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RIC-6421 4.2/376


UPPER PRIMARY THEME Antarctica (Ages 10+) Published by R.I.C. Publications® 2005 Copyright© R.I.C. Publications® 2005 ISBN 1 74126 329 8 RIC–6421

Additional titles available in this series:

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Rainforests (Ages 10+) Environmental issues (Ages 10+) Natural disasters (Ages 10+)

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Foreword

Antarctica

Antarctica is one of a series of four books designed specifically for upper primary students. Antarctica is a fascinating topic to study as it has such a unique, beautiful environment, while at the same time being the most inhospitable place on Earth. This book will enable students to develop a thorough understanding of the coldest, driest, windiest and highest (on average) continent on the planet. Units covered include Antarctica’s geography and climate, detailed studies of its plants and animals, history of early exploration, scientific research carried out, how to survive in Antarctica and environmental issues surrounding Antarctica.

• • • •

Natural disasters Rainforests Antarctica Environmental issues

Contents Teachers notes ............................... iv – v Antarctic overview ........................ vi – ix Quiz questions ............................ x – xviii Quiz answers ..................................... xix

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A wide variety of the activities in this book cross all major learning areas.

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Titles in this series include:

Antarctica’s climate ......................34–37 Antarctica’s climate..................................... 34–36 Make your own ice crystals ..............................37

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Exploring Antarctica .....................38–49 f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• What is • Antarctica? ...........................2–9

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Animals of the Antarctic ...............10–21

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Unique Antarctica ........................................... 2–4 Mapping Antarctica ............................................5 Fascinating Antarctic facts .............................. 6–8 Antarctic tourist brochure ...................................9

Early exploration ......................................... 38–40 Antarctic designs ..............................................41 Race to the South Pole............................... 42–44 Explorer acrostics .............................................45 Sir Douglas Mawson................................... 46–48 Newspaper report ............................................49

Antarctic animals ........................................ 10–12 Antarctic animal chorus ....................................13 Penguins and seals .................................... 14–16 Penguin and seal code .....................................17 Whales and birds ........................................ 18–20 Whale grid drawings... ......................................21

Surviving in Antarctica..................50–53

Plants of the Antarctic ................. 22–25

Scientific research in Antarctica .................. 54–56 Wanted: Willing workers ...................................57

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Surviving in Antarctica ................................ 50–52 Antarctic field trip wardrobe ..............................53

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Plants of the Antarctic ................................ 22–24 Grow your own Antarctic plant .........................25

Scientific research in Antarctica ....................................54–57

Amazing natural formations .........26–29

The ozone hole and global warming............................58–61

Amazing natural formations ........................ 26–28 Clueless crossword ..........................................29

The ozone hole and global warming ........... 58–60 Environmental issues flowcharts .......................61

Aurora australis— the southern lights......................30–33

The Antarctic Treaty ......................62–65

Aurora australis........................................... 30–32 Colourful lights..................................................33 RIC-6421 4.2/376

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The Antarctic Treaty .................................... 62–64 Protecting Antarctica ........................................65

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Teachers notes

Antarctica

The book has been organised into eleven units, which follow a similar format. Each unit is divided into one or more groups of four pages: • a teachers page • a student information page • a student comprehension page • a cross-curricular activity.

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Teachers page

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An overview for teachers is on pages vi – ix, with suggestions for activities to further develop the theme with the whole class or as extension work for more abler students.

The teachers page has the following information: Unit title

Topic title

Indicators state literacy outcomes for reading and comprehending the informational text and outcomes relating to the cross-curricular student page.

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Page numbers for quiz questions relating to the section are given in the worksheet information section.

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Answers are given for all questions, where applicable. Open-ended tasks require the teacher to check the answers.

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Worksheet information details any background information required by the teacher or presenting specific details regarding the use of the worksheets.

Cross-curricular activities suggest further meaning to develop the topic in the same, or another, learning area.

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Outcome links are given for the particular society and environment area relating to the topic, English outcomes are given for the comprehension pages and/or the cross-curricular student page; and for activities which fall into other learning areas such as mathematics, the arts, science.

Quiz questions Quiz questions with answers are given for each section on pages x to xix. The quiz questions are presented in a ‘half-page’ card format for ease of photocopying and may be: iv

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– given orally, with students answering their answers on a separate sheet of paper, – photocopied and given individually as a written test, – combined with the other apropriate pages for the unit(s) as a final assessment of the topic, or – photocopied and used by pairs or groups of students as ‘quick quiz’ activities. R.I.C. Publications®

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Teachers notes

Antarctica

The student pages follow the format below. • The first student page is an informational text, written at a student’s level of understanding. Illustrations and diagrams have been included where necessary to assist in their understanding of the topic being covered. • The second student page is a comprehension page to gauge student understanding of the text. A variety of activities is provided, including answering literal, inferential and applied questions, compiling information for a retrieval chart, completing diagrams or maps, and cloze activities.

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• The final student page is a cross-curricular activity. Occasionally, these activities may fall within the same learning area such as, for example, English.

1.

Topic title

Unit title

Informational text about the particular topic is provided.

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Student pages

2.

Unit title

Comprehension activities are provided to gauge student understanding.

Topic title

Diagrams that assist in understanding.

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Fact file: An interesting fact is included on student pages 2 and 3 to extend knowledge.

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The title reflects the type of activity to be completed. Answers are provided for this page if needed. Fact file: An interesting fact is included on student pages 2 and 3 to extend knowledge.

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v


Overview

Antarctica

The cross-curricular activities suggested below may aid in developing the theme. English

Maths

• Read factual information about specific aspects of Antarctica.

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• Write a list of similarities and differences between the Arctic and the Antarctic. • Write reports about specific Antarctic animals researched.

• Students give other classmates the answers to questions about Antarctica. The recipients must write a question to match each answer. • Write a journal or diary entry for a scientist or support person spending the winter or summer in Antarctica. • Write a playscript depicting events as they may have occurred when Antarctic explorers went on expeditions.

• Estimate, then overlay to check, how many times bigger Antarctica is compared to their own or a chosen country. • Compile time lines of explorations of various Antarctic explorers. • Students calculate the distance between their home and the South Pole.

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• Using a variety of forms, write poetry which illustrates the beauty and harshness of the Antarctic environment.

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• Compile a list of mathematical facts about Antarctica; e.g. ‘About 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice.’

• Create codes or maths puzzles to reinforce specific facts or data about Antarctica.

• Compare data about two specific lifeforms or natural features.

• Graph the temperature for a week or fortnight in an Antarctic location and compare with where they live.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

• Work out how many years ago specific events occurred in or about Antarctica; e.g. the first sightings of Antarctica occurred, Amundsen reached the South Pole, the Antarctic Treaty was signed.

• Investigate the percentage of an iceberg above and below the water.

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• Conduct class debates on topics concerning Antarctica. For example: – ‘Tourists should not be allowed to visit Antarctica.’ – ‘Antarctica is better than the Arctic.’ – ‘Antarctica should become a world park.’ – ‘It is better to visit Antarctica in winter.’

• Write word problems about the populations of specific animal groups.

• Compile a list of questions to ask particular Antarctic explorers. Other students can answer in the way they think the explorers would reply.

• Compare average monthly minimum and maximum temperatures of one Antarctic station and another location in the world.

• Write a letter to a newspaper about an environmental issue concerning Antarctica.

• Research to compile a list of facts and figures concerning a particular Antarctic location; e.g. the South Pole, the Antarctic Circle, Mt Erebus.

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• Write letters or send emails to scientists on research stations.

• Order the seven continents from largest to smallest, including their areas in square kilometres.

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• List 10 reasons for visiting Antarctica and 10 against.

• Construct a word puzzle using words associated with Antarctica.

• Calculate in months, weeks or days the time between specific events in Antarctica’s history; e.g. the time in days between Amundsen and Scott’s arrival at the South Pole.

• Research descriptions of the feeling of being cold to read and share with the class.

• Investigate the time zone(s) used in Antarctica and calculate the difference(s) from local time.

• Compile a list of places with cold climates. • Brainstorm words associated with cold places.

vi

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Overview

Antarctica

The cross-curricular activities suggested below may aid in developing the theme. SOSE

Science • Research to find out the similarities and differences between the plants and animals found in Antarctica and the Arctic; e.g. Arctic seal pups have white fur for camouflage from predators, but Antarctic seal pups have brown fur as they have no natural land predators.

• Collect photographs of Antarctica to form a mural labelled with information. Include images of landforms, explorers, animals, plants, scientists and research stations.

• Construct food chains and food webs for Antarctic animals, to show the importance of krill to all ocean life. Use the diagrams created to explain how changes to an entire ecosystem can happen when one element, such as krill, is affected.

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• Label a world map with early exploration routes from places such as Europe to illustrate when and from where discovery of Antarctica occurred. • Compile a list of reasons for and against tourists visiting Antarctica. • Use an atlas and other nonfiction resources to draw comparisons between Antarctica and the Arctic.

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• Use an atlas to research and create a map showing the nations which have laid claims in Antarctica. Note how all claims follow lines of longitude. Why do students think some areas have not been claimed? Why do Britain, Chile and Argentina have some overlap?

• Explain the difference between an iceberg and an iceshelf. • Examine the movements of penguins and seals on land and in the water. • Research to find out about some special adaptations of Antarctic plants or animals; e.g. the icefish does not need red blood pigment to carry oxygen.

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• Create time lines to indicate major discoveries and exploration achievements in Antarctica. • Construct tables such as retrieval charts to summarise information about plants, animals or features of Antarctica.

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• Use a map of the lower Southern Hemisphere to label the oceans and seas surrounding Antarctica, and the major islands, countries and continents in the vicinity.

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• Invite a guest speaker such as a tourist, tour guide, scientist or support person who has visited or lived in Antarctica to talk to the class about his or her experiences. • Compile a list of possible dangers confronting the early visitors to Antarctica. Determine if each danger is still a concern for visitors today and, if not, how it has been overcome. • Compile a list of things students would like to see and do in Antarctica or reasons why they would prefer not to visit the frozen continent.

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• Create and conduct experiments which illustrate the formation of natural features, weather conditions or changes to the environment in Antarctica. • Classify Antarctic plants and animals, and include their scientific names. • Measure and record the rates at which different liquids freeze.

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• Locate a map showing Antarctica as part of Gondwanaland, and outline and label other countries and continents such as Australia, South America and India that were also a part.

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• Use a dictionary to determine the difference among a biologist, a marine biologist, a botanist, a geologist, a glaciologist and a geomorphologist.

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• Construct a map of Antarctica showing natural formations in colour code.

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• Write a report on a current Antarctic research project. Provide information about the purpose, the country or countries involved, the specific location and a time line. • List the advances in science that have made living in Antarctica easier now than it was for the early explorers. • Research frostbite. List the symptoms, the causes and the treatment of this condition and how it can best be avoided. • Conduct an experiment to demonstrate that water contracts when cooled but expands (below 4 degrees Centigrade) as it freezes (at 0 degrees). Use a tall, thin bottle of water and mark the water level as it cools and freezes.

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Overview

Antarctica

The cross-curricular activities suggested below may aid in developing the theme. The arts

PE/Health and values

(Music, drama, visual arts) • Create and perform a soundscape for a penguin rookery or seal colony.

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• Write a rap about Antarctica and add movements before presenting it to the class or school.

• Sketch diagrams to show the procedure to build an igloo or other type of ice shelter. • Role-play a variety of scenarios: – lost in a blizzard – caught in a white-out – climbing out of a crevasse – travelling over a glacier – dressing in layers to go outside – trapped by a group of angry seals

• Create a model of an Antarctic research station.

• Investigate the best procedures to follow to maintain optimum physical and mental health in Antarctica. • Make posters of survival reminder tips for displaying in a research station. • Research and practise basic first aid techniques to use on an expedition to or in Antarctica.

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• Discuss and record the physical and social implications of living in a closed community in a research station over the dark winter months.

• Investigate the best foods to eat to help the body maintain heat and energy in the cold Antarctic climate. Create a weekly menu.

• Research the recreational facilities available to scientists and support staff in modern research stations. Compare with those in the past.

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• Write lyrics for a song about Antarctica and perform to a well-known tune.

• Create a poster to inform tourists of do’s and don’ts when visiting Antarctica. Incorporate more graphics than words.

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• Paint penguins and cover with a thin coat of PVA glue when dry, to create a shiny effect. • Use printmaking techniques to create a background of ‘cold’ colours to use as a backdrop for Antarctic displays of reports or other projects.

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• Choose a word associated with Antarctica and write an acrostic poem to reflect either personal feelings, or to provide more impersonal, scientific information about this interesting part of the world. • Perform a dramatic monologue describing an emotional response to the environment or, alternatively, to a specific event, real or imagined, affecting a visitor to Antarctica.

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• Reflect on which environmental issues are the most important in Antarctica. • With a partner, select an environmental issue of interest and present a report to the class; e.g. certain countries taking whales under the umbrella of ‘scientific research reasons’ when they still end up on restaurant menus.

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• Create a poster to advertise the attractions of Antarctica and promote tourism to this unique part of the world.

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• List procedures that those who live or visit Antarctica must follow to ensure the environment is not polluted; e.g. rubbish is no longer dropped down a crevasse, the ashes of rubbish that can be safely burnt must still be transported out of Antarctica.

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• Use a variety of art techniques to create artworks about the Antarctic weather or landscape.

• Write a list of 10 essential selection criteria for a person applying for a 12-month position working at a base in Antarctica. Focus on physical, personal and emotional qualities; e.g. the ability to relate well to other people. • Compile a list of the things that would be missed most by a person of the students’ age living on an Antarctic base for a prolonged period. Indicate by underlining any items on a list that their health and wellbeing would be likely to benefit from doing without. • Write reasons for and against children living in Antarctica.

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Overview

Antarctica

The cross-curricular activities suggested below may aid in developing the theme. Technology and enterprise • Design a website to provide information for tourists who wish to visit Antarctica.

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• Design a shelter suitable for use in Antarctic conditions.

• Design an outfit to be worn in a research station and one for a field trip. • Create a board game which demonstrates the difficulty of living in Antarctica.

• Collate a list of suitable websites to use to gain information about Antarctica. • Use an atlas to assist in designing a model of a cross-section of Antarctica from the Transantarctic Mountains and towards the Ross Ice Shelf and Lesser Antarctica. Research the differences in design between an ice-strengthened ship and an icebreaker.

• Research to describe the design and construction of igloos and how they are able to provide protection from intense cold.

• Plan and design a method by which people could traverse and move light equipment across a narrow crevasse. Consider safety and the transport and availability of the materials and equipment required.

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• Collate a list of items for an Antarctic survival kit.

• One of the most difficult problems confronting people living in Antarctica is the extremely persistent, freezing cold wind. Research how the tents used today are constructed to deal with this, and, in particular, why they do not blow away.

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• Design a sleeping bag to use in a tent on a field trip.

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• Research the types of fuel used in Antarctica and the different purposes for which each is needed. What are the difficulties of transporting fuel in this region? Plan the type and quantity of fuel needed for a three-day journey on foot across Antarctica.

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• Design a sled suitable for a person to drag across ice and snow and up and down slopes. Consider factors such as the material used, the ease with which it would slide, brakes, and how its load would be kept in place.

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IZ

QU

Unique Antarctica

Pages 2–5

1. Circle or highlight the true statements about Antarctica.

4. List two reasons why Antarctica is so cold.

(a) has a permanent large animal population

(a)

(b) has no recognised flag

(b)

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(c) is the windiest continent

(d) has no permanent residents

5. Name three large animals that visit Antarctica.

(e) has a large variety of plants has no capital city

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(f)

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2. What continent is closest to Antarctica?

6. Name three plants you will find in Antarctica.

3. Antarctica’s size

in winter because

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1. ‘Antarctica’ comes from the Greek word ‘Antarktikos’ meaning

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2. Tick the decade in which the first recorded sightings of Antarctica were made. 1820s

1830s

4. Name four of Antarctica’s natural resources.

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonPages l y•6–9 Fascinating Antarctic facts

1840s

5. What are two things Antarctica and South America have in common?

1860s

3. Antarctica receives about (50 mm, 150 mm, 250 mm) of rain each year, classifying it as a

.

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6. List three sightseeing attractions Antarctica has to offer.

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Antarctic animals

Pages 10–13

1. Name four groups of Antarctic animals. 2. Name the only permanent invertebrate resident of Antarctica. 3. Name two Antarctic species in each group: (a) whales (b) penguins (c) seals (d) birds

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(a) declaring Antarctica an international whale sanctuary (b) a recent increase in penguin numbers (c) hunting seals

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4. Give an explanation for:

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons f orr evi ew pur posesonl y • Z • Penguins and seals Pages 14–17 UI

Q

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2. Why do penguins have solid bones?

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6. Which predators feed on penguins?

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1. How do penguins travel?

