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RIC-6425 5/345


AUSTRALIA ON THE MAP (1606–2006) (Ages 8–10)

Published by R.I.C. Publications® 2006 Copyright© R.I.C. Publications® 2006

This master may only be reproduced by the original purchaser for use with their class(es). The publisher prohibits the loaning or onselling of this master for the purposes of reproduction.

ISBN 1 74126 358 1

Copyright Notice

RIC–6425

Additional titles available in this series: AUSTRALIA ON THE MAP (1606–2006)

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(Ages 11+)

Blackline masters or copy masters are published and sold with a limited copyright. This copyright allows publishers to provide teachers and schools with a wide range of learning activities without copyright being breached. This limited copyright allows the purchaser to make sufficient copies for use within their own education institution. The copyright is not transferable, nor can it be onsold. Following these instructions is not essential but will ensure that you, as the purchaser, have evidence of legal ownership to the copyright if inspection occurs.

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Internet websites

In some cases, websites or specific URLs may be recommended. While these are checked and rechecked at the time of publication, the publisher has no control over any subsequent changes which may be made to webpages. It is strongly recommended that the class teacher checks all URLs before allowing students to access them.

View all pages online PO Box 332 Greenwood Western Australia 6924

Website: www.ricgroup.com.au Email: mail@ricgroup.com.au


Australia on the map Foreword The Australia on the map books have been written in cooperation with the Australia on the Map Committee to celebrate the 400th anniversary of the first recorded European discovery of Australia. They explore the arrival of Australia’s first inhabitants before the disappearance of the land bridges and acknowledge the achievements of the many explorers and mariners from different European nations. Each book is divided into four sections, with curriculum-linked activities from the learning areas of English and Society and Environment.

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The beginning

1–18

Personal teachers notes ......................................................... 2 Teachers notes ...................................................................... 3 Past land bridges ................................................................... 4 Aboriginal Australians and the Macassan people ...................... 5 Travelling to a new land ...................................................... 6–7 The Macassan people and trade ..........................................8–9 The Chinese, Portuguese and Spanish ................................... 10 The Chinese and Portuguese .......................................... 11–12 The Spanish ...................................................................13–14 Map of the world .................................................................. 15 Ships to 1606 ....................................................................... 16 Quiz – The beginning ............................................................ 17 The beginning – Answers ..................................................... 18

Other titles in this series: Australia on the map – Ages 11+

The French

45–66

Personal teachers notes ....................................................... 46 Teachers notes .................................................................... 47 Fascinating facts ............................................................ 48–49 Great South Land ................................................................. 50 Missing at sea – La Perouse ................................................. 51 Mapping d’Entrecasteaux’s journey ....................................... 52 Josephine’s garden .............................................................. 53 The Baudin expedition .................................................... 54–55 The encounter – Flinders and Baudin ............................... 56–57 The Freycinet expedition ................................................. 58–59 A mystery solved! – La Perouse ............................................. 60 The Géographe .................................................................... 61 Map summary of French exploration of Australia .................... 62 Map summary of French exploration routes of Australia .......... 63 Quiz – The French .......................................................... 64–65 The French – Answers .......................................................... 66

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Teachers notes .................................................................. iv–v Time line ................................................................................vi Map of the world .................................................................... vii Map of Australia ................................................................... viii

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The four sections are: The beginning The Dutch The French The British Australia on the map is a comprehensive resource to complement the learning program and take it beyond the celebrations of 2006.

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The Dutch

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19–44

Personal teachers notes ....................................................... 20 Teachers notes .................................................................... 21 Fascinating facts ............................................................ 22–23 Willem Jansz ................................................................. 24–25 Dirk Hartog .................................................................... 26–27 Jan Carstensz ................................................................ 28–29 Pieter Nuyts ....................................................................30–31 Francisco Pelsaert ...........................................................32–33 The story of Abel Tasman ................................................34–37 Willem de Vlamingh ........................................................ 38–39 Map summary of Dutch exploration routes of Australia ............ 40 Map of Dutch exploration routes and accidental contact with Australia in the 17th century .............................. 41 The Duyfken ........................................................................ 42 Quiz – The Dutch .................................................................. 43 The Dutch – Answers ........................................................... 44

The British

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67–92

Personal teachers notes ....................................................... 68 Teachers notes .................................................................... 69 Fascinating facts ............................................................ 70–71 William Dampier ............................................................ 72–73 James Cook .................................................................. 74–77 George Vancouver .......................................................... 78–79 Tobias Furneaux ............................................................. 80–81 George Bass and Matthew Flinders ................................. 82–83 Matthew Flinders ........................................................... 84–85 John Murray ........................................................................ 86 Phillip Parker King ................................................................ 87 Map summary of British exploration of Australia ...................... 88 Maps of British exploration routes of Australia ........................ 89 HMB Endeavour ................................................................... 90 Quiz –The British ................................................................. 91 The British – Answers .......................................................... 92

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Australia on the map


Australia on the map Teachers notes Teachers notes

It is vital that students to have an awareness of their country’s history to give them an understanding of how their society has developed. This leads to an appreciation of the different cultures that make up the national population. The Australia on the map series emphasises the importance of the roles played by different nations in the discovery of Australia.

Contain: • background information on each nation, and reasons for its involvement in Pacific exploration. In the Beginning section, the migration of Australia’s original inhabitants and early European exploration in the area, are explained, • time line of the nation’s major explorers and ships involved in the discovery and exploration of Australia, • additional activities to extend the area of learning.

The book may be used to give an overview of those involved in the discovery and mapping of Australia or as a springboard for a more indepth project. There are many resources available in libraries and on the Internet for students to gain a greater knowledge and understanding of the life and times of the explorers.

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The front pages include three generic pages, which are useful resources for the study of the exploration of Australia. Map of the world

This shows the location of each relevant nation in relation to the position of Australia. Students can clearly see the magnitude of the voyages undertaken by early explorers. Map of Australia

Students can use this to map the areas explored by individuals or groups of explorers.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Time line

This shows the chronology of European exploration from 1606 to 1826.

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Each section includes: • page for personal teachers notes • teachers notes • fascinating facts • student activity pages • map summary pages • outline of a ship of the time • quiz questions • answers

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Fascinating facts

Include: • additional information for students, • suggestions for further research to supplement learning in the area, • time line and summary of the nation’s involvement in the discovery and planning of Australia.

Page for personal teachers notes

Space for the teacher to record ideas for planning, organisation, resources and extension activities.

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Australia on the map Teachers notes Two map summary pages

Contain: • information on the nation’s major explorers and their voyages, in chronological order, • activities to consolidate learning and enhance knowledge and understanding.

Contain a: • map of the nation’s exploration routes of Australia, indicating coastlines charted, • map to show summary of nation’s exploration of Australia.

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Student activity pages

Outline of a ship of the time

Contains: • picture of a contemporary ship for students to colour or use as a basis to make a model.

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Contains:

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Answers

Contains:

(Sample student page)

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• 25 quiz questions to be administered in any format chosen by the teacher.

• The answers to student pages and the quiz (included at the end of each section).

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State

English

SOSE

NSW

RS2.5, RS2.6, WS2.9

CCS2.1

WA

R3.1, W3.1, W3.2, W3.4

ICP3.2, ICP3.3, ICP3.4, TCC3.1, TCC3.2

Vic.

ENRE0301, ENRE0307, ENWR0302, ENWR0304

SOSE0301

SA

2.3, 2.8, 3.4, 3.11

2.3, 3.1, 2.3, 3.4

Qld

Refer to curriculum documents on http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au

TCC3.3

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Australia on the map


Australia on the map – time line Year

Explorer

Ship

Area

Willem Jansz

Duyfken

west coast of Cape York Peninsula

1616

Dirk Hartog

Eendracht

Shark Bay

1618

Haevik Claeszoon

Zeewolf

North West Cape

Leenaert Jacobsz

Mauritius

North West Cape

1619

Frederick de Houtman

Dordrecht (with Amsterdam)

Swan River region and Houtman Abrolhos

1622

Unknown

Leeuwin

Cape Leeuwin

1623

Jan Carstensz

Pera (with Arnhem)

Arnhem Land

1627

François Thijssen Pieter Nuyts

Gulden Zeepaert

Cape Leeuwin to Ceduna Nuyts Land, Nuyts Archipelago

1628

Gerrit Frederikszoon de Witt

Vianen

north coast of Western Australia

1629

Francisco Pelsaert

Batavia

wrecked on Abrolhos Islands

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1642–1644 Abel Tasman 1696

Willem de Vlamingh

1688–1699 William Dampier 1768

Louis Antoine de Bougainville

Heemskerck, Zeehaen (1642) Tasmania and New Zealand Limmen, Zeemeeuw, Bracq (1644)

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1606

Geelvinck, Nyptangh, Weseltje

Rottnest Island, Swan River, Dirk Hartog Island

Cygnet, Roebuck

Cape Leveque, King Sound, Buccaneer Archipelago, Shark Bay to Roebuck Bay

Boudeuse, Etoile

prevented from reaching north-eastern shore of Australia by the Great Barrier Reef

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1768–1771 James Cook

Endeavour

New Zealand, east coast Australia, Point Hicks to Possession Island

François de Saint Alouarn

Gros Ventre

Kerguelen Island to Cape Leeuwin and Shark Bay

1773

Tobias Furneaux

Adventure

south and east coasts of Tasmania

1791

George Vancouver

Discovery

King George Sound south-west Western Australia

Recherche (with Espérance)

south Western Australia

George Bass Matthew Flinders

Tom Thumb I

Botany Bay Georges River

George Bass Matthew Flinders

Tom Thumb II

Port Kembla Lake Illawarra

George Bass

open whaleboat

from Point Hicks to Western Port Bay on south-east coast

Norfolk

complete Tasmanian coastline

Lady Nelson

first west–east passage through Bass Strait

Géographe, Naturaliste and Casuarina

Western Australian, southern and south-east Tasmanian coastlines

Lady Nelson

Port Phillip Bay

1801–1803 Matthew Flinders

Investigator

complete Australian coastlines

Matthew Flinders

Investigator

encounter with Nicolas Baudin in Géographe, SA

1817–1820 Louis de Freycinet

Uranie

Shark Bay

1817–1822 Phillip Parker King

Mermaid, Bathurst

north-western Australia

Astrolabe

King George Sound

1791–1794 Bruni d’Entrecasteaux

1796 1797 1798 1800 1800–1804 1801

1802

1826

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1795

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George Bass Matthew Flinders James Grant

Nicolas Baudin, Jacques Hamelin, Louis de Freycinet John Murray

Dumont d’Urville

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1772

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Map of the world

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Australia on the map


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Map of Australia

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r o e t THE s Bo r e p ok u S BEGINNING

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Chinese junk

Spanish carrack

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Australia on the map


Personal teachers notes

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List of resources:

Useful websites:

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Extension activities:

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2 Australia on the map

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The beginning

Teachers notes

Introduction

Additional activities

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• Paint a story to show Aboriginal people travelling in watercraft and walking across land bridges from Asia to the northern part of Australia. • Use modelling clay or papier-mâché to create trading items such as dugout canoes, iron blades, spears, knives, axe heads and flint. Make a display in your school library of these items, with labels and explanations of where they came from and for what purposes they were brought here.

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• Discuss the importance of conserving Aboriginal historical sites. Develop a top five list of reasons and present it to the class. • Write a fact-file about the trepang (or sea cucumber). Include: – – – –

The Macassans are Indonesians from Macassar in the southern island of Sulawesi in Java. Travelling in fleets of boats called praus, they exchanged goods with Aboriginal Australians so they could fish the surrounding waters for trepang. Evidence of this trade appears in Aboriginal rock and bark paintings, songs and oral history. Macassan words in Aboriginal languages (such as ‘Balanda’ for white person) and the introduction of dugout canoes and items such as tobacco and knives also mark the Indonesian influence. Macassans are also thought to be responsible for the introduction of tamarind trees, as well as—some 4000 years ago—the Australian icon, the dingo.

what it looks like (include a picture), where it is found, what it was used for by the Chinese, special characteristics that help protect it from attack by predators.

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ith a large proportion of the Earth’s sea water in polar icecaps, the sea level during the last ice age was possibly up to 130 metres lower than it is today. The world’s continents were shaped differently with Australia, it is believed, joined to Papua New Guinea, and Tasmania part of the mainland. Prehistorians believe Australia’s first indigenous population travelled here from South-East Asia during this ice age, about 40 000 years ago, since more of Indonesia’s islands were exposed above water at that time. Aboriginal people ‘island-hopped’, walking until they were forced to use rafts or canoes to travel the last leg of their journey to the north-west of Australia. This migration would have taken place over a lengthy time, with the people stopping to fish, hunt and gather other foods. About 10 000 years ago, the temperature began to increase, causing the ice sheets to melt, the sea level to rise, and land bridges to disappear.

• Imagine 40 000 years have passed and scientists have just completed an archaeological dig in what was once the students’ bedrooms. Students write about an object from their bedroom that stood the test of time. What might an archaeologist of the future believe the artefact to have once been used for? Include a picture of the object.

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Some historians believe that Chinese and Portuguese explorers may have visited Australia long before the Dutch made the first recorded visit in 1606. It is known that Chinese ships journeyed into the Indian Ocean between the 13th and 15th centuries and that the Portuguese were frequent visitors to South-East Asia in the 15th and 16th centuries. In addition, a set of maps drawn in the mid-1500s, believed to have been based on Portuguese maps and journals, show a large island with possible similarities to Australia.

• Research to find out more about Zheng He and his voyages. Is any ‘real’ evidence available of his supposed visits to Australia? What do historians think of some of the claims made for Zheng He? • Design a tourist brochure that encourages people to visit the site of the supposed ‘Mahogany Ship’ in Victoria. • Create a collage that represents the country of Spain today. • Find a map showing Jave la Grande. Discuss any similarities you can see between it and Australia.

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In 1606, Spanish explorer Luis Vaez de Torres discovered the sea passage, or strait, between Australia and New Guinea. However, his discovery was kept a secret from other European nations until 1762. The sea passage then became known as Torres Strait.

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Australia on the map


THE BEGINNING

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Past land bridges

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T

1. Study the map to complete the sentences.

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he sea level during the last ice age was up to 130 metres lower than it is today. With a large proportion of the earth’s sea water in polar icecaps, the world’s continents were shaped differently. More land was exposed, allowing people to ‘island-hop’ across the natural land bridges.

o c . as they were all part of the c e her r o Many Indonesian islands were connected by the t s super Approximately 50 000 years ago, Australia was connected to

1

and .

2

3

.

4

2. On the Map of the world on page 15, shade the area around Australia, New Guinea and Indonesia as it may have looked 50 000 years ago. 3. Research on the Internet to learn about another land bridge of the Pleistocene period, the Bering Land Bridge. Complete this sentence. During the last ice age, the Bering Land Bridge across the continents of

2

1

Strait connected the

and

.

3

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THE BEGINNING

Aboriginal Australians and the Macassan people A

boriginal people used simple types of watercraft, such as rafts and canoes, to cross stretches of water between the islands in the north to reach the top of Australia.

Unlike some other cultures, there are no written records of Aboriginal history. Instead, history was passed on through storytelling, paintings, songs and dance.

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What are two ways you learn about your history? Share your answer with a friend.

Aboriginal Australians believe that their civilisation began in Australia during a time known as the Dreamtime (or sometimes, the Dreaming). The Dreamtime explains how the universe came to be and how humans and animals were created.

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On paper, design a raft that Aboriginal people may have travelled on. Use craft sticks and glue to create your raft.

Do you know a Dreamtime story? Draw a story map with pictures and arrows that shows what happens in the story.

Aboriginal man sailing from one island to another using a dugout canoe

Aboriginal people and the Macassans traded many Some Aboriginal history can be determined by objects with each other, such as tools, shells, rice archaeological finds. Archaeology is the study of and trepang. human societies of the past using remains such as In pairs, role-play the trading of goods bones and stone artefacts. Some important Aboriginal between Aborigines and the Macassans. archaeological discoveries have been made in What difficulties do you think might arise? Australia at:

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• Devils Lair (WA)

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• Koonalda Cave (SA) • Lake Mungo (NSW)

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Choose one site and use the Internet to find out – what was discovered there, – when it was discovered, and – how old the artefact is believed to be.

o c . che e r o t r strepang so that it could be eaten was a very s The Macassan people traded their dugout canoes r Preparing u e p with the Aborigines in northern Australia for goods long process of boiling, burying and smoking, as it The trepang (sea cucumber) is a delicacy in some Asian countries

such as pearl and turtle shell. The Aborigines used was believed that part of the trepang was poisonous. the canoes to fish for trepang (sea cucumbers), Would you dare to eat something that was turtles and dugongs. once poisonous? • Use the resource centre to find out what a Never! Possibly! Absolutely! dugong is. • Draw and colour a dugong.

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Australia on the map


THE BEGINNING

Travelling to a new land – 1

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The first Aboriginal people would have reached Arnhem Land (Northern Territory), the Kimberley region (northern Western Australia) and Cape York Peninsula (Northern Queensland) and settled by the coast. When the population grew, small groups may have chosen to travel inland.

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for long periods in different places to fish, hunt and gather other foods. Some may not have wished to travel to Australia but may have been caught in their watercraft by strong winds or monsoons and drifted towards the great south land.

