribe and its location such as Yuuri, Yowri, Yahoo, Yaroma, Dulugal, Noocoonah, Dooligah, Gooligah, Quinkin, Thoolagal, Jingera, Jimbra and Tjandara.

1976

• Read the text and description with the students. Ask them to visualise what a yowie might look like. Students use the description to draw a yowie in the space provided. Page 9

• NAIDOC celebrations are held around Australia in the fi rst full week in July to celebrate the history, culture and achievements of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. NAIDOC originally stood for ‘National Aborigines and Islanders Day Observance Committee’, a committee responsible for organising national activities during NAIDOC Week. • Give each student a copy of the worksheet. After reading the text, students colour the fl ags according to the key then write the correct name next to each fl ag. • Quiz questions relating to this section can be found on page 98.

Answers

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Percy Trezise and Dick Roughsey discover two ancient Aboriginal paintings of the Turramulli (yowie).

Page 7–8

Teacher check Page 9

Torres Strait Islander, Australian, Aboriginal Australian

A camping group of two dozen men and women are disturbed by screaming when one of the women claims to have woken to see ‘a 2.7-metre tall, hairy ape-like male creature’.

1978 A national park ranger in Springbrook, south-east Queensland, reportedly sees a bipedal, gorilla-like primate standing 2.5 metres high.

6

• After reading and discussing the text with the students, they draw a rough design of an Australian animal at the bottom of the page, detailing the bones and organs of an animal. If possible, show the students some pictures of animal skeletons so they have an understanding of the skeletal structure of animals. To fi nish, students paint over their crayon drawing with wash.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

The earliest surviving examples of Aboriginal bark paintings are collected in western Arnhem Land.

1880

• Before the lesson, prepare a yellow tempera paint wash, a piece of A3 paper for each student and enough red, white, brown and black crayons for all students to use. You may also be able to fi nd some X-ray art pieces or photos to display.

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Teac he r

1837

• X-ray art is thought to have developed around 2000 BCE. It depicts the internal organs and bone structures of animal or human fi gures. X-ray art includes sacred images of ancestral beings and fi sh and animals that were important food sources.

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1790

Page 7

Primary Australian history

Further exploration

• Use traditional colours to decorate in chalk a section of a school wall or pavement in a style of Aboriginal Australian art. • Read Turramulli, the giant quinkin by Percy Tresize. Discuss the different image of the yowie in this story to the description on page 8. • Display Indigenous posters around your class room. • Listen to Indigenous music. • Find out about the traditional Indigenous owners of your area. • Visit local Indigenous sites of signifi cance or interest.

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T he b e

Aboriginal Australians – 1

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Art was a very important part of traditional Aboriginal Australian life. Paintings have been found on cave walls from a very long time ago. They show the stories and way of life of Aboriginal Australian people.

Teac he r

r o e t s Bo r e Aboriginal people used things from the land to p ok make paint. The colours they mostly used were u black, red, yellowS and white. They painted on rock

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walls, bark, tools, bodies and weapons. X-ray art is a kind of Aboriginal art where the bones and insides of creatures and people are shown in the painting.

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1. In the box below, practise drawing an Australian animal using the X-ray style. 2. On A3 paper, draw the outline of your animal with black crayon.

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4. Wash over the picture with thin yellow paint.

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3. Draw the animal’s insides and bones with crayon.

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Primary Australian history

7


T he b e

Aboriginal Australians – 2

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The yowie is a magical creature and is a part of the culture of many Aboriginal Australian groups. Yowies usually look like hairy men and are very tall and strong.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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Teac he r

‘One day, when I went up there, up on the hill, I first seen it. I saw it was big one yowie, covered in hair, dark hair. It had long nails, big teeth and a bad smell, like a dead possum. It was big, like big one gum tree, nearly bigger, standing up on two legs. It had long legs and arms. The neck look like no neck was there. It just looked at me, maybe scared like me, then went into the bush.’

1. Read the description of the yowie. Draw what it looks like.

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Primary Australian history

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T he b e

Aboriginal Australians – 3

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Every year, in the first week of July, we celebrate the history, culture and achievements of Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders. This week is called NAIDOC Week. 1.

Use the key to colour the three flags.

2.

Use the words at the bottom to name the flags.

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g

bk art: torres straight fl ag with code.

b

r

b

b

bk

r – red b – blue y – yellow

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Key

bk – black

b

g – green

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art: r aus fl ag blank with code

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art: aboriginal fl ag coded y

Torres Strait Islander Aboriginal Australian

r

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9


Why the crocodile rolls The beginning

Indicators • Reads and comprehends information about Aboriginal Australian Dreamtime stories. • Makes a crocodile using colouring, cutting and folding skills.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Time line 1788

Worksheet information

First European settlement in Australia.

• Pages 11 to 13 should be used in conjunction with each other.

An estimated 1500 Aboriginal Australians are living in the Sydney region.

1788

29 May: The first conflict occurs between the First Fleet arrivals and Aboriginal Australians. Two convicts are killed.

1789

• As a preliminary to reading this Dreamtime story with the students, information books about reptiles, and, in particular, crocodiles, may be read. Read the fi rst paragraph of information and discuss, then read the Dreamtime story with the students. The story may be followed by dramatic or visual arts interpretations by the students. Page 12

• Read or revise the story before completing the worksheet. Students will need coloured pencils to complete the worksheet. Complete the worksheet as directed, then allow the students to colour the pictures. If desired, the pictures may be cut out and glued in order on a separate sheet of paper.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

1799

The Black War begins. (A six-year period of resistance by Aboriginals to European settlement.)

• The craft crocodile may be completed after reading the story on page 11 or when applicable. The students will require scissors and coloured pencils or crayons to complete the worksheet by following the instructions. If desired, the crocodile may be folded along the centre line and used as a template to trace around on green-coloured card. Students may then decorate the crocodile as desired with stick-on spots or other crumpled paper squares in appropriate colours. • Quiz questions relating to this section can be found on page 99.

Answers

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Dispossession of Aboriginal land continues.

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Smallpox attacks the Aboriginal population at Port Jackson, Botany Bay and Broken Bay. The disease then spreads inland and along the coast.

1813

Page 11

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Teac he r

1788

• Oral storytelling is an important part of Aboriginal Australian culture. It is used to educate children about how the land was formed and inhabited. It tells children how they should behave and why and where to fi nd certain foods and water. For non-Indigenous Australians who do not have a spiritual connection to the land, Dreamtime stories provide a rich source of literary enjoyment.

1.

(a) unhappy (b) scaly (c) everyone (d) bride

2.

The pictures and sentences should be in the following order:

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Aboriginal guides assist European settlers to cross the Blue Mountains.

1. Some old men grabbed Min-na-wee.

2. The old men rolled Min-na-wee around and around in the dirt.

3. Min-na-wee ran away into the sea.

4. An evil spirit changed Min-na-wee into a crocodile.

5. Min-na-wee grabbed the man in her jaws.

6. Min-na-wee rolled the man around and around.

Page 13

Teacher check

Further exploration • Read other Dreamtime stories about animals, such as ‘How the birds got their colours’, ‘The echidna and the shade tree’, ‘The rainbow serpent’ and ‘Dunbi, the owl.’

10

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Why the crocodile rolls – 1

T he b e

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When a crocodile grabs hold of large prey such as pigs, turtles, wallabies and other crocodiles, it may roll and drag the prey under water to drown it. Crocodiles swallow their food in large chunks. If the chunks are too large to swallow, they will roll many times or shake their heads to break off smaller pieces for eating.

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Teac he r

r o e t s B r e o Read the Dreamtime story which tells why the crocodile p ok rolls. u S

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Min-na-wee was unhappy littlep girl. She to trouble. Her face •f o ranr e vi ew u r pliked os ecause son l y•

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was hard and scaly and she hated everyone. The old people of the tribe warned Min-na-wee’s mother that if Min-na-wee did not stop making trouble, something bad would happen to her. Min-na-wee grew into a young woman, but when no-one chose her to be a bride, she caused even more trouble. The old people finally decided to punish her.

. twas grabbed by some old men and rolled around o One day, shee and around c . in the dirt. She escaped and ran to the sea. There, shee asked an evil spirit to che r o change her into a vicious animal so that she s could get even with her tribe. The t r s r u e p evil spirit changed her into a large crocodile and she slid away into the water. The men forgot about Min-na-wee until one day when they were collecting crabs. Min-na-wee lay in hiding. She grabbed one of the men and rolled him around and around just as they had done to her. Min-na-wee’s spirit still lives with the crocodiles and that is why crocodiles roll their prey around and around when they catch it. www.ricpublications.com.au

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11


T he b e

Why the crocodile rolls – 2

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1. Colour the correct words to complete the sentences.

(a) Min-na-wee was very.............................. happy.

unhappy.

(b) Min-na-wee’s face was...........................

smooth.

(c) Min-na-wee hated................................... no-one.

(d) Min-na-wee was not picked to be a......... groom.

r o e t bride. s Bo r e oThe Number the events ofp the story in the correct order. first one has u k been done for you. S everyone.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i on saway into the Min-na-wee ran •f orr evi ew pur psea. osesonl y•

Some old men grabbed Min-na-wee.

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2.

scaly.

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Min-na-wee rolled the man around and around.

The old men rolled Min-na-wee around and around in the dirt.

An evil spirit changed Min-na-wee into a crocodile.

Min-na-wee grabbed the man in her jaws.

Primary Australian history

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T he b e

Why the crocodile rolls – 3

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1. Colour in the crocodile and cut it out. 2. Fold it along the centre line.

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3. Cut away the back sections of the crocodile while still folded.

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13


Red waratah The beginning

Indicators • Reads and comprehends information about Aboriginal Australian Dreamtime stories. • Uses a key to colour a picture of a red waratah.

Worksheet information

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Time line

1788

• Dreamtime stories relate beliefs, values and social structures from one generation to the next.

First European settlement in Australia.

1814

Teac he r

1815

The remaining Broken Bay Aboriginal people are confined to a reserve at George’s Head.

1816

Regulations to control the free movement of Aboriginal people are announced. Passports or certificates are issued to Aboriginal people who conduct themselves well.

Page 15

• Read and discuss the text with the students. Use the text to enable students to underline or circle specifi c spelling words, sounds, blends or digraphs, adjectives, nouns, adverbs or time-indicator words such as ‘After a while, ...’ and ‘Finally, ...’. Page 16

• Read the sentence beginnings and endings with the students and clarify any unknown words. In groups, students decide which ending suits the fi rst sentence and draw a line to match it to its beginning. Repeat until all sentences are completed. More capable students could be allowed to work independently. Reread the sentences again as a class, when all have been matched, to revise the story.

1835

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John Batman attempts to make a treaty with Aboriginal people for Port Phillip Bay. This treaty is later made void by Governor Bourke.

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Myall Creek Massacre occurs when armed colonists kill 28 Aboriginal people in retaliation for the deaths of white people.

1842

In Victoria, a Board of Protection, to safeguard Aboriginal people on reserved land, is formed.

1869 Act for the Protection and Management of Aboriginal Natives is passed in Victoria.

1890 Jandamarra, an Aboriginal resistance leader, declares war on European invaders.

Primary Australian history

• Complete the worksheet as directed. Students may need to view pictures of wonga pigeons before completing Question 3. • Quiz questions relating to this section can be found on page 99.

Answers Page 16 1.

(a)

Wonga pigeons mate for life.

(b)

The fi rst rule was to never go out of each other’s sight.

(c)

The second rule was to never fl y to the top of the trees.

(d)

The female pigeon couldn’t fi nd her mate.

(e)

She fl ew to the top of the trees to look for him.

(f)

A hawk captured her in his claws.

(g)

She escaped but her chest was wounded.

(h)

She bled on the white waratahs.

(i)

The white waratah fl owers changed to red.

2.

Teacher check

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Native Police Corp established by Governor Bourke in the Port Phillip District. The force is disbanded in 1853.

1860–1957

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The Battle of Pinjarra occurs to punish Aboriginals who conflicted with white settlers. Many Aboriginals and one white man are killed.

14

• Pages 14 to 17 should be used in conjunction with each other.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

1834

1838

• The white waratah is a very rare plant, seldom found in the wild. Specimens can be seen at the Canberra Botanical Gardens. During the Dreamtime, waratahs were only white.

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Governor Macquarie establishes the Parramatta Native Institution to ‘civilise, educate and foster habits of industry and decency in Aborigines’.

• Different versions of this story are told by different Aboriginal groups. Some end with the female pigeon fi nding her mate before dying, while others tell how she died without fi nding him.

Page 17

Teacher check

Further exploration • Read other Dreamtime stories such as ‘Koockard’ (Goanna) and ‘The two wise men and the seven sisters’ for the students to write in their own words. • In oral presentations, students make up their own Dreamtime stories. • Invite a local Aboriginal elder to come to the classroom to tell a story to the students.

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T he b e

Red waratah – 1

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Read the Dreamtime story with your teacher. Once upon a time during the Dreamtime, there were two wonga pigeons.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

They had two rules. One rule was to never go out of each other’s sight. The other rule was to never fly up to the top of the trees where the hawks could get them.

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Wonga pigeons mate for life, so everywhere they went, they went together. Everything they did, they did together. They built a nest together and looked after their young together.

One morning, the pigeons went out to gather food. They walked around on the ground, busily picking up food. After a while, the female pigeon realised that she could not see her mate. She began to worry so she started to call out for him. There was no reply. She looked and looked and called and called, but she could not find her mate.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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She became so worried that she forgot the rules. She flew up to the top of the trees to look around. Suddenly, a big hawk grabbed her around the chest. He began to fly with her to his favourite eating place. The pigeon struggled from his grasp and freed herself. But as she pulled away, the hawk’s sharp claws cut into her chest and she began to bleed. She was badly wounded.

. tshe became so tired that she couldn’t fly any longer. She flew until e Finally, she o c came to rest on a white waratah tree. The blood from her. chest dropped onto c e r a white waratah flowerh and it changed it red. As she flew from flower to flower, e o t r s s r up all the waratahs changed from white to e red. The poor little wonga pigeon never found her mate. She died from the wounds on her chest, sad and lonely. Most waratahs are still red. If you poke your finger into the centre of a red waratah flower and bring it out again, it will be stained red like the blood of the little female wonga pigeon. White waratahs are rarely found. www.ricpublications.com.au

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15


T he b e

Red waratah – 2

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1. Draw a line to match the beginning of each sentence to its end. (a) Wonga pigeons mate for …

go out of each other’s sight.

• • her mate. r o e t s B r fly to the top of the e o (c) The second rule was to never … • •o p trees. u k S (d) The female pigeon couldn’t find … • • life.

(e) She flew to …

(f) A hawk captured her in his …

(g) She escaped but …

white waratahs.

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a happy part of the story.

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16

flowers changed to red. her chest was wounded.

Primary Australian history

to look for him.

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(b) The first rule was to never …

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T he b e

Red waratah – 3

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to make a picture of a red waratah. Key:

1 = blue

2 = green

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2. Add details to your picture. 3. Draw a wonga pigeon on each side of the stem at the bottom using coloured pencils. www.ricpublications.com.au

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17


Exploring Australia Maritime exploration Indicator • Reads and understands information about explorers from Europe who visited Australia.

Worksheet information • The fi rst recorded ship to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken, captained by Dutchman, Willem Janszoon. Between 1606 and 1770, an estimated 54 ships from a range of European nations made contact, many of these being merchant ships from the Dutch East India Company.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Time line

1606

Page 19

1622

Tryall becomes the first ship to be wrecked on the Australian coast; forty-six people flee in two small vessels and live, 93 are left to perish.

• Students read the text, then use the letter provided to name each explorer. They cut the names from the bottom of the page and glue the fi rst and second names next to the correct picture.

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Duyfken charts much of the west coast of Cape York Peninsula in Queensland, becoming the first known Europeans to have landed in Australia.

• The Dutch, British and French sailors led early discovery journeys. Abel Tasman, James Cook and William Dampier are just three of the many adventurers who charted parts of our continent.

Page 20 • Students read the text.

• Students complete the worksheet by drawing one line from the explorer to his ship, then another from the explorer to his nationality. They colour each fl ag appropriately. To do this they may need to research the topic on the Internet or refer to an atlas. Page 21

1629

Francisco Pelsaert wrecks Batavia in the Abrolhos Islands and a mutiny follows. After sailing north for help, Pelsaert returns to rescue the survivors and to put to trial and punish the mutineers.