7. What is a male seal called?

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3. What is a penguin colony called?

8. What is a group of female seals called?

4. How do penguins communicate?

9. What two things help seals feed at sea?

5. Which two foods do both penguins and seals eat?

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10. What are the two main groups of seals called?

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IZ

Whales and birds

QU

Pages 18–21

Tick true or false. 1. There are two main groups of whales. True False

7. Whales have a short life span.

2. These two groups are called toothed and non-toothed whales.

True

False

8. Seabirds breed in huge groups because there is not much ground free of snow.

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False

3. Toothed whales are smaller and have two blowholes. True False

9. Antarctic birds eat fish.

True

False

True

False

5. Whaling activities are now closely monitored. True False

11. Antarctic birds conserve body heat using waterproof feathers, a layer of fat and by having large, compact bodies.

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10. Most seabirds migrate as the polar winter approaches. True False

6. Whales live in pods.

True

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4. Baleen whales filter krill through comblike structures. True False

False

True

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Write numbers to complete these sentences. 1.

7. Lichens are a combination of

trees can survive in Antarctica.

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2. The

organisms.

main groups of plants are

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lichen, moss, algae and fungi. 3. Only

% of Antarctica can sustain any

plant life.

flowering plants are found in

4. Only

5. Freezing point is

ºC or

ºF.

6. The rate at which these flowering plants convert sunshine into chemical energy is about or RIC-6421 4.2/376

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% of normal capacity.

varieties of

and

lichen found in Antarctica.

9. Lichens only grow on about days per year.

Antarctica.

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False

10. Lichens can live as long as years! 11. At least

species of

moss grow in Antarctica.

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Amazing natural formations

Pages 26–29

Complete the sentences. 1. The glaciers in Antarctica are the

in the world.

2. Glaciers can move as a whole or there may be movement the glacier itself. 3. Glaciers may form deep fractures called

.

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4. Icebergs may be as large as

in diameter.

5. Eighty per cent of icebergs are formed by

.

6. Icebergs melt when they eventually move

.

main valleys which make up the dry-valleys.

8. Large pieces of ice which break away from sea ice are called

9.

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7. There are

.

are made up of huge sheets of ice floating in the ocean.

10. The two main active volcanoes in Antarctica are and

11.

.

are tall, exposed areas of the Transantarctic Mountains.

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Q

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1. Auroras are only found in the Southern Hemisphere. True False

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2. Auroras are caused by solar winds pushing charged particles into atoms or molecules which emit coloured light.

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Answer true or false

7. The best time to view the aurora australis is between March and September on a clear, cold night.

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3. Auroras only take one or two specific forms. True False

True False 8. The aurora in the northern hemisphere is called the aurora borealis. True False

4. Auroras can be seen in a variety of colours. True False

9. Auroras can last for as long as 2 or 3 hours. True False

True

False

5. Auroras are classified by their behaviour 10. Auroras can reach a height of between 80 to 160 kilometres. True and movement. False True False 6. Auroras were first recorded in 1500. True False

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11. The highest rating for an auroral display is 5. True False

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Antarctica’s climate

QU

Pages 34–37

1. Circle the three words that best describe Antarctica’s climate compared to the rest of the world. (a) hottest

(b) windiest

(c) roughest

(d) driest

(f)

(g) coldest

(h) wettest

(i)

calmest

(e) warmest

coolest

2. (a) What part of Antarctica is the warmest? (b) Why?

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3. Fill in the missing words to complete some facts about Antarctica’s climate. 80% of the sun’s rays rather than

them.

(b) Antarctica does not receive any (c)

for

major circular wind currents keep in the

the year.

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(a) The icy continent

cold.

4. The gravity-driven winds that flow downward towards the coast are called winds.

5. A white-out is a storm where violent winds cause blinding conditions. True

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1. From which language does the word ‘Antarctica’ originate? 2. Which form of transport did the early explorers to Antarctica use?

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4. What name did Captain Jules d’Urville give to the new species of penguins he found in Antarctica?

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6. Name the English captain who was the first person to cross the Antarctic Circle in 1773, aboard his ship, HMAS Resolution.

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3. What did Sir Francis Drake prove by sailing Golden Hind around the Cape of Good Hope?

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5. What did the American seal hunter, John Davis, claim?

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False

7. What were Mount Erebus and Mount Terror on Ross Island named after?

8. How did Captain James Cook prove that Antarctica was not a part of any other continent?

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Race to the South Pole

1. Who was the first person to reach the South Pole? 2. Which country did he come from?

6. Which country was he from? 7. What animals did he take to Antarctica with him?

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3. How did he transport his equipment and supplies across the ice to the Pole?

4. What did he do at the Pole?

8. What happened to him after he left the Pole?

9. What did the winner of the race to the South Pole do that many people thought was unfair?

5. Who was second to reach the South Pole?

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Pages 42–45

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons f orr evi ew pur posesonl y • Z • Sir Douglas Mawson Pages 46–49 UI

Tick true or false after each sentence.

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Q

1. Sir Douglas Mawson led Australia’s first expedition to Antarctica.

True

False

2. Scott wanted Mawson to go to the South pole with him.

True

False

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True

False

4. When Ninnis fell into a deep crevasse, six dogs and a lot of essential supplies were also lost.

True

False

5. Some of Mawson’s team were left behind after Aurora sailed because there wasn’t enough room for them on the ship.

True

False

6. There was no radio communication possible at the time that Mawson led his expedition to Antarctica.

True

False

7. Mertz was poisoned as a result of eating dog when their food supply was very low.

True

False

8. Mawson was knighted because of the important contribution he made to scientific knowledge.

True

False

3. Mawson, Ninnis and Mertz used ponies to pull their sleds.

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IZ

QU

Surviving in Antarctica

Pages 50–53 4. List two things research and support personnel must learn to do in their compulsory survival training course.

1. What are two conditions that can develop if a person is exposed to extreme cold in Antarctica? (a) (b)

(a) (b)

5. Name five essential clothing items needed to go on an Antarctica field trip.

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2. List two other hazards that can occur in Antarctica.

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QU

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3. What is the name of the weather condition that causes a person to become disorientated in Antarctica?

6. Why do people need to eat more in Antarctica?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesoPages nl y54–57 • Scientific research in Antarctica

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(a) it provides a

laboratory as it is one of the most

places on Earth,

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(b) all research findings are supported.

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1. Fill in the missing words. Antarctica is an ideal place for research because:

and projects are

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2. How many people live there over ... (a) summer?

1000

1500

2000

5000

(b) winter?

1000

1500

2000

5000

3. List one thing these scientists study in Antarctica. (a) geologist

(b) botanist

(c) marine biologist

(d) astronomer

(e) zoologist

(f)

vulcanologist

4. What is studied in ice core samples? 5. Why do astronomers love Antarctica?

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IZ

The ozone hole and global warming

QU

Pages 58–61

Tick true or false. True

False

1. Ozone is made from three oxygen atoms.

True

False

2. The ‘good’ ozone may be found in the air around us.

True

False

3. A decrease in the ozone layer can cause damage to DNA.

True

False

True

False

True

False

True

False

True

False

8. Global warming can be a result of burning fossil fuels.

True

False

9. Shrinkage of Antarctic icecaps causes the Earth to absorb more sunlight and become hotter.

True

False

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S 4. The ozone hole is not really a ‘hole’ at all.

5. The main damage to the ozone layer is from nitrogen oxides.

7. Global warming increases the temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere.

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6. The ozone layer can be helped by reducing the use of CFCs.

10. Global warming has not affected plant and animal life in Antarctica.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons f orr evi ew pur posesonl y • Z • The Antarctic Treaty Pages 62–65 UI

Q

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Antarctica is a natural reserve, devoted to and

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(b) seven

(c) ten

3. In what year was the Antarctic Treaty written? (a) 1950

(a) Military personnel and equipment may be used. True False

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2. How many nations have laid a claim in Antarctica? (a) five

.

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5. Answer true or false about the Antarctic Treaty conditions.

1. Fill in the missing words

(b) 1959

(c) 1981

4. Circle the four languages the Treaty is translated into.

(b) Disposal of nuclear waste is allowed. True False (c) Observations and research results are shared. True False (d) All Treaty nations can vote on recommendations. True

False

English

Italian

Spanish

(e) The territorial claims are still recognised. True False

Greek

French

Russian

(f)

Chinese

Indian

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The Treaty documents are held in the USA. True

False

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Quiz answers

Antarctica Unique Antarctica .......................(Pages 2–5) 1. (b), (c), (f) 2. South America 3. doubles, the dramatic drop in temperature causes the sea around the coast to freeze 4. Answers will vary. 5. penguins, whales, seals 6. Answers should include three of the following: lichen, moss, fungi, nonmarine algae

1. swimming; porpoising 2. to help them remain underwater 3. a rookery 4. by using vocal signs, head and flipper movements, bowing, gesturing, preening 5. krill, fish 6. seals, killer whales 7. bull 8. harem 9. sonar, enhanced sight from large eyes 10. eared, true seals

Antarctica’s climate ..................(Pages 34–37) 1. (b), (d), (g) 2. (a) Antarctic Peninsula (b) It is the furthest north. 3. (a) reflects, absorbing (b) sunlight, half (c) Two, intense 4. katabatic 5. false

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1. 2. 3. 4.

opposite the bear (Arctic) 1820s 50 mm, desert Answers should include four of the following: iron ore, chromium, copper, gold, nickel, platinum, coal, krill, finfish and crabs. 5. some types of fossils and rock formations 6. Answers will vary.

Whales and birds ..................(Pages 18–21) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

true false false true true true

7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

false true true true true

Early exploration ..................(Pages 38–41)

1. Greek 2. ships 3. He proved that Antarctica was not joined to South America. 4. He called them Adelie penguins after his wife. 5. He claimed to be the first person to set foot in Antarctica. 6. Captain James Cook 7. Captain James Ross named them after the two ships, Erebus and Terror, that he used on his Antarctic expedition 8. He circumnavigated Antarctica.

Sir Douglas Mawson ..................(Pages 46–49) 1. 2. 3. 4.

true true false true

5. 6. 7. 8.

false false true true

Surviving in Antarctica ..................(Pages 50–53) 1. (a) hypothermia (b) frostbite 2. Teacher check 3. a white-out 4. Possible answers: how to build an ice hut, retracking steps in darkness and poor visibility, how to dress for the conditions 5. Teacher check 6. More food (fuel) is needed to help keep the body warm.

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Fascinating Antarctica facts ..............(Pages 6–9)

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Penguins and seals ..................(Pages 14–17)

Scientific research in Antarctica .. (Pages 54–57)

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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1. whales, seals, penguins, birds, crustaceans 2. the midge 3. Answers should include: (a) whales — Blue, Fin, Humpback, Minke, Orca, Southern Right, Sei, Sperm; (b) penguins — Adelie, Emperor, Chinstrap, Gentoo; (c) seals — Weddell, Ross, Crabeater, Leopard, Southern Elephant, Fur; (d) birds — Gulls, Sheathbills, Fulmars, Skuas, Petrels, Terns, Albatross 4. (a) because some species of whale were almost extinct (b) overfishing of baleen whales allowed more krill for penguins to eat (c) skin, oil, fur

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

0 4 2 2 0, 32 30, 40

7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

2 150, 400 120 4500 30

Amazing natur formations ...................(Pages 26–29) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

biggest within crevasses tens of kilometres calving north three pack ice Iceshelves Mount Erebus, Deception Island 11. Nunataks

Race to the South Pole ..................(Pages 42–45) 1. Roald Amundsen 2. Norway 3. He used dogs to pull sleds across the ice. 4. He left a tent with a message and he put up his country’s flag. 5. Robert Scott 6. England 7. ponies 8. He and his team of four all died on the return journey. 9. He deceived people by not saying that he was going to the South Pole until he had set off, so he was the only one who knew it was going to be a race, and he had a headstart.

1. (a) natural, untouched (b) shared, internationally 2. (a) 5000 (b) 1000 3. (a) rocks (b) flora (c) ocean life (d) stars (e) fauna (f) volcanoes 4. air from the past 5. ideal for stargazing

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Antarctic animals ..................(Pages 10–13)

Plants of the Antarctic (Pages 22–25)

The ozone hole and global warming ....(Pages 58–61)

o c . che e r o t r s super Aurora Australis ..................(Pages 30–33) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

false true false true true false

7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

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true true false true false

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

true false true true false

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

true true true true false

The Antarctic Treaty ..................(Pages 62–65) 1. 2. 3. 4.

peace, science seven 1959 English, Spanish, French, Russian 5. (a) true (b) false (c) true (d) false (e) false (f) true

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What is Antarctica?

Unique Antarctica

Indicators • Reads information and answers questions about Antarctica. • Locates places on a map with the assistance of an atlas.

Worksheet information

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• The management of Antarctica is run according to the legal framework of the Antarctic Treaty of 1959, of which fortyfour nations are a part. The agreement commits the entire continent to peaceful scientific investigation, so no-one ‘owns’ Antarctica. While several countries have laid claims to parts of Antarctica (Australia, New Zealand, Britain, France, Norway, Argentina and Chile), most other nations do not recognise these claims. They serve little practical application, but are observed by map makers.

• Quiz questions relating to this section can be found on page x.

Answers

page 4

page 5

1. Answers will vary. Possible answers could include: Has no native inhabitants; no capital city; owned by nobody; no permanent residents; is the coldest, driest, windiest and highest continent; no large animals live there permanently; only permanent animals are insects and microscopic worms; no trees or bushes

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• Students will need an atlas to complete the activity on page 5. It should be explained to students that different atlases show Antarctica from north-south or south-north perspectives, making the maps on pages 3 and 5 appear upside down compared with some atlases.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

2. Antarctica is unique due to the combined factors of its location, climate and geography.

3. The edge of the Antarctic Convergence shows the actual boundary of Antarctica after the ocean freezes in winter.

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4. South America, Australia, Africa

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5. (1) long, (2) equator, (3) sunlight, (4) doubles, (5) heat, (6) oceans, (7) temperatures 6. (a) False (b) True (c) False (d) False (e) True

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Cross-curricular activities

• Use a globe and a torch to demonstrate how the sun shines directly over the Equator, is at an increasingly low angle towards the South Pole and how no sunlight reaches the South Pole in winter, due to the angle of the Earth as it orbits the sun.

Outcome links NSW Vic. WA SA Qld

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SOSE SOSE ENS3.5 SOGE0401 4.4

ENGLISH RS3.5, RS3.6, WS3.9 ENRE0401, ENRE0404, ENWR0401 R 4.1, R 4.4, W 4.1 4.3, 4.11 Refer to curriculum documents on http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au

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Unique Antarctica – 1

What is Antarctica?

Antarctica is unlike any other place on Earth. It has no native inhabitants or permanent residents, is owned by nobody, has no capital city, does not have a recognised flag and has no land suitable for farming. This continent is the coldest, windiest, driest and highest (on average) than any other. Antarctica is like another planet, but on Earth! Why is Antarctica so unique? The answer lies in its location, geography and climate.

Teac he r

Antarctica is situated over the South Pole and is surrounded entirely by the Southern Ocean. It is roughly circular in shape with a long ‘arm’ known as the Antarctic Peninsula extending towards South America. In winter, Antarctica doubles in size as the dramatic drop in temperature causes the sea to freeze around the coast. The actual boundary of Antarctica is the dotted line shown on the map. The water within this area is known as the Antarctic Convergence.

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Antarctica has an area averaging 13 200 000 square kilometres. Almost 98 per cent of this is solid ice and the remaining two per cent barren rock. On average, winter temperatures range between –40 °C and –70 °C. Why is Antarctica so cold? There are several factors contributing. Some of these are: • Antarctica is an extremely long way from the Equator, where the temperature is markedly warmer.

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• For half the year, Antarctica does not receive any sunlight. This is due to the angle of the Earth as it orbits the sun. For the rest of the year, the sun is low in the sky. The sun’s rays have to try to heat a greater area of land, resulting in cooler temperatures.

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• Because Antarctica doubles its size in winter as the surrounding sea freezes, it stops heat transfer from warmer surrounding oceans, such as the Pacific. • Antarctica is higher on average than any other continent. The higher the elevation, the colder the temperature. Another fact making Antarctica unique is that no large animals live there permanently. Those that visit are limited to penguins, whales and seals. Several species of birds migrate to Antarctica at different times of the year. The only land animals that live there permanently are insects and microscopic worms. Antarctica has no trees or bushes at all. Plants are limited mainly to lichens, a few species of moss, some fungi and non-marine algae.

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Unique Antarctica – 2

What is Antarctica?

Use the text and map on page 3 to answer the questions. 1. List five reasons why Antarctica is unlike anywhere else on Earth. • • • • •

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2. Why is Antarctica so unique?

3. Explain what is meant by the ‘Antarctic Convergence’.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Complete these summarised facts that help explain why Antarctica is so cold.

