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RIC-6363 1165/5.2


Australian Curriculum English – Language: Text structure and organisation (Year 6)

A number of pages in this book are worksheets. The publisher licenses the individual teacher who purchased this book to photocopy these pages to hand out to students in their own classes.

Published by R.I.C. Publications® 2012 Copyright© R.I.C. Publications® 2012 ISBN 978-1-921750-89-2 RIC– 6363

Titles in this series: Australian Curriculum English – Language: Text structure and organisation (Foundation) Australian Curriculum English – Language: Text structure and organisation (Year 1) Australian Curriculum English – Language: Text structure and organisation (Year 2) Australian Curriculum English – Language: Text structure and organisation (Year 3) Australian Curriculum English – Language: Text structure and organisation (Year 4) Australian Curriculum English– Language: Text structure and organisation (Year 5) Australian Curriculum English – Language: Text structure and organisation (Year 6)

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This information is provided to clarify the limits of this licence and its interaction with the Copyright Act. For your added protection in the case of copyright inspection, please complete the form below. Retain this form, the complete original document and the invoice or receipt as proof of purchase. Name of Purchaser:

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© Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012. For all Australian Curriculum material except elaborations: This is an extract from the Australian Curriculum. Elaborations: This may be a modified extract from the Australian Curriculum and may include the work of the author(s). ACARA neither endorses nor verifies the accuracy of the information provided and accepts no responsibility for incomplete or inaccurate information. In particular, ACARA does not endorse or verify that: • The content descriptions are solely for a particular year and subject; • All the content descriptions for that year and subject have been used; and • The author’s material aligns with the Australian Curriculum content descriptions for the relevant year and subject. You can find the unaltered and most up to date version of this material at http://www. australiancurriculum.edu.au/ This material is reproduced with the permission of ACARA.

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Australian Curriculum English – Language: Text structure and organisation (Year 6)

Foreword Australian Curriculum English – Language: Text structure and organisation (Year 6) is one in a series of seven teacher resource books that support teaching and learning activities in Australian Curriculum English. The books focus on the sub-strand of Text structure and organisation within the Language strand of the national English curriculum. The resource books include theoretical background information, activities to develop the content descriptions, blackline masters, resource sheets and assessment checklists, along with interrelated links to other English strands and sub-strands.

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Titles in this series are:

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Australian Curriculum English – Language: Text structure and organisation (Foundation) Australian Curriculum English – Language: Text structure and organisation (Year 1) Australian Curriculum English – Language: Text structure and organisation (Year 2) Australian Curriculum English – Language: Text structure and organisation (Year 3) Australian Curriculum English – Language: Text structure and organisation (Year 4) Australian Curriculum English – Language: Text structure and organisation (Year 5) Australian Curriculum English – Language: Text structure and organisation (Year 6)

Contents

Format of this book .................................. iv – v

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• • • • • • •

Understand the uses of commas to separate clauses (ACELA1521)

Language: Text structure and organisation .............................................. 2–94

© . I . C .Publ i cat i ons Understand how authors oftenR innovate on text structures and play with language features to achieve particular aesthetic, humorous and persuasive •f o rr e v i ew pur posesonl y• purposes and effects (ACELA1518)

© Australian Curriculum: Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

– Teacher information ................................................ 76 – Activities to develop the content description .......... 77 – Blackline masters and resource sheets .......................................... 78–91 – Assessment checklist .............................................. 92 – Interrelated English links ......................................... 93 – Modes, capabilities and priorities covered by the activities in this content description ........................ 93

© Australian Curriculum: Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

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– Teacher information ................................................. 2 – Activities to develop the content description ....... 3–5 – Blackline masters and resource sheets .................................................. 6–55 – Assessment checklist ............................................. 56 – Interrelated English links ........................................ 57 – Modes, capabilities and priorities covered by the activities in this content description ........................57

Answers .................................................... 94–99

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Understand that cohesive links can be made in texts by omitting or replacing words (ACELA1520) © Australian Curriculum: Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

– Teacher information ............................................... 58 – Activities to develop the content description .......... 59 – Blackline masters and resource sheets ................................................. 60–73 – Assessment checklist ............................................. 74 – Interrelated English links ........................................ 75 – Modes, capabilities and priorities covered by the activities in this content description ....................... 75

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Australian Curriculum English – Language: Text structure and organisation (Year 6)

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Format of the book This teacher resource book includes supporting materials for teaching and learning in the sub-strand of Text structure and organisation within the strand of Language in Australian Curriculum English. All content descriptions in the substrand have been included, as well as teaching points based on the Curriculum’s elaborations. While the book focuses on the sub-strand of Text structure and organisation, activities and interrelated links to other strands and sub-strands have been incorporated. Each section supports a specific content description and follows a consistent format, containing the following information over several pages: • activites to develop the content descriptions • interrelated English links

• student blackline masters • assessment checklist

• resource sheets

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Answers relating to student blackline masters have been included at the back of the book.

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The length of each content description section varies.

Related terms includes vocabulary associated with the content description. Many of these relate to the glossary in the back of the official Australian Curriculum English document; additional related terms may also have been added.

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Teacher information includes background information relating to the content description, as well as related terms and desirable student vocabulary and other useful details which may assist the teacher.

W What this means pprovides a general explanation of the content description.

TTeaching points ?s © R. I . C.Publ i cat i on pprovides a list of the main teaching points • f owords rr evi ew pur poseson l yrelating •to the Student vocabulary includes content description. which the teacher would use— and expect the students to learn, understand and use—during English lessons.

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Further resources by R.I.C. Publications® or other publishers or authors are included where appropriate.

Elaborations are a list of elaborations based on those in the content description.

Understand how authors often innovate on text structures and play with language features to achieve particular aesthetic, humorous and persuasive purposes and effects (ACELA1518) © Australian Curriculum: Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

Activities to develop the content description

E1. Analyse and compare some elements of the text structure and language features of a range of texts, to identify the reasons for the writers’ choices. • Text types resource pages (pages 6 to 9)

Some elements of the purpose, structure and language features of the following text types are summarised in tables on these four resource pages. • Narratives

• Procedures

• Recounts

• Expositions

• Explanations

• Reports

• Discussions

• Descriptions

Students at this stage should be expected to be familiar with some of the elements of different text types. But they also need to realise that few texts would exactly ’fit’ one of these.

However, this type of information should be a helpful reference for students when they are looking at texts in order to identify and understand some of the different choices a writer has made and why. They need to realise how much influence the intended audience and the purpose for writing a text influence writers’ choices and the text structure and language features they use.

• Young cyclist remains in coma (Page 10) and Glen Wallace Primary School newsletter (page 11)

Activities to develop the content description includes descriptions or instructions for activities or games relating to the content descriptions or elaborations. Some activities are supported by blackline masters or resource sheets. Where applicable, these will be stated for easy reference.

The texts on these two resource sheets refer to the same incident. There are two activity pages based on these texts in which students are required to analyse, compare and contrast them and to identify the purpose for which they were written, some of the choices made by the writers and why they made them. (See pages 12 and 13.)

The first text is a newspaper report written to provide detailed information about an accident and to attract a reader’s interest with an attentiongrabbing headline. The text is written in the past tense, in the third person and there is some quoted speech from a witness and reported speech from the victim. Its purpose is to report to a wide audience and this is reflected in the language used. However, it could be argued that this text is in fact persuasive, because after reading it, many people may be more concerned and vigilant about their family members wearing bike helmets.

By contrast, the second text is the victim’s personal account of the accident and what followed. It describes its impact on the victim, his family and friends and was written to be included in a school newsletter for other students to read. It is an example of persuasive text in the form of a recount. Its purpose is to persuade others to always wear their bike helmets, but the writer’s position isn’t stated at the beginning of the text, as is usually the case. In the form of a recount, it is written in the past tense and in the first person. In common with other persuasive texts, it uses emotive language and modal verbs of obligation and advice.