End of the Ice Age © R . I . C . P u b l i c a t i o ns uring the last ice age, a lot of ocean water was About 10 000 years ago, the Earth’s temperature D held in the form of large polar icecaps. With less began to increase, causing the southern and northern f o v i e ur posesonl y• free water in the • oceans, ther levelr ofe the sea wasw lowerp ice sheets to melt. The sea level rose, flooding low-

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lying areas and making Australia an island. With such a rise in the amount of water, many environmental changes occurred. Coastlines altered, new beaches were created and dried-up lakes were once again filled with water.

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than it is today. At that time, the world’s continents were shaped differently. It is believed that Australia was once joined to Papa New Guinea, and Tasmania was part of Australia’s mainland until about only 12 000 years ago.

Due to the sea being lower, people were able to walk The Aborigines adapted to the changes in the across natural land bridges from one continent to environment. They lived off the land and the sea, another. building weapons to hunt and fish with. Prehistorians believe Australia’s first indigenous population travelled here from South-East Asia during this ice age about 40 000 years ago. The sea level was probably about 100 metres lower than it is today, leaving more of Indonesia’s islands visible as land. Aboriginal people ‘island-hopped’, walking from as far as India until they were forced to make rafts or canoes to travel the last leg of their journey to the north-west of Australia. These watercraft were most probably made of bamboo as it is a water-resistant, light material in good supply in Asia.

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Aboriginal man carrying child

The Aboriginal people moved in bands, stopping 6 Australia on the map

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THE BEGINNING

Travelling to a new land – 2 1. Complete the sentences. (a) During the ice age, the sea level was

.

(b) Tasmania was once part of Australia’s mainland until

. Aboriginal . Youngman

(c) It is believed Aboriginal people have lived in Australia for (d) People were able to walk from one continent to another across

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(e) The material most probably used to make watercraft was

.

(a) indigenous

(b) population

3. What caused some Aboriginal people to land in Australia ‘accidentally’?

(c) monsoon

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2. Use a dictionary to find the meaning of these words.

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 4. Explain what effects the end of the ice age had on the environment.

5. (a) Use an atlas to find the places below and record them on the map of northern Australia. • Arnhem Land (NT) • the Kimberley region (WA) • Cape York Peninsula (Qld) (b) Draw an arrow to show the direction to Papua New Guinea.

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Australia on the map


THE BEGINNING

The Macassan people and trade – 1 I

n the 1700s, Indonesian traders, such as fisherman from Macassar, sailed to Arnhem Land and the Kimberley (on the north coast of Australia) looking for Asian delicacies. Macassar (now known as Ujung Pandang) is in the south-western corner of the island of Sulawesi.

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The Macassans fished near the Gulf of Carpentaria and travelled to the northern part of Australia searching for sea cucumbers and sharks’ fins. They set up camps and smokehouses to cook and dry the delicacies they had caught. These items were much sought after by the Chinese.

It is believed that the Aboriginal people from the north of Australia collected resources such as trepang (sea cucumbers), tortoise shell, turtle shell and pearl shell to trade with the Macassans. The trepang and shells would be traded for the Macassan’s dugout canoes, iron blades, spears, knives, axeheads and flint. Rice and tobacco were also traded with the Aboriginal people.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Although differences in cultural beliefs and values •f orr evi ew p uhave r p os esbetween onthel y • and may caused conflicts Macassans

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Aboriginal people, trading between them continued until Australian laws were passed to prevent it in This contact with Asian people was recorded by the 1906. Aborigines in rock and bark paintings and told about 1. Choose True or False. in Aboriginal songs. In addition, some Asian words (a) Trade was the main reason the Macassan people have been incorporated into Aboriginal languages. travelled to Australia. True False When the Macassan people visited Australia, usually between October and December, it is believed that the (b) Contact with Asian people can be heard about in Aboriginal people would help them fish for trepang. Aboriginal songs. The Macassans cooked the trepang, which was a long True False process of boiling, burying under sand and stones to (c) The trepang were smoked to remove their tough remove the tough skin, and finally smoking them in skins. smokehouses to preserve them for the long journey True False home. (d) North-easterly winds helped the Macassans to With the help of the south-easterly winds, the Macassan return home. people would return home with their goods. Chinese True False traders would make special trips to Sulawesi to trade (e) Trading stopped between the two groups in their silk and tea for the delicacy, trepang. 1806. True False

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THE BEGINNING

The Macassan people and trade – 2

Young Macassan man

2. Complete the paragraph about trading by filling in the missing words. Trepang and p

s

were traded by the Aboriginal people

to the Macassan people for items such as d

c

r

. The Macassans traded t

s

and t

,s

and

(sea cucumbers) to Chinese traders for their

.

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3. List three pieces of evidence that show Aboriginal people once traded goods with the Macassan people. •

4. Write and draw about each step needed to collect and prepare trepang. Step 1

Step 2

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The trepang were boiled in cauldrons over open fires. Step 4

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Australia on the map


THE BEGINNING

The Chinese, Portuguese and Spanish Treaty of Tordesillas

1400s The largest Chinese explorations into the Indian Ocean take place. The most well-known explorer is Zheng He (Cheng Ho). There is a popular but unsupported belief that the Chinese may have landed on Australian soil.

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n the 1400s there were many disputes between Spain and Portugal (the then two great European sea-exploring nations) over new lands that both were discovering.

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1488 Portuguese explorer Bartholomew Dias leads the first European expedition to sail around the Cape of Good Hope. 1494 The Treaty of Tordesillas is established between Portugal and Spain.

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In 1494, the two nations agreed to the Treaty of Tordesillas. This established an imaginary line on a map of the world, dividing it into two parts. Portugal was allowed to claim land to the east of the line and Spain could claim land to the west of the line.

1497 Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama becomes the first European to discover a sea route to Asia. Other Portuguese explorers will soon follow.

1511 The Portuguese capture Melaka, a port city on the Malay Peninsula, and begin to take control of the Indonesian spice trade.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons 1530–1570 maps in • France. Ther Dieppe •f orr evi ew pu p os esareodrawn nl y Supposedly based on Portuguese maps and

Do you think the Treaty of Tordesillas was fair? Say why or why not.

Zheng He

journals, they show a huge island called ‘Jave la Grande’. Some people see in it a vague resemblance to the northern and eastern coasts of Australia.

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One of China’s best known early explorers was Zheng He (also known as Cheng Ho). His ships, which could carry at least 500 sailors, visited places such as India, Arabia, Ceylon, Africa and Persia between 1405 and 1433. Zheng may also have travelled as far south as New Guinea and South-East Asia. It is not proven he visited Australia, but it is possible.

1606 Spanish explorer Luis Vaez de Torres discovers Torres Strait.

. temodern name for each o Research to find the c . ‘older’ country name fromc the text. Some of e the older names may now cover than hmore r er o t one modern country. s super

During the 1400s, great improvements in European ship design took place, creating faster vessels that were easier to manoeuvre. A common ship used by explorers during this time was the ‘caravel’, a small, light ship with three or four masts. The Portuguese caravel is particularly noted as being a major advance in ship design of the time.

Research to find a picture of a caravel. Sketch a simple picture of it in the box. 10 Australia on the map

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THE BEGINNING

The Chinese and Portuguese – 1 In 1606, Dutchman Willem Jansz made the first recorded visit to the Australian mainland. However, some people believe it is possible that sailors from China and Portugal may have visited Australia long before this date.

The Chinese

The Portuguese

One popular belief that a mysterious shipwreck, known as the ‘Mahogany Ship’, is supposedly proof that the Portuguese visited Australia in the 1500s. In 1836, two men who survived the wreck of their whaling boat were supposed to have been the first people to see the dark-timbered ship in sand dunes near the town of Warrnambool in Victoria. Many sightings were reportedly made by different people, with the last being in the 1880s. Since then, the Mahogany Ship has, apparently, been buried under the dunes. It would be almost impossible to find it even if it’s there—although people still try! Is the ship a Portuguese caravel? Is it even real? No-one is sure.

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n the 1400s and 1500s, the Portuguese were great sea explorers and traders. They were frequent visitors to South-East Asia and made their fortune there in the spice trade. But did they reach Australia?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Chinese junks, much like this illustration, could have made the journey to Australia in the 1400s

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Some historians think the Portuguese may have been

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the first Europeans to map the Australian coast. They believe that a set of maps drawn in France between 1530 and 1570 (known as the ‘Dieppe maps’) may have been based on Portuguese maps and journals. On the maps, a huge island to the south-east of t is possible, but certainly not proven, that the Indonesia (called ‘Jave la Grande’) is shown. Some Chinese may have visited Australia in the 1400s. It is people see in it a vague resemblance to the northern known that Chinese ships made many voyages into the and eastern coasts of Australia. Indian Ocean between the 13th and 15th centuries, looking for treasures and trading opportunities. One of the best-known Chinese explorers was Zheng He (also known as Cheng Ho). In 2002, British author Gavin Menzies published a best-selling book called 1421– the year China discovered the world. In it, he claims that two of Zheng’s ships landed on Australian shores in 1422 (one on the east coast and one on the west coast) and stayed for many months. Aboriginal oral accounts and shipwrecks found off the Australian coast are among the pieces of ‘evidence’ Menzies uses to prove his theory. But all authoritative historians are sceptical of Menzies’s claims.

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Portuguese caravel

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THE BEGINNING

The Chinese and Portuguese – 2 Imagine you are a news reporter. You receive a phone call from a person who claims to have found the Mahogany Ship. You grab your notebook, jot down some questions and hurry to interview the caller. 1. Complete the information you receive in your notebook. Who is the person? What is his/her age? What is his/her occupation?

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Does the ship appear to be Portuguese, Chinese or something else altogether?

Describe what the ship looks like. (You may need to use resources to help you.)

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How did he/she come to find the ship?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons f othink rr ev i e w p u r po se sexpect onal y• What does • the caller should be done next? For example, does he/she reward?

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(b) Use your notes to write up your news story. Include an eye-catching headline.

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Does he/she think the ship should be taken to a museum?

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THE BEGINNING

The Spanish – 1 L

and New Guinea. This proved that New Guinea was not joined to Australia. The expedition then sailed for the Philippines, arriving in May 1607. Torres’s discovery was kept a secret by the Spanish— they did not want any other seafaring nations to know! They did a good job—it wasn’t until 1762 that the details of Torres’s voyage were found by the British. The sea passage then became known as Torres Strait.

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Torres led the remaining two ships westward and sailed along the southern coast of New Guinea. Some time in 1606, he sighted some islands further south—those off Cape York Peninsula. Torres had found the sea passage, or strait, between Australia

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ike the Portuguese, the Spanish were great sea explorers and traders between the 1400s and 1600s. In December 1605, Spain sent three ships on a voyage to discover the great south land. They left from the city of Callao in Peru (South America) and, five months later, landed at the New Hebrides (now Vanuatu) in the South Pacific. The commander of the expedition, Pedro de Quiros, thought this was the great south land. Soon afterwards, his ship was swept away by a current and disappeared. Later, it was discovered that de Quiros had sailed back to Spain via Mexico. This left the captain of one of the other ships to take charge of the expedition. His name was Luis Vaez de Torres.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons 1. The modern map below shows the route Torresp took from Callao to Manila. Use ann • f o r r e v i e w u r p o s e s o l y• atlas to help you write the following countries and features on the map.

The Spanish carracks were excellent long haul ships, capable of travelling vast distances while carrying large cargoes

Answer these questions.

• Philippines • Callao

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• Australia • Indian Ocean • Torres Strait

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• New Guinea • Pacific Ocean

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THE BEGINNING

The Spanish – 2 2. True or False? (a) Torres sighted some islands off Cape York Peninsula. ..............................................

True

False

(b) The New Hebrides is now called Callao. ....................................................................

True

False

(c) Torres Strait is a sea passage that lies between New Guinea and Australia. ............

True

False

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(d) Quiros thought he had found the ‘south land’. ........................................................

True

False

(e) In 1606, the British found out about Torres’s discovery. ..........................................

True

False

4. List words to describe the sort of person you think Torres might have been.

ART make this box a scroll big enough for kids to write on.

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3. Why did the Spanish try to keep Torres’s discovery a secret?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

5. What was so important about Torres’s discovery?

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Spanish carrack sailing towards Cape York Peninsula

6. Imagine you are Torres. How did you feel when you discovered that de Quiros’s ship had disappeared?

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o c . che e r o t r s s r u e p 7. Order these events from the text.

(a) Torres Strait is discovered. .................................................................................................................. (b) Pedro de Quiros’s ship disappears. ..................................................................................................... (c) The Spanish ships leave Callao. ......................................................................................................... (d) Torres’s ship arrives in Manila. .......................................................................................................... 14 Australia on the map

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Map of the world

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THE BEGINNING

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THE BEGINNING

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dugout canoe

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Portuguese caravel

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Chinese junk

Spanish carrack

Ships to 1606

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THE BEGINNING

Quiz – The beginning 1. During the ice age, great amounts of sea water were stored in polar icecaps, causing the sea level to be lower or higher than at present?

11. A well-known Chinese explorer of the 1400s was: (a) Zheng He ................................. (b) Vasco da Gama........................ (c) Luis Vaez de Torres ..................

2. It is believed Aboriginal people used watercraft often 12. Which two nations agreed to the Treaty of Tordesillas? made from which material to travel to the northern part of Australia?

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4. Two goods Aboriginal people collected for trading were … t

and p

s

.

(b) a type of ship ........................... (c) a type of sailor .........................

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3. It is thought that Australia was once joined to: (a) New Zealand (b) Papua New Guinea

13. What is a caravel? (a) a type of map ..........................

14. British author Gavin Menzies wrote a book called 1421—the year the world.

discovered

15. All historians agree that the Chinese visited Australia in the 1400s. True or false?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons c to Australia for trading. 16. Ao mysterious shipwreck supposed to lie beneath • f o r r e v i ew pur psand s e s o n l y • 6. The Macassans travelled to Australia to collect dunes in Victoria is known as the

5. The Macassans took d

trepang for people from which country?

Ship.

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18. In the 1400s and 1500s, Portugal made its fortune in the spice trade. True or False?

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17. The island called ‘Jave la Grande’ on European maps of the 1500s is thought to be which country?

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7. Trepang were boiled, buried and then to preserve them.

o c . che e r o t r s e 9. Aboriginal people used dugout canoes tos fishu andp 19. r In which year was Torres Strait discovered by the hunt for trepang, turtles and which other creature? 8. It is believed Aboriginal people have lived in Australia for at least 40 000 years. True or false?

Spanish?

10. What do Aboriginal people call the time when the universe, humans and animals were created?

20. Who was Torres Strait named after? Give his/her full name.

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THE BEGINNING

The beginning – Answers Past land bridges .................................. p. 4 1. 2. 3.

(1) New Guinea (2) Tasmania (3) Indo-Australian Plate (4) Eurasian Plate Teacher check Bering, Asia, North America

The Spanish – 1 ................................. p. 13

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Travelling to a new land . ...................... p. 7

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(a) lower than it is today (b) (about) 12 000 years ago (c) (about) 40 000 years (d) (natural) land bridges (e) bamboo Use a dictionary to find the meaning of these words. (a) indigenous: (people who are) native to a particular place or country (b) population: the total number (of people) living in an area (c) monsoon: a summer rainy season and, also, the wind that brings the rain Some Aboriginal people may have landed in Australia ‘accidentally’ due to strong winds and monsoons changing their course. Teacher check (a) – (b) Teacher check

3.

4. 5.

2. (a) True (b) False (c) True (d) True (e) True 3. This would help the exploration by other nations and the Spanish did not want them to succeed. 4. Teacher check 5. It showed New Guinea was not joined to Australia. 6. Teacher check 7. 3, 2, 1, 4

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Quiz questions ................................... p. 17 •f orr evi ew pu r p ose sonl y• 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

The Macassan people and trade ..... pp. 8–9 (a) True (b) True (c) False (d) False (e) False Trepang and pearl shell were traded by the Aboriginal people to the Macassan people for items such as dugout canoes, spears and rice. The Macassans traded trepang (sea cucumbers) to Chinese traders for their silk and tea. 3. – recorded in rock and bark paintings – heard in Aboriginal songs – some Asian words have been incorporated into Aboriginal languages

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lower bamboo (b) Papua New Guinea trepang, pearl shell dugout canoes China smoked True the dugong the Dreamtime (or Dreaming) (a) Zheng He Portugal and Spain (b) a type of ship China False Mahogany Australia True 1606 Luis Vaez de Torres

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The Spanish – 2 ................................ p. 14

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1. 2.

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4. Teacher check

The Chinese and Portuguese – 2 ........ p. 12 Teacher check

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Personal teachers notes

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List of resources:

Useful websites:

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Extension activities:

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The Dutch

Teachers notes

Introduction

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n the 1600s, the Netherlands was one of several European nations keen to discover the legendary ‘great south land’ or Terra Australis Incognita (the unknown south land). Dutch ships, owned by the powerful trading company the VOC (the Dutch East India Company), were sent on voyages of exploration to find, among other things, the fabled south land—and consequently discovered, largely by accident, parts of Australia. Other Dutch ships found Australia when they were blown off-course on the journey from the Netherlands to the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia), where the Dutch dominated the profitable spice trade.