• In 1770, James Cook charted the Australian east coast in his ship HM Bark Endeavour. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of Britain on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming eastern Australia ‘New South Wales’.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

• Students read the text then fi nd the given words in the word search. They then fi ll in the missing words from the sentences using the words provided in the box at the bottom of the page. • Quiz questions relating to this section can be found on page 100.

Captain Read and William Dampier sail Cygnet into King Sound or Collier Bay in Western Australia to repair their ship.

Answers Page 19 a) James Cook b) William Dampier c) Abel Tasman

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1772

Page 20

François Alesno de St Allouarn sails Gros Venture along the WA coast from Cape Leeuwin to Shark Bay and on to Melville Island. He claims Australia for France.

1792–3

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Zeehaen, Abel Tasman, Holland; Endeavour, James Cook, Britain; La Geographe, Nicholas Baudin, France Page 21

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Joseph-Antoine Bruny d’Entrecasteaux circumnavigates Australia one and a half times in Recherche and Esperance.

1801–3

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1688

Nicolas Baudin and Emmanuel Hamelin chart the Western Australian coast, including Denial Bay, Spencer Gulf, Kangaroo Island and the southern Tasmanian coast in Geographe and Naturaliste.

1. Teacher check 2. (a) Cook (b) Britain (c) France (d) ship

Further exploration

• Research places in Australia that are named by the people who explored them, such as Tasmania (Abel Tasman). • Look at early maps of Australia and compare them to the current detailed maps we have today. • Map your school or local area.

• Write a narrative about being an explorer discovering new lands. • Research life aboard the ships for the sailors accompanying the explorers. • View photographs of shipwrecks on our coast. • Discuss what the Aboriginal Australians might have thought and felt about the arrival of European explorers. • Many of the ships had botanists and artists aboard to record new plants. Students can sketch some native plants found in the local environment.

18

Primary Australian history

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Exploring Australia – 1

M ariti m e

explo r

atio

n

For a long time, only the Aboriginal Australians lived in Australia. No-one else knew it was there! Sailors from Europe started discovering parts of Australia. Abel Tasman, James Cook and William Dampier are three people who explored many parts of Australia.

2. Glue the names next to the correct picture.

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1.

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Cook

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Primary Australian history

19


Exploring Australia – 2

M ariti m e

explo r

atio

n

Many ships came and explored different parts of Australia. Most of these explorers came from Holland, France and Britain. Some places in Australia are named after these explorers.

1.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Draw a line from the explorer to his ship.

2.

Draw a line from the explorer to his country.

3.

Colour the ships’ flags correctly.

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Teac he r

James Cook from Britain made discoveries on his ship, Endeavour; Abel Tasman from Holland sailed on Zeehaen; and Nicholas Baudin from France on the ship La Geographe.

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Abel Tasman

Britain 20

Primary Australian history

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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James Cook

France

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M ariti m e

Exploring Australia – 3

explo r

atio

n

Captain James Cook wasn’t the first European person to discover Australia. He sailed along the east coast of Australia and, when he landed at Botany Bay, he ‘claimed’ the whole of the east coast of Australia for Britain, calling it ‘New South Wales’.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u Tick the words as you find them in the word S search.

French ships also came to try and claim the land for France … but they were too late!

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. was called Endeavour.

ship

France

Cook Primary Australian history

21


The First Fleet Early settlement

Indicator • Reads and understands information about the First Fleet.

Worksheet information

1718–1783

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Time line

• In August 1786, the British Government decided to start a convict settlement in New South Wales, allowing Britain to claim Australia before France or Spain. Captain Arthur Phillip was chosen to lead the First Fleet of convicts to Botany Bay. There were 11 ships in the First Fleet, six of them were convict ships that had specially built prisoners quarters below the decks. Around 1500 men, women and children sailed in the First Fleet that left England on 13 May 1787.

About 50 000 British criminals are transported to colonies in America.

1738 1775–1783

• Read the text with the students. They complete the worksheet by using the information provided in the text to answer the questions at the bottom of the page.

American War of Independence brings convict transportation from Britain to a halt.

1783–1787

Page 24

• Give each student a copy of the worksheet and a separate piece of card or thick paper. They will also require glue and scissors for this activity.

• Students read the text on Captain Arthur Phillip. They then cut the puzzle pieces and glue them onto the piece of card to create the portrait of Captain Phillip.

British prisons and hulks become overcrowded.

Page 25

1786

• Discuss Australia Day with the students, including its origins and what it means to modern Australians. Ask the students how they celebrate Australia Day and what the day means to them.

The colony of New South Wales is proclaimed by King George III.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Lord Sydney agrees to send convicts to New South Wales.

The ships of the First Fleet, under the command of Captain Arthur Phillip, leave Portsmouth, England.

3 June 1787

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The convoy reaches the Canary Islands off the coast of north-west Africa.

6 August 1787

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Answers Page 23 1. eleven (11) 2. Botany 3. captain 4. Jackson Page 24–25 Teacher check

• Look at the website <http://home.vicnet.net.au/~fi rstff/list.htm>, which contains an interesting and detailed list of the provisions taken in the First Fleet.

o c . che e r o t r s super

The First Fleet is anchored at Table Bay, Cape Town, South Africa.

18 January 1787

• Quiz questions relating to this section can be found on page 100.

Further exploration

The First Fleet reaches Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, staying until 3 September.

14 October – 13 November 1787

• Students read the text, then draw a line to match each picture with the correct words. To fi nish the students can colour the activities that they like to do when celebrating Australia Day.

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23 January 1787

13 May 1788

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Teac he r

Page 23

Arthur Phillip is born.

The first ships of the fleet arrive in Botany Bay.

• Research the crimes and lives of some of the convicts in the First Fleet.

• Listen to the song ‘Botany Bay’. Discuss the different words and language of the times. • Research the clothing the people in the First Fleet wore.

• Find Botany Bay and Port Jackson on a map of Sydney. Discuss the features that made Port Jackson a better place to start the new settlement.

26 January 1788 The First Fleet arrives in Port Jackson.

1790 The Second Fleet of convicts arrives.

1791 The Third Fleet of convicts arrives.

22

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E a rl y s

The First Fleet – 1

e tt l e

men

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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Teac he r

ry 1788 27 Janua er leaving t f A ! r d e e h t iv o rr or Dearest M e finally a only a few times f v a h e w g you n o, stoppin ny Bay o ed to tell g a s t a a o s le B h p t in n m o ed Ia nd eight m of our ships land la g n E in t rs you ood, the fi f d n a d s ir repa y wife an m d n a . , y h r ug 18 Janua Then our s often ro . a d e s n e la h y t r , d od ng y to be on ey was lo asn’t a go p n r p w u a y h jo a e B e r h e y T n w lizabeth, ided Bota E c e , r d e , t p h li g il u Jackson. Ph da t r r u o h P t r o t A , ere tain ill oved up h good cap m e ugh we w w o o h s t , s y a a t s s it seems . It look y d place to r n a a u r n e a t J wa 26 re is fresh esterday, e y h d T e . e iv r r e r h We a a new life t r a t s d n ve stay a f them ha o ll a , y il d, luck are most safe. n s a a , il e a f s a t s e ss s, is w, 11 ship ship, Siriu her ships. o r n u k o u n o o y e t As . Everyon s on the o r ly e ie f a a ld s o s d e d arriv s. There is ilors an m a r s a , f s t d ic n v a roads rk but it , o s w e of the con d m r o a h h g e gin buildin e doing most of th e b w o n l . ill b We wil has come onvicts w o c h e w h T e . n o o y lot to d e for ever im t d r a h will be a With love Samuel. , n o s r u o Y

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ships in the First Fleet.

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Arthur Phillip was the

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The First Fleet arrived at Port 1788.

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Bay. of the First Fleet. on 26 January Primary Australian history

23

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E a rl y s

The First Fleet – 2

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Captain Arthur Phillip, who was a sailor and farmer, was asked to lead the First Fleet. He became the first leader in the new settlement at Port Jackson, which was later renamed Sydney. He became Governor Phillip and wanted to make the settlement a place where everyone could live in harmony.

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Teac he r

r o e t s Bo r e p o u k of card to Cut out the picture shapes and glue them together on a piece S see Captain Phillip’s face.

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Primary Australian history

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E a rl y s

The First Fleet – 3

e tt l e

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The arrival of the First Fleet at Port Jackson on 26 January 1788 was an important event in Australian history. Every year on 26 January we remember the very beginning of our nation. This day is called Australia Day. It is a public holiday where we celebrate what is great about being Australian. 1.

have a picnic

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Teac he r

2.

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see the fireworks

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© R . I . C . P u b l i c a t i o n s go to the beach •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super have a barbecue

play cricket www.ricpublications.com.au

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25


Convicts

Early settlement

Indicator • Understands that convicts were prisoners and the reasons they were sent to Australia.

Worksheet information

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

First Fleet leaves England.

• The Industrial Revolution in Britain and the population explosion in the cities resulted in an increase in crime. Britain needed somewhere to put the large numbers of prisoners, called convicts. Australia was the answer. • Give each student a copy of the worksheet and read the text with them. Explain any diffi cult words and discuss the text with the students. • Students complete the worksheet by writing some sentences to describe the picture on the worksheet. They should try to use some of the words from the text when writing their description.

First Fleet arrives in Australia.

1788

Page 28

A settlement is founded at Norfolk Island.

1790

Second Fleet of convicts arrives.

1791

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Page 29

• Discuss the life of a convict; what they might have done to get to prison, what their journey to Australia might have been like, and what hardships they might have faced living in Australia.

First free settlers arrive.

1802–1803

Matthew Flinders completes the first circumnavigation of the continent.

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• The students will need scissors and dice for this activity. Enlarge enough copies of the worksheet onto A3 paper for students to be in groups of two to four. The students get into groups and select a convict game piece each, which they cut out and fold along the dotted line to make it stand upright. They then play the game until one person has won. • Quiz questions relating to this section can be found on page 101.

Further exploration

The whole of Australia is claimed as British territory. The settlement of Perth is founded.

1833

• From 1788 to 1823, the Colony of New South Wales was offi cially a penal colony, comprised mainly of convicts, marines and the wives of the marines. Governor Phillip founded a system in which convicts, whatever their crime, were employed according to their skills—as brick makers, carpenters, nurses, servants, farmers etc. Only a small percentage of the convict population was locked up. • Students read the text. They match each occupation to the correct picture. They then choose one job they might do if they were a convict and explain their answer.

Third Fleet of convicts arrives.

1793

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January 1788

Page 27

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May 1787

Time line

• Read some of Charles Dickens’s novels, such as Oliver Twist, set around the time of the First Fleet, depicting the harsh lives many people lived. • Discuss what poverty is and how there are places today where there is poverty and famine. Discuss ways to help the people effected by poverty.

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The penal settlement of Port Arthur is founded in Van Diemen’s Land.

• If possible, visit a local site associated with convict heritage.

• Imagine you have a time machine and could go back to the time of the convicts. What would you see? What would you tell the convicts about the future? • Locate important convict sites on a map of Australia. Choose one convict heritage site and research its history.

1850

Western Australia becomes a penal colony.

Optional game tokens for page 29

1855 The transportation of convicts to Norfolk Island ceases.

1868 The last shipment of convicts to Australia arrives in Western Australia.

26

Primary Australian history

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E a rl y s

Convicts – 1

e tt l e

men

Around the time of the First Fleet life was very difficult in Europe. Many people were hungry and had to steal food and clothes to survive. In Britain, many people were put in jail for a long time just for stealing bread or clothes. Soon there wasn’t enough room in the prisons for all the prisoners.

Teac he r

women and even children in ships to Australia to build a new place for British people to live. These prisoners were called convicts.

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r o e t s Bo r e ok Because of the lacku of p room, the British leaders decided to send S some of the prisoners far away to a place where nobody lived. They sent many men,

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. tethe text to write some sentences describing o Use words from the picture c . above. che e r o r st super

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Primary Australian history

27

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E a rl y s

Convicts – 2

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Most of the convicts who came to Australia had to work hard. Governor Phillip decided which convicts should work as brick makers, carpenters, nurses, servants, builders or farmers, depending on what they were good at.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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Teac he r

Convicts usually woke up early and worked hard all day. They didn’t get any money and received only a little amount of food. If a convict was very good, he or she was given more freedom. Convicts who misbehaved were often put in a jail and punished.

1. Match each picture with its job title.

nurse

builder

servant © R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

farmer

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carpenter

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2. Write which job you would do if you were a convict and why. 28

Primary Australian history

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E a rl y s

Convicts – 3

e tt l e

Play this board game about a convict’s journey.

Caught stealing bread. Move back 1 space.

START

men

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You are put in jail. Move back 1 space.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S You are set free! Well done!

You are put on a ship to Australia. Miss a turn.

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Teac he r

FINISH

Your boots are stolen. Move back 1 space.

You make a friend on the ship. Move 3 spaces forward.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• You receive a letter from home. Move 1 space forward.

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You are bashed by guards. Move back 1 space.

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The seas are calm for a week. Move 1 space forward.

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You are sent to Port Arthur’s jail. Miss a turn. You are given new clothes. Move 3 spaces forward.

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You get sick from bad food. Move back 3 spaces. You land at Port Jackson. Move 1 space forward.

You gain some freedom for good behaviour. Move 2 spaces forward.

Primary Australian history

29


The first settlement Early settlement Indicators • Reads and comprehends information about the establishment of the fi rst European settlement in Australia.

Time line

• Completes events in a simple time line.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Worksheet information

Teac he r

• The First Fleet consisted of 11 ships and about 736 convicts, 211 marines, 17 convicts’ children, 27 marine wives, 14 marines’ children and about 300 offi cers and others. The First Fleet was under the command of Captain Arthur Phillip. The date 26 January is celebrated nationally as Australia Day. • About 570 people on the First Fleet were free men, women and children. Convicts were usually assigned to free settlers who were then responsible for feeding and disciplining them. In return, the free settlers were granted land. Skilled tradespeople, such as stonemasons, were scarce and therefore in high demand. The skills to make the settlement self-supporting were almost nonexistent. There was little knowledge of the climate or farming and, as a result, the colony nearly starved. The arrival of the Second Fleet helped but it took a few years before the colony improved its situation.

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1770 Captain James Cook charts the east coast of Australia. 1787 13 May: First Fleet sets sail from Portsmouth, England. 1788 18 January: First Fleet arrives at Botany Bay after sailing south of Van Diemen’s Land and then north to New South Wales. The site is deemed unsuitable and the fleet moves to Port Jackson. 26 January: First European settlement begins at Sydney Cove, Port Jackson. 26 January: Two French ships led by Admiral Jean-François de La Pérouse arrive off Botany Bay and Sydney Cove. The ships take on water and wood and then depart. 7 February: Captain Arthur Phillip is appointed Captain-General and Governor-inChief of the territory of New South Wales. July: All ships except the naval vessels Sirius and Supply return to England. 1790 James Ruse, a convict, is the first farmer to successfully grow grain in the new colony. Food supplies improve greatly. Second Fleet arrives, bringing D’Arcy Wentworth and John and Elizabeth Macarthur. 1791 Third Fleet arrives. 1793 The Macarthurs are granted land at Parramatta, which they name Elizabeth Farm. 1796 The Macarthurs purchase their first merino sheep. 1808 Rum Rebellion occurs. 1824–1868 Convict and free settlements are established at Moreton Bay, Albany, Swan River and Van Diemen’s Land. 1868 9 January: The last convict ship to Australia arrives in WA.

• Between the years 1788 and 1823 New South Wales was a penal colony, so the population consisted mainly of convicts, marines and their families. Free settlers began to arrive in 1793. • Page 31 is a fi ctional example of a primary source of historical information, rather than a secondary source such as reading a report of an event by a person who did not experience it directly.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Primary Australian history

Page 31

• Read the diary entries with the students or ask capable students to read different entries. Discuss each entry after reading. Students should write the numbers 1 to 9 next to the paragraphs in order to assist answering the questions on page 32. Page 32 • Read each of the questions with the students and allow time to complete the answers. Check answers as a class.

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• Pages 30 to 33 should be used in conjunction with each other.

Page 33

• Students will need to have access to a copy of page 31 in order to complete page 33 and will require scissors and glue. Discuss what the pictures show. Students cut around the outside of the time line and then cut out all the pictures to glue them in the correct place. • Quiz questions relating to this section can be found on page 101.

o c . che e r o t r s super Answers Page 32

1. (a) 26 January 1788 (b) a tent (c) on the dirt ground 2. (a) ration (b) thatch (c) supplies (d) drought 3. Teacher check Page 33

Teacher check

Further exploration • Find out about the interesting jobs people had in the fi rst settlement such as cooper, blacksmith, soldier, farmer, saddler, wheelwright and candle maker.

