Page 1

RIC-6392 5.3/1128


India (Ages 8–10) Published by R.I.C. Publications® 2010 Revised 2010 Copyright© R.I.C. Publications® 2010 ISBN 978-1-74126-910-9 RIC– 6392

Titles available in this series:

Copyright Notice Blackline masters or copy masters are published and sold with a limited copyright. This copyright allows publishers to provide teachers and schools with a wide range of learning activities without copyright being breached. This limited copyright allows the purchaser to make sufficient copies for use within their own education institution. The copyright is not transferable, nor can it be onsold. Following these instructions is not essential but will ensure that you, as the purchaser, have evidence of legal ownership to the copyright if inspection occurs.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

For your added protection in the case of copyright inspection, please complete the form below. Retain this form, the complete original document and the invoice or receipt as proof of purchase.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

India (Ages 5–7) India (Ages 8–10) India (Ages 11+)

This master may only be reproduced by the original purchaser for use with their class(es). The publisher prohibits the loaning or onselling of this master for the purposes of reproduction.

Name of Purchaser:

Date of Purchase:

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Supplier:

w ww

. te

Signature of Purchaser:

m . u

School Order# (if applicable):

o c . che e r o t r s super

Internet websites

In some cases, websites or specific URLs may be recommended. While these are checked and rechecked at the time of publication, the publisher has no control over any subsequent changes which may be made to webpages. It is strongly recommended that the class teacher checks all URLs before allowing students to access them.

View all pages online PO Box 332 Greenwood Western Australia 6924

Website: www.ricpublications.com.au Email: mail@ricgroup.com.au


Foreword India (Ages 8–10) is one of three books designed to provide opportunities for students to discover some of the natural, physical, cultural, economic and political aspects of this fascinating and extremely diverse Asian country and its people. The books in this series give selected information about both modern and ancient India and use a wide variety of activities across many learning areas.

Titles in this series: India (Ages 5–7) India (Ages 8–10) India (Ages 11+)

r o e t s Bo r e Contents p ok u S

Teac he r Geography

Modern India

Teacher information...................................... 2 Finding India.......................................... 3 Teacher information...................................... 4 The climate of India................................. 5 Teacher information...................................... 6 Monsoon floods of India........................... 7 Teacher information...................................... 8 Population and languages......................... 9 Teacher information.................................... 10 The Ganges River.................................. 11 Teacher information.................................... 12 The Himalayas...................................... 13 Teacher information.................................... 14 New Delhi: capital of India...................... 15

Teacher information.................................... 36 Rural and urban living – 1...................... 37 Rural and urban living – 2...................... 38 Indian city and village mini report............ 39 Teacher information.................................... 40 Men’s clothing...................................... 41 Women’s clothing.................................. 42 Clothing – Shoes.................................. 43 Teacher information.................................... 44 Food – 1............................................. 45 Food – 2............................................. 46 Food – Sweets..................................... 47 Teacher information.................................... 48 Education............................................. 49 Teacher information.................................... 50 Transport.............................................. 51 Teacher information.................................... 52 Industry............................................... 53 Teacher information.................................... 54 Currency.............................................. 55 Teacher information.................................... 56 Sports................................................. 57 Teacher information.................................... 58 Rich and poor....................................... 59 Teacher information.................................... 60 Government......................................... 61

ew i ev Pr

Teachers notes............................................................................................................................................................................................. iv – v Curriculum links....................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Landmarks

Teacher information ................................... 70 Temples of great spiritual significance....... 71 Teacher information ................................... 72 Ellora rock-cut caves.............................. 73 Teacher information ................................... 74 Jantar Mantar Observatory, Jaipur............ 75

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

Teacher information.................................... 16 Harappan script..................................... 17 Teacher information.................................... 18 Early empires of India............................ 19 Teacher information.................................... 20 British rule in India............................... 21 Teacher information.................................... 22 Indian inventions – 1............................ 23 Indian inventions – 2............................ 24 Indian inventions – 3............................ 25 Teacher information.................................... 26 Traditional games.................................. 27

. te

The arts

Teacher information ................................... 84 Handicrafts........................................... 85 Paintings and murals............................. 86 Rangoli and kolams............................... 87 Teacher information ................................... 88 Music.................................................. 89 Teacher information.................................... 90 Puppets and puppetry............................ 91 Teacher information.................................... 92 Hooray for Bollywood!........................... 93

o c . che e r o t r s super

Symbols Teacher information.................................... 28 The flag of India and the Sarnath Lion...... 29 Teacher information.................................... 30 National fauna...................................... 31 Teacher information.................................... 32 National flora....................................... 33 Teacher information.................................... 34 The Indian elephant............................... 35

www.ricpublications.com.au — R.I.C. Publications®

Teacher information.................................... 76 The fish that were too clever................... 77 Teacher information.................................... 78 The white elephant of Varanasi............... 79 Teacher information.................................... 80 The monkeys and the bell...................... 81 Teacher information.................................... 82 The legend of Markandeya..................... 83

m . u

History

Folktales and legends

Religions, customs and celebrations

Teacher information ................................... 62 Hinduism – 1....................................... 63 Hinduism – 2....................................... 64 Hinduism – 3....................................... 65 Teacher information ................................... 66 Yoga and meditation ............................ 67 Teacher information ................................... 68 Indian jewellery.................................... 69

Famous people Teacher information.................................... 94 Mahatma Gandhi.................................. 95 Teacher information.................................... 96 Mother Teresa....................................... 97 Teacher information.................................... 98 Abhinav Bindra takes gold at Beijing........ 99 Teacher information.................................. 100 Aishwarya Rai: The Queen of Bollywood..... 101

India

iii


Teachers notes The book has been organised into nine sections, covering a variety of aspects about India: • Geography • History • Modern India • Religions, customs and celebrations • Folktales and legends • The arts

• Symbols • Landmarks • Famous people

Groups of student pages within each section follow one of two formats: • a single student page is accompanied by a corresponding teachers page; or • sets of three student pages are accompanied by a corresponding teachers page. This provides the students with as many varied activities as possible.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

Relevant teacher information is given, particularly background information which teachers may require about the topic or to answer students’ questions. Any necessary information about how to use the worksheet with the students is also provided.

The section, title and page number of each corresponding student page is given.

ew i ev Pr

Teachers notes pages All teachers pages follow the same format.

Answers are provided for student pages, where necessary.

At least one additional © R. I . C.Publ i cat i o ns activity to support or extend the student activity on the worksheet is supplied. •f orr evi ew pur poses on l yMany• of these extend across other

. te

Many student pages contain some information about the topic at the top. This is written in student-friendly language and provides information needed to complete the activity.

iv

India

m . u

w ww

Student activity pages All student pages provide information as well as an activity to complete. Sometimes the two will be combined.

learning areas.

The section and title of each student page is given.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Clear, concise instructions for completing the student activity are supplied.

R.I.C. Publications® — www.ricpublications.com.au


Teachers notes

Curriculum links At the time of printing, National Curriculum links were not finalised and available for use. For this reason, links to curriculums currently in use in schools are provided as well as links to the National Curriculum documents. As final National Curriculum documents become available in 2010, R.I.C. Publications will begin updating all resources in line with the new documents.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Current Curriculum and support documents

English

WA

V 3.1, V 3.2, V 3.3, V 3.4

SA 2.3, 3.3, 2.4, 3.4, 2.7, 3.7, 2.8, 3.8

NSW RS2.5, RS2.6, RS2.7, WS2.9, WS2.10, WS2.11

R 3.1, R 3.2, R 3.3, R 3.4

Vic

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

National curriculum The aspects of the English and History National Curriculum documents which relate to this series of books are listed below. • English: Shape of the Australian Curriculum: English (May 2009) 5.8.1, 5.8.2, 5.8.3 (English across K–12); 6.2 (Connections to other learning areas) • History: Shape of the Australian Curriculum: History (May 2009) 5.4.2 (Curriculum focus); 6.3.1, 6.3.2, 6.3.6, 6.3.7 (Connections to other learning areas)

Qld

Refer to Victorian Essential Learning Standards Level 3, page 40; and Level 4, page 42.

Refer to English Essential Learning by the end of Year 5 at <www.qsa.qld.edu. au>.

Standards Level 3, pages 44–45; and Level 4, pages 49–59.

Environment (SOSE) Essential Learnings by the end of Year 5 at <www.qsa.qld.edu. au>.

R 3.1, R 3.2, R 3.3

w ww

Society and environment

PS 3.1, PS 3.2, PS 3.3

C 3.1, C 3.2, C 3.3

. te

TCC 3.1, TCC 3.2, TCC 3.3

NSS 3.1, NSS 3.2, NSS 3.3

www.ricpublications.com.au — R.I.C. Publications®

2.7, 3.7, 2.9, 3.9, 2.10, 3.10, 2.11, 3.11

ENS2.6 SSS2.7

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Refers to Victorian Refer• to Studies 2.3, 3.3, 2.4,w 3.4, p CCS2.2, CUS2.3, ICP 3.1, ICP 3.2, • f o r r e v i e u r p o s e o n l y Essential Learning of Society & 2.5, 3.5, 2.6, 3.6, CUS2.4 ICP 3.3, ICP 3.4 W 3.1, W 3.3

o c . che e r o t r s super

India

v


Geography Finding India................................................................................page 3 Indicator Completes a jigsaw of a map of India and labels each piece.

Answers Teacher check

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Teacher information • The subcontinent of India is enclosed by mountains to the north, the Arabian Sea to the west, the Bay of Bengal to the east and the Indian Ocean to the south. India’s neighbours in South Asia are Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, and the island nations of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. • The subcontinent of South Asia was created 50 million years ago when its tectonic plate collided with Asia, forming the mountain ranges that include the Himalayas. ~~ The 28 states of India are: Northern India (6): Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand North-eastern India (7): Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, Meghalaya Eastern India (5): Sikkim, West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Jharkhand Central India (2): Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh Western India (4): Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa Southern India (4): Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu ~~ The 7 union territories of India are: Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Delhi, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu, Lakshadweep Islands, Puducherry

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

. te

2

India

m . u

w ww

Additional activities • Play a game of ‘Indian Bingo’ where each bingo card is a map of a region of India with its states labelled. The caller calls out names of the states, which students then cover with counters. • Choose an Indian state. Students use the letters to make as many words as they can.

o c . che e r o t r s super

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


Geography

Finding India India is situated in southern Asia on a large mass of land enclosed by the Himalayas to the north, the Indian Ocean to the south, the Arabian Sea to the west and the Bay of Bengal to the east. The country is divided into six regions, each containing states and territories. (a) Colour and cut out each jigsaw piece.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

(b) Place and glue the pieces on to the map of India.

(c) Choose the name of a region and label each jigsaw piece. Northern

Central

North-Eastern

Southern

Western

Eastern

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

INDIA

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

m . u

DELHI

INDIA

. te

INDIA

o c . che e r o t r s super INDIA

INDIA

INDIA

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

India

3


Geography The climate of India.......................................................................page 5 Indicator Reads and uses information to label a chart and a map.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Teacher information • The size of India means that its climate varies greatly. • Lying between the equator and the Tropic of Cancer, the sun shines directly on the land of India throughout the year, which makes it a very hot country. • The climate of southern India is dominated by strong monsoon winds. They blow from cold to warm areas. In summer, the winds blow from the colder sea in the south-west to the warmer land. In winter, they blow from the colder land in the north-east to the warmer sea. • The summer monsoons blowing onto the land from the south-west are laden with moisture from the Indian Ocean and bring heavy rains. Despite the often catastrophic effects of the summer monsoons, they are always welcome as they bring much-needed rain for agriculture and the generation of electricity. • The winter monsoons blowing from the land carry little moisture and the mountain ranges that separate the subcontinent from the rest of Asia stop the cold air from reaching India. This is why winters in India are cooler and dry. Answers

nd seco

te

r

ALPINE

y

PAKISTAN

SUBTROPICAL

February

INDIA

OMAN

MYANMAR (BURMA)

ARID

LAOS LAOS

r

THAILAND

ns

on

me

June

SAUDI ARABIA

ril

May

J

March

Ap

nso mo first

y ul

BHUTAN

BANGLADESH

UAE

ust

Aug

CHINA

ar

nu

Decem

AFGHANISTAN

IRAN

Ja

mo

mber

r

er

be

emb

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

cto

Septe

in

ber

Nov

oo n

O

TURKMENISTAN

w

m

su

TROPICAL

w ww

Additional activities • Show the features of each of India’s climate zones on a graphic organiser. • Prepare and present a local weather forecast for the following week for a specific region.

. te

4

India

m . u

SRI LANKA

o c . che e r o t r s super

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


Geography

The climate of India Climate describes the type of weather a place expects during a year. It is affected by mountains, oceans and distance from the equator. Because it is such a large country, India has a number of different climates. Most of northern India (south of the Himalayas) is subtropical. Summers are hot, wet and steamy, while winters are hot and dry.

In southern India, which is the close to the equator, the climate is tropical. Summers and winters are hot.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

For most of India, the winter months are between December and February, while the summer falls between March and May.

Parts of central India have an arid climate, with high temperatures and little rainfall.

ew i ev Pr

In the mountainous Himalayan region in the north, the climate is alpine. This means that temperatures are too low for trees to grow. Winters are long and cold, and summers are short and cool.

Eastern India has hot summers and milder winters. Inland states are drier than those on the coast. They all get rain during the monsoon season.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

India is famous for the monsoon winds.

From June until September, the first monsoon season comes in from the Arabian Sea, bringing heavy rain across the west and north of the country. Most of India’s annual rainfall occurs at this time.

w ww

1. Use the information to write the months of the year in the calendar wheel and label each season.

. te

m . u

The second monsoon from the Himalayas and the Bay of Bengal brings cooler weather during October and November. 2. Label the map of India with the correct climates.

o c . che e r o t r s super TURKMENISTAN

AFGHANISTAN

CHINA

Decem

ber

IRAN

PAKISTAN

NEPAL

BHUTAN

BANGLADESH

UAE SAUDI ARABIA

INDIA OMAN

MYANMAR (BURMA) LAOS LAOS

THAILAND

SRI LANKA

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

India

5


Geography Monsoon floods of India............................................................... page 7 Indicator Completes cloze text relating to monsoon floods of India.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons greatest 3. monsoons 4. disaster 5. l mountains •f o2. 7. r r e v i e w p u r p o s e s o n y• heavy 8. sewage 9. destroys 10. communication 12. homeless

13. charities

14. Landslides

w ww

Additional activities • Prepare and present a newsflash describing a flood in India. • Make a list of items that would be useful for people who have been made homeless by floods.

. te

6

India

15. unhealthy

m . u

Answers 1. earthquakes 6. banks 11. remote

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Teacher information • India has suffered the effects of a number of natural disasters, including earthquakes, drought, cyclones, floods, landslides, avalanches, dust storms and hail storms. As India is a densely populated nation with over one billion people, the loss of life as a result of such disasters is enormous. Damage to crops, agricultural land, property and community infrastructure runs into the equivalent of millions of dollars each year. • Human activity has increased the damaging effects of some natural disasters. Deforestation of hillsides exacerbates the effects of landslides, and altering natural river systems may increase the potential for flooding during heavy rains. • Recent natural disasters: 2009: Cyclone Aila in India 2008: Indian floods 2007: Asian floods 2006: Gujarat earthquake 2005: Kashmir earthquake, Gujarat flood, Maharashtra flood 2004: Indian Ocean earthquake 2001: Gujarat earthquake 2000: Mumbai landslide

o c . che e r o t r s super

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


Geography

Monsoon floods of India Add words from the box to complete the text.

Landslides disaster destroys

homeless greatest heavy

communication unhealthy mountains

sewage charities monsoons

Although India can be severely affected by

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

it is severe flooding that causes the

2

1

banks remote earthquakes

and cyclones,

loss of human life and

damage to buildings, property and agricultural land. 3

bring welcome rains after the intense heat of the summer,

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

The

. Water levels in rivers are already

but they can also lead to

4

. As the monsoon rains

high with melted snow from the

5

fall, the levels rise even higher and rivers can break their

flooding the surrounding area.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons downpours and city streets quickly become rivers of rain and •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Poor water drainage systems can not cope with the

The violence of the rains

,

6

7

.

8

9

m . u

poorly built property and people watch helplessly

w ww

as their homes are washed away. Power and lines and road networks are

10

. te

destroyed, making it difficult for relief workers to get

o c . c e hfrom Thousands of people die drowning and millions are left r er o t s sup er Relief camps are set up and food and clothing are given by governments and through to people in

11

areas.

.

12

.

13

After the rain stops falling, the problems continue. killing more people. Crowded,

14 15

can occur,

conditions in the relief camps

make it easy for diseases to spread quickly. Every year, some part of India is badly affected by flooding. www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

India

7


Geography Population and languages............................................................ page 9 Indicator Comprehends information and completes activities about India’s population and languages.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Teacher information • India’s population is expected to surpass China’s by the year 2030. By this date, India is predicted to have 1.53 billion people and rising while China’s is estimated to be 1.46 billion and falling. India’s enormous population results in impoverished and sub-standard living conditions for much of its people. • India covers 2.4 per cent of the world’s land area, but has 16 per cent of the world’s population. More people live in India than North and South America combined. Seventy per cent live in more than 550 000 villages, and the remainder in approximately 200 towns and cities. • The Family Welfare Program to educate and encourage families to have less children is not compulsory in India, so attempts to reduce the population rate have not met the country’s objectives. • The people of India speak many languages and dialects which are mostly variants of approximately 15 main languages. This variety is a result of the diversity in culture caused by India’s size and its geographical features that divide communities. • The numerals 1 to 10 in Hindi, when written in the English alphabet, are: ek, do, tin, car, panc, chah, sat, ath, nau and das. Answers 1. (a) Teacher check (b) north-eastern and central India (c) Hyderabad 2. Teacher check Additional activities • Name the 28 states shown on the population map (pages 2 and 3 will assist). The seven union territories are not included on this map. • Find out how to say common greetings and the days of the week in Hindi. A useful website is: <http://www.teachnet.ie/clane/2006/ languages.htm>

w ww

. te

8

India

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


Geography

Population and languages Population

Did you know that India’s population is estimated to be 1.17 billion? This makes it the second largest populated nation in the world! China is the largest with 1.3 billion people. About one-quarter of the people live in cities or urban areas. The other three-quarters live in villages or rural areas. This is because most people have jobs in agriculture, working on farms in the country or in jobs related to agriculture.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

(a) Colour the areas according to the legend.

LEGEND more than 100 million 75 – 100 million

(b) The population is largest in:

0 – 75 million

north-western and southern India.

north-eastern and central India.

(c) The six cities shown have the largest population in their regions. Listed in order from most to least populated, they are: Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai,

DELHI

Kolkata

Mumbai

Hyderabad

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur p.osesonl y• Bangalore and

POPULATION MAP OF INDIA

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

1. Look at the map and answer the questions.

Bangalore Chennai

Languages

w ww

m . u

There are hundreds of different languages in India, many of which are similar. The official language of the Republic of India is Hindi, spoken by about 40 per cent of the population. English is also used for official purposes. However, different states have their own official language(s).

. tein Devanagari script. The script below gives theonumeral and name 2. Hindi is written c for the numbers 1 c to 10. Unjumble the English word to find. out how to write each e r in Devanagari script. h er o t s super efiv

eon

rouf

net

neves

wot

inen

reeth

ixs

tegih

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

India

9


Geography The Ganges River........................................................................ page 11 Indicator Comprehends facts about the Ganges River in India and uses this knowledge to create an acrostic poem.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Teacher information • The Ganges River flows south-east from its source in the Himalayas, through the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal, then into Bangladesh. In central Bangladesh it is joined by the Brahmaputra and Meghna Rivers. These three rivers combine to become the Padma River and flow into the Bay of Bengal. They form a delta approximately 350 km wide, and stretch over much of the Bangladeshi coastline and part of north-western India’s. This delta is the largest in the world and one of its most fertile regions. • The Ganges flows past 30 cities, 70 towns and thousands of villages. In terms of pollution, it is considered to be one of the dirtiest rivers in the world. It is estimated that nearly 1 billion litres of mostly untreated raw sewage goes directly into the river each day. Industries contribute 15 per cent of waste, with the remainder being comprised of organic waste, sewage, household rubbish, food and human and animal remains. The Hindu people follow the sacred practice of placing cremated human remains into the holy river, along with the carcasses of dead cattle, which are sacred to them. • More than 450 million people are directly or indirectly dependent on the Ganges River and its basin. A campaign to save the Ganges was launched in 2008. Its aim is to clean up the river by reducing pollution from its source to where it flows into the Bay of Bengal in West Bengal. • It is estimated that as many as 80 per cent of health problems and up to one-third of deaths in India are the result of waterborne diseases from its rivers, especially the Ganges. These diseases include cholera, hepatitis, typhoid and amoebic dysentery.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Additional activities •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• • Find out more about the religious significance of the Ganges to those of Hindu faith around the world and not just in India. Hindus from other

Answers 1.–2. Teacher check

w ww

. te

10

India

m . u

places on the globe as well as from India make pilgrimages to sites along its banks. • A fascinating creature called the Ganges River dolphin inhabits the waters of the Ganges and other rivers. The dolphin has no use for sight as the water is so muddy and its eyes have no lenses. Find out more about this mammal and why it is seriously endangered.

o c . che e r o t r s super

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


Geography

The Ganges River 1. Read the facts about India’s most important river—the Ganges. URKMENISTAN

The river flows eastward across northern India and into Bangladesh, where it empties into the Bay of Bengal.