In 1606, Dutch sea captain Willem Jansz and his crew aboard the small ship Duyfken were the first Europeans to sight and (evidently) land on the Australian mainland, at Cape York Peninsula. Thanks to Jansz and other Dutch navigators, by 1628, much of the western and southern coastlines of Australia had been mapped. But within a few decades, the Dutch were losing interest in the land they had come to call New Holland. Dutch explorers brought home disappointing reports of a barren land, devoid of precious metals, gems or spices. The west coast of Australia was also proving dangerous for the VOC’s ships. By the late 1600s, the Dutch had abandoned any ideas of claiming parts of Australia for the Netherlands.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Major Dutch explorers involved in mapping Australia

Date

Ship

Willem Jansz

Duyfken

Dirk Hartog

Eendracht

1618

Haevik Claeszoon Leenaert Jacobsz

Zeewolf Mauritius

1619

Frederik de Houtman

Dordrecht, Amsterdam

1622

unknown

Leeuwin

1623

Jan Carstensz

Pera, Arnhem

1627

François Thijssen/Pieter Nuyts

Gulden Zeepaert

Gerrit Frederikszoon de Witt

Vianen

Abel Tasman

Heemskerck, Zeehaen (1642) Limmen, Zeemeeuw, Bracq (1644)

Willem de Vlamingh

Geelvinck, Nyptangh, Weseltje

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1606 1616

1628

1642/1644 1696/7

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Known Dutch shipwrecks off the Australian coast in the 1600s

Location

1629

Batavia

Houtman’s Abrolhos, off Western Australian coast

1656

Vergulde Draeck

near Ledge Point, off Western Australian coast

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Additional activities

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• View photographs of Dutch shipwrecks of the 1600s/1700s.

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• Write a poem that describes how you think it might have felt to have been a Dutch explorer of the 1600s.

• Research different spices that were considered valuable in the 1600s, such as cinnamon, nutmeg and pepper. Why was there such a huge demand for spices? • Use the Internet (www.duyfken.com) to find information about the replica of the Duyfken landed in 1999 in Fremantle, Western Australia. • Write a description of the type of ‘great south land’ you think the Dutch would have preferred to have found. Create a map of your imaginary land. Add a legend. • Create a glossary of some basic Dutch words.

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THE DUTCH

Fascinating facts

Selection of spices

Dutch shipwrecks

The spice trade

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any ships were wrecked off the coast of Western Australia during voyages of exploration.

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• The Zuytdorp was wrecked in 1712 somewhere between Kalbarri and Shark Bay. The wreck was found in the 1960s. As well as pieces of the ship, there were also thousands of silver coins. It is believed that some people survived the wreck; however, no-one knows what happened to them.

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• The Vergulde Draeck sank near Ledge Point in 1656. Seventy-five of her crew survived the wreck and seven rowed to Batavia for help. But when a rescue party arrived, there was no sign of the rest of the crew. In 1963, the wreck was discovered. Some of the items that were found included silver coins, cannons, elephant tusks, jugs, brass utensils, tools and glass bottles.

In the 1600s in Europe, spices like cinnamon and pepper were very valuable. They not only flavoured food, they were also used as medicines and for preserving food. Countries like Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands and England competed with each other to trade with and colonise spice-producing countries like China, India and the East Indies (now Indonesia). Some of the places the Dutch controlled were the Malay Peninsula, Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) and much of Indonesia. Find a partner. On a separate sheet of paper, write the names of as many different spices as you can in five minutes. Compare your list with another pair’s.

The Dutch East India Company

Research another Dutch shipwreck of the 1700s, the Zeewijk. Note some details on a separate sheet of paper.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• red

white

The Zeewijk sailing towards land

OC

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The great south land

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blue

In the early 1600s, the Dutch came to dominate the spice trade. This was mostly due to the actions of a company called the Dutch East India Company (known as the ‘VOC’). The VOC sent out many ships to find and trade with spice-producing countries. By the middle of the seventeenth century, the VOC was the largest and richest company in the world. It owned over 100 ships and had tens of thousands of employees.

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Between the 1400s and 1900s in Europe, many people believed that a ‘great south land’ or ‘unknown south land’ (Terra Australis Incognita) existed. This land was supposed to be rich in everything from gold and diamonds to timber and elephants! The quest to find this great south land was the cause of many explorers discovering Australia—often accidentally! List three features you think a ‘perfect’ imaginary land should have.

One VOC flag is shown above. Copy and colour it, then design a new VOC flag you think shows its interests and achievements. Use the Internet to find out what VOC stands for.

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THE DUTCH

Fascinating facts Life on board ship

Time line

Imagine you are a Dutch sailor in the 1600s. You are offered a job on board a ship that is to travel to the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). Here is what you can expect:

Willem Jansz and his crew, aboard the Duyfken, become the first Europeans on record to sight and chart part of the Australian coastline, at Cape York Peninsula.

1616

Dirk Hartog is the first Dutch sailor to discover the west coast of Australia.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S 1618

Haevik Claeszoon, aboard the Zeewolf, and Leenaert Jacobsz, aboard the Mauritius, both visit the Western Australian coastline, near Exmouth Gulf.

1619

Frederik de Houtman possibly anchors near the location of the future Swan River colony.

1623

Jan Carstensz visits the Gulf of Carpentaria and Cape York Peninsula.

1627

Pieter Nuyts makes sure the southern coast of Western Australia is mapped while on the Gulden Zeepaert.

1628

Gerrit Frederikszoon de Witt, aboard the Vianen, sights part of the western coast of Australia, calling it de Witt’s Land.

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• from six to 12 months at sea • sleeping on the deck or in cold, stuffy quarters in a hammock • a main diet of fish, salty meat (sometimes), hard ship’s biscuits (made from flour and water), cheese, dried beans and peas and bread • lots of hard work for terrible pay • a good chance of getting sick or even dying from diseases like (mainly) scurvy and typhus.

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1606

1629 The Batavia, under the command of François Pelsaert, is © R. I . C .P ubl i cat i ons wrecked on the Houtman Abrolhos. A mutiny follows and 125 people are murdered. •f orr evi e w p ur posesonl y• 1642 Abel Tasman discovers Van Diemen’s Land (Tasmania).

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Dutch ships

Many Dutch explorers of the early 1600s sailed in a type of small ship called a ‘jacht’. Jachts were fast-moving and easy to steer, so they were useful for sailing in unknown waters. The Duyfken, the Dutch ship that visited the Australian coast in 1606, was a jacht. It was 19 metres long and could hold about 20 crew.

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Abel Tasman maps part of the Northern Territory–Western Australian coastline.

1696–7 Willem de Vlamingh explores Rottnest Island and the Swan River and charts the Western Australian coastline to North West Cape.

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Based on this description, why do you think anyone would take the job?

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Sailors’ clothing

One of the pictures opposite shows the clothing of an ordinary Dutch sailor of the 1600s. The other shows the clothing of a Dutch sea captain. With a partner, compare the two sets of clothing.

Use the Internet or another resource to help you sketch a picture of the Duyfken. Ordinary Dutch sailor

Dutch sea captain

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THE DUTCH

Willem Jansz – 1 I

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n 1606, the Dutch became the first Europeans on record to visit Australia when Captain Willem Jansz and his crew sailed to Cape York Peninsula in present-day Queensland. Jansz had been employed by the Dutch East India Company (the VOC) to sail from the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia) to find New Guinea and other ‘east- and south-lands’. The Dutch were particularly keen to find gold and trading opportunities.

Follow Jansz’s voyage on the map.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Jansz leaves Bantam in November 1605 with Jansz sails further into the Gulf, mapping 200 about 20• crew on small ship of the His crew reportedly f other r e vDuyfken. i ew pukm r p ocoast. se s o nl ysearch •for food and water ashore, but have little success.

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Jansz reaches New Guinea early in 1606. He sails along its south coast, occasionally going ashore. Fights break out between his crew and the indigenous people. Eight of the Dutch are killed.

Jansz decides to return to the Dutch East Indies. He turns the ship around at a place he calls ‘Keerweer’ (‘turn again’ in Dutch). Today, it is known as Cape Keerweer. On the way back up the coast, the Duyfken lands at the mouth of the Dulcie River. According to some oral history of the indigenous people of Cape York, the crew apparently try to kidnap some Aboriginal women. Fighting breaks out and one crew member is killed.

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The Duyfken sails to the Banda Islands, then to the Kai and Aru Islands.

. te o c Jansz continues south but thinks Torres Strait . e is a bay. He sails into thec Gulfh of Carpentaria r ethinking o t and lands on Cape York Peninsula, r supBack er ins the Dutch East Indies, Jansz reports it is part of New Guinea.

that the land he found does not seem to have any trading opportunities or gold and is unsuitable for settlement. A map based on Jansz’s charts is made years later. It shows Cape York Peninsula as part of New Guinea.

Willem Jansz excited about sighting land

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Willem Jansz – 2 1. Use an atlas to help you add these modern placenames to the map on page 24. Islands Cities Water bodies Countries

Java, Sulawesi, Ambon, Timor, Bali Jakarta, Darwin, Port Morseby Timor Sea, Indian Ocean, Arafura Sea New Guinea, Australia, Indonesia

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Willem Jansz

2. After completing Question 1, look at the map on page 24 to answer these questions. (a) Which body of water separates Australia from New Guinea?

(c) Is the Gulf of Carpentaria an island?

(d) True or False? Torres Strait separates Australia from Indonesia. (e) Which is larger, Java or Timor?

3. Read the text on page 24 to answer these questions. (a) What does ‘Keerweer’ mean in Dutch?

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(b) Which is further north, the Banda Islands or Cape Keerweer?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons (c) Give one reason why Jansz thought the land he had found was ‘no good’. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• (b) How many Duyfken crew members were killed in total?

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(e) What was wrong with maps that were made based on Jansz’s charts?

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(d) Why do you think Jansz decided to return to the Dutch East Indies at Cape Keerweer?

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4. Write your opinion of these events. (a) The crew of the Duyfken reportedly trying to kidnap Aboriginal women

(b) Jansz deciding to turn back at Cape Keerweer

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THE DUTCH

Dirk Hartog – 1 Did you know? • In 1616, Dirk Hartog became the first Dutch sailor to discover the west coast of Australia. But it was by mistake! Hartog was supposed to have sailed from the Netherlands to the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia) but he was blown off-course by strong westerly winds called the ‘roaring forties’.

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This is the plate placed on Dirk Hartog island

• Hartog and his crew spent a few days exploring and mapping the island group they had found, before heading north up the Western Australian coastline. Hartog mapped the coastline as far as North West Cape. Then he headed back to Bantam (near present-day Banten) in Indonesia. He reported to the VOC that he was largely unimpressed with the land he had found.

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• Dirk Hartog’s ship was called the Eendracht. It was owned by the powerful Dutch East India Company (the VOC). The Eendracht left the Netherlands in the company of two other ships, but was soon separated from them during a storm.

• Nine months into the Eendracht’s voyage, Hartog sighted a small group of islands which appeared to be uninhabited. The Eendracht was anchored, and Hartog and his crew rowed ashore to one of the barren islands. It was narrow, with limestone cliffs on one side and sand dunes on the other. Today, this island is known as Dirk Hartog Island.

• Hartog’s pewter plate was found in 1697 by another Dutch explorer, Willem de Vlamingh. It is now kept in the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons • The journals and maps Hartog made during his • Hartog recorded his visit to Dirk Hartog Island by voyage unfortunately been • f o rashore, r ev i eitw pu r phave os eso nlost. l y• taking a pewter dinner plate beating Use the text to answer the questions.

1. Rewrite the inscription on Hartog’s plate in ‘modern’ English. Read it carefully first—you may want to change the order of some of the words or facts.

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flat, inscribing it and nailing it to a pole which he erected on the northern tip of the island. This place is now called ‘Cape Inscription’.

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• The inscription on Hartog’s plate says:

1616. On 25th October there arrived here the ship Eendracht of Amsterdam. . t o Gilles Miebais Upper-merchant e c . of Liege. skipper Dirkc Hartog of e h r e o t r Amsterdam. s super On 27th ditto. she set sail again for Bantam. Under-merchant Jan Stins. upper steersman Pieter Doekes of Bil. In the year 1616. 26 Australia on the map

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Dirk Hartog – 2 2. Imagine you are Dirk Hartog. Instead of leaving a pewter dinner plate to prove your discovery of Dirk Hartog Island, you decide to leave a time capsule. In your time capsule, you have room for: • a piece of paper giving information about the voyage and your feelings about what has happened so far, and • three small objects that will give people in the future interesting information about life at sea in the 1600s. Draw and label each and explain why you think it should go in the time capsule. You can use resources such as the text on page 26, the Internet and encyclopedias to help you. Write your information and ideas on a sheet of paper first, then complete the details below.

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Voyage and feelings:

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Three objects:

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Jan Carstensz – 1 I

were unable to land because of deep mud. By now, Carstensz was becoming increasingly disappointed with the land he had found. He thought it ‘barren and arid’ and ‘overgrown with brushwood and stunted wild trees’. Soon, he decided to return to Batavia. There were several reasons for Dutch interest in the He had now charted around 600 kilometres of Cape York Peninsula. Carstensz marked the southernmost south land. They wanted to: point of his exploration by nailing a wooden tablet to • find precious metals, gems and spices, a tree. • discover opportunities for trading goods with Carstensz wanted to return to Batavia by retracing indigenous people, and his route along the coast. But the captain of the • map more of the coastline to decrease the risk of Arnhem, Willem van Colster, had other ideas. Against shipwrecks. Carstensz’s instructions, the Arnhem cut away from With this in mind, in 1623, the Governor-General the Pera. It would take a shorter route back to of the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia), Pieter Batavia across the Gulf of Carpentaria and then north de Carpentier, sent two small ships on a voyage of to Batavia. In doing so, the Arnhem sailed past the exploration under the command of Jan Carstensz. north–eastern corner of the Northern Territory. The The ships—the Pera and the Arnhem—set sail from Aboriginal reserve that lies in the Northern Territory Batavia (now Jakarta) with Carstensz aboard the Pera. today is now known as Arnhem Land. The crew of the Both ships landed at the islands of Taminbar, Kai and Arnhem also sighted the nearby Wessel Islands. Aru to set up trade treaties with the islanders. They Back at Cape York, Carstensz was furious with then sailed to the south-west coast of New Guinea. van Colster for disobeying him. He wrote that van Here, the crew fought with indigenous people and Colster had been uncooperative throughout the deaths occurred on both sides. voyage, straying off course many times. When the The voyage continued, with the ships sailing down Pera arrived in Batavia two weeks after the Arnhem, the western coast of Cape York Peninsula. Here, Carstensz reported that the land he had explored was Carstensz named the Gulf of Carpentaria, in honour ‘unproductive’ and inhabited by ‘primitive people’ of de Carpentier. But like Willem Jansz, Carstensz who ‘had no knowledge of metals or spices’. However, thought the peninsula was joined to New Guinea. He geographical information gained by Carstensz had a believed that Torres Strait was a ‘bight’—another great influence on Dutch maps that appeared over word for a bay. the next few years.

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n the early 1620s, the Dutch were still interested in the largely unknown ‘south land’. The ‘south land’ to the Dutch by now included New Guinea and the parts of Australia they had discovered—they still believed the two were joined.

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. te o c The crew of the Pera and the Arnhem made several . ch e landings on Cape York Peninsula. Carstensz wrote r er o t that they walked ‘a considerable distance intos the s uper interior’, finding ‘fine, flat countryside with few trees’ as well as a beach with plenty of fish. He noted that there seemed to be no fresh water. The landing party also captured an Aboriginal man. The next day, they were attacked by around 200 angry Aboriginal people. The ships continued south down the peninsula. Here, the crew saw ‘great volumes of smoke’ and people peering at them from among the trees. But the Dutch

Long journeys of exploration were hard on all crew members

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Jan Carstensz – 2 Congratulations! You have been chosen to produce a movie version of the voyage of the Pera and the Arnhem. The movie will be largely based on Carstensz’s journal. You begin by making three vital decisions. 1. (a) Which actor will play the part of Jan Carstensz? Give reasons for your choice.

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(b) Where will most of the movie be shot? Give reasons for your choice.

(c) Who will be the target audience of your movie (e.g. children, teenagers, adults etc.)? Give reasons for your choice.

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2. List the two scenes you think will be the most interesting or exciting in the movie; for example, ‘The Pera cuts away from the Arnhem’. •

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Next, you begin planning the actual scenes of the movie.

Sailing towards uncharted land

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3. Imagine how each scene will look and sound. Describe any interesting sound or visual effects each scene will contain.

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Pieter Nuyts – 1 I

n 1627, the Gulden Zeepaert reached the southwest coast of Australia and travelled along the Great Australian Bight as far as Ceduna. Officers on board included François Thijssen, the captain and Pieter Nuyts, a high-ranking official of the Dutch East India Company. They had been travelling from the Netherlands to Batavia but the strong Southern Ocean winds blew them too far south and they reached the coast at Cape Leeuwin on 26 January.

After almost a year at sea, the Gulden Zeepaert arrived in Batavia. Thijssen had produced excellent charts of the coastline which were praised in future years by French and British explorers for their detail and accuracy. But at what cost to human life and suffering? The lack of fresh food and water led to scurvy, cholera and dehydration. Unhygienic living conditions, infested with rats and cockroaches, resulted in dysentery. Medical facilities on board were very basic. Some of the passengers and crew died on the voyage, while others became seriously ill.

To map the shoreline, the captain sailed close to land as those on board watched the majestic cliffs rise above the waters of the wild ocean.