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E a rl y s

The first settlement – 1

e tt l e

men

Read the diary entries. 26 January 1788 Today, my father, mother, brothers and I finally saw our new home for the first time. Port Jackson looked very wild and frightening but, after travelling on the ship for eight months, it was very pleasing to set foot on land.

and there are not many supplies at the government store.

Teac he r

We have settled into the big tent set up by the convicts. It is fortunate that Father is a marine officer because otherwise we would be sleeping on the ground like the convicts. 4 February 1788 The convicts started to build the roads, hospital and jail today. I hope they start building the cottages soon. It gets very hot in our tent.

to add to our food rations. It tastes strange but we are glad to have more to eat. I would rather have the fish we sometimes get. I hope the ships bring more supplies soon.

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r o e t s 10 November B r e oo 1789 p u k Father brought home S some emu meat 28 January 1788

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o c . che e r o t r s 1791 supe 30r October

10 March 1789 Finally, we have moved into our own little cottage with a thatch roof! We feel very lucky! It’s much better than the tent! 9 September 1789 Mother had to mend my clothes again today. We only brought a few with us www.ricpublications.com.au

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14 August 1788 We have to carefully ration our food until the farms in the settlement can grow enough crops. Father says that we will have to do this for a long time. Most of the convicts do not know how to farm. The soil is poor and the climate is dry and hot.

20 June 1790 Today everyone in the settlement is very happy! A ship called Justinian arrived with many supplies for the colony. Some convicts also came. Soon we will have more buildings, farms and roads.

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The long drought is finally over, the farms are beginning to provide lots of food and ships are arriving all the time. I am beginning to like my new home now! But it certainly took a lot of work to start this first settlement!

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The first settlement – 2

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1. Answer the questions using the text on page 31.

(a) When did the first settlement begin in Australia?

r o e t s Bo r e p sleep? ok (c) Where did the convicts u S

(b) What did the marine officer’s family live in at first?

2. Write words from the text to match each explanation. The paragraph where the word can be found is given. (a) to restrict or have a fixed amount of food, clothing etc. (paragraph 4)

(b) a material such as straw or rushes used to cover roofs etc.

(c)

(paragraph 5)n © R. I . C.Publ i cat i o s food, clothing, tools, animals etc. to help people survive •f orr evi ew pur p osesonl y• (paragraph 6)

(d) a length of time when no rain occurs; dry weather (paragraph 9)

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3. Write or draw one good thing and one bad thing about living in the first settlement.

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E a rl y s

The first settlement – 3

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Cut and paste the pictures in the correct order to complete the time line.

26 January 1788

Teac he r

4 February 1788

14 August 1788

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r o e t s Bo r e p ok 28 January 1788 u S

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9 September 1789

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10 March 1789

. te o c 10 November 1789 . che e r o t r s super 20 June 1790

30 October 1791

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33


Big, bad bushrangers Early settlement Indicators • Reads and comprehends information about bushrangers.

Time line 1788

• Cuts and glues labels in correct positions.

Worksheet information

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

John Caesar, a West Indian man, is transported to Port Jackson on the First Fleet.

1790 1796

15 February: John Caesar is shot and killed by a settler named Wimbow to claim the reward.

1823

Aboriginal man, Musquito, is transported to Van Diemen’s Land for the murder of his wife. He escapes and takes up bushranging.

1824

• During the gold rush era, bushrangers stole gold being transported from the isolated goldfi elds. There were few police as many had joined the gold rush.

• Colonial-born sons of ex-convict squatters were drawn to a more exciting life than one involving farming or mining. These ‘wild colonial boys’ included Frank Gardiner, John Gilbert, Ben Hall, Dan ‘Mad Dog’ Morgan and Frederick Ward (Captain Thunderbolt).

• The number of bushrangers decreased due to better policing, more communication and rail transport. The Kelly Gang were among the last groups of bushrangers. • Pages 34 to 37 should be used in conjunction with each other.

12 August: Musquito is wounded and captured.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Page 35

Musquito is hanged in Hobart. John Donohoe arrives in Australia. Escapes from custody many times and forms bushranger gangs.

1830

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1 September: John Donohoe is shot in the head by a soldier in a group of police, soldiers and civilians sent out to capture him. The folk song ‘The wild colonial boy’ was written about him.

around 1855

Ned Kelly is born.

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Page 36

• Read the instructions with the students and complete one question at a time or allow students to complete the questions independently. Students will need access to a copy of page 35 to answer the questions. Page 37 • Students will need scissors and glue to complete the worksheet as directed. • Quiz questions relating to this section can be found on page 102.

Answers Page 36

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28 June: Ned Kelly is captured at shoot out at Glenrowan. 11 November: Ned Kelly is hanged.

1900

• Read each stanza of the poem and discuss it before moving to the next. Explain any unfamiliar words such as ‘gruel’, ‘lash’, ‘troopers’, squatter’, ‘totter’ etc. with the students. If desired, ask students to use a dictionary to fi nd the meanings of words.

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1825

1880

• The fi rst bushrangers were escaped convicts who were tired of being punished brutally by the people in charge of them. As convicts, they had little food, resented authority and lived a very hard life. They worked for wealthy landowners and free settlers and built roads, bridges and buildings. ‘Bolting’ became a much better option to such a harsh life. Many escaped convicts did not survive in the bush. Some died, while some were recaptured and punished severely. John ‘Black’ Caesar is thought to be the fi rst bushranger.

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John Caesar ‘bolts’ from penal custody and is then recaptured. This happens often.

• The term ‘bushranger’ refers to a bandit or criminal in colonial times who hid in the bush and survived by robbing travellers, small towns and coaches. They came to know the bush well, enabling them to evade the authorities.

20 July: Brothers Joe and Jimmy Governor (partly Aboriginal) massacre residents of the Mawbey homestead, where Jimmy works, in retaliation for insults to his young white wife. They became bushrangers with Jacky Underwood.

1901 18 January: Jimmy Governor is hanged. The novel The chant of Jimmy Blacksmith is based on his life.

1901

1.

(a) convicts (b) gruel (c) bush (d) ‘Bail up!’

2.

(a) Diggers carried their gold to town.

(b) Convicts worked for wealthy squatters.

(c) Some bushrangers were called ‘wild colonial boys’.

3.–5. Teacher check Page 37

Teacher check

Further exploration • Find out about the lives of Captain Starlight (Frank Pearson), Frank Gardiner, Ben Hall, Fred Ward (Captain Thunderbolt), the Kelly Gang and others by accessing bushranger profi les at <http://scs.une.edu.au/Bushrangers/biog.htm>. Write a simple biography about each one.

31 October: Joe Governor shot is and killed .

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E a rl y s

Big, bad bushrangers – 1

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men

Read the poem about bushrangers.

A convict’s life is hard and cruel,

they work hard each day for a bowl of gruel.

Out in the bush, at least they are free.

They rob or kill and do as they please.

‘Bail up!’ you’ll hear them cry.

Teac he r

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons The troopers can’t find them even though they try! •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• The road to town is filled with diggers;

carrying their gold, they’re easy pickings!

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The convicts once slaved for the wealthy squatter.

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r o e t s Bo r e p them in line, ok A lash (or nine) to keep u S no wonder so many turn to crime!

o c . che e r o t r s s uper The wild colonial boys are so tough.

Born in the bush, they are wild, strong and rough.

We know Captain Starlight, Frank Gardiner and Ben Hall,

but Ned Kelly is the most famous Australian bushranger of all.

Now, as bushrangers, they make them totter.

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35

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E a rl y s

Big, bad bushrangers – 2

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Use the poem on page 35 to answer the questions. 1.

Write the correct word to complete the sentence. gruel

‘Bail up!’

bush

(b)

.

(c) Bushrangers lived in the .

(d) Bushrangers often said 2.

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r o e t s Bo r e pwere ok The first bushrangers . u S . (runny porridge) Convicts ate

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(a)

convicts

Match the beginning of each sentence to its end.

•i wealthy © R. I . C.P•ubl i cat onssquatters. Convicts worked forv •u • s ‘wildo colonial •f orr e i ew p r pose nl yboys’. •

(a) Diggers carried (b)

(c) Some bushrangers were called •

• their gold to town.

Write the names of three bushrangers.

4.

. te o c Colour the word you think is correct. . che e r o t r speople. sup er good bad Bushrangers were

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3.

5.

Would you have liked to have been a bushranger? Write why or why not.

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E a rl y s

Big, bad bushrangers – 3

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Bushrangers often wore a hat, a shirt, trousers and long boots. Many covered their faces with a large, coloured handkerchief. Some carried a pistol tucked into their belt, a knife in a sheath and a rifle strapped across their back. 1. Cut and paste the words.

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2. Colour the picture.

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hat

shirt

pistol

knife

trousers

handkerchief

rifle

boots

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37


Explorers Discoveries Indicator • Read and understands information about the people who explored Australia.

Worksheet information

Time line

around 380 BC–310 BCE

• The Egyptians undertook the fi rst recorded voyage into unknown seas around 2500 BC. Australia has a rich history of brave explorers who helped open up and map the nation.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Page 39

Pytheas circumnavigates Britain. 1271–1295

1492

Columbus claims discovery of America.

1513

Juan Ponce de Leon explores Florida while looking for the Fountain of Youth.

1768–1779

James Cook charts the world’s major bodies of water and explores Hawaii and Antarctica.

1798

• Students read their copy of the text. Discuss what kind of people explorers might have been like. Ask for suggestions of words to describe the personalities, attributes and character of explorers such as brave, strong, adventurous, courageous, determined, leaders.

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Marco Polo (Italian) travels through central Asia, India, China and Indonesia.

• Very little was known about Australia when the British began colonising it in 1788. It took many explorers, who went either of their own accord or were asked to go by the British Government, a long time to map the interior and coast of Australia. Many died or disappeared in the process.

• Students use the outline of an explorer’s head to list a number of descriptive words associated with explorers. Page 40

• George Bass and Matthew Flinders met on board the ship Reliance while travelling to Australia. They shared a love of exploring and explored parts of the south-eastern Australian coastline, both together and separately. • Students read the text about Matthew Flinders and George Bass. They then use the timeline to plot the path of the journey they took around Tasmania.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Matthew Flinders and George Bass prove Van Diemen’s Land is an island.

1803

• Using the information from the text, students label Bass Strait on the map. Page 41

1803

George Bass leaves Sydney for Chile but the ship disappears. Bass is never seen again. 1813

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The barrier that is the Blue Mountains is conquered. 1831–1836

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Charles Darwin sails on Beagle, exploring the Galapagos Islands and other areas. 1839

Eyre sets out from Adelaide on his journey westward. 1841

• Students complete the worksheet by colouring the pictures, cutting them out and arranging them to make a book. They can use the book to retell Eyre’s journey. • Quiz questions relating to this section can be found on page 102 .

Further exploration

• Make a list of supplies that would be needed for a three-day long journey.

• Compare past explorers to those of the modern day (e.g. into space, the arctic regions, underwater). How is modern day exploring different from that of the past?

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John Eyre attempts to reach the centre of Australia. He turns back at Mount Hopeless. 1840

• Students read the text. Discuss what it might have been like for Eyre going into the desert without knowing what lay ahead of him. Encourage the students to think of how Eyre might have felt when setting out, struggling to survive and, fi nally, reaching his destination.

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Mathew Flinders completes the first voyage around Australia in Investigator.

July: Eyre and Wiley reach Albany. 1860–61

• Jacques Cousteau was a famous undersea explorer. Research his adventures and discoveries.

• Read fi ctional novels such as Gulliver’s travels that may have inspired some of Australia’s explorers. • The full story of Eyre’s journey is quite remarkable. If possible, read a more detailed version of the events of his journey across Australia and of his life. • Dramatise parts of Eyre’s journey in small groups.

• Investigate what kind of native plants and animals Eyre may have eaten during his journey.

Robert O’Hara Burke and William John Wills attempt to explore the area between Melbourne to the Gulf of Carpentaria. 1901 John Eyre dies.

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Explorers – 1

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When the Europeans landed and began settlements in Australia, they knew very little about the land they lived in. Some people went into the unknown lands and seas to find out what was there. These people were called explorers. When explorers began an expedition they had no idea what they would find. They didn’t know if there would be water to drink and food to eat or if they would find wild animals, strange places or unfriendly people. They had to be brave to cope with the danger and adventure of an expedition.

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r o e t s Bo r e p ok u Sleft the settlements to explore Australia never came back. Many explorers who

Those who did return brought back the maps they made and information about the places they had seen for other people to use. 1. Fill the explorer’s head with words that describe an explorer.

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39


Dis c o

Explorers – 2

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r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

George Bass

Later, they went on an Matthew Flinders expedition to prove Tasmania was an island. Before this people thought Tasmania was joined by land to the rest of Australia. They sailed around Tasmania and made maps. The water between Tasmania and mainland Australia is named Bass Strait after George Bass.

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Matthew Flinders and George Bass met while travelling by ship to Australia. They were both interested in exploring. Together, they started exploring the coast around the new Port Jackson settlement in a small rowboat called Tom Thumb.

1.

Draw a line on the map to show where Bass and Flinders explored. Use the ‘log’ to follow the path of the journey.

2.

Write where you think Bass Strait is on the map.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur pose sonl y• Log of Bass and Port Jackson

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Flinders’s journey • 7 October 1798—Leave Port Jackson.

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mainland Australia

• 25 October—Arrive at Furneaux Islands.

• 3 November—Arrive at Port Dalrymple.

o c • 10 December—Arrive at . che e Caper Grim. o t r s super • 11–20 December—Travel along west coast of Tasmania. Furneaux Islands

Port Dalrymple

Tasmania Derwent Estuary

• 21 December—Arrive at Derwent Estuary. • 8 January 1799—Back at Furneaux Islands. • 11 January—Back home at Port Jackson.

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Dis c o

Explorers – 3

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The explorers who travelled into the unknown areas of Australia often had very difficult journeys. They weren’t prepared for the hot weather, rough land and lack of water.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

1. Colour

and cut

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Edward John Eyre was the first person to cross Australia, from Adelaide (SA) to Albany (WA). He left Adelaide with 9 men, 13 horses and 40 sheep. Eyre had to send most of the group back because of the heat and lack of water. Halfway to the west, Eyre had to leave more horses, spare clothes and supplies in the desert. To survive, Eyre had to suck dew off leaves and might have died if he hadn’t met with a French ship whose sailors gave them food and water. Only Eyre and his Aboriginal Australian friend, Wylie, made it to Albany four and a half months later. the pictures.

2. Staple them together in the correct order to make a book.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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3. Use your book to tell the story of John Eyre.

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41


The gold rush Discoveries Indicators • Reads and understands information about the discovery of gold in Australia. • Uses the language of position and movement to describe a path across a map.

Worksheet information

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Some convicts, while cutting a road to Bathurst, are rumoured to have found a quantity of gold, but are told to keep silent. The first verified discovery of gold in the colonies on the Fish River, NSW, by James McBrian.

1825

A convict, carrying gold he stated he discovered in the bush, is flogged in Sydney on suspicion of having stolen it.

1839

Paul Strzelecki discovers gold in the Blue Mountains, New South Wales.

1841

Gold is found near the Pyrenees Mountains, Victoria.

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Thomas Chapman discovers gold at Daisy Hill, Victoria.

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Gold is found in Victoria.

1852

• Edward Hargraves had travelled to the Californian gold fi elds and learned to prospect for gold with pans, cradles and excavation. Noticing similarities in the Californian and Australian landscapes, he became determined to discover gold in Australia and eventually did so. Within a month of his discovery a thousand men were looking for gold. • Give each student a copy of the newspaper article worksheet and read it through with them. Discuss any new words or concepts. Page 44

• Give each student a copy of the worksheet. Discuss acrostic poems and how each letter of a word becomes the fi rst letter in a line of the poem. Students complete the acrostic poem on their own.

• Using the information on page 43, students cut the pictures from the bottom of the page and glue them next to the correct sentences describing gold panning. Page 45

1848

1851

Page 43

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Gold is discovered by Rev. WB Clarke, but the news is suppressed. Governor Sir George Gipps says to him: ‘Put it away, Mr Clarke, or we shall all have our throats cut!’

1849

• Pages 43 and 44 should be used in conjunction with each other.

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1823

• Early gold discoveries in Australia were kept quiet as many feared the largely convict population would plunge into lawlessness if the news became known. The fi rst man to discover and proclaim the discovery of gold and start the gold rushes in Australia was Edward Hargraves.