AFGHANISTAN

CHINA

Amritsar

Indu s

The Ganges River begins where glacial water flows from an ice cave on the southern slopes of the Himalaya Mountains.

Brahmaputra

PAKISTAN

NEW DELHI

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Ahmedabad

Mumbai

Teac he r

The Hindi people worship the Ganges and regard it as the holiest of all rivers.

Ganges BANGLADESH

Kolkata

INDIA

DACCA

MYANMAR (BURMA)

Nagpur BAY OF BENGAL

ARABIAN SEA

INDIAN OCEAN

THIMPU BHUTAN

Bangalore Chennai

ANDAMAN SEA

ew i ev Pr

The Ganges River is known as the ‘Ganga’ in the Hindi language.

It is 2510 km in length.

NEPAL

KATHMANDU

The river was named after the goddess ‘Ganga’, the daughter of the mountain god, Himavat.

SRI LANKA

The Ganges River is mostly a wide, slow-moving river that flows through one of the most fertile and densely populated areas of the world.

Because they consider the Ganges sacred, © R. I . C.Pub l i c at i ons most Hindi families have a vial of water from the river in their home. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

m . u

w ww

. te

Bathing in the river is believed to wash away sins and cure the ill. People also wash themselves and their clothes in the river. The pollution level of the Ganges has become very serious. Sewage from households, industrial waste and fertiliser runoff from farms goes directly into the river.

o c . c e 2. Create an acrostic poem about the sacred Ganges River. he r o t r s sup r G e R A

I

N

V

G

E

E

R

S www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

India

11


Geography The Himalayas............................................................................ page 13 Indicator Completes a cloze about the Himalaya Mountains.

Answers 1. kilometres 6. Pakistan 11. rain

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

2. three 7. northern 12. unable

3. valleys 8. climate 13. mountain

4. word 9. Himalaya 14. located

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Teacher information • In Indian Sanskrit language, the word hima means ‘snow’ and alaya means ‘land’ or ‘place’. • The Himalayas rise sharply to the north of the low plains in northern India. These mountains were formed millions of years ago when the Indo-Australian continental plate pressed against the Eurasian continental plate, causing powerful earth movements and forming the Himalayas. They are among the youngest ranges on Earth and are still developing and changing—rising about 5 mm per year. • Four of the world’s major rivers begin in the Himalayas­—the Ganges, the Indus, the Brahmaputra and the Yangtze. Their fertile combined drainage area supports about 1.3 billion people. • Over the past 50 years, tourism has become a major growth industry in the Himalayas. Approximately 1 million people visit each year to participate in activities such as trekking, mountain climbing, viewing the flora and fauna or go on pilgrimages to sacred Hindu and Buddhist sites. • The Yeti, or Abominable Snowman—a large, mythical primate-type creature—is believed to exist in the Himalayas. 5. Six 10. blowing 15. roof

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

. te

12

India

m . u

Additional activities • Write a narrative about coming face to face with a Yeti while trekking through the Himalayas. • Write a report on an animal or plant found in the Himalayas; e.g. snow leopard, red panda (or firefox), Himalayan blue sheep (or bharal), Himalayan tahr, Himalayan blue poppy, or the rhododendron (or tala).

o c . che e r o t r s super

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


Geography

The Himalayas Fill in the missing words to complete the information about the Himalaya Mountains. . The

The Himalaya Mountains stretch for approximately 2500

1

highest mountain range on Earth, the Himalayas form the northern border of the Indian subcontinent in Asia. It is made up of plateaus and

parallel ranges, with

2

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S 3

in between.

TURKMENISTAN

The

4

‘himalaya’ is an ancient

AFGHANISTAN

CHINA

H

M

I

LA

YA

PAKISTAN

snow’, as its peaks are permanently covered

S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Indian word meaning ‘abode (home) of

A

NEPAL

THIMPU BHUTAN

KATHMANDU

BANGLADESH

with it.

DACCA

INDIA

ARABIAN SEA

5

countries contain parts of the

BAY OF BENGAL

INDIAN OCEAN

Himalayas: India, Bhutan, China, Afghanistan,

. In India, the © R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Himalayas cover the entire •country f orand r ev i e pbarrier ur pwith os eTibetan son l y• part of the form aw natural the Plateau. Nepal and

MYANMAR (BURMA)

6

T

ANDAMAN SEA

SRI LANKA

THE HIMALAYAS

7

India’s

8

is greatly affected by the

9

Mountains.

from

10

. te

m . u

w ww

Because of its great height, freezing cold winds from the Arctic are prevented into India. This makes the climate more moderate in

northern India. During the monsoon season,

11

falls heavily in

o c . the Himalayas. south, are cheto keep travelling north across e r o t r s peaks are found in the super Nine out of 10 of the world’s highest

northern India. The monsoon winds, carrying moisture from over the sea in the 12

13

Himalayas. Mount Everest, the world’s highest mountain (8850 metres tall), is 14

on the Nepal–Tibet border. It is easy to understand why the

Himalayas are called ‘the

Six three blowing

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

valleys mountain climate

15

of the world’.

northern kilometres Pakistan

located roof unable

Himalaya rain word India

13


Geography New Delhi: capital of India.......................................................... page 15 Indicator Reads and understands information about New Delhi, the capital of India.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Teacher information • Delhi’s population increases by approximately 500 000 a year. One-third of its population lives in slums and illegal housing. This increasing population is putting pressure on the city’s water resources and pollution is a growing concern. More than 60 per cent of sewage waste flowing into the Yamuna River, the city’s main water source, is untreated. Delhi has more cars than any other city in India and the largest fleet of buses in the world. In an effort to limit pollution, natural gas is increasingly used to power Delhi’s transport vehicles. • People from all over India inhabit Delhi. The most common language is Hindi, followed by English, Punjabi and Urdu. • Delhi’s climate ranges from being extremely hot for part of the year to quite cold. April to October can see temperatures as high as +40 °C. The monsoon season from July to September is also very humid. Temperatures in December and January can fall to almost zero and thick fogs are experienced. • Major tourist attractions in Delhi include India Gate, the Red Fort, Humayun’s Tomb, Qutub Minar and Akshardham Temple. Answers 1. north, Yamuna 2. Delhi is situated on a crossing of the Yamuna River, making it an important travel and trade gateway. 3. Kolkata (Calcutta) 4. Overcrowding, traffic congestion, housing shortages, pollution 5. Old Delhi: narrow, winding streets; old buildings such as mosques and forts; many monuments; lots of colourful bazaars New Delhi: wide tree-lined streets; beautiful parks; impressive colonial buildings; modern offices, shopping arcades and apartments; many cafes, bars and restaurants

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Additional activity

w ww

. te

14

India

m . u

• View photographs of some of the major tourist attractions in Delhi. A useful website is: <http://www.exploredelhi.com/delhi-photo-gallery. html>

o c . che e r o t r s super

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


Geography

New Delhi: capital of India URKMENISTAN

CHINA

AFGHANISTAN TIBET

PAKISTAN

Ga

NEW DELHI

NEPAL BHUTAN

r

un

e Riv

Ya m

es

ng

New Delhi, the capital of India, is located in the National Capital Territory of Delhi. It is situated in one part of the old city of Delhi. ‘Old’ Delhi and New Delhi are usually just referred to as ‘Delhi’.

aR

ive

r Gang

es Riv

er

BANGLADESH

INDIA

MYANMAR

Delhi is believed to be one of the oldest cities in the world. Historical evidence suggests it was the site of the ancient city of Indraprastha, which was built INDIA in northern central India on the west bank of the Yamuna River more than 3000 years ago. As the river is narrow at this point, this location has provided an important travel and trade gateway to get from India to western and central Asia. BAY OF BENGAL

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S ARABIAN SEA

ANDAMAN SEA

SRI LANKA

INDONESIA

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

INDIAN OCEAN

The old part of Delhi is quite different from New Delhi. As it was built so long ago, it has features such as very narrow, winding streets; old buildings such as mosques and forts; many monuments; and lots of colourful bazaars (marketplaces). New Delhi has not always been the capital of India. When the British ruled India, Calcutta (now Kolkata) was made the capital. In 1911, the British shifted the capital to Delhi, pulled down parts of the old city and carefully planned and built New Delhi. It has wide, tree-lined streets; beautiful parks; impressive colonial buildings; modern offices, shopping arcades and apartments; and many cafes, bars and restaurants.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

m . u

Delhi has grown to be the second largest city in India. It has a population of more than 13 million. This huge population results in overcrowding, traffic congestion, housing shortages and pollution. Answer the questions.

. tthe the banks of e

1. New Delhi is situated in the central (south, north, east, west) of India on

o c . c e r 2. Why has the location h of Delhi continued to be important to India? er o t s super 3.

River.

was the previous capital of India.

4. What are some problems Delhi faces due to its large population? 5. Highlight the descriptions of old Delhi in yellow and those of New Delhi in orange. www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

India

15


History Harappan script........................................................................... page 17 Indicator Designs and uses a symbol script to convey meaning.

Answers Teacher check

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Teacher information • It is not known why the Indus Valley civilisation declined. Scientists today are more inclined to believe that ecological factors were the most probable cause rather than an invasion by the fair-skinned Indo-Aryan people of central Asia—a reason which had been accepted for many years. • The extent of archaeological findings to the south and east of Harappa suggest that a number of ecological changes in the Indus region forced the migration of its people, leaving the cities to be buried for thousands of years. • Physical evidence of the dry riverbed of the Sarasvati River has been discovered and along its banks, more evidence of ancient cities. • For thousands of years, the myth of the Sarasvati River has been alive in Indian culture. The Vedic texts, ancient scriptures of Hinduism written in Sanskrit, speak of the Sarasvati, a beautiful river along which its banks a magnificent lifestyle thrived. The text later refers to the river’s disappearance. Could this be a reference to the drying up of the Sarasvati River, caused by tectonic plate activity? Satellite images, photographs taken from space, have now shown the bed of the Sarasvati River to be located underground in the Thar Desert. • There is still much of this ancient civilisation left to excavate and scientists hope that as more structures and artefacts are unearthed, the mysteries of the ancient Harappan civilisation will be unravelled.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

. te

16

India

m . u

Additional activities • Research the physical evidence of the existence of the Harappan civilisation and mark locations and physical features on a large-scale outline map of the region. • Discuss suggestions why the Harappan civilisation declined. Write an exposition supporting one of them.

o c . che e r o t r s super

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


History

Harappan script In the north-west region of India and in the land that is now Pakistan, an ancient civilisation developed and thrived in the valley of the Indus River. Archaeologists believe that the people used a script in which a symbol stood for a word or phrase. Many examples of Harappan script have been found and the same symbols have been found on many of them, just as we repeat words and groups of words in sentences.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

This script is not yet understood. Everything we know about the Harappan civilisation comes from evidence studied by archaeologists and other scientists.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Design a symbol for each of the following words and phrases, then use some of them to write a short sentence on a separate sheet of paper.

w ww

Word/Phrase

. te tomorrow today

I want

Symbol

Word/Phrase at

Symbol

o c . che e r o t r s super the beach to

to go

the movies

to play

shopping

to read

bowling

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

m . u

Ask a friend to decipher your sentence!

India

17


History Early empires of India................................................................. page 19 Indicator Reads information about early Indian empires and indicates the extent of each on a map.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Teacher information • Mauryan Empire – Early 4th to late 2nd century BCE Having extended the Mauryan Empire by force, Ashoka later renounced violence and followed the teachings of Buddhism. He helped to spread Buddhism across the country, sending people to preach the faith throughout Asia and the Middle East. His contribution to India’s history was the notion of a great Indian Empire and spreading Buddhism across the land. • Gupta Empire – Early 4th to mid-6th century CE Buddhism declined in India when the Guptas took power because they followed Hinduism. It became the dominant religion (as it is today). This was a period of relative peace and prosperity during which great advances in the arts and sciences were made. A collection of fables, known as the Panchatantra, was written at this time. When the Huns began to attack the Gupta Empire, power passed from the central government to local lords and the empire reverted to a collection of small kingdoms. • Mughal Empire – Mid-16th to mid-19th century CE The Mughal Empire was one of the greatest empires in India. Its extent was greater than that of India today. The country was unified as one nation and it prospered under Mughal rule. Sikhism was founded during the Mughal Empire, by Guru Nanak Dev. He was born in 1469 in the north-west of the empire. He travelled throughout the country and to Mecca and Baghdad, preaching his message.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Answers f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 1. Teacher check •

w ww

Additional activities • In a table, write five facts each about the Mauryan, Gupta and Mughal empires. • Write a description about an important person from each empire.

. te

18

India

m . u

2. India, Mauryan Empire, South Asia, Emperor Ashoka, Gupta Empire, Golden Period, Chandragupta II, Vikramaditya, Mughal Empire, Persian, Hind, Hindi, Sanskrit, Urdu, Muslims, Hindus

o c . che e r o t r s super

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


History

Early empires of India In ancient times, India was not one whole country, ruled over by a single power. There were many small kingdoms that often fought against each other to gain more land and power. When a king conquered many other kingdoms, he created an empire or a dynasty. 1. Colour the maps to show the extent of each empire.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

Mauryan Empire

ew i ev Pr

One of India’s greatest early empires was the Mauryan Empire which covered a large part of South Asia. Emperor Ashoka, who had become a Buddhist, ordered words of love and peace to be carved in stone on rocks and pillars throughout the empire. He wanted people to read the words and spread the peaceful message.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

. te

Gupta Empire

m . u

w ww

The Gupta Empire was part of the Golden Period of Indian history. Great works of literature, art, drama, mathematics, astronomy and medicine were recorded at this time. The greatest Gupta emperor was Chandragupta II. He was known as Vikramaditya, meaning he had the ‘power of the sun’.

o c . che e r o t r s super

The people of the Mughal Empire were Muslim invaders from the west. Their official language was Persian. They called India ‘Hind’ and its language ‘Hindi’. Hindi, in its spoken and written form, came from an ancient language called Sanskrit. Over time, the written language of Urdu was created using Hindi words but Persian text. Of the people who spoke Hindi, Muslims wrote in Urdu script and Hindus wrote in Hindi script.

Mughal Empire

2. Underline any proper nouns in the text. www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

India

19


History British rule in India.................................................................... page 21 Indicator Completes a cloze passage about British rule in India

Answers 1. trading 6. problems 11. country

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

2. control 7. ruled 12. died

3. promise 8. prepared 13. fought

4. government 9. Muslims

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Teacher information • The British rule in India occurred in two parts: ~~ 1757–1858: when the British East India Company virtually abandoned its trading enterprise and established Company Rule after the Battle of Plassey. ~~ 1858–1947: when the company was dissolved and its rule transferred to the British Crown. • In 1937, the province of Burma—to the east of the Indian Empire—became a separate colony, gaining independence in 1948. • In 1947, the British Indian Empire was partitioned into two sovereign dominion states: ~~ the Union of India, which later became the Republic of India ~~ the Dominion of Pakistan, which later became the Islamic Republic of Pakistan • In 1971, East Pakistan became the People’s Republic of Bangladesh. 5. badly 10. independent

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

. te

20

India

m . u

Additional activities • Research and draw two maps of India: one before independence and one after. Display the maps side by side to compare. • Research and write five facts each about Hinduism and Islam to present in a table.

o c . che e r o t r s super

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


History

British rule in India Choose the correct word from the box to fill each gap in the text.

promise fought badly

ruled

Muslims

trading

control

prepared

problems independent country government

died

The British first arrived in India when the British East India

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Company set up a

1

post there. For

almost 200 years, the kingdoms of India fought many battles against

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

the company as it made its way across their country, taking 2

of the land

and the Indian people.

In 1858, Queen Victoria shut down the British East India Company and made

that all Indians would be treated as well as British people. © R . I . C.Publ i cat i ons She was given the name Empress of India. But in the years that followed, the British •f orr ev i e w the pu r po ses o nl y • were still did not follow Queen’s wishes. The Indian people a

3

4

treated very

5

and this caused great unrest. Fearing attacks, the

other, causing

w ww

6

. te

m . u

British decided to weaken the Indian opposition. They set the people against each between Hindus and Muslims.

Despite their dislike of the British, Indians fought for them in both world wars.

o c The Indian people began the long road to independence but. the British were che e r o to give up easily and many lives were lost. Conflict not t r s super continued and when India became between Hindus and But Britain had

7

India for too long. It was time to be free.

8

9

, the British divided some land to create a new nation, Pakistan.

10

Most of the people in this new

11

were Muslims. Any Hindus

living there were forced to flee to India and Muslims living in India were made to move to Pakistan. During these migrations, many people Muslims and Hindus www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

13

12

as

against each other. India

21


History Indian inventions—1–2........................................................ pages 23–24 Indicator: Reads and comprehends information about Indian inventions and discoveries.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Teacher information • The excavation of archaeological sites of the Indus Valley Civilisation provided evidence of a very advanced civilisation which used many of the inventions listed as part of everyday life. • One early recorded form of shuttlecock was made from wool and cardboard. • The Sanskrit word for chess means ‘army of four divisions’ or ‘four corps’. Chess originated during the Gupta Dynasty (c.320–550 CE). It was taught to Persian royalty and spread by Buddhist pilgrims and traders along the Silk Road. Many variations developed. • Chintz comes from a Hindu word meaning ‘a spot’. • The first buttons were originally a form of ornamentation rather than fastening. • Teeth, estimated to be about 9000 years old, discovered in Indus Valley Civilisation sites showed concentric grooves which would have been made by a drilling tool. This ancient form of dentistry proved reliable and effective. The bow drill was used to make fire and for primitive woodworking and dentistry. • Pictures, believed to be from the 6th century, of boards from the game pachisi were discovered on the caves of Ajanta. It was played by Mughal emperors and made its way to England after the British occupied India. There it became known as ludo. • Other discoveries and inventions attributed to (or refined by) India include the autocannon and multi-barrel gun, bounce lighting (devised and used by cinematographer Subrata Mitra from 1955–1959), devices for carding for the textile industry, a version of the cotton gin (a machine for separating the fibres of cotton from the seeds), the crescograph (a device for measuring the growth of plants), types of crucible/wootz steel, the dyke, the maritime dock, the furnace, hospitals, iron, muslin, the use of microorganisms to treat oil spills, optical fibre, the pagoda, the oven, the animal-drawn plough, prefabricated homes and moveable structures, puppets and puppetry, reservoirs, iron-cased and metal-cylinder rocket artillery, the seamless celestial globe, sewage collection and disposal systems, the foot stirrup and urban planning.

© R . I . C . P u b l i c a t i o n s Answers 1. Badminton was• namedf after country home of i thee Duke of Beaufort, who introduced the game at as lawn o party.n other r e v w pu r po se l y• (e) chess, snakes and ladders, ludo, dice 3. the Indus Valley Civilisation site 4.–5. Answers will vary

(b) buttons, bangles (f) dentistry

(c) dyeing

(d) pyjamas

w ww

m . u

2. (a) chintz, calico, cashmere wool

Additional activity • Ask the students to design and create their own form of a shuttlecock and bat using recycled materials for an indoor badminton game.

. te

o c . che e r o t r s super

Indian inventions—3................................................................. page 25 Indicator: Reads clues to complete information about other inventions and discoveries.

Teacher information • The contribution of Indian scientists and mathematicians to their fields can not be underestimated. Other notable discoveries which are possibly of Indian origin include the decimal number system, zero, the word ‘algorithm’, negative numbers, Pi, precise celestial calculations, astronomical time spans, the magnetic interface balance and many others. The Indian language, Sanskrit, is the most suitable for computer language. Answers 1. (a) shampoo (f) sugar 2. Teacher check

(b) ovens (g) puppets

(c) Indian ink (h) hospitals

(d) plastic surgery (i) private bathrooms

(e) rulers

Additional activities • List all the inventions and discoveries mentioned on Pages 23 and 25 and use the words to create a wordsearch. • Research any inventions of interest to find more information. 22

India

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


History

Indian inventions – 1 India is a very old civilisation which is credited with many discoveries and inventions in mathematics, science, industry, medicine and agriculture. Read about some of them.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Bangles made from shell, copper, bronze, gold, silver, stone and ceramics, and seashell buttons were excavated from Indus Valley archaeology sites dating back thousands of years.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Badminton is derived from a game named poona, which was played in India during the 1860s. The British army learned the game and took the equipment back to England. In 1873, the Duke of Beaufort played Poona at a lawn party in his country house, Badminton. The sport, known as ‘the Badminton game’, became popular among the British upper class. In 1877, the Bath Badminton Club was formed and developed the first official set of rules. Pyjamas were adapted from the loose comfortable outdoor clothing worn by Indians. The British who inhabited India decided to create similar garments to sleep in.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

. te

m . u

w ww

Chess is believed to have started in India and spread to other countries through traders and when India was invaded. The name ‘chess’ is from an Indian language, Sanskrit. Snakes and ladders began as a game teaching morality (rules for good conduct) and evidence of ludo (pachisi) has been discovered on cave drawings believed to be from the 6th century. The invention of the dice is often attributed to India because examples of oblong dice thousands of years old have been discovered.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Materials including chintz (printed cotton used for curtains), calico (a type of cotton material) and cashmere wool (a fine wool from the cashmere goat in the area of Kashmir, in the northwestern region) are also of Indian origin. Archaeological evidence has shown that the process of dyeing cotton was used thousands of years ago.