4. Name the three continents closest to Antarctica, in order of the closest to the furthest distant.

Antarctica is a

(1)

way from the

. For half

(2)

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the year Antarctica does not receive any (4)

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makes

. Antarctica

(3)

its size in winter, stopping

warmer surrounding

6. Tick ‘true’ or ‘false’.

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5.

(5)

transfer from

. Antarctica’s high average elevation

(6)

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colder.

(a) Antarctica is surrounded by the Pacific Ocean.

True

False

(b) Nearly all of Antarctica is solid ice.

True

False

(c) Polar bears are large animals that visit Antarctica.

True

False

(d) Antarctica is the wettest place on Earth.

True

False

(e) Antarctica has an area of more than 13 000 000 km2.

True

False

Fact file Although insects can be found living permanently in Antarctica, you will not find any flying insects. Why? They would get blown away!

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Mapping Antarctica

What is Antarctica?

Use the information on page 3 and an atlas to complete the activity below. 1. Locate and label each of the features below on the map. Weddell Sea

New Zealand

Ross Sea

South Pole

South America

Bellinghausen Sea

Tasmania

Atlantic Ocean

Antarctic Peninsula

Indian Ocean

Haakon VII Sea

Australia

Amundsen Sea

Ronne Ice Shelf

Pacific Ocean

Ross Ice Shelf

Africa

Davis Sea

Transantarctic Mountains

Falkland Islands

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Southern Ocean

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Fact file Snow falling at the South Pole takes approximately 100 000 years to flow to the coastline where it drops off the end as part of an iceberg. RIC-6421 4.2/376

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What is Antarctica?

Fascinating Antarctic facts

Indicators • Reads information and answers questions about Antarctica. • Designs and produces a tourist brochure to promote Antarctica.

Worksheet information • Students will need an atlas or world map to complete Question 2 on page 8.

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• The websites listed on page 9 provide information and photographs for the students to assist them in answering the planning questions for their brochures. Samples of brochures could be viewed and features discussed. • Quiz questions relating to this section can be found on page x.

page 8

5. Answers will vary but could include:

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Worksheet information

(a) When were the first recorded sightings of Antarctica?

1. A desert is a region with less than 254 mm of annual rainfall and Antarctica receives about 50 mm.

(b) When was it known Antarctica was actually a continent?

2. Asia (1), Africa (2), North America (3), South America (4), Antarctica (5), Europe (6), Australia (7).

(c) What are some of Antarctica’s natural resources?

3. (a) Arctic, Arktos, the Great Bear (Big Dipper) (b) Antarctic, Antarktikos, opposite the bear

(d) Why is Antarctica one of the world’s most important places to do research?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

4. Antarctica was once part of a landmass known as Gondwana, along with South America and other countries. When the landmass broke up and drifted apart, previously connected sections shared common features.

6. Answers will vary

page 9

Teacher check

Cross-curricular activities

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• Students can research to find out other differences between the Arctic and Antarctica.

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• Students imagine they are a penguin or seal and write a diary entry from the animal’s point of view of a visit from a party of human tourists. • Use the Internet to find a map of Gondwana at various periods to further understand how the continents were once joined and then drifted to their present positions.

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ANTARCTICA

ENGLISH RS3.5, RS3.6, WS3.9 ENRE0401, ENRE0404, ENWR0401 R 4.1, R 4.4, W 4.1 4.3, 4.11 Refer to curriculum documents on http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au

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Fascinating Antarctic facts – 1

What is Antarctica?

Read this collection of fascinating facts about Antarctica.

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Antarctica is named for being ‘opposite the Arctic’, which, of course, is at the opposite ‘end’ of the world. Both names come from Greek words—Arctic from ‘Arktos’, meaning the Great Bear (or Big Dipper), the constellation of stars above the North Pole, and Antarctica from ‘Antarktikos’, meaning ‘opposite the bear’.

Antarctica has not always been located over the South Pole. Over 200 million years ago, all of the Earth’s landmasses were linked as one ‘super continent’. Approximately 160 million years ago this broke into two—Laurasia and Gondwana. Antarctica was part of Gondwana, along with most of present day South America, Australia, Africa and India. These landmasses continued to drift apart until they reached their present positions. This fact explains why Antarctica shares some types of fossils (dinosaurs once lived in Antarctica!) and rock formations as South America and South Africa.

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Antarctica is the fifth largest of the seven continents, twice as large as Australia and one and a half times the size of the USA.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Antarctica is one of the world’s most •f orr evi ew pur p ose so l y • important places for n scientifi c research

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Antarctica’s natural resources include minerals such as iron ore, chromium, copper, gold, nickel and platinum. Coal has also been found. None are mined as mining is banned. Commercial fisheries have taken krill, finfish and crabs.

Antarctica is actually the world’s largest desert. A desert is a region with less than 254 mm of annual rainfall and Antarctica receives only about 50 mm!

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Even though people believed a land far to the south must exist (they reasoned it would have to ‘balance’ the Earth!), the first recorded sightings of Antarctica were not made until 1820. It was not until 1840 that it was known Antarctica was actually a continent and not just a group of islands.

as it is so untouched. Scientists come to study the climate, marine life, geology, ecology and more, enabling them to understand more about the Earth. Approximately 5000 scientists spend the summer months there and about 1000 during winter.

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More than 13 000 tourists visit Antarctica each year on commercial ships and private yachts. Some of these are sightseeing tours only, without landings. Any landings are carefully monitored. Well-informed cruise guides accompany the tour. Attractions include viewing a white, clean, pure environment with pack ice and giant icebergs; visits to penguin colonies; expeditions to explorers’ historical huts; discovering how scientists live and work in Antarctica for extended periods; whale sightings; looking at the variety of seals and bird life; and generally fabulous photographic opportunities.

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What is Antarctica?

Fascinating Antarctic facts – 2

Use the text on page 7 and an atlas to answer the questions. Why is Antarctica classed as a desert?

4. Briefly explain why Antarctica shares some types of fossils and rock formations with South America and South Africa.

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2. Order the seven continents from the largest (1) to the smallest (7) in area. North America ...................................... South America......................................

5. Write a question for each of these answers. (a) 1820

Australia ................................................. Africa .......................................................

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1.

(b) 1840

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Asia .......................................................... (c)p Iron ore, chromium, copper, gold, •f orr evi ew pur o s e s o n l y • Europe .................................................... zinc, nickel, platinum and coal. Antarctica ..............................................

(d) Because Antarctica is so untouched.

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3. Fill in the missing parts to show the word origins of the Arctic and Antarctica.

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(a) Arctic (Greek word) meaning

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(b) Antarctic (Greek word) meaning

6. List three sightseeing attractions you would like to experience in Antarctica.

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Fact file Although both are cold, icy places the main difference between the continent of Antarctica and the Arctic is that Antarctica is made up of land covered by ice, while the Arctic is made up largely of sea covered by ice.

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Antarctic tourist brochure

What is Antarctica?

Antarctica is a unique and fascinating place with increasing numbers of tourists visiting each year. The sights they experience are like no other place on Earth. 1. Design and produce a tourist brochure to inform potential visitors to Antarctica about what they could experience. Read the information on pages 3 and 7 and visit the following Antarctic tourism websites (and others you may find) to help you design your brochure.

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http://www.tourantarctica.com/ http://70south.com/resources/tour/ http://www.coolantarctica.com/toc.htm (go to travel section)

2. Make notes under the following headings.

Port(s) of embarkation/Routes

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Best time of the year to go and why

Attractions to see

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What to take

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Do’s and don’ts to protect the environment/Safety precautions

3. Remember to use catchy slogans on your brochure; e.g. ‘Antarctica: the fascinating frozen land’. Fact file Landings in Antarctica are carefully monitored; no more than 100 people at a time can go ashore at any one place.

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Animals of the Antarctic

Antarctic animals

Indicators • Reads information and answers questions about animals of Antarctica. • Completes sound effects to create an Antarctic animal chorus.

Worksheet information • A midge is one of various small dipterous insects. The order Diptera includes common houseflies, gnats, mosquitoes, etc. characterised typically by a single pair of membranous wings. Tardigrade are a subclass of minute herbivorous arthropods, lacking well-developed circulatory or respiratory systems. Mites are small arachnids with a saclike body, many being parasitic on plants or animals. Many of these animals tolerate the extremely low temperatures by becoming frozen in ice under rocks and stones. They have antifreeze in their bodies and are able to stop all movement and bodily functions while frozen, only becoming active again when the ice melts.

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• Krill are small, pink, shrimp-like crustaceans. They are translucent animals which live in huge swarms which turn the ocean pink. Many animals eat krill. They are essential to the food web.

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• Plankton are microscopic organisms which float freely throughout the oceans. Plankton consist of phytoplankton (tiny plants) and zooplankton (tiny animals). Zooplankton eat other plankton. • Students may require access to a dictionary to complete the answers to Question 5 on page 12. • Quiz questions relating to this section may be found on page xi.

Answers

page 12

1. whales, seals, penguins, birds

4. Answers may include any of the following: an insulating layer of fat to protect them from the cold; chemicals which act as natural antifreeze in their blood to keep them from freezing; a small body shape; thick skin to retain heat; waterproof or insulating feathers.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Whales — Blue, Fin, Humpback, Minke, Orca, Southern Right, Sei, Sperm Seals — Weddell, Ross, Crabeater, Leopard

Penguins — Adelie, Emperor, Chinstrap, Gentoo Birds — gulls, sheathbill, fulmar, skuas, petrel, tern, albatross

5. (a) breed (b) predator (d) migrate (e) continent (g) sanctuary (h) extinction

page 13 Teacher check

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3. the midge; mites; tardigrades; invertebrates

Cross-curricular activities

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(c) harsh (f) invertebrates (i) commercial

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2. Students should select four of those listed for each group:

• Students incorporate drawings or sketches of the four main animal groups into an Antarctic animal scene using a variety of media in predominantly blue, green, white and black colours.

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• Students compose poems about Antarctic animals in a variety of styles, particularly haiku. • Students create a diorama which incorporates animals in a harsh Antarctic environment.

Outcome links

SOSE

THE ARTS

NSW

ENS3.5, ENS3.6, SSS3.7

RS3.5, RS3.6, WS3.9, WS3.11

MUS3.1, MUS3.2

Vic.

ENRE0401, ENRE0404, ENWR0401

ARMU0401, ARMU0402

R 4.1, R 4.2, R 4.4, W 4.2

ASP 4, AI 4

SA

SOGS0401 ICP 4.1, PS 4.1, PS 4.2, PS 4.3, R 4.1, NSS4.1 4.1, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6

4.1, 4.2, 4.3

Qld

TCC 4.1, PS 4.2

4.3, 4.11 Refer to curriculum documents on http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au

WA

10

ENGLISH

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MU4.2

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Antarctic animals – 1

Animals of the Antarctic

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Most animals live along the coast of the continent and on sub-Antarctic islands. Only tiny invertebrates such as the midge, mites and tardigrades can be found in the interior. The midge lives in Antarctica all year round. Larger animals such as penguins, whales and seals are not permanent inhabitants. Instead, they migrate to warmer waters during the coldest months from June to August and return during the warmer months.

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Although Antarctica is one of the harshest continents on Earth, many animals and birds are still found there. These include whales, seals, penguins, birds, crustaceans such as krill, crabs and shrimp, marine creatures such as squid, octopus, zooplankton and sea anemones, as well as a variety of fish.

All Antarctic animals and birds have adapted to the cold conditions. Some whales, seals and birds have an insulating layer of fat to protect them from the cold. Many fish and insects have special chemicals in their blood which act as a natural antifreeze to keep them from freezing. Many penguins and seals have a small body shape and thick skin to help them retain heat. Often, birds also have waterproof or insulating feathers.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons The best-known creatures inhabiting theo whales, seals and• birds. •f or r ev i ewAntarctica puare r p sepenguins, son l y

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The large numbers of whales in the oceans surrounding Antarctica feed on krill and other marine life. They include the Blue whale, Fin whale, Humpback whale, Minke whale, Orca whale, Southern Right whale, Sei whale and the Sperm whale. Several species of whale were hunted almost to extinction in the early and mid-1900s. Today, the entire area around the Antarctic has been declared an international whale sanctuary and is closely monitored by the International Whaling Commission. Of the 17 species which can be found, only four species of penguin actually breed on Antarctica — the Adelie, the Emperor, the Chinstrap and the Gentoo penguins. Most other species are found within the sub-Antarctic regions, which include many islands. The number of penguins is increasing due to overfishing of baleen whales, which usually compete with penguins for krill for food.

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A large population of seals is found throughout the Antarctic region. This is mainly because there are better feeding areas and no predators such as polar bears as there are in the Arctic. Six types of seals can be found in Antarctica but only four are considered true Antarctic species. These include the Weddell, the Ross, the Crabeater and the Leopard seal. The Southern Elephant seal and the Fur seal can often be found in Antarctica as well. Seals were the first Antarctic species to be used commercially. They were hunted for their skins, oil and fur until some, such as the Antarctic Fur seal, were almost extinct. Today, seals in the Antarctic are protected, with only a small number allowed to be taken for genuine scientific purposes. Most Antarctic birds arrive after winter in order to breed. Around 19 species of bird actually breed on the continent with others utilising offshore islands. Some of the species include gulls, sheathbills, fulmars, skuas, petrels, terns and albatrosses. Antarctic seabirds have special features which help them conserve body heat. RIC-6421 4.2/376

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11


Animals of the Antarctic

Antarctic animals – 2

Use the text on page 11 to answer the questions. 1. What are the four main groups of animals found in Antarctica? 2. Give four examples for each group. seals

penguins

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3. The only permanent inhabitants of Antarctica are

,

and

, which are tiny .

4. Name four adaptations which allow creatures to survive in the cold conditions of Antarctica. •

• •

birds

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whales

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

5. Write words from the text to match the meanings below.

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(a) to produce offspring (b) something which habitually preys on other animals (c) ungentle and unpleasant

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(d) to pass periodically from one region to another (e) one of the main landmasses of the globe (f) animals without a backbone

(g) a place protected by law where plants and animals are left in peace (h) a coming to an end or dying out (i)

likely to be sold in great numbers Fact file Antarctic fish have lived at between +2 ºC and –2 ºC for 5 million years, making them the animal best ever to adapt to cold conditions.

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Antarctic animal chorus

Animals of the Antarctic

In small groups, complete the information below to create sound effects for an Antarctic animal chorus. 1. Write words to describe each animal group. An example is given for each. seals

penguins

birds

bellowing

slippery

awkward

chattering

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whales

2. Read the words and choose a percussion sound (for example a crescendo of chime bars) which you could create which best fits your description of each animal group. Alternatively, you may choose a well-known song or piece of music. (a) whales

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons (d) birds •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• (b) penguins (c) seals

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Event

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3. Briefly write a short sequence of events and incorporate the sounds or music you have chosen. Be sure to add variety with different volumes and speeds. For example, some seals may disturb a group of penguins nesting, so the seal ‘sounds’ become louder as they approach the penguins, while the penguin ‘sounds’ may become more agitated and faster as they try to escape. Sound effect used

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4. Practise and perform your Antarctic animal chorus for the class. Fact file The Antarctic icefish have no haemoglobin (red pigment) in their blood to carry oxygen. They have a larger volume of clear blood instead! RIC-6421 4.2/376

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Animals of the Antarctic

Penguins and seals

Indicators • Reads information and answers questions about penguins and seals of Antarctica. • Completes a cloze about specific penguins and seals using words from a code.

Worksheet information • Students complete the multiplication problems and write in the answers before reading the completed information text on page 17.

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• Quiz questions relating to this section may be found on page xi.

Answers

page 17

Teacher check

Teacher check

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page 16

Cross-curricular activities

• Students research to find out specific information about Chinstrap, Adelie or Emperor penguins and Weddell, Antarctic Fur seals and Southern Elephant seals to compare. • Students compile a file of interesting or unusual facts about specific penguins or seals.

• Students select a specific penguin or seal which has some characteristics in common with them. For example, the Weddell seal has big, brown eyes and a smile; Male Southern Elephant seals are noted for their big nose etc.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Outcome links

Qld

TCC 4.1, PS 4.2

NSW Vic. WA

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ENGLISH RS3.5, RS3.6, WS3.9, WS3.11 ENRE0401, ENRE0404, ENWE0403 R 4.1, R 4.2, W 4.4

m . u

SA

SOSE ENS3.5, ENS3.6, SSS3.7 SOGE0401 ICP 4.1, PS 4.1, PS 4.2, PS 4.3, R 4.1, NSS4.1 4.1, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6

4.3, 4.4, 4.11 Refer to curriculum documents on http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au

o c . che e r o t r s super

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Penguins and seals – 1

Animals of the Antarctic

Read the factual information about penguins and seals. Penguins

Seals • The hunt for new populations of seals is thought to be responsible for the early exploration of Antarctica.