The Gulden Zeepaert sailed eastwards for 1500 kilometres. Thijssen named Nuyts Land, St Peter

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The captain, with the support of Pieter Nuyts, decided to explore the uncharted waters of the southern coast.

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Island and St Francis Island. The group of islands of which St Peter and St Francis are a part, he named Nuyts Archipelago. From here, Thijssen turned the ship around and headed for Batavia.

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1. Not everyone on board the Gulden Zeepaert would have been happy with Thijssen’s decision to explore the south coast. In the table, write arguments for and against the captain’s decision. For

Against

2. Would you have agreed or disagreed with Thijssen’s decision?

Agreed

Disagreed

3. Why do you think Thijssen and Nuyts wanted to explore an uncharted coastline?

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• ART Map of southern Australian coast

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Label these places on the map: Perth, Adelaide, Ceduna, Cape Leeuwin, Nuyts Land, Nuyts Archipelago. Draw the route taken by the Gulden Zeepaert along the south coast. Draw a compass rose on the map. Illustrate the map with a selection of maritime sketches; e.g. a sailing ship, a mermaid, a whale.

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Pieter Nuyts – 2

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Francisco Pelsaert – 1 The Dutch ship Batavia left its home port of Texel on 27 October 1628. With a cargo of coins, jewels and ivory, it was on course for the East Indies.

The next day, Pelsaert took a lifeboat with most of the ship’s officers and officials of the East India Company and continued north to Batavia (now Jakarta in Indonesia). Captain Jacobsz travelled with them as navigator. Pelsaert intended to return as soon as possible to rescue the survivors.

The ship was owned by the Dutch East India Company and the commander on board was the merchant, Francisco Pelsaert. The purpose of the voyage was to exchange the cargo for valuable spices and other riches which were highly valued by the Europeans.

Cornelisz still wanted a life of piracy and announced that he would take control of any ship which came to rescue them. He and his followers brutally killed many of the survivors who would not support his actions.

The route to Asia took Batavia south, to the Cape of Good Hope at the tip of the African continent. Here the ship could be restocked with fresh supplies and necessary repairs could be made.

Almost three months after the wreck of the Batavia, Pelsaert returned. Discovering the massacre, he immediately put the offenders on trial and many of them, including Cornelisz, were executed. Two mutineers, Wouter Loos and Jan Pelgrom De Bye, were marooned close to Dirk Hartog Island. They were given a small boat and some provisions. They were never heard of again.

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Francisco Pelsaert

While on land, the ship’s captain Jacobsz and another merchant, Cornelisz, became very drunk and were severely reprimanded by Pelsaert for their dreadful behaviour. Neither man liked being spoken to in this way. Pelsaert recovered most of the cargo from the wreck With the agreement of some other crew who were of Batavia. But on his return to Batavia, the East India unhappy with conditions on board, Jacobsz and Company refused to pay him for his work and to give Cornelisz decided they would seize control and run him the job they had promised to him. They believed Batavia as a pirate ship, attacking and stealing from that, somehow, Pelsaert had cheated the company. any ship they saw. But before the plan could be set The courts thought he should have brought Cornelisz in motion, disaster struck. In the early morning of 4 and his men back to Batavia for trial instead of acting June 1629, Batavia ran aground on a reef close to alone. In both cases, he was unable to clear his name the Abrolhos Islands, off the west coast of Australia. and when he died, a short time later, he was a very unhappy man. Most of the crew survived and eventually struggled to the safety of small islands nearby.

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1. Complete the fact file on the ill-fated voyage of the Batavia.

(b) Captain (c) Commander

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(d) Owner (e) Country of origin (f) Date of sailing (g) Cargo (h) Route

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THE DUTCH

Francisco Pelsaert – 2 2. State the reason for Batavia failing to reach her destination:

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3. (a) Do you think Pelsaert should have brought Cornelisz and his followers no back to Batavia for trial? yes

Batavia pounded by large waves while aground on rocks

(b) Give reasons for and against Pelsaert’s decision to deal with the offenders immediately. Against …

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4. If you had been in Pelsaert’s position, what would you have done and why?

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Castaway crawling to safety on shore

5.

(a) (b) (c) (d)

In groups, plan an outline for a play titled ‘Wreck of the Batavia’. Below, list the characters and the main events. As a group, write a script for your play on a separate sheet of paper. Perform your play to the rest of the class.

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The story of Abel Tasman – 1 I

magine it is the 1600s. You are Abel Tasman, an experienced Dutch sea captain. In 1642, the GovernorGeneral of the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia), Antonie Van Diemen, says to you: Tasman, the Dutch East India Company (the VOC) and I would like you to go on a voyage of exploration. We want you to do these things: • Find a new sea route from the East Indies to South America.

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• Find out more about the south land. For example, are there precious metals? What are the people like? Are they keen to trade with us? Map, draw and describe whatever you see.

Antonie Van Diemen

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We walked into a dark, thick forest and heard odd noises that sounded a bit like trumpets and gongs. Some of the crew also thought they heard voices. We all felt as if we were being watched. Even stranger were the notches we found cut into some of the trees. They looked like steps. They were so far apart that we wondered if this land is inhabited by giants. I was glad to go back to the ship in the end.

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On 14 August, 1642, you sail from Batavia (now Jakarta) with two ships under your command—the Heemskerck and the Zeehaen. After landing at the island of Mauritius, you head south until strong winds force you east across the Indian Ocean. On 17 November, you sight land. You don’t know it now, but this is the western coast of Tasmania. Yes—one day it will be named after you! You sail south, then east around the coast, sketching and mapping as you go, and round what will one day be named the Tasman Peninsula. Here you go ashore. One of your crew later describes what you see.

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Crew member from the Zeehaen

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Many years later, it would be discovered that the strange sounds were probably bird calls. The notches were footholds that had been cut by Aborigines to help them climb the trees. The next day, you try to make another landing, but the sea is too rough. So you send the ship’s carpenter into the surf instead! He swims ashore and places a pole carved with the VOC’s mark and a Dutch flag. You have claimed the land for the Netherlands! You call it ‘Van Diemen’s Land’.

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Now you decide to continue sailing to the east. You soon sight New Zealand’s South Island and sail up its coast to the North Island, passing the entrance to Cook Strait. Well done—you are the first European on record to see New Zealand! You head back to the East Indies via Tonga and Fiji and arrive there in June 1643. But Van Diemen is not pleased to see you … So where are the precious metals and other goods? What about the route to South America? You didn’t talk to any people, did you? What were you doing with your time, Tasman?

Um … Do I get another chance?

Antonie Van Diemen

Abel Tasman

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The story of Abel Tasman – 2

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1. The map below shows the route of Tasman’s voyage in 1642.

(a) Below is a list of placenames that are mentioned in the text about Tasman’s voyage. Use an atlas to help you write each in its correct position on the map. • Batavia (Jakarta) • Mauritius • Tonga • Van Diemen’s Land (Tasmania) • Tasman Peninsula • Cook Strait • New Zealand • Indian Ocean

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(b) Use your atlas to help you find six other cities, islands, countries or water bodies (e.g. oceans) that could be labelled on the map. List them below and then write them on the map.

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2. Imagine you are an Aboriginal Australian secretly watching Tasman and his crew as they land on Van Diemen’s Land – your home! Describe your feelings as you hide and watch the Dutch walk around. Remember, this is the first time you have ever seen a white person!

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The story of Abel Tasman – 3 I

t is now January 1644, seven months after your return from your disappointing first voyage of exploration for Governor-General Van Diemen. Despite the fact that Van Diemen would probably like to rename you ‘un-Abel’ Tasman, he decides to send you on another voyage. By now, Australia (at least, the parts that have been discovered by the Dutch) is called New Holland—thanks to you. I’m going to give you another chance to get things right, Tasman. The main things I’d like you to achieve on this voyage are:

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• Find out more about the south land—AGAIN. • Search for the new route to South America—AGAIN. • Go back to Van Diemen’s Land (good choice of name, by the way!) and then circumnavigate New Holland.

Antonie Van Diemen

Governor-General, I found nothing much of value on my expedition. New Holland is one big disappointment. But on the bright side, I have proved that the northern and western parts of New Holland are joined. And thanks to me, we know more about its shape.

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Abel Tasman

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You set off from Indonesia with three ships. But like other Dutch explorers, you believe Torres Strait is a bay. Therefore, you think Australia is joined to New Guinea. You sail round the Gulf of Carpentaria and then map the coasts of what are now the Northern Territory and Western Australia. When you reach North West Cape, you head back to Batavia. Van Diemen is waiting for you …

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Antonie Van Diemen

I really don’t think that such a big place as New Holland is going to have nothing much to offer. I’ll send some better people to go exploring in the future.

But with Van Diemen’s death in 1645, Dutch interest in exploring New Holland begins to wane. Although your reports indicate that the climate and plant life of Tasmania and New Zealand seem good, the Dutch are not interested in settlement. Instead, they want to find people keen to trade with them, or precious metals, gems or spices—none of which had been found on your expeditions. The cost and effort needed for further exploration did not seem worthwhile. As for you, you continue to work for the VOC, although you will never sail around the Australian coast again. You die in 1659 in Batavia. The name ‘Van Diemen’s Land’ is later changed to ‘Tasmania’ in 1856 in your honour. 36 Australia on the map

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The story of Abel Tasman – 4 Imagine that Governor-General Van Diemen is asked to report back to the Dutch East India Company about Tasman’s voyages. Complete his report below. • I think Tasman should now

• I thought Tasman’s first voyage was

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because

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• The sort of person I would choose next time to go on a voyage of exploration would be

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I thought Tasman’s second voyage was

because

• I think we should continue to explore the south land because

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• Tasman’s greatest achievement was:

mapping part of New Holland. ..................... • I think I deserve to have Van Diemen’s Land named after me because

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proving that the northern and western

parts of New Holland are joined. ................... other:

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o c . che e r o t • These are some words I would user tos describe s upe •r Some words I would use to describe New Holland Tasman: are:

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Willem de Vlamingh – 1 M

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any Western Australians know Willem de Vlamingh as the man who named Rottnest Island, a small holiday island about 20 kilometres off the coast of Perth. But not many know the full story. Read these facts about Willem de Vlamingh’s life. Some of the crew went ashore and discovered • Vlamingh was born in 1640 in the Netherlands. a river, on which they also found black swans. In 1696, he was chosen by the Dutch East India Victorszoon named the river Zwane-rivier or Swan Company (the VOC) to lead the last major Dutch River. Vlamingh’s men travelled some 20 kilometres voyage of exploration to the ‘south land’. This up the river. The fleet then headed north along the expedition had four purposes: coast. 1. To find a missing Dutch ship, the Ridderschap Black swan and cygnet van Holland. This VOC ship had vanished in 1694 somewhere in the Indian Ocean. It was thought that it may have been wrecked off the western coast of New Holland. 2. To look for survivors of the Vergulde Draeck. 3. To chart the western coast of New Holland and explore its inland areas.

• On the voyage north, Vlamingh charted the coast as far as North West Cape, landing several times. One of these landings was on Dirk Hartog Island. Here, Vlamingh found Dirk Hartog’s pewter plate that he had left 81 years before. Vlamingh removed Hartog’s plate to take back to the Netherlands and left his own, nailed to a pole (made from a tree trunk from Rottnest).

4. To capture a native of the South Land.

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• Vlamingh’s expedition set out on 3 May 1696. There were three ships under his command—the Geelvinck, the Nyptangh and the Weseltje. On the voyage to New Holland, the fleet searched for the missing ship at two small islands in the Indian Ocean—St Paul Island and Amsterdam Island. But there was no trace of the ship or any survivors.

• In February 1697, Vlamingh’s fleet headed for the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). Once there, he reported that there was no sign of the Ridderschap van Holland and that the land he had seen was dry, with no obvious opportunities for trading and few useful resources. As well as Hartog’s plate, Vlamingh showed some plants, shells and oil from timber he found on Rottnest Island, black swans and illustrations done by the ship’s artist.

• On Christmas Day 1696, an island was sighted by the crew of the Nyptangh. When the Dutch landed on the island, they found ‘a kind of rat as big as a common cat’. This was what is known today as a quokka, a type of wallaby. The island was named Rottenest (‘Rat’s nest’) by the map-maker and artist, Victor Victorszoon.

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• The plate Vlamingh left on Dirk Hartog Island was found by French sailors in 1801. It had fallen off the pole, so they re-attached it. In 1818, French explorer Louis de Freycinet took it to France, where it went missing for many years. In 1940, it was found, and returned to Australia in 1947. It is now on display at the Western Australian Maritime Museum’s Shipwreck Galleries.

• From Rottnest, the ships sailed to where the city of Fremantle now stands. Quokka from Rottnest Island

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Willem de Vlamingh – 2 I

magine that the Rottnest Island Museum decides to create an interesting display about Vlamingh and his discoveries for its visitors. • Decide on six objects, photographs and/or pictures you think should be part of the display. • Write a simple caption for each. • Suggest how or where each might be obtained.

Willem de Vlamingh

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Vlamingh display

Object, photograph or picture?

How/Where to obtain

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Caption

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Named after the Leeuwin (‘Lioness’) which sailed from the Netherlands to the Dutch East Indies in 1621. The name is first known to have been marked on a chart in 1627.

(now Cape Leeuwin)

1619 Leeuwin Land

1619 Frederik de Houtman Houtman Abrolhos Abrolhos is Portuguese for ‘Look out!’

1619 Frederik de Houtman Edel Land Area of land from Geraldton north to Shark Bay, Western Australia. Named after Jacob d’Edel, a merchant on one of the ships in Houtman’s fleet.

1642 Abel Tasman New Holland (now Australia) The western parts of Australia discovered by the Dutch.

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1616 Dirk Hartog Eendracht Land Land north of Dirk Hartog Island to North West Cape, Western Australia. Named after Hartog’s ship, the Eendracht.

1628 Frederikszoon de Witt de Witt’s Land Area of Western Australia from 21°S on the coast to approximately 300 km further north.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 1627 Pieter Nuyts/François Thijssen Nuyt’s Land Region from Cape Leeuwin (WA) to Nuyts Archipelago (SA).

Groote Eylandt means ‘big island’ in Dutch.

(largest island in Gulf of Carpentaria)

1644 Abel Tasman Groote Eylandt

1696–1697 Willem de Vlamingh Rottnest Island Dutch for ‘Rat’s Nest’ – the small wallabies on the island (quokkas) were mistaken for rats.

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Named after the GovernorGeneral of the Dutch East Indies, Antonie van Diemen.

(now Tasmania)

‘Keerweer’ is Dutch for the nautical expression ‘turn again’.

(now Cape Keerweer)

1606 Willem Jansz Keerweer Island

Arnhem Land Named after Willem van Colsten’s ship.

1623 Jan Carstensz Gulf of Carpentaria Named after the GovernorGeneral of the Dutch East Indies, Pieter de Carpentier.

1642 Abel Tasman Van Diemen’s Land

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* NB: For the sake of clarity, all Dutch placenames on this map have been written in English; e.g. ‘Leeuwin Land’ was originally ‘Land van de Leeuwin’ in Dutch.

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Map of Dutch exploration routes and accidental contact with Australia in the 17th century Te

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Australia on the map

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The Duyfken country of origin: type: length: displacement, laden: hull: armament:

Netherlands fast armed ship approx. 20 m 110 tonnes est. wood 6–10 light guns

THE DUTCH

42

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THE DUTCH

Quiz – The Dutch 1. In the 1600s and 1700s, many Dutch ships were wrecked off the coast of:

13. Who was the first European on record to see New Zealand?

(a) Tasmania (b) Western Australia (c) Victoria 14. Abel Tasman mapped part of the coastline of Western Australia and the 2. The VOC was another name for the East India Company.

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3. In which year did the crew of the Duyfken visit Australia?

15. By 1644, the Dutch were calling the parts of Australia they had discovered by which name?

4. Who was the captain of the Duyfken?

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16. Which Dutch explorer found Dirk Hartog’s plate?

5. In the early 1600s, the Dutch thought that Australia was part of New

. 17. Off which island group was Batavia wrecked?

6. What was named after Dirk Hartog? (a) a city (b) an animal (c) an island

© R. I . C.Pub l i cat i ons 18. Name the men marooned on the mainland. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 7. Which metal was Dirk Hartog’s plate made from?

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8. The Dutch were interested in the ‘south land’ because they thought it might have precious gems, metals and s

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19. Name the ship in which Pieter Nuyts sailed to Batavia.

20. How much did Pieter Nuyts add to his journey by exploring the southern coastline?

o c . che e r o t r s uper 10. The Gulf of Carpentaria was named afters a Dutch explorer. True or False? 9. Jan Carstensz commanded two ships on his 1623 voyage. One was the Pera. Name the other.

(a) 1500 km

(b) 3000 km (c) 4500 km

21. Name the two islands near Ceduna named by François Thijssen.

22. What cargo was Batavia carrying when it was wrecked ?

11. Carstensz mapped part of which peninsula?

12. What is the modern name for Van Diemen’s Land?

23. How long did it take Francisco Pelsaert to return to rescue survivors of Batavia? (a)

1 month (b)

3 months (c)

1 year

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THE DUTCH

The Dutch – Answers

Francisco Pelsaert – 2 ........................ p. 33

Willem Jansz – 2 ................................ p. 25

2. Wrecked off the west coast of Australia. 3. – 4. Teacher check

1.