• How hovercraft work (page 14) and Dance of the hovercraft (page 15) These two texts both refer to hovercraft. The two activities pages in which students analyse, compare and contrast them are on pages 16 and 17. The first text is an explanation about how a hovercraft works. Its purpose is to explain something as clearly and as concisely as possible. As is usual with many explanations, it starts with a definition, includes technical vocabulary, provides clear, concise information in a logical sequence, is written in the third person in the present tense, links cause and effect and includes an evaluative comment and a diagram. The information is presented in paragraphs organised in a logical order. By contrast the second text is a descriptive recount. It provides relevant background information to orient the reader, describes significant events in chronological order, is written in the first person in the past tense, uses descriptive, imaginative and metaphorical language and similes, encourages visual imagery, is organised in paragraphs and concludes with an evaluative comment. • Coyote (Canis latrans) (page 18) and Dogs’ tails - A traditional tale (page 19) These two texts are about coyotes and there are two related activity pages. (pages 20 and 21) The first text is a report on the species. It is set out similarly to many reports starting with an introduction with a definition, followed by relevant information, organised in a logical manner under appropriate subheadings. Students should understand that the purpose of organising text in this way is to make it easier for a reader to locate specific information. This is because readers may not require all the information presented in the report and they often have to find what they do need in the most efficient way possible. The report is written in the present tense and has subject-specific vocabulary, one word of which has been defined within the text. The second text is a narrative. It provides orienting information about the time, place and characters. The complication is explained and finally the resolution is described. The vocabulary may challenge some students, but it is generally supported by the context within the story. A narrative is often written to entertain and amuse, and unlike a report, it is not always necessary for a reader of narrative to understand every word. Readers will often be able to continue to read and to maintain some level of interest and understanding of narrative text with a good idea of the gist of the story. Time connectives make the text more cohesive. It is made more descriptive by the choice of action verbs in the past tense, many with adverbs to further enhance their meaning. Some readers may find the visual image evoked by the concluding statement humorous. This was the intention of the writer.

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Australian Curriculum English – Language: Text structure and organisation (Year 6)

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Format of the bookum.

Simon considered himself a reasonably brave twelve-year-old. He enjoyed doing new things and finding out what he could and couldn’t do. At camp, he’d tried abseiling, rafting, rock climbing and even the flying fox. If he wasn’t very good at those things it didn’t matter, because at least he’d tried. Unfortunately, one biannual event always caused panic to erupt in Simon’s intrepid body. A visit to Dr Paul White for a check-up was definitely cause for panic. Mum was convinced that Dr White was an excellent dentist. Dr White was a nice enough person. He was tall and pleasant to look at. He had a mop of blonde hair, thick bushy eyebrows and twinkling brown eyes. He also liked to tell weird jokes. Dr White had attached several interesting pictures to the ceiling above the patients’ chair so they would have something to look at during examinations. Dr White, however, had one major fault—he loved cooking—usually with lots of garlic! Whenever he opened his mouth to speak, the odour of smelly garlic covered the nearest person. It seemed to hover in clouds around his body and permeate the whole room. It stung your eyes until they watered and stole your breath away until you wanted to gag. Dr White’s patients were not very sociable. They usually left as soon as they could. Today, despite his numerous failed protests, Simon’s mother was driving him to the dentist. Simon was determined to get the visit over and done with quickly. His mother parked the car, fed the parking meter and, together, they walked quickly to the surgery. They gave their names to the receptionist and settled down to wait. ’Simon Bailey!’ the dental nurse called out and smiled at him. Simon took a deep breath and followed her into the examination room.

’Hi!’ mumbled Simon to the back of Dr White’s head as he continued with his task. ’I’m fine.’

’Did you hear the one about ...’ Dr White began as Simon stared at him in amazement. Buzzing bees seemed to fill Simon’s head as he tried to make sense of what he was seeing. ’Not funny I know ...’ Dr White was saying, ’... but you know how I like my jokes!’ As Simon continued to stare, Dr White seemed to notice his confusion. ’Oh!’ he laughed. ’You’ve noticed the joke surgical mask my colleague brought from Germany. He’s working with me for six months and thought my patients would like them. He’s a good cook too, so he’s teaching me how to make lots of German dishes!’

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Each section has a checklist which teachers may find useful as a place to keep a record of their observations of the activities to develop the content descriptions.

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Teac he r Australian Curriculum English – Language: Text structure and organisation (Year 6)

Blackline masters and resource sheets are provided to support teaching and learning activities for each content description. These include worksheets for class use, games, charts or other materials which the teacher might find useful to use or display in the classroom. For each blackline master or resource sheet, the content description to which it relates is given.

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’Hello, Simon!’ chortled Dr White cheerfully as he straightened the instruments on his tray. ’How have you been?’

That’s when Simon realised he could detect no garlic smell. He had been completely distracted by the stupidest mask he had ever seen!

Understand how authors often innovate on text structures and play with language features to achieve particular aesthetic, humorous and persuasive purposes and effects (ACELA1518) © Australian Curriculum: Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

A visit to Dr Paul White–1

Interrelated English links

Below is a list of links within the Language strand, Literature strand and Literacy strand of English that are covered within the activities provided with the content description above:

E1 Analyse and compare some elements of the text structure and language features of a range of texts, to identify the reasons for the writers’ choices. E2 Examine works which include humour and pathos to look at strategies the author used to tell the reader about the characters’ feelings, to develop empathy for their point of view or concern for them.

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E3 Examine the three elements of persuasion (ethos, pathos, logos) used by a writer to appeal to an audience. • Understand the uses of objective and subjective language and bias (ACELA1517)

• Understand how ideas can be expanded and sharpened through careful choice of verbs, elaborated tenses and a range of adverb groups/phrases (ACELA23) • Identify and explain how analytical images and figures, tables, diagrams, maps and graphs contribute to our understanding of verbal information in factual and persuasive texts (ACELA1524) • Investigate how vocabulary choices including evaluative language can express shades of meaning, feeling and opinion (ACELA1525) • Analyse and evaluate similarities and differences in texts on similar topics, themes and plots (ACELT1614)

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• Identify and explain how choices in language, for example modality, emphasis, repetition and metaphor, influence personal response to different texts (ACELT1615) • Experiment with text structures and language features and their effects in creating literary texts, for example using imagery, sentence variation, metaphor and word choice (ACELT1800) • Compare texts including media texts that represent ideas and events in different ways, explaining the effects of the different approaches (ACELY1708) • Analyse how text structures and language features work together to meet the purpose of a text (ACELY1711) • Analyse strategies authors use to influence readers (ACELY1801)

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• Plan, draft and publish imaginative, informative and persuasive texts, choosing and experimenting with text structures, language features, images and digital resources appropriate to the purpose and audience (ACELY1714) • Investigate how complex sentences can be used in a variety of ways to elaborate, extend and explain ideas (ACELA1522)

• Identify the relationship between words, sounds, imagery and language patterns in narratives and poetry such as ballads, limericks and free verse (ACELT1617)

• Participate in and contribute to discussion, clarifying and interrogating ideas, developing and supporting arguments, sharing and evaluating information, experiences and opinions (ACELY1709) • Select, navigate and read texts for a range of purposes, applying appropriate text processing strategies and interpreting structural features, for example table of contents, glossary, chapters, headings and subheadings (ACELY1712) • Use comprehension strategies to interpret and analyse information and ideas, comparing content from a variety of textual sources including media and digital texts (ACELY1713) Modes, capabilities and priorities covered by the activities in this Content description Language modes

General capabilities

Listening

Literacy

Speaking

Numeracy

Reading

Information and communication technology (ICT) capability

Viewing

Critical and creative thinking

Writing

Personal and social capability

Ethical behaviour

Intercultural understanding Cross-curriculum priorities

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures Asia and Australia’s engagement in Asia

Sustainability

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Interrelated English links lists other links covered within the Language strand, Literature strand and Literacy strand of English that are incorporated in the activities provided with the content description. While the book’s approach focuses on the Text structure and organisation sub-strand, the links show the integration across the three strands.

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Understand how authors often innovate on text structures and play with language features to achieve particular aesthetic, humorous and persuasive purposes and effects (ACELA1518)

Australian Curriculum English – Language: Text structure and organisation (Year 6)

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A table showing the Language modes, General capabilities and Cross-curriculum priorities covered by the activities in each content description is provided.