• Their compact bodies are specifically designed to swim underwater. A breastbone which acts as a keel and huge ‘paddle’ muscles allow them to propel themselves at speeds up to 40 kilometres per hour. Their heads are able to retract to form a perfect hydrodynamic shape. In order to travel quickly, penguins use an action called ‘porpoising’, which means that they leap out of the water every few metres. This enables them to breathe and makes it more difficult for predators to attack them. Antarctic penguins also do this to jump out of the water onto ice or land.

• Seals were the first Antarctic species to be harvested commercially. Their skins, fur and oil were in great demand. As a result, some species were almost completely destroyed. Today, seals are protected by the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals.

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• The first Antarctic explorers thought penguins were fish instead of flightless birds.

• Although seals spend most of their time in the water, they return to land to breed. Some species breed in individual pairs, such as the Ross, Weddell and Leopard seals, while others such as the Antarctic Fur seal and the Southern Elephant seal, breed in large groups where one dominant bull defends a ‘harem’ of females when territorial disputes occur during the breeding season.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur p•o sesonl y• Seals use sonar (echolocation) and

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• Penguins have an insulating layer of thick blubber on their bodies and waterproof plumage. Their solid bones are heavy, which allows them to remain underwater and conserve energy, which they need to dive constantly.

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• The diet of penguins consists of fish, krill, crustaceans and squid.

enhanced sight from their large eyes to feed at sea. Most eat krill, fish and squid.

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• Penguins have legs which are located low on their bodies so they walk in an upright, erect, awkward manner. They may also be seen pushing themselves through the snow on their stomachs.

• Seals are divided into two main types — those with ears and those with no protruding ears (‘true seals’). The Antarctic Fur seal is the only ‘eared’ seal. These have hind flippers without hair which can be used under their bodies to make them more agile on land and in the water.

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• Penguins generally breed in large, noisy colonies called ‘rookeries’—often comprising 180 000 or more birds. Most build their nests from stone and incubate one or two eggs. Adult penguin pairs take turns to keep the eggs warm and feed the chicks after they are hatched. Penguins use vocal signs, head and flipper waving, bowing, gesturing and preening to communicate with their mate or offspring in the rookery.

True seals have furry hind flippers which are used for swimming. On land they must drag their flippers behind them, undulating like a snake.

• Adult penguins are hunted by seals and killer whales while the chicks and eggs are often attacked by seabirds.

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Animals of the Antarctic

Penguins and seals – 2

Use brief bullet points from the information on page 15 to complete the table. Penguins

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Main body features and uses

Seals

Diet

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Breeding habits

Predators

Other interesting facts

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Because nesting places on higher ground are in short supply, penguins can often be seen stealing pebbles from each other’s nests to make their own.

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Penguin and seal code

Animals of the Antarctic

Complete the information about a specific penguin and seal by using the code. 25—feathers .........

30—moult .......

42—prey ...................

54—distributed

64—grass ...............

80—scarce .............

27—sounds ....

35—Leopard ...........

48—pups .............

56—inaccessible

70—scars................

81—throats ....

28—threat ................

36—squid ............

49—nurses ............

60—crustaceans .

72—bills ...........

90—smaller .............

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S The Gentoo penguins

The Gentoo penguins are the most widely red-orange

(9 x 8)

lantern fish,

and white patches behind their eyes. Their long, stiff

stick out behind them when they walk. Their diet consists of rock cod, (10 x 6)

catch

(krill), amphipods and squid. They form ‘rafts’ in hundreds to

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(5 x 5)

of all penguins.They have bright

(6 x 9)

. Their nests are built on rocky, uninhabited shores using whatever

(7 x 6)

supplies can be found, usually

(8 x 8)

and vegetation.They usually lay two eggs

three days apart.The second egg is often

. The parents guard their eggs

(9 x 10)

carefully until they hatch after five weeks. The adults prefer to feed the stronger chick when food is (8 x 10)

and let the other die. Gentoo eggs are often taken by skuas and the chicks

seals prey upon thes adults. © R. I . C.Publ i ca t i on •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

by other birds or feral cats.

(5 x 7)

The Ross seal

The solitary Ross seals are the least common Antarctic seal as they inhabit heavy,

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The coats

ice packs. They have dark grey or brown coats with lighter undersides. (5 x 6)

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(7 x 8)

in January or February. They have short heads and very

large eyes as well as light and dark brown stripes from the chin to the chest. They inflate their

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(9 x 9)

and show their markings when disturbed. They have the shortest hair of

any seal. The female is larger than the male which has pale and shoulders. Their diet consists mainly of krill. The seal

(8 x 6)

(10 x 7)

(6 x 6)

around the neck

but they will also eat fish and

are about 1.2 m long and weigh about 27 kg. They have dark

brown fur and lighter undersides. The female

Ross seals communicate by trilling or warbling. These off intruders. Killer whales and Leopard seals are their greatest

(7 x 7)

the pup for about 25 days. (9 x 3)

attract mates or warn .

(4 x 7)

Fact file Leopard seals are the only seals which eat other seals. They also catch penguins by their feet, beat them back and forth on the surface of the water to skin them, then eat the carcass. RIC-6421 4.2/376

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Animals of the Antarctic

Whales and birds

Indicators • Reads information and answers questions about whales and birds of Antarctica. • Completes grid drawings using a scale and research information.

Worksheet information • Manatees are large herbivorous mammals once thought to be related to the walrus because their appearance is similar. They are actually more closely related to elephants than any other animal. It is believed that manatees may have evolved from land animals. Manatees weigh up to 900 kg and can grow up to more than 3.7 m in length. Water is the only environment which can support their extremely large bodies. Their body weight would crush their internal organs if they lived on land! To keep their bodies warm, manatees must eat up to one-tenth of their body weight each day—more than 45 kg of water plants (or 200 heads of lettuce!).

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• The name ‘Cephalopods’ means ‘head foot’. Cephalopods are a group of molluscs which include cuttlefish, squid, nautilus and octopus. They all have tentacles attached to the head.

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• ‘Subcutaneous’ means ‘situated or lying under the skin.’

• Students may overlap their grid drawings of whales to show comparison. If they do not fit, use a second photocopy of the page or complete them on a sheet of grid paper. Students may select their own scale when completing Question 3 on page 21. • Quiz questions relating to this section may be found on page xii.

Answers

page 20

4. (a) whale hunting; lungs; four-chambered; flukes (tail flippers); pods; migrate; calf; 12 months; 80

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

1. toothed, baleen

(b) breed; after the polar winter; walk; snow-free ground

2. Answers will vary but should include the following information:

5. petrel; skuas

(a) toothed whales—narrow jaws; peglike teeth; eat fish, squid and marine mammals whole; smaller in size; one blowhole

7. waterproof feathers; layer of subcutaneous fat; large, compact bodies

page 21

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3. Toothed whales—Killer whale, Sperm whale; Baleen whales—Blue, Fin, Humpback, Minke, Sei, Southern Right

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(b) baleen whales—comblike structures for feeding instead of teeth; eat krill, fish; larger in size; two blowholes

6. zooplankton, cephalopods, fish

Teacher check

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Cross-curricular activities

• Students may research and complete projects about specific whales.

• Students record and compare information about specific birds in a fact file.

• Students sketch ‘real-life’ drawings of birds or whales and complete using various painting techniques.

Outcome links

SA

SOSE ENS3.5, ENS3.6, SSS3.7 SOGS0401 ICP 4.1, PS 4.1, PS 4.2, PS 4.3, R 4.1, NSS4.1 4.1, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6

Qld

TCC 4.1, PS 4.2

NSW Vic. WA

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ANTARCTICA

ENGLISH RS3.5, RS3.6, WS3.9, WS3.11 ENRE0401, ENRE0404, ENWE0403

THE ARTS VAS3.1, VAS3.2 ARAR0401, ARAR0402

R4.1, R4.4, W4.2

AI4, ASP4

4.3, 4.11 Refer to curriculum documents on http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au

4.1, 4.2 VA 4.1, VA 4.2

R.I.C. Publications®

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Whales and birds – 1

Animals of the Antarctic

Whales

• Whales are the only mammals, besides manatees, which live their entire life in the water. They breathe air through lungs, are warm-blooded, have a four-chambered heart and nurse their young with milk from the mother. • Whales swim by moving their flukes (tail flippers) up and down. • All Antarctic whales migrate long distances. They feed in the cold southern oceans then move to warmer northern waters to breed and give birth during winter. Whales may travel in large groups called ‘pods’, alone or in pairs. • Female whales usually only have one calf in a season after a year-long pregnancy. Calves can swim almost as soon as they are born and are protected and fed by the mother for up to 12 months. • Whales can live for between 20 and 40 years, though some may live up to 80 years.

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• Whales belong to the family which includes dolphins and porpoises. There are two main groups of whales—toothed and baleen. • Toothed whales have narrow jaws and peg-like teeth which they use to catch fish, squid and other marine mammals, which are swallowed whole. They are usually smaller than baleen whales and have only one blowhole. Examples of toothed whales include the Killer whale and the Sperm whale. • Baleen whales have mouth structures which look like large combs and are used to filter krill and fish from the water. They are usually larger than toothed whales and have two blowholes. Examples of baleen whales include the Blue, Fin, Humpback, Minke, Sei and the Southern Right whales. • Whale hunting was a very common practice which resulted in many species almost becoming extinct. Although there are now not as many whalers as in the past, whaling activities are still closely monitored.

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• About 35 species of birds can be found in the Antarctic region, but only 19 species breed on the Antarctic continent itself. • As many as 100 million or more birds arrive after the polar winter is over to begin breeding along the coast and offshore islands of Antarctica. Some, such as the penguins, walk up to 50 kilometres across sea ice. Others, such as petrels and skuas, fly in from the open sea. • The seabirds usually breed closely together in huge groups because there is very little ground free of snow to use for nesting.

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• During summer, the birds have an unlimited supply of food, which includes zooplankton, cephalopods and fish. • Seabirds’ chicks grow quickly and soon learn to fend for themselves. As winter approaches, most species begin to migrate north to those places where they spend most of their lives. • Antarctic seabirds conserve body heat by using waterproof feathers, a layer of subcutaneous fat and by having large, compact bodies.

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Animals of the Antarctic

Whales and birds – 2

Use the text on page 19 to answer the questions. 1. What are the two main groups of whales?

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2. What are the differences between the two groups?

3. Give two examples of each type of whale. •

• •

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4. Complete the sentences.

.

(a) Many species of whales almost became extinct due to , have a

Whales breathe through

up and down, travel in

heart, swim by moving their , pairs or alone and

long distances.

which protect and feed © R. I . C.Publ i cat i othey ns . Whales can live as long as for up to •f orr evi e w pur posesonl y• years.

Females usually only have one

(b) Only 19 species of birds actually

on Antarctica. They arrive

. Some fly over the sea and others

.

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Seabirds usually breed close together in huge groups because there is not enough for nesting.

5. Name two types of Antarctic bird.

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6. What does the Antarctic birds’ summer diet mainly consist of?

7. Write three adaptations which Antarctic birds use to keep warm. • • •

Fact file It is estimated that a fully grown blue whale eats 4 million krill per day—3600 kg every day for six months. This is enough daily intake to feed a human for almost four years!

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Whale grid drawings

Animals of the Antarctic

1. Select one baleen and one toothed whale from the list with approximate lengths below to draw on the grid. You will need to research Internet or library sources to find a suitable picture to copy. Killer whale (Orca) ......... 8 to 9 m Sperm whale .......................15 m Humpback whale ...... 12 to 15 m Sei whale ................................15

Blue whale ..................26 to 30 m Fin whale ....................24 to 27 m Minke .....................................9 m Southern Right whale ..........15 m

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SCALE: 1 cm = 2 metres

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2. Do your drawings show the comparison in sizes successfully? Yes

No

3. Repeat using grid paper and the wingspans of the birds given below. Petrel—0.4 m Skua—1.2 m Tern—0.6 to 0.9 m Albatross—3 m Fact file The Antarctic fulmar is a bird who has learnt to defend its nest well. It spits a foul-smelling, yellowish oil from its stomach at intruders. It is very accurate and can reach targets up to 1.5 metres away! RIC-6421 4.2/376

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Plants of the Antarctic

Plants of the Antarctic

Indicators • Reads information and answers questions about plants of Antarctica. • Follows a procedure to grow mould (a type of fungus).

Worksheet information • Students should locate the areas mentioned in an atlas to gain a better understanding of where the plants may be found.

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• The delicate Antarctic plants are easily destroyed by trampling. As Antarctica becomes more popular as a tourist destination, strict guidelines are in place to ensure that tourists walk only in particular places so that the small number of plants growing in Antarctica are preserved.

Answers

page 24

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• Quiz questions relating to this section may be found on page xii.

page 25

1. Sentences (b), (c) and (e) should be ticked; (a), (d), (f) and (g) should be crossed.

Teacher check

2. Teacher check

Cross-curricular activities

• Students investigate how types of plants growing in other desert regions or very shady areas adapt to absorb the light needed to survive.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

• Students create a collage using various coloured, textured prints from foliage plants to represent the colours of plants found in the Antarctic region. • Students create an Antarctic ‘garden’ using rocks, white sand and small, clumping grass-like or groundcover plants.

Outcome links SCIENCE INVS3.7, UTS3.9 SCBS0401, SCB0402

WA

ICP 4.1, PS 4.1, PS 4.2, PS 4.3, R 4.1, NSS4.1

R 4.1, R 4.4, W 4.2

EB 4, LL 4

SA

4.3, 4.11 Refer to curriculum documents on http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au

4.5, 4.7, 4.8

Qld

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4.1, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6

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TCC 4.1, PS 4.2

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SOSE ENGLISH ENS3.5, ENS3.6, SSS3.7 RS3.5, RS3.6, WS3.9, WS3.11 SOGE0401 ENRE0401, ENRE0404, ENWE0403

w ww

NSW Vic.

LL 4.3

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Plants of the Antarctic – 1

Plants of the Antarctic

The Antarctic is a harsh region. The extreme conditions mean that only about 2% of the continent is able to sustain any type of plant life. No trees can survive at all in Antarctica and the small variety of plants which do grow there must be able to withstand the formidable climate. Extreme temperatures, fierce winds and no rain mean that only two actual plants can be found. These flowering plants are the Antarctic hair grass and a cushion-forming pearlwort. The remaining plants are lichen, moss, algae and fungi.

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400 varieties of lichen may be found in Antarctica. They thrive because they have little competition from other plants. Lichen are the plants which have adapted best to survive in Antarctica because they have a high tolerance for drought and cold. Lichens are a combination of two organisms— a fungus and an alga. The fungus part supplies the plant with water and nutrient salt and the alga provides organic substances similar to that produced by carbohydrates. Lichens like to grow in cracks between rocks where snowflakes can be caught and melt. Lichens are usually a light colour which helps them absorb as much light as possible. Lichens can only grow on about 120 days per year but they commonly live up to 200 or even as much as 4500 years!

streams and low-lying areas; some live near bird colonies where high levels of nutrients collect; others create spectacular red, yellow or green patches on areas where snow lies permanently; some bluegreen algae have even been found growing inside rocks. Most algae are found under lightcoloured rocks where it is easier to survive.

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Moss At least 30 species of moss grow in Antarctica. Mosses like to grow in colonies so that they can collect and retain more water. This way they lose less water by evaporation and are able to use water quickly when it becomes available. They are very shallowgrowing plants which can withstand long periods of continuous light during the polar summer.

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Antarctic hair grass and pearlwort The delicate Antarctic hair grass and the pearlwort grow in small clumps near the shore of the west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula and on the South Orkney and South Shetland islands. Both varieties of plants will tolerate very cold and dry conditions. When the temperature reaches freezing point (0 ºC or 32 ºF), the rate at which they convert sunlight into chemical energy drops to about 30 or 40% of that during more favourable conditions.

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© R. I . C.PubAlgae l i cat i ons Many species of algae inhabit Antarctica. Lichen Algae come in s many colours and• forms. •f orr evi ew pur po se o nl y Estimates suggest that between 150 and Blue-green algae grow in gravel around lakes,

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Fungi Some fungi, including several mushrooms, have been found growing on the warmer, wetter side of the Antarctica Peninsula and on the South Shetland Islands. A few fungi are unique to Antarctica. Many can also be found in most temperate regions. As so few plant varieties will actually grow in Antarctica, those which do need to be protected!

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Plants of the Antarctic

Plants of the Antarctic – 2

Use the text on page 23 to answer the questions. 1. Tick the correct statements and cross the incorrect statements. (a) Due to the extreme conditions in Antarctica, only 5% of the continent is able to sustain plant life. ....................................................................................

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(b) Only two flowering plants can be found in Antarctica.

..............................................................

(c) The majority of plants consist of lichen, moss, algae and fungi. (d) Few varieties of lichen are found in Antarctica.