• Give each student a copy of the worksheet and read the instructions with them. They complete the worksheet by deciding which is the best path to the gold, then write down the path they have chosen using terms of position and movement such as those listed on the worksheet. • Quiz questions relating to this section can be found on page 102.

Further exploration

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Time line

• Look at <http://www.sunnhillss.qld.edu.au/WebQuests/gold/index.htm> for some interesting links and ideas for students.

• Talk about ‘luck’ and ‘chance’. Do some maths activities on chance; e.g. roll a die and tally how many times a certain number comes up. • Students can write a narrative about fi nding a gold nugget in their backyards.

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• Many men became prospectors but few were made wealthy. Discuss wealth and what it means to the students. What would they do if they were suddenly wealthy? • Locate mine sites (past or present) in your state or territory and research their history.

Ninety-five thousand people arrive in New South Wales and Victoria.

1854

The attack on the Eureka Stockade occurs.

1858 Gold is found in Queensland.

1886 Gold is found in Tasmania and Western Australia.

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Dis c o

The gold rush – 1 Sydney Morning Paper

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13 February 1851

r o e t s Bo r e p o u k Edward Hammond Hargraves has discovered S gold at Lewis Ponds Creek. Hargraves learned how to pan for gold in California, America. He came back to Australia and was sure he could find gold here. The day of discovery started like a normal day. Hargraves asked a man called John Lister to show him where he might find gold. He followed Lister and two others to the creek and then started panning for gold.

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Hargraves finds gold in New South Wales

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He scooped mud into his pan and swirled water around in it. He washed the dirt away and took out the pebbles.

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He did this again and again until he found a piece of gold at the bottom of the pan.

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o c Hargraves said to Lister, ‘This is a memorable . c e he r day in the history of New South Wales. I shall o t r s su er pmy be a baronet, you will be knighted and old horse will be stuffed, put in a glass case, and sent to the British Museum!’

They found more gold and took it to Sydney, where Hargraves told many people of his find. This could be the beginning of a rush to find gold in Australia. www.ricpublications.com.au

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43


Dis c o

The gold rush – 2

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1. Write a word or sentence starting with each letter of the word ‘gold’ to make an acrostic poem about gold. G

O

L

D

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2. Cut out the pictures and glue them next to the right instructions about panning for gold.

44

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

(ii) Swirl water around to wash away the dirt.

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(i) Scoop mud into a pan.

(iii) Pick out the pebbles and rocks.

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o c . che e r o t (iv) Find gold (if you are r lucky)! s super

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Dis c o

The gold rush – 3

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You are a gold digger. Your friend has given you a map of where to find gold. Decide which way you will go to get to the gold, marked ‘X’. Write the path you will take, starting from the picture of the digger, using words like ‘through’, ‘around’, ‘over’, ‘across’ and ‘between’.

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Early transport Progress Indicators • Reads and comprehends information about Australia’s early transport systems. • Completes a word puzzle about Cobb and Co.

Worksheet information

Time line

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

• During the 1800s, camels were used by explorers such as Burke and Wills and Ernest Giles to explore the desert regions of Australia as they were better able to cope with long periods without water. Donkeys and mules were also used for a short time in mining and pastoral enterprises.

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1788 The First Fleet arrives with 4 mares, 2 stallions, 4 cows, 1 bull and 1 bull calf. 1789 Rose Hill Packet is built to carry goods and passengers along the Parramatta River to Rose Hill. 1809 Isaac Nichols becomes Sydney’s first postmaster. 1820s The whaling industry aids the growth of a large shipping industry. 1821 The first steamship arrives in Australia. 1836 The first Australian railway is built in Van Diemen’s Land and runs from Hobart to Port Arthur. It runs on wooden tracks and is pushed to the top of a hill by convicts who then jump on board to ride to the bottom of the hill. 1838 First overland mail service between Sydney and Melbourne. 1840 Australia’s first camel is imported from the Canary Islands. 1851 Gold is discovered in Victoria. 1854 Cobb and Co. begins its first stagecoach service in Victoria. First public steam train runs for four kilometres in Melbourne. 1855 First railway in New South Wales is opened. 1862 Cobb and Co. begins its service in New South Wales. 1866 Cobb and Co. starts a transport company in Queensland. 1885 Karl Benz invents the first petrol-driven car in Germany. 1920 Qantas airline is formally established. 1924 Cobb and Co. runs for the last time.

• The fi rst settlements originally depended on shipping as their main form of transport. There were few horses and bush tracks were hard to negotiate. Convicts usually moved and carried heavy loads. By 1800, the number of horses and cattle had multiplied and were used more extensively. Bullocks (bulls not used for reproduction) bred in Australia were very strong and, when harnessed together in teams, were able to pull large timber logs through rough bush tracks. Bullocks continued to be used even after railways became widely used. Draught horses gradually replaced bullocks as they were faster and became cheaper to feed.

• In the 1850s, Freeman Cobb, John Peck, James Swanton and John Lamber, who had come to fi nd gold, established Cobb and Co. using American-style stagecoaches. The company continued to transport mail and goods until it was fi nally replaced by motor vehicles in the 1920s. • Pages 46 to 49 should be used in conjunction with each other. Page 47

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Page 48

• Discuss each illustration and refer to page 47 to number the pictures correctly. Page 49 • Read the information with the students. Instruct them to count the number of letters in the words required to fi ll each space before writing them.

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• Explain that the year dates on the left-hand side relate to each piece of information on the right. Corresponding time indicator words have also been used to develop student understanding of historical chronology. Read and discuss the information with the students.

• Quiz questions relating to this section can be found on page 103.

Answers Page 48

G

C

A

R

S

O

O

D

S

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B

Refer to puzzle answer.

B

Further exploration

• Find out about the Overland Telegraph Line, which commenced in 1870.

• Find out more about the Burke and Wills expedition of 1860. • Investigate where steam trains or horse-drawn trams are used as tourist attractions.

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Early transport – 1

re s s

Read the information in the time line.

At first, the convicts had to carry heavy loads. Only six horses, four cows and two bulls came out with the First Fleet.

1820

1854

wagons and buggies.

Soon, teams of bullocks slowly pulled very heavy loads along rough roads and through the bush.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons After that, the first stagecoach •f o rr ev i ew pand Co., ur posesonl y• company, called Cobb carried passengers, mail and parcels from one place to another.

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1854

1861

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1800

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r o e t s Bo r e p ok u Sofficers and landowners used horses to pull carriages, Then

Teac he r

1788

Next, the nation’s first steam trains started to carry people and goods around Australia.

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o c . c e hervehicles weres r Later, carriage-like pulled along iron rails. These o t sup er were called horse-drawn trams. River steamboats carried loads from one port to the next.

1890

Finally, large numbers of steam trams carried people around the cities.

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Early transport – 2

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Use the text on page 47 to complete the following. 1. Write numbers from 1 to 6 to order the early forms of transport correctly.

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1. Find words in the text to complete the word puzzle. Cobb and Co. was the first transportation company in Australia. When gold was discovered in Victoria in 1851, many people wanted to get to and from the goldfields quickly. A man named Freeman Cobb, with other people from America, used stagecoaches to transport people, mail and goods around Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland. Cobb and Co. stopped transporting goods in 1924 because, by then, cars and railways were faster.

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Federation A new nation

Indicators • Reads and understands information about the Federation of Australia. • Designs an original Australian fl ag.

Worksheet information

Time line

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• The formation of the colonies in Australia happened at different times, with each developing its own defence forces, trade, postal and railway systems and immigration laws. These separate colonies were considered controlled by Britain, not Australia. • Read the text with the students and discuss how the colonies separated and developed independently. Students then look at the maps of Australia on their individual worksheets and use the information provided in the text to determine the chronological order of the maps. They label the fi rst map ‘1’, and subsequent maps ‘2’, ‘3’ and ‘4’.

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1851 Victoria separates from NSW to form its own colonial government. 1859 Queensland separates from NSW to form its own colonial government 1867 Sir Henry Parkes, the Colonial Secretary of New South Wales, proposes a federal council body. 1872 Telegraph links the colonies. 1890 The Australasian Federation Conference, including representatives from New Zealand, is held in Melbourne. 1891 National Australasian Convention is held in Sydney. Seven representatives are sent from each colony. 1897 National Australasian Convention meets. Each colony elects representatives to attend, except Queensland which doesn’t support Federation. 1899 Queensland votes to join the Commonwealth. 1900 A referendum is held and the people of Western Australia vote to join the Commonwealth. 1901 The Commonwealth of Australia is proclaimed in Sydney by Lord Hopetoun, the first Governor-General. Edmund Barton becomes the first Prime Minister of Australia. 1927 Commonwealth Parliament sits in Canberra in the provisional Parliament House (now called ‘Old Parliament House’). 1978 The Northern Territory is granted selfgovernment. 1988 Commonwealth Parliament moves to the new Parliament House in Canberra.

• On 1 January 1901, the six separate British colonies of New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria and Western Australia formed a federation called the Commonwealth of Australia.

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• The idea of being ‘Australian’ began to be celebrated in songs and poems during the 1800s, and, by the 1890s, the idea of Federation was becoming popular. However the path to Federation was not easy. A number of referendums were held before the event occurred on 1 January 1901.

• Read the text with the students. Discuss what ‘federation’ means and how it occurred in Australia. Discuss the way in which the new capital and fl ag were chosen for the new nation. Ask the students to imagine they were able to enter a contest and to create a name for the new capital, giving a reason why. Then ask each student to design a new fl ag (which was decided by competition). Ask them to think carefully about how the design should refl ect the nation it represents.

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• Explain the emergence of the two territories. 1911 – Northern Territory

– Australian Federal Territory (AFT)

1938 – the AFT is renamed the ACT.

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• Give each student a copy of the worksheet. After reading the text, the students complete the dot-to-dot to draw Australia. They then locate the capital city of each state, using the chart if necessary. To complete the worksheet, students colour the state or territory in which they live green.

o c . che e r o t r s super • Quiz questions relating to this section can be found on page 104.

Answers Page 51

(a) 4 (b) 3 (c) 1 (d) 2 Page 52–53

Teacher check

Further exploration • Read Possum magic by Mem Fox. On a large map of Australia, students can map the story after reading it. Buy some Minties™ and let each student have one when they ‘visit’ Melbourne, as the character Hush does in the book. • Students can write an imaginative text about how their lives might be different if their state or territory were a separate country.

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At first, most of Australia was named New South Wales (NSW) by the British who settled here. Then Tasmania (at first called Van Diemen’s Land) separated from NSW and formed its own colony. Later, the Swan River Colony became Western Australia. The settlement in South Australia became a separate colony next.

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join together and become one country called Australia.

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r o e t s Bo r e ok Then Victoria separatedp from New South Wales u and became a colony, as did Queensland a S few years later. These six colonies decided to

1. Look at the maps of the colonies of Australia. 2. Decide which map came first and put number 1 in the box 3. Number all the maps from oldest to newest, up to number 4.

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A federation is the joining of states to become one nation. On 1 January 1901, the six colonies joined to become the Commonwealth of Australia. Some people wanted Sydney to be the capital city of Australia, while others wanted Melbourne. To solve this it was decided that a new place be made the capital halfway between the two cities. This place was named Canberra. A new flag was also chosen. This was by a competition.

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r o e t s Bo r e p to name Australia’sonew If there had been au competition capital, what k would you haveS called it?

2. Write the reason you chose this name.

3. Draw an Australian flag to enter into the flag competition.

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The six colonies are now called states. Australia also has two territories, the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory. Each state and territory has a capital city.

Capital cities Australian Capital Territory: Canberra New South Wales: Sydney

r o e t 1. Join the dots to draw s B r o Queensland: Brisbane e Australia. p ok u South Australia: Adelaide 2. Write the capital city of each S state. Use the chart to help.

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Northern Territory: Darwin

3.

Victoria: Melbourne

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Tasmania: Hobart

Colour your state or territory green.

Western Australia: Perth

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Symbols of Federation A new nation Indicators • Reads and understands information about the national, state and territory fl ags of Australia. • Identifi es Australian fl ags and matches them with their correct states and territories.

Worksheet information

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Page 55

First flag of ‘Australia’ is the Union Jack. 1870

First Western Australian flag is adopted.

1875

• Students colour the Union Jack correctly using the colour picture, poster or fl ag as a reference. They then cut out the components of the Australian fl ag and glue them onto their piece of blue paper in the correct position to make an Australian fl ag.

Tasmanian flag is adopted.

1901

Commonwealth Government runs a federal flag design competition.

1904

South Australian flag is adopted.

1908

• This worksheet is a game that can be played by 2 to 3 players. Photocopy one sheet onto card for each group of players.

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The swan on the Western Australian flag is changed to face the other way.

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Aboriginal Australian flag is first displayed in Adelaide. Northern Territory flag is first flown. 1989

• For this activity you will need a colour image of the fl ag of your state or territory to display. The students will need to be able to see this fl ag as they complete the activity.

Page 57

1953

1978

• Pages 56 and 57 are used in conjunction with each other.

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Queensland and Victorian flags change after Queen Elizabeth II adopts the St Edwards Crown upon her coronation.

1971

Page 56

• Students identify the fl ag belonging to their state or territory and draw it in the box provided. They then colour the fl ag they have drawn appropriately.

Seventh point is added to the Commonwealth Star. 1953

• For this activity students will need a colour picture or poster of the Australian fl ag (for reference), scissors, glue, colouring pencils and a piece of dark blue paper (half A4 sheet).

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New South Wales adopts a flag very similar to the Victorian flag.

• The Australian National Flag features the fi ve stars of the Southern Cross constellation, the Commonwealth Star, and the combined crosses of St George, St Andrew and St Patrick (the Union Jack). The union of crosses represents Australia’s early settlers (the British). The Commonwealth Star, with its seven points, represents the six Australian states, with the seventh point standing for all Australian territories

• Quiz questions relating to this section can be found on page 104.

Further exploration

• Investigate the other fl ags used in Australia’s past, such as the Eureka fl ag.

• Research the symbols on your state’s or territory’s fl ag. Find out what they represent. Children can design a different state or territory fl ag that refl ects what they think.

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Australian Capital Territory attains selfgovernment. 1993

• Students cut out the fl ags and state, territory and country cards. They then place them face down on the table and mix them around. Using the fl ags on page 56 as a reference, the students take turns to turn two cards over, attempting to match a fl ag to its appropriate area. When a student makes a correct match, he/she keeps that pair of cards. The winner at the end is the student who has collected the most cards.

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• Students can investigate why the fl ags of the two territories do not contain the Union Jack present in the fl ags of the states. • Investigate symbols and why we use them. Focus on maps and create a map using symbols instead of words.

Flag for the Australian Capital Territory is adopted by the ACT Legislative Assembly. 1996 The Governor-General, Sir William Deane, proclaims 3 September as Australian National Flag Day, to commemorate the day our national flag was first flown.

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1. Colour the Union Jack.

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When Australia became a federation in 1901 a contest was held to find a new flag. Over 30 000 people entered, with five people winning with their very similar ideas. This final flag design included a Union Jack, showing Australia’s close ties with Britain. It had the Southern Cross, a group of five bright stars that can be seen in our skies. It also had a six-pointed star, called the Commonwealth Star, for the six colonies that made up Australia. Later, another point was added to this star to show Australia’s territories.

2. Cut out the parts of the Australian flag below. Try to cut as close to the lines as possible. 3. Glue them onto a piece of dark blue paper in the right places.

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The six states and two territories of Australia each has its own flag. The flags show pictures and colours that represent the special history, flowers or animals of the state or territory. 1. Look at the flags of the states and territories of Australia.

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2. Find the flag of your state or territory.

Australian Capital Territory

Northern Territory

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3. Draw and colour this flag in the box.

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New South Wales

Victoria

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Cut out all of the cards. Lie them face down and mix them up. Take turns to turn two cards over. If the flag matches the state or territory, keep the cards. The winner is the person with the most pairs.

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Emblems A new nation

Indicators • Understands what emblems are and why they are used. • Creates an image of Australia’s fl oral emblem using different art techniques.

Worksheet information

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• Emblems are used throughout the world to represent the ideas, history and characteristics of groups of people.

Archibald Campbell founds a wattle club in Victoria to promote the wattle as a patriotic symbol. The golden wattle is unofficially accepted as the national floral emblem to mark Federation.

1902

King Edward VII formally notifies the Australian Government of Britain’s approval of the Australian flag.

1908

First appearance of an emu on Australia’s Coat of Arms.