Text and structur orga nisa e tion

Text and structur orga nisa e tion

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Understand how authors often innovate on text structures and play with language features to achieve particular aesthetic, humorous and persuasive purposes and effects (ACELA1518)

Answers

© Australian Curriculum: Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

(b) See original for graph

All about the author – 2 page 47

1. Writer 1: Against; Writer 2: For; Writer 3: Against 2. (a) Teacher check. Possible answers include: Writer 1: He/She cares about people’s health but is frustrated that so many don’t take the effects of smoking seriously until it’s too late. Writer 2: He/She thinks people should be allowed to choose and if they do smoke, they should not be made to feel guilty. Writer 3: He/She thinks people should realise that smoking makes you socially unacceptable because it makes you smell. (b) Similarities: They are both against smoking. Differences: Writer 1 is against smoking because it damages your health and can kill you. Writer 3 is against smoking because it makes you smell. 3. Writer 2 would be unlikely to convince an audience because many young children take up smoking and they are not mature enough to make an informed choice about smoking; there are many ways to overcome problems that do not damage health; he/she has a vested interest in people smoking; the phrase, ’life’s too short’ could relate to the effects of smoking; his/her grandpa maybe almost 90 years old but he would be an exception Writer 3 would be likely to convince an audience because as an exsmoker, he/she can see the argument from both sides; he/she talks about the immediate rather than long-term effects of smoking; the smell cannot be disguised and no-one wants to be a social outcast

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 1984 2012 12-15yr olds

1984

2012 16-17 yr olds

Fit for life – 2 page 55 1. (a) The author: states his/her professional qualification, recognises that sport is not for everyone, refers to credible resources and statistics, writes appropriately for the audience, using examples that are relevant to them. (b) The author: encourages the audience to be involved in the argument by asking them to consider questions, evokes feelings of concern in the audience, for their health, offers suggestions to evoke motivation to ’get up and do’, evokes sense of control in one’s future (c) The author presents known facts related to health problems associated with poor diet and fitness, statistics related to childhood obesity, reasoned arguments related to the effects of reduced activity and increased snacking. 2. (a) Teacher check. Answers may reflect how the student feels about the way in which the author speaks to him /her, the appropriateness of the evidence given in support of the argument, the examples suggested for keeping fit, that the author acknowledges that not everyone is keen on sport. (b) Teacher check

All about the audience – 2 page 50 1. Writer 1: concern for themselves; gravity of the problem; realism of the situation Writer 2: rebellion against parents, teachers, coaches; injustice against themselves; independence for themselves Writer 3: disgust against the smells of smoking; mistrust of advertising; despair of intolerance brought about by the smells of smoking 2. (a) Speaks directly to the audience by using the pronoun ’you’. (b) Writer 1: a computer slowing down with each download Writer 2: other people telling you what to do – parents, teachers, coaches Writer 3: advertisements for air fresheners and mouthwash 3. Teacher check

All about the text – 2 page 53 1. (a) known facts (b) statistics (c) anecdotal evidence 2. Teacher check. 3. (a) Chemicals in tar

Answers for student worksheets are provided at the back of the book.

Description

Arsenic

well-known poison

Benzene

solvent used in petrol extraction

Cadmium

toxic metal used to make batteries

Formaldehyde

used to preserve bodies

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Australian Curriculum English – Language: Text structure and organisation (Year 6)

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Text and structu orga r nisa e tion

Understand how authors often innovate on text structures and play with language features to achieve particular aesthetic, humorous and persuasive purposes and effects (ACELA1518) © Australian Curriculum: Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

Related terms

Teacher information

Innovate To bring in something new; make changes in anything established.

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What this means

Aesthetic Having a sense of the beautiful; characterised by a love of beauty.

• Students identify how authors adapt text structure to suit a specific purpose and audience; for example, an explanation outlining how something works may follow a framework that includes the title, a statement, explanation and conclusion or it may follow one which includes greater detail and illustrations such as a definition, description (operation, application, special features) and evaluation.

Humorous Characterised by humour; amusing; funny.

• Students recognise how authors use language features to create a desired effect; for example, the use of vocabulary and figures of speech to describe a scene, situation or character or to create a mood of joy, horror or tension.

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Informative text Texts whose purpose is to inform. They include explanations and descriptions of natural phenomena, recounts of events, instructions and directions, rules and laws and news bulletins. Persuasive text Texts whose purpose is to put forward a point of view and persuade the reader. They include advertising, debates, arguments, discussions etc.

• Students recognise how authors use ethos, pathos and logos to create an effective persuasive text that highlights the authenticity of the writer, the importance of the audience and the validity of the text. Teaching points

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Imaginative text Texts whose purpose is to entertain through their imaginative use of literary elements. These include novels, traditional tales, poetry, stories, plays, fiction and film.

• Revise the structure and language features of different text types to ensure students are familiar with the standard form of each. • Compare and contrast examples of a text type to identify how the authors have altered the structure to suit the purpose of their writing.

• Compare and contrast examples of a text type to identify how the authors, writing for the same purpose and audience, have used language features to engage the reader. • Expose students to a wide range of different texts including classified advertisements, personal letters, telephone conversations, messages, instructions, labels, electronic mail, web pages, newsletters, notices, signs, timetables (everyday and community texts), poetry, myths, legends, fables, science fiction, fantasy, explanations, reports, procedures and reviews. Give them opportunities to analyse their text structures and language features.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Language features The features of language that support meaning. Language features vary according to text purpose, subject matter, audience and mode or medium of production. Writer’s position The point of view or opinion held by the author in a persuasive text; for example, a discussion or debate.

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E Elaborations

E1. Analyse and compare some elements of the text structure and language features of a range of texts, to identify the reasons for the writers’ choices.

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Text structure The ways information in texts is organised. Text structure and language features determine a text type and shape its meaning.

E2. Examine works which include humour and pathos to look at strategies the author used to tell the reader about the characters’ feelings, to develop empathy for their point of view or concern for them.

E3. Examine the three elements of persuasion (ethos, pathos, logos) used by a writer

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Simile One thing compared with another using the words ‘as‘ or ‘like‘. The hovercraft moved like a dancer on the water.

Metaphor One thing compared with another without using the words ‘as‘ or ‘like‘. The hovercraft was a dancer on the water. Ethos The element of persuasive writing that appeals to the character of the writer. Pathos The element of persuasive writing that appeals to the emotions of the audience. Logos The element of persuasive writing that appeals to the validity of the text.

to appeal to an audience.

Further resources

• Primary writing (Books E-G) R.I.C. Publications

• Primary grammar and word study (Books E-G) R.I.C. Publications

Student vocabulary innovate

text structure

pathos

aesthetic

language features

logos

humorous

writer’s position

reason

imaginative text

simile

credibility

informative text

metaphor

validity

persuasive text

ethos

Australian Curriculum English – Language: Text structure and organisation (Year 6)

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Text and structu orga r nisa e tion

Understand how authors often innovate on text structures and play with language features to achieve particular aesthetic, humorous and persuasive purposes and effects (ACELA1518) © Australian Curriculum: Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

Activities to develop the content description

E1. Analyse and compare some elements of the text structure and language features of a range of texts, to identify the reasons for the writers’ choices. • Text types resource pages (pages 6 to 9) Some elements of the purpose, structure and language features of the following text types are summarised in tables on these four resource pages. • Narratives

• Procedures

• Recounts

• Expositions

• Explanations

• Reports

• Discussions

• Descriptions

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Students at this stage should be expected to be familiar with some of the elements of different text types. But they also need to realise that few texts would exactly ’fit’ one of these. However, this type of information should be a helpful reference for students when they are looking at texts in order to identify and understand some of the different choices a writer has made and why. They need to realise how much influence the intended audience and the purpose for writing a text influence writers’ choices and the text structure and language features they use.

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• Young cyclist remains in coma (page 10) and Glen Wallace Primary School newsletter (page 11)

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The texts on these two resource sheets refer to the same incident. There are two activity pages based on these texts in which students are required to analyse, compare and contrast them and to identify the purpose for which they were written, some of the choices made by the writers and why they made them. (See pages 12 and 13.) The first text is a newspaper report written to provide detailed information about an accident and to attract a reader’s interest with an attentiongrabbing headline. The text is written in the past tense, in the third person and there is some quoted speech from a witness and reported speech from the victim. Its purpose is to report to a wide audience and this is reflected in the language used. However, it could be argued that this text is in fact persuasive, because after reading it, many people may be more concerned and vigilant about their family members wearing bike helmets. By contrast, the second text is the victim’s personal account of the accident and what followed. It describes its impact on the victim, his family and friends and was written to be included in a school newsletter for other students to read. It is an example of persuasive text in the form of a recount. Its purpose is to persuade others to always wear their bike helmets, but the writer’s position isn’t stated at the beginning of the text, as is usually the case. In the form of a recount, it is written in the past tense and in the first person. In common with other persuasive texts, it uses emotive language and modal verbs of obligation and advice.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

• How hovercraft work (page 14) and Dance of the hovercraft (page 15)

These two texts both refer to hovercraft. The two activities pages in which students analyse, compare and contrast them are on pages 16 and 17.