.............................................................................

(e) Mosses are very shallow-growing plants which form colonies. (f) The colours of the plants growing in Antarctica are very dull.

............................................

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..........................................

...............................................

(g) Fungi, such as mushrooms, die in the extremely cold conditions. ...................................... 2. Answer the questions. (a) One particular adaptation allows Antarctic hair grass and pearlwort to tolerate very cold and dry conditions. Explain this adaptation.

(b) Lichen are a combination of two organisms. Explain what they are and how this helps lichen to survive.

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(c) Moss like to grow in colonies. Explain why they do this.

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(d) Explain why algae are very versatile, colourful plants.

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Fact file Antarctic moss, which grows on the better-drained, stony slopes, can build up to form thick layers of peat almost two metres deep and 5000 years old!

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Grow your own Antarctic plant Plants of the Antarctic Mould is a simple fungus which forms on vegetable or animal matter. It usually looks like a furry or downy coating. Mould begins life as a tiny spore that lands on food sources such as bread, cheese, fruit or vegetables. Spores can be found in the air, on the ground and on people! 1. Follow the procedure to grow your own mould. Tick each step as you complete it.

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(b) Follow the method below.

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(a) Collect your materials. ............................................................................................................................... snaplock bag® SAFETY PRECAUTIONS piece of bread • Be sure to wash your hands after handling the mould. cotton wool ball • Do not inhale the mould spores while eye-dropper conducting the experiment. water • Collect dust on the cotton wool ball. ............................................................................................... • Rub dust from the cotton wool ball onto the bread. ................................................................ • Put 5 or 6 drops of water onto the bread. ..................................................................................... • Place the bread in the snaplock bag®.

(c)

..........................................................................................

• Store in a safe place.

...............................................................................................................................

• Leave for two weeks.

...............................................................................................................................

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Evaluate your experiment by observing and writing information about the smell, colour and texture ofw the mould. estimate ofn the percentage •f or r e vi e puInclude r poans eso l y •

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of the bread covered by mould and a labelled diagram if appropriate.

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Fact file Lichens and moss will grow anywhere they can in Antarctica, including on the weathered bones and feathers of dead animals! RIC-6421 4.2/376

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Amazing natural formations

Amazing natural formations

Indicators • Reads information and answers questions about natural formations of Antarctica. • Writes clues for answers to a crossword.

Worksheet information • Students should locate the areas mentioned in an atlas to gain a better understanding of where the land formations may be found.

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• Quiz questions relating to this section may be found on page xiii.

Answers

1. (a) moving, ice crystals, gravity, crevasses

(b) Icebergs, calving, four-fifths, underwater (c) dry valleys, Mars (d) sea water, sea ice, pack ice (e) ice sheets, ice shelves

(f) Mount Erebus, Deception Island, lava lake, warm volcanic waters (g) nunataks

2. (a) false (d) true

(b) true (e) false

page 29 Teacher check

Cross-curricular activities

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page 28

(c) false (f)

false

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• Students draw diagrams which show the formation of glaciers and ice shelves and ‘calving’. • Students conduct experiments which show rates of freezing of various liquids.

• Students investigate the preparation, training and equipment needed to climb a glacier, ice sheet or inactive volcano.

Outcome links

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TCC 4.1, PS 4.2

ENGLISH RS3.5, RS3.6, WS3.9, WS3.11 ENRE0401, ENRE0404, ENWE0403 R 4.1, R 4.4, W 4.2 4.3, 4.11 Refer to curriculum documents on http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au

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SOSE ENS3.5, ENS3.6, SSS3.7 ENS3.5 SOGE0401 4.1, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6

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Amazing natural formations – 1 Antarctica is a continent with many unique natural formations, including glaciers, icebergs, dry-valleys, sea ice, icesheets, iceshelves, volcanoes, mountains and nunataks. Glaciers

3000 km2. They are made up of exposed rocky surfaces which absorb heat from the sun to melt snow. Cold, dry winds blow away any remaining snow. No rain has fallen there for at least 2 000 000 years! NASA sent astronauts to this region to train as it was considered the closest area on earth to Mars! The dry-valleys also include some lakes which are saltier than the sea!

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Glaciers are moving rivers of ice. Those found in Antarctica are the biggest in the world. Glaciers form as snow melts then refreezes into interlocking ice crystals. This happens continually until it forms a hard, smooth surface. Glaciers can move as a whole structure or there may be movement within the glacier itself. Gravity pulls the glaciers towards the sea at a rate of about 1 to 10 metres every year. As glaciers move over slopes or uneven land they crack brittle top layers and often form deep fractures called crevasses. The Lambert Glacier is 400 km long and over 40 km wide.

Sea ice

Sea ice covers the area around Antarctica in winter. Sea water around Antarctica begins to freeze at around 28 ºF or –1.8 ºC. The frozen sea ice more than doubles the size of the continent. The movement of the ocean and winds breaks away large pieces of ice called pack ice, which moves according to the wind and sea currents. Icesheets

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Amazing natural formations

Icesheets form as thick accumulations of snow build up over millions of years. They are usually dome-shaped and sloping.

© R. I . C.PubIceshelves l i cat i ons Iceshelves are s hugeo icesheets •f orr evi ew pur pose nl ywhich •have moved to the coast and floated into the

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Icebergs are large, floating blocks of ice. They may form a variety of shapes and sizes. Icebergs may range in size from a few metres to tens of kilometres in diameter. The shape of an iceberg can be an indication of its age. They float because they are less dense than the sea water. Eighty per cent of icebergs are created when ice breaks away from iceshelves. This process is called ‘calving’. Others are formed when ice cliffs collapse or when glaciers flow directly into the sea. Icebergs are moved by ocean currents because four-fifths of an iceberg is underwater. They will eventually melt as they move north to warmer waters.

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Dry-valleys The dry-valleys of Antarctica consist of three main valleys which were once occupied by glaciers. They cover an area of about RIC-6421 4.2/376

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Icebergs

ocean. Iceshelves finish where ice ‘calves off’ to form icebergs. Iceshelves can range from about 300 m near the edge to over 900 m at the boundary between floating ice and land ice. The Ross Ice Shelf (the largest in the world) covers an area of 388 000 km2! It is about 800 km across.

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Volcanoes and mountains

Antarctica has at least two active volcanoes, as well as many mountains. The volcanoes are Mount Erebus on Ross Island and Deception Island off the Antarctic Peninsula. Mount Erebus has a permanent molten lava lake. About 10 000 tourists stop at Deception Island each year to allow passengers to bathe in the warm, volcanic waters. Nunataks Nunataks are tall areas of rock isolated from the main Transantarctic Mountains by large ice sheets. Geologists can study these exposed areas of rock to discover information about the surrounding areas. ANTARCTICA

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Amazing natural formations

Amazing natural formations – 2

Use the information on page 27 to complete the sentences. 1.

rivers of ice which form when snow melts and

(a) Glaciers are

. They are pulled by

refreezes into

towards the sea, often forming

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as they move.

are large, floating blocks of ice in many shapes and sizes. The

(b)

. Icebergs can be

process which creates most icebergs is called

of them is

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moved by current because

.

. The landscape is similar to

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(c) Rocky areas once covered by glaciers which receive very cold, dry winds are called .

around it freezes

(d) Antarctica doubles in size in winter because the

. Large pieces which break off and float away are called

to form

.

(e) Thick snow which builds up over millions of years forms

.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons. (f) The most well-known volcanoes on Antarctica are •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• and Those which float into the ocean are known as

. One has a

and the other

in which to bathe.

has

.

Mountains are called 2.

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Tick ‘true’ or ‘false’.

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(g) The tall, rocky outcrops surrounded by icesheets which are part of the Transantarctic

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False

(b) Glaciers travel at a rate of between 1 and 10 metres every year. True

False

(c) There is no way to discover the age of an iceberg.

True

False

(d) No rain has fallen in the dry-valleys for at least 2 million years.

True

False

(e) Geologists are unable to study the Transantarctic Mountains.

True

False

(f) The lakes in the dry-valleys consist of pure snow water.

True

False

(a) Glaciers move as an individual unit.

Fact file Antarctica is pushed into the earth by the weight of the ice sheets. If they melted, Antarctica would ‘bounce back’ about 500 m, but it would take 10 thousand years!

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Clueless crossword

Amazing natural formations

Write clues for the answers given in the crossword. Down 1.

2.

6.

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3.

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7.

11.

Across 4.

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5.

10. 12. 13.

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8.

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Fact file One of the biggest icebergs which broke away from the Ross Ice Shelf in 2000 was 295 km long and 37 km wide and had a surface area of 11 000 km2! RIC-6421 4.2/376

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Aurora australis – the southern lights

Aurora australis

Indicators • Reads information and answers questions about the aurora australis. • Completes a procedure for an artwork to represent the aurora australis.

Worksheet information

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• Students should write brief bullet points to answer Question 2 on page 32. • Quiz questions relating to this section may be found on page xiii.

Answers page 32 2.

Creation

Electrically charged particles collide with gases in Earth’s upper atmosphere.

Location

Aural ovals (2400 km around Earth’s magnetic poles)

The collisions react with oxygen and nitrogen, causing light.

Best time to view

March – September The Earth’s magnetic clear, cold night field directs these to the poles.

Forms

Time auroras last

arc, streamer, pillars, halo … floating curtains spiral curtains glowing bands of colour

15–40 minutes, recur all night

Colours

Classifications

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1. The aurora australis is a display of light which appears in the Antarctic skies in winter.

yellow-green, blue, by behaviour and pink, red, purple, pale movement green, yellow, violet 0–4

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• First recordings

early stone age in carvings 1500

Height

80 – 160 km

3. Teacher check

page 33

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Cross-curricular activities • Students write a folktale which explains how the aurora australis was created.

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• Students research specific information about aurora borealis and compare it to the aurora australis.

Outcome links

SA

SOSE ENS3.5, ENS3.6, SSS3.7 SOGE0401 ICP 4.1, PS 4.1, PS 4.2, PS 4.3, R 4.1, NSS4.1 4.1, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6

Qld

TCC 4.1, PS 4.2

NSW Vic. WA

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ENGLISH RS3.5, RS3.6, WS3.9, WS3.11 ENRE0401, ENRE0404, ENWE0403

THE ARTS VAS3.1, VAS3.2, VAS3.4 ARAR0401, ARAR0402

R 4.1, R 4.4, W 4.2

AI 4, ASP 4

4.3, 4.11

4.1, 4.2

Refer to curriculum documents on http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au

VA 4.1, VA 4.2

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Aurora australis – the southern lights

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The aurora australis or the southern lights are spectacular displays of light which appear in the Antarctic skies in winter.

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Aurora australis – 1

sunlight. The northern lights seen in the Arctic are called the aurora borealis.

Auroras can be classified by their behaviour and movement — quiet, pulsating, flickering or flaming. They may also be rated from 0 to 4 depending on their level of brightness — 0 being barely visible and 4 very bright.

The colours released depend on the type of atom struck by the charged particles. Oxygen at high altitudes produces red auroras. Oxygen at low altitudes produces a bright yellow-green which is the brightest colour. Nitrogen molecules produce blue or red light as well as purple borders and rippled edges. Pale green and pink are the most common colours. Other colours include shades of red, yellow, green, blue and violet.

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Auroras occur most often in regions known as the auroral ovals, which are rings of roughly 2400 km around the Earth’s magnetic Poles. Auroras appear at the same time in Antarctica and the Arctic on clear, cold nights. The best displays can be seen between March and September in Antarctica. The rest of the year the South Pole has twenty-four hours of

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from 15 to 40 minutes and may recur in 2 or 3 hours. An auroral band may last all night. Auroras can search a height of between 80 and 160 kilometres.

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may appear as arcs, streamers, © R. I . C.PubAuroras l i ca t i on s pillars, halos of vibrating colour, as pale floating or spiral curtains of light or as glowing •f orr evi ew pur po es on l y• bands ofs colour. Auroral displays can last

Rapidly moving solar winds made up of tiny electrically charged particles collide with gases in the Earth’s upper atmosphere. These collisions react with atoms of oxygen and nitrogen causing light of various colours to be ‘released’. The Earth’s magnetic field channels these discharges towards the poles.

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It is believed that the first recordings of auroras may have been as early as the Stone Age, in the form of snake-like, wavy carvings in caves. Scientists have studied the aurora since as early as 1500. People of different nations had many different beliefs about the northern aurora. In Norway it represented old, unmarried women dancing and waving hands wearing white gloves; the Inuit thought that the lights represented the kingdom of the dead, while the North American Indians thought they showed the gods dancing across the night sky.

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Aurora australis – the southern lights

Aurora australis – 2

Use the information on page 31 to answer the questions. 1. What is aurora australis?

2. Complete the boxes using general information about auroras.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Location

Forms

Best time to view

Colours

First recordings

Height

Time auroras last

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Creation

Classifications

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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3. Use the boxes below to draw representations of the beliefs about the northern aurora for the following people or countries. North American Indians

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Fact file The aurora australis is named after Aurora, the Roman goddess of the dawn and Auster, the Roman god of the south wind.

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Colourful lights

Aurora australis – the southern lights

Complete information for a procedure for an artwork which represents the aurora australis. 1. What form will your aurora take (arc, band etc.)? 2. What colours will you use? 3. What art techniques will you use to create the effect of colourful lights in the form you have chosen (wax resist, watercolours, oil pastels with dye, ink blowing etc.)?

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5. Draw a rough sketch of your artwork. Add labels if you need to.

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4. What materials and equipment will you need?

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6. Create your artwork and allow it to dry. 7. Write a poem to accompany your artwork and display them together. Fact file Pictures taken from the Voyager space probe showed extensive activities of auroras on Jupiter. RIC-6421 4.2/376

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Antarctica’s climate

Antarctica’s climate

Indicators • Reads information and answers questions about Antarctica’s climate. • Follows and records a procedure on ice crystal formations.

Worksheet information

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• The activity on page 37 involves the students making crystals. As they can take a long time to form, start the observations to record the changes several days after the procedure. It is important the students do not disturb the process of the crystals forming by moving the jar etc. This is one of the main reasons the procedure can fail.

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• Quiz questions relating to this section can be found on page xiv.

Answers

page 36

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• When a large amount of a substance such as sugar, salt etc. is dissolved in very hot water, the water eventually becomes saturated — filled to capacity with dissolved crystals. As the water evaporates, there isn’t enough left to keep the crystals dissolved, so they begin to reform. The hot water breaks down the substance dissolved into tiny molecules. Hot water holds more molecules than cold water, so when the water cools and evaporates it can’t hold as much substance. The molecules come out of the solution and ‘stack together’ to form crystals. More crystals grow as more water evaporates.

3. Answers may vary but could include:

1. Answers will vary. Possible answers could include: driest, coldest, windiest, 50 mm annual rainfall, desert, blizzards, katabatic winds

(a) What is a white-out? (b) What is a blizzard?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Cross-curricular activities 2. Teacher check

(c) What are katabatic winds?

page 37

Teacher check

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• Use a globe and a torch to demonstrate how the sun shines directly over the Equator, is at an increasingly low angle towards the South Pole and how no sunlight reaches the South Pole in winter, due to the angle of the Earth as it orbits the sun.

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• Students can compare Antarctica’s climate to their own and a country in a tropical place such as Singapore. Latitude, longitude, description of the climate, interesting weather phenomena, highest and lowest temperatures could be recorded and compared, and reasons given for the similarities and differences.

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• Students record daily temperatures and rainfall for where they live and display on a graph.

Outcome links

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SOSE

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ENGLISH ENS3.5 RS3.5, RS3.6, WS3.9 SOGE0401 ENRE0401, ENRE0404, ENWR0401 ICP 4.1, ICP 4.2, PS 4.1 R 4.1, R 4.4, W 4.1 3.5 4.3, 4.11 PS 4.4

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Refer to curriculum documents on http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au

SCIENCE

INVS3.7 SCCS0401, SCCS0402 I 4.2, I 4.4, NPM 4 4.7, 3.8 SS 4.2, NPM 4.1, NPM 4.2

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Antarctica’s climate – 1

Antarctica’s climate

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– For half the year, Antarctica does not receive any sunlight. This is due to the angle of the Earth as orbits the sun. For the rest of the year, the sun is low in the sky. The sun’s rays have to try to heat a greater area of land, resulting in cooler temperatures.

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– The Antarctic continent reflects about 80 per cent of the sun’s rays, rather than absorbing them, as nearly all of it is covered with snow and ice. Any heat that is radiated back into the atmosphere is lost, due to the extreme dryness of the air.

– Two major circular wind currents keep the intense cold over Antarctica.

– Antarctica doubles its size in winter as the surrounding sea freezes, stopping heat transfer from warmer surrounding oceans such as the Pacific.