The story of Abel Tasman – 2 .............. p. 35 1. (a)

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Torres Strait the Banda Islands no False Java turn again nine Answers should indicate one of the following: it did not seem to have any trading opportunities or gold or it did not seem to be suitable for settlement. (d) Answers will vary, but should indicate that Jansz had lost almost half of his crew or that there was little food or water found. (e) They showed Australia joined to New Guinea. 4. Teacher check

(b) Teacher check 2. Teacher check

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2. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 3. (a) (b) (c)

The story of Abel Tasman – 4 ............. p. 37 Teacher check

Willem de Vlamingh – 2 ..................... p. 39

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Quiz – The Dutch ........................... p. 43 f orr evi e ur posesonl y• Dirk Hartog • – 1 .................................. p.w 26 p Teacher check

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1. Answers will vary but should be similar to the following: On 26 October 1616, the ship Eendracht of Amsterdam arrived here. The upper-merchant was Gilles Miebais of Liege and the captain was Dirk Hartog of Amsterdam. On 27 October 1616, the Eendracht set sail for Bantam. The under-merchant was Jan Stins and the upper steersman was Pieter Doores of Bil.

Dirk Hartog – 2 .................................. p. 27 Teacher check

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Jan Carstensz – 2 ............................... p. 29 Teacher check

Pieter Nuyts – 1 .................................. p. 30 Teacher check

Pieter Nuyts – 2 .................................. p. 31 Teacher check

Francisco Pelsaert – 1 ........................ p. 33 1. (a) Batavia (c) Francisco Pelsaert (e) Netherlands (g) coins, jewels ivory

(b) Western Australia Dutch 1606 Willem Jansz Guinea (c) an island pewter spices the Arnhem False Cape York Peninsula Tasmania Abel Tasman Northern Territory New Holland Willem de Vlamingh Abrolhos Islands Wouter Loos and Jan Pelgrom De Bye Gulden Zeepaert (b) 3000 km St Francis Island, St Peter Island coins, jewels, ivory (b) 3 months

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23.

(b) Jacobsz (d) Dutch East India Company (f) 27 October 1628 (h) Cape of Good Hope

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r o e t THE s Bo r e p ok u SFRENCH

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o c . che e r o t r s super French ships sailing west towards an unknown horizon

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Personal teachers notes

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List of resources:

Useful websites:

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Extension activities:

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The French

Teachers notes

Introduction

B

etween the 16th and 19th centuries, French explorers travelled into the Southern Hemisphere on expeditions to discover and map the unknown South Land (Terra Australis Incognita) and to make scientific discoveries and recordings. While the British were looking at and colonising areas of New Holland, the French mapped parts of the coastline and studied the flora, fauna and indigenous inhabitants.

Baudin also charted nearly two-thirds of the Australian coastline, with 600 kilometres of this coast being charted for the first time.

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At Shark Bay in 1772, St Alouarn buried an Act of Possession, claiming the west coast of New Holland (Australia) for the King of France.

Other French explorers such as de Freycinet, Duperrey, d’Urville and Laplace continued to visit Australia with possible plans to establish a convict colony on the south-west coast. This was until the British major, Lockyer, in the Amity, landed at Albany, Western Australia, and raised the British flag. This stopped all French hopes of colonising parts of Australia. Some possible reasons as to why the French were unsuccessful in establishing a colony in Australia include the French wars and the focus on restoring peace and the economy after Napoleon Bonaparte’s departure.

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Many of the French expeditions resulted in important scientific discoveries in anthropology, botany, zoology, astronomy, geography and geology. One of the most important French expeditions to Australia was led by Nicolas Baudin between 1800 and 1804. Baudin was a merchant navy captain, appointed by Napoleon Bonaparte to explore the west and south of Terra Australis Incognita. Twentythree scientists were appointed to the expedition that consisted of two naval ships, the Géographe, captained by Baudin, and the

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Naturaliste, captained by Jacques Hamelin. The Baudin expedition collected samples of 2542 new animal species. This more than doubled the number of known animal species in the world!

Note: To help students with the activity on page 57, The naturalists, use the website: <www.abc.net.au/navigators>

Explorer

Ship

Dates

Louis de Bougainville

Boudeuse

1767–1768

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Yves-Joseph de Kerguelen-Trémarec

Fortune

François de St Alouarn

Gros Ventre

Marion Dufresne

Mascarin and Marquis de Castries

1772

Jean François de Galaup, Comte de La Perouse

Astrolabe and Boussole

1786–1788

Joseph Antoine Bruni d’Entrecasteaux

Recherche and Espérance

1791–1793

Nicolas Baudin

Géographe

1801–1803

1771–1772 1772

Naturaliste

1801–1803

Casuarina

1802–1803

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Louis de Freycinet

Uranie

Dumont d’Urville

Coquille (renamed Astrolabe)

Cyrille Laplace

Favorite

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Additional Activities

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Jacques Felix Emmanuel Hamelin Louis de Freycinet

1818–1820

1826–1829, 1837 1829–1830

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Use the Internet to create a fact file about one of the talented scientists or artists on the Baudin expedition.

• Design a poster that commemorates the French accomplishments in the discovery, mapping and scientific exploration of Australia. Include artwork and text. Explain the significance of your poster to the class.

• In the past, when a new species was discovered in Australia its existence couldn’t be proven by taking a quick photograph. Scientists and artist drew and painted the new animal or plant. The specimen may have also been carefully collected and preserved for the return voyage.

– – – –

Charles-Alexandre Lesueur – artist Jean Leschenault – botanist François Péron – zoologist Nicholas-Martin Petit – artist

(1778–1846) (1777–1805) (1775–1810) (1777–1805)

• In a group, discuss what you think Australia’s Indigenous inhabitants, the Aboriginal Australians, thought when they saw large ships with hundreds of French crewmen anchored off their shores. Write, rehearse and act a short scene that presents your ideas. • Sketch and paint a scene from Josephine’s Garden. Include Australian plants and animals.

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THE FRENCH

Fascinating facts French exploration of New Holland 1768 Louis Antoine de Bougainville was stopped 100 km from the coast of New Holland by the Great Barrier Reef.

What is a revolution? Use a dictionary to find the meaning of the word.

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1792 François Aleno de St Alouarn sails along the WA coast, burying the ‘Act of Possession’ and claiming the west coast of New Holland for France.

Napoleon Bonaparte

lthough there were great troubles in France between 1792 and 1815, the French government wished for its country to be the leader of all nations in scientific discoveries. It paid for many scientific voyages across the globe.

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1792–93 Antoine Bruni d’Entrecasteaux circumnavigates Australia one and a half times in the vessel Recherche in search of La Perouse. Lands in Tasmania twice.

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etween 1792 and 1815, France was at war! The French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars raged on, mostly due to France’s leader, Napoleon Bonaparte, and his hunger for power.

Britain and France were often at war and were competing for new land and trade opportunities. Look in an encyclopedia to find the French and British flags. Draw and colour them in your book.

he. French wereu famous for building large, reliable © R. I C .P bl i c at i o n s ships for long journeys. T •f orr evi e wan Internet pur po se s nl Use search engine such as o ‘google’ toy find• images

The French set foot on Australian soil. Members of the Dufresne expedition land at Marion Bay, Tasmania, and the first contact with Tasmanian Aborigines is recorded.

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1802 Nicolas Baudin charts the south and west coasts.

1801–1803 Baudin crosses paths with Matthew Flinders on 8 April 1802 near the South Australian coast – now named Encounter Bay. 1818 Freycinet returns to take Vlamingh’s plate to Paris.

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1801 Louis de Freycinet finds Vlamingh’s pewter plate on Dirk Hartog Island.

of French ships from the 1700s.

o c . che e r o t r s super uropeans were very interested in the mysterious land in the French ships sailing west towards the unknown horizon

E

south. At this time, maps had many blank spaces and errors.

For many years, the French and the British travelled across the globe, racing each other to discover new land and claim it as their own. Plan and write a narrative story called ‘The great race’! You are the captain of a French ship racing against a British ship to discover and claim the land, Australia. 48

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THE FRENCH

Fascinating facts B

etween 1792 and 1815, the French travelled to the land known as New Holland that would later be renamed ‘Australia’ by the British.

The French wished to make scientific discoveries and to find a great port where French fleets could stop over to make repairs and restock supplies for their journeys. The French hoped to find a land that could produce meat, cheese, wine and timber but many factors stopped the French from ever settling in Australia.

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Name one reason why the French did not settle in Australia. King Louis XVI sent the captain, La Perouse, on a scientific voyage to create charts and maps of new land in the south.

L

n the early 1800s, the French explorer, Captain Nicolas Baudin, on a return journey from Australia to France, told his officers to leave their cabins so the live specimens he had collected could be stored there. Wombats, emus, a swan, one dingo, a tortoise and some parrots travelled to France first class!

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a Perouse and his ships arrived in Botany Bay, Australia, eight days after the First Fleet, which arrived on 26 January 1788. La Perouse left New Holland in February of that year and the ship and its crew vanished forever!

Sketch a humorous cartoon of the Australian animals travelling first class on board a French ship.

January 26 is the date we celebrate Australia Day to commemorate the founding of the new colony.

What if b France colonised © R. I . C. Pu l i chad at i onsAustralia instead of the British? •f orr evi ew1. p ur posesonl y• On a sheet of paper, write as many facts about France and its culture as you and a partner can think of.

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Marion Dufresne confronting Maori warrior

2. Write three ways that Australian culture would be different today if the French had settled here and not the British. Think about language, food, music, sport and others.

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How do you and your family celebrate Australia Day? Share your answer with a friend.

3. Draw what you think the Australian flag might look like. 4. Choose two Australian icons (such as the Sydney Harbour Bridge or ‘the meat pie’) and rename them, giving them a ‘French twist’.

o c . che e r o t r s s pe he u passengers ofr a French expedition to Australia in 1772 were

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the first to set foot on Tasmanian soil. They were searching for water and timber. The ship then headed to New Zealand where 28 crew, including the captain, Marion Dufresne, accompanied Maori chiefs on a fishing expedition—never to return!

What do you think happened to Dufresne and his crew? In a small group, act out a brief role-play showing your ideas of the crew’s fate. 49 www.ricgroup.com.au

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THE FRENCH

The Great South Land 1. Use the following words to complete the passage. Barrier discoveries

fishing storm

supplies spaces

climate voyage

ship visit

Holland

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French sail

The Mascarin and the Marquis de Castries preparing to anchor in a calm cove to carry out much needed repairs after colliding in open ocean during a storm

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Between the 16th• andf 19th centuries, French explorers to s discover and map the Great o rr e vi ewset pur pose o n l y • 1

. By the middle of the 18th century, the French began

South Land and to make scientific

2 3

on their maps of the Pacific Ocean. In 1766, Louis de Bougainville , he ventured close to the north-eastern

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left France for the Southern Hemisphere. During the

4

part of Australia, but was stopped by the Great

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to try to fill in the blank

5

Reef. Six years later, Yves-Joseph de Kerguelen

spotted land from his ship that he believed to have a warm

.

6

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His second in command, François de St Alouarn, was separated from Kerguelen during a storm and anchored his 7

in a bay on the west coast of Australia (known as New

8

at the time).

St Alouarn sailed north up the west coast and landed in Shark Bay, where on 30 March 1772, at Turtle Bay, he raised the 9

flag claiming the western coast for France. Also in 1772, Marion Dufresne took his two ships

the Mascarin and the Marquis de Castries to Tasmania for fresh had collided during a violent record a

11 12

10

of timber, as the two ships

and needed repairs. Dufresne became the first Frenchman to

to the south-east of Tasmania. Sadly, Dufresne and his crew disappeared shortly

afterwards in New Zealand, after accompanying Maori chiefs on a

13

expedition and never

returning. 50 Australia on the map

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THE FRENCH

Missing at sea – La Perouse T

he French king, King Louis XVI, sent Jean-François de Galaup, Comte de La Pérouse on a scientific voyage to prepare maps of the Great South Land. La Perouse set sail in August 1785 with his two ships, the Astrolabe and the Boussole. After much travelling and exploration of the Pacific region, the expedition arrived in Botany Bay, Australia, eight days after the First Fleet, which arrived on 26 January 1788 (now celebrated each year as Australia Day).

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The crew went to the first British settlement in Australia, Port Jackson, where La Perouse was able to gather fresh water and supplies for the voyage. Six weeks later, they left Botany Bay and sailed north-east towards Tonga.

1. Answer these questions about the text. (a) Name of French Captain

(b) Name of his two ships

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Although La Perouse and his crew planned to return to France by December of 1788, the two ships and their crews were never seen again.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons f o rhappened r evi pand ur oand se sonl y• What • do you think toe Law Perouse hisp ships crews? (c) Date left France

(d) Date arrived in Botany Bay

(e) Time spent in Botany Bay

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2. Write the final journal entry of La Perouse. Include some of the information you have recorded in Question 1 and finish with the reason for the disappearance of the ships.

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THE FRENCH

Mapping d’Entrecasteaux’s journey I

n August 1785, the French king, King Louis XVI, sent the captain, La Perouse, on a scientific voyage to create maps of the Great South Land. La Perouse and his crew arrived in Botany Bay, Australia, and left six weeks later. La Perouse, his crew and the two ships, the Astrolabe and the Boussole, were never to be seen again! What could King Louis XVI do? He had lost two ships! On 28 September 1791, the king gave instructions to Bruni d’Entrecasteaux to take two more ships, the Recherche and the Esperance, to the south of the globe to: • conduct scientific surveys of New Holland’s southern coasts, • conduct research among the Tasmanian Aborigines, and • find La Perouse and the ships the Astrolabe and the Boussole.

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Bruni d’Entrecasteaux

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1. Use an atlas to help you follow d’Entrecasteaux’s journey on the map. Write the names of each place in the boxes.

• New Zealand • Papa New Guinea • Timor • Ambon • Van Diemens Land (Tasmania) • Fiji Islands • Cape Leeuwin • Botany Bay • Esperance • Point D’Entrecasteaux

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THE FRENCH

Josephine’s Garden I

n the early 1800s, when Napoleon Bonaparte was in power in France, Napoleon’s Empress, Josephine, lived in a palace called Chateau Malmaison. There, she cared for a garden which some called Josephine’s Garden. The garden displayed many live Australian plants, birds and animals that had been collected or captured by French explorers and transported by ship to France for display in the garden.

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Marie Joséphine Rose Tascher de la Pagerie later became Empress Josephine

1. Choose one of the animals mentioned above and name it (e.g. Ernie the Emu).

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It is said that Captain Nicolas Baudin, on a journey back from Australia, told his officers to leave their cabins so the live specimens he had collected could be stored there. Wombats, emus, a swan, one dingo, a tortoise and some parrots travelled to France first class!

2. You are going to draw a cartoon strip showing the adventures of your animal. It will: • be captured by Nicolas Baudin • travel on a French ship across the globe • join the other animals in Josephine’s Garden in Paris • What happens next? (Your cartoon will have artwork, speech bubbles and think bubbles with text.)

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3. Ask a friend to read your cartoon. Use a dictionary to check your spelling. Now copy it onto art paper and colour it for display. 53 www.ricgroup.com.au

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THE FRENCH

The Baudin expedition – 1

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October 1800 Dear Nicolas Take the vessel Géographe and set sail for New Holland. Explore its coastline and look for good harbours. Examine its land and sea resources and collect many scientific specimens. r r o e t s Bo e Also, study the lifestyles and customs of the p o u k Aboriginal people.S Emmanuel Hamelin will be your secondin-command. He will captain the vessel Naturaliste. Good luck and good speed. icolas Baudin was given instructions by Napoleon The Emperor Bonaparte to lead a very important Nicolas Baudin

N

Napoleon Bonaparte © R. I . C.Publ i ca t i oknown nsat the time as New Australia,

expedition to explore the coast of

•f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Holland.

1. List the five things was Nicolas instructed to do in New Holland. •

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. te o Nicolas Baudin hired many scientists to go on the journey to Australia. The scientists were in charge of c . c e keeping records, making sketches and the specimens of flora (plants) and fauna (animals). hcollecting r e o tof the type of specimen he may r 2. Use a dictionary to find the definition of each type of scientist. Draw as picture s r u e p have collected. Label each specimen. • •

Scientist

Field of science definition

Records and specimens collected

botanist mineralogist zoologist 54 Australia on the map

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THE FRENCH

The Baudin Expedition – 2 1. Read the text about the Baudin expedition. Highlight or underline the numbers and dates in the text.

O

ne of the most important French expeditions to Australia was led by Nicolas Baudin between 1800 and 1803. Baudin was a navy captain, appointed by Napoleon Bonaparte to explore the south-west and southern coast of Australia (New Holland).

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Twenty-three scientists were appointed to the expedition that consisted of two naval ships, the Géographe, captained by Baudin, and the Naturaliste, captained by Jacques Hamelin.

Seven months after their October 1800 departure from France, land was sighted at Cape Leeuwin on the west coast of Australia. The crew went ashore and began collecting and recording specimens. The Baudin expedition collected samples of 2542 new animal species. This more than doubled the number of known animal species in the world!