Excavation of the Indus Valley Civilisation has found evidence of the use of drills (probably used by skilled craftsmen) to fix tooth-related problems, indicating that dentistry and its tools may also have begun in India.

As historians continue to investigate, who knows how many modern appliances, tools and objects may have begun as a part of everyday life in ancient India. www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

India

23


History

Indian inventions – 2 Answer the questions using the information on page 23. 1. How did the game ‘badminton’ get its name? 2. Name:

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

(a) three types of materials developed in India

(b) two items for adornment on clothes and bodies

(c) a process used to colour clothing (d) a form of clothing (e) three games or items associated with games (f)

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr ev ew pofuoral r p osesonl y• a science dealing with thei prevention disease.

. te

m . u

w ww

3. Which archaeological site in India is most likely responsible for providing information about many inventions?

o c . che e r o t r s super

4. Which invention mentioned in the text is the most significant and why?

5. Order, according to your own opinion, the remaining 12 inventions from most to least important.

24

India

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


History

Indian inventions – 3 1. Unjumble and write the words in the list next to the description of other Indian inventions and discoveries.

spalithos cistpal geysrur

dainIn nik rugas

Teac he r

petpups smabotroh

paomosh

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

(a) originally a head massage before it became a washing process

sevon lerrus

(g) terracotta dolls with detachable heads able to be manipulated by a string, and clay animals which could be manipulated to move up and down

(h) a chain of buildings established by Emperor Ashoka throughout his empire to help sick people and animals

(c) a pigment used for writing made from burning bones, tar, pitch and other substances

ew i ev Pr

(b) chambers for heating or baking

© R. I . C.Publ i c at i on spottery pipes on the (i) rooms with (d) originally started as a form floor drained water away and of• punishment when the body p f orr evi ew ur pose sonl y• seating was provided with bricks was deformed. Evidence of a rhinoplasty (nose-job) was discovered

w ww

(e) made from ivory—devices were used for measuring length

(f)

. te

with wood on the top

m . u

o c . chraw e originally chewing cane r o t r made the sweetness e until as s uper method was found to form the substance into crystals

2. Select four of the inventions above and, on the back of the worksheet, sketch what you think ancient versions may have looked like. www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

India

25


History Traditional games....................................................................... page 27 Indicators • Reads a text about traditional Indian games and identifies keywords. • Labels illustrations about traditional games correctly.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

Teacher information • Many people believe that cricket may have originated from gilli-danda. There are a few modern variations of this sport and in other countries the game has different names. Gilli-danda is a popular street game. International tournaments of gilli-danda are played between India and Pakistan. • Many rules exist in kabaddi but these vary throughout the world. For example, in one form, players who reach home safely may ‘revive’ a team member who was ‘tipped’. In other forms, once a player is tipped, he/she is out of the game until it is completed. Wrestling opposing players to the ground is common in the traditional game. Modern kabaddi rules differ from those of the traditional game. • Another popular traditional game is kho-kho, which is played by two teams of 12 players. Eight players of one team sit in a row in the middle of the court between two short poles, with players facing in alternate directions. The ninth player is the ‘chaser’ who stands at one end. The members of the chasing team try to tag each runner of the opposing team. The chaser can only run in one direction to catch the runner but he/she may tag one of his/her own team members from behind at any time to replace him/herself. The runner may travel anywhere on the court even between the kneeling players of the opposing team. The kho-kho field is 27 metres long and 15 metres wide. The aim is to tag all the members of the opposing team in the shortest time. Each team must chase or run for nine minutes twice in a match. • Other traditional games include thoda (type of martial arts with an emphasis on archery expertise), silambam (a form of fencing) and pachisi (a board game in the shape of a cross).

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Answers f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 1. Teacher check • 2. (a) gilli-danda

(b) malkhamb

(c) kabaddi

. te

26

India

m . u

w ww

Additional activities • Form teams to play gilli-danda, kho-kho (see above) and kabaddi in the playground. Adjust the rules to make the game as safe as possible for the students to play. • View some on-line video sites which show demonstrations of malkhamb and kho-kho.

o c . che e r o t r s super

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


History

Traditional games Most traditional Indian games are inexpensive and simple, so they are popular in the poorer rural areas. In the cities, many of them are dying out as modern sports take their place. 1. Read the descriptions then underline the keywords. Malkhamb is an ancient form of gymnastics where boys or girls balance on a pole or rope while performing a number of poses, including many from yoga. The sport develops strength, flexibility, breathing control, memory, concentration and, of course, balance.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

Gilli-danda is a sport similar to cricket played with two wooden sticks: a gilli (about 7 cms long with tapered ends) and a danda (about 60 cm long). A small circle about 1 metre in diameter is drawn on the ground. In the centre a small oval-shaped pit (called the pillow) is dug and the gilli is placed across it. The striker tries to lift and throw the gilli out of the circle with the danda. The danda is then placed on top of the pillow. A fielder may catch the gilli to get the striker out or, after it touches the ground, the closest fielder has one attempt to hit the danda with the gilli. The distance from the pillow to the place where the gilli lands is measured using the danda. Each length of the danda counts as one point. Strikers have only three tries to hit the gilli before being given ‘out’. The game continues until all players have taken a turn at striking. Any number of players may be involved in the game and the team with the highest score wins.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

m . u

Kabaddi combines wrestling, rugby and lung power in an unusual team sport. A line drawn on the ground divides the playing field into two sections. Seven of the 12 players in each team face each other and one ‘raider’ is chosen to enter the opposing team’s half. He must touch as many opposing players as possible and return safely to his own half. While ‘tipping’ players, the ‘raider’ chants ‘Kabaddi, kabaddi’ over and over in one long breath. Tipped players must leave the field but an opposing player will attempt to hold the ‘raider’ in their half until he is forced to take a breath. Two-twenty minute halves are played and the winner is the team which has ‘tipped’ the most opposing players.

. te

o c . c e r 2. Label each illustrationh with the traditional sport it applies to. er o t s (c) super (a) (b)

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

India

27


Symbols The flag of India and the Sarnath Lion..................................... page 29 Indicator Reads information and answers questions about the flag of India and the Sarnath Lion.

Answers 1. freedom

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

2. Buddhism

3. future

4. 1947

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Teacher information • The Sarnath Lion sculpture consists of four lions, all facing away from each other, mounted on a circular base. Around the base are sculptures of four smaller animals that are the guardians of the four directions: the lion of the north, the elephant of the east, the horse of the south and the bull of the west—all separated by Wheel of Law designs. • The Sarnath Lion was adopted as the state emblem of India on 26th January 1950, when India became republic. • In the state emblem, only three lions are visible. The wheel is in the centre of the base with the elephant on the right and the galloping horse on the left. • The Sarnath Lion emblem appears on all currency and national passports of the Republic of India.

Additional activities • Copy the drawing of the Sarnath Lion. Frame with a border of alternating wheels of law and the four animals. • Research the four stages in the life of Buddha as represented by the elephant, the galloping horse, the bull and the lion.

w ww

. te

28

India

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


Symbols

The flag of India and the Sarnath Lion

Colour Saffron White Green

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

To the Indian people, their national flag is a symbol of freedom. It was adopted when the country gained its independence from Britain in 1947.

Meaning courage and sacrifice (top stripe) purity and truth (middle stripe) faith and fertility (bottom stripe) In the middle of the white stripe is the Wheel of Law, representing the importance of looking to the future and being prepared to change. The 24 spokes represent the hours in a day.

w ww

The Sarnath Lion was built to honour the site where Siddhartha Gautama, the founder of Buddhism, gave his first preaching in the third century BCE. In 1950, it was adopted as the national emblem of India.

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Navy blue

. te o c It is carved four times on the base of the sculpture. They are . c e separated by animal carvings, each one representing a stage in h r e o t r the life of Buddha. s super The Wheel of Law comes from the design on the circular base of the Sarnath Lion sculpture, which is an important symbol of the Buddhist religion.

The animals are an elephant, a galloping horse, a bull and a lion.

1. Circle the correct answer. (a) The national flag of India is a symbol of:

religion.

law.

freedom.

(b) The Sarnath Lion is important in:

Hinduism. Buddhism. Sikhism.

(c) The Wheel of Law encourages looking to the: past.

present.

future.

(d) India gained independence in:

1950.

53 BCE.

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

1947.

India

29


Symbols National fauna........................................................................... page 31 Indicators • Reads and comprehends information about the royal Bengal tiger and the Indian peafowl—national fauna of India. • Completes activities associated with texts about the royal Bengal tiger and the Indian peafowl.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

Answers Teacher check

ew i ev Pr

Teacher information • The tiger is respected in India for its strength, agility, grace and power. It was once popularly killed for its skin. The royal Bengal tiger is one of the largest and most common subspecies. About 50% of the world’s tiger population lives in India in small isolated populations. Male tigers weigh about 220 kg and females about 140 kg. The tiger’s coat varies in colour from yellow to light orange and the stripes from dark brown to black. The tail is white with black rings and the belly is white. Female Bengal tigers produce between two and five cubs which are blind and helpless. The cubs drink milk from their mother for 6–8 weeks and then graduate to eating meat. They stay with their mother for about 18 months, after which they begin hunting on their own. • The Indian peafowl is a symbol of grace, pride and beauty. They are often used in mythology and folk stories, and found in pictures with gods and goddesses. In medieval times, the Mughals admired them and started keeping them in their gardens. Peafowl have a harsh cry in contrast to the beautiful male ritual dance to attract females. Some domesticated peafowl can be found in rural villages.

Additional activities • Find and read folktales and legends from India about tigers and the peafowl such as ‘The Peacock and the tortoise’, then draw an illustration for each. • Create a table to compare the peafowl and the tiger. Find information for sections which require details not included in the text on page 31.

w ww

. te

30

India

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


Symbols

National fauna Read information about the national animal and bird of India, then complete and tick each activity.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

The royal Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris) is found in most regions of India, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. It lives in a variety of habitats including grasslands, subtropical and tropical rainforests, wet and dry forests and mangrove regions. They live independently in their own territories rather than in groups as lions do. They are carnivores whose diet consists of deer, antelope, wild boars and smaller prey. The roar of the royal Bengal tiger can be heard up to three kilometres away. They are hunted for their pelts and their body parts are used in East Asian medicines. Farmers, fearing for their cattle, also shoot them. A governmentled scheme to protect them, Project Tiger, commenced in 1973, supported by the WWF. A network of tiger reserves throughout India helps tigers and humans coexist. It is not known how many tigers still exist but it is thought to be between only 2000 and 2500.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

. te

m . u

w ww

The Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) is found mostly in regions to the south and east of the Indus River. It lives in semi-desert grasslands, scrub and deciduous forests, usually near water. It forages and makes nests on the ground but roosts in treetops. It eats seeds, insects, fruit, small animals and reptiles. Peahens produce a clutch of between four and eight light brown eggs which hatch in 28 days. Peahens raise their babies without the assistance of the peacock. Peacocks are well-known for their iridescent blue-green feathers which they use to attract females. In contrast, peahens have feathers in dull colours of green, grey and blue and have green necks, while males have blue. Hunting peafowls for food is illegal as they are protected by law, and feathers can only be gathered if shed by the swan-sized bird.

o c . che e r o t r s seachp r e 1. Highlight the place names in u text and locate them in an atlas.

2. Select headings such as Habitat, Diet etc. to write information in bullet point form on the back of the worksheet. 3. Write a list of unknown or interesting words that appear in the texts. Find the meanings of each by using a dictionary. Write the meanings next to each word. 4. Underline sentences which mention numbers and amounts. 5. Find an expressive (like the tiger above) or interesting image of each animal to sketch. www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

India

31


Symbols National flora.............................................................................. page 33 Indicators • Reads and comprehends information about the lotus flower, the Indian fig (banyan) tree and the mango—national flora of India. • Completes activities associated with each type of national flora.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

(b) stalk

(c) stunning

(d) thousands

R

A

N

G

L

I

N

G

T

R

U

N

K

S

D

T

S

A

E

T

Y

H

P

I

P

E

E

S

C

A

A

I

R

T

L

T

R

O

I

K

H

N

O

A

Z

E

C

H

V

L

D

D

P

T

V

R

A

U

E

O

D

U

O

I

T

N

S

N

R

K

U

I

D

D

S

A

Z

Z

C

N

B

S

S

E

D

L

M

I

M M

L

Z

B

(f) mythology

(g) religious

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

F

(e) fortune

W O

M

O

3. Answers in order are: grown, many, chutneys, coloured 4. The national fruit of India is the mango.

. te

m . u

Answers 1. (a) grows 2. S T

ew i ev Pr

Teacher information • The lotus plant, Nelumbo nucifera, is an aquatic perennial. The oldest recorded lotus seed germination was from seeds 1300 years old and recovered from a dry lake bed in north-eastern China. In the Hindu and Buddhist religions, gods are commonly depicted holding or sitting on lotus flowers. The Bahá’í House of Worship in Delhi, known as the Lotus Temple, is a popular tourist attraction. • In January 2001, one of the world’s 25 largest cities, Calcutta, became formally known as Kolkata. The Botanical Gardens in Kolkata are the home of the world’s largest banyan tree and it is a popular tourist attraction and picnic place. In Hindu mythology, the banyan tree is referred to as the ‘wish-fulfilling tree’ because of its ever-expanding branches. • An epiphyte is a plant which grows on another but does not get food, water or minerals from it. • Over one hundred varieties of mango grow in India. When green, they are used in pickles and chutneys, or eaten whole when ripe.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Additional activities • Ask the students to search the Internet to find a large image of the largest banyan tree in the world. Print it and glue the picture onto a sheet of paper. Write around it interesting facts such as its age, width, number of aerial roots, exact location etc. • Students create a wordsearch using the words in the text for the lotus flower, make their own cloze from the text about the banyan tree, and draw a still-life sketch of a mango.

32

India

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


Symbols

National flora 1. Complete the text about the national flower of India.

religious

mythology

fortune

The lotus flower

grows

(a) (b)

thousands

stunning stalk

in muddy waters where its long

rises above the surface to produce a

(c)

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

flower. A lotus seed can germinate after

(d)

of years. The

flower is a symbol of long life, purity, knowledge, honour and . It is commonly found in art

good and

(f)

of ancient India. For Hindus it is

a symbol of God and often used in

(g)

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

(e)

rituals.

2. In the wordsearch, find the bold words from the text about the national tree of India. The Indian fig tree is a type of banyan tree which begins its life as an epiphyte. Seeds, dispersed by fruit-eating birds, germinate in crevices of a host tree. The roots descend and multiply, eventually ‘strangling’ the host tree. The prop roots grow into a multitude of thick, woody trunks which spread to cover a wide area. The largest tree is found in Kolkata. In Hinduism, banyan trees are sacred, symbolising eternal life. Buddha is believed to have achieved enlightenment meditating beneath a banyan tree.

S

T

R

S

A

T

A

N G

L

I

N G

R

U

K

S

D

T

E

E

S

T

R

O

E

C

H

N

E T Y H P I P © R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons C A A I R T L •f orr evi ew pur pose y •Z I s K o H n Nl O A L

D

D

P

T

V

R

A

U

E

O

D

U

O

I

T

N

S

N

R

K

U

C

N

B

F

m . u

w ww

. te

V

I

D

D

S

A

Z

Z

S

S

E

D

L

M

I

W O M O M M

L

Z

B

o c . che e r o t shapes and sizes. I am a tropical fruit of r s super

3. Choose words from the box to complete the clues about the national fruit of India. in India since ancient times. I have been coloured

1

5

chutneys

2

I can be used in

many

or pickles.

4

I have sweet juice and brightly

grown

skin.

3

4. Use the number code in Question 3 to find the name of the national fruit of India. The national fruit of India is the www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

5

2

4

1

3

. India

33


Symbols The Indian elephant..................................................................... page 35 Indicator Reads and comprehends information about the Indian elephant.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Teacher information • The tip of an elephant’s trunk has an extension which can be used like a finger or scoop. An elephant’s trunk has no bone or cartilage. • The large ears of elephants act as amplifiers for sound, and as fans to cool themselves. • Elephants communicate at a lower frequency than humans and this sound travels over many kilometres. This happens in times of stress, excitement, when separated from the herd, or to indicate a desire to mate. They can also tap their trunks on hard surfaces or beat the ground. • The eyes of elephants are small and only useful up to a distance of about 10 m. Their eyesight is more effective in shaded areas. • An elephant grows six complete sets of molar teeth during its lifetime. Few elephants live longer than sixty years because teeth are so worn or decayed, they can not eat and eventually starve. The walrus is the only other animal to have ivory teeth like elephant tusks. Not all bulls have tusks and this is determined by genetics. Only a small percentage of bulls in Sri Lanka have tusks, but in southern India up to 90% have tusks. Tusks on an elephant are rarely the same length as they have one dominant tusk in the same way that humans have dominant hands and feet. This results in uneven wear due to work, foraging, breakage during fights or from digging. Tusks are usually less than 1.8 m in length. • The soft, wrinkled, grey-brown skin of Indian elephants is almost hairless. Elephant skin contains no sweat glands so skin care is important. On very hot days, Indian elephants relax and spray dirt or water over themselves to keep away insects and to prevent sunburn and moisture loss. They are excellent swimmers. • As Indian elephant lives to about 70 years of age. • Trainers of Indian elephants are called mahouts. They are usually highly experienced and knowledgeable, following previous generations into the field. Elephants often grow up with their trainers and develop a special bond with them. • Elephants eat a great deal of food each day because they can only extract nutrition from less than half of it. Elephants in captivity eat less as they are fed food which is more nutritious. • In mythology, elephants were one of the nine jewels that surfaced when the gods churned up the oceans searching for the elixir of life. Before Buddha’s birth, his mother is said to have dreamt of a white elephant. Many gods rode on elephants. The god Ganesh has a human body and the head of an elephant and is worshipped as a sign of prosperity and wellbeing. • In everyday life in India, elephants are used as common motifs on textiles, as toys or puppets, as sculptures, on coins and swords, on lamps, bookends, vases and other ornaments. The elephant is often used in architecture as a symbol of strength.

w ww

. te

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

Answers 1. Paragraph numbers in order are: (a) 2, (b) 3, (c) 4, (d) 5, (e) 7 and (f) 6. 2. They have the largest brains of any land-based animal. 3. Cows only produce a single large calf after a long period of gestation. 4. Teacher check.

Additional activities • Use a quality resource to find interesting, but unusual, facts about Indian elephants to share with classmates. (See some above.) Write and display these ‘fast facts’ on a mosaic elephant shape. • Find out about famous Indian elephants such as Batyr, Abul-Abbas, Motola, Guruvayur Keshavan and Chunee.

34

India

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


Symbols

The Indian elephant Read the text and answer the questions. 1 The Indian elephant (Elephas maximus indicus) is one of four subspecies of the Asian elephant.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

3 Elephants have superior hearing but poor eyesight. Indian elephants stand between 2 and 3.5 m tall and weigh between 2.5 and 4.5 tonnes. The ears help them lose excess heat. Their trunks, which have two nostrils at the end, have thousands of muscles, making them very dextrous. They have the largest brains of any land-based animal, allowing them to store large amounts of information.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

2 Also known as pachyderms (meaning ‘thick skin’), Indian elephants live in areas of forest, plains and grass. These nomadic animals need vast areas to migrate, which they usually do in single file. The small herds contain closely-related animals led by an elderly female or matriarch.

5 Cows usually give birth to a single calf, weighing about 99 kg, between 18 to 22 months after conception. Young males stay with the herd until about 14 or 15 years of age, but fullygrown bulls are usually solitary.

6 Indian elephants have been domesticated for use in forestry, as a means of transport and for tourism, ceremonial and religious purposes for centuries. 7 Indian elephants are endangered

due tot habitats being destroyed, © R. I . C.Publ i ca i ons human settlement and mining and dam construction. •f orr evi ew pur p os esonHunting l y•to obtain

. te

m . u

w ww

4 Being herbivores, their diet consists of grass, leaves, roots, bark, bananas and sugar cane. They can eat between 130 and 260 kg of food daily.

ivory, meat and hides also decreases numbers. There are an estimated 40 000 elephants in South Asia, with about 57% of these in India.