Antarctica is higher on average than any © R. I . C.Pub–l i ca t i on other continent. Thes higher the elevation, Antarctica is the coldest, driest and windiest the lower the temperature. continent on Earth. Inr fact, thei lowest • f o r e v ew pur pos eson l y• Antarctica experiences extremely strong temperature anywhere on Earth, –89.5 °C,

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The average winter and summer temperatures for Antarctica depend on the location. The coast averages 0 °C in summer and about –18 °C to –30 °C in winter, while the plateau averages –40 °C in summer and –68 °C in winter. The Antarctic Peninsula has the ‘warmest’ climate as it is the furthest north. Coastal areas are also warmer due to the influence of the ocean. East Antarctica is colder than west Antarctica as it has a much higher elevation. Why is Antarctica so cold? There are several contributing factors: – Antarctica is an extremely long way from the Equator, where the temperature is markedly warmer.

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winds and it is rare for a period of calm to last more than a few hours. The winds which flow downward towards the coast from the high interior are known as ‘katabatic’ winds (‘katabasis’ is the Greek word for ‘descent’), and are driven by gravity. A wind speed of 320 kilometres per hour was recorded in July 1972 at the Dumont d’Urville Base.

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was recorded at Vostok Station, Antarctica, on 21 July 1983. Although Antarctica is covered in ice, it has very little rain. It is actually classed as a desert as it only receives about 50 millimetres of annual rainfall. Winds along the coast are commonly recorded up to 190 kilometres an hour.

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Blizzards are a common occurrence in Antarctica. A blizzard is a storm with violent winds of at least 50 kilometres an hour. The winds pick up falling and drift snow, which gets blown along the ground, resulting in blinding conditions. It becomes impossible to see objects not even a metre away. A severe blizzard may last for a week! Antarctica also experiences a condition known as a ’white-out’. This occurs in cloudy weather when the colour of the sky and the colour of the surface ice are identical. This makes it difficult for animals and humans to judge distances correctly.

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Antarctica’s climate

Antarctica’s climate – 2

Use the text on page 35 to answer the questions. 1. Write eight adjectives or phrases to describe Antarctica’s climate.

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2. Use keywords and phrases to summarise the six reasons given for Antarctica’s extreme climate.

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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3. Write a question for each answer.

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(a) A condition where the colour of the sky and the colour of the surface are identical, making it difficult to judge distances.

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(b) A storm with violent winds which pick up falling and drift snow and drive it along the ground, resulting in blinding conditions.

(c) Extremely strong winds which flow downward from the high interior towards the coast, and are driven by gravity. Fact file The windiest place on Earth and the most well-known site for katabatic winds is Cape Dennison at Commonwealth Bay. The winds flow off the East Antarctic Icesheet at an average annual wind speed of 80 kilometres an hour!

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Make your own ‘ice’ crystals

Antarctica’s climate

A fascinating phenomenon of Antarctica’s weather is the formation of ice crystals. One type, also known as ‘diamond dust’, can often be seen suspended on currents of air, and glitters and sparkles in the sunlight. Another type of ice crystal, ‘frazil ice’, can be found under ice shelves. These small, thin, disc-shaped crystals are believed to play an important part in the way ice moves under iceshelves. Follow the procedure to make your own ‘ice crystals’.

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You will need: • heatproof glass jar • pipe-cleaner • string • water • kettle • craft stick • tablespoon • plastic film • hand lens • substance to form crystals: borax, table salt, Epsom salt or sugar

Method:

1. Fill a heat proof jar with boiling water. 2. Add one of the substances, about a tablespoon at a time, stiring it until it dissolves. 3. Repeat, until no more will dissolve. This will be about three tablespoons to one cup of boiling water. (Epsom salts may need a bit more.) 4. Bend the pipe-cleaner into a shape such as a star, and tie a length of string to it. 5. Place the shape into the solution. Lay the craft stick across the jar opening and tie the other end of the string to it so the shape is suspended low into the solution but not touching the bottom of the glass. 6. Cover lightly with plastic film to prevent dust from settling on the solution. 7. Place the jar in a sunny position so the solution can evaporate and the crystals can begin to form. 8. Do not disturb the crystals forming by touching or moving the craft stick. 9. Record and draw the changes. Observe with a hand lens.

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Day

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Fact file The warmest temperature recorded in Antarctica was 15 °C at Vanda Station on 5 January 1974. RIC-6421 4.2/376

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Early exploration

Exploring Antarctica

Indicators • Reads information and answers questions about some of the early explorers of Antarctica. • Designs, draws and describes clothing suitable for sailors visiting Antarctica.

Worksheet information

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• Students should realise that early exploration of Antarctica was from the sea and by sailors, most of whom were seeking scientific information and/or commercial opportunities. They should be encouraged to discuss and determine examples of both types and why the governments of the day encouraged and financed these voyages of exploration. • The discovery of the North Pole preceded that of the South Pole. Students could discuss possible reasons for this and compare and contrast the two areas.

Answers

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1. (a) The ancient Greeks believed a landmass in the south was needed to balance the landmass they were familiar with in the Northern Hemisphere. (b) Teacher check

2. Sir Francis Drake, England, 1577-1580, Golden Hind, He proved that Antarctica was not attached to South America.

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• Quiz questions relating to this section may be found on page xiv.

Captain James Ross, England, 1839-1843 Erebus and Terror, He discovered that the South Pole was inland and could not be reached by sea. He was the first to break through the pack ice surrounding Antarctica. Captain Jules Dumond d’Urville, France, 1840, Astrolabe, He claimed Adelie Land for France and named the Adelie penguins, but did not reach Antarctica. His records were very detailed.

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Captain James Cook, England, 1773, Resolution, He circumnavigated Antarctica showing that it was not attached to any continent.

Lt Charles Wilkes, England, 1840, Vincennes, He established that Antarctica was a continent and not a group of islands.

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Teacher check

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Cross-curricular activities

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• Discuss why sailors often composed and sang sea shanties and the topics they chose to sing about. Students research and learn a sea shanty before attempting, in pairs or small groups, to compose one of their own, possibly set to a wellknown tune.

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• Brainstorm some of the challenges faced by sailors visiting Antarctica and some possible ways they managed them.

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• Research ‘scurvy’, what it is, what causes it and how it can be treated.

Outcome links

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ENS3.6 SOESO402, SOHI0402 ICP4.3 TCC 4.1 3.2

RS3.5 RS3.6 ENREO401 ENRE0404 R4.1 3.4 3.11

TCC4.3

Refer to curriculum documents on http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au

ANTARCTICA

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Exploring Antarctica

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Early exploration – 1

Antarctica was the last of the seven continents to be discovered. Amazingly, people as far back as the ancient Greeks predicted that there had to be another continent at the bottom of the Earth, to balance the weight of the northern landmass. The name Antarctica comes from the Greek word, Antarktikos (opposite the bear), which means the opposite of Arctic (the Great Bear or Big Dipper constellation).

and not a group of islands. Wilkes claimed to have discovered this continent after mapping about 2000 km of coastline, an achievement he celebrated with his crew. The US Wilkes Station in East Antarctica was named after him years later, in 1957.

during his 1577–1580 voyage, that Antactica was not attached to South America. He sailed his ship, Golden Hind, through the passage between the two continents after he had been blown south from Tierra de Fuego around Cape Horn during a storm. This passage is now known as Drake Passage.

Land), which he only saw in the distance, for France and named it, and a new species of penguins, after his wife. He landed on a small islet about six kilometres from the coast but did not actually reach Antarctica.

ship, Astrolabe, led a French expedition © R. I . C.Pubhiswhich l i c a t i on s included seven scientists. They kept very detailed records and collected many •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Sir Francis Drake, an English explorer, proved specimens. He claimed Terre Adelie (Adelie

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Captain James Clark Ross, the leader of an English expedition, spent four years in the Antarctic region with his ships, Erebus and Terror, between 1839 and 1843. His mission was to search for the magnetic South Pole, which he discovered was inland and could not be reached by sea. He and his crew were the first to manage to break through the pack ice surrounding Antarctica and into the waters now known as the Ross Sea. He named Victoria Land, Mt Erebus and Mt Terror on Ross Island and the Ross Iceshelf.

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It wasn’t until 1840 when Lieutenant Charles Wilkes from the United States, in his flagship, Vincennes, led a party of six ships and 433 men, including naturalists and scientists, that Antarctica was established as a continent

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Abel Tasman, another explorer, mapped parts of Australia during his 1642–1644 voyage, and established that Antarctica and Australia were not joined. Although Captain James Cook, who discovered parts of Australia, was the first to cross the Antarctic Circle in 1773 aboard his ship HMS Resolution, he never landed in Antarctica. He circumnavigated Antarctica, proving the land was not part of any continent. He believed that it was worthless.

In 1840, Captain Jules Dumont d’Urville in

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Earlier in 1822, an American seal hunter named John Davis claimed that he was the first to set foot on Antarctica. He went ashore in his ship’s tender, Cecilia, spending less than an hour ashore at Hughes Bay. He said he guessed it was a continent.

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Exploring Antarctica

Early exploration – 2

Answer the questions using the information provided on page 39. 1. (a) Why did the ancient Greeks think that there was another continent in the south?

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(b) Give two possible reasons why you think the Greeks didn’t go to search for the southern continent?

2. Add information about early Antarctic exploration to this chart. Name and country

Date

Ship(s)

Achievements

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Sir Francis Drake England

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France

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First to cross the Antarctic Circle

1839–1843

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Lt Charles Wilkes

Fact file The first fully documented landing in Antarctica, at Cape Adare, was by Carsten Borchgrevink, a Norwegian-Australian settler, during the Bull expedition in 1895. He also found some lichen, the first plant life discovered there.

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Antarctic designs

Exploring Antarctica

Design, describe and label clothing suitable to be worn by a sailor on a ship in Antarctica during the 19th century. Consider the need to protect all parts of his body, because any exposed skin would be likely to develop frostbite. He would also need to be able to climb the mast so his clothing shouldn’t be too bulky. You will need to think about the fabrics available at that time and the need for the sailor to keep warm, dry and to be protected from very cold winds.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S ’s Antarctic designs

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You may choose to draw and describe each item of clothing individually or to draw a sailor wearing your designs, with lines joining each item to its description.

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Fact file Antarctica is the fifth largest continent after Asia, Africa, North America and South America. It is larger than Australia and subcontinental Europe. RIC-6421 4.2/376

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Race to the South Pole

Exploring Antarctica

Indicators • Reads information and answers questions about Roald Amundsen and Robert Scott. • Writes acrostic poems.

Worksheet information

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The South Magnetic Pole and the Geographic South Pole first reached by Shackleton’s team (1909), differ. Students should appreciate the extremely difficult conditions confronting Antarctic explorers, including: • climatic factors such as very low temperatures causing frostbite and destroying animals and equipment, and gale force winds making it impossible to walk, often blowing snow and ice and limiting visibility, • geographic features, such as deep snow, ice, glaciers, mountains and crevasses,

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• transport difficulties caused by the need to take supplies of food, shelter, equipment and fuel across difficult terrain, • problems with the functioning and maintenance of equipment,

• lack of communication with the outside world, families and friends, • motivation to endure hardship and to keep going.

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• human factors of health, stamina, the treatment of injuries and psychological wellbeing,

Scott’s diaries recovered when his body was found eight months after his death provided details of his group’s journey and his thoughts and feelings. His final entry on 29 March describes their ordeal and reflects their spirit.

Since the 21st we have had a continuous gale from W.S.W. and S.W. We had fuel to make two cups of tea apiece and bare food for two days on the 20th. Everyday we have been ready to start for our depot 11 miles away, but outside the door of the tent it remains a scene of whirling drift. I do not think we can hope for better things now. We shall stick it out to the end, but we are getting weaker of course, and the end cannot be far. It seems a pity, but I do not think I can write more.

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Earlier, Scott had written:

Had we lived, I should have had a tale to tell of the hardihood, endurance and courage of my companions which would have stirred the heart of every Englishman. These rough notes and our dead bodies must tell the tale. • Quiz questions relating to this section may be found on page xv.

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1. (a) Amundsen (b) Teacher check

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2. (a) false (b) false (c) false (d) true (e) true (f) true

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Answers

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Cross-curricular activities

• Research and retell he story of Captain L Oates and his heroic actions in trying to ensure the survival of his three companions when he was unable to keep going during their return from the South Pole. • Debate: ‘Amundsen deserved honour and glory’.

Outcome links

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ANTARCTICA

ENGLISH RS3.5 RS3.6 WS3.9 ENREO401 R4.1 W4.1 W4.2 3.4 3.8 Refer to curriculum documents on http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au

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Race to the South Pole – 1

Exploring Antarctica

Explorers have endured great hardship and even died because of their desire to be the first to reach the Earth’s magnetic poles. These stories are about the two men who led the first expeditions to reach the South Pole.

to be the first to reach the South Pole. He kept his plans secret because he knew that an Englishman, Captain Robert Scott, was leading a much publicised expedition to reach the South Pole. Only his brother and the captain of the ship Fam knew his real plans. The race was on! He set sail in 1911, taking a hut as a winter base, 97 Greenland dogs, and provisions for two years. Before winter set in, he established a camp, complete with a sauna, and set up depots up to 772 km from the Pole. The spring weather was terrible and it wasn’t until 20 October that he and four others finally set off for the Pole with four sledges, each pulled by 13 dogs. On Friday 14 December, after only 57 days, the five men and the surviving 11 dogs reached the South Pole, following a new route. They raised the Norwegian flag and erected the tent in which Amundsen left a message for Scott. It wasn’t until March that he was able to send a cable from Tasmania to his brother, who informed the world of his success.

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Amundsen, a Norwegian, wanted to be the first to reach the North Pole. In September 1909, he was planning an expedition when he was devastated by the news that Peary had beaten him to the North Pole. He decided instead to try

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Roald Amundsen (1872–1928)

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Captain Robert Scott (1868–1912)

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to the Pole first because his men were experienced skiers and his dogs would travel quickly. Later, many people thought it was a mean-spirited thing to do and that Amundsen won by cheating. Scott had unwisely decided to use experimental motor sledges and ponies on his journey to the Pole. He arrived at McMurdo Sound on 4 January 1911 after an eventful voyage which resulted in the loss of some ponies, coal and other supplies during a storm. As they were unloading their largest sledge, it broke through the ice and sank. They built their winter hut, set up depots and waited for spring. Only 10 of the 19 ponies had survived.

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In England there was great interest in Scott’s expedition to the South Pole in the former whaling and sealing ship, Terra Nova. Over 8000 people had volunteered to join him. Well after Amundsen had set sail, Scott had been shocked to receive a message which read, ‘Beg leave to inform you proceeding to Antarctica. Amundsen’. Scott realised that Amundsen had deceived him and had a very good chance of getting

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The weather was very bad and the party of 12 could not set out until 1 November. The ponies had difficulties and Scott and the four men he selected for the final leg of the journey didn’t reach the Pole until 18 January. They were bitterly disappointed to find Amundsen’s flag and had to face the return with limited food, injuries and blizzards. Evans died and Oates walked out into the snow, also perishing. Scott and two others were found dead in their tent, having run out of food and fuel, too weak to make the final 18 km to the safety of their next depot.

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Exploring Antarctica

Race to the South Pole – 2

Answer the questions using the information provided on page 43. 1. (a) Who won the race to reach the South Pole? (b) Do you think he deserved to win?

Yes

No

Explain your answer.

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2. Tick true or false after each sentence.

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(a) Amundsen took five men with him to the South Pole. True

False

True

False

(c) Amundsen’s brother lived in Tasmania.

True

False

(d) Dogs were more use than ponies in Antarctica.

True

False

(e) The Terra Nova had a rough journey to Antarctica.

True

False

(f) Amundsen reached the South Pole in 1911.

True

False

3. Write three factors that contributed to Scott’s failure to return home.

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4. Consider and then write what you think Amundsen included in the message he left in the tent for Scott at the South Pole.

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South Pole 14 December 1911

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(b) Scott’s motor sledges were a great success.

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Fact file Amundsen took a beard-cutting machine with him to the South Pole. It was used to trim beards to stop ice accumulating on the men’s beards from condensation from breath.

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Explorer Acrostics

Exploring Antarctica

1. (a) Write an acrostic poem about each explorer using the letters of his name. (b) Illustrate each poem. The race to the South Pole A M U

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2. Research then draw the British and Norwegian flags.

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Norwegian flag

Fact file Scott and his companions dragged about 20 kg of geological samples with them until their deaths. RIC-6421 4.2/376

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Sir Douglas Mawson

Exploring Antarctica

Indicators • Reads information and answers questions about Australia’s most famous Antarctic explorer, Sir Douglas Mawson. • Writes a newspaper report about a particular incident in Mawson’s life.

Worksheet information

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• Students will need to understand that the geographic and the magnetic poles differ. Shackelton, accompanied by Mawson, was first to the Magnetic South Pole, at which his compass needle was vertical, pointing straight up. The Geographic South Pole was first reached by Amundsen in 1911, after winning his race against Scott.