1953

Common (pink) heath is proclaimed the floral emblem of Victoria. 1962

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Tasmanian blue gum is pronounced floral emblem of Tasmania. 1912

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Prime Minister, Andrew Fisher, suggests the wattle surrounds the Commonwealth’s Coat of Arms. 1971

• Students draw the three emblems listed on the worksheet. They then refl ect on their family, deciding what image could best represent it, and drawing it as an emblem in the space provided. Family emblems could include images of their ancestry, activities they like to do together, their name etc. Page 60

• Each state and territory has a number of emblems. Most have a fl oral, faunal (animal), faunal (bird) and marine emblem. Tasmania has just one emblem, the Tasmanian blue gum.

• Students read the table of animal emblems for each state. They then use this information to draw a line from each state or territory to its animal emblem. They colour the animals when they have completed the fi rst task.

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Flags Act passes, requiring the Australian flag to be flown in a superior position to any other national flag. 1958

• Give each student a copy of the worksheet and read the text with them. Discuss the concept of emblems and ask students to suggest some emblems they know, such as the school emblem, emblems on cars, the emblem of the football team they support. If possible, display the Red Cross, Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) and Olympic emblems for the students to view.

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1901

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• Australia’s national fl oral emblem is the golden wattle (Acacia pycnantha). It is a resilient plant that represents the spirit of the Australian people and its colours when in bloom, are our national colours (green and yellow/gold). • For this activity you will need to prepare enough small squares of yellow crepe paper for the students to glue onto their wattle picture, or larger sheets for the students to cut up themselves. Students will need green pencils or crayons and glue. Copy one worksheet for each student, preferably onto white card. After colouring the branch and leaves green, the students crumple small pieces of yellow crepe paper and glue them onto the branches to make the wattle fl owers.

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• The branches can be cut out and collated to make a classroom display of a golden wattle. • Quiz questions relating to this section can be found on page 105.

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Leadbeater’s possum is proclaimed the faunal mammal emblem of Victoria and helmeted honeyeater proclaimed faunal bird emblem. Koala is pronounced faunal emblem of Queensland. 1988

Golden wattle is pronounced Australia’s floral emblem.

Further exploration

• Look at the botanical names of plants native to your local environment. The golden wattle’s offi cial name, pycnantha, is derived from the Greek words pycnos (meaning close, thick, crowded) and anthos (fl ower). • Find out where the emblems of Australia can be found (e.g. the golden wattle can be found on the Commonwealth’s coat of arms). • Look at emblems from other countries, such as the rooster from France and the silver fern from New Zealand. Research why these emblems were chosen and what they signify. • Find out what the fl oral, faunal and marine emblems of your state or territory are. • Go on an emblem ‘hunt’. Students see how many different emblems they can fi nd around the school during a certain time period.

1992 1 September is formally declared National Wattle Day.

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An emblem is a special picture or object used to represent a group of people, a country, a company or an idea. Most cars have an emblem that helps us recognise what make of car it is. Schools, companies and sports clubs have emblems that tell us something about who they are.

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r o e t s Bo r e Draw each emblem. p ok u S Red Cross

ABC TV Australia

The Olympic Rings

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2. Think about what is special or important to your family. Draw an emblem to represent your family.

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Each Australian state and territory has different emblems. These emblems show special animals and plants found in each state or territory. 1. Read the table below and use it to match the words to the pictures. Animal emblem r o e t s B r e oo Australian Capital Territory No animal emblem p u k New South Wales platypus S

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State

Northern Territory

red kangaroo

Queensland

koala

South Australia

hairy nosed wombat

Tasmania

Tasmanian devil (unofficial)

Victoria

Leadbeater’s possum

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Western Australia

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Most countries have emblems that show something special or unique about that country. The golden wattle is the floral emblem of Australia. When it is in flower, it shows our national colours, green and yellow. 1. Colour the branch and leaves of the golden wattle green.

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2. Scrunch up small pieces of yellow crepe paper into little balls and glue them onto the branch as flowers.

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World War I A new nation

Indicator • Reads and comprehends information about World War I.

Worksheet information

28 July: Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia. Russia, an ally of Serbia, mobilises its army in defence of Serbia.

• World War I (First World War) was to also called the Great War and the ‘War to end all wars’. It occurred between 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. (We commemorate the ceasefi re at the 11th hour on 11 November.) Although most of the confl ict took place in Europe, there was also fi ghting in Africa, the Middle East, China and the Pacifi c Islands. More than nine million soldiers and civilians died. One side of the confl ict (the Entente Powers) included the Russian Empire, France, the British Empire, Italy and the United States. The opposing side (the Central Powers) included Austria-Hungary, the German Empire, the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) and Bulgaria. There was confl ict in Europe, as the balance of power among nations shifted, even before the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand by a Bosnian-Serbian student.

1 August: Germany, an ally of AustriaHungary, declares war on Russia.

• The Western Front was the name given to a series of trenches that ran 700 kilometres from the Belgian coast to the Swiss border.

3 August: Germany declares war on France, an ally of Russia.

• Gallipoli Peninsula in Turkey was meant to be captured to enable the Allied Forces to control shipping, cutting Turkey off from Germany and Austria. The Gallipoli campaign was a disaster for the Anzacs and Allied Forces.

Time line

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4 August: Germany invades Belgium, a neutral country, to get to France quickly. Britain, an ally of France, declares war on Germany. As a consequence, Australia, Canada, India, New Zealand and the Union of South Africa (British colonies) are also at war.

• Red poppies were one of the fi rst plants to grow on some of the battlefi elds in France and Belgium after World War I. It was said that they were red because the blood of the soldiers who died there had seeped into the earth.

• For the purposes of this section and that on pages 66 to 69 (World War II), only a basic understanding of the concept of war is expected from the students. Other information is given to spark interest for future learning in later years.

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23 August: Japan (under a military agreement with Britain) declares war on Germany. Two days later, Austria-Hungary declares war on Japan. 1915

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28 June: Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife are assassinated in Sarajevo.

• Pages 63 to 65 should be used in conjunction with each other. Page 63

• Discuss why people fi ght and ways to resolve confl ict. Read the information with the students and discuss each section. Complete the colouring activities as directed. Page 64

23 May: Italy (which was previously aligned to both Germany and Austria-Hungary) joins the allied forces against Germany and Austria-Hungary.

Page 65

1917

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• Read and discuss the information with the students. Students will require red colour pencils to complete Question 2. • Quiz questions relating to this section can be found on page 105.

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6 April: Unites States of America enters the war when Germany’s unrestricted use of submarine warfare threatens American commercial shipping. 1918

• Read the information with the students and discuss each section. Students complete the worksheet as directed. Discuss students’ responses to Question 2.

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29 September: Bulgaria signs an armistice. 30 October: Ottoman Empire surrenders. 3 November: Austria and Hungary sign separate armistices. 11 November: Germany signs an armistice and a ceasefire comes into effect at 11 am.

Answers

Pages 63–64

Teacher check Page 65 1.

Australian and New Zealand Army Corps

2.

Teacher check

Further exploration • Compare pictures of Australian soldiers from World War I to present-day army personnel. Discuss similarities and differences. • List any other wars students may have heard of or read about. • Have students relate experiences of Anzac Day services.

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World War I (the First World War) was a military fight between many countries. It took place from 1914 to 1918. Most of the fighting happened in Europe. 1. Find and colour Europe on the map of the world.

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Asia

Africa

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South America

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and Turkey. Later, Italy and the United States helped Australia to fight and Russia stopped fighting. 2. Choose two different coloured pencils­—one for each group of countries that fought together. Find all the countries that fought together and colour each group.

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Countries such as Germany, Russia and Austria-Hungary wanted to be bigger, stronger and richer. Great Britain and France were worried about this.

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When Archduke Franz Ferdinand, who was going to rule Austria-Hungary, was shot and killed in 1914, the countries in Europe began to argue. Very soon after, World War I started as countries took sides to help each other. Colour and label the picture.

Hundreds of thousands of Australian soldiers fought in World War I. They often had to dig deep trenches to protect themselves when they fought.

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Write what you think about war.

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Colour the soldier’s uniform using brown coloured pencil.

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On 25 April 1915, Australian soldiers with troops from New Zealand, Britain and France tried to land on a beach at Gallipoli in Turkey. The beach had steep slopes above it so it was hard for the troops to land safely. The Turkish soldiers tried to stop them and many ANZAC troops were killed.

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war memorials.

1. Find words in the text to explain the meaning of the word ‘ANZAC’.

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r o e t s Bo r e pAustralians remember that many ok Every year on Anzacu Day, soldiers died at Anzac Cove and in other places and at S other times during different wars. They lay floral wreaths at

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World War II A new nation

Indicators • Reads and comprehends information about World War II. • Realises that there are different sources of information about historical events.

Time line

Worksheet information

• Over 60 million people were killed around the world during World War II. Tens of thousands of Australians were taken as prisoners of war and about 40 000 died.

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• Between World War I and World War II, Australia experienced a time of depression. World War II, the Second World War, lasted from 1939 to 1945. Major confl icts occurred in Europe and the Asia/Pacifi c regions. The two opposing sides were the Allies and the Axis. The Allies included the Soviet Union, United Kingdom, United States, China, France and other smaller countries. The Allied leaders included Joseph Stalin, Winston Churchill, Franklin Roosevelt, Chiang Kai-shek and Charles de Gaulle. The Axis included Germany, Japan, Italy and other smaller countries. Their leaders included Adolf Hitler, Emperor Hirohito and Benito Mussolini. Almost a million Australian troops served in both European and Pacifi c confl icts.

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1931 September: Japan invades Manchuria and takes it from China. 1939 1 September: Germany invades Poland. War in Europe commences. 3 September: Britain (Australia and New Zealand) and France declare war on Germany. 1940 10 June: Italy declares war on Britain and France. 22 June: France surrenders to Germany. 1941 22 June: Germany invades Soviet Union, which joins forces with Britain. 7 December: Japan attacks Pearl Harbour. Japan declares war on USA, Britain, New Zealand and Australia. 11 December: Germany and Italy declare war on the United States. 1942 19 February: First bombing raid on Darwin by Japan. 3 March: Broome, Western Australia, is bombed, killing 70 people and injuring 40 others. 31 May–1 June — Three midget submarines enter Sydney Harbour to destroy Allied ships. September: Australian forces hold back Japanese troops on the Kokoda Track in New Guinea. 1943 13 October: Italy declares war on Germany. 12 November: Final Japanese bombing raid on Darwin, with no casualties. 1944 6 June: D-Day—Allies land in Normandy. 1945 7 May: Germany capitulates. The war in Europe ends. 6 August: Atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima. 9 August: Atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki. 2 September: Japan surrenders in the Pacific.

• Pages 67–69 should be used in conjunction with each other. Page 67

• Discuss why people fi ght and the best ways to resolve confl ict. Read and discuss the information with the students. Ask questions such as: ‘What would happen if one country was allowed to go into another country and take it over?’ On a large world map, locate all the countries mentioned. Students will need two different colour pencils to complete the worksheet. Page 68

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Page 69

• Read and discuss the information with the students. Discuss the source of information and how facts are related in a newspaper report. Talk about what the pictures should be of and, if possible, show pictures of Japanese aircraft and midget submarines from World War II to assist. • Quiz questions relating to this section can be found on page 106.

Answers Page 67 Teacher check Page 68

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• Students complete the worksheet as directed with assistance where necessary. Discuss Question 3 before students complete their answer.

o c . che e r o t r s super 1. (a) 1939 and 1945

(b) Germany

(c) France

(d) many places in the world

2. (a) the Soviet Union, Britain, Australia, New Zealand, United States, France, China

(b) Germany, Japan, Italy.

3. Teacher check Page 69 Teacher check

Further exploration • Read about what life was like for Australian troops on the Kokoda Track in New Guinea. • Find out about machines that were used during World War II such as tanks and torpedoes.

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World War II – 1

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World War II (the Second World War) took place from 1939 to 1945. It started when Germany decided to take over Poland and other countries. Britain and France did not like this so they decided to try to stop Germany. Soon, many other countries were involved on both sides and there was fighting in many different parts of the world.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

There were two sides during World War II. One side included the Soviet Union (Russia), Britain (and its colonies Australia and New Zealand), the United States, France and China. On the other side were Germany, Japan and Italy. On the map of the world, draw lines from the names to each country.

Britain

Germany

Italy

United States

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Soviet Union

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France 2.

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China

Australia

United States

Japan

Choose two coloured pencils. Use one to colour all the countries that fought on one side. Use the other to colour all the countries that fought on the other side.

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67


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World War II – 2

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Use the information on page 67 to complete the following. 1. Circle the correct answer.

(a) World War II happened between:

1939 and 1945. r o e t s B r e oo (b) The country that wanted to take over Poland was: p u k S Australia. Germany. (c) Britain was a friend to:

Germany.

(d) During World War II, there was fighting in:

many places around the world. © R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons In each box, write the names of the other countries who fought on • orr ev i ew pur posesonl y• each side inf World War II.

2.

France.

only one place.

(a) Soviet Union

Britain (Australia)

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(b) Germany

United States

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2000 and 2008.

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3. Write a sentence to tell what you think about countries fighting. 68

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Read and draw pictures about two events which happened in Australia during World War II. Darwin Mercury newspaper

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

20 February 1942

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Teac he r

Yesterday at 9.58 am, the city of Darwin was bombed by a squadron of Japanese aircraft. Ships, aircraft and war supplies were destroyed. A second strike occurred at noon, damaging the city. Everyone was terrified and no-one knew what to do.

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Around 243 people are believed dead and hundreds are wounded.

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1 June 1942

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Sydney Daily Mail newspaper Last night, Sydney residents were terrified to learn that three Japanese midget submarines had entered Sydney Harbour.

o c . che e Luckily, one became tangled in a r o t r s supboom net before being sunk by the r e Japanese submarine commander.

The second submarine was fired upon in the harbour and escaped. The third submarine was sunk by depth charges. The wreckage will be brought up in two days. www.ricpublications.com.au

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Coming to Australia A new nation Indicators • Reads and comprehends information about immigration in Australia. • Surveys classmates to fi nd information about people’s backgrounds.

Worksheet information

Time line

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• Since fi rst settlement, the Australian population changed from being a total Aboriginal population to predominantly Anglo-Celtic by 1900. Today, there is a mix of 74% AngloCeltic, 19% other European and 4.5% Asian. Nearly one in four people are born overseas or have at least one parent who was born overseas.

Free settlers first arrive in Australia. 1820s

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1840s

Famine in Ireland results in many Irish migrants.

second half of the 19th century Afghani, Pakistani and Turkish camel handlers assist in the construction of telegraph and railway lines into the interior.

late 1800s

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Hungarian refugees immigrate due to unrest. 1968

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Page 72

• Explain the word ‘prospectors’ if necessary. Students may complete the questions unaided or as a class. Students will need colour pencils to complete Question 5.

Refugees from Chile immigrate following the overthrow of the Allende Government. 1975

• This activity may require students to collect some information from parents or grandparents before completion. Read and discuss the information with the students. This activity is intended to develop awareness of the multicultural nature of the Australian population. • Quiz questions relating to this section can be found on page 106.

Answers Page 72 1. (a) New Guinea

(b) Britain

2. China, Europe, United States 3. Pacifi c Islands

4. Netherlands, Britain, Ireland, Greece, Italy, Germany, Yugoslavia

o c . che e r o t r s super

Czech refugees immigrate due to unrest. 1973

• Read each section with the students, emphasising the dates. Explain the words ‘immigration’, ‘immigrants’ and ‘immigrate’. Discuss each section. Students are not expected to remember dates but only to understand that the changes took place over a long period of time, starting a long time before they were born. A world map to locate places mentioned in each section would be a useful resource to use with this page. Compare Australia’s position in relation to the countries identifi ed. Students in the class who have knowledge of the countries should be encouraged to relate them.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Immigration agreements exist with the UK, Malta, Netherlands, Italy, West Germany, Turkey, Yugoslavia, Austria, Greece, Spain, Belgium and the International Refugee Organisation in Europe. Assisted migrants come from UK, including ex-servicemen from Britain, United States, Netherlands, Norway, France, Belgium and Denmark. 1956

Page 71

Page 73

Japanese divers are important to the pearling industry.

post World War II

• Pages 71–73 should be used in conjunction with each other.

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The wool industry’s success encourages more British immigrants to arrive. Industrialisation in Britain causes unemployment so more people immigrate.

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• Australia prides itself on being a multicultural country. Currently, migrants originating from more than 185 countries immigrate to Australia.

5. Teacher check Page 73

Teacher check

Further exploration

Migrants from Indochina arrive after the Vietnam War. 1981 Martial law is declared in Poland. early 1990s

Mandatory detention of unauthorised arrivals of ‘boat people’ occurs. This is later relaxed.