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the Australian coastline, with 600 kilometres of this coast being charted for the first time. When Baudin encountered Matthew Flinders in the British ship, the Investigator, he had already mapped 50 leagues (roughly 250 km) of the southern coast. Flinders had hoped to claim Preparations for the journey were made quickly mapping the entire southern coast himself! so that France could win the race to chart the The area where the two ships met was named unknown parts of the southern coast of Australia Encounter Bay to commemorate this meeting. before the British. During the expedition, Nicolas Baudin named hundreds of locations in Australia, with over 300 of those names still in use today. Sadly, Baudin did not return to France as he passed away during the return journey on 16 September 1803. He had contracted tuberculosis some time earlier. The expedition reached France in Nicolas Baudin studying 1804. uncharted coastline

Baudin and Hamelin charted nearly two-thirds of

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Number quiz! Find the numbers and dates from the text above.

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Years the Baudin expedition occurred

Number of scientists on board

Baudin and Hamelin charted for the first time

mapped by Baudin named by Baudin in when he met Matthew use today Flinders

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Time taken to travel to Number of new Australia specimens collected

o c . che e r o t r s super Amount of coast Number of places Date Baudin Length of coastline

passed away from tuberculosis

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THE FRENCH

The encounter – Flinders and Baudin I n his vessel, the Géographe, Frenchman Nicolas Baudin was travelling west, mapping the southern coast of Australia and making scientific observations.

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On 8 April 1802, the two ships unexpectedly met near Kangaroo Island off the southern coast (of what is now South Australia). Although France and Britain had previously been at war, the two captains met with their interpreters to discuss their voyages. Flinders discovered that Baudin had already mapped 50 leagues of the southern coast.

1. The encounter role-play

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Travelling east, also along the southern coast, was Matthew Flinders with his British expedition in the ship Investigator. Flinders wished to claim that he had mapped the entire southern coast himself.

(a) Allocate the role of the British captain, Matthew Flinders, and the French ©R . I . C. Pu bl i at i o ns captain, Nicolas Baudin, toc yourself and a partner. Baudin: •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

(b) Imagine that one of you has stepped onto the other’s ship to discuss your expeditions. How do you think the captains are feeling? (Remember each man wants to be the first to map the southern coast!) Make a list.

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The area where the two captains met was named Encounter Bay to commemorate their meeting.

Flinders:

Feelings

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(c) What type of information do you think the two captains exchanged about their journeys? Make a list.

• •

Matthew Flinders

Nicolas Baudin

2. (a) With your partner, role-play the scene between the two captains. Speak without an accent to begin with. After a number of rehearsals, try giving Baudin a French accent and Flinders an English one. 3. When you feel ready, perform your ‘encounter’ role-play to another group or the class. 56

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THE FRENCH

The encounter – Flinders and Baudin

1. Use the information on page 56 to write a newspaper article about the encounter between Matthew Flinders, in the Investigator, and Nicolas Baudin, in the Géographe. The article is to be printed in the Port Jackson Weekly, the newspaper for the first British settlement in Botany Bay, Australia. 30 April 1802

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(Headline)

The Port Jackson Weekly

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(Caption for photograph in box)

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2. Design a stamp Design a stamp that could be sold to commemorate the encounter between Matthew Flinders and Nicolas Baudin in Encounter Bay on 8 April 1802.

(a) Use neat colouring to make it look effective. You may like to look on the Internet for pictures of the ships, the Investigator and the Géographe. (b) Copy your stamp onto art paper for display. 57 www.ricgroup.com.au

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THE FRENCH

The Freycinet expedition – 1 1. Read the information about the Freycinet expedition.

A

young officer, Louis-Claude de Saulces de Freycinet, commanded the ship Casuarina during the Baudin expedition (1802–1803). He was given the task of mapping the gulfs of South Australia. In 1811, Louis de Freycinet created the very first published map to show the entire Australian coastline.

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After Napoleon Bonaparte was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo, the French monarchy returned to the throne. In 1817, King Louis XVIII ordered Freycinet to lead an expedition in the ship Uranie. It was to be a scientific voyage, studying the natural history, botany and geography of the earth.

Uranie reached the west coast of Australia one year later and, in Shark Bay, encountered Aboriginal people, whom the scientists and crew studied for two weeks. Freycinet believed the western coast to be a desolate place with few trees and without the resources needed for the crew to rest there, so they continued on to the British settlement of Port Jackson, near Botany Bay.

After refreshing the ship’s supplies, the expedition headed for the Falkland Islands but disaster struck! The ship collided with a rock and was lost to the sea. The crew lived off the land, hunting and fishing, until they were rescued. A new ship was bought and Freycinet and his crew returned to France.

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1. Use a dictionary to help you write definitions for these words.

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2. What was published in 1812?

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(a) monarchy:

(b) botany

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3. What event led to the monarchy returning to the throne in France?

4. What was Freycinet’s opinion of the west coast of Australia?

(c) desolate

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THE FRENCH

The Freycinet expedition – 2 Read about three unexpected events that occurred during the Freycinet expedition. Choose the one that interests you the most and complete the activity. 1. The stowaway!

T

wo days into the voyage of the Uranie, Freycinet’s wife, Rose, appeared on the ship. She had slipped aboard in a sailor’s uniform. In 1817, women were not permitted to travel on such expeditions. Although the naval authorities had the power to drop her off at the next port, they allowed her to continue on the voyage.

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Rose de Freycinet

Allocate roles. Journalist:

Rose de Freycinet:

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You and a partner are going to role-play an interview between a journalist and Rose de Freycinet that occurred once she had returned to France.

On a separate sheet of paper, write five interview questions and answer them as Rose de Freycinet. Rehearse your role-play and present it to another group or the class. 3. Shipwrecked!

2. Convicts on board!

fter leaving Port Jackson, the Uranie © R . I . C . P u b l i c a t i ons AAt French sailed east for the Falkland Islands. T Bay the unexpected happened! •f orr evi ew pur po s e s onl y• The ship collided with a submerged rock and water poured in from the many holes created. The crew tried pumping the water out and using spare sails to cover the holes, but the ship was beyond repair.

(a) Create a cartoon strip that shows the adventures of one of the convicts.

Design and make a diorama of the Uranie, after it had collided with the rock near the Falkland Islands.

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he Freycinet expedition left Australia after collecting supplies at Port Jackson. The following day, ten convicts slipped out from their hiding places on the ship. Freycinet did not wish to turn the Uranie around and travel back to the settlement of Port Jackson, so he allowed the convicts to stay on board the ship as crew.

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o c . • how the convictc escaped from prison, shoe box, e her r • how he boarded the Uranie, o t s super • where he stowed away on the ship,

Your cartoon must show:

Materials:

• what happened after he revealed himself to the captain and crew.

Design: On a separate sheet of paper, draw your design. Label it by listing the materials you will use for each part. Show your design to your teacher. Collect your materials and begin your diorama.

(b) Use a ruler to divide a sheet of paper into eight sections and begin drawing your cartoon. Remember to include speech and thought bubbles!

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THE FRENCH

A mystery solved! – La Perouse Lost at sea

J

ean François de Galaup, Comte de La Pérouse, was sent by King Louis XVI on a scientific voyage to prepare charts of the Great South Land. In August, La Perouse set sail with his ships the Astrolabe and the Boussole, arriving in Botany Bay around the same time as the First Fleet, which arrived on 26 January 1788.

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The ships went to the first British settlement, Port Jackson, where La Perouse was able to take on board fresh water and supplies for the voyage.

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Astrolabe in full sail

1. True or False?

The expedition left to travel along the southern and western coasts of Australia, planning to return to France by December 1788. The two ships and their crews were never seen again. Thirty-eight years after the Astrolabe and the Boussole disappeared, an expedition was organised to look for the missing ships.

(a) The last place La Perouse was known to have visited was Hobart, Tasmania. True

False

(b) l Vanikoro ist one of the © R. I . C.Pub i ca i o nSanta sCruz islands. True False •leftf o rr e vi ew u r p o s e sonl y• Jules d’Urville France for Australia in p (c) D’Urville travelled to Santa Cruz as he had 1826, stopping at Hobart, Tasmania. Here he heard about a shipwreck site.

True

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D’Urville was told that a British merchant, Captain Peter Dillon, had travelled to Vanikoro, a Santa Cruz island, and discovered relics. These relics included swivel guns, cooking utensils and a bronze bell.

False

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heard relics had been discovered there.

(d) The islanders happily welcomed the crew of the two French ships to their island.

True False . te Arriving at the island in early 1828, d’Urville (e) Peter Dillon was a British merchant. o agreed the relics belonged to the ships from c . True False e La Perouse’s expedition andc heard tales of her r o how both ships were lost. t s s r u e p 2. Internet challenge! One ship had run into rocks and the crew attacked by the islanders. The ship broke up and its crew were lost to the sea.

Use a search engine such as ‘google’ to find an image of the Perouse monument in Botany Bay, Sydney. Try these search words: monument Perouse Botany Bay

It is believed that the other ship ran aground. The crew were able to give gifts to the islanders, who allowed them to build a smaller vessel and leave in it. None of the crew was heard of again.

On a sheet of art paper, draw and colour the monument. 60

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THE FRENCH

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France before 1800 corvette 37.8 m 355 tonnes wood 30 guns

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country of origin: built: type: length: weight: hull: armament:

Le Géographe

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Australia on the map

Cape Rose Cape Rose, in Shark Bay, was named after Freycinet’s wife, Rose, who secretly boarded the ship and circumnavigated the world with her husband.

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Point Casuarina Named after the schooner commanded by Louis de Freycinet. This Australian-built ship accompanied the Géographe on the 1803 survey.

Leschenault Inlet Named after Jean Leschenault de la Tour, botanist on the Géographe.

Geographe Bay The Géographe was the lead ship commanded by Nicolas Baudin (1801–1803) on his expedition that charted sections of the southern coast of Australia and made thousands of scientific discoveries.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Cape Naturaliste Named after the second ship on the Baudin expedition. The Naturaliste was captained by Jacques Hamelin.

Saint Allouarn Island Three miles off the coast of Cape Leeuwin, the island is named after Louis Saint Alouarn, a French explorer, who made the first scientific survey of Western Australia in 1772.

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Cape Bouvard Cape Bouvard was named in honour of the French astronomer, Alexis Bouvard, who discovered comets shortly before the departure of the Baudin expedition in October 1800.

Cape Peron Named after François Péron, naturalist on the Géographe, who later also helped write the history of the voyage.

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r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Cape or Point Freycinet Named after Louis de Freycinet, who was captain of the Casuarina during the Baudin expedition’s return journey. He later commanded his own expedition in the Uranie (1890– 1820), ending in a shipwreck in the Falkland Islands.

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La Perouse La Perouse is a suburb of Sydney named in memory of La Perouse, the lost French explorer. A monument stands on the northern shore of Botany Bay—the last place the La Perouse expedition was seen.

Map summary of French exploration of Australia

THE FRENCH

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Map summary of French exploration Te routes of Australia

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Quiz – The French 1. Complete the titles of the two wars France was involved in during the time French navigators were mapping Australia.

9. The name of the ship captained by Nicolas Baudin was: (a) Géographe

Revolution and

The F

(b) Astrolabe (c) Boussole

the Napoleonic W

(d) Naturaliste

2. Napoleon’s Empress created a garden in a palace in Paris which was known as: J

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10. The name of the ship on the Baudin expedition that was captained by Jacques Hamelin was: (a) Géographe

G

3. St Alouarn claimed the West Coast of New Holland for France by burying the ‘Act of Possession’ and by raising which country’s flag?

(c) Boussole

(d) Naturaliste

11. What is the name of the bay where the two captains, Baudin of the Géographe, and Matthew Flinders of the Investigator, met in 1802?

4. Louis de Freycinet was the first person to create a map that showed the entire Australian coastline. False

True

(b) Astrolabe

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Empress Josephine

© R. I . C.Pub i ca t i ons Opinion Factl 13. Nicolas Baudin never returned to • f o r r e v i e w p u r p o e stoonl y• France after hiss long voyage snorkelling

12. In the early 1800s, Australia was known as New Holland.

5. The crew of the Dufresne expedition went missing in New Zealand after accompanying Maoris chiefs on which type of expedition?

Australia as he passed away from scurvy.

6. Which famous Australian reef did Louis de Bougainville’s ship collide with, preventing him from ever reaching Australia?

True

Nicolas Baudin

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14. Name de Freycinet’s wife who, secretly stowed away on board the ship, the Uranie, to join her husband on the expedition.

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7. It is believed that the La Perouse expedition arrived at Botany Bay about the same time as the first fleet. This day is celebrated each year on 26 January and is known as: A

False

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fishing

Day

15. At which islands did de Freycinet lose his ship, the Uranie, after colliding with a submerged rock? F

Islands

16. Complete the sentence.

8. Bruni d’Entrecasteaux was sent by King Louis XVI to find which captain and his ships?

Swivel guns, cooking utensils and a bronze b were discovered on a Santa Cruz island, leading to the discovery of the fate of the La Perouse expedition.

(a) Baudin (b) Freycinet

17. The last place La Perouse was known to have visited before his disappearance was Port Jackson.

(c) La Perouse

True

False

Bruni d’Entrecasteaux

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THE FRENCH

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Quiz – The French

The Astrolabe

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons (a) mineralogist botanist f orr evi ew pur p(b)o sesonl y• False True •

22. Which of the scientists listed would collect and study plants?

18. The crews of two French ships, the Astrolabe and the Boussole, wrecked near a Santa Cruz island, were welcomed warmly by the islanders.

(c) zoologist

19. Before it was called Australia, this continent was known as:

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(b) the Great South Land w

(c) Terra Australis Incognita

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(d) All of the above

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23. A swan, one dingo, a tortoise, some parrots and which two other types of animals travelled to France for Josephine’s Garden?

(a) New Holland

and e

24. About how many new animal specimens were collected by the scientists on the Baudin expedition?

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20. One reason why the French never colonised areas of Australia was the presence of the officers and crew from which other country?

(a) 20–30

(b) 200–300

(c) 2000–3000

21. By which years do you think the French stop trying to explore Australia?

Tree kangaroo

(a) 1640s (b) 1740s

25. Esperance is found in which state of Australia?

(c) 1840s (d) 1940s

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The French – Answers The Great South Land .............................. p. 50 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

sail discoveries spaces voyage Barrier

6. 7. 8. 9.

climate ship Holland French

10. 11. 12. 13.

The encounter – Flinders and Baudin – 1 ..p. 56

supplies storm visit fishing

Teacher check

The encounter – Flinders and Baudin – 2 ..p. 57 Teacher check

The Freycinet expedition – 1 ................... p. 58

Missing at sea! – La Perouse .................... p. 51

1. (a) monarchy – a government where the supreme power is a king, queen or state (b) botany – the branch of biology that deals with plants and plant life (c) desolate – barren, wasteland 2. Louis de Freycinet published the first map of the entire Australian coastline. 3. The French monarchy was restored in France after Napoleon Bonaparte was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo. 4. Freycinet believed the west coast of Australia to be a desolate place with few trees or resources.

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Mapping a journey – d‘Entrecasteaux ...... p. 52

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2. (a) Jean François de Galaup, Comte de La Pérouse (b) Astrolabe and Boussole (c) August 1785 (d) (on or about) 26 January 1788 (e) six weeks 3. Teacher check

A mystery solved! La Perouse .................... p. 59 1. (a) False (b) True (c) True (d) False (e) True 2. Teacher check

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Quiz – The French ..................................... p. 64 • f o r r e v i e w p u r posesonl y• Josephine’s Garden .................................. p. 53 Teacher check

The Baudin expedition – 1 ....................... p. 54

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1. explore the coastline, look for wood, harbours, examine land and sea resources, collect scientific specimens, study the lifestyles and customs of the Aboriginal people 2. Teacher check

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The Baudin expedition – 2 ....................... p. 55 2.

Years the Baudin expedition occurred 1801–1804

Number of scientists on board 23

Time taken to travel to Australia seven months Number of new specimens collected

The French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars Josephine’s Garden France True fishing The Great Barrier Reef Australia Day La Perouse Géographe Naturaliste Encounter Bay Fact False, it was tuberculosis Rose Falkland bell True False (d) All of the above Britain 1840s (b) botanist wombats and emus (c) 2000–3000 Western Australia

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

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2542 Amount of coast Baudin and Hamelin charted 600 km Amount of coast mapped by Baudin when he met Matthew Flinders 50 leagues (about 250 km) Number of places named by Baudin in use today over 300 Date Baudin passed away from tuberculosis 16 September 1803

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Personal teachers notes

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List of resources:

Useful websites:

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Extension activities:

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The British

Teachers notes

Introduction

Additional activities

A

• Discuss in groups and then write about a possible encounter between Aboriginal Australians and Europeans. What might the hopes and fears of both sides have been?

lthough maritime trade and exploration had been taking place for many years, it was in the reign of Elizabeth I (1558–1603) that Britain emerged as a superior maritime force, with the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 confirming this position. Merchants developed trading links with Spanish and Portuguese colonies in the Americas and it soon became clear that even greater profits could be made by extending those links to Asia. This led to the establishment of the English East India Company.

• Research some old naval expressions and explain what they mean in our lives today.

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The company chartered its own ships and the directors appointed a commander from its ranks of shareholding merchants for each voyage. The position of commander was highly regarded and eagerly sought as the merchant could ship his own cargo and supplement his profits by carrying company officials and private passengers.

Britain established itself in other areas of the globe, notably India, the east coast of North America and the Caribbean.