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• Sir Douglas Mawson was born in Yorkshire, England and came to Australia when he was two years old. At sixteen, he began his studies at the University of Sydney, graduating in Engineering and Science. He then went to the University of Adelaide to lecture in petrology, the study of the structure and origins of rocks. At the end of his career, he returned to this university as Professor of Geology. He was 26 when he joined Shackleton’s expedition and 30 when he led his first expedition to Antarctica. • The focus of the newspaper report the students are asked to write about occurred on 17 January when Mawson, frostbitten, exhausted and delirious, was suspended above a crevasse by his three metre harness rope. After struggling to the lip of the crevasse, he had fallen back again. He wrote ‘My strength was ebbing fast; in a few moments it would be too late. The struggle occupied some time, but by a miracle I rose slowly to the surface. This time I emerged feet first … and pushed myself out … Then came the reaction and I could do nothing for quite an hour’. • Quiz questions relating to this section may be found on page xv.

Answers

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The correct answers are: 1. (c) 2. (b) 3 (a) 4. (b)

5. (a) He wanted to lead the first Australasian Expedition to Antarctica

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(b) and (c) Teacher check

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Teacher check

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Cross-curricular activities

• Research and write a report about the Antarctic expedition led by the British explorer, Ernest Shackleton. • Design a postage stamp featuring Sir Douglas Mawson.

Outcome links

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Qld

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Sir Douglas Mawson – 1

themselves for only 10 days and nothing for the six dogs, began. They were forced to shoot and eat some of the dogs, but Mertz became sick and died, poisoned by the dog liver he had consumed. Alone, Mawson began what has been described as one of the most amazing stories of survival. For five weeks he dragged himself and the sled he had sawed in half, over snow and ice through terrible blizzards, for more than 160 km. He fell into a crevasse and was suspended by a rope until, after many attempts, he was able to pull his sick and weakened body up on the rope that held him. Later, he reported how close he came to deciding to just cutting the rope and plunging to a quick death in the crevasse below.

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The aim of Mawson’s expedition was to map and explore the section of the coast of Antarctica closest to Australia. In 1911, Mawson and his team in their ship, Aurora, travelled through 1500 km of pack ice to reach the coast. They built their hut on what proved to be one of the windiest places on Earth and named it Home of the Blizzard.

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Sir Douglas Mawson (1882–1958) was Australia’s most famous Antarctic explorer. He was part of Shackleton’s 1907–1909 Nimrod expedition, which was the first to reach the Magnetic South Pole, and he was one of those who first climbed to the top of Antarctica’s volcanic mountain, Mount Erebus. Because of this experience, Robert Scott offered him a much sought after place in his Terra Nova race to the South Pole. Mawson declined because he had been asked to lead the first Australasian Expedition to Antarctica.

Exploring Antarctica

Alone, he finally reached the safety of his Home of the Blizzard camp, only to see Aurora leaving on its journey back to Australia. They immediately tried to recall the ship by radio but ice conditions prevented the vessel from returning. He had to spend another winter in Antarctica with the six men who had been left behind to continue to search for their leader and his small exploration team.

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Mawson was knighted for the important contribution he had made to scientific knowledge about Antarctica. He returned to Antarctica in 1929 and again in 1931 and studied marine biology and oceanography.

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The following spring, a number of smaller exploration parties set out on foot. Mawson, with Mertz and Ninnis, using huskydrawn sleds, travelled over 1000 km east, mapping the coast and collecting geological specimens. In dreadful weather, they dragged their supplies over huge glaciers, slippery ice and around deep crevasses. Tragedy struck after just five weeks when Ninnis, six dogs and the sled with the tent, most of the food, spare clothes and other valuable supplies, disappeared down a crevasse.

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Mawson and Mertz turned back and their terrible battle to survive with rations for

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Exploring Antarctica

Sir Douglas Mawson – 2

Tick ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ for each statement, using the information provided on page 47. No

(c) Scott offered Mawson a place in his team. .............................................. Yes (d) Mawson climbed Mt Erebus..................................................................... Yes

No

2. (a) Mawson’s expedition aimed to reach the South Pole. ............................. Yes (b) Ninnis fell into a crevasse. ........................................................................ Yes

No

(c) All their dogs were lost in the crevasse. ................................................... Yes (d) The dogs became sick. ............................................................................ Yes

No

3. (a) Mawson made his sled lighter by sawing it in half. .................................. Yes (b) Mertz fell into a crevasse.......................................................................... Yes

No

(c) Mawson travelled by himself for six weeks. ............................................. Yes (d) The men on Aurora turned around and came back for Mawson. ............ Yes

No

(b) The men were left behind to search for Mawson, Ninnis and Mertz. ....... Yes (c) Mawson cut the rope that held him over the crevasse. ........................... Yes

No

(d) Mawson was knighted for his courage. ................................................... Yes

No

No

No No

No

No © R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Yes•No • f o rtrips r etovAntarctica. i ew p ur posesonl y (a) Mawson made two ....................................................

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5. (a) Why didn’t Mawson go with Scott?

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1. (a) Mawson was the captain of Nimrod. ....................................................... Yes (b) Home of the Blizzard was Shackleton’s base camp. ............................... Yes

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(b) Do you think this was a wise decision? (c) Explain why you think this.

Fact file As a result of his journeys there, Sir Douglas Mawson claimed six million square kilometres (42%) of Antarctica for Australia.

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Newspaper report

Exploring Antarctica

Compile and illustrate a newspaper report about Sir Douglas Mawson’s escape from certain death when he pulled himself up his rope and climbed out of the crevasse. Remember to report the incident dramatically to fire your readers’ imagination and horror. Try to make them feel as if they were there with Mawson, sharing his thoughts and fears as told to you, a well-known and respected reporter.

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Your report will need an attention-grabbing headline. Use some very emotive language. Add a caption under the illustration

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Fact file Sir Douglas Mawson was the first person to use a radio in Antarctica. RIC-6421 4.2/376

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Surviving in Antarctica

Surviving in Antarctica

Indicators • Reads information and answers questions about surviving in Antarctica. • Plans and sketches appropriate clothing suitable for an Antarctic field trip.

Worksheet information • The websites listed on page 53 provide information and photographs for the students to assist them in planning and sketching their Antarctic field trip wardrobe. They could also find other sites by typing in keywords such as ‘Antarctic clothing’ or ‘surviving in Antarctica’.

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• Quiz questions relating to this section can be found on page xvi.

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1. (a) an unwelcoming or unfavourable place (b) relating to heat or temperature (c) confused as to the right direction (d) keeping in warmth

(e) knitted headwear that pulls down over the head and under the chin

2. Teacher check

4. A balaclava is important as it helps protect most of the face from the extreme cold.

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5. Crevasses are identified by prodding poles into the snow. 6. Hypothermia can be prevented by wearing appropriate clothing over the entire body. 7. (a) more food (b) Pack ice (c) regularly

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f oactivities rr evi ew pur posesonl y• Cross-curricular 3. Snow blindness can be prevented by wearing sunglasses or goggles.

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Teacher check

• Students plan an Antarctic survival kit containing a given number of items – e.g. 20 – and explain why they chose each item.

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• Students research to compare materials and clothing worn by people in Antarctica in the past and at present.

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• Read about previous explorers’ survival stories in the Antarctic. An example would be Douglas Mawson, who was the lone survivor of a fateful expedition.

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Outcome links

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SOSE ENS3.5, ENS3.6 SOGE0401, SOGE0403 ICP 4.1, PS 4.1, PS 4.2, NSS 4.1 3.5

ENGLISH RS3.5, RS3.6, WS3.9 ENRE0401, ENRE0404, ENWR0401 R 4.1, R 4.4, W 4.1 4.3, 4.11

THE ARTS VAS3.1 ARAR0401 AI 4 3.1

PS 4.4

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Surviving in Antarctica – 1

Surviving in Antarctica

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Antarctica is both a fascinating place with a great attraction for explorers. However, the reality is that Antarctica is also the most inhospitable place on Earth.

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• Skin exposed to the bitter cold quickly develops frostbite on the extremities, such as the fingers, toes and nose. This can lead to the loss of affected body parts. Hypothermia occurs when the body’s core temperature drops below 35 °C. Severe hypothermia results in death. The wind chill factor increases the rate at which the body loses heat. • Blizzards are common. These violent winds pick up falling and drift snow, which gets blown along the ground, resulting in blinding conditions. It becomes impossible to see objects not even a metre away. • White-outs occur in cloudy weather when the colour of the sky and the colour of the surface ice are identical. This makes it difficult to judge distances correctly and it is easy to become disorientated. • Gale force katabatic winds funnel down from the high interior towards the coast. Wind speeds can suddenly reach 60 kilometres an hour. • Crevasses hundreds of metres deep can be hidden under a shallow layer of snow. • Snow blindness can occur as a result of the extreme glare of the sun reflecting off the icy surface. • The seas around Antarctica are the roughest on Earth. Swift-moving pack ice can suddenly surround a ship, trapping and crushing it.

How can you survive in Antarctica?

• People live inside Antarctic research stations that are heated and stocked with food. They do not participate in field trips without special clothing and emergency equipment, even if just on a day trip, and must radio the base station at regular intervals. • Researchers and support personnel must pass a survival training course involving building ice huts for shelter, retracking steps in darkness and poor visibility, how to dress for the conditions outside the base etc. • Clothing – A ‘layer’ method of dressing is followed. Clothing includes thick socks, full-length thermal underwear, thick trousers, two or more lightweight insulating layers of top-half clothing, balaclava, scarf, insulated boots, two or three pairs of gloves (the outer windproof), sunglasses or goggles and a weatherproof outer layer of clothing (the jacket with a hood) that goes over everything underneath. • The extreme cold causes most of the food people eat to go towards heating their body so plentiful supplies of the right foods are necessary. • During field trips, poles are prodded into the snow to check for crevasses. Handpowered ice drills are also used to test the thickness of the ice. • Ships travelling to Antarctica are ice-strengthened (or are actual icebreakers) and safety precautions are taken, such as deck operations being shut down when seas are too rough.

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What are some of the hazards you have to face in Antarctica?

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Surviving in Antarctica

Surviving in Antarctica – 2

Use the text on page 51 to answer the questions. 1. Write a dictionary definition for each of these words. (a) inhospitable (b) thermal (c) disorientated (d) insulating (e) balaclava

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(a)

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2. Briefly explain four hazards you would have to face in Antarctica.

(b) (c)

(d)

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3. How can snow blindness be prevented?

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4. Why is a balaclava so important?

5. How can crevasses be identified?

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6. How can hypothermia be prevented?

7. Tick the correct answer.

(a) People need (more food (b) (Pack ice

, Drift snow

, less food , Ice crystals

, more water

) in Antarctica.

) is/are a danger to ships.

(c) Researchers on field trips must radio the base station (daily

, regularly

, weekly

Fact file Soil is not allowed to be taken to Antarctica, but fresh vegetables are now being grown hydroponically in greenhouses. Except for five days, salads were served at McMurdo Station for every lunch and dinner over the winter.

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Antarctic field trip wardrobe

Surviving in Antarctica

Imagine you and a friend have been invited to an Antarctic scientific base for a month over the summer. Equipment such as sleeping bags, expedition tents, camp stoves and food will be provided, but you are required to bring your own clothes. Jeans, sweatshirts and jackets are suitable while in the airconditioned base station. You need to bring adequate clothing for field trips as well.

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1. Read the information on page 51, check out the following websites and those you find yourselves to plan an ‘Antarctic field trip wardrobe’ with a partner. Make notes and draw sketches under the headings in the table. http://www.coolantarctica.com/toc.htm (scroll to Antarctica Science heading and click on ‘clothing’) http://www.globalclassroom.org/dave29.html

2. Draw a detailed sketch, including labels, of your Antarctic wardrobe on a large sheet of paper. Display and compare with other class members’ sketches. Base layer next to skin

Insulating layer(s)

Outer layer

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Footwear

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Headwear (including neck and face)

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Hands and wrist

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Fact file Early Antarctic clothing was windproof and insulating but the materials used lacked the ability to let perspiration escape. When explorers cooled down after exertion, the sweat made them colder and the damp clothes lost much of their insulating property. RIC-6421 4.2/376

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Scientific research in Antarctica

Scientific research in Antarctica Indicators

• Reads information and answers questions about scientific research in Antarctica. • Creates two imaginary advertisements for job vacancies in Antarctica.

Worksheet information • Areas of research other than those outlined may interest students. One concerns medical research. Living in isolation appears to lower natural immunity as the arrival of new staff after winter finds colds and flu spreading rapidly among those who stayed. The absence of sunlight affects body rhythms and sleep patterns, so methods of correcting sleep patterns are of great importance to the wider community. Research into how humans develop resistance to the cold is also studied. Psychologists study the behaviour of the isolated small-group population of Antarctica, looking at personality characteristics and human interactions.

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• Students could view advertisements for jobs in the classified advertisements section of community and local newspapers to assist them in creating their own ‘Positions wanted’ for the activity on page 57. The following website provides information about the types of jobs required. http://www.coolantarctica.com/Community/find_a_job_in_antarctica.htm • Students will also need to research information to write an accurate job description. A useful website is: http://www.antarcticconnection.com/

They can follow the links from the home page to Science/Research and click on to the appropriate area.

• Quiz questions relating to this section can be found on page xvi.

Answers

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

1. It provides a natural laboratory as it is one of the world’s most untouched places; all research findings are shared and internationally supported.

2. The weather conditions are not as severe and there is not complete darkness. rocks fossils landforms ocean life

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3. (a) (c) (e) (g)

(b) (d) (f) (h)

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fauna ice stars flora

4. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g)

astrophysics glaciology meteorology biology geology aeronomy oceanography

(orange) (yellow) (red) (green) (purple) (white) (blue)

5. vulcanologist

page 57 Teacher check

Cross-curricular activities

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• Students create other ‘Positions wanted’ advertisements and display them for class members to view.

• With a partner, students choose one particular area of scientific research in Antarctica and prepare a detailed report for the class. • Scientists must learn how to build ice huts as part of their Antarctic survival course. Investigate how to build a trench, a snow mound and an igloo, using the Internet or other nonfiction resources.

Outcome links

SOSE

54

ENGLISH

NSW

ENS3.5, ENS3.6, SSS3.7

RS3.5, RS3.6, WS3.9

Vic.

SOGE0401, SOGE0403

ENRE0401, ENRE0404, ENWR0401, ENWR0404

WA

ICP 4.1, ICP 4.3 PS 4.1, PS 4.2, PS 4.3, R 4.3, NSS 4.1

R 4.1, R 4.4, W 4.1

SA

4.4, 4.5, 4.11

4.3, 4.4, 4.11

Qld

PS 4.2, PS 4.4

Refer to curriculum documents on http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au

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Scientific research in Antarctica – 1

Scientific research in Antarctica

Antarctica is one of the world’s most important places for scientific research as it is probably the most untouched place on Earth, making it a natural laboratory. All research findings are shared, as Antarctica is ‘owned’ by no-one and projects are internationally supported.

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Research is carried out mainly in the following areas:

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No-one lives permanently in Antarctica, but scientists and support staff live for all or part of a year in approximately 100 research stations scattered across the continent. About 5000 people live there over the summer months when weather conditions are not as severe, and about 1000 over the bitterly cold, dark winter months.

Meteorology

Oceanography

Meteorologists study the great influence Antarctica has on the world’s climate. They monitor the weather systems that drive storms across the Southern Ocean and observe how the melting of the sea ice affects the world’s weather.

When the iceshelves surrounding Antarctica melt in the warmer months, this dense water sinks to the bottom. The strong Southern Ocean current gradually moves this water into the Northern Hemisphere, which reduces sea temperature. This cooling effect is a major factor in the balance of the world’s heat, which oceanographers are carefully studying.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Aeronomy

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Biology

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Glaciologists study air trapped in thick ice core samples, which show the make up of the atmosphere in the past, enabling them to learn about climate change.

Geology

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Zoologists, botanists and marine biologists study the adaptations of the animals and plants that manage to live in such a harsh environment. The few insects found living in Antarctica have very simple communities, making them perfect models for understanding how land-based ecosystems work. The food web in the Southern Ocean is also a fairly easy one to study, compared with other ocean food webs.

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Glaciology

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This is the study of the physical and chemical (gases) make up of the upper atmosphere. Antarctica has the cleanest air in the world, so accurate air quality monitoring can be carried out. Atmospheric scientists can also study the hole in the ozone layer, which lies over Antarctica.

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Geologists and paleontologists have found that Antarctica was once connected to other landmasses and shares some of the same rock formations and fossils as places such as South America. Soil scientists and geomorphologists study soil samples and landforms.

Astrophysics Antarctica is the best place in the world for astronomers to study space as the winter darkness and the thin, cold, dry air make it ideal for stargazing.