8 The Indian elephant is a symbol of

strength and an everlasting India.

o c . che e r o t r s super 2. Which physical feature suggests that elephants are intelligent?

1. Which paragraphs tell about the following aspects of Indian elephants? (b) Physical characteristics (c) Diet (a) Habitat (d) Reproduction (e) Threats (f) Uses/Work

3. Why would breeding programs need to be long-term projects? 4. Which information about Indian elephants is the most interesting? www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

India

35


Modern India Rural and urban living — 1–2............................................ pages 37–38 Indicator Reads and understands information about rural and urban living in India.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Answers 1. Green: three-quarters, Yellow: one-quarter 2. (a) 550 000 Teacher information (b) 20 • India’s population is estimated to be 1.17 billion people. This makes it the (c) one-sixth second largest populated nation in the world behind China, with 1.3 billion. (d) thousands Even though approximately 75 per cent live in rural villages and towns, the (e) 90 population is spread out in the countryside and concentrated in the cities. 3. Answers should indicate a house made from sun• In the past, India was a collection of kingdoms where a major centre was baked clay bricks, lime plaster, powered lime floor, surrounded by villages and the land was cultivated for farming by the villagers. thatch and mud roof. The food produced supplied the centre’s population. 4. Answers should indicate there is a range varying The rural population in India shows a portrait of the ‘real’ India. Indian village from beautiful homes, to modest apartments and to life is quite complex. Every village is connected to others and to urban areas hovels. by a series of links. Narrow lanes allow for movement between village houses, 5. Possible answers: which are built close to each other. Similarities: some dwellings are made from Today, agriculture, or jobs related to agriculture, is still the main occupation in available materials; both areas have problems with most villages in India. Those situated near the coast are involved in fishing. lack of suitable of sanitation, water and electricity Handicraft works such as pottery, hand-woven rugs, wood carvings and supplies; shared facilities jewellery are also a widespread occupation in most villages. Villagers show a Differences: city is densely populated, fewer people deep sense of loyalty to their village and do not easily move to another. There in rural villages, more people live in rural areas has, however, been a steady increase in the number of villagers migrating to overall, housing differs, villages have a headman urban areas to work as labourers or to find work other than that of traditional and council agriculture in the hope of a better life and job prospects. Additional activity • India’s larger cities have been growing at double the rate of villages and towns. Half of these increases are estimated to be the result of rural–urban migration. • Use nonfiction sources such as travel brochures, Every major city faces the common problems of substandard and inadequate magazines, newspapers, personal or family housing; lack of sanitation; traffic jams; transportation problems; insufficient photographs or images on the Internet to create a water and electricity supplies; noise, air and water pollution; insufficient schools collage of Indian villages and cities. and hospitals; lack of employment and the like.

w ww

. te

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Indian city and village mini report........................................... page 39

o c . che e r o t r s super

Indicator Researches to find information for a mini report about an Indian city and village.

Teacher information • Students can choose their own city or village to create a mini report or choose from the following: Cities: Delhi, Bangalore, Pune, Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai, Hyderabad, Jaipur, Madras, Agra Villages: Baragaon, Handiaya, Hirapur, Mainpuri, Jatinga, Bathot, Jasol, Sarzora, Kamarpukur Answers Answers will vary

Additional activity • Students use the initial letters of the name of the city or village they chose to write an acrostic poem about it.

36

India

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


Modern India

Rural and urban living – 1 Rural living Approximately three-quarters of India’s population live in rural areas. There are more than 550 000 villages spread across India. Some have a population of as few as 500, but approximately 4000 have a population in excess of 10 000 people.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

Most rural houses are made from local materials such as sunbaked clay bricks covered with a plaster of lime and a floor of pounded lime. Roofs are usually made from thatch with mud plastered in it. Some areas have houses made of brick and stone with tiled roofs. Homes of wealthy rural dwellers are constructed from solid concrete. Only one-sixth of rural houses have access to tap water and 90 per cent have no toilets. Water has to be collected from the village pond (known as a tank) and human waste is emptied into the local waterway. Electricity is scarce. Most rural villages use firewood and dung cakes made of dried cow manure as fuel for cooking. Kerosene is used for lighting lanterns.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Urban living

w ww

m . u

Village life has always been an important part of Indian society. Facilities are shared and a headman and group of villagers solve problems that arise. In the past, villagers had little contact with the outside world, but this is changing. The government is spending money trying to improve facilities.

About one quarter of the population live in urban India. More than 20 cities have a population of more than 1 000 000. Most of India’s cities are very densely populated and are continuing to grow.

. te

o c . che e r o t r s super

The standard of living in urban areas is mixed. Increasing numbers of cities are building new shopping centres, offices, factories and medical facilities, are improving electricity, sanitation and water supplies, and are generally becoming more westernised. However, many sections remain slums with substandard living conditions for millions of people. Housing ranges from beautiful homes for the wealthy, modest houses or apartments for the middle class, and hovels made from hessian bags or tin sheeting for the poorest of the poor. Thousands of people have to use the same toilets daily or simply use ditches. Water is collected from communal taps or the river.

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

India

37


Modern India

Rural and urban living – 2 Answer the questions. 1. Divide the circle into quarters and colour the fraction of people living in rural India in green and the fraction living in urban India in yellow. 2. Write numbers for the answers to these questions. How many:

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

(a) villages are spread across India?

(b) cities have more than one million people?

more than

(d) people may use the same communal toilet in the city? (e) rural houses have no toilets?

per cent

3. Briefly describe the most common type of house in rural India.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

(c) rural houses have access to water?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons orr evyou i ew ur posesonl y• 4. What types• of f housing would see inp urban India?

w ww

m . u

. te o Similarities Differences c . che e r o t r s super

5. List some similarities and differences between rural and urban living in India.

Rural

Urban

38

India

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


Modern India

Indian city and village mini report Choose one Indian city and one village to research and make notes about each in the chart below. Use the Internet, an atlas and other nonfiction material. Show the location of each on the map. City:

Village:

State:

State:

Population:

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Population:

Interesting facts:

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Interesting facts:

w ww

. te

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super DELHI

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

India

39


Modern India Clothing................................................................................. pages 41–43 Indicator: Reads information and completes activities about different types of clothing and footwear.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Answers Page 41 Teacher check Page 42 Teacher check as answers will vary. First woman is wearing a sari, the second a salwar-kameez. Page 43 1.–2. Teacher check 3. (a) leather (b) jutti (c) khussa (d) knob (e) heel (f) sole

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Teacher information • Indian clothing was historically made from lengths of un-stitched fabric that were wound around the body in a variety of ways to create different garments. Changes in clothing styles throughout the ages reflect the contact of Indians with other tribes and empires, be it through invasion, immigration or trade. This is also a main reason for the different areas of India having different styles of clothing, for example, when the Moguls came to power, their style of sewn jackets and trousers became popular among Indians in that region. • What an Indian wears depends on their socioeconomic status, religion, region and the occasion. The dhoti (also called doti, suriya, vaytti, veshti, dhuti, pudve, mundu and dhotar), a length of cloth wrapped around the waist and legs, is very commonly worn and is considered quite formal. It is usually white or cream in colour. It is worn with a kurta or kurti, a long shirt (worn by both males and females), with its length falling to about knee length. • Turbans are closely associated with the Sikh religion. Sikh men are not allowed to cut their hair and are required to wear a turban to manage their long hair. The turban cloth is usually five meters, or less, in length and turban wearers wind it from the start of the cloth every time they put it on. • Traditional women’s clothing is more popular than western style clothing, as are shoe styles (which have changed little over the years). As the weather in much of India is warm, shoes were not considered necessary, and for much of history Indians went barefoot.

w ww

. te

s

l

t

t

u

n

m

g

n

e

e

h

s

o

x

n

g

d

a

e

s

b

c

e

z

r

e

r

a

z

h

j

u

t

m . u

cc u t q i l n h s e e l © R. I . C.Publ i a o m s b e k s p u o s a ho kn cl z • •f orr evi ew pur pnoose y

i

o

u

t

i

s

Additional activities • Invite an Indian guest into the classroom to show and discuss different types of clothing and demonstrate how they are worn. Students can prepare questions to ask the speaker, such as which region he or she is from, what styles of clothes people from that region wear, to what extent western styles of clothing have influenced fashion in that area, and so on. • Bring in a length of cloth approximately 4–5 metres long and allow students to try wrapping it in different styles. Have a fashion show where students can model traditional Indian clothing. The students can be asked about their preferences.

40

India

o c . che e r o t r s super

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


Modern India

Men’s clothing The kinds of clothing an Indian man might wear depend on his cultural background, the area he lives in and his religion. In the cities, more western-style clothing such as business shirts and trousers are common, while in rural areas it is more common to see men in traditional clothing. Most clothing, however, tends to be light and loose-fitting because of the hot climate.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Read about the different types of traditional clothing. Then use this information to correctly label the clothing in the pictures below.

w ww

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

. te commonly worn traditional items of clothing isothe dhoti, a One of the most c . rectangular piece c of cloth about 4 to 5 metres long. It is wrapped around the e h r waist and the legs then knotted at the waist to resemble loose trousers. The e o t r s s r upe lungi is very similar and also commonly worn, covering a man from the waist

down but usually worn more like a long skirt for informal occasions. It is made similarly, but the cloth is wrapped only around the waist, similar to a sarong. Both dhoti and lungi are often worn with a kurta, a long, loose long-sleeved shirt. For formal occasions, men might wear a long coat called a sherwani. Some men, often from the Sikh religion, wear a turban, a long scarf-like single piece of cloth wound around the head. They also wear loose trousers that become narrow at the ankles, called pajamas or salwar.

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

India

41


Modern India

Women’s clothing

1. Read the information.

The most famous item of women’s clothing from India is the sari (or saree). It is made of one long piece of material, four to nine metres long, which is draped over the body in different ways. It is usually wrapped around the waist, with one end draped over the shoulder. As this leaves the stomach area bare, most women wear a choli (a short-sleeved top) underneath. A choli can also be worn with a long skirt called a langa or lahenga.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

There are many different kinds of saris. A banarasi sari is usually handmade and decorated elaborately with silver and gold embroidery. It is expensive and worn for special occasions such as weddings and some festivals. Most other types of saris tend to be lighter and designed for more everyday wear. Another popular women’s clothing item is the salwar-kameez. Salwars are pajama-like loose trousers that are tighter at the waist and the ankles. Over the salwars, women wear a long and loose tunic known as a kameez. A shalwar-kameez can be made from different fabrics and can be simple or more elaborate, with artificial gemstones and embroidery.

2. Colour the clothing of the two women. Then describe what each woman is wearing as if commentating at a fashion show.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• ‘And here we have Anju, wearing ...

w ww

. te

m . u

o c . c e her r o t s super ‘Next we have Dhara, wearing ...

42

India

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


Modern India

Clothing – Shoes 1. Read the information about different types of shoes from India. 2. Draw a line from each description to the matching picture. Padukas are very simple sandals with a wooden sole and a knob that fits between the big toe and the second toe. The wearer grips the knob between his/her toes to keep the sole on the foot.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

Chappals are strapped leather sandals made with flat soles attached to the foot by straps around the top of the foot and big toe. They provide basic protection from hot surfaces and rough ground. Juttis or khussa are slip-on shoes usually made of fine leather, worn by men, women and children. The top of the shoe is decorated with embroidery, beads and sometimes pieces of material. Juttis have pointed toes, flat soles and can have a closed or open heel.

w ww

3. Find the answers to these questions in the wordsearch. (a) What most Indian shoes are made from.

c

u

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

e

e

l

s

p

u

k

c

z

n

m

g

o

x

n

q

l

h

m s b e k . te o n o . oca h (c) Another name for this shoe. che et t u s r l o (d) What the toes hold ontor on a paduka. st super n e e h s

(b) Decorated shoes worn by all.

(e) The jutti can have a closed or open (f) A chappal has a flat

.

.

4. On a separate sheet of paper, design a pattern for either:

g

d

a

e

s

b

c

e

z

r

e

r

a

i

o

u

z

h

j

u

t

t

i

s

(a) the insole of a paduka (b) the top of a jutti. www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

India

43


Modern India Food....................................................................................... pages 45–47 Indicator Reads information and answers questions about savoury and sweet foods from India.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Answers Page 46 1. (a) Goan fish curry – western India (b) tandoori beef – northern India (c) idli – southern India (d) shami kebabs – northern India 2. Fish and seafood are used in Goan foods because the area is located on the coast where such foods are readily available. 3. A tandoor is a clay oven used to cook breads and marinated meats. 4. Cow’s milk and coconut milk 5. v k e b a b s v k

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Teacher information • History, geography, climate and religion all play an important role in defining the cuisine found in different regions of India, which each have their own specialities. Common across the different styles is the use of spices—aromatic substances of vegetable origin used as seasoning or preservatives. • India’s cuisine has developed with influences from the Middle East, Central Asia and the Mediterranean. • Traditionally meals are eaten with the fingers of the right hand, while seated on the floor or on very low stools or cushions. • Food is sometimes presented on a large plate with samples of different regional dishes accompanied by breads and rice. This type of meal is called thali. In southern India, a cleaned banana leaf is often used as an alternative to plates. Page 47 1. Teacher check. 2. (a) Teacher check. (b) Kulfi is from the north, rasgullas from the east, gulab jamuns from the north, jalebi from the north, firnee from north and south, and kheer from the east.

d r c n e m c

l s u a n e h

p a r a t h a

i m r n i r p

w ww

i n d a l o o

6. Answers will vary.

d o y p l o a

l s a m s l t

. te

i a r i c e t

o r m r o t i

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

Additional activities • Students could search for simple Indian recipes on the Internet, and in small groups prepare different meals to share as a class. • Give pairs of students the name of a large Indian city. Pairs research to find one savoury and one sweet meal that is a speciality from that city. • Bring in a selection of Indian spices for the students to see, smell and describe.

44

India

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


Modern India

Food – 1 1. Read the information. Probably the most well known Indian foods are curries; dishes made with several spices blended together in certain combinations. These spices include saffron, turmeric, chillies, ginger, coriander, cardamom, cumin and cinnamon. Curries are eaten with rice, usually basmati rice, or different types of breads such as chapattis (wheat flour and water fried like a thin pancake), rotis (flour and water cooked on a hot flat pan), paratha (a roti basted in butter), naan (a thicker, oven-baked flat bread) and papadams (crispy deep-fried wafer). These savoury dishes vary from region to region.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

2. Read what these people have to say about the foods from their different regions of India. Here in northern India, a lot of dairy products like milk, butter and yoghurt are used in cooking. We also use a clay oven called a tandoor to cook breads like naan, and meats marinated in a mixture of yoghurt and spices (like chicken, called tandoori chicken). We also eat Bihari and shami kebabs (meat cooked on skewers), as well as samosas, which are pastries filled with potato, minced meat or cheese.

w ww

We cook a wide variety of foods in western India. Goa, being on the coast, has lots of meals with fresh fish and seafood, and is famous for its fish curry. Dhansak is a speciality found in Mumbai, made from lamb or chicken cooked with curried lentils. In western India we also eat vindaloo curries, which can be quite hot.

. te

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s sup er Many of us living in southern

India are vegetarian. Most dishes include spices and coconut (often its milk), and we eat a lot of rice. Coconut milk straight from the nut is one of our favourite drinks, as is coffee. Many meals have oil, mustard seeds, curry leaves and red chillies added to them just as they finish cooking. ldli, savoury cakes made by steaming a batter of black lentils and rice, are popular.

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

India

45


Modern India

Food – 2 Answer these questions. 1. Draw a line to match each food to its region.

(a) Goan fish curry •

• northern India

(b) tandoori beef

• southern India

(c) idli

(d) shami kebabs

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S •

• northern India

• western India

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

2. Why are fish and seafood used often in Goan meals?

3. What is a tandoor?

4. What are two kinds of ‘milk’ used in Indian cooking?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons • f or r e vi e pur posesonl y• 5. Find these Indian food words in w the wordsearch.

curry

paratha

roti

naan

samosa

kebabs

lentils

vindaloo

rice

idli

. te

v

k

e

b

a

b

s

v

k

i

d

l

p

i

d

l

i

o

n

r

s

a

m

o

s

a

r

d

c

u

r

r

y

a

r

m

a

n

a

a

n

p

m

m . u

chapatti

w ww

o i c . ch e l e e n t i l r s c o t r so l e su pher o m e r o

c

h

a

p

a

t

t

r o t i

6. Which region of India you would most like to taste food from? Explain your choice. 46

India

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


Modern India

Food – Sweets Indian sweets and desserts are usually either milk- or flour-based and tend to be very sweet. They often contain grains (rice and wheat), lentils, chickpeas, mung beans or nuts (almonds, pistachios and cashews), and are flavoured with floral scents, spices (like cloves, cinnamon, cardamom and ginger) and syrups. As with savoury foods, sweets differ from region to region. Rice flour and coconut milk are often used in the south, while wheat flour, yoghurt and nuts are the main ingredients in the north. Here are some common sweets:

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Kulfi is a sort of Indian ice-cream that takes a long time to melt. It is flavoured with pistachios, mangoes or cardamom.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Rasgullas are small balls of sweet, rose-flavoured cottage cheese from eastern India.

Gulab jamuns are small balls made of flour, yoghurt and ground almonds in a sugar syrup flavoured with cardamom seeds and rosewater or saffron. Jalebi are deep-fried wheat pancakes soaked in scented syrup before serving. Firnee is a rice pudding dessert with almonds, raisins and pistachios.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Kheer (called payasam in the south) is an eastern rice pudding made from milk simmered with cardamom and nuts, and is popular at many feasts and celebrations.

Method:

½ cup basmati rice

1. Wash rice well.

w ww

Ingredients:

. te

4 cups milk

m . u

1. Follow the instructions below to make kheer.

2. Boil milk and add rice. Simmer on low heat for 1½ hours. Stir milk frequently to prevent it from sticking.

o c . 1 cup sugar c 3. When the rice is e cooked and the mixture h r gets a semi-thick creamy consistency, add 1 tsp cardamom (or e nutmeg) o t r s s r u e p sugar and stir well. ¼ cup almonds (shredded ¼ cup raisins

and blanched)

A few strands of saffron

4. Remove from heat and add cardamom, saffron, shredded almonds and raisins.

5. Serve warm or chilled.

2. Answer these questions on the back of this sheet. (a) Which sweets would you like to try? Why? (b) Which region do you think each of the deserts come from? www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

India

47


Modern India Education.................................................................................... page 49 Indicator Reads and comprehends information about education in India.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Teacher information • A caste is one of the divisions or social classes into which Hindus are separated and by which privileges or prejudices are inherited. The caste system has been in place for many years and still exists today despite government attempts to establish a truly democratic society. • Child labour laws ban children from working, but despite this children still work to assist their families and do not attend school. • Although more girls are attending school, generally females have a lower literacy rate than males. Barriers to education for females include inadequate sanitary facilities for girls, few female teachers to teach girls, and gender bias in curriculums which portray female characters as weak and helpless. • Education in India is controlled by the government and the states. Many private institutions provide education but a wide range in the quality of schools exists. Many community-based schools provide basic education in rural areas. Teacher staffing is a large problem in many schools and universities. The government has initiated many programs to try to improve the education of lower social groups and for people in remote, underdeveloped areas. • Improved education is believed to have contributed towards improving the economy of India.

Answers 1. male or female 2. Answers will vary but may be similar to: children worked more, did not go to school or were taught by their parents. 3. 9 years 4. Urban regions; reasons may vary; e.g. because children in rural regions are needed to work on farms, because there are no schools to go to. 5. Answers will vary but may be similar to: girls do not need an education to look after homes and children when they are older; females were considered inferior to males; i.e. less important and not deserving of an education.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

. te

48

India

m . u

w ww

Additional activities • Discuss what languages, sciences and social sciences may be taught in elementary schools. (In India, there are at least 15 languages and Hindu is the most widely spoken.) • Design a simple school uniform for boys and girls at a school in India, based on the climate and region where the fictitious school is located.

o c . che e r o t r s super

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


Modern India

Education Before gaining independence from Britain in 1947, education was only available to certain people depending on their social group (caste) or gender. After this time, a law was passed to make education a basic right for all children aged from 6 to 14 years. This enabled more Indian children to attend elementary school where they learnt languages, maths, science, social sciences and values.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

The education system in India now includes elementary, secondary and higher secondary (ages 14 to 18 years) and higher education. Secondary and higher education try to provide training for jobs or to enable students to specialise in fields such as information technology, engineering or teaching.

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

Although more children are educated than previously, it is estimated that about 40% of the population can not read or write and only a small percentage of students ever reach high school. There is still great poverty and prejudice in India which prevents many people from becoming educated. Children in rural areas are still expected to work on farms and to look after younger siblings while their parents work. Females usually receive less education than males.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Answer the questions using the information in the text. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 1. What is the dictionary meaning of the word ‘gender’?

m . u

w ww

2. What do you think children in lower social groups did before 1947 instead of going to school?

. te

o c . che e r o t r s su r 4. In which area of India do you think children are most likely better educated—urban e p or rural regions? Why? 3. How many years of compulsory elementary schooling do children have?