• Make a detailed study of life on a sailing ship. Include the features of the ship, the living conditions and the physical and health hazards. Present as a book. • Make a decorative time line of British involvement in the discovery of Australia. Use pictures of explorers and their ships. • Sketch a collection of native plants and animals that would have been observed by the explorers when they landed. Explain their life cycles and how they adapt to their environments. For the animals, include their feeding and social habits.

In the Pacific, Britain’s activities were curtailed by the power of the Spanish influence, but as this diminished, the Britain’s interest grew. But again Britain was to have a rival—France. The two countries were constantly at war and simultaneously exploring the same areas.

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Factories were built in the Moluccas, Java and Sumatra and, for a while, the company prospered. With increased competition from the Netherlands, a rival trading and maritime nation also established in the East Indies, it was in Britain’s best interests to move elsewhere.

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• Make a collection of pencil drawings of early navigational instruments. Back the sketches on dark paper and mount on a contrasting colour to present as a museum display.

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As France was a contemporary rival, it was important for Britain to establish early outposts in Australia to indicate an intention to colonise the new land. On 26 January 1788, in the First Fleet, convicts and marines were brought to Australia under the command of Governor Arthur Phillip, to establish the first European settlement.

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Major British explorers involved in mapping Australia

Date

Name

1688, 1699 William Dampier

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In determining the size and position of Australia, the British, French and Dutch all played significant roles in charting the coastline and providing accurate, detailed maps for future generations. But it was the British who answered most of the questions surrounding the new continent, including the insularity of Tasmania and there being no inland sea between the Great Australian Bight and the Gulf of Carpentaria.

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Cygnet, Roebuck

1770–71

James Cook

Endeavour

1773

Tobias Furneaux

1791

George Vancouver

1797

George Bass

1798

George Bass/Matthew Flinders

Norfolk

1800

James Grant

Lady Nelson

1801

John Murray

Lady Nelson

1801–03

Matthew Flinders

Investigator

1821

Phillip Parker King

Mermaid

Adventure Discovery

open whaleboat

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THE BRITISH

Fascinating facts – 1 W

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illiam Dampier was the first Briton to walk on Australian sand. His impressions were not favourable, but his descriptions of the people, landscape, plants and animals stirred the imaginations of many. European explorers were more determined than ever to discover what they believed was the lost southern continent. The writer Daniel Defoe is believed to have been inspired by Dampier’s account of Alexander Selkirk, marooned on an island off the coast of South America. His famous book, Robinson Crusoe, was later to inspire another explorer, Captain James Cook’s coat of arms Matthew Flinders. Research on the Internet to find more The motto reads: information on the interesting character, circa orbem, nil intentatum relinquit William Dampier. which means; Read Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe. Around the globe, he left As HMB Endeavour sailed along the east coast of nothing not attempted. Australia, James Cook named many places along the Research on the Internet to find the way. inscription on the plaque situated on the back For example: wall of the schoolhouse which James Cook Point Hicks – Lieutenant Zachary Hicks was the first attended. Sketch a copy of the plaque with its person on board to sight the coast. inscription and display it. Botany Bay – A wide range of plant species was After failing to find a passage through the Bering found in the area around the bay. Strait, between Alaska and Russia, Cook returned Cape Tribulation – The starting point of the to Hawaii. After the theft of one of his ship’s boats, there was a violent skirmish in which James Cook expedition’s problems. was killed. The incident took place at Kealakekua Bay Possession Island – The British flag was raised and on 14 February 1779. He was given a burial at sea. At the land claimed in the name of King George III. home in England, James Cook’s father died six weeks Find these places on a map of Australia’s later without ever hearing the tragic news of his son’s east coast. Research on the Internet to find death. the reasons behind the names of other major Visit <http://www.portcities.org.uk/london/ places along the east coast. server/show/ConFactFile.66/Captain-JamesThe first Endeavour in space, the command module Cook.html> to discover more about the life of Apollo 15, was named after Cook’s ship. It carried and death of this great explorer. a piece of wood from the original ship. In 1992, Early navigation techniques were very inaccurate the space shuttle Endeavour carried a treenail (a compared to today. wooden fastening) from the Endeavour replica. After Research to find information on the 141 Earth orbits, the treenail was brought back and astrolabe, hand measurement, sextant and driven into the sternpost on the Endeavour replica. the cross-staff. After the death of Captain James Cook, in honour of his contribution to global navigation and exploration, Note: The Endeavour replica is now based at the National the King awarded him a coat of arms. It is the only Maritime Museum, Darling harbour, Sydney. one to include a globe, centred on the Pacific Ocean, <http://www.anmm.gov.au> and Polar stars.

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Fascinating facts – 2 O

n his voyage to Western Port Bay in an open whaleboat, George Bass discovered a group of seven escaped convicts. He promised to rescue them on his return journey. This he did.

Time line 1688 and William Dampier in Cygnet and later in 1699 Roebuck makes first English contact with Australia, landing at Shark Bay in 1699.

Research on the Internet to discover what happened to them on their return to Sydney.

1769–70 James Cook in Endeavour circumnavigates New Zealand and charts the east coast of Australia.

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Tom Thumb, the small boat used to chart the coastline of Botany Bay

1773

Tobias Furneaux in Adventure charts the south and east coasts of Tasmania.

1791

George Vancouver in Discovery discovers and charts King George Sound in southwest Australia.

1795

George Bass and Matthew Flinders in Tom Thumb I explore Botany Bay and Georges River.

1796

George Bass and Matthew Flinders in Tom Thumb II sail to Port Kembla and Lake Illawarra.

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Bass and Flinders’s first voyage of exploration was in a small boat which they named Tom Thumb. In this, they explored the coastline of Botany Bay and charted several kilometres up George’s River.

1797 George Bass in an open whaleboat charts © R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons south-east coast from Point Hicks to Western Port Bay. •f orr evi ew pur p o s e sonl y• 1798 George Bass and Matthew Flinders

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in Norfolk circumnavigate Tasmania, proving at last that it is not attached to the mainland.

Visit <http://www.abc.net.au/navigators/ captains/flinders.htm> for more information on Matthew Flinders. In 1998, a 50c coin was minted to honour the discovery, by George Bass and Matthew Flinders, that Tasmania was an island.

1800

James Grant in Lady Nelson makes first west-east passage through Bass Strait.

1801

John Murray in Lady Nelson discovers and charts Port Phillip Bay.

o c . c e he r Do you know why a ship’s speed is always given in o t r s s knots? Before accurate means to calculate speed, a e r u p line was tied to a piece of wood. This line had knots Research on the Internet to find an image of this coin and sketch a large scale drawing on art paper.

1801–03 Matthew Flinders in Investigator circumnavigates and completes coastal survey of Australia. 1802

tied to it at regular intervals. The line was thrown overboard and the sailor would calculate the speed of the ship by counting the number of knots passing through his hands in a given amount of time.

Matthew Flinders in Investigator encounters Nicolas Baudin in Géographe. This meeting occurs during a short period when Britain and France are not at war.

1817–22 Phillip Parker King in Mermaid and Bathurst explores and charts coastline from Exmouth on Western Australian coast to North West Cape and Arnhem Land.

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THE BRITISH

William Dampier – 1 Name: William Dampier Born: Somerset, England, 1652

Work history 1668 – first went to sea.

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1674 – fought in the Battle of Schooneveld in the Third Anglo-Dutch War. 1675 – plantation manager in Jamaica.

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William Dampier

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1676–82 – sailed with buccaneers on Spanish Main of Central America. Circumnavigated the world.

1683–85 – worked as privateer, raiding Spanish Finding none, sailed to Timor. Sailed east from strongholds in Peru, Galapagos Islands, Mexico. Timor heading for New Guinea. 1686–87 – sailed to East Indies with pirates in January 1700 – sighted New Guinea and charted Cygnet, visiting Guam and Mindanao. Carried on northern coastline. Explored south-eastern to the Philippines, China and Australia. coastlines of New Hanover, New Ireland and New 1688 – Cygnet beached on north-west Australian Britain, discovering the Dampier Strait between coast near King Sound. Made notes on flora and these islands and the mainland. fauna observed. Voluntarily marooned with two February 1701 – Roebuck foundered near shipmates on Nicobar Islands. Built seaworthy Ascension Island. Although many papers were craft and sailed to Sumatra. lost, vital new charts of coastlines, trade winds 1691 – returned to Britain via Cape of Good and currents in the seas around Australia and New Guinea were saved. Hope.

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1697 – published A new voyage round the August 1701 – returned to Britain. Courtworld, which aroused great interest in the general martialled for treatment of George Fisher. Dismissed from the Royal Navy. public and the British Admiralty. January 1699 – given command of HMS 1703 – employed as privateer against French and Roebuck with instructions to explore Australia Spanish ships. and New Guinea. October 1704 – anchored at uninhabited Juan March 1699 – left George Fisher in Brazilian jail Fernandez islands off the coast of Chile. Sailing master Alexander Selkirk marooned on the island for insubordination. after a disagreement with Dampier. July 1699 – reached Dirk Hartog Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Made a plant collection 1707 – returned to Britain and published which is still preserved in Oxford University, the A continuation of a voyage to New Holland. first collection ever made of Australian plants. 1708 – engaged as sailing master to another Sailed north, charting coastline as far as Roebuck privateer ship. Returned to rescue Alexander Bay, stopping regularly to search for fresh water. Selkirk.

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William Dampier – 2

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Use the text on page 72 to answer the questions. 1. (a) Using an atlas, write on the map all the placenames mentioned in the text from July 1699 to January 1700.

(b) On the map, draw the route Dampier took from Dirk Hartog Island to Dampier Strait.

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(b) Write a profile of William Dampier in three paragraphs, describing,

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his personality

his interests

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2. Write some words or phrases to describe William Dampier.

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his experience

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James Cook – 1 J

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Captain James Cook and HMB Endeavour

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ames Cook was one of Britain’s finest explorers and navigators. During his three Pacific voyages, he charted numerous Pacific islands, including New Zealand. In Australian maritime history, he is most famous for charting the east coast from Point Hicks in the south to Possession Island in the north.

Life on board ship As ship’s captain, James Cook was always very concerned about the health and welfare of his sailors. In the 18th century, scurvy was a major health problem on long voyages. It was discovered that a diet of fruit and vegetables reduced the incidence and severity of the disease. Salted meat, hard biscuits and sauerkraut (pickled cabbage) do not sound very appetising, but they formed a meal rich in protein, which helped keep the crew in good health. Cook insisted that everyone ate their full rations, whether they liked them or not. Anyone who disobeyed these strict orders received punishment.

many ropes and sails on board, it was important to know how to handle them correctly. Each sail had to be unfurled easily when needed. Ropes had to be stored so they would not tangle and knot. If this happened, the sail could not be hoisted quickly. A captain knew that looking after his crew was important to keep the men working well and avoid mutiny.

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Punishments were given for offences that risked the safety of others and the ship; for example,

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• falling asleep on watch • not taking care with equipment • fighting Other diseases such as dysentery and typhus could • stealing (a very serious crime on a ship) occur in unhygienic living conditions, so Cook insisted that everyone took personal hygiene very Punishments were always given in public to humiliate offenders and to discourage others from seriously. doing anything similar. Discipline on board was important to make sure everything worked efficiently. People relied By modern standards, punishments could be on one another for their safety, so anything that severe indeed! They included: interfered with the smooth running of the ship was • hanging! punishable. • flogging with the cat o’ nine tails! Experienced sailors had a great deal of knowledge • running the gauntlet and many skills which were very valuable on a • reducing or stopping beer or rum rations

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ship’s long voyage. They taught apprentice crew members all the chores and responsibilities needed for handling the big ships. As there were

Note: At this time, Cook only held the rank of lieutenant. However, as captain of the ship, he was entitled to be called Captain Cook.

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James Cook – 2

Fresh fruit and vegetables helped guard against the effects of scurvy

Use the text on page 74 to answer the questions. 1. Why do you think it was important for a captain to look after the health of his crew?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S likes

dislikes

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2. (a) Imagine you are a crew member on one of James Cook’s voyages. Write a list of the things you like and dislike about how he runs his ship.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr ev ew pur poseso nl y• likesi dislikes

(b) Do you think James Cook was a good captain?

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(c) What do you think you would like and dislike the most about being a sailor in the 18th century?

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3. Research to find the meaning of:

running the gauntlet

no room to swing a cat

4. (a) Colour the picture of HMS Endeavour on page 90. (b) Research on the Internet to find the names of the masts and sails. (c) Label the masts and sails on the picture. 75 www.ricgroup.com.au

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James Cook – 3 Navigators, astronomers, botanists and artists It is thanks to the early pioneering voyagers of discovery that we know so much about our world today.

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Tahiti sketched

voyage sun

Venus species Astronomy instructions

war banksia

navigate botany

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HMB Endeavour following the eastern coast of Australia

drawings interest

position calculations exact unknown Ocean command

Read the text and choose the correct words from the box to fill the gaps. James Cook learned to

1

and sail a ship when he joined the navy. Before taking

2

of his own ships, he served his country in Canada while Britain was at

3

with France.

© R. I . C.Publ i c t i ons was ofa great to James Cook. He• was f able tor use r thee position of the moon and stars to work oute thes position of a l ship. o vi e w p u r p os on yThis•involved complicated

6

5

which had to be repeated daily. The purpose of James Cook’s first Pacific

was to sail to Tahiti to observe the planet

between the Earth and the

8

. Cook had been given another set of

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as it travelled

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4

in a sealed envelope, which were not to be opened until he had set sail from Britain.

he was to sail south in search of the great . tesouthern land, which many navigators and scientists believed existed.oWhen he found c . it, he was to claim it for Britain. When position of cthishwasedone, Cook was to chart the r e o New Zealand in the Pacific . The astronomer, Charles Green, accompanied James Cook t r s su per These told him that on leaving

11

12

13

14

on his voyage. He was to help Cook plot the

15

of Venus as it moved in front of the sun.

Joseph Banks, a wealthy young man with a great passion for

, paid for his own passage

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on board Endeavour. He wanted to collect and document any new when landings were made on the new continent. The

17 18

of plants discovered

tree has been named after Sir

Joseph Banks. Sydney Parkinson was the ship’s draughtsman, who kept a journal of from the voyage and also

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19

examples of Banks’s collections. 76

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James Cook – 4 Use the text on page 76 to help you answer the questions. 1. What were the four things James Cook was instructed to do?

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3. Why was it important to have a draughtsman on voyages of discovery?

2. Why do you think it is important for scientists to make new discoveries about the world?

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Captain James Cook studying a map of Bass Strait

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4. (a) Type native Australian plants into your Internet search engine and find examples of three plants. (b) Sketch, colour and label them here.

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George Vancouver – 1 L

ike many explorers of the 18th century, George Vancouver served his apprenticeship on voyages commanded by experienced naval officers. Vancouver practised many of his navigational and charting skills when he travelled as midshipman with James Cook on Cook’s second voyage. Vancouver was only a teenager when he travelled with Cook, but in 1790 he commanded his own ship to the shores of Australia.

had been discovered. Before him lay an enormous bay, a vast expanse of water protected from the full force of the Southern Ocean by two headlands, Bald Head and Cape Vancouver. They spent two weeks in the bay, making repairs to the ship and replenishing stocks.

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During this time, Vancouver and his crew made two important discoveries: an abundance of fresh water Approaching the western side of the southern from a river running into the bay; and a source of coastline, Vancouver, in the ship HMS Discovery, oysters in one of the bays, which he named Oyster sighted a large bay where they could drop anchor. Harbour. All day, Discovery had been battling high seas and a While the ship was being repaired and loaded with strong gale. The coastline had been menacing, with supplies, Vancouver charted the area in the ship’s kilometres of high craggy cliffs, offering no shelter boat. He named many prominent features, including from the relentless storm. Imagine the relief when a Princess Royal Harbour, Oyster Harbour, Cape wide open bay appeared. The ship struggled to enter Vancouver, Bald Head, and Michaelmas, Breaksea the bay, but once inside, found it was safe to drop and Seal islands. The main waterway Vancouver anchor. named King George Sound, in honour of his king. The next morning broke clear and calm. It was only Today, the city of Albany lies on the northern side of then that Vancouver realised what a magnificent place Princess Royal Harbour.

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George Vancouver

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George Vancouver – 2 1. (a) Imagine you are a crew member on board HMS Discovery. Write words and phrases to describe how you feel as the ship arrives at King George Sound. during the storm

entering the protected bay

the next morning

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(b) On a separate sheet, write the story of your passage through the storm.

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2. Use a dictionary to find definitions for these words. abundance

apprenticeship menacing

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prominent

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replenishing voyage

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3. How do you think the crew’s days during their stay in King George Sound would have differed from their days at sea? Write your ideas in the boxes.

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Tobias Furneaux – 1

F

or world explorers in earlier centuries, it was a lifetime achievement to be the one to do something for the first time. Captain Tobias Furneaux had four maritime ‘firsts’ to his credit:

• crossing the Antarctic Circle with Captain James Cook in January 1773

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• charting the south and east coasts of Tasmania

• circumnavigating the world from west to east

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• discovering the Furneaux Islands to the north-east of Tasmania (on his third Pacific voyage, James Cook named the islands after Furneaux)

Tobias Furneaux

All the above feats occurred on the same voyage, when Furneaux, in HMS Adventure, accompanied Cook in the flagship HMS Resolution, on his second Pacific voyage.