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Scientific research in Antarctica

Scientific research in Antarctica – 2

Use the text on page 55 to answer the questions. 1. Give two reasons why Antarctica is an ideal place to carry out scientific research. •

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3. Use a dictionary to help you match what each scientist below studies. fossils

fauna

flora

ocean life

stars

rocks

(a) geologist

(b) zoologist

(c) paleontologist

(d) glaciologist

ice

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2. Why do more scientists stay in summer than in winter?

landforms

(f) l astronomer © R. I . C.Pub i cat i ons (g) marine biologist (h) botanist •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• (d) geomorphologist

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meteorology aeronomy biology oceanography glaciology geology astrophysics

(red) (white) (green) (blue) (yellow) (purple) (orange)

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4. Read the keywords and phrases (a) winter darkness and thin, cold, dry air make it ideal to study about the types of research carried out in Antarctica. Shade or highlight (b) ice core samples reveal knowledge about climate change each box according to the code. (c) monitoring weather systems and how melting of sea ice affects weather (d) study of plant and animal adaptations and ecosystems

o c . che e r o t r s super (e) study of rocks, soil formation and fossils

(f) monitoring of air quality and study of ozone layer (g) monitoring how the Southern Ocean affects the sea temperature in other parts of the world and its effect on the weather

5. As Antarctica has an active volcano, Mt Erebus, scientists also monitor and analyse volcanic activity. Unjumble the word that describes a scientist who studies volcanoes.

ucngtvslliaoo

Fact file Modern permanent bases are fully equipped with comfortable living accommodation, powerhouses, research laboratories, stores, medical facilities and mechanical workshops—they even include gymnasiums, sports equipment, Internet access, DVDs and their own TV station!

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Wanted: Willing workers

Scientific research in Antarctica

Scientists with experience in a wide variety of fields are needed for research positions in Antarctica and the majority of people working there are scientists. However, support staff such as mechanics, cooks and radio operators are also needed to help the bases run efficiently. 1. Create two ‘Positions wanted’ for an advertisement for two job vacancies in Antarctica. One is to be for a scientist and the other for a support staff person. Choose from the suggestions below, from those discussed on page 55 or those you research yourself. You will need to state each position, give a short job description and list qualifications required, including personal qualities.

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Positions for support staff: cook, mechanic, doctor, radio operator, diver, electrician, boat handler, carpenter

WANTED:

WANTED:

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Positions for a scientist: meteorologist, botanist, marine biologist, chemist, seismologist, glaciologist, zoologist, astronomer

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Online application forms and further information is available at www.workinginantarctica.com

Fact file Antarctica is the best place in the world to discover and study meteorites. They are easily seen against the ice and are protected from weathering and corroding by becoming frozen solid in an ice pack. One meteorite fragment has been identified as coming from the moon! RIC-6421 4.2/376

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The ozone hole and global warming

The ozone hole and global warming Indicators

• Reads information and answers questions about the ozone hole and global warming. • Completes flow charts which illustrate issues affecting Antarctica.

Worksheet information

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• In 1987 a group of nations signed a document called the Montreal Protocol. The nations agreed to reduce their CFC (chlorofluorocarbons) emissions by half by 2000. Some changes have been made to the document since it was signed and the deadline was changed to 1 January 2005, with full elimination of the use of CFCs by 2010. Experts believe that as long as production and release of CFCs is regulated properly, global ozone levels should recover by 2050. Constant research is being made into the problem.

• Quiz questions relating to this section may be found on page xvii.

Answers

page 60

page 61

1. (a) atom (b) atmosphere (c) ultraviolet (d) cataracts (e) phytoplankton (f) solvent (g) ecosystem

Teacher check

2–3. Teacher check

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• Ozone depletion is usually worse further from the Equator. It was originally thought that an ozone ‘hole’ only existed above Antarctica; however, a distinct area of very low levels of ozone has been discovered above the North Pole in the Arctic.

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Cross-curricular activities

• Students research to find websites dedicated to environmental issues and evaluate their bias or usefulness as a possible group to join or support. • Students collate a series of figures about a particular iceshelf or icesheet to record evidence of its disintegration.

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• Students design projects which show alternative methods of keeping food fresh, travelling around, keeping cool, cleaning etc.

Outcome links

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SOSE ENS3.5, ENS3.6, SSS3.7 SOGS0401 ICP4.1, ICP4.2, PS4.2, PS4.3, R4.1, NSS4.1 4.1, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6

Qld

TCC4.1, PS4.2, PSD4.6

NSW Vic. WA

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ENGLISH RS3.5, RS3.6, WS3.9, WS3.11 ENRE0401, ENRE0404, ENWR0403

o c . che e r o t r s super R 4.1, R 4.2, R 4.4, W 4.2

4.3, 4.11 Refer to curriculum documents on http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au

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The ozone hole and global warming – 1

The ozone hole and global warming

Antarctica is one of the world’s greatest wildernesses. It is also greatly vulnerable to environmental changes as the result of human interference. The most significant of these changes are the depletion of the ozone layer, creating an ozone ‘hole’ (really a thin area rather than a hole) over Antarctica, and global warming.

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Ozone is a gas made up of three oxygen atoms. Most ozone can be found in the upper layer of the earth’s atmosphere, called the stratosphere, which starts between 10 and 13 kilometres and continues to around 50 kilometres.

Global warming is an increase in the average temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere, leading to climate change. It is thought by many to be caused by our use of fossil fuels such as oil, gas and coal.

Ozone close to the Earth is harmful as it is a major component of smog and affects the function of the lungs. The ozone layer, however, protects the Earth from the harmful effects of ultraviolet rays from the sun. A decrease in the ozone layer could have harmful effects including:

The main problem with rising temperatures is that Antarctic icecaps shrink. This in turn accelerates global warming as the snow and ice which usually form a protective, cooling layer over the Antarctic is lessened, allowing the Earth to absorb more sunlight and get hotter.

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Global warming

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The Antarctic ozone hole

© R. I . C.Publ i c at i ons In Antarctica, global warming has caused iceshelves to disintegrate, •f orr evi ew pur po sesonl y• collapse or break up, ocean

Scientists have noticed that in recent years the ozone layer at the South Pole has begun to thin or reduce in concentration. This is the result of pollutants in the atmosphere destroying ozone in the stratosphere.

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The greatest cause of ozone breakdown is chemicals called chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) which are manufactured chemicals found in refrigeration systems, airconditioners, aerosol cans in some countries, solvents and packaging. The other cause is nitrogen oxides, which are a by-product of fuel burning and ejected from aircraft exhausts. The only way to control ozone thinning is to reduce the production of CFCs and nitrogen oxides. (In many countries, CFC use in aerosol cans is now prohibited.)

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temperatures to increase and ice thickness to decrease. In the Antarctic Peninsula region, an increase in annual temperature has caused the spread of the two flowering plants in the last few decades. Numbers of Adelie penguins have declined steadily as the pack ice they live on is shrinking. Chinstrap and Gentoo penguins have begun to take their place, as the new nesting sites become more suited to them. Krill numbers are decreasing because of a fall in the amount of sea-ice where they feed on algae under the surface. As krill form a vital part of the food chain in Antarctica, this will have a huge impact on the other species in the oceans.

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• skin cancer • eye damage, such as cataracts • damage to the immune systems of organisms • reduction of the growth of phytoplankton in the oceans • damage to DNA in various lifeforms • an adverse impact on crops and animals • cooling of the Earth’s stratosphere.

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These two problems are having a great impact on an area rich in unique ecosystems.

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The ozone hole and global warming – 2

The ozone hole and global warming

Use the text on page 59 to answer the questions. 1. Write words which match the meanings. (a) the smallest part of an element that can take part in a chemical reaction

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(b) the gaseous envelope surrounding the Earth

(c) invisible rays of the spectrum with wavelengths shorter than violet

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(d) an abnormality of the eye characterised by opaque lenses

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(e) the plant component of plankton, which includes fungi, algae, bacteria and yeasts

(f) something with the power to dissolve

(g) a community of organisms interacting with one another and with the environment in which they live

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons (a) The ozone hole is •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

2. Write your own explanation for the following terms:

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(b) Global warming is

3.Complete the boxes using brief bullet points.

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Cause

The ozone hole

Effect

Solution

Global warming

Fact file If all the ozone above your head was collected in a continuous layer, it would only be about 3 or 5 mm thick!

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Environmental issues flowcharts

The ozone hole and global warming

1. Research and draw flow charts to illustrate:

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(a) how CFCs cause the ozone layer to breakdown

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons (b) how global warming changes the Earth’s climate •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Fact file Strong winds blowing around Antarctica form a ‘polar vortex’ which isolates air over Antarctica from the rest of the world. This helps to make the ozone hole worse!

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The Antarctic Treaty

The Antarctic Treaty

Indicators • Reads information and answers questions about the Antarctic Treaty. • Completes a crossword with the theme of protecting Antarctica.

Worksheet information • The Antarctic Treaty was written in 1959 and officially adopted in 1961 after ratification by the twelve countries then active in Antarctic science. These were Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Chile, France, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, USSR, UK and the USA. Forty-four nations have now signed the Treaty. Twenty-seven nations have consultative status, which means they can vote on recommendations. To achieve consultative status, a nation has to show its commitment to Antarctica by playing an active role and carrying out significant scientific research.

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• Quiz questions relating to this section can be found on page xvii.

Answers

page 64

1. It is described as a natural reserve, devoted to peace and science. 2. (a) the nation could be geographically close (b) the nation had significant involvement in Antarctic exploration

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• One reason not mentioned in the text about the importance of keeping Antarctica a pristine environment is related to the cold weather. Due to the cold, organic material takes decades to decay, a very long time compared to warmer environments. This means the effects of casual pollution remain there for a long time.

8. English, French, Russian and Spanish 9. jurisdiction, nation

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3. Nuclear activity is prohibited, including the disposal of nuclear waste. 4. A Treaty nation must be involved in significant Antarctic research. 5. The International Court of Justice 6. (a) false (d) true

(b) true (e) true

(c) false (f) true

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7. (a) complete freedom of scientific research and investigation (b) research plans, observations and results are to be shared (c) scientists exchanged where possible

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Cross-curricular activities

• Research to find the names of the 44 nations who have signed the Treaty and locate and label them on a world map. • There has been a growing number of accidents concerning ships and boats being grounded in shallow, poorly charted waters around Antarctica, resulting in oil spills. Some of these involve fishing boats in pursuit of the Patagonian toothfish, also known as ‘Chilean sea bass’, for sale to up-market restaurants. Write a report on why this fish has become so popular and the possible threat its exploitation poses to Antarctica. • Find out about the Antarctic Heritage Trust’s Code of Conduct.

Outcome links

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NSW Vic. WA

SOSE ENS3.5, ENS3.6, SSS3.7 SOGE0401, SOGE0403, SOES0402 ICP4.1, PS4.1, PS4.2, PS4.3, TCC4.2, NSS4.1

ENGLISH RS3.5, RS3.6, WS3.9, WS3.11 ENRE0401, ENRE0404, ENWR0401, ENWR0404 R4.1, R4.4, W4.1, W4.4

SA

3.2, 3.4, 4.4, 3.5, 4.5, 3.6, 4.6

4.3, 4.4, 4.11

Qld

TCC4.2, TCC4.4, PS4.2, PS4.4, SRP4.5

Refer to curriculum documents on http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au

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The Antarctic Treaty

The Antarctic Treaty

Did you know that Antarctica is the only place on Earth that isn’t owned by anyone and one of the few places where there has never been a war? Antarctica is described by Antarctic Treaty member nations as a natural reserve, devoted to peace and science. Seven nations have laid claims to parts of Antarctica: Australia, New Zealand, Britain, France, Norway, Argentina and Chile. The reasons for these claims are to do with them being geographically close to Antarctica and/or having a significant involvement in its exploration. However, the claims are not recognised by most other nations, though they are observed by map makers.

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There are 14 articles in the Treaty, summarised below. 1. 2. 3. 4.

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Antarctica is governed by the agreements set out in the Antarctic Treaty. This was written in 1959 and adopted in 1961. Twelve nations originally signed the Treaty and, to date, 44 nations in total have signed, representing about two-thirds of the world’s population. The Treaty formally made Antarctica an area of peaceful scientific research only.

Antarctica is to be used for peaceful purposes only, though military personnel and equipment may be used.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Complete freedom of scientific research and investigation.

All research plans, observations and results are to be shared among Antarctic Treaty nations and scientists exchanged on projects where possible.

Territorial claims made by nations are not recognised and are to be put aside while the present Treaty is in place.

6.

The Treaty applies to the area south of 60°S, including land and iceshelves but not the ocean.

7.

All ships and aircraft supplying Antarctica and all research stations can be inspected at any time by nominated observers from any Treaty nation.

8.

All personnel working in Antarctica are under the jurisdiction of their own nation, even if they are visiting another nation’s station.

9.

Treaty nations who are involved in significant Antarctic research—i.e. they have consultative status and can vote—will attend meetings to make further recommendations to improve the Treaty. Every nation has to approve for any new measures to take place.

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Nuclear activity is prohibited, including disposal of nuclear waste.

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10. All treaty nations will work together to ensure the Treaty is abided by.

11. The International Court of Justice shall settle any dispute, if not settled by agreement among Treaty nations. 12. The Treaty may be modified at any time if all consultative nations agree. After 30 years, a consultative nation may call for a review and a majority decision be accepted. 13. The Treaty must be agreed to by any nation wishing to join. 14. The Treaty is translated into English, French, Russian and Spanish and deposited in the archives of the government of the United States of America.

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The Antarctic Treaty – 2

The Antarctic Treaty

Use the text on page 63 to answer the questions. 1.

2.

How is Antarctica described by Antarctic Treaty member nations?

Answer true or false.

(a) Weapons testing can be carried out in Antarctica. True False

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Give two reasons why some nations have laid claims in Antarctica. (a)

6.

(b) To date, forty-four nations have signed the Treaty.

(b)

(c) The Treaty applies to land, ice shelves and ocean south of 60°S. True False

3.

What is the policy regarding nuclear waste in Antarctica?

4.

How can a Treaty nation get consultative status which allows it to vote on recommendations?

(d) Ships, aircraft and research stations can be inspected at any time. True False

(e) Territorial claims are to be © R. I . C.Publ i ca i on s putt aside and claims not recognised. True False •f orr evi ew pur poseson l y•

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7.

Who settles any disputes that can not be settled by agreement among Treaty nations?

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At present, all consultative nations have to agree for any new measures to take place. True

List three facts about scientific research and observations. (a) (b) (c)

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(f)

5.

False

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True

False

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8.

Which languages is the Treaty translated into?

9.

Complete the sentence. All personnel are under the

of their own

at all times.

Fact file Antarctic bases are now trying renewable energy sources. The Australian Mawson base has a wind-powered electricity generator. Sometimes the winds are so strong, however, that it causes damage to the windmills!

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ANTARCTICA

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Protecting Antarctica

The Antarctic Treaty

In the past, early explorers and scientists thought Antarctica was so large that anything humans did such as dumping rubbish or spilling oil would have little effect on the environment. This was found to be incorrect and was the reason the Antarctic Treaty was created. Since it was first signed in 1959, many other improvements to the Treaty have been added. In 1991, an agreement called the Madrid Protocol was signed. This offered greater protection to Antarctica by banning mining for 50 years, formalising rules for removal of waste, setting guidelines for tourists and protecting flora and fauna.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S 4.

Mining, except for scientific minerals research, is … for 50 years.

7.

An environmental impact statement must be prepared … any development or research can take place.

8.

Whales and seals were once hunted in Antarctica almost to ….

13. Rubbish was once dropped down … or thrown into the sea. 14. Tourists are not allowed within three … of a penguin.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

1.

… into certain areas requires a permit.

2.

No animal can be captured without a …

3.

… and old batteries must be transported out of Antarctica.

4.

Waste which can … safely may be burnt in a high temperature incinerator.

6. 9.

Shower water and sewage can be treated and then … into the ocean.

. te

3

2

7

8

o c . che e r o t r s super

… are reminded to take only photographs and leave only footprints.

10. Locations for buildings and runways for … are now carefully planned with the environment in mind. 11. … harvesting is carefully monitored as penguins, seals, whales, seabirds, fish and squid all feed on the tiny creatures.

5

4

6

… no longer pull sleds as no non-native animals are allowed in Antarctica.

w ww

5.

1

m . u

DOWN

ACROSS

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

The clues and answers to the crossword will provide you with information about what is being done to protect Antarctica.

9

10

12

11

13

14

12. … from incinerators have to be transported out of Antarctica.

Fact file In the 1980s, scientists tracked a school of krill estimated to weigh about 10 million tonnes! That would equal aproximately 143 thousand people weighing about 70 kilograms each.

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ANTARCTICA

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Upper Primary Themes - Series 2: Antarctica