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The first text is an explanation about how a hovercraft works. Its purpose is to explain something as clearly and as concisely as possible. As is usual with many explanations, it starts with a definition, includes technical vocabulary, provides clear, concise information in a logical sequence, is written in the third person in the present tense, links cause and effect and includes an evaluative comment and a diagram. The information is presented in paragraphs organised in a logical order.

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By contrast the second text is a descriptive recount. It provides relevant background information to orient the reader, describes significant events in chronological order, is written in the first person in the past tense, uses descriptive, imaginative and metaphorical language and similes, encourages visual imagery, is organised in paragraphs and concludes with an evaluative comment. • Coyote (Canis latrans) (page 18) and Dogs’ tails - A traditional tale (page 19)

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These two texts are about coyotes and there are two related activity pages (pages 20 and 21).

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The first text is a report on the species. It is set out similarly to many reports starting with an introduction with a definition, followed by relevant information, organised in a logical manner under appropriate subheadings. Students should understand that the purpose of organising text in this way is to make it easier for a reader to locate specific information. This is because readers may not require all the information presented in the report and they often have to find what they do need in the most efficient way possible. The report is written in the present tense and has subject-specific vocabulary, one word of which has been defined within the text. The second text is a narrative. It provides orienting information about the time, place and characters. The complication is explained and finally the resolution is described. The vocabulary may challenge some students, but it is generally supported by the context within the story. A narrative is often written to entertain and amuse, and unlike a report, it is not always necessary for a reader of narrative to understand every word. Readers will often be able to continue to read and to maintain some level of interest and understanding of narrative text with a good idea of the gist of the story. Time connectives make the text more cohesive. It is made more descriptive by the choice of action verbs in the past tense, many with adverbs to further enhance their meaning. Some readers may find the visual image evoked by the concluding statement humorous. This was the intention of the writer.

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Text and structu orga r nisa e tion

Understand how authors often innovate on text structures and play with language features to achieve particular aesthetic, humorous and persuasive purposes and effects (ACELA1518) © Australian Curriculum: Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

Activities to develop the content description

E1. Analyse and compare some elements of the text structure and language features of a range of texts, to identify the reasons for the writers’ choices. (continued) • Windfarms: how good are they? (page 22) and There are monsters … (page 23) These two texts are about windfarms and there are two related activity pages. (See pages 24 and 25.) The first text is a discussion. The title poses a question and provides the reader with a subject and a context for the discussion. The introduction gives some background information about harnessing and using of the wind’s power in the past. Then, as some readers may not be familiar with windfarms, and may not know what they look like and what they do, further background information is provided, supported by an illustration. The writer then presents some discussion. Some information and claims about the positive features of windfarming are discussed, then this is balanced by some more negative ones. The writer’s concluding statement suggests more information is needed before any true evaluation about how good they are can be made.

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The writer chose to present the positives first and not to challenge them. However, this information is prefaced with ’It is claimed ...’ which on careful reading is significant. When discussing some of the negatives, the writer challenged some of them in a manner which suggested some hard cold facts about the matter are needed. This is reiterated in the concluding comments.

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The second text is a poem. It is one person’s emotional response to windfarms. There is no attempt to discuss the issue or to achieve any balanced view in this text. It simply states the author’s negative, fearful and somewhat fanciful response to windfarms. The metaphor of them as monsters is sustained throughout the poem. The repetition of ’There are monsters out there’ creates a sense of fear and expresses the author’s belief that he/she is being threatened by them and unable to escape the whirling, dancing ’swordsmen’. Interrelated English links: See page 57.

E2. Examine works which include humour and pathos to look at strategies the author used to tell the reader about the characters’ feelings or build empathy with their point of view or develop concern for them.

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• Ensure students have the opportunity to listen to or read humorous texts such as books by Roald Dahl or Paul Jennings, or A series of unfortunate events by Lemony Snicket (pen name of Daniel Handler). Books written for younger children such as And to think that I saw it on Mulberry Street by Dr Seuss may be read to the students and used as a basis for a writing activity where the students change characters, events or situations. Short texts such as knock knock jokes may also be included. • Humour in texts (pages 26 and 27)

Some background information about humour in texts is provided to assist teachers. Writing humorous texts can be extremely difficult for adults as well as students. The information on these two pages may offer some ideas for times when students need to write their own texts. Remember: humour in texts (or anywhere) is extremely subjective, and what one person feels is funny may just make another cringe.

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• Humorous language (pages 28 and 29)

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Before expecting students to read and understand longer texts of a humorous nature, make sure students are familiar with common literary devices such as similes, metaphors and hyperbole in shorter texts. • A visit to Dr Paul White (pages 30 and 31)

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Ordinary situations with a comical twist can be humorous. Read and encourage students to write about ordinary things that happen to them with changes for humour. Students may write about embarrassing incidents that happen to them, which others may find amusing. The dental visit on page 30 is an example of an ordinary incident with humour. Encourage the students to look for interesting words and phrases such as ’erupt’, ’permeate’, ’buzzing bees filled his head’, ’hover in clouds’ etc. which create imagery and exaggerate feelings.

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• The skateboard lesson (pages 32 to 35)

This text combines a number of different aspects of writing humorous texts—the unexpected happens, someone says something unexpected (at the end), something embarrassing happens to the someone, and someone does something clumsy. Teachers should use one text for a number of different teaching and learning activities. The two pages of questions dealing with this text cover both text structure and language features. Teachers should encourage students to look for interesting vocabulary which has been used instead of more common words; for example, ’plummeting’ instead of ’falling’. The use of adjectives can add richness to a noun; for example, ’batty’ Great Aunt Mildred’, ’tangled limbs’, ’horrified faces’, ’stricken face’ etc. • The solitary troll and the three skinny goats (pages 36 to 39) Fractured tales are stories which have been modified in order to entertain the reader through unexpected characterisation, plot development or a contrary point of view. Students will enjoy listening to, reading, and writing fractured tales. Some examples to share include The book that Jack wrote by Jon Scieszka, The stinky cheese man and other fairly stupid tales by Jon Scieszka, The frog prince continued by Jon Scieszka, Politically correct bedtime stories by James Garner or Seriously, Cinderella is SO annoying!; The story of Cinderella as told by the wicked stepmother (Other Side of the Story) by Trisha Sue Speed Shaskan. Although fairytales are traditionally for younger children, older students will enjoy revamping them. This may be accomplished by rewriting a story as a poem or rap, telling it from a different point of view, taking a character from the story and telling another story concerning him/her, writing a different ending, making the main character a different type of character or an animal, adding new characters to tell the story, having characters from different fairytales meet or combining two stories into one.

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Text and structu orga r nisa e tion

Understand how authors often innovate on text structures and play with language features to achieve particular aesthetic, humorous and persuasive purposes and effects (ACELA1518) © Australian Curriculum: Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

Activities to develop the content description

E2. Examine works which include humour and pathos to look at strategies the author used to tell the reader about the characters’ feelings or build empathy with their point of view or develop concern for them. (continued) • Can you handle it? (page 40) and Holidays that don’t ’suck’! (page 41) View and discuss some humorous television or visual print advertisements which use exaggeration to get the advertiser’s message across. Then read and complete the activities on pages 40 and 41. Encourage the students to record or write their own funny advertising material.

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• Gaya-dari the platypus (pages 42 and 43)

Discuss the words, phrases and images in texts used for exaggeration to help readers understand a character’s feelings. Use the text and questions to assist the students. Encourage the students to use exaggeration to over-dramatise the story. Interrelated English links: See page 57.

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E3. Examine the three elements of persuasion (ethos, pathos, logos) used by a writer to appeal to an audience. • Discuss the element of ethos in persuasive texts. Read texts and complete associated activity page (pages 44–47).

• Discuss different situations when ethos is used to great effect; for example in advertising and in politics. Compile a list of specific examples such as: a used car salesperson, a party planner, an in-store sales promoter, a street vendor, a politician, an environmentalist. Consider what each wants to persuade the audience to do and how he/she does it. • Make a list of attributes that a writer/speaker needs to convince an audience of his or her authenticity.

• Discuss situations where ethos is used to trick an audience; for example, a salesperson selling goods known to be faulty, a person in authority deliberately misleading the public, a person assuring a prospective employer or client that he or she has the necessary qualifications and experience to perform a job well.

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• In groups, role-play interview scenarios where three students apply for the same job. How will they present themselves and convince the panel of their qualifications, experience, integrity etc.? • Discuss the element of pathos in persuasive texts. Read texts and complete associated activity page (pages 48–50).