• List things people from other countries have introduced into Australian culture. For example, foods, entertainment. • Discuss refugees. What are they? What do the students know about them? What are ‘boat people’? • Plan and hold a multicultural day where students dress in the traditional costumes of other countries and sample food from other countries.

mid-2007–mid-2008 A ban is announced on refugees from Africa.

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Coming to Australia – 1

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The word ‘immigrate’ means to come to a new country to live. Read the information on the time line about immigration.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S On 26 January, the First Fleet arrived from Britain

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Teac he r

About Aboriginal Australians crossed a land bridge from 60 000 New Guinea to Australia. years ago

carrying convicts from England, Ireland and other countries.

1788

1851

Many people from China, Europe and the United States came to find gold when the gold rush began.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ePeople w pfrom ur p osesonl y• the Pacific Islands came to work in

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1890s to 1950s

Some people wanted to stop immigrants from countries such as China from coming to live in Australia. They were worried that they might take their jobs.

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After World War II (1945)

1970s

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the sugar cane industry in Queensland. Many people did not like this.

1860s

o c . from Britain, Ireland, Greece, Italy, chePeople e r Germany, Yugoslavia, Netherlands and other o t r s s r u e p countries came to live in Australia. Many were

given help to come. They built things such as big dams.

Many Chinese and Vietnamese people settled in Australia.

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Coming to Australia – 2

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Use the information in the time line to complete the following. 1. The first two groups of immigrants (in order) were from:

(a)

(b)

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Teac he r

2. Where did the gold prospectors come from?

3. Where did the sugar cane workers come from?

4. Circle the names of all the countries where immigrants came from after World War II.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Fijif • orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Britain

Antarctica

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Netherlands

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Ireland

. t Japane

Greece

Italy

Germany

New Guinea

Yugoslavia

Africa

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Many Australian people have relatives who were born in another country. Complete the interview sheet for one classmate who has a parent, grandparent or great grandparent born in another country.

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What country were you born in?

What is your date of birth?

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r o e t s Bo r e p ok What is your full name? u S

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What country were your parents, grandparents or great grandparents born in?

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Why did they immigrate?

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What year did they immigrate to Australia?

o c . c e r What things do they h miss most e o t r s uper from the country where theys were born?

What things do they like about living in Australia?

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73


Our leaders

People and politics

Indicator • Reads and comprehends information about different types of leaders including the leaders of countries.

Worksheet information

Time line

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Governors/Administrators of New South Wales/Australia before Federation:

Captain Arthur Phillip Major Francis Grose Captain William Paterson Captain John Hunter Captain Philip Gidley King Captain William Bligh Major George Johnson Major Joseph Foveaux Colonel William Paterson Colonel Lachlan Macquarie Major-General Sir Thomas Makdougall Brisbane Lieutenant-Colonel William Stewart Lieutenant-General Ralph Darling Colonel Patrick Lindesay Major-General Sir Richard Bourke Lieutenant-Colonel Kenneth Snodgrass Sir George Gipps Sir Maurice Charles Philip O’Connell Sir Charles Augustus FitzRoy Sir William Thomas Denison Lieutenant-Colonel John Francis Kempt Sir John Young Major-General Sir Trevor Chute Sir Somerset Richard Lowry-Corry Sir Alfred Stephen Sir Hercules George Robert Robinson Sir Alfred Stephen Augustus William Frederick Spencer Loftus Sir Alfred Stephen Charles Robert Wynn-Carrington Sir Alfred Stephen Albert George Child-Villiers Hon. Sir Frederick Matthew Darley Rt Hon. Sir Robert William Duff Hon. Sir Frederick Matthew Darley Rt Hon. Henry Robert Brand Hon. Sir Frederick Matthew Darley Rt Hon. William Lygon First Prime Minister, Sir Edmund Barton, appointed

Teac he r 1825 —

1825–1831 1831 1831–1837 1837–1838

— — — —

1838–1846 — 1846 — 1846���1847 — 1847–1861 — 1861 — — — — — —

1879 — 1879–1885 — 1885 1885–1890 1890–1891 1891–1893 1893 1893–1895 1895 1895–1899 1899 1899–1901 1901

74

— — — — — — — — — — —

• Pages 75–77 should be used in conjunction with each other. Page 75

• Read the information at the top of the worksheet with the students and discuss examples of leaders who guide, rule or inspire and examples of different groups who have leaders. Read the instructions, words and sentences. Students may wish to use a dictionary to fi nd the meanings of unfamiliar words. • Discuss Question 2 before completing. Page 76

• Revise the words, if necessary, and discuss them in relation to the concept of leadership. Complete the worksheet as a class or individually. Question 2 introduces leaders in the community.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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1861–1867 1867–1868 1868–1872 1872 1872–1879

• The governors and administrators of Australia during its early days almost always came from the army or navy or were retired offi cers. They were the Crown’s representative of Britain. Before Federation, Governor-Generals were the leaders of the country. This role declined in importance after Federation once Prime Ministers were elected. After 1926, the tenure of a Governor-General depended on advice from the Australian Prime Minister. The Governor-General was no longer the diplomatic representative of the British Government and British supervision over Australian affairs was abolished.

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Primary Australian history

Page 77

• Some homework may be needed to complete Questions 2 and 3. Read and discuss the information with the students. Students complete Question 1 independently and the remainder as a class. • Quiz questions relating to this section can be found on page 107.

Answers

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1788–1792 1792–1794 1794–1795 1795–1800 1800–1806 1806–1808 1808 1808–1809 1809 1810–1821 1821–1825

• This section is an introduction to people in politics discussed in later books in the series. The later sections deal with leaders such as prime ministers or people who have infl uenced Australia throughout its history.

Pages 75 1.

(a)

coach

(b) captain

(c)

chief

(d) guide

(e)

principal

(f)

conductor

1.

c

h

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i

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Teacher check

1.

Refer to crossword answer.

2.

(a)

city/town council

(b)

mayor/lord mayor

(a)

Prime minister

2.

p

(b)

5.

President

c

2.–3. Teacher check

Further exploration

6.

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4.

Page 77

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• Find out about the current Prime Minister of Australia. Where does he live? What does he do?

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3.

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a

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People a

Our leaders – 1

nd po

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s

A leader is a person who leads, guides, rules or inspires others. Many different groups have leaders. 1.

Answer the ‘What leader am I?’ questions using names from the below box.

r o conductor guide principal e t s B r e oo p u I lead and train k S sportspeople for games and competitions.

captain

.

I am a

chief

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(a)

coach

(b) I lead a team, club or side, or people in the army or navy. .

I am a

(c) I lead a tribe or clan.

. © R . I . C . P u b l i c a t i o n s I lead travellers, tourist or mountain climbers. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• I am a

(d)

.

I am a

.

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I am a

(f)

I lead the people on a bus or in an orchestra or choir.

. . t e about the leaders at your house. Howco Write or draw do they lead? . che e r o r st super I am a

2.

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(e) I lead teachers and other people in a school or college.

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People a

Our leaders – 2 1.

nd po

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s

Use the words below to complete the crossword about leaders. parents guide captain leader principal conductor chief

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3.

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1.

4.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 5.

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Across 1. 2. 5. 6.

a leader of a tribe a leader of a school a leader of a sporting team a leader of a tourist group

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Down 1.

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6.

a person who leads an orchestra leaders at home a person who leads, guides, rules or inspires others

o c . che e r o t r s s r u e p Complete the sentences.

2.

3. 4.

(a) The people who look after a town or city are called . (b) The leader of the town or city council is usually called the . 76

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People a

Our leaders – 3

nd po

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s

Countries have leaders. They are the leaders of the government. The leaders decide what to do to keep everything working in the country. They usually have many other people helping them.

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1. Match the government leader to the country.

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Teac he r

The leader of the government of a country is usually a president or a prime minister. The leader of the government of the United States of America is called a president. The leader of the government of Australia is called a prime minister.

(a) Australia

• president

(b) United States of America

• prime minister

2. Find out and write the correct names to complete the sentences. (a)

(c) The name of the leader of Australia is

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3. Find, cut out and paste a picture of the Prime Minister of Australia.

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons The name of the leader of the United States is •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

.

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Australian inventions Modern Australia

Indicators • Understands that many useful items have been invented by Australians throughout our history. • Creates a model of own invention using a variety of materials.

Time line

Worksheet information

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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Page 79

• Give each student a copy of the worksheet and read the text with them. Explain the concept of an invention and ensure they understand what inventions are. • On the board, start a list of Australian inventions, initially using the ones mentioned in the text. Ask the students if they know of any other things invented in Australia. • For this activity students will need scissors and glue. Students complete the worksheet by reading the descriptions of the Australian inventions in the boxes, then cutting out the pictures and gluing them above the correct description.

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1856 The first mechanical refrigeration plant is built by James Harrison to cool beer. 1868 Granny Smith apple is first grown by Maria Anne Smith in Sydney. 1885 Nineteen-year-old Hugh McKay invents the combine harvester. 1889 The electric drill is patented by Melbourne inventor Arthur James Arnot. 1934 The utility vehicle (the ‘ute’) is designed by Lewis Brandt at the Ford Motor Company. 1946 The Hills™ Rotary Hoist is invented. 1956 The rolling overhead metal garage door is first produced by B&D. 1958 The ‘black box’ flight recorder is invented in Melbourne. 1960 The world’s first plastic spectacle lenses are designed in Australia. 1962 Snake antivenene, capable of counteracting the poison of most Australian snakes, is developed by the CSIRO. 1963 Aerogard™ insect repellent ingredients are invented by the entomologist Dr Doug Waterhouse at the CSIRO. 1972 The orbital internal combustion engine is developed by Ralph Sarich in Perth, WA. 1973 Australians develop the Presto ‘pop-top’ can. 1977 Australian scientists develop the world’s first system for storing solar energy on a mass scale. 1979 The bionic ear is developed by researchers in Melbourne.

Page 80

• For this activity students will need scissors, magazines and newspapers and glue.

• Review your list of Australian inventions. Ask students to add things to the list using the examples at the bottom of the worksheet, if necessary. • Students complete the worksheet by cutting pictures of items invented in Australia and gluing them into the back of the ute. Page 81

• Ask students if there is something that they have ever needed or wanted to use that doesn’t exist yet. This could be something for the kitchen, a new kind of toy, a new form of transport, or even a type of machine. Ask for suggestions, encouraging the students to be creative.

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• Quiz questions relating to this section can be found on page 107.

Answers Page 79

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• Students then conceive their own invention and use a variety of materials to create a model of this invention, using glue, tape and any other necessary craft items to construct it. When they have fi nished, they can draw a picture of their invention, then name it and write what its use is at the bottom of the page.

Fresh or cooked, I taste great: Granny Smith apple; I keep your food and drinks cool during a picnic!: Esky™; I help keep babies safe in the car!: baby car capsule; I help keep your lawn looking tidy!: Victa™ lawnmower.

o c . che e r o t r s super Pages 80–81

Teacher check

Further exploration

• Students can judge each other’s inventions (page 81) based on how creative and useful the invention is. • Students can write a narrative on what their life might be like without the things that have been invented by Australians. • Investigate other important inventions. Students can rate these according to how important they think each one is. • Research famous inventors world wide, such as Thomas Edison and the Wright brothers. Go to <http://www.kidcyber.com.au/topics/inventorA-Z.htm> for a list of inventions and inventors. • Students can select an item they fi nd most useful and research on the Internet when it was invented and by whom. • Medical inventions have greatly improved our health and longevity. Research medical inventions and how they keep us healthy.

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M od ern

Australian inventions – 1

Aust

r a li a

An invention is something new that no-one has thought of or made before. Many of the things we have today were invented by Australians. Vegemite™, Australian Rules football, car radios, baby car capsules and solar hot-water systems are just some of the things invented by Australians. Our lives would be very different without these inventions.

Teac he r

and glue them in the right place. Fresh or cooked, I taste great!

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r o e t s Bo r e p ok u Cut the picturesS of the Australian inventions from the bottom of the page I keep your food and drinks cool during a picnic!

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I help keep your lawn looking tidy!

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I help keep babies safe in the car!

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Australian inventions include the Esky™, Victa™ lawnmower, roller garage door, Speedo™ swimwear, dual-flush toilet, Kiwi™ shoe polish, plastic banknotes, Australian crawl (freestyle) swimming stroke and plastic lenses for eyeglasses.

2.

1.

Teac Use magazines and newspapers to find pictures of he Australian inventions. r Cut them out and glue them into the back of the ute.

Australian inventions – 2 © R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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M od ern Aust

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Australian inventions – 3

M od ern

Aust

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My own invention 1. Use recycled materials (e.g. cereal boxes, egg cartons), paper, card and any other materials you can find to create a new invention.

r o e t s B r e oo Fill in the details about your invention at the bottom of the page. p u k S

2. Draw a picture of your invention in the box below.

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My invention is called What my invention does:

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Aboriginal Australians today Modern Australia Indicator • Reads and comprehends information about Aboriginal Australians today.

Worksheet information

1962

Time line

Indigenous Australians in Queensland gain the right to vote. 1967 Aboriginal Australians gain the right to be counted in the census. 1968

Lionel Rose defeats Masahiko Harada to become the world bantamweight champion. 1971 Neville Bonner becomes the first Aboriginal Australian to become a member of parliament. 1985

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Indigenous Australians gain the right to vote in all states except Queensland. 1965

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• European and Indigenous Australian cultures were in conflict from the first days of white settlement. There was little understanding of each other and injustices occurred on both sides. In recent years, efforts have been undertaken to return land to traditional owners and to rebuild Indigenous cultural heritage. Despite this, Indigenous Australians are considered a disadvantaged group. Many are poor and literacy levels are not as high as the rest of the population. Life expectancy is lower than non-Aboriginal Australians. More Aboriginal children die in infancy compared to non-Aboriginal Australians. A high percentage suffer from eye disease. Aboriginals are over three times more likely to be unemployed than non-Aboriginal Australians. There are problems with alcohol and violence. The Stolen Generation is still finding out about its origins. • Pages 83–85 should be used in conjunction with each other. Page 83

• The information given has been presented as fictional primary sources. Read and discuss the information and the pictures with the students. Use different colour pencils to highlight or underline information about food, clothing and shelter. Page 84

• Explain the instructions and emphasise that only words and phrases (not full sentences) are required to answer Question 1. Complete the worksheet as a class, if desired. Page 85

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Arthur Beetson is recognised at the National Aboriginal Sports Awards for his contribution to sport. 1992

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Mabo decision handed down, establishing native title and voiding terra nullius. 1996 Wik decision handed down by the High Court, stating that native title could exist in conjunction with pastoral leases.

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• Read and discuss the information with the students. Allow students to relate additional knowledge of the people mentioned. Students complete the worksheet as directed. • Quiz questions relating to this section can be found on page 108.

Answers Pages 83

Teacher check Page 84 1.

Teacher check

2.

All boxes should be ticked.

Page 85

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Government grants freehold title of areas of central Australia, which includes Uluru and Kata Tjuta, to the Mutitjulu people. 1991

(a)

Cathy Freeman

(b)

Ernie Dingo

Nova Peris-Kneebone wins an Olympic gold medal as a member of the women’s field hockey team in Atlanta. 1997

(c)

Aden Ridgeway

(d)

Sally Morgan

Cathy Freeman becomes the first Indigenous Australian and first Australian woman to win a gold medal at the World Championships in Athletics in Athens. 1998

• Find pictures and information about the other well-known Aboriginal Australians mentioned on page 85 for a simple report.

Cathy Freeman is named Australian of the Year. 2008

• Listen to music by Yothu Yindi, Troy Cassor-Daley or Christine Anu or view artworks by Sally Morgan or Albert Namatjira.

o c . che e r o t r s super Further exploration

• Discuss NAIDOC Week and the celebrations held or attended.

• Invite an Aboriginal dance or music group to perform for the school.

Federal Parliament offers an official apology to the ‘stolen generations’ on behalf of the Australian Government.

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Aboriginal Australians today – 1

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Before the white men came, life was very different.

We wandered this land as we pleased, hunting kangaroos and emus, gathering seeds and fruit or catching fish.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

We built our shelters wherever and whenever we needed protection from the weather.

Teac he r

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We wore possum- and kangaroo-skin cloaks when it was cold and very few clothes when it was warm.

But the white men came with sickness and disease that killed so many. They took away our traditional land and destroyed our sacred sites to make farms and build their homes.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

They took away our children and broke up families. They tried to make us more like them. They didn’t understand our way of life at all!