5. In your opinion, why might females receive less education than males? www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

India

49


Modern India Transport..................................................................................... page 51 Indicator Reads and comprehends information about different types of transport used in India.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Teacher information • A palanquin is a covered sedan chair or litter carried on poles on the shoulders of four or more bearers. • A heliport is a place for helicopters to land and take off. It is also called a helipad. • The heavily congested streets of India mean that traffic can only travel very slowly. Traffic jams and accidents are common. India has a very poor record of road safety. For example, Mumbai is ranked among the top ten cities in the world for the worst traffic. • The Indian railway system is one of the longest and most heavily used systems in the world. Safety due to overcrowding is a significant problem. • India is home to the world’s highest helipad, which is located at the Siachen Glacier at a height of 6400 m above sea level. • Waterways in India are largely under utilised (only about 0.15% of total inland traffic) compared to other countries, despite the fact that there are over 14 500 kilometres of navigable rivers and canals. Only a handful of waterways are used in an organised manner by cargo transport. • The Darjeeling Himalayan Railway in West Bengal is a World Heritage Site. Answers 1. Teacher check 2. Answers will include:

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons LAND WATER AIR cars, motorcycles, buses, autoe rickshaws, hand-pulled cargo houseboats, canoes, jets,n planes, helicopters •f otrains, rr vi e wp uships, r p os eso l y • rickshaws, cycle rickshaws, bicycles, scooters, mopeds, taxis, small boats trams, bullock carts, palanquins

m . u

3. Teacher check

w ww

Additional activities • Use a dictionary or other sources to find the difference between a motorcycle, a scooter and a moped. • Draw or find images of each different kind of rickshaw to show the differences between auto rickshaws, hand-pulled rickshaws and cycle rickshaws.

. te

50

India

o c . che e r o t r s super

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


Modern India

Transport With a total area of 3 287 263 sq. km and a population of about 1.17 billion people, India needs a variety of different types of transport and one that is accessible to all people.

Teac he r

On land, public transport is used by most people because only wealthy households can afford a car or motorcycle. Buses and trains provide cheap and convenient transport and access to almost every part of India. Other forms of transport include auto, hand-pulled and cycle rickshaws; bicycles; scooters; mopeds and taxis. Roads in Indian cities are very congested. Some cities prefer to use trams because they emit less pollutants. In smaller towns, traditional bullock carts can still be seen, and sometimes a bride or tourist travels in a palanquin.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

To cater for travel by air, India has hundreds of airports (both international and domestic) and about 30 heliports. About two-thirds of the airports have paved runways for aeroplanes while the others do not. There are about 20 international airports throughout India. Transport by water includes travel by waterways and sea. About 95% of India’s trade with other countries passes through any of its 12 major ports by cargo ship. The network of inland rivers, canals and waterways carries people and goods on houseboats, canoes and small boats. are improving there are still many problems, including outdated facilities and a growing population.

w ww

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Even though aspects of the Indian transport system

1. Highlight the keywords land, air and water in their paragraphs.

. te

2. In the columns below, list vehicles for each type of transport.

o c . che e r o t r s super

LAND

WATER

AIR

3. Fold a sheet of A4 paper into three equal parts then select one interesting vehicle for each type of transport to sketch. Use reference material to assist you. Label the different parts of the vehicle if you wish. www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

India

51


Modern India Industry...................................................................................... page 53 Indicator Reads and comprehends information about India’s different industries and manufacturing.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Teacher information • India has the 12th largest economy in the world but still suffers from problems such as overpopulation, poverty, lack of infrastructure and growing unemployment. • Other agriculture products include oilseed, cotton, jute, potatoes, cattle, water buffalo, goats, sheep and poultry. • Turmeric is an orange-yellow powder derived from a ginger-like plant that is commonly used as a spice in curries and other South Asian and Middle Eastern dishes. It is also used for dyeing and to give colour to mustard condiments. In medieval Europe, turmeric became known as Indian saffron because it was widely used as an alternative to saffron spice which was very expensive. • India is the largest producer in the world of milk, cashews, tumeric and ginger. It is the second largest producer of tea, black pepper, wheat, rice, sugar, peanuts and inland fish and is the third largest producer of tobacco. It produces about 10% of the world’s fruit, which includes bananas, sapodillas (a large round fruit with green, yellow or orange skin and a smooth-textured sweet pulp) and mangoes. • About 60% of the workforce is employed in the agriculture sector either directly or indirectly; industry/manufacturing employs about 17%; and services about 23% of the workforce. This is despite the fact that 54% of India’s economic worth (gross domestic product) is from services, while manufacturing accounts for 29% and 17% for agriculture. • The textile industry is the second largest source of employment after agriculture and accounts for about 14% of manufacturing. • Handicrafts are an important part of the textile/manufacturing sector producing metalware, carpets, hand-printed fabrics, wood and cane ware and jewellery. • Mining includes gemstones, semiprecious stones, granite, marble, and various minerals including iron, china clay, copper, coal and mica. • The services industry is a fast growing sector of the Indian economy, as is tourism.

w ww

Answers 1. Teacher check 2. (a) ginger, turmeric, black pepper (c) textiles (d) chemicals 3. services, manufacturing, agriculture

(b) rice, wheat (e) services

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Additional activities • Write a story about life as a child in a family which has a parent employed in the services industry and another as a child in a family which works its own small farm. • Ask the students to tick or highlight the industries on the pie graph which are also part of the economy of his/her own country. If information is readily available, students may wish to create their own pie graph for industries in their own country.

. te

52

India

o c . che e r o t r s super

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


Modern India

Industry

2. Use the information in the pie graph to answer the questions.

es

Se

r vic

ew i ev Pr

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S g rin ctu ufa Man

Teac he r

A

1. Look at the pie graph re rice, ltu which tells about various u c cashews, i business types of production gr tea, wheat, services and services in coconuts, ginger, including India. The graph turmeric, black represents how pepper, water buffalo, studying, sugar, fish, milk, designing, much money each tobacco developing, installing, type of industry textiles, implementing, makes for the chemicals, managing or supporting country. food processing, computer systems steel, transportation and applications; equipment, cement, organising firms to mining, petroleum, provide services to other machinery, businesses; call centres computer for telemarketing, software advertising, research etc.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons (a) Name three spices produced in India. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

m . u

(b) Name two types of grain produced in India.

(c) Production of cotton, jute and silk belong in which part of in the manufacturing section?

. te

o c . c e (d) Pesticides, disinfectants, cosmetics, fertilisers, toiletries and medical products h r e o t r belong in which part of ins theu manufacturing ssection? per

(e) Which section would need a large workforce of highly-skilled workers who speak English well? 3. Write the names of the sections in order from largest to smallest? www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

India

53


Modern India Currency...................................................................................... page 55 Indicator Reads information and completes information about Indian currency.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Answers 2. 20 red/orange, 50 purple, 5 green 3. Different answers are possible. Some likely answers include: the mobile: 12 1000 notes, one 500 note, one 100 note; Sari: two 200 notes, one 50 note, one 5 note, one 50 paisa coin, one 10 paisa coin; Cricket bat: One 500 note, four 100 notes, two 20 notes, one 5 note; Sandals: One 1000 note, one 50 note, one 20 note, one 2 coin, one 50 paisa coin, two 20 paisa coins. 4. Teacher check

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Teacher information • India was one of the earliest issuers of coins, with the first rupee believed to have been introduced by Sher Shah Suri (1486-1545). The term ‘rupee’ comes from the Sanskrit word raupya, meaning ‘silver’, and initially a rupee was a silver coin. With changing traditions and empires the currency changed, with different notes being produced by different banks in the Urdu, Bengali and Nagri languages. Designs changed again under British reign. After gaining its independence from Britain in 1947 and becoming a republic in 1950, India’s rupee designs changed once more. The symbol chosen for the paper currency was the Lion Capital at Sarnath which replaced the George VI series of banknotes. In 1996, the Mahatma Gandhi series of paper notes was introduced. An image of Mahatma Gandhi is on the obverse (front) of each banknote. • Following a competition to find a design, in July 2010 the Indian government adopted a symbol for the Indian rupee, . The modern rupee is subdivided into 100 paise (singular paisa). • The rupee is a weak currency; at the time of printing around 42 rupees are equal to one Australian dollar, or 46 rupees equivalent to one American dollar. Because of the small value of the rupee, Indians use the term ‘lakh’ for 100,000 rupees and ‘lac’ for one million rupees. A ‘crore’ of rupees is one hundred lakhs, or ten million rupees.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

. te

54

India

m . u

w ww

Additional activities • Play an online interactive game putting different rupee note puzzles together at <http://www.rbi.org.in/financialeducation/Games. aspx?DivRs10> • Look at images of Indian currency online. Students write a list of similarities and a list of differences between their national currency and the Indian currency. • Using a newspaper or the Internet, find out the current exchange rate for the Indian rupee. Give students different amounts which they can convert into their national currency.

o c . che e r o t r s super

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


Modern India

Currency 1. Read the information. The currency of India is the Indian national rupee, or rupee for short, which was first used thousands of years ago. The symbol for the rupee is . One rupee is made up of 100 paise. There are seven notes and six coins. The notes are 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500 and 1000. Each note has an image of Mahatma Gandhi and the value of that note written in 17 Indian languages. The reverse of the notes have different images, such as a tractor (on the green 5 note), Indian parliament (on the purple 50 note), palm trees (on the red/ orange 20 note), or the Himalayas (blue-green, brown-purple 100).

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

The coins are the 10 paisa, 25 paisa, 50 paisa, 1, 2 and 5.

ew i ev Pr

2. Correctly colour these rupee notes.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

12 600

. te

945 455.60

m . u

3. Write which Indian notes and/or coins you would need to use to pay for these items at a shop in India.

1072 .70

o c . che e r o t r s super

4. The symbol used to represent the Indian currency is . Design your own symbol to represent the rupee. www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

India

55


Modern India Sports........................................................................................... page 57 Indicator Reads information and completes activities about sports in India. Teacher information • A few games introduced by the British have become popular in India, including field hockey, association football (soccer), tennis and cricket. Although field hockey is India’s official national sport, cricket is by far the most popular sport in India, both recreationally and professionally. • Kabaddi is a popular traditional sport played mostly among people in villages. See pages 26–27 for other traditional games and sports.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

Answers 2. (a) field hockey (b) cricket (c) association football (d) eight 3. Street cricket can be played in places such as alleys, streets and dry riverbeds. When playing on the street, players have to keep an eye out for vehicles! Players don’t need expensive equipment. A piece of wood can be used for a bat, and sticks as the wickets. Additional activities • Write a letter describing some of the most popular sports in your country. Describe how these sports are played, the size of the teams, and draw a team member from your favourite team in uniform. • Survey your class to find out the most popular sports. Compare the results to the most popular sports in India. Discuss any similarities or differences and the reasons the most popular sports in your class may be similar or different to those in India.

w ww

. te

56

India

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


Modern India

Sports 1. Read the information. During British occupation in India, sports such as association football (soccer), cricket, hockey and tennis were introduced to the country. These games gradually became part of Indian culture and are today the most popular sports in India. 2. Use the code to find the answers the questions. a

b

c

d

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S e

f

g

h

i

j

k

l

m

n

o

p

q

r

s

t

u

v

w

x

y

25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

(a) What is India’s national sport?

20

17

21

14

22

18

11

23

15

21

1

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

(b) Which sport is the most popular in India?

23

8

17

23

15

21

6

(c) Which sport is especially popular in north-east India, West Bengal, Goa and Kerala?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

25

7

7

11

23

17

25

6

20

11

11

6

24

25

14

14

17

11

12

w ww

21

17

19

. te vehicles

18

m . u

(d) How many Olympic gold medals has India’s men’s field hockey team won? 6

3. Street cricket is played throughout India by adults and children. Fill in the missing words to complete the paragraph about street cricket.

o alleys c . che e r o Street cricket can be played in r st places such as super equipment

wood

street

, streets and dry riverbeds. When

playing on the

, players have to keep

an eye out for

! Players don’t need

expensive

can be used for a bat, and sticks as the wickets.

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

. A piece of

India

57


Modern India Rich and poor............................................................................... page 59 Indicator Reads information and completes activities about extreme poverty and wealth in India.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Teacher information • The division of resources and wealth is very uneven in India. Poverty is very widespread, with some estimates placing one-third of the world’s poor in India. Different states have different poverty ratios, with states such as Delhi and Punjab having lower poverty ratios, while places such as Bihar and Orissa have much higher poverty ratios. • The Dalits, the lowest ‘class’ in the Indian caste system (which, despite being officially banned, continues—especially in rural areas), are the poorest people in India. They live in very poor conditions and often have no education or chance to receive one. High levels of illiteracy, inadequate health care and limited access to social services are common among Dalits and other poor rural people. • Cities such as Delhi, Mumbai and Chandigarh have high concentrations of wealthy people. Many of these have become millionaires in sectors such as software services, telecommunications, finance and real estate. Answers 1. Teacher check. Answers should include differences in health, amount and quality of food, access to education, general living conditions. 2. Slum: An overpopulated, dirty part of a city where the poorest people live. Sanitation: Services that keep places free of waste, such as the collection and disposal of sewage and garbage. Poverty: Having little or no money, food, shelter, clothing and safe drinking water. Rickety: Not strong or sturdy because of poor construction or maintenance.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

. te

58

India

m . u

Additional activities • Write the heading ‘Poverty’ on an A3 sheet of paper. Write synonyms and antonyms of poverty underneath on separate halves of the page. Beneath the words, students draw an image representing the theme of each side with pencils or pastels. • Create collages or other artworks in different media on the theme of poverty or wealth.

o c . che e r o t r s super

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


Modern India

Rich and poor 1. Read the information. India has one of the highest numbers of poor people in the world. Many Indians live in poverty with no regular access to clean drinking water, sanitation (proper toilets and drains) or education. Millions of these people live in slums; dirty, unhealthy and overcrowded areas with rickety shelters. A large number of Indians have to beg for food and money and some children are forced to work long hours in factories or workshops so their families can survive.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

On the other hand, India also has a large number of rich people. Tens of thousands of Indians are millionaires. Some of these rich people live in luxurious houses and apartments right next to the slums. They have security guards, expensive clothing, cars and furniture. Their children go to exclusive schools and have access to top medical care.

2. Look at the two Indian children below. Write four ways in which their lives may be different.

© R. I . C.Pu l i cat i ons • b •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

m . u

. te o 3. Draw a line to join each word with its definition. c . c e he r slum • • r Having little or no money, food, shelter, clothing and o t s s r pe safeu drinking water

sanitation •

• Not strong or sturdy because of poor construction or maintenance

poverty •

• An overpopulated, dirty part of a city where the poorest people live

rickety

• Services that keep places free of waste, such as the collection and disposal of sewage and garbage

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

India

59


Modern India Government................................................................................. page 61 Indicator Reads and completes information about the government of India.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Answers 2. The president: Pratibha Devisingh Patil Indian parliament: Sansad Council of States: Rajya Sabha House of the People: Lok Sabha. 3. (a) A group of members from both houses of parliament (b) The people of India

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Teacher information • The government of India was established by the Constitution of India in January 1950. When the constitution took effect, the governorgeneral and king were replaced by an elected president who continued to perform the same, mostly symbolic, functions. • According to its constitution, India is a ‘sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic’. It has a federal form of government with a Britishstyle parliamentary system. • The president is elected by a special electoral college for a five-year term. The president’s duties are largely ceremonial and he or she is given instructions (or ‘advice’) by the prime minister, who leads a council of ministers (advisors). The president appoints the prime minister, who is chosen by members of the political party or coalition with a parliamentary majority in the Lok Sabha (the lower house or ‘House of the People’). The president then appoints subordinate ministers on the advice of the prime minister. • The government is made up of two houses (the Council of States and the House of the People) and the president. The president is the head of state and Supreme Commander of the Indian Armed Forces. While, in theory, the president possesses considerable power, most of the authority is in practice exercised by the council of ministers, headed by the prime minister. The prime minister: Dr Manmohan Singh

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Additional activities •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

. te

60

India

m . u

w ww

• The Rajya Sabha is red and the Lok Shabha green. Find out what colours, if any, the houses of parliament are in your country and why those colours are used. • Create an Indian-style government in your classroom. Students can elect members of the Lok Sabha (who choose their leader to be prime minister) and the teacher selects members of the Rajya Sabha. These members together can elect a president. Attempt to come to a decision about a new law that will benefit everyone in the class.

o c . che e r o t r s super

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


Modern India

Government 1. Read the information. Located in India’s capital, New Delhi, is the Sansad, India’s house of parliament. Here the laws and decisions of the country are made.

Dr Manmohan Singh

The Sansad is made up of two ‘houses’ that work together to make the laws of the country; the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and the Lok Sabha (House of the People). The members of the Lok Sabha are chosen by the people of India.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

The current prime minister of India is Dr Manmohan Singh. Pratibha Devisingh Patil is the current, and first female, president of India.

Pratibha Devisingh Patil

ew i ev Pr

The official head of India’s government is the president, who is elected by a group of members from both houses of parliament. However, the president is more of a figurehead who is given instructions and advice by the prime minister. As such, the prime minister is really the most powerful person in the government of India. The prime minister is chosen from the biggest political group in the Lok Sabha.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons 2. Use the information in the text to complete the chart below. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Indian government

w ww

Indian parliament:

. te

m . u

The president:

The prime minister:

o c . che e r o Council of States: r House t s of the People: super

3. Answer these questions. (a) Who chooses the president of India? (b) Who chooses the members of the Lok Sabha? www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

India

61


Religions, customs and celebrations Hinduism..............................................................................pages 63–65 Indicator:

Completes activities about Hinduism.

Teacher information • Although a number of religions are practised in India, Hinduism is by far the most dominant. • The upper book of this series covers Islam and Buddhism on pages 62–65.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Indian religions

Non-Indian religions

Islam

12%

Buddhism

0.7%

Christianity

2.5%

Jainism

0.5%

Zoroastrianism

0.01%

Sikhism

2%

Judaism

0.0005%

Teac he r

82%

ew i ev Pr

Hinduism

• Hinduism is the oldest of the three ancient religions to have originated in India circa 2000 BCE. Buddhism, established by Siddhartha Gautama, and Jainism developed at about the same time, 500 BCE. Together, Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism are said to have shaped the Indian philosophy and culture. Sikhism was also established in India, by Shri Guru Nanak Devi Ji, but not until the 15th century. • Many people follow religions that did not develop in India. The largest of these is Islam. It is believed that Islam first came to India in the 7th century with the Arab traders, a century before the first of the Islamic invaders. • Judaism first came to India circa 500 BCE. There have been four Jewish communities in India: the Cochin Jews; the Bene Israel Jews, known as ‘Sons of Israel’; the Baghdadi Jews from Iraq; and the Sephardic Jews from Europe. • In the middle of the first century, Christianity was brought to India by St Thomas, the apostle known as ‘doubting Thomas’. • Zoroastrianism (Parsi) is practised by a small amount of the population. Parsi originated in Persia in the 6th century from the teachings of the prophet Zoroaster. Its followers have predominantly been traders who have played a major role in the development of the country’s trade, industry and finance sectors, giving them high status in their social and economic lives.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 1.

P

w ww 4.

V

7.

B

R

A

E

I

N

O

K

S

A

C H

A

. te

S

H

M

A

A

R

N

N A

A A

N

S

M

N

D

19.

V

U

14.

K A

17.

S

R

R

M

T

A

I

G

E

6.

S H

o c . che e r o t r s super R

8.

T

H I

I

O

N

N E

11.

D

15.

R

N

S

12.

U

13.

D I

G

I

N 16.

Page 65 1. (a) Saraswati, speech, Brahmalok (b) Lakshmi, wealth, Vaikunth (c) Parvathi, motherhood, Kailash (d) Garnesh, wisdom

A 5.

M

A M

A

A

A

10.

2.

M

B R

A

R

J

T 3.

9.

U

S

H

N

m . u

Answers Page 64

R

I

T

S

A

M

A

Y

D

A

I

M

W

S

A

N

L 18.

S

H

I

A R

V

A

U

Additional activities • Research the Hindu festival of Diwali and create a colourful chart to show what happens on each of the five days of the festival. • In groups, research information about the different religions practised in India today. Give an oral presentation enhanced with charts and images. 62

India

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


Religions, customs and celebrations

Hinduism – 1

More than 80% of India’s people follow Hinduism, which is one of the oldest religions in the world. The name ‘Hindu’ comes from the name of the great river that flows from Tibet, through the Himalayas, and down through Pakistan to the Arabian Sea—the Indus. The symbol of Hinduism is the aum. It is also the sound made during meditation when people empty their minds of distractions and focus on one thought.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

Brahman is the one great god of Hinduism. Brahman can take on different forms that are worshipped as smaller gods. The three main smaller gods are Brahma the creator, Vishnu the preserver and Shiva the destroyer. Hindus believe there is a part of Brahman in every living thing—plants and animals as well as humans. This is called a person’s soul or atman. Hindus believe in reincarnation. This means that when someone dies, they will come back to Earth again as another living thing. Problems they face in this life occur because of bad things they have done in a past life. Hindus try to treat every living thing with respect and to lead a good life so that their next life will be better. This is called karma. The cycle of life, death and rebirth is called samsara.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons According to Hindu beliefs, a person’s samsara does noto gon on forever. One • f o r r e v i e w p u r p o s e s l y • day, each person will be freed from the cycle and be united with Brahman, the great god. This release is called moksha.