• Compile a list of different emotions and discuss examples of when pathos could be used to evoke these emotions; for example, politicians inciting people to rise up and take arms against another nation, environmentalists encouraging people to save water, power etc., charities urging people to donate funds or resources to a worthy cause. • Choose a topic for persuasive writing and compile a list of emotive vocabulary that could be used to evoke the required emotion. Prepare an extract of the persuasive text that focuses on the pathos elements. • Discuss the element of logos in persuasive texts. Read texts and complete the associated activity page (pages 51–53).

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• Study examples of persuasive text that include evidence in different forms and record the different ways it is presented; for example, statistics relating to the childhood obesity or adolescent smokers over a period of time, facts related to global weather patterns or the movement of populations because of war and political instability, anecdotal evidence such as the increase in numbers of people playing sport when high profile sports events are televised such as tennis during grand slam competitions. • Study a wide range of persuasive texts to highlight the elements of ethos, pathos and logos. Consider how the presence of each element affects the overall appeal and presentation of the text.

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Interrelated English links: See page 57.

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Text types

Resource sheet

Narrative text Structure

To entertain, amuse and/or teach Narratives present the reader with a problem or complication, then describe a series of events telling how it is eventually resolved.

Complication: Something becomes a problem for one or more of the characters and this changes the expected pattern of events and often the characters too.

Time connectives to connect and sequence events Textual cohesion maintained by the use of antonyms and appropriate synonyms, including pronoun reference

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The narrative may be simply amusing and entertaining or it may aim to teach the reader something about problem solving and life.

Resolution: The problem is resolved in some way.

Coda: (Optional) Ways in which people have changed and/or lessons that were learnt are described.

Paragraphs to link information and events Nouns to name particular people, places and things Adjectives to describe people and settings in more detail Verbs to tell what characters are thinking, feeling and doing

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Orientation: The main characters, the time and place are introduced.

Language features

Adverbs to describe how, when and where things happen Past tense

Often told in the first or third person

Procedural text© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons

Structure Language features •f orr evi ew pur poses onl y•

Purpose

Goal: The task is stated.

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Procedures can tell the reader how to make or do something or give a set of rules to be followed.

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Materials: If any equipment is needed to complete the task it is listed. Steps: Each step is given in chronological order. All necessary steps are included. Test: (Optional) A way of accessing if the procedure has been followed successfully

Command verbs usually start each instruction Precise vocabulary to provide details given using noun groups and adjectival phrases

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To instruct

Concise wording, unnecessary words omitted Details of time, place, manner and condition provided using adverbial clauses

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Instructions are written in the second person; i.e. ’You should’ is understood, but not stated Diagrams, illustration and photographs may be used to clarify instructions

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Purpose


Text types

Resource sheet

Recount text Structure

Orientation: The people involved, the time and the A factual recount retells a series place are introduced and of events and may provide some any necessary background form of evaluation. information provided. A personal or story recount Events: These are usually retells events in order and may described in chronological order. include an opinion or comment to express the writer’s feelings Personal comments: There may and attitude. A recount may be be some form of comment factual or imaginative. given about particular events throughout the text.

Language features Descriptive language to explain people, places and things, including noun groups Time connectives to connect and sequence events Textual cohesion maintained by the use of antonyms and appropriate synonyms, including pronoun reference

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Conclusion: The writer may conclude by, for example, expressing an opinion, posing a question or making a prediction

Action verbs are varied and descriptive Passive verbs may be used in factual recounts

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To inform or entertain

Adverbial phrases indicating time, place and manner Paragraphs to link information and events Past tense

First or third person

Expository text © R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons

Purpose Structure Language features • f orr evi ew p ur poseso nl y•

Expositions argue for one side of a case or issue in order to persuade others to agree.

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Statement: The writer outlines the issue and states his/her position on it.

Arguments: The writer’s strongest and most persuasive arguments are usually presented first. Each argument is elaborated and supported with evidence.

Evaluative and emotive language to convince the reader Words and phrases to qualify statements

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To persuade

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Understand how authors often innovate on text structures and play with language features to achieve particular aesthetic, humorous and persuasive purposes and effects (ACELA1518) © Australian Curriculum: Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

Purpose

Thinking verbs to present a point of view Modal verbs and adverbs to express the strength of statements and advice

o c . che e r o t r s super Reinforcement of position: The most persuasive arguments supporting the position taken are restated, with reference to some of the others, in a brief conclusion and summary.

Connectives to link and sometimes to prioritise ideas Conjunctions such as ’therefore’ and ’because’ to show reasoning Paragraphs for each separate argument Present, past and future tenses Written in the first person when giving own opinion, in the second person to tell others what they should think and do or in the third person to record what others do, have done or should be doing in the future

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Text types

Resource sheet

Explanatory text Structure

To inform and explain

Statement: The subject of the explanation is stated and may be defined.

Explanations tell how or why something occurs, is constructed or works. Explanation: A clear account of the phenomenon is given, often supported by diagrams or illustrations.

Linking words to show cause and effect Time conjunctions and adverbial phrases of time to show sequence

Description: The components, operation, application and special features are explained, often supported by diagrams or illustrations.

Paragraphs used to organise and connect information

Conclusion:(Optional) An evaluation and comment is given.

Passive voice

Report text

Present tense Third person

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Precise, technical subject-specific vocabulary, including abstract nouns

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Structure

Reports present information by classifying and describing both natural and constructed things.

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Language features

Classification: Often a general Technical and subject-specific opening statement about the vocabulary subject of the report, defining it General terms and nouns rather Description: Accurate and than specific ones detailed information about the Verbs to explain the function subject relating to aspects such of features and how they are as its features, location and related behaviour Paragraphs to first introduce the Conclusion: (Optional) A topic, then to organise related comment about the content of information using subheadings the report may be included. and/or topic sentences; elaboration then follows

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Purpose

To inform

Language features

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Timeless present tense Passive voice

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Purpose


Text types

Resource sheet

Discussion text Structure

To explore, evaluate and make informed decisions

Introductory statement: The issue is outlined and, if necessary, some background information may be provided. Arguments: Some arguments both for and against are presented. Each is supported with evidence. Some evaluative comments may be made.

Language features Connectives to link ideas Emotive language used to convince the reader Words and phrases to qualify statements

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Conclusion: The arguments for both sides may be briefly summarised and evaluated. A recommendation may be made and explained.

Thinking verbs to present a point of view Modal verbs and adverbs to express the strength of statements and advice Conjunctions such as ’therefore’ and ’because’ to show reasoning

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Discussions provide opportunities to examine issues from at least two perspectives, review and evaluate the evidence before reaching conclusions and making decisions. Recommendations about the matter may then be made to others.

Present, past and future tenses Written in the first person when giving own opinion, in the second person to tell others what they should think and do or in the third person to record what others do, have done or should be doing in the future

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Descriptive text •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Structure

To describe Descriptions focus on a particular feature or characteristic of a person, place or thing. They can be imaginative or real and may stand alone or be part of another text type such as a narrative or a poem.

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Language features

Introduction: The subject or Detailed noun groups to provide focus of the description is given. descriptive information Characteristic features: Some of the notable features of the subject are described.

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Purpose

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Understand how authors often innovate on text structures and play with language features to achieve particular aesthetic, humorous and persuasive purposes and effects (ACELA1518) © Australian Curriculum: Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

Purpose

A variety of appropriate adjectives used to describe people and places

Concluding comment: (Optional) Action verbs to describe what There may be some personal people and things do comment, which may be A variety of adverbs to tell evaluative. more about how, where or when something happens or happened

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Visual images evoked by the careful selection of appropriate vocabulary Figurative language, such as similes and metaphors, to compare and contrast the subject with something Third person is often used Timeless present or the past tense often used Passive voice may be used

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Young cyclist remains in coma

Resource sheet

2 September

Young cyclist remains in coma The distressed driver of the truck which struck the boy said that there was no way he could have avoided hitting him.

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Mr Wayne Smith later told the police, ’He just came across the footpath out of nowhere and hit the road so fast, I didn’t even get a chance to apply my brakes. I still can’t believe it. It all happened in a flash. I thought I’d killed him for sure’.

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The eleven-year-old boy knocked off his bike late on Tuesday afternoon remains in a coma at the Prince Edward Hospital for Children, with head and other injuries.