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My home in the city is not fancy, but it’s the best we’ve got. School isn’t much fun because some white kids still pick on us. It’s hard learning to read and write like them. I see lots of families with dads and mums out of work. They can’t buy new jeans or T-shirts when the old ones wear out. They don’t get to buy takeaway very much either. I see many people die even though they are too young.

o c . che e r o t r s super I’d rather live with my cousins in the Outback. They can hunt for kangaroo with the old people and learn about bush food.

They hear their own language and stories from the elders. They see the women paint their traditional art and hear the music of the land. Here, in the city, it’s easy to forget the land and the old ways. www.ricpublications.com.au

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83


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Aboriginal Australians today – 2

Aust

r a li a

Use the information on page 83 to answer the questions. 1. Write words for each part of the table.

Teac he r

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Today

Shelter

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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2.

Clothing

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Before white settlement

Food

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o c . che e r o t r s super Tick the things that happened to Aboriginal Australians after white settlement.

(a) traditional land lost...........

(b) sacred sites destroyed...........

(c) families separated............

(d) diseases and sickness...........

(e) way of life lost..................

(f) Aboriginal Australians killed.....

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Aboriginal Australians today – 3

Aust

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Many Aboriginal Australians are well-known and highly respected across Australia and the world. Well-known Aboriginal sportspeople include Evonne Goolagong Cawley (tennis), Lionel Rose (boxing), Arthur Beetson (rugby league), Mark, Glen and Gary Ella (rugby union), Nova Peris-Kneebone (hockey and athletics) and Cathy Freeman (athletics).

Teac he r

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r o e t s Bo r e p o u kNeville Bonner was Aden Ridgeway was a senator and leader in the government. S the first Aboriginal senator. Sally Morgan and Albert Namatjira are well-known artists. Yothu Yindi is a popular Aboriginal music group. Christine Anu is a singer, dancer and actor with parents from the Torres Strait Islands. Troy Cassar-Daley is a well-known country singer. Ernie Dingo and Aaron Pederson are well-known actors.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Write the names of each of these well-known Aboriginal Australian people then colour the pictures.

(a) C

. te F o D (b) E c . che e r o t r s super

(c) A www.ricpublications.com.au

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M Primary Australian history

85


Famous Australians Modern Australia

Indicators • Reads and understands information about May Gibbs and Norman Lindsay. • Creates an original fi ctional character from Australian fl ora or fauna.

Worksheet information

Time line

1877

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

• The magic pudding by Norman Lindsay and Snugglepot and Cuddlepie by May Gibbs are two classic Australian children’s books published at around the same time. Both books draw on the Australian bush (fl ora and fauna) for inspiration.

Cecilia May Gibbs is born in Surrey, England. 1879 1881

May Gibbs moves to South Australia with her parents.

1885

The Gibbs family moves again to a farm property in Harvey, Western Australia. May Gibbs’s work is published for the first time, in the Christmas edition of the WA Bulletin.

Page 88

• Give each student a copy of the worksheet. Students use the words in the box from the text on page 87 to fi ll in the correct missing words.

• Students complete the worksheet by fi lling in the missing letter from the words on the left and matching them to the correct picture on the right. Students draw a line from the word to the picture.

• Show the students a picture of Bunyip Bluegum, Sam Sawnoff or some of May Gibbs’ characters. Comment on how the artists used native fauna or fl ora to create characters by adding human features or clothing.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Norman Lindsay and his brother, Lionel, join the Bulletin, a weekly newspaper, magazine and review. 1901 to 1904

May Gibbs studies art in England at the Cope and Nichol school.

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Gibbs’ first book about the gumnut babies, called ‘The gumnut babies’, is published.

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Seventeen thousand copies of Snugglepot and Cuddlepie are sold on its first release. Norman Lindsay dies.

• Quiz questions relating to this section can be found on page 108.

Answers Page 88 1.

(i)

Cuddlepie

(iv) pudding

2.

gumnut, koala, penguin, horse

Page 89

(ii)

koala

(iii)

(v)

Australia

bush

o c . che e r o t r s super

The magic pudding, by Lindsay Norman, is published.

1969

• Students use an Australian animal or plant to create a story character. They can use one of those provided on the page or any other Australian plant or animal. They draw their character in the box provided and then on a separate sheet of lined paper, write a story about their character.

m . u

1901

1918

• Give each student a copy of the worksheet. Read the text through with the students. Answer any questions they might have. If possible, show them some images from the works of May Gibbs and/or Norman Lindsay.

Page 89

1889

1916

• Pages 87 to 89 are used in conjunction with each other.

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Norman Lindsay is born in Creswick, Victoria.

Page 87

1970 Lindsay’s autobiography, My mask, is published posthumously. 2002

Teacher check

Further exploration

• Norman Lindsay’s other work mostly involves nudes, so it would not be appropriate for students to research his life on the Internet. However, May Gibbs’ childhood and life are suitable for students to research. • Find other Australian authors or illustrators that use the Australian bush as their inspiration for characters (such as Mem Fox). • Read The magic pudding and Snugglepot and Cuddlepie. Compare and contrast the two stories. • After reading the books, do a word study on some of the words that were common at the time the books were written but may not be now, such as ‘splendid’, ‘countenances’ and ‘writing on a slate’.

Lindsay’s oil painting, ‘Spring’s innocence’, is sold to the National Gallery of Victoria for $ 333 900.

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M od ern

Famous Australians – 1

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r a li a

May Gibbs and Norman Lindsay were both Australian artists and authors. They were among the first authors to use Australian plants and animals in their children’s stories.

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

May Gibbs came to Australia when she was four years old. She liked exploring the countryside on her horse, Brownie. She wrote about and made paintings of the things she saw in the bush. Later, May wrote stories about Snugglepot and Cuddlepie, two gumnut babies. She also wrote the stories and drew the pictures for the books Flower babies and Wattleblossom babies. Her characters and art were inspired by Australian trees and flowers.

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Norman Lindsay was born in Australia. He was one of 10 children. From a young age he liked to draw and paint, and he grew up to be a famous artist. He also wrote and illustrated a book called The magic pudding. In this story, Bunyip Bluegum, a koala who wears a hat, clothes and shoes, sets out to see the world. He meets Sam Sawnoff (a penguin), Bill Barnacle (a man with a long, white beard) and their grumpy pudding, Albert. Albert tastes like different foods and can be eaten, but he never gets any smaller!

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87


M od ern

Famous Australians – 2 1.

Aust

r a li a

Use the words in the box to fill in the spaces. bush (i)

koala

pudding

Australia

was written by May Gibbs. r o e t s B r e o p ok named Norman Lindsayu wrote about a Bunyip Bluegum. S Snugglepot and

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

(ii)

Cuddlepie

(iii) May Gibbs drew pictures about the Australian (iv) Albert is a magic

.

.

(v) Norman Lindsay was born in 2.

Fill in the missing letters. Join the words to their pictures.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• t

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ala

pengui

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gumn

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orse

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M od ern

Famous Australians – 3

Aust

r a li a

Both May Gibbs and Norman Lindsay drew the characters for their stories from animals or plants of the Australian bush.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

1. Use an Australian animal or plant, like the ones pictured here, to draw your own storybook character.

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

2. On a separate sheet of paper, write an Australian adventure for your character. www.ricpublications.com.au

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89


Australia and sport Modern Australia

Indicator • Understands sports are an important part of modern Australian culture.

Worksheet information

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Page 91

• Fanny Durack struggled to be allowed to represent Australia in her sport, swimming. Her story is one of determination and she eventually made it to the Olympics to become Australia’s fi rst female competitor and gold medal winner. Since the early 1900s Australian swimmers have been keen to prove themselves internationally.

The first recorded game of rugby in Australia.

First game of Australian Rules football is played.

1861

First running of the Melbourne Cup.

First modern Olympic Games.

• Students complete the worksheet by drawing a picture of themselves on the surfboard and then writing two things they could do to keep themselves safe while surfi ng. • Quiz questions relating to this section can be found on page 109.

Duke Kahanamoku shows Australians surfing for the first time.

1927

Answers Page 91

Picture 1: Jodie Henry

National organisation for netball formed.

1956

Picture 2: Liesel Jones Picture 3: Grant Hackett

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Dawn Fraser wins gold at the Melbourne Olympic Games.

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Jodie Henry is born in Brisbane.

1985

Page 92 Picture 1: Mark Viduka, soccer Picture 2: Lleyton Hewitt, tennis Picture 3: Liz Ellis, netball

o c . che e r o t r s super

The National Basketball League is formed.

Picture 4: Ricky Ponting, cricket Page 93

Teacher check

Further exploration

Leisel Jones is born in the Northern Territory.

• Read about Fanny Durack and the diffi culties she had getting to the Olympic Games. Investigate gender discrimination in Australian society in the early 1900s. • Conduct a survey of favourite sports in the class.

2000 Grant Hackett wins gold in 1500 m and 4 x 200 m freestyle.

• Order different-sized balls from smallest to largest. • Do a direct observational drawing of a sports shoe. • Look at fl oatation and how surfboards work.

2004 Grant Hackett, Leisel Jones and Jodie Henry win gold medals at the Athens Olympics.

90

• Discuss surfi ng with the students, asking them if they have tried it or boogie boarding.

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Fanny Durack wins a gold medal at the Stockholm Olympics.

1983

• Ball sports are popular in Australia and we have many successful international sportspeople in this area. The students may or may not be able to recognise the famous sportspeople on this worksheet.

Page 93

1912

1978

Page 92

• Students match the balls with the famous sportspeople. They can use the sports uniforms and equipment as clues to help them. Students draw a line from the ball to the sportsperson.

1896

1915

• Students read the short texts about each of the three Australian Olympic swimmers. They use the information to determine the identity of each swimmer and write the correct name below the picture.

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Teac he r

1858

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1839

Time line

Primary Australian history

• Make a list of sports the students know.

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Australia and sport – 1

M od ern

Aust

r a li a

The first Australian woman to compete in the Olympic Games was swimmer Sarah (Fanny) Durack, who won a gold medal in the 100 metres freestyle at the 1912 Olympics. Australians have always enjoyed and excelled at swimming. Many of Australia’s great athletes have been swimmers and today there are many successful swimmers competing for Australia.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u Read the clues S to help work out the names of these famous Australian swimmers. Write their names under the right picture. Leisel Jones won two silver medals at the Sydney 2000 Olympics and one gold, one silver and one bronze medal at Athens in 2004. Leisel enjoys reading and photography in her free time.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Grant Hackett won two gold medals at the 2000 Olympics, a gold medal and two silver medals in 2004, and seven Commonwealth Games medals including four gold. As well as swimming, Grant enjoys playing the guitar and motor racing.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Jodie Henry won three gold medals at the 2004 Athens Olympic Games and also set three world records. She enjoys going to the beach and being on her boat.

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91


M od ern

Australia and sport – 2

Aust

r a li a

People from all over the world who then came to live in Australia brought with them the sports from their countries. Now, nearly every ball sport in the world is played in Australia. Cricket, netball, soccer, rugby, Australian Rules and tennis are all popular sports here. Australians of all ages play sport in their free time and many players hope to join national teams and represent Australia.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

1. Draw a line from the famous sportspeople to the ball of the sport they play.

ew i ev Pr

Mark Viduka

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Lleyton Hewett •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super Liz Ellis

Ricky Ponting

2. Write which sport you would like to play for Australia and why. 92

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M od ern

Australia and sport – 3

Aust

r a li a

An Hawaiian man named Duke Kahanamoku first showed Australians how to surf in 1915. Since then, surfing has become a very popular sport in Australia. Australia has had many world surfing champions, including great surfers like Layne Beachley, Mark Richards and Mick Fanning. Surfing clothes, movies, music and slang are all part of Australian culture.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

1.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u Draw a design Sor pattern on the surfboard.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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www.ricpublications.com.au

m . u

2. Draw yourself surfing or boogie boarding.

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93


Yesterday, today and tomorrow Modern Australia

Indicator • Reads and comprehends information about life in Australia in the recent past, the present and the future.

Time line

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

• ‘History’ explores past events up to the present day. All events recorded or preserved can be considered as historical records. This section provides opportunities to record simple historical data.

Sydney holds the Summer Olympics

2001

X-Box™ is invented.

John Howard is re-elected as Prime Minister after the Tampa crisis and ‘children overboard affair’ occur as part of a crackdown on illegal immigration.

2002

12 October: Bombs explode in a Bali nightclub, killing 202 people, including 88 Australians.

2003

• Students will require scissors and colour pencils for this activity. Some students may wish to collect relevant information at home from parents before completing the booklet. Read and explain the instructions to the students and, if necessary, complete a time line booklet as a class about school or class activities which have occurred so far during the year. Page 96

• Explain what a time capsule is and what it is used for. Discuss what things would tell people in the future what life is like in Australia today. Make a list and add or delete objects until satisfi ed. Students complete the worksheet as directed. Page 97

A bomb explodes outside the Australian embassy in Jakarta.

John Howard wins his fourth term in office.

2005

• Read stories about the future such as The giving tree by Shel Silverstein, Look-alikes by Joan Steiner or Cloudy with a chance of meatballs by Judi Barrett. Enlarge the worksheet to A3 size, if desired. Read and discuss the instructions before the students complete the booklet. Selected students may like to share their booklets with the class. • Quiz questions relating to this section can be found on page 109.

Further exploration

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Racial riots occur in the Sydney beachside suburb of Cronulla. 16 February: Kyoto Protocol comes into force.

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29 August: Hurricane Katrina kills many people in the United States.

2006

Page 95

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Australian military is deployed to participate in the Iraq War.

2004

• Pages 95–97 should be used in conjunction with each other.

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Teac he r

11 September: Terrorist attacks occur in New York.

• Young children may not remember distant past events. Their lives mostly centre around the present, recent past or immediate future. Long-term concepts about time can be diffi cult for them to understand.

Commonwealth Games are held in Melbourne.

2007 1 March: International Year of Polar Regions launched.

• Find out what is being done to preserve the environment for the future.

m . u

2000

Worksheet information

• Investigate ways students and their families are conserving water and electricity and list ways the class can help at school. • Find out about animals which are endangered and what is being done to prevent their extinction.

o c . che e r o t r s super

31 March: Sydney turns off its lights for one hour between 7.30 pm and 8.30 pm as a political statement for global climate change. September: Buddhist monks protest against the government of Myanmar (Burma). November: Kevin Rudd is elected Prime Minister.

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Yesterday, today and tomorrow – 1

Aust

r a li a

Yesterday

fold line

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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Teac he r

Make a time line of five important events in your life. Write the events in order from top to bottom on the right-hand side. Draw pictures to illustrate each event on the left-hand side. The first one has been done for you. Cut and fold the time line and then write the dates for the sections on the cover.

I was born.

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o c . che e r o t r s super fold line

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95


M od ern

Yesterday, today and tomorrow – 2

Aust

r a li a

Today Write information to place in a time capsule for children of the future to read about your life today.

Date:

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Teac he r

Full name:

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Address: Class:

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Favourite music: •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Favourite clothes:

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Recent world news event:

o c . che e r o t Favourite fictional character:r s super Favourite book:

Favourite toy or game: Favourite magazine:

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M od ern

Yesterday, today and tomorrow – 3

Aust

r a li a

Tomorrow We don’t know what life will be like in the future … but we can imagine.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S .

I will lenjoy

I will live in a

.

www.ricpublications.com.au

m . u

.

o c . che e r o t r s super I will wear

My life in Australia in the future

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I will eat

.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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I will travel in a

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Teac he . r

Complete the booklet about the future by writing, drawing, cutting and stapling.

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The first Australians

Quiz questions

pages 2–5

Choose the correct answers. 1. The first people arrived in Australia:

(a) two years ago

(b) a few weeks ago

(c) a long time ago

r o e t s Bo r e (a) big houses (b) simple shelters (c) stone cottages p ok u Aboriginal Australians men used boomerangs that were: S

3.

(a) all the same

(b) different

(c) made of plastic

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Teac he r

2. Aboriginal Australians built:

4. The first Australians wore:

(a) woollen jackets

(b) jeans and T-shirts

(c) simple clothes made from animal skins

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons born igil ny •f orr evi ew pur posesAo al Au• str a

Quiz questions

Choose the correct answers.

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1. Yowies are:

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(a) friendly

(b) hairy

3.