. te

During their lives, many Hindus go on a pilgrimage to a holy place. Varanasi is an ancient city in northern India on the banks of the sacred Ganges River. Varanasi is the most sacred place for all Hindus. Some believe that bathing in the Ganges at Varanasi or dying in the sacred city will release them from samsara.

m . u

w ww

Hindu worship is called puja. Most Hindus have a small shrine at home where they meditate and pray to a murti, a sacred statue of their favourite god. A Hindu temple where Hindus come together to worship is called a Mandir.

o c . che e r o t r s super

The people of India celebrate many different religious festivals, but Diwali is an important holiday. It celebrates the victory of good over evil as told in the story of Rama and Sita from the Ramayana. The Ramayana is an ancient text written in Sanskrit. It contains the teachings of ancient Hindu traditions that are still important to Hindus today. www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

India

63


Religions, customs and celebrations

Hinduism – 2

To complete the crossword, find the answers to the clues in the text on page 63. 1.

2.

3.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S 4.

6.

8.

9.

10.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

7.

5.

11.

12.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 13.

14.

15.

17.

w ww

18.

19.

. te

o c . che e r o t r s super

Across 1. Hindu worship 5. Sacred river 7. The one great god 9. Being born again 10. Freedom from samsara 13. Ancient language 16. The word ‘Hindu’ comes from this name 17. Ancient Hindu text 18. The destroyer god 19. The preserver god 64

India

m . u

16.

Down 2. A person’s soul 3. The creator god 4. Ancient sacred city 6. Altar for worship 8. One of the world’s oldest religions 10. Hindu temple 11. Life–death–rebirth cycle 12. Major Hindu festival 14. Effect of this life on the next 15. Sacred statue www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


Religions, customs and celebrations

Hinduism – 3

In the Hindu religion, the one great god, Brahman, could appear in many forms. Together, Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva are the three gods of the Brahman trinity. With their wives, they are respected by followers of Hinduism. 1. Research to find: • images of the gods to draw • information about the gods, and then choose words from the box below to complete the sentences. (a)

Teac he r

Lord Brahma and his wife , goddess of

ew i ev Pr

(b)

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Their home is called

Lord Vishnu and his wife

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons , goddess of •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

m . u

Their home is called

w ww

(c)

. te

(d)

Lord Shiva and his wife

, goddess of

o c . che e r o t r s super Their home is called

The son of Lord Shiva is

god of

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

Vaikunth Saraswati

Kailash

wisdom

Parvathi

Brahmalok

Lakshmi

speech

motherhood

wealth

Garnesh

India

65


Religions, customs and celebrations Yoga and meditation..................................................................page 67 Indicator Completes a cloze passage about yoga and meditation.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

Answers 1. thousands 6. spirit 11. mind

ew i ev Pr

Teacher information • In western nations, most people who practise yoga and meditation do so at a shallow level, primarily for physical health and mental wellbeing. For many practitioners in South Asia, the purpose is deeply embedded in their religious beliefs and quest for spiritual enlightenment. • Enlist the help of a colleague or parent who practises yoga and/or meditation to give the students a taste of each practice. Stress the importance of warming up before stretching. Practise some simple poses, aiming for one pose to flow naturally into another to establish a sequence of three or four poses. • Listen to some relaxation recordings that work on the whole body by focusing on one part at a time. • Sit the students in a circle facing outwards so they can not distract each other. Ask them to close their eyes and focus on one thing, ignoring any other thoughts and outside distractions. Practise this for a few minutes each day. Be prepared for students who may be embarrassed initially. • Discuss the students’ feelings towards yoga and meditation. What did they like/dislike about each? Would they like to practise one or other on a regular basis? Do they think they could become popular school activities?

© R. I . C3. . Publ i c i ons5. fifty world 4. a yoga t 8. stretch 9. breathe 10. meditation 13. emptied 14. mantra 15. l inner •f orr evi ew pur poseson y• 2. Buddhism 7. relax 12. peace

. te

66

India

m . u

w ww

Additional activities • Write a relaxation procedure similar to one conducted at the end of a yoga lesson. Take turns to ‘relax’ the class at the end of a physical education lesson. Evaluate your procedure. • Research to find some yoga poses suitable for beginners. Use ‘stick men’ diagrams to illustrate the poses to make a chart. After warming up, practise the poses in a small group.

o c . che e r o t r s super

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


Religions, customs and celebrations

Yoga and meditation Fill the gaps in the text with the correct words from the box. inner

emptied mind breathe

Buddhism yoga

relax

fifty

world thousands

spirit stretch meditation peace mantra

Yoga and meditation began in India

1

of years ago. They

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

are important to the religions of Hinduism, They have been practised all over the

3

Teac he r

Vivekananda introduced the practice of

2

and Jainism.

since Swami 4

to Europe and the

the western world about

5

years later.

ew i ev Pr

Americas at the end of the 19th century and Maharishi Yogi brought meditation to

The aim of yoga and meditation is to bring together the mind, body and 6

in perfect harmony. For many people, they are ways to

and cope with theb demands ofi their busy ©R . I . C. Pu l i cat on slifestyles. There are many types of yoga. Most of them involve learning poses that •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 7

different parts of the body. The person concentrates on that

part of the body and how to

correctly. There are also many

, all of which exercise the different levels of the

w ww

types of

. te

9

m . u

8

10

.

11

and quiet with o c . no interruptions andc to sit still in a comfortable position for 15 minutes. The mind e her r o st of all s thoughts focusing on a single thing such as a is r upbye During meditation, it is important to have

12

13

.

flower, a candle flame or a meaningless word, called a

14

People who practise yoga and meditation say that they are very important to them because they give a feeling of

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

15

peace.

India

67


Religions, customs and celebrations Indian jewellery........................................................................... page 69 Indicator Labels individual pieces of Indian jewellery.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

Teacher information • According to some astrologists, the negative effects of the planets can be counteracted by the gems used in navaratna jewellery. Many types of navaratna jewellery can be worn; for example: necklaces, rings, bracelets, anklets, pendants, bangles and armbands. • In navaratna jewellery, nine precious stones are used in a single ornament. The stones are diamond, ruby, emerald, coral, pearl, sapphire, yellow sapphire, hessonite, and cat’s eye. It is believed that each stone represents a planet (or a phase of the moon) and has a unique strength. ~~ ruby (Sun) protects against poisonous substances and evil spirits. ~~ emerald (Mercury) is an antidote for stomach complaints, stings and bites. ~~ sapphire (Saturn) increases devotion and inspires enlightenment. ~~ coral (Mars) cures diseases and helps the memory. ~~ pearl (Moon) strengthen the heart and are often used in medicine. ~~ yellow sapphire (Jupiter) has no protective power of its own but is often used to imitate precious stones. ~~ diamond (Venus) guards against vanity, long-life and a good marriage. ~~ hessonite (waxing moon) brings wealth and long life to the wearer. ~~ cat’s eye (waning moon) protects against disaster. • A bindi is a decoration worn by married Hindu women. It is applied to the centre of the forehead just above the eyebrows. It may take the form of a powdered dot, a piece of jewellery or a decorative sticker.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Answers Teacher check

. te

68

India

m . u

w ww

Additional activities • Create each piece of jewellery labelled on page 69 using jewellery kits and recyclable materials. Write a description for each item and use them as you host an ‘Indian jewellery’ party for a group of friends. Aim to ‘sell’ as many items as you can. • Research to find the traditional setting of stones in navaratna jewellery in relation to the eight points of the compass. Sketch a diagram to show the information.

o c . che e r o t r s super

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


Religions, customs and celebrations

Indian jewellery Jewellery made from precious metals and gems has always been very important in Indian culture. It has been designed to adorn statues of gods and goddesses in the temples, to wear as tokens of good luck and health and marital status in everyday life, and for a bride to wear at her wedding. Label each piece of jewellery by matching the names to the word shapes. bajuband

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S chudi

earrings

hathphool

maangtikka

mangalsutra

nath

payal

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

kamarband

bichua

w ww

. te

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

India

69


Landmarks Temples of great spiritual significance...................................... page 71 Indicator Reads information about two temples of spiritual significance to Hindu and Sikhs and uses the information to complete a table.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Teacher information • India is known as ‘The Land of Temples’ as it is home to thousands of temples across the entire country. Temple architecture and design vary depending on the region in which it is built and its religious significance. • Religious practices thrived during the ancient era and temples were built, not only as a place of worship, but also to store knowledge and culture. • Architectural styles of temples began to change during medieval times. Temples were built to show the wealth and devotion of the people to the ruler of the time. • The design of modern temples may have changed significantly; however, the devotion of the Indian people is as strong as ever. Answers

Venkateswara Temple

Sri Harmandir Sahib

Location

seventh peak of Venkatadri Hills in Tirumala

Amristar, Punjab

Religion

Hindu

Sikh

Purpose

A sacred shrine to Lord Venkateswara

The home of the Granth Sahib.

50 000 R to 100. 000 daily and Male Sikhs every evening to participate © I . C .Publ i c a t i on s in Palki Sahib 500 000 during Brahmotsavam Welcomes visitors from all religious backgrounds. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Additional activity Visitors

w ww

. te

70

India

m . u

• Select one of the temples you would like to visit. Explain why you would choose to visit this temple over the other.

o c . che e r o t r s super

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


Landmarks

Temples of great spiritual significance Venkateswara Temple

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

This is a famous Hindu temple located on the seventh peak of Venkatadri Hills in the town of Tirumala.

The temple is the sacred shrine to Lord Venkateswara, also known as Balaji, Srinivasa or Perumal. Vishnu, a Hindu god, appeared to his followers in the form of Venkatewara so he could help all humans. He represents goodness to his worshippers.

This is a central place of worship for Sikhs located in Amritsar, Punjab. It is the home of the Granth Sahib (the Sikh Holy Book) and is the holiest Sikh shrine in the world. When translated, the name means ‘House of God’.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Sri Harmandir Sahib (Golden Temple)

Every night, male pilgrims participate in a ceremony known as Palki Sahib. Each man takes his turn to hold and pass on the Granth Sahib from Sri Darbar Sahib to its resting place in the Akal Takht. Each person has his chance to pay his respect to, and show reverence for, this holiest of documents.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

The temple is the most visited holy place in the world, receiving between 50 000 and 100 000 visitors daily. The number of visitors who pay respect to Lord Venkateswara during Brahmotsavam (a nine-day festival in October to thank the Lord for his protection of the people) increases to around 500 000.

. te

Each side of the temple has an entrance to signify the acceptance of people from all walks of life. It is one of the few holy places which encourage and welcome visitors from all religious and cultural backgrounds.

m . u

Many pilgrims shave off their hair as an offering. This symbolises the giving of their ego to Lord Venkateswara.

o c . c e Complete this table usingh the information provided above.r er o t s s r u e p Venkateswara Temple Sri Harmandir Sahib Location Religion Purpose Visitors www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

India

71


Landmarks Ellora rock-cut caves................................................................... page 73 Indicators • Reads and comprehends information about a significant archaeological site. • Uses the information, a dictionary and other sources to complete the activities independently.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

Teacher information • India is home to the highest number of rock-cut caves and temples than anywhere else in the world. These rock-cut caves and temples are carved out of solid rock to create a structure. Over time, the caves became more and more ornate, as craftsmen learned to mimic the look of wood and construct pillars and arches for a decorative effect. • Buddhist shrines and monasteries found in the western Deccan Plateau (southern India), dating between 100 BCE and 170 CE are thought to be the earliest cave temples in India. The caves were built for religious purposes and are considered to be very sacred. Answers 1. excavated: removed rock to make a cave vertical: straight up from the ground monasteries: homes to groups of monks following particular religious vows structures: something which has built or constructed preaching: sharing a religious or moral belief considered: thought or believed deities: gods or goddesses temple: a place dedicated to the worship of deities relatively: comparatively intricately: extremely involved or complex visible: able to be seen 2. Tables will vary.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Total number

Features

Purpose

caves

carved from rock

12

dome-shaped ceiling carved to look like wooden beams

religious

religious

w ww

Technique used

m . u

Buddhist

Structure

Hindu

caves

carved from rock

17

carved out of a single rock

Jain

caves

carved from rock

5

intricate artworks; paintings on ceilings

. te

religious

3. For a site to be included on the World Heritage List, it must meet at least one of ten selection criteria. There are six cultural and four natural criteria, as set out by UNESCO. Sites may only be nominated by countries who have signed the World Heritage Convention. That country then puts forward a tentative list of heritage sites they feel are worthy of inclusion on the World Heritage List. The sites are then independently evaluated by a committee to decide if the site meets the criteria and should be included on the ‘List’.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Additional activity • On a 12-cm square sheet of paper, ask students to create a detailed and intricate design based on religious Indian symbols. Provide students with a piece of modelling clay. Roll it out to form a tile about 12 cm square. Students use appropriate tools to recreate their original design on the modelling clay tile. Allow the tile to dry and display in the school library.

72

India

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


Landmarks

Ellora rock-cut caves

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

The Buddhist caves (also known as the Vishwa Kanma Caves) were the first structures to be built. The most famous of these is the Carpenter’s Cave. It has a huge hall, known as a chaitya, with a dome-shaped ceiling carved to look like it was constructed from wooden beams. The other main feature of this cave is a 4.5 metre statue of Buddha in a preaching pose.

The Hindu cave named the Kailasanatha Temple is considered to be the most spectacular of Ellora. Not actually a cave but a beautiful temple, this massive structure was carved out of one single rock covering an area larger than 4 km2. The carvings and sculptures within this structure are enormous and present a collection of deities. Several galleries were once connected to the main temple by bridges. Another feature is its amazing u-shaped courtyard, home to the Lingam (a symbol for the worship of the Hindu deity Shiva).

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Ellora is a World Heritage Site located 30 km from the city of Aurangabad, in the state of Maharashtra. There are 34 structures which have been excavated out of the vertical face of the Charanandri hills. These Buddhist (caves 1 to 12), Hindu (caves 13 to 29) and Jain (caves 30 to 34) rock-cut temples and monasteries, were built between 1000 and 1500 years ago.

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

The Jain caves are relatively small compared to others at Ellora. Intricately detailed artworks are the main feature of this group of caves. Many Jain shrines had rich paintings on their ceilings, some of which are still visible. The incredible detail often depicts deities with traditional Indian symbols such as the Sarnath lion, mango trees, lotus flowers and elephants. The most outstanding Jain shrines are the Chhota Kailash, the Indra Sabha (a two-storey shrine with a delicate carving of a lotus flower on the ceiling) and the Jagannath Sabha.

. te

o c . che e r o t r s super

Complete these on the back of this worksheet.

1. Record the words in bold print along with an explanation of what each word means. You will need to use a dictionary. 2. Create a table showing the similarities among the Buddhist, Hindu and Jain caves. 3. Research and record your answer to the question: ‘How does a place become a World Heritage Site?’ www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

India

73


Landmarks Jantar Mantar Observatory, Jaipur............................................. page 75 Indicators • Reads and comprehends information about the observatory in Jaipur. • Demonstrates ability to use semantic cues to complete a cloze.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teacher information • The 13 instruments (yantra) and their purpose are as follows: Jai Prakash

used to find the positions of the celestial bodies during day and night. It is made of two hemispherical bowls, which represent the celestial sphere with a vertical rod in the centre. It acts as a double check on all other instruments

Teac he r

an instrument used to show the altitude and the azimuth (arc of a celestial bodie).

ew i ev Pr

Small ram

Dhruva

used to locate the position of 12 zodiac signs and the Pole Star at night

Narivalya

two sundials: the first dial faces south, reading time when the sun is in the Southern Hemisphere (from 22 September to 21 March); the other faces north, reading time when the sun is in the Northern Hemisphere (from 22 March to 21 September)

Kranti

used for direct measurement of the longitude and latitude of extraterrestrial bodies

Raj

the ‘King of Instruments’, used only once a year to calculate the Hindu calendar

Unnsyhsmsa Chakra Disha Dakshina

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons a compass which always points to the north •f orr e v i e wp ur p os sbodies on yover• a north-south facing wall used for observing the position and movement ofe heavenly whenl passing used for finding the altitude of heavenly bodies gives the angle of an object from the equator

the meridian

a large sundial divided into two sections, showing morning and afternoon

Large ram

ten times larger than the small ram and ten times more accurate. It is accurate to two seconds and is also used to predict the length and heaviness of the monsoon for the local area

w ww

Rashivalayas

Answers (1) instrument (6) accurate (11) double

has 12 sundials for the signs of the zodiac

. te

(2) intelligent (7) previously (12) lunar

(3) builder (8) stone

(4) space (9) sundial

m . u

Samrat

(5) India (10) seconds

o c . che e r o t r s super

Additional activity • Students use recycled materials to create a sundial. Select an appropriate location within the school grounds to accurately test whether the sundial keeps the correct time.

74

India

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


Landmarks

Jantar Mantar Observatory, Jaipur Use these words to complete the text.

seconds

lunar

intelligent

space

previously

double

sundial

India

instrument accurate stone

builder

The largest stone observatory in the world, the

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Jantar Mantar was constructed between 1727 and 1733 by Maharajah Sawai ’, and

Jai Singh II of Jaipur. The word ‘Jantar’ means ‘

(1)

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

‘Mantar’ means ‘calculation’—‘Jantar Mantar’ means ‘instrument for calculation’. Maharajah Sawai Jai Singh II was a highly

a great

(3)

(2)

man, and

and leader. He was also an astronomer who .

was extremely interested in understanding time and

(4)

—the largest of

He constructed five observatories across

(5)

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons information, 1724). • It was thought that ine order f o rr e vi w topgather ur posesonl y• which was the Jaipur observatory (modelled on an observatory built in Delhi in (6)

the structure would need to be larger than anything

(7)

built.

w ww

(8)

and marble. Some of them are:

. te

Samrat

Large ram Small ram Jai Prakash Dhruva Raj Disha

m . u

The observatory is made up of 13 geometric instruments (yantra) built from local

(9) marked with hours and minutes. It is A divided into two sections, showing morning and afternoon. Ten times larger than the small ram. It is accurate to two (10) and is also used to predict the length and heaviness of the monsoon for the local area.

o c . che e r o t r s super An instrument used to indicate the movement of the stars. Acts as a

(11)

check for all other instruments.

Locates the position of the 12 zodiac signs and the Pole Star. Calculates the position of planets, solar and eclipses and the time for sunrise and sunset.

(12)

This compass always points to the north.

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

India

75


Folktales and legends The fish that were too clever........................................................ page 77 Indicator Reads and performs the script of the story ‘The fish that were too clever’ from the Panchatantra.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

Teacher information • The Panchatantra is a collection of stories written as a guide to instruct heirs to the throne on the different aspects of ruling a kingdom. It is believed that the original text, in Sanskrit, was written circa 200 BCE by a brahmin (scholar), Pandit Vishnu Sharma. Known as the book of ‘wise conduct in life’, the Panchatantra is the oldest known collection of Indian fables. • The Panchatantra recounts the story of a king who has three sons, none of whom has the capacity to rule his kingdom after his death. In desperation, the king sends his sons to Pandit Vishnu Sharma who uses stories to teach the brothers how to deal positively with all of life’s encounters. • Each story has a moral which is as relevant today as it was over 2000 years ago. • ‘Panchatantra’ means ‘five parts’. The stories are divided into five parts under the headings: ~~ Conflict among friends ~~ Winning of friends ~~ Crows and owls ~~ The forfeit of profits ~~ Action without due consideration ~~ ‘The fish that were too clever’ is from the last part of the Panchatantra. • Discuss the characters and story-line of the script. Discuss the students’ interpretations of the moral of the story. They may differ. • The names are pronounced Sa-ta-budd-hi, Sa-has-ra-budd-hi and Ek-a-budd-hi. • Allow the students to read through and rehearse the play in small groups before performing it for the rest of the class/younger audience.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

. te

76

India

m . u

w ww

Additional activities • Choose another story from the Panchatantra and present it as an illustrated comic booklet. On the last page, write your interpretation of the moral of the story. • Present a dress-up parade of characters from other Panchatantra stories before reading different stories to a younger audience.

o c . che e r o t r s super

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


Folktales and legends

The fish that were too clever Narrator: The story is set on the banks of a small river. First fish: (proudly) My name is Satabuddhi. It means I am as clever as a hundred creatures. Second fish: (very proudly) My name is Sahasrabuddhi. It means I am as clever as a thousand creatures. Frog: (humbly) My name is Ekabuddhi. It means I am only as clever as one creature.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Satabuddhi: Oh, I do love this time of day. Look how the sun turns the white clouds into fiery red and orange streaks across the sky. Ekabuddhi: Ssh! I hear some talking two-legs coming this way.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Sahasrabuddhi: And before long, we’ll see millions of stars above our heads. (Two men approach; one carrying a large basket on his head, the other a large fishing net in his arms.)