Mr Mal Richards, the boy’s father, expressed his family’s gratitude to the many kind and capable people who had helped cared for Tom at the scene. Their ongoing concern and the countless well wishes and cards sent to their son had meant a great deal to him and his wife.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Tom Richards of Glen Wallace was •f o ev i ew ur posesonl y• riding his bike in r ther car park of p

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the local shopping centre when the accident occurred. Witnesses report that he had been jumping his bike over some obstacles when he lost control. He was thrown off his bike when it skidded onto Juniper Avenue, a major road on the northern perimeter of the car park.

He also praised the actions of the paramedics who fought hard to stabilise his son at the roadside before transferring him to hospital by ambulance.

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The distraught parents have remained at their son’s bedside at the children’s hospital since the tragedy. It is believed the boy was not wearing his helmet. It was later found still strapped to the handlebars of his bike.

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The Newtown Daily News


Resource sheet

To the principal from Tom Richards I have written this letter and I hope that you will print it in the school’s next newsletter. Please print it because it took me ages to write it and I want everyone to read it. I think it’s really important. If you ride a bike, do you ever think about having an accident? I want to tell you my story, because I thought nothing would ever happen to me, but it did.

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I ended up in hospital for two months with head injuries and a broken leg. And I’m still not right. I couldn’t remember what had happened when I came out of the coma. I was in hospital, my head really hurt when I tried to move and I couldn’t talk.

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Mum and Dad were there and they just kept squeezing my hand and crying. They were pretty upset because they’d been told I may never walk or talk again. This was because my brain had been badly knocked around. The doctors said it was really bad and they didn’t know if it would ever recover.

Well, I have recovered ... well almost, but it didn’t just happen. I had to work hard. The physios were tough, really tough. They made me push and push myself and to do things and it hurt. It was terrible. I used to get so mad when I couldn’t do the things that used to be easy before my accident.

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Some of my friends came in to see me, but they didn’t want to stay long. I don’t think they knew what to do or say to me. I hated it when they told me about how our teams were going and what they’d all been doing. Everything they did sounded fun. And I still couldn’t even walk properly!

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One day, I was having a really bad day complaining about everything. Dad got mad with me and said that perhaps I should blame myself for a change instead of everyone else. He said that after all I was the one who hadn’t been wearing a helmet.

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Understand how authors often innovate on text structures and play with language features to achieve particular aesthetic, humorous and persuasive purposes and effects (ACELA1518) © Australian Curriculum: Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

Glen Wallace Primary School newsletter

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Well, I really hated him saying it, but I know he’s right. It was my fault. I didn’t have my helmet on.

If I ever do get back to riding a bike, that’s something I’ll never do again ... and nor should you!

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Discussing the texts – 1 Read the two texts about the same incident on pages 10 and 11. Answer the questions.

(b) Is it written in the first, second or third person? (c) Does it contain more facts or opinions? (d) Who will be reading it? (e) Explain why you think it was written.

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(f) How did the writer engage the readers’ interest?

2. (a) Who wrote the second text? (b) Is it written in the first, second or third person? (c) Does it express opinions or just give facts? (d) Explain why it was written.

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(e) Who will read it?

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(f) What does the writer want people to do?

3. Both texts tell you that the boy wasn’t wearing a helmet.

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(a) Explain how the first text tells you this.

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(b) How does the second text give the reader this information?

(c) Think about the purpose for writing each text and explain why they provide this information in different ways.

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1. (a) Who wrote the first text?


Discussing the texts – 2 Read the two texts on page 10 and 11. Answer the questions.

(a) The second text is persuasive but it’s different from many others because it doesn’t do this. Explain how this text is organised.

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(b) Write some possible reasons why the writer changed this format.

Why Why not?

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(c) Do you think this is effective? Yes No

2. (a) The first text uses more formal language. Give an example:

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

(b) The second text uses less formal language. Some examples are:

(a) the boy felt. (b) his parents felt.

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(c) his friends felt when they went to see him.

(d) you felt.

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3. The second text is more emotional. There was a personal cost to many people. Write some words you would use to describe how:

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Understand how authors often innovate on text structures and play with language features to achieve particular aesthetic, humorous and persuasive purposes and effects (ACELA1518) © Australian Curriculum: Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

1. Persuasive text often starts by stating the writer’s position on a topic and then provides arguments to support this view.

4. Write the information provided in the first text about the accident. When? Where? What? How? Why? R.I.C. Publications®

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How hovercraft work

Resource sheet

This all-terrain vehicle is powered by an engine which is designed to turn one or two large fans. The power of the air blown by one fan lifts the hovercraft up by forcing air under it. A second fan is usually used to push the vehicle forwards. It does this by blowing air backwards in a similar way to a jet engine.

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The three main components of a hovercraft are: • the main body • the fans

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• the skirt.

Air is forced under the hovercraft, where the skirt traps it between the ground and the main body. The vehicle hovers and ’flies’ on this air.

The hovercraft glides across the surface. There is little friction, so it doesn’t require much power to move the craft forward. Some can travel at speeds of up to 130 kph.

Rudders like those used in aircraft are located behind the fans. They are used to steer the hovercraft.

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Stopping a hovercraft is not so simple. This can be done by turning the craft 180 degrees and using the thrust of the fan to push it back in the direction it came from.

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Hovercraft are environmentally friendly and economical to run. Their footprint pressure on the Earth has been described as less than that of a seagull standing on one leg. They are versatile, very safe vehicles which are popular with the military. These craft, while amazing, actually operate on a quite a simple scientific principle.

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cockpit

rear fan

airflow

drive shaft

engine

vertical rudders

drive shaft main body

central fan

skirt

cushion of air

cushion of air

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A hovercraft is a vehicle that flies above the surface of water or across land on a cushion of pressurised air.


Resource sheet

Hovercraft have always fascinated me. Ever since I first saw one on television, dancing sideways from ocean to sand, I had dreamed of a flight in one. But unlike a lot of my dreams, this one was about to come true. The hovercraft was bigger than I’d expected, but sleek and powerful from its purposefully rounded bow to its huge twin ’fans’ at the back. When the pilot started the rumbling engine, the yellow machine rocked and then rose on its skirt, like a majestic beast waking up—or a ballet dancer rising to her feet.

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We clambered aboard eagerly and settled into our seats. The engine rumble increased and we began to move, gliding so effortlessly down the concrete ramp, across the brown mudflats and onto the water.

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Then we were flying over the bay, pirouetting gracefully as we followed the shoreline. We turned in long, sliding arcs, travelling sideways as effortlessly as we had travelled forward.

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Dance of the hovercraft

At the end of the aquamarine bay we tiptoed onto a beach as orange as rust, and the hovercraft, like a ’ship of the desert’, sank gently to its knees.

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We climbed out to look at fossilised dinosaur footprints there on the beach. They were millions of years old. To be standing where those ancient creatures had once walked, and left behind their tracks, was truly amazing. But for me ... I just wanted to go dancing again.

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Discussing the texts – 1 Read the two texts about hovercraft on pages 14 and 15 and answer the questions.

(a) Begins with a precise statement or definition. Yes No (b) Includes specific vocabulary and technical language. Yes No (c) Gives clear information in a logical sequence. Yes No

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(d) Uses simple present tense verbs. Yes No (e) Links cause and effect. Yes No (f) Includes an evaluation. Yes No

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(g) Includes a diagram to support and explain the text. Yes No

2. The second text is a descriptive recount. Tick the features you can identify in this text. (a) Relevant background information about: who

where

when

what

why

(b) Significant events in detail and in order.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons (d) Verbs in the past tense. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• (e) Text organised in appropriate paragraphs. (c) Vocabulary to suggest the passing of time.

(f) A conclusion or evaluative comment.

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3. (a) Some examples of specific and technical vocabulary used in the first text are:

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(b) Descriptive verbs used in the second text include:

(c) Descriptive adjectives used in the second text include:

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1. The first text is an explanation. Does it have the following features?


Discussing the texts – 2 Read the texts about hovercraft on pages 14 and 15 and answer the questions.

(b) What did you work out about this text from its title?

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(c) The title of the second text is:

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(d) Explain why you think the author called it Dance of the hovercraft.

2. One of the ways the writer links flying in a hovercraft to dancing is by using dancing vocabulary. Some of the phrases associated with dancing from the text are:

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

In descriptive writing something is often compared with something else to explain what it’s like and to create a visual image for the reader. This is known as a simile. For example: The hovercraft was like ’a majestic beast waking up’.

For example: The writer says that the hovercraft is dancing.

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3. (a) Write an example of a simile from the text.