(a) houses

(c) culture and achievements

s

(c) able to fly

o c . ch(b)esmile (a) thoughts (c) insides e r o t r s super NAIDOC Week celebrates Indigenous:

2. X-ray art shows an animal’s:

li a n

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pages 6–9

(b) kids

4. NAIDOC Week is the first week in: 98

(a) July Primary Australian history

(b) April

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W h y th e c

Quiz questions

ro c od

pages 10–13

il e r o

ll s

Choose the correct answers. 1. Crocodiles roll because it helps them to:

(a) drown their prey

(b) dance

(c) stay cool

2. Crocodiles also roll to: 3.

4. Min-na-wee liked to:

(a) cause trouble

(b) do magic tricks (c) tell jokes

5. The evil spirit turned Min-na-wee into a:

(a) galah

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Teac he r

(b) t break off small chunks of food to swallow r o e s Bo r e Min-na-wee was: p o u (a) happy and pretty (b) unhappy and scaly k S (c) silly and sweet

(a) show off

(b) kangaroo

(c) crocodile

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Red w ar pages 14–17

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Choose the correct answers. pigeons in the story. 1. There were (a) two (b) three (c) 2. Wonga pigeons mate for: (a) a year (b) six months (c) 3. The pigeon who lost its mate was: (a) male (b) female 4. The female pigeon was wounded by a: (a) fox (b) dog (c) 5. The female pigeon was: (a) bleeding (b) itching (c) 6. Most waratahs now are: (a) white (b) yellow (c)

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at a h

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Quiz questions

four

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hawk crying red Primary Australian history

99


Ex pl o r in

Quiz questions

pages 18–21

g Aus

tr a li

a

Choose the correct answers. 1. Most of the explorers who visted Australia were from:

(a) China

(b) America

(c) Europe

r o e t s Bo r e p(b) New South Wales (c) ok (a) New Land Australia u Captain CookS discovered parts of Australia on his ship:

2. Captain Cook first called the east coast of the country:

(a) Endeavour

(b) Eclipse

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3.

Teac he r

(c) Elephant

4. Tasmania is named after:

(a) James Cook

(b) Abel Tasman

(c) Nicholas Baudin

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Ty •f orr evi ew pur posesonl he F• ir st

Quiz questions

Fl e e

t

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Choose the correct answers. 1. The captain of the First Fleet was: 2.

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pages 22–25

o c . Most of the hard work at the new settlement wase done by: che r o(c) the sailors (a) the convicts (b) r the soldiers st su per

(a) James Cook

(b) Matthew Flinders

(c) Arthur Phillip

3. The journey to Australia was:

(a) rough at times

(b) easy

(c) very fast

4. We celebrate Australia Day on: 100

(a) 18 January

Primary Australian history

(b) 25 December

(c) 26 January

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Quiz questions

Conv

pages 26–29

i ct s

Choose the correct answers. 1. The convicts were:

(a) men

(c) men, women and children

2.

3. Convicts who were well behaved received:

(a) more freedom

(b) chocolate

(c) money

4. Convicts who didn’t behave were:

(a) sent home

(b) punished

ew i ev Pr

r o e t s Bo r e Most of the convicts: p ok u (a) relaxed (b) worked hard (c) slept in until late S

Teac he r

(b) women

(c) set free

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Ty he f• i rst se •f orr evi ew pur posesonl tt l e pages 30–33

Choose the correct answer.

men

t

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Quiz questions

1. The marine officer and his family arrived at Port Jackson on:

(a) 1 January 1788

(b) 26 January 1788

3.

. t ehome was a: o Their first c . (d) brick house ch e (a) box (b) caravan (c) tent r erjailuwere o t s r pe The roads, hospital ands built by:

(a) soldiers

2.

(c) 4 October 2007

(b) convicts

in the first settlement.

4. Life was very

(a) easy

(c) free settlers (d) marines

(b) comfortable

(c) hard

(d) funny

5. It took a

time for the first settlement to work well.

(b) short

(a) long

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B ig , b a d

Quiz questions

bu s hr

pages 34–37

ange

rs

Choose the correct answers. 1. The first bushrangers were:

(a) convicts (b) troopers

(c) diggers

(d) soldiers

r o e t (c) settlements s Bo (d) homesteads r e ok Bushrangers stole:p u S (a) gruel (b) lashes (c) gold (d) troopers

2. Bushrangers lived in the:

(a) sea

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Teac he r

3.

(b) bush

4. Bushrangers yelled:

(a) ‘Hello!’

(b) ‘Hands up!’ (c) ‘Stop or I’ll shoot!’ (d) ‘Bail up!’

5. One bushranger was named:

(a) Captain Starlight

(b) Captain Scarlet

(c) Captain Cook

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• E x pl pages 38–41

2.

w ww

Choose the correct answers. 1.

orer

s

m . u

Quiz questions

Matthew Flinders and George Bass were:

(c) explorers . te (b) convicts o Bass and Flinders mostly explored on: c . c e h(b) r (a) horses trains er o t s (c) boats super

(a) soldiers

3. The first European to travel by land from Adelaide to Albany was:

(a) John Howard

(b) Edward John Eyre

(c) Edward Wood

4. Eyre and Wiley might have died if they hadn’t met:

102

(a) a French ship

Primary Australian history

(b) some French fries

(c) some cowboys

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T he g

Quiz questions

pages 42–45

old r

ush

Choose the correct answers. 1. Edward Hargraves discovered gold in:

(a) California

(b) New South Wales

(c) Queensland

3.

r o e t s Bo r e ok (a) Bob Blister p (b) Tom Thumb (c) John Lister u HargravesS found gold by:

(a) panning

2. Hargraves was helped by a man named:

(b) fanning

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

(c) digging

4. After he found gold, Hargraves took it to Sydney and told:

(a) nobody

(b) only his family

(c) many people

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl yE• arly tr an pages 46–49

Choose the correct answers.

w ww

1. Only

horses came out with the First Fleet.

(b) 100

(a) 20

(c) six

3.

rt

(d) four

. te o c (a) a strong bull (d) a plant . che(b) a car (c) a horse e r o Cobb and Co. stagecoaches carried people, t r s goods and: super

2. A bullock is:

sp o

m . u

Quiz questions

(a) animals

(b) mail

(c) big logs of wood

(d) trains

4. The first trains were powered by:

(a) electricity

(b) solar power

(c) steam

(d) petrol

5. The first trams were pulled along iron rails by:

(a) convicts

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(b) elephants

(c) bullocks

(d) horses Primary Australian history

103


Quiz questions

Fede r

pages 50–53

atio

n

Choose the correct answers. 1. At the time of Federation in Australia, there were:

(a) five colonies

(b) six territories

(c) six colonies

r o e t s Bo r e (a) New Sydney p (b) New South Wales (c) o Australia u k S A federation is when many states join to form:

2. When the British first settled in Australia, they called it:

(a) one nation

(b) one colony

ew i ev Pr

3.

Teac he r

(c) one state

4. Australia became a nation on:

(a) 1 April 1901

(b) 1 January 2001

(c) 1 January 1901

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Quiz questions

atio

n

w ww

Choose the correct answers.

m . u

pages 54–57

1. The first Commonwealth Star on the Australian flag had: 2.

. te

o c . The symbol in thec top left corner of the flag is called: e h(b) r er o t (a) the Union Jack the Unity Star (c) s the Southern Star super

(a) three points

(b) seven points

(c) six points

3. Every Australian state and territory has:

(a) its own flag

(b) the same flag

(c) the Union Jack

4. In the Australian flag competition in 1901, over 30 000 people:

104

(a) won

Primary Australian history

(b) entered

(c) voted

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Quiz questions

Emb

pages 58–61

le m

s

Choose the correct answers. 1. The floral emblem of Australia is the:

(a) golden fig

(b) golden wattle

(c) glittery wattle

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u (a) red and Sblue (b) green and white (c) green and gold

2. The colours of the golden wattle, like Australia’s national colours, are:

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

3. The animal emblem of Western Australia is the:

(a) numbat

(b) elephant

(c) lion

4. Most states and territories have:

(a) one emblem

(b) no emblems

(c) a few emblems

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•World

Quiz questions

Choose the correct answers.

War I

w ww

m . u

pages 62–65

1. The continent where most of World War I took place is:

(a) Europe

(b) Asia

(c) Australia

. t e Ferdinand was shot (b) two men had o (a) Archduke a fight c . che e to protect themselves. Australian soldiers had to dig r o r st (c) trenches su per (a) holes (b) caves

2. World War I started when: 3.

(d) Antarctica

4. ANZAC stands for:

(a) All New Zebras Are Cute

(b) Australian and New Zealand Army Corps

5. Anzac Day is celebrated on:

(a) 25 April

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(b) 25 December

(c) 26 January Primary Australian history

105


Quiz questions

World War I

pages 66–69

I

Write as true or false. 1. World War II occurred between 1990 and 2000. 2. France invaded Germany.

r o e t s Bo r e p Many countries fought on two sides in World War II. o u k S China fought against Japan.

3. Britain wanted to stop Germany.

ew i ev Pr

5.

Teac he r

4.

6. The Soviet Union (Russia) fought against the United States. 7. Germany, Japan and Italy fought together. 8. Australia and New Zealand fought with Britain.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Con mil ny •f orr evi ew pur poseso g to• Aus

Quiz questions

tr a li

a

w ww

Choose the correct answers. 1. The first British people to live in Australia came on: 2. 3.

m . u

pages 70–73

(c) a raft . tto dig for: People camee o c . ch(b) (a) gold sugar cane (c) diamonds e r e o t r swere su The people who came to work inp Australia er

(a) the first aeroplane (b) the First Fleet

(a) always

liked.

(b) not always

4. After World War II, many people came to work to build big:

(a) buildings

(b) rockets

(c) dams

5. Many people who live in Australia came from: 106

(a) Vietnam Primary Australian history

(b) Venice

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O ur le

Quiz questions

ade

rs

pages 74–77 Choose the correct answers. 1. A leader is a person who:

(a) leads

(b) follows

(c) is made of lead

r o e t s Bo(c) dog r e p ok The leader ofu the city council is usually: S (b) the Queen (a) the major (c) the mayor

2. The leader(s) at your house is/are usually your:

(a) baby brother

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

3.

(b) parents

4. The leader of the government of the United States is:

(a) the President

(b) the Prime Minister

(c) the Emperor

5. The leader of the government of Australia is:

(a) the Queen

(b) the President

(c) the Prime Minister

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Al uy stra• li a n i n •f orr evi ew pur poseson ven

Quiz questions

ti o n

s

w ww

Choose the correct answers.

m . u

pages 78–81

1. The swimming stroke that was invented in Australia is the:

2.

. te

o c . An invention is csomething: e her r o t s (c) pink (a) old (b) new su per (a) Australian crawl (freestyle) (b) backstroke

(c) butterfly

3. The car invented in Australia that can carry a lot in the back is:

(a) the ute

(b) the bus

(c) the taxi

4. Granny Smith apples were invented in:

(a) New Zealand

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(b) Greenland

(c) Australia

Primary Australian history

107


A b original A

Quiz questions

u s tr a l i

ans t

oda

y

pages 82–85

Choose the correct answers. 1. Aboriginal Australians today still sometimes hunt:

(a) yowies

(b) kangaroos

(c) hamburgers

r o e t s B r (a) Easter eggs (b) bush food (c) e oflowers p ok u Aboriginal Australians today live mostly in: S (b) houses (a) simple shelters (c) tents

2. Aboriginal Australians today still sometimes gather:

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

3.

4. Aboriginal Australians today wear:

(a) the same clothes as everyone else

for Aboriginal Australians today.

5. Life is often very

(b) no clothes

(a) easy

(b) hard

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Fan mol uy •f orr evi ew pur poseso s Au• str a pages 86–89

w ww

Choose the correct answers. 1. May Gibbs wrote and painted things about the: 2.

li a n

s

m . u

Quiz questions

. te (b) Australian seas (c) Americanodeserts Norman Lindsay wrote and illustrated: c . c eThe mintees r (a) The mighty pie h (b) The magic pudding (c) er o st super

(a) Australian bush

3. Both Norman Lindsay and May Gibbs were:

(a) teachers

(b) artists and authors

(c) artists

4. Bunyip Bluegum, the koala, wears:

108

(a) nothing

Primary Australian history

(b) clothes and a hat

(c) a fur coat

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A u s tr a li

Quiz questions

a an d

sp o

rt

pages 90–93

Choose the correct answers. 1. The first person to surf in Australia came from:

3.

r o e t s Bo r e p (b) a gymnast (c) ok (a) a runner u a swimmer S Layne Beachley has won many competitions in:

(a) swimming

(a) Hawaii

(b) Hungary

(c) Australia

2. The first Australian woman to compete in the Olympics was:

(b) tennis

(c) surfing

4. Many of Australia’s great athletes have been:

(a) skiers

(b) baseballers

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

(c) swimmers

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Yesterday, to da y • •f orr evi ew pur pose sonl y a n d to mo

Quiz questions

pages 94–97

w ww

m . u

Choose the correct answers.

rr o w

1. Events that happen in order are often recorded on a:

. te

(a) note pad

(b) time line

(c) dictionary

3.

o c . c e r (a) they were soh long (b) they are not important eago o t r s super A time capsule is used to:

(a) record information for people in the future

(b) travel into space

2. Sometimes it can be difficult to remember events in the past because:

(c) travel through time

4. We don’t know what the future will be like but we can:

(b) imagine it

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(b) ignore it

(c) visit it Primary Australian history

109


Quiz answers The first Australians

98

1. (c) a long time ago

3. (a) rough at times

2. (a) a strong bull

4. (c) 26 January

3. (b) mail 4. (c) steam

2. (b) simple shelters

Convicts

3. (b) different

2. (c) insides

1. (c) men, women and children

Federation

2. (b) worked hard

98

104

3. (a) more freedom

1. (c) six colonies

4. (b) punished

2. (b) New South Wales 3. (a) one nation

The first settlement

3. (c) culture and achievements

101

4. (c) 1 January 1901

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

1. (b) hairy

5. (d) horses

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

4. (c) simple clothes made from animal skins

Aboriginal Australians

101

1. (b) 26 January 1788

4. (a) July

Symbols of Federation

2. (c) tent

Why the crocodile rolls

99

1. (a) drown their prey

3. (b) convicts

1. (c) six points

4. (c) hard

2. (a) the Union Jack

5. (a) long

3. (a) its own flag

2. (b) break off small chunks of food to swallow

4. (b) entered

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Big, bad bushrangers

3. (c) (b) unhappy and scaly

102

Emblems

1. (a) convicts

5. (c) crocodile

2. (b) bush

1. (b) golden wattle

3. (c) gold

2. (c) green and gold

4. (d) ‘Bail up!’

3. (a) numbat

5. (a) Captain Starlight

4. (c) a few emblems

Red waratah

99

1. (a) two

w ww

2. (c) life

Explorers

3. (b) female

5. (a) bleeding 6. (c) red

. te

Exploring Australia 1. (c) Europe 2. (b) New South Wales

102

2. (c) boats

2. (a) Archduke Ferdinand was shot

o c . che e r o t r s super 3. (b) Edward John Eyre

3. (c) trenches

4. (a) a French ship

4. (b) Australian and New Zealand Army Corps

100

The gold rush

103

5. (a) 25 April

1. (b) New South Wales

4. (b) Abel Tasman

3. (a) panning

World War II

106

1. False

4. (c) many people

2. False

100

3. True

1. (c) Arthur Phillip

Early transport

2. (a) the convicts

1. (c) six

Primary Australian history

105

1. (a) Europe

2. (c) John Lister

110

World War I

1. (c) explorers

3. (a) Endeavour

The First Fleet

105

m . u

4. (a) cause trouble

4. (c) hawk

104

103

4. True 5. True

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Quiz answers Australia and sport

6. False 7. True

1. (a) Hawaii

8. True

2. (c) a swimmer

109

3. (c) surfing

Coming to Australia 1. (b) the First Fleet

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S 106

4. (c) swimmers

Yesterday, today and tomorrow-109

2. (a) gold 3. (b) not always

5. (a) Vietnam

2. (a) they were so long ago 3. (a) record information for people in the future

Our leaders

107

1. (a) leads

2. (b) parents

3. (c) the mayor

4. (a) the President

4. (a) imagine it

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

4. (c) dams

1. (b) time line

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

5. (c) the Prime Minister

Australian inventions

107

1. (a) Australian crawl (freestyle) 2. (b) new

4. (c) Australia

w ww

Aboriginal Australians today

. te

1. (a) kangaroos 2. (b) bush food 3. (b) houses

4. (a) the same clothes as everyone else 5. (b) hard

Famous Australians

108

m . u

3. (a) the ute

o c . che e r o t r s super 108

1. (a) Australian bush 2. (b) The magic pudding 3. (b) artists and authors 4. (b) clothes and a hat

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Primary Australian history

111


Primary Australian History: Book B - Ages 6-7