First man: This basket on my head is so heavy. We caught many fish today.

Second man: (looking at the river) Yes, and look how shallow this river is. I can see it is alive with fish. Let us come back in the morning and cast our nets here. Ekabuddhi: (in panic) Satabuddhi! Sahasrabuddhi! What shall we do? I’m terrified!

Satabuddhi: It is true, Ekabuddhi. We shall be safe. Besides, why should we leave our home just because of these talking two-legs?

w ww

Ekabuddhi: You are both as clever as many but I have only one wit and it is telling me to flee. (Hops away)

. te

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Sahasrabuddhi: (soothingly) Don’t worry, my dear friend. I am so clever. I know many paths through the water. They will not catch us.

Sahasrabuddhi: (sneeringly) How sad to be cursed with only one wit!

o c . che (The two fishermen return with their net.) e r o t r First man: (throwing the net) One, two, three ... s super Second man: Now lift! What a catch! I think we have all the fish and many other

Narrator: The frog takes his wife and family further up stream where the water is deeper. The next morning, the fishermen return.

creatures besides ... frogs, crabs and turtles!

Narrator: Ekabuddhi watches the men haul the catch out of the river. He sees his two friends gasping for breath as they are thrown into the basket. Ekabuddhi: (turning to his wife) Well my dear, tonight Mr Hundredwit and Mr Thousand-wit will be smoked and eaten by talking two-legs while Mr Single-wit and his family swim happily in the clear water! www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

India

77


Folktales and legends The white elephant of Varanasi................................................... page 79 Indicator Re-writes the story of ‘The white elephant of Varanasi’ as a playscript and presents to an audience.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

Teacher information • This story comes from the Jataka tales, which are a collection of about 550 stories native to India concerning the previous incarnations of the Buddha. The setting of the stories is in or around Varanasi (Benares), which is a holy city in the north of India. • The Jataka tales were written circa 300 BCE to provide knowledge and morality about life. They have been translated into different languages and spread around the world. The fables are intended to impart values such as self-sacrifice, morality and honesty. The Jataka tales were one of the sources of inspiration for Aesop’s fables. • Examples of individual Jataka stories are: ~~ Golden swan ~~ Power of a rumour ~~ Jackal who saved a lion ~~ Cunning wolf ~~ Elephant and dog ~~ Hawks and their friends ~~ Wind and moon ~~ Pennywise monkey ~~ Sandy road ~~ Merchant of Seri

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

m . u

Answers Teacher check

w ww

Additional activities • Research and choose three Jataka stories. Present each one in a different way to a younger audience, for example: as a play, as a puppet show. • Research and design a poster to illustrate the Jataka stories to a younger audience.

. te

78

India

o c . che e r o t r s super

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


Folktales and legends

The white elephant of Varanasi ingratitude as he realised that it was the forester who had told the soldiers where to find him.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Long ago, in the foothills of the great Himalaya mountains, lived a herd of many elephants. Their leader was a majestic and rare white elephant with a kind heart. He looked after the herd well and took care of his aging mother, who was now blind and weak and unable to look after herself.

In Varansi, the white elephant was greeted with great celebration and a magnificent feast was laid out for him but he refused to eat anything. He just sat and stared, reacting to nothing.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Not wanting anyone to be hurt in a struggle, the white elephant surrendered immediately to the soldiers and was taken back to the city, leaving his mother alone and helpless. She feared not only that she would starve but also that her son would be killed as she believed the king would want to ride him into battle.

The king came to visit the great white elephant and asked why none of the fine foods of the palace could tempt him to eat. At last the elephant responded. He told the king of his mother’s blindness and frailty and said that until he was reunited with her he would eat nothing.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

One day, the white elephant came across a forester from Varanasi who could not find his way out of the forest. The kind-hearted white elephant took the man to the edge of the forest and the road that led to the city.

. te

The sympathetic king released the majestic beast immediately and sent him home to care for his mother. The white elephant raced to the forest and the cave by the lake as fast as he could.

m . u

w ww

Each day, the white elephant found the best food for his mother but she never received it because the messengers who were meant to take it to her ate it themselves. When he discovered this, the white elephant was very angry and he went with his mother to live in a cave in the forest, close to a beautiful lake.

o c . c e r In Varanasi, the king h was looking for a e o t r s su new elephant. When the forester heard r e p this, he went straight to the palace and told the king of the magnificent white elephant living in the forest, in a cave by the lake.

The king sent soldiers to the forest to find the white elephant. When the elephant saw the soldiers, he was upset at the forester’s

The white elephant was overjoyed to see that his mother was still alive. At first she was afraid because she did not realise that it was him, but when he stroked her back with his trunk she recognised him and wept with joy. After the white elephant’s death, the king erected a statue of him at the lakeside and decreed that each year a festival would be held in honour of such a caring and generous-hearted soul.

On a separate sheet of paper, write the script for a short play of this story and present it to a younger audience. www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

India

79


Folktales and legends The monkeys and the bell........................................................... page 81 Indicator Presents the story of ‘The monkeys and the bell’ in an illustrated format.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

Teacher information • The Hitopadesha is a collection of short stories written circa 10th century. It was written in verse in Sanskrit and has now been translated into many languages and spread across the world. • ‘Hitopadesha’ is a compound of ‘hita’, meaning ‘welfare’ or ‘benefit’; and ‘upadesha’, meaning ‘advice’ or ‘counsel’. Thus, the tales teach the reader how to behave for the greater good of everyone. • The main characters of the stories are animals and birds. • Some popular stories from the Hitopadesha are: ~~ Old tiger and greedy traveller ~~ Blind vulture ~~ Elephant and jackal ~~ Birds and shivering monkeys ~~ Rabbits and the elephants ~~ Sage’s daughter ~~ Beware of mean friends ~~ Jackal and arrow ~~ Washerman, donkey and dog ~~ A rich mouse and a holy man

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

m . u

Answers Teacher check

w ww

Additional activities • Research and choose a story from the Hitopadesha. Write a playscript and present a performance of it to a younger audience. • In groups, read different stories from the Hitopadesha and discuss how the message from each one can be applied to life today.

. te

80

India

o c . che e r o t r s super

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


Folktales and legends

The monkeys and the bell But one woman stood her ground and insisted, ‘There are no demons! I shall go to the forest and find who is ringing the bell’. That night, she crept through the forest and discovered the monkeys playing happily with the bell, unaware of the fear they had cast in the village.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

The next morning, the woman spoke with the king.

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

‘Your majesty,’ she declared, ‘I believe there are evil spirits nearby but I’m sure they can be conquered by worshipping the gods. I will need money but I promise to rid the forest of the evil lurking there and restore A tiger roaming through the forest, heard happiness to our community’. the tinkling of the bell and followed its musical trail. When he came upon the The cowardly king gave the woman money, thief, he attacked and ate him, leaving only happy that it was not he who would be his bare bones and the bell, untouched, dealing with the demons. beside him. With the money, the woman bought food That evening, a troop of monkeys danced that monkeys would consider delicious by and spotted the bell glinting in the treats. With it, she made a shrine. That moonlight. They picked it up and took it evening, she performed a solemn ritual home with them. All night long, the monkeys of worship to the gods. She then took the played with the bell, its music carrying as food and carried it into the forest, placing it beneath the trees where the monkeys were far as the village. playing with the bell. She crept out of sight The next day, some villagers went to the and sat down to wait. forest to investigate the source of the ringing they had all heard the previous Before long, the monkeys spotted the food night. When they came across the bones and scrambled down to eat it. In their haste, the bell was dropped. The woman of the thief, they ran away in terror. quickly picked it up and ran to the village ‘Evil spirits are lurking in the forest!’ they demanding an audience with the king. claimed as they returned to the village. ‘They kill and eat humans and then ring The king was delighted that the bell had been returned as this meant the evil spirits the temple bell to celebrate!’ had surely been conquered. The woman Immediately, people began to pack their was rewarded for her bravery and peace belongings and abandon the village. reigned once more in the village. Long ago, a thief stole a bell from a temple in a small village. He took it to the nearby forest, intending to hide it for a while before taking it to a town to sell.

w ww

. te

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

‘We can not stay where demons live!’ they The moral of this story is that intelligence cried to each other. and courage will triumph over fear.

On a separate sheet of paper, create an illustrated version of this story for a younger audience. www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

India

81


Folktales and legends The legend of Markandeya......................................................... page 83 Indicator Writes an alternative ending to ‘The legend of Markandeya’, extending it beyond the original text.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

Answers Teacher check

ew i ev Pr

Teacher information • A sage is a profoundly wise person or a person famed for wisdom. • In Hinduism, Lord Brahma, Lord Vishnu and Lord Shiva are the trinity of the one God, Brahman. All that is true (Satyam), all that is good (Shivam) and all that is beauty (Sundaram) is God. Shiva is the lord of all that is good. • Each one has a number of manifestations: ~~ Shiva Rudra is the destroyer of evil and sorrow ~~ Shiva Shankara is the doer of good ~~ Shiva Nataraja is the divine cosmic dancer ~~ Shiva Ardhanareeswara is both male and female. • The Lingam form of Shiva is worshipped in temples all over South Asia. It is a symbol of something that is invisible yet omnipresent, a visible symbol of Brahman’s presence in all objects of creation. It symbolises the energy of Brahman.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

. te

82

India

m . u

Additional activities • Write a playscript for the legend with seven characters and a narrator. • Find the names of the eight Veeratta temples. What do they have in common? In which state of India can they be found?

o c . che e r o t r s super

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


Folktales and legends

The legend of Markandeya In ancient times, there lived an old sage, Mrikandu Munivar, and his wife, Marudmati. The couple prayed to Lord Shiva that he would give them a son. Shiva granted their wish in an unusual way. Mrikandu and Marudmati had to choose between having a brave, talented, adventurous son who would die young or a lazy, foolish son who would live a long life. After a lot of thought, they chose the first option and their son, Markandeya, was born.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

For 16 years, they watched Markandeya grow and he gave them joy and filled them both with great pride. But Mrikandu and Marudmati both knew that on his birthday, he would be taken from them.

On that day, Markandeya knelt at the Shivalingam, worshipping Shiva. Yama, the god of death, had sent his messengers to kill the boy but as he continued to pray, they could not. For hours, Markandeya prayed and for hours, Yama’s messengers waited to kill him.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

His patience now gone, Yama himself came to perform the deed and he aimed a noose at his victim’s head. But the noose did not fall around Markandeya’s neck. It fell instead around the Shivalingam, the symbol of Shiva. Instantly, Shiva came forward in anger and attacked and killed Yama. He destroyed death itself.

m . u

w ww

To balance life in nature, Shiva knew that death must exist and so he later revived Yama but only if he agreed that Markandeya would live forever. This legend is portrayed in the temple at Thirukkadaiyur, where each year thousands of people come to celebrate older birthdays in the hope that the blessing of Shiva will give them longer lives.

. te o Thirukkadaiyur is one of eight Veeratta temples honouring the god c . c e Shiva, h destroyer of evil forces. r er o t s s r u e p Write another ending to this legend describing what happens when Mrikandu and Marudmati discover that their son will live forever.

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

India

83


The arts Handicrafts....................................... page 85 Paintings and murals...................... page 86 Indicator Reads and completes information about paintings and murals.

Teacher information • Many Indian handicrafts exhibit intricate designs and patterns and most vary from one region to the next. Some designs include spiral or curvy lines, vines, arches and domes, deities, crescent moons and stars. A great number are made for religious rites and rituals. Expensive materials such as ivory, gems and marble are used to create beautiful handicrafts. • Leather work is crafted from camel, deer, and previously, tiger hide. Metals used for handicrafts include brass, copper, iron, bell metal, gold, silver and zinc. Woodwork materials include walnut and deodar (a type of cedar), sandalwood, teakwood and jackfruit tree. Stonework utilises sandstone, greenstone, marble and semiprecious stones (agate, amethyst, topaz etc.).

Teacher information • There are 30 caves at Ajanta, Maharashtra. They are believed to have been used for shelter during the rainy monsoon months by travelling Buddhist monks. For over a thousand years, the caves lay hidden in the jungle until discovered in 1819 by an Englishman, John Smith, who was tiger hunting. • Animal glue and vegetable gum, used to bind the colours to the walls, may be partly responsible for the deterioration of the murals because of insect feeding and bacteria. It has also been found that the humidity from the breaths of the ever-increasing number of tourists, changing temperatures and bats’ droppings have also caused the murals to deteriorate. Only small groups of tourists are allowed in the caves at one time and lighting is kept to a minimum, making it difficult to see the actual murals.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Answers 1. (a) ivory, glass, metal (b) ivory, stone, wood, metal, papier-mâché (c) ivory, glass, clay (d) wood, stone, papier-mâché 2. Teacher check

Answers Teacher check

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Indicator Reads and comprehends information about Indian handicrafts.

© R. I . C.Pu bl i cat i ons Additional activity • View pictures of the rock sculptures at the Ellora Caves •f orr evi ew pu r p se nl y• (see pageso 72–73) and s discuss.o

w ww

m . u

Additional activity • Research to find images of handicrafts to recreate using recycled or scrap materials.

Rangoli and kolams.....................................................................................................page 87 Indicator Reads information and completes a rangoli and a kolam.

. te

o c . che e r o t r s super

Teacher information • Daily drawing of a kolam is a common practice in southern India. Bare hands are used and rice, limestone or sandstone powder may be used. Sometimes kolam designs are created using commercially-produced plates or boxes, which are filled with rice powder and tapped on the ground. There are many traditional designs of kolams but individual designs may be created depending on the expertise of the drawer. Occasionally, kolams may be created for specific festivals using fresh flowers with a brass lamp in the centre. Answers 1. Teacher check 2. Teacher check—Possible kolam design shown.

Additional activities • Use large geometric shapes or a protractor to create a rangoli on a sheet of A3 art paper. Trace the lines with thick white or black oil pastel, then paint with brightly-coloured vegetable dye. • Use grid paper to add dots to create an individual kolam design. kolam 84

India

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


The arts

Handicrafts India produces the largest variety of handicrafts in the world. Craftsmen use traditional skills which have been handed down from one generation to the next. Many rural communities are supported by the sale of these crafts. Some handicrafts include embroidery, jewellery, toys, puppets, textiles, and items made from clay, ivory, glass, leather, metal, wood, papier-mâché and stone.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

1. Read the table which lists a variety of information in each category.

lampshades, garden umbrellas, bed linen, rugs, saris, wall hangings

Jewellery

Ivory

Puppets

bracelets, necklaces, bangles, earrings, anklets, chokers, armlets, bindis

ornaments, furniture inlays, chess sets, trinket boxes, knives, necklaces, bangles

leather, cloth, wood, wire, papiermâché, clay and string; glove, rod, string, stringrod, shadow

Textiles

Stone

silk, dyed monuments, fabric, sculptures, muslin, bowls, cotton, lamps, shawls, boxes, trays, carpets, figurines, batik, block pestles and printing mortars PapierClay mâché

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Embroidery

Leather Metal ©Glass R. I . C. Publ i c at i ons boxes, • f o r r e v i e w p u r p o seson l y• bowls, footwear, jewellery, boxes and

w ww

chests, statues and figurines, carvings, sculptures, furniture

bangles, bottles, jars, lamp chimneys, ornaments, beads, toys

baskets, lamps, lampshades, trays, statues, lamps, wallets, handbags, picture belts, bookframes, binding bowls, daggers

jugs, tiles, pottery, lamp shades, ornaments, bricks, toys

vases, boxes, furniture, masks, figurines, toys

m . u

Wood

. tfollowing using the table. A tourist visiting India o 2. Complete thee could buy: c . che e r (a) jewellery made from o t r s s r u e p (b) boxes made from (c) ornaments made from (d) figurines made from

.

3. List two souvenirs which you would choose to buy and say why. www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

India

85


The arts

Paintings and murals The oldest paintings discovered in India are cave or rock paintings. These murals (from the Latin word meaning ‘wall’) were created using colours obtained from natural materials mixed with animal fat. The murals show figures of humans and animals in hunting and family scenes.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

Examples of murals have been discovered in the Ajanta Caves and date back to the 2nd century BCE. They are believed to show scenes from Buddha’s lives and teachings. The busy scenes include decorative motifs and details of different figures and costumes.

ew i ev Pr

The process of creating rock murals involved a number of steps. First, the rock wall was ‘roughened up’ with a hammer and chisel. Next, two coats of mud plaster (a mixture of clay, hay or straw, animal hair and cow dung) were applied followed by a thin coat of dried lime. Then, while the plaster was still wet, several painters drew outlines from scenes and, finally, colour was applied. The colour soaked into the plaster and became part of the wall surface instead of peeling off or decaying easily.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

1. Why do you think that the Ajanta Caves have been classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1983?

m . u

w ww

2. In the box below, sketch, then colour, a mural depicting your life. Include drawings of yourself at various ages and wearing different types of clothing. Also draw symbols of your hobbies and interests, your pets and other decorative motifs. Use earthy colours and those derived from nature, including green and blue.

. te

86

India

o c . che e r o t r s super

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


The arts

Rangoli and kolams 1. Read the information in each section, then colour to create a rangoli pattern. Rangoli is one of the most popular art forms in India. Rangoli are usually intricate geometric designs.

Rangoli is a form of sandpainting.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Rangoli may be drawn on walls as well as the floor.

They are usually drawn on the ground in front of a house or other dwelling.

Often dots, lines, squares, circles and triangles are used.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Rangoli express a warm welcome to visitors.

Rangoli means ‘coloured creepers’ or ‘rows of colours’.

finely-ground © R. I . C.special Pu bl i ca t i onUsually s occasions such as religious white powder is used to festivals and weddings. create the design. •f orr evi ew pur poseso nl y•

w ww

Rangoli are used especially for the Hindu festival of Diwali.

Traditionally, rangoli are drawn for

Rangoli also uses motifs from nature, such as peacocks, flowers, swans etc.

. te

Other colours are added for colourful effects.

m . u

Usually, rangoli use unbroken lines so that evil spirits can not enter the house.

o c . Kolams are forms ofc sandpainting created e heIndia. r daily by women in southern Unlike o t r s s rangoli, kolams are only used for floor art.e r u p They are also a painted prayer for good fortune. In kolams, a single line drawing of curved loops is drawn on a grid pattern of dots to create symmetrical designs. Kolam means ‘beauty and play’. Kolams may be line (free hand), pulli (dots) or neli (complex patterns). 2. Finish joining all the dots to complete this kolam. Leave the centre dot unconnected. www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

India

87


The arts Music........................................................................................... page 89 Indicator Reads and completes activities about music in India.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Teacher information • Music in India is usually divided into two main groups—Hindustani and Carnatic. Hindustani refers to music from northern India and Carnatic is that from southern India. Different cultures throughout history have contributed to a rich musical heritage. • Information about a variety of dance and music forms can be found at <http://india.gov.in/knowindia/culture_heritage.php>. • More than 60 tribes live in the north-east part of India, with each having its own folk or tribal dance. Each region has its own folk dance, meaning there are hundreds of tribal and folk dances in India. • Indian stringed instruments are further classified by how they are played—by friction with a bow (violin, sarangi and dilruba/esraj), by plucking the strings (veena, sarod, guitar, harp and the well-known sitar) or by striking with a hammer or a pair of sticks (gottuvadhyam). • Wind instruments are classified in a similar way—those which produce wind by mechanical means (bellows and harmonium), and those where the sound is produced by the breath of the musician (clarinet, oboe, nadaswaram, shanai and flute). • Membrane-covered instruments include all percussion instruments and are also classified by how they are played—by hand (mridangam), using sticks, played partly by hand and stick (tavil), self struck (damaru) and those where one side is struck and the other is stroked. • Solid percussion instruments include those made from metal, wood, stone or clay, such as ghatam, gongs and cymbals. Answers 1. (a) sacred: relating to religion (b) chant: a short, simple melody, using single notes, used to sing psalms or canticles etc., in a church service (c) vocal: relating to the voice 2. Students should have underlined: (a) classical and folk dance (b) Classical dance originated in the temples where it was used to illustrate Hindu mythology. Graceful/Folk dances are usually lively, joyful dances performed for special occasions. (c) temples 3. (a) Solid: gongs/cymbals (b) Percussion: drum (c) Wind: organ, clarinet, flute (d) String: sitar, mandolin

w ww

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Additional activities • View images of unusual Indian musical instruments by typing the names of examples in the teacher information above into a search engine. Plan a design for one using recycled materials and articles from home. • Invite an Indian dance or musical group to the classroom to perform for the class.