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Another way of creating an image to explain what something looks or feels like is by saying it is something. This is called a metaphor.

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1. (a) Write the title of the first text.

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(b) The hovercraft is called a dancer. Continue this metaphor by writing something the ’dancer’ does.

4. Hovercraft don’t have knees. Explain what the writer meant when he described the hovercraft stopping on the beach by saying it ’sank gently to its knees’.

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The coyote is a member of the dog family. Its name means ’barking dog’ and it is related to the jackals of Asia, Africa and Europe, to grey and red wolves and to domestic dogs. Coyotes howl at night to communicate and to keep other males away. This distinctive sound causes fear for some, while other people refer to it affectionately as ’the song of the west’.

Description

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This small mammal is about the size and shape of a collie dog with a round, bushy tail which is held out. It becomes bushier and more horizontal to display aggression.

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Coyotes living in valleys or deserts weigh about 10 kilograms and are light grey or tan with a black-tipped tail. Mountain coyotes are larger (22 kilograms) with darker, thicker fur much prized by hunters, especially in winter when it is longer and silkier. Their coats are often almost white underneath and some have a white-tipped tail. Coyote have five digits on their forefeet and four on their hind feet. They are ’digitigrade’, which means they walk with only their toes on the ground.

Distribution and habitat

Coyotes are found throughout North America from Alaska in the west to New England in the east and south through to Mexico. They have been steadily extending their territory and have been sighted in Canada and in Florida too.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Although their natural habitat is grasslands, coyotes move to where there is food. They dig • f o rr e vofi e wp ur p os esrange on l yan• their own den or may modify that another animal. They usually over area of about 25–30 square kilometres. Mountain coyotes may need both a winter and a summer hunting ground.

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Food and hunting

Coyotes are very adaptable animals and have a varied diet. They will eat almost anything, but mostly mice, rabbits, squirrels, fish, insects, berries and even reptiles. Poultry, sheep and even deer are killed by coyotes. They will eat both fresh and spoiled foods and even the desert’s unpalatable coyote melons. They find what water they can or they sometimes dig for it. They also get moisture from what they eat.

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These clever animals are excellent hunters either alone or in small packs. Their sight, hearing and sense of smell are very good and they have great stamina. They can track and stalk their quarry for 20–30 minutes, then strike when it is exhausted.

Breeding A female has one litter of 3–9 pups in spring, when food is more plentiful. The pups are born blind. They suckle for 5–7 weeks and remain in the den until they start hunting at 6–10 weeks. The male brings food, but is not permitted to enter the den. The pups are independent by 12 months and leave. Despite sustained efforts to eradicate them by agriculturalists and biologists, fearing either for their stock or for other native species, coyotes have survived. This appears unlikely to change given the nature of these adaptable, resourceful animals. Australian Curriculum English – Language: Text structure and organisation (Year 6)

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Resource sheet

Coyote (Canis latrans)


Resource sheet

This traditional tale is one of many told about coyote by generations of American Indians. They believe the coyote to be cunning, savvy and very willing and capable of tricking others. A very long time ago, an important dog leader decided to hold a meeting. Leaders of dog packs from all around the world were cordiality invited to attend—with one exception ... Coyote. ’He’s really not one of us, he’s too different. We really don’t want one of his kind here, so let’s just forget about him’, the haughty dog leader had explained.

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But, when Coyote learnt a meeting was to be held in the great tipi and that he was to be excluded, he was extremely upset. He went to the venue and cleverly concealed himself in some bushes nearby. From this secluded position, he watched as all the dog leaders proudly entered the tipi. There were dogs of every shape, size and colour in attendance. The noise was deafening. Now, before I continue with this tale, there’s something I need to check. Are you all aware of the one dog-meeting rule that can never be broken? I’ll explain. It’s the one that says that those attending must remove their tails and leave them outside the tipi in a special place set aside for that purpose. Coyote watched enviously as every dog followed this tradition and removed its tail before entering the tipi. Finally, the participants were all inside and the meeting commenced. Coyote could hear drums beating rhythmically. They masked any noise he made as he carefully approached the tipi. He stood silently listening to the drums and the talking coming from the inside until he could bear it no longer. He felt ostracised and miserable. He had to do something, but what?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Then, the enormous pile of tails caught his attention. Racing over, he determinedly tossed them this way and that. When they were in a tangled mess, he ran around the perimeter of the tipi shouting at the top of his lungs, ’Mad bear! Mad bear!’

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Dog's tails

Well, there is no love lost between dogs and bears. In fact bears are one of the few animals dogs are afraid of. What a panic! Dogs started rushing out of the tipi, clumsily tripping over each other in their haste to escape. When they finally made their way outside, they had difficulty locating their own tails. In terror, they frantically snatched any tail and desperately raced off into the woods with it.

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That is why to this day, whenever dogs meet, they always check the other’s tail, attempting to identify which dog it really belongs to.

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Discussing the texts – 1 Read the two texts about coyotes on pages 18 and 19 and answer the questions.

(a) Coyote is a narrative/report and is written in the past/present tense. It was written to inform/entertain. (b) Dogs’ tails is a narrative/report and is written in the past/present tense. It was written to inform/entertain.

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2. Identify some of the features of these two texts by writing ’A’ for the text on page 18, ’B’ for the text on page 19 and ’AB’ for both texts. (a) Tells a story

(b) Is organised in paragraphs

(e) Has a complication

(f) Uses powerful verbs

(g) Presents facts clearly

(h) Uses descriptive adverbs

(i) Is imaginative

(j) Has subheadings

(k) Has characters and a setting

(l) Starts with a general statement

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(d) Describes characteristics

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(c) Uses topic-related vocabulary

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3. The texts are organised in paragraphs. One way the paragraphs in one are different from those in the other is:

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4. Add more examples of the subject-specific vocabulary used in the report, Coyote, to

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this list: adaptable, stamina,

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5. Add some examples of time connectives used in the narrative, Dogs’ tails. For example: when Coyote learnt, whenever dogs meet,

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1. Circle the correct words in these sentences.


Discussing the texts – 2 1. Adverbs can be used to enhance verbs by describing how or the manner in which something happens. In narrative text, this often allows a reader to picture or ’see’ the action and to understand the characters better; e.g. watched enviously. Make a list of adverbs used in this way in the second last paragraph of Dogs’ tails.

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2. The descriptive language used in a report can provide more information about something. Adjectives can be used to describe and explain what things (nouns and pronouns) are like; e.g. a round, bushy tail.

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Make a list of adjectives used in the first paragraph in Coyote about food and hunting.

3. A report should present facts clearly and in an organised way. Find this information in the text.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

(a) What is a coyote?

(b) Write two facts about coyote food.

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(c) Write two interesting facts about coyote pups.

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Read the two texts about coyotes on pages 18 and 19 and answer the questions.

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(d) Explain why finding the information in Coyote was hard or easy.

4. The writer tried to provide some subtle humour in Dogs’ tails. (a) Do you think he/she succeeded? Yes No (b) What image do you think was meant to be humorous?

(c) What would add to the humour of a traditional narrative which was spoken not written?

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Resource sheet

The use of wind as a free and readily available source of power is not new. Ancient sailors captured wind to sail long distances and explore the world. Farmers have also used wind for generations, to turn windmills pumping water for their stock and crops, and for grinding their grain.

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Today windfarms use wind to generate electricity by turning two or three huge 60-metre long propeller-like blades set high up on a 20-storey tower where they can capture more wind energy. There are many of these turbines clustered over a large area at a windfarm. They are positioned where the wind is fairly strong and constant; some on land that is unsuitable for other purposes and some on land still used for farming. Offshore windfarms have also been established. It is claimed the wind energy industry is booming and that by 2050, one-third of the world’s electricity will be generated by wind. Electricity produced by windfarms is renewable and costs are low once a turbine is erected. Less fossil fuel is being burned to make electricity and greenhouse gases are being reduced. They cause no air or water pollution and do not harm the environment.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Interestingly, this source of electricity, while enthusiastically embraced by many of the world’s populations, is not without controversy. It has been reported that some existing windfarms have been shut down because of costs and some strongly voiced opposition has been widely reported in the media. Complaints were made about blade glint and noise. So, low-reflective coating was added to sails and people were told windfarm noise is inaudible to humans. But the main concerns involve health issues, such as anxiety, epilepsy caused by shadow flicker, insomnia, hearing loss, and speech and learning difficulties in children. Research so far is inconclusive, but it is known that anxiety itself can cause these symptoms. Birds are another issue. A log of the birds killed by rotating sails has been kept at many windfarms. Although bird migratory routes are now taken into account by developers, many are still dying.