Zealand for Captain Cook and the Resolution to arrive. While they waited, a landing party went ashore to collect some edible plants to improve their diet. They were attacked by Maoris and, in the skirmish, Cook and Furneaux sailed south from Europe, ten crewmen and two officers were killed. After such replenishing supplies in Cape Town, before continuing a tragedy, Furneaux decided to set sail for home. southwards towards Antarctica. Having crossed the Adventure sailed to the island of Tahiti for fresh Antarctic Circle, Adventure and Resolution lost sight water, repairs and other supplies. They also brought of one another in dense fog. Cook remained in the with them a young man named Omai, who would be area to conduct further explorations, while Furneaux the first Polynesian seen in Britain. set a course for New Zealand, where the two ships had The ship then set a course for Cape Horn at the tip of agreed to meet. On his way, Furneaux sailed close to South America and then on to the Cape of Good Hope Tasmania and charted the south and east coasts. for more repairs and supplies before heading north Furneaux waited in Queen Charlotte Sound, New for home.

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. te Answer the questions.

o c . c e hdecided r 1. Give the two reasons why Furneaux to return to Britain. er o t s super

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Tobias Furneaux – 2 2. Tobias Furneaux achieved a great deal on his trip to the Pacific but not everything went as planned. Record his successes and failures.

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successes

failures

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3. What reasons do you think the Maori people had for being hostile to Furneaux’s crew?

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Maori warrior confronting Furneaux’s crew

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weather

food

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4. Omai, the young Polynesian, would have experienced a feast of cultural differences on his arrival in Britain in July 1774. Research on the Internet for information to help you complete the table by describing some of these differences. clothes

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5. Using an atlas to help you, mark Tobias Furneaux’s route on an outline map of the world. Label the places mentioned in the text. 81 www.ricgroup.com.au

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George Bass and Matthew Flinders – 1 G

eorge Bass and Matthew Flinders arrived in Australia on board HMS Reliance in 1795. Fired with enthusiasm about exploring this new land, they both wanted to make names for themselves and put their names on the map—literally!

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S George Bass

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In 1797, George Bass took command of an open whaleboat and a small crew to explore the south-east coast of Australia. Travelling south from Sydney, he reached Point Hicks, where Cook had first sighted the new continent. From here, he was in uncharted waters. Bass and his crew sailed as far as Western Port bay, charting the coastline, before returning to Sydney.

Matthew Flinders

Meanwhile, Matthew Flinders was taking part in an expedition to recover the cargo of a merchant ship which had been stranded close to the Furneaux Islands, north-east of Tasmania. He believed that the tides around these islands showed that Tasmania was also an island.

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On his return, Flinders asked Bass to accompany him on a voyage to prove whether Tasmania was an island or not. They sailed in Norfolk, built by convicts on Norfolk Island, the first boat to be built in the new colony.

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Travelling in an anticlockwise direction, George Bass and Matthew Flinders discovered that Tasmania was indeed an island, separated from the mainland by a rough stretch of water which was later to be named Bass Strait. George Bass finally had his name on the map!

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George Bass and Matthew Flinders – 2 Use the text on page 82 to answer the questions. 1. Answer True or False. (a) Bass and Flinders arrived in Australia separately ......................................................................................... True False (b) George Bass sailed in an open whaleboat. ....................................................................................................... True False

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(c) Matthew Flinders did not think Tasmania was an island. ....................................................................... True False (d) Bass and Flinders discovered Tasmania was an island.

............................................................................

True False

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2. How is George Bass remembered on the map of Australia?

3. (a) Would you like to have travelled in a small, open boat from Sydney to Western Port and back? (b) Write three things in favour of and three things against such a trip. in favour

Yes

No

against

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons 4. Matthew Flinders also has his name on the map. Use an atlas to discover in which Australian State(s) these •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• places are.

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Flinders Ranges National Park Flinders Group National Park Flinders Bay

5. (a) Fit all the names into the puzzle to discover the name of a place in the highlighted area.

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Furneaux (8) Sydney (6) Flinders (8) Western Port (11) Matthew (7) Reliance (8) Bass (4) Point Hicks (10)

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Matthew Flinders – 1 M

atthew Flinders is recognised as being the first explorer to circumnavigate Australia. He charted the coastline using maps of earlier explorers and filled in the parts that were previously uncharted.

Some of the events of his long voyage in HMS Investigator include:

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• leaving Great Britain in July 1801, Flinders travelled to Australia via Cape Town; • on the coast of South Australia, Flinders Island was named in honour of Samuel, Matthew Flinders’s brother,

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In August 1803, Matthew Flinders left Sydney to return to Britain. After a few weeks, the ship was wrecked in the Coral Sea. In the ship’s cutter, Flinders returned to Sydney to organise a rescue for the wreck’s survivors. Three rescue ships left Sydney, one bound for China, one returning directly to Sydney and one, the Cumberland, sailing to Britain.

• at the entrance to South Australia’s Spencer Gulf, the ship’s master, John Thistle, and seven crew were drowned. Cape Catastrophe and Thistle Although Cumberland was itself in a poor state of Island commemorate this sad event, repair, Flinders chose to take the longer journey • on 8 April 1802, Flinders came upon the home. He headed north from Sydney, as he wanted to Géographe, the ship of the French explorer, complete his survey of the Torres Strait. Nicolas Baudin, at Encounter Bay. Luckily, at that time France and Britain were enjoying a In trouble in the middle of the Indian Ocean, Flinders decided to land in Mauritius, even though Britain brief period of peace, was at war with France and Mauritius was under • a safe route through the Great Barrier Reef, now French rule. He had hoped to pick up another known as Flinders Passage, was discovered, ship to continue his journey, but was arrested by • Flinders proved that it was possible to sail safely the Governor. He was accused of being a spy and through the Torres Strait in just three days, thrown into prison, where he remained for almost • in honour of early Dutch navigators, Flinders seven years. While imprisoned, he drew his map of gave many places Dutch names; for example, Australia and completed his book, A voyage to Terra Australis. The book was finally published on 18 July Duyfken Point and Groote Eylandt, 1814. On 19 July 1814, Matthew Flinders died. • at Groote Eylandt, William Westall, the artist on board, became the first European to record the rock paintings of the northern Australian Answer the questions. Aborigines, 1. How long did Flinders’s voyage in HMS Investigator last? • from Arnhem Land, Flinders sailed to Timor for repairs and supplies. During their time on land, many crew became ill. Flinders decided to return to Sydney as quickly as possible without 2. (a) Using an atlas, mark Flinders’s route around Australia, naming all the places mentioned in charting the west coast, the text. • in June 1803, HMS Investigator, in a bad state of repair, sailed into Sydney Harbour. (b) Draw sketches to illustrate events that occurred along the way.

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Matthew Flinders – 2 F

linders followed the coastline as closely as possible. He went ashore often to make detailed observations of the land, plants and animals. His charts were so accurate that much of the information from them is still in use today. Flinders and his crew encountered Indigenous people when they went ashore. Sometimes, they only found evidence of their presence, such as the remains of fires, earthen jars, trees cut with axes or makeshift dwellings.

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Bungaree, an Aboriginal friend, was on board with Flinders. He was able to interpret and pass messages between Flinders and the Aboriginal people. Here are some translations of common words as compiled by Flinders, with the help of Bungaree.

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mail lir-ra gong loc-ko la-ran-gai kul-le-gea

stars sea rainbow kangaroo good to eat swimming

In places such as the Pellew Archipelago, evidence of Asian visitors to the country was also found; for example, bamboo latticework, hats made from sewn palm leaves, and the remnants of cotton trousers.

pir-nie kaa-po bap-pee loi-ty-o bo-rum poun-gan

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eye teeth hand foot sun moon

Matthew Flinders and his Aboriginal friend, Bungaree

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Complete • the table. f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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how the British looked how the British acted

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1. Encounters between the officers and crew of HMS Investigator and local Aboriginal people could have been either friendly or hostile. Give possible reasons for either outcome. friendly

hostile

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John Murray The beautiful city of Melbourne stands on the banks of the Yarra River, which flows into Port Phillip Bay. This vast bay is protected from the open waters of the Bass Strait by the Bellarine and Mornington peninsulas. They are separated by a narrow inlet which today may be crossed by ferry. Just over two hundred years ago, John Murray sailed Lady Nelson through the inlet and discovered this hidden jewel. He explored the land around the bay and knew it would be a perfect place to build a colony, as the land was rich for farming and the large river flowing into the bay provided a source of fresh water.

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On 9 March 1802, John Murray raised the British flag and took possession of the area for King George III. It was named Port Phillip in honour of Arthur Phillip, the first governor of the colony.

John Murray

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A month after Murray left the area, Matthew Flinders sailed into the bay, believing he was the first explorer to discover it. It was only on his arrival in Sydney some time later that he learned of John Murray’s success. Answer the questions.

1. Use an atlas to help you label the map correctly by writing the appropriate letter in each box.

B – Bellarine Peninsula © R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons D – Port Phillip Bay •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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A – Mornington Peninsula C – Melbourne

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2. What do you think would have led Murray to believe that the land around Port Phillip was good for farming?

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Phillip Parker King I

n 1818, mariner Phillip Parker King was chosen to lead a surveying expedition in HMS Mermaid to improve Flinders’s charting of the north-west coastline between Arnhem Land and North West Cape. On his voyage, travelling clockwise around the coast from Sydney, King visited King George Sound and Oyster Harbour, which had been discovered almost 30 years earlier by George Vancouver. Here he replenished supplies and repaired the ship’s rigging. At this time, he named Mount Martin and some smaller bays along the coastline.

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After 11 days, King continued his journey west then to the north, following the coastline. Along the way, he named Dampier Archipelago and Port Essington and proved that Melville Island was not connected to the mainland.

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A year after returning to Sydney, King made a second voyage in HMS Mermaid, this time travelling north from Sydney. He navigated safely through the waters between the east coast and the Great Barrier Reef, through the Torres Strait and on to the Wessel Islands, Cambridge Gulf and Cape Londonderry, before returning home. Three years after first visiting King George Sound, King returned in HMS Bathurst. On this occasion, local Aborigines appeared on the shore of Oyster Harbour and King went to meet them. They had a friendly exchange and King drew a sketch as a record of their encounter.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons In 1822, King circumnavigated Dirk Hartog Island andr left ao record of his visit. He spelt out• his name, using • f o r r e v i e w p u p s e s o n l y nails hammered into the post that had held the pewter replica of Dirk Hartog’s original plate.

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1. Using an atlas and an outline map of Australia, record King’s routes and the places mentioned in the text. Include a legend on your map.

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2. (a) Visit <www.kipar.org/piratical-resources/potc-uniforms.html> on the Internet for uniforms of early British naval officers. On art paper, sketch a picture of an officer of the Royal Navy.

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(b) On art paper, draw a close-up version of King’s meeting with the Aborigines.

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Phillip Parker King anchored HMS Mermaid in King George Sound, where he and his men met with the local Aborigines.

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1797 George Bass in an open whaleboat charts coast from Point Hicks to Western Port

1791 George Vancouver in Discovery describes King George Sound as the best natural harbour in the world

1802 Matthew Flinders in Investigator arrives at the Australian coastline from the Cape of Good Hope and charts an easterly course to circumnavigate Australia

1798 Bass and Flinders in Norfolk circumnavigate Tasmania

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1801 John Murray in Lady Nelson discovers Port Phillip Bay

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1699 William Dampier in Roebuck lands on Dirk Hartog Island and travels north to Roebuck Bay

1818 Phillip Parker King in Mermaid charts from Exmouth to Port Essington

1819 Phillip Parker King in Mermaid charts from Wessel Islands to Cape Londonderrys

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1688 William Dampier in Cygnet explores Cape Leveque, King Sound and Buccaneer Archipelago

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1803 Matthew Flinders Matthew Flinders in Investigator heads for Timor for supplies and repairs after charting the south, east and north coasts of Australia.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S 1773 Tobias Furneaux in Adventure charts south and east coasts of Tasmania

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Map summary of British exploration of Australia

19 April 1770 Lieutenant Zachary Hicks sights land; was named Point Hicks in his honour

29 April 1770 Isaac Smith becomes first Briton to land on the shore of eastern Australia, at Botany Bay

1801 James Grant in Lady Nelson charts coastline between Wilsons Promontory and Western Port

11 June 1770 Endeavour strikes sharp coral on Great Barrier Reef

1770 Captain James Cook 22 August 1770, Cook raises flag on Possession Island, and claims New South Wales in the name of the British King, George III.

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Maps of British exploration routes of Australia

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country of origin: built: type: length: weight: hull: armament:

Great Britain 1764 bark 29.7 m 375 tonnes (est.) wood 14 guns

HMB Endeavour

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Quiz – The British 1. Who was the first British man to land on Australian soil?

14. What was the name of the Polynesian man who returned to Britain with Tobias Furneaux?

2. Who was the first British man to sight the east coast of Australia?

15. Bass and Flinders explored Botany Bay in a boat named (a) Tom Tickle (b) Tiny Tim (c) Tom Thumb 16. Bass and Flinders circumnavigated Tasmania in the boat,

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3. What honour did King George III bestow upon James Cook after his death?

(a) Norfolk (b) Suffolk (c) Norwich 17. What is the name of the stretch of water between Tasmania and the mainland?

4. In which group of islands was James Cook killed?

18. Matthew Flinders charted the shores of Australia in the ship

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(a) Solomon (b) Hawaiian (c) Fijian 5. George Bass rescued some convicts in his whaleboat.

(a) HMS Detective ...................................

True False 6. Flinders’s Aboriginal friend was,

(b) HMS Instigator ..................................

(c) HMS Investigator .............................. 19. What nationality was Nicolas Baudin, whom Flinders met at Encounter Bay?

(a) Bungaree (b) Ernie (c) Yagan 7. In which year was the 200-year anniversary of Bass and Flinders discovering that Tasmania is an island? (a) 1998 (b) 1778 (c) 1978 8. How many voyages did James Cook make to the Pacific?

How wasi Flinders jailed © R. I . C.Pub20.l i clong at on sfor? •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 9. Who was the botanist on board James Cook’s ship, 21. Port Phillip Bay was discovered by HMB Endeavour?

(a) Matthew Flinders ...............................

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(b) John Murray ......................................

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10. Which Western Australian city has developed around King George Sound?

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(c) George Bass? ...................................... 22. Port Phillip Bay was named after the first Governor of the colony. What was his full name?

o c . che e r o t r s super

11. Who charted and named the bays within King George Sound at the end of the 18th century?

23. The first known European vessel to sail through the Bass Strait from west to east was

12. James Cook was the first man to cross the

(a) HMS Lady Nelson .............................

(a) Arctic Circle .................................

(b) HMS Admiral Nelson .......................

(c) HMS Jimmy Nelson .......................... 24. Which navigator drew a sketch of his friendly encounter with Aboriginal people?

(b) Equator ....................................... (c) Antarctic Circle ........................... 13. Tobias Furneaux charted the south and east coasts of which island?

25. Phillip Parker King surveyed areas of the north and northwest coast of Australia in HMS Mermaid. True

False

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Australia on the map


The British – Answers William Dampier – 2 ..................................... 73

5.

Teacher check

James Cook – 2 ............................................. 75 Teacher check

James Cook – 3 ............................................. 76 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

Tahiti unknown exact Ocean position botany species banksia drawings sketched

Teac he r

navigate command war Astronomy interest calculations voyage Venus sun instructions

N E Y T H E W I C K S E R S E

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S 1. two years 2. Teacher check

Matthew Flinders – 2 .................................... 85 Teacher check

John Murray ................................................. 86 Teacher check

Phillip Parker King ....................................... 87

1. Observe Venus crossing in front of the sun, find the great unknown southern land, claim it for Britain, chart the exact position of New Zealand 2. – 4. Teacher check

Teacher check

Teacher check – Quiz .................................... 91 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

George Vancouver – 1 ................................... 78

William Dampier Zachary Hicks Coat of Arms (b) Hawaiian true (a) Bungaree (a) 1998 three Joseph Banks Albany George Vancouver (c) Antarctic Circle Tasmania Omai (c) Tom Thumb (a) HMS Norfolk Bass Strait (c) HMS Investigator French almost seven years (b) John Murray Arthur Phillip (a) HMS Lady Nelson Phillip Parker King True

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1. Teacher check 2. abundance – more than enough apprenticeship – the learning of a new trade menacing – threatening prominent – sticking out relentless – never stopping replenishing – refilling voyage – a long journey 3. Teacher check

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o c . che e r o t r s super

Tobias Furneaux –1....................................... 80 lost contact with James Cook, the leader of the expedition disheartened after the tragic deaths of officers and crew

Tobias Furneaux – 2...................................... 81 Teacher check

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

George Vancouver – 2 ................................... 79

George Bass and Matthew Flinders – 2 .......... 83 1. 2. 3. 4.

N P O R T

Matthew Flinders – 1 .................................... 84

James Cook – 4 ............................................. 77

Teacher check

R S D T X H D C

ew i ev Pr

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

W E S T E B A S S Y M A F U R N E A U P O I N T F L I N R E L I A N

THE BRITISH

(a) False (b) True (c) False (d) True Bass Strait is named after him. Teacher check Flinders Ranges National Park – South Australia Flinders Group National Park – Queensland Flinders Bay – Western Australia

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Australia on the Map: 1606 - 2006: Ages 8-10