. te

88

India

o c . che e r o t r s super

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


The arts

Music Read each text, then complete each activity. For Indians, traditional music is an art form which has developed over thousands of years. It is an important expression of Indian culture. Indian music is performed in three forms—vocal music, instrumental music and dance. There are many different styles due to the vast number of ethnic groups that exist in the country.

Teac he r

1. Write dictionary meanings for: (a) sacred. (b) chant.

ew i ev Pr

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Early forms of vocal music were sacred hymns and chants sung using only one note. Gradually, this increased to using two, then seven notes. Vocal music can be performed by one or more singers and is sometimes accompanied by instruments.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons There are many forms of classical and folk dances, which vary from one region f o r e vi e pur p os esperforming onl ythem. • to the• next. Ar wide variety ofw costumes are worn when

(c) vocal.

w ww

m . u

Classical dance originated in the temples, where it was used to illustrate Hindu mythology. The graceful dancer uses her body, limbs, hands, face and eyes to express her ideas or communicate a story, an idea or an emotion. Folk dances are usually simple, lively, joyful dances performed for special occasions. Each region has its own folk or tribal dance, resulting in hundreds of different dances.

. te

2. Use different colours to underline:

o c . cclassical (c) the place where dance originated. e her r o t s per Indian musicians lead the fields inu instrumental music. There are as many as five (a) two main forms of dance.

(b) the difference between the two forms.

hundred different instruments with different names which are played in a variety of different ways. They can be classified as solid (such as gongs and cymbals), percussion or membrane-covered (such as the drum), wind (such as the organ, clarinet and flute), and stringed instruments (such as the sitar and mandolin).

3. Next to each heading, write the name of one musical instrument. (a) solid

(b) percussion

(c) wind

(d) stringed

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

India

89


The arts Puppets and puppetry.................................................................. page 91 Indicator Completes a cloze text to read information about traditional Indian puppets and puppetry.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Teacher information • Creating puppets has become an art form in India. Many puppets are bought simply for their beauty and exquisite craftsmanship. Skilled craftsmen use different methods to make different types of puppets. • Glove puppets extend to the elbow and generally do not have legs. To lengthen the neck and arms of the puppet, hard paper or bamboo tubes are attached to the body of the puppet. The palms of the puppet can be made from cloth, thick paper, papier-mâché or wood (if the puppets are required to clap). • Rod puppets have vertical and horizontal rods made from a variety of materials. Usually the main rod is constructed using wood, bamboo, iron or aluminium pipe. If the head, eyes, mouth and eyebrows need to move, wood is attached with strings and elastic to allow the body parts to return to the original position. The body consists of a wire or bamboo structure covered with a foam or cloth casing which is stuffed. Traditionally, rod puppets are constructed with a wooden body. Generally, rod puppets do not have legs and the hands are made from coir (coconut husk), rope or wood. • String puppets usually are manipulated using a horizontal control. Animal puppets have strings on the shoulder, head, tail and legs; human figures have strings on the head, shoulders, legs, hands and one string on the waist. Dancing puppets have extra strings to enable more movement. The body of a string puppet can be made using wood or stuffed cloth. Human string puppets vary in size from about 45 to 90 centimetres in height. Animal string puppets, which are usually very large, are made from lightweight wood or wire and have a stuffed body. • Shadow puppets may be coloured or black and white, depending on the region of India from which they originate. Raw deer or goat skin is chiselled to remove hair and treated with chemicals to make it translucent. Different figure shapes are cut out, then perforations are punched into them to create different designs. Traditional puppet makers copy old designs to ensure the continuation of the tradition. Bamboo or iron sticks with wooden handles are added to manipulate them and strings tie the different body parts together. A main rod and two thin bamboo rods are tied separately to the hands to manipulate them. A bamboo strip attached vertically to the centre of the puppet prevents it from bending when placed against the screen. • Coloured shadow puppets are made by drawing the shape on animal skin, cutting out the shape and then decorating the shape with holes, lines and dots. Finally they are painted in different colours.

w ww

Answers 1. thousands 6. rods 11. strings

2. religious 7. costume 12. rear

. te

3. festivals 8. limbs 13. light

4. glove 9. parts 14. holes

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

5. head 10. pulls

o c . che e r o t r s super

Additional activities • Provide the students with a copy of the descriptions for making the different types of puppets, and allow them to select one to create using the process described. Allow substitution of materials for ease of construction and complete the puppet by painting and making costumes. • Cut outlines of favourite characters from fables or legends from black card, glue sections of coloured tissue paper to the back and add thin sticks to create coloured shadow puppets.

90

India

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


The arts

Puppets and puppetry Complete the cloze using the words in the box then reread the information. holes

light

rear

strings

pulls

parts

limbs

costume

rods

head

glove

festivals

religious

thousands

Puppetry in India dates back

1.

of years. It was used to tell

about the history of kings, princes or heroes, to make fun of the government or to tell at fairs and

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S 2.

stories. It was a popular form of theatre in villages and .

3.

puppets are small figures which the puppeteer wears like a

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

The four main traditional forms are glove, rod, string, and shadow puppetry. Glove . The

4.

, while the middle finger

forefinger fits into the hollow in the

5.

and thumb fit into the hollow hands. Clever puppeteers operate two glove puppets at a time.

Rod puppeteers use various

6.

joined to

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons of thep puppet. robe or•f orr evi ew ur posesonl y• the puppet’s hands to make it move. They are hidden by the 7.

.8. They are made from

w ww

wood, wire, or stuffed cloth. The puppet hangs from handheld control strings which are attached to different

m . u

String puppets have a jointed body and

of the puppet’s body. The puppeteer . teor loosens or strings uses the control o c . to move the puppet.c Traditional string puppets, which aree very heavy, often use h r e o and rods. both r st s uper 9.

10.

11.

Shadow puppets are flat figures operated against the white cloth screen with a

13.

12.

of a

behind it. The audience is able

to see the shadow of the puppet on the screen. The leather puppet shapes are pierced with

14.

and sticks are attached.

Today, cinema, television and computer games have largely replaced traditional puppet theatre as popular forms of entertainment. www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

India

91


The arts Hooray for Bollywood!................................................................. page 93 Indicators • Reads a text about ‘Bollywood’. • Locates identified words from a text in a wordsearch.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

Answers

ew i ev Pr

Teacher information • To ‘lip-synch’ means to match lip movements with recorded speech or singing. • The term ‘Bollywood’ is often used to refer to the entire Indian film industry but, in fact, it only constitutes one part. • Indian English is appearing more often in dialogue and songs in Bollywood films. • Bollywood films are largely financed by private distributors or a few large studios. • One large problem facing Bollywood is copyright infringements (or pirated copies) being released before the actual film. • Modern Indian dancing is often referred to as Bollywood dancing. It is a combination of classical and folk, and often has a Latino or Arabic influence. L

D

H

O

U

R

S

F

I

U

A

A

I

B

T

T

R

A

J

H

C

O

N

L

N

P

E

M

D

L

I

R

D

A

O

I

O

P

W

-

O I G I © R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons N B U C I R N L H M S I T C I I •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• C I T S A S S E

Y

S

E

L

A

S

C

R

K

S

L

Y

T

L

N

A

O

E

C

H

L

N

L

I

I

L

L

C

A

F

C

T

O

F

C

W

N

B

A

H

M

N

X

B

I

A

Y

S

T

E

S

E

J

D

D

A

H

E

M

P

L

O

Y

S

L

I

S

L

A

C

I

S

U

M

P

O

V

H

S

E

P

U

O

R

T

N

O B F U

. te

m . u

Z

w ww

J

o c . che e r o t r s super

Additional activities • Plan a lavish Bollywood-style production of a familiar tale, legend, fable or fairytale. As a class, write a simple script; design brightly-coloured costumes; add familiar, appropriate songs and simple dance routines ... and go for it! Use the production to raise money for charity or for an end-of-year assembly. • Find a suitable Bollywood film for the class to view. Review in relation to costumes, music, script, characters and plot.

92

India

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


The arts

Hooray for Bollywood! Read the text, then find the bold words in the wordsearch. The term ‘Bollywood’ was created by combining the old name for Mumbai (Bombay) with Hollywood (the centre of the American film industry). Bollywood produces the largest number of films in the world. They are usually musicals because this is a large part of Indian culture.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

Typical Bollywood films are usually about three hours long, and include singing and dancing, dramatic plots, action, comedy and romance. Including all these aspects helps them appeal to a broad audience.

ew i ev Pr

Bollywood plays a big role in influencing fashion trends in India.

Bollywood employs people from all over India, although many of those involved are closely related to particular families in the film industry. There are very few non-Indian actors in Bollywood productions. There have been many technical advances as a result of the film industry of India. The sound on a Bollywood film is not usually recorded on location. The songs are prerecorded by professional playback singers and the actors lip-synch the words to the songs on screen. Playback singers J Z L D H O U R S F are given full credit for the singing and often develop their own fan base. Most I U A A I B T T R A actors are good dancers but few are good J H C O N L N P E M singers as well. The dances are modelled D L I R D A O I G I primarily on Indian classical dance styles or folk dances and often combined with O I N B U C I R N L western-style dances. Song-and-dance O P H M S I T C I I routines are filmed using quick changes of location and costume, even within one W - C I T S A S S E song. Troupes of dancers support the Y S E L A S C R K S leading actors. Often songs are released L Y T L N A O E C H before the films and become popular in their own right. L N L I I L L C A F

w ww

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

. te

o c . che e r o t r s super The script and song lyrics are usually written by different people and in Hindustani, which is a language that most Indian people can understand. Bollywood productions cost millions of dollars for sets, costumes, special effects and cinematography and are becoming more popular throughout the world. www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

O

C

T

O

F

C W N

B

A

B

H

M

N

X

B

I

A

Y

S

F

T

E

S

E

J

D

D

A

H

U

E

M

P

L

O

Y

S

L

I

S

L

A

C

I

S

U

M

P

O

V

H

S

E

P

U

O

R

T

N

India

93


Famous people Mahatma Gandhi........................................................................ page 95 Indicator Reads information about Mahatma Gandhi to construct a brief time line of his life.

Answers 1869 1882 1888–1891 1893–1915 1915 1930 1947 1948

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Born in Porbander, India Married at the age of 13 Studied law in London Lived in South Africa, working to defend the Indian population in South Africa. Returned to India and entered politics Imprisoned due to defiant acts Helped India become an independent country Assassinated in Delhi, India

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Teacher information • Read the text with the class. Clarify any misconceptions. The following terms may need further explanation: colony, defiance, negotiation, independent country • Gandhi fought to improve the lives of the ‘untouchables’, the lowest class of Indian society, which he called hairjans, meaning ‘Children of God’. • Gandhi’s techniques of nonviolent resistance, called Satyagraha—meaning ‘steadfastness in truth’—are said to have inspired other prominent peacemakers, such as Martin Luther King in the United States of America and Nelson Mandela in South Africa.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Additional activities •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

. te

94

India

m . u

w ww

• On a globe or atlas, locate Britain, India and South Africa. • In a small group, develop a list of rights you feel should be upheld in your classroom; for example, being listened to. Share the list with the rest of the class. Write an action plan describing how these rights could be attained. • Use the Internet and resource centre to research India’s only female prime minister, Indira Gandhi (Nehru). Write a fact file about her. (Despite sharing the same last name, she is not related to Mohandas Gandhi.)

o c . che e r o t r s super

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


Famous people

Mahatma Gandhi 1. Read the information below. Gandhi, often referred to as Mahatma which means ‘great soul’, was a peacemaker who fought for freedom and human rights.

Teac he r

After studying law for three years in London, he returned to India in 1891.

1882 Two years later he moved to Natal, in South Africa, to work. During his first year, he was thrown off a train due to the 1888–1891 colour of his skin, even though he held a first-class ticket. Such humiliating racism led Ghandi to organise many peaceful protests and create organisations to defend the Indian population in South 1893–1915 Africa. He was involved with this for the next twenty years.

ew i ev Pr

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Born Mohandas Gandhi in Porbandar, India, in 1869, Gandhi was married at the age of 13 by arrangement, which was customary at the time. 1869

2. Write brief notes to complete the time line about Gandhi’s life.

w ww

In 1915, he returned to the British colony of India. He entered politics in the hope of using his nonviolent methods, such as peaceful marches and letter writing, to free the people of India of many unfair British laws.

1915

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

. timprisoned in 1922, Gandhi was e o c . 1930, 1933 and 1942, for these acts c e 1930 he r of defiance, and resorted to many o t r s super hunger strikes to pass on his beliefs. Gandhi played a large part in the negotiations which led to India becoming an independent country in 1947.

On 30 January 1948, the inspirational Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated in Delhi, India. www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

1947

1948

India

95


Famous people Mother Teresa............................................................................... page 97 Indicators • Reads and completes information about Mother Teresa. • Writes a haiku poem about Mother Teresa.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

Answers 1. (a) True (b) False (c) False 2. Answers will vary. 3. Teacher check 4. Answers will vary. Possible answer: Do not procrastinate. Do what you can today. Don’t leave it until tomorrow. Additional activities • Display the haiku poem with a decorative border and artwork. • Design and colour a stamp of Mother Teresa.

ew i ev Pr

Teacher information • Born in 1910 as Agnesë Gonxhe Bojaxhiu, she chose the name ‘Teresa’ after Thérèse de Lisieux, the patron saint of missionaries, when she took her first vow as a nun in 1931. • Mother Teresa’s Christian belief was of a total surrender to God. She had a deep respect for every human being because she believed each to be an image and the temple of God. • In 1948, Pope Pius XII gave Mother Teresa permission to live as an independent nun.

w ww

. te

96

India

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


Famous people

Mother Teresa

Mother Teresa devoted her life to helping the poor, sick and dying people of India, and eventually around the world.

Teac he r

From the age of 12, she became deeply religious, and by 21, Mother Teresa was a nun in Calcutta (India). As an adult she opened her own home to help the poor and sick. In 1950, she founded a religious order of nuns called the Missionaries of Charity. She began her work by helping poor children in the streets, teaching them to read and care for themselves. Other young women began to join Mother Teresa, devoting their life to serving the poor without accepting any material reward in return.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

1. Choose if each sentence is true or false.

ew i ev Pr

Mother Teresa was given many awards to acknowledge her efforts of helping the needy and unwanted. In 1971, she was awarded the Pope John XXIII Peace Prize, and eight years later, the Nobel Peace Prize. She accepted all awards on behalf of the poor, using any money that was attached to the award to fund her many centres. In 1997, in India, Mother Teresa died from illness.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons True (b) Mother Teresa only helped and poor adults. True •f o rr ev i ewsickp ur po sesonl y•

False

(c) Mother Teresa helped the poor to win awards and prizes.

False

(a) In 1979, Mother Teresa was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

True

False

m . u

w ww

2. Write one thing you could do to help someone you know—in your school, family or community—without expecting a reward.

. te o c 3. Write a haiku poem about Mother Teresa. A . ch e haiku poem has three lines. The number of r o t r syllables in each line aree shown. s super

Mother Teresa (5) Washes away sufferings (7) All-embracing arms (5)

(5)

(7)

(5)

4. On the back of this sheet, write what you think this quote from Mother Teresa means. www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

Yesterday is gone. Tomorrow has not yet come. We have only today. Let us begin. India

97


Famous people Abhinav Bindra takes gold at Beijing!...................................... page 99 Indicator Reads an article and completes information about ace rifle shooter, Abhinav Bindra. Teacher information • In 2000, Abhinav Bindra, not yet 18 years old, represented India at the Sydney Olympics. He was the youngest in the contingent. • He holds a BBA (Bachelor of Business Administration) from the University of Colorado, and is the CEO of Abhinav Futuristics, a company which distributes small-arms weapons in India.

Teac he r

Answers 1. (a) Opinion (b) Fact (c) Fact (d) Opinion 2. (a) ecstatic (b) pursue (c) desire (d) individual 3. Teacher check (Possible answers: worthwhile, emotional, proud, fantastic etc.) 4. ‘Daily practice at the private shooting range in his family’s home, along with regular coaching, led him to represent India at the Kuala Lumpur Commonwealth Games at the young age of 15.’

ew i ev Pr

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Additional activities • Discuss with the class what the underlined sentence in the text tells us about Abhinav’s upbringing. What kind of home did he come from? (Affluent, as he had a private shooting range at his parents’ home). How could this help him pursue his dream? Is it necessary to have money to achieve in sport? Why/Why not? How can you achieve without money? • Use the Internet and/or resource centres to create an information poster about another successful Indian athlete, Samaresh Jung.

w ww

. te

98

India

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


Famous people

Abhinav Bindra takes gold at Beijing! 12 August 2008

A new chapter in India’s sporting history is written! At the 2008 Beijing Olympics, Abhinav Bindra has won India’s first ever individual Olympic gold medal!

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Support from his family from a young age allowed Abhinav to pursue his dream of becoming a champion shooter. Daily practice at the private shooting range at his family’s home, along with regular coaching, led him to represent India at the Kuala Lumpur 1998 Commonwealth Games at the young age of 15.

Abhinav’s desire and determination for Olympic gold paid off this week, when he won a gold medal in the men’s 10-metre air rifle shooting contest.

ew i ev Pr

Abhinav Bindra—the 25-year-old ‘ace’ rifle shooter from Punjab, in India’s north—is ecstatic with his win, especially as the medal is a first in India’s sporting history.

Teac he r

He became a Commonwealth Games gold medallist in 2002 and, even though suffering from severe back pain, took gold at the World Championships in Croatia four years later.

This gold medal has been a ‘long time coming’ for India. The last Olympic Gold was won by their men’s field hockey team … in 1980!

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Abhinav Bindra receives his gold medal

1. Choose if each sentence is a fact or an opinion.

w ww

(b) It had been 28 years since India won Olympic gold. (c) Abhinav was experiencing success at a young age.

. te

Fact

Opinion

Fact

Opinion

Fact

Opinion

m . u

(a) Abhinav Bindra is the best rifle shooter in the world.

Fact o c . 2. Find the words in the text which are similar to: ch e r e o t r (b) follow (a) thrilled s supe r (d) He would have given up shooting if he hadn’t won gold.

(c) passion

Opinion

(d) separate

3. Write at least three words to describe how you think it feels to win a gold medal for your country. 4. Underline the sentence in the text which gives information about Abhinav’s childhood. www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

India

99


Famous people Aishwarya Rai—The Queen of Bollywood................................. page 101 Indicator Reads information and completes a crossword about famous Indian actress Aishwarya Rai. Teacher information • The Indian city of Mumbai is the centre of the Indian movie industry. As Mumbai was once called Bombay, the nickname ‘Bollywood’ has been given to the Indian film industry. More films are produced in India than anywhere else in the world. The actors speak Hindi and some English, and perform show-stopping musical numbers in colourful costumes. Answers

P E

4.

A

R

5.

T

C

U

S

P

U

S

P

H

S

2.

I

N

T

E

3.

C

T

R A

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

1.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

M

G U

R

E

R I

U

© OR. I . C.Publ i cat i ons O N D O N •Lf o rr e vi ew pWur posesonl y• E 6.

7.

8.

B

O

L

L

Y

W

O

O

D

w ww

. te

L D

m . u

R

Additional activities • Use the Internet to list 10 more famous people who have been immortalised as a wax figure at the Madame Tussauds wax museum in London. Name the other Indian people in the museum. • Watch a musical number from a Bollywood movie starring Aishwarya Rai. Write a review about the scene. • Hold a class discussion about whether or not Aishwarya Rai is the most beautiful woman in the world. Who decides who or what is beautiful?

100

India

o c . che e r o t r s super

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®


Famous people

Aishwarya Rai: The Queen of Bollywood 1. Read the information about India’s most famous Bollywood actress. Aishwarya Rai, born in Mangalore, India, in 1973, finished school and began studying architecture. During this time, she decided to enter the 1994 Miss World competition, which she won.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Following this success with modelling, Aishwarya soon transformed into an Indian supermodel. She was promptly pursued by the directors of India’s gigantic film industry—Bollywood. Being a master of many languages, including Hindi, English, Tamil and Urdu, Aishwarya was able to star in many films. Some titles include Raincoat (2004), Dhoom (2006) and Guru (2007). She has won many film awards, graced the cover of international fashion magazines, and starred in a major Pepsi™ commercial. In 2004, Aishwarya’s beauty and fame led her to become the first Indian woman to be immortalised as a wax figure at London’s Madame Tussauds wax museum. Aishwarya’s charity work includes raising money for the victims of the tragic 2004 Boxing Day tsunami, and opening schools for underprivileged girls.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons 2. Complete the crossword. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 1.

. te

2.

m . u

w ww

Across 4. She studied this 5. Helped victims of this 2004 disaster 6. Location of wax museum 8. Nickname of Indian film industry

3.

4.

o c . c e her r Down o t s super 1. Starred in this 5.

6.

commercial 2. Model status 3. Film title 7. Won Miss

www.ricpublications.com.au – R.I.C. Publications®

7. 8.

India

101

India: Ages 8-10  

India is a series of blackline masters designed to provide opportunities for students to discover some of the natural, physical, cultural, e...