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As world energy consumption continues to rise, sustainable solutions are essential. Despite some people’s aversion to the strange, almost alien appearance of these huge machines ’visually polluting’ the landscape, they are one part of the solution. However, some people have expressed concerns about production costs and the health questions deserve further research. Australian Curriculum English – Language: Text structure and organisation (Year 6)

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Windfarms: how good are they?


There are monsters ...

Resource sheet

When the night is dark and deep There are monsters out there; I’ve heard them roar When the world is hushed in sleep There are monsters out there; I’ve seen their arms

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Each sharp as a razor blade

There are monsters out there; I’ve seen their arms In endless ranks arrayed

Swordsmen in a dance

There are monsters out there; I’ve seen them whirl That deadly, flashing lance There are monsters out there; I hear them now And it’s too late to flee

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There are monsters out there; I’ve seen them whirl

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons There are • monsters out there; Ie feel f or r e vi wtheirpbreath ur posesonl y• There are monsters out there; I hear them now I know they come for me

Send shivers down my spine

As they form their battle line There are monsters out there; don’t let them near My home, my family, my friends

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There are monsters out there; I feel their breath

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There are monsters out there; I’ve heard them roar

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There are monsters out there; don’t let them near Or this is where it ends

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Discussing the texts – 1 Read the two texts about windfarms on pages 22 and 23. Answer the questions.

(a) Begins with a precise statement or definition. Yes No (b) Makes an introductory statement which includes some background information. Yes No (c) Presents more than one side of an argument. Yes No

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(d) Has a conclusion with a recommendation. Yes No (e) Uses only present tense verbs. Yes No

(g) Includes a diagram to support and explain the text. Yes No

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(f) Links cause and effect. Yes No

2. (a) How does the writer of the discussion indicate that he/she thinks the information in Paragraph 3 is debatable?

(b) Write three of the positives about windfarms made in this paragraph.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

3. (a) Is Paragraph 4 arguing for or against windfarms?

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(b) Write two of the negatives about windfarms made in this paragraph.

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(c) How do windfarm developers explain the complaints they have received about the health issues associated with windfarms?

4. Some people have referred to wind turbines negatively, as huge, strange, almost alien machines that pollute the landscape. Write a more positive description.

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1. The first text is a discussion. Does it have the following features?


Discussing the texts – 2 1. The poet who wrote There are monsters ... presents a very personal view of windfarms and makes it very clear that he/she doesn’t like them. (a) Do you think the poem was written to inform, entertain or persuade? (b) Describe how it made you feel.

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(c) Do you think this is the way the poet wanted you to feel? Yes No

(e) What is the effect of the repetition used in the poem?

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(d) How did the poet make you feel this way?

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(f) What effect does the use of rhyme have?

(a) Two examples of metaphor in There are monsters ... are:

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2. Poets often use metaphor to evoke visual images and to create effects by saying one thing is something else.

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Read the two texts about windfarms on pages 22 and 23. Answer the questions.

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(b) Choose one of them and describe what you think it means.

(c) Do you think this is an effective metaphor? Yes No Give reasons.

(d) Write a metaphor you would use reflecting your attitude towards windfarms.

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Humour in texts – 1

Resource sheet

NOTE: Humour in texts is very subjective. What one person considers humorous another person may not. Sources of humour in texts can be described as broadly covering the following scenarios: • something unexpected happens • something says something unexpected

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• something terrible happens to someone else

• something embarrassing happens to someone else

• someone does something silly, awkward or clumsy.

1. Subject matter being dealt with; for example, bodily functions. 2. Situations:

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Specific elements of humour in long or short texts may include:

• what you see or hear is different to expectations; for example, a policeman who is afraid of criminals

• a certain expectation is set up, then a twist or surprising ending occurs; for example, a bomb explodes but is full of soap bubbles • the usual rules of reason are relaxed and the impossible becomes possible; for example, a shy person becomes the lead singer in a rock band •

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons examining issues which are sociably unacceptable or taboo usually within a safe •off o rr e vi ew phad ur po ses onbel y • framework jokes; for example, ’If you half a brain, it would lonely’

• switching identities, roles or functions; for example, parent and child take on each other’s bodies

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• authority figures such as teachers or parents become adversaries; for example, ’No more pencils. No more books. No more teachers’ dirty looks’ • an author’s work, song or an idea is made fun of or imitated; for example, ’There was an old woman who swallowed a fly’ becomes ’There was an old bloke who swallowed a chook’

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• humour relating to a specific topic or ’in’ jokes; for example, Q: At which sport do waiters excel? Ans: Tennis, because they serve so well. • exaggeration leads to disastrous consequences; for example, a teacher who can’t sing at all takes a music class • absurd things; for example, a hyena becomes a wildlife warden • something does not fit into its proper place or situation; for example, an astronaut takes a flying lesson • a character does or says the opposite of what he/she means to, as in irony (a figure of speech or literary device in which the literal meaning is the opposite of that intended) • funny human predicaments; for example, someone losing their swimming costume after diving into a pool. Australian Curriculum English – Language: Text structure and organisation (Year 6)

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This set of pages is to provide background information for teachers and to give assistance to students when writing their own humorous texts.


Humour in texts – 2

Resource sheet

3. Characters: • who are unusual or extreme; for example, an athlete who thinks only about his/her sport • with unusual or funny names; for example, Amelia Bedelia, Stretch Oddfellow • who are conflicted so they suffer; for example, forgetting your speech in a publicspeaking competition

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• who are funny but not trying to be; for example, someone learning to skateboard who keeps falling off. 4. Funny words:

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• puns (the humorous use of a word in such a manner as to bring out different meanings or applications, or of words alike or nearly alike in sound but different in meaning; a play on words); for example, ’Jill broke her finger today, but on the other hand she was completely fine’ Why were the early days of history called the dark ages?

• double meanings or ambiguities; for example, ’Stock up and save. Limit: One’ or ’Q: What did baby corn say to momma corn? Ans: Where’s pop corn?’ •

Because there were so many knights!

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons word plays; for example, ’If a teacher teaches and singer sings,p •f orr eav i ew ur posesonl y• what do authors do?’

• made-up or nonsense words; for example, ’thimmy-ma-jig’

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• exaggeration; for example, ’I’m so hungry, I could eat a horse’

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• with fears or flaws; for example, an absent-minded professor

• understatements; for example, ’It’s a bit warm’ (stated on a very hot day) • plain talk; for example, ’You have lettuce between your teeth’

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• turning things upside down or inside out; for example, ’We need more school rules’

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• jokes, for example, ’Knock Knock. Who’s there? Ivor! Ivor who? Ivor good mind not to tell you now!’ • internal dialogue or thoughts; for example, a character saying ’Sure. I’ll do that!’ but really thinking ’Forget it! No way am I doing that!’ • anecdotes; for example, ’Did you hear about the lawyer who ...’

• language or behaviour which is usually unacceptable (or taboo); for example, belching, picking your nose etc. • substituting or switching words; for example, ’Bag of fruit (suit).’ 5. Timing: finding the right moment to do something; for example, a policeman pursuing a criminal in and out of a series of doors which open and close at times so that the policeman keeps missing the criminal each time.

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Humorous language – 1

A simile is a figure of speech which compares two different things using the words ’like’ or ’as’; for example, ’as quick as a fox’, ’as white as a sheet’, ’eat like a horse’ etc. 1. Complete the ending of these common similes. (a) to fight like (c) as cold as

(f) as slow as a

as blind as a

(d)

to sleep like a

(f)

as light as a

(g)

to sing like an

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(e) to work like a

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2. Write some similes of your own using the words provided. These may be longer than a single word or two as long as the description suits the word. They can also be funny! (a) slow

(b) peanut butter (c) black

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons (e) eat like •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• A metaphor is a figure of speech which compares without using ’like’ or ’as’. It says (d) smelly

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something IS something else; for example, ’His hair is bone white’; ’She has a heart of gold’.

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3. Complete these well-known metaphors. After each say what it means. (a) The soldier has the heart of

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(b) His wife was the light of

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(c) The children were jumping

.

(d) After their lottery win, they were rolling

.

(e) The teacher told the children to pull

.

(f) It rained cats

.

4. Write some metaphors of your own using the words given. They can be funny! (a) The meal was

.

(b) The baby’s face was

.

(c) A clear conscience is

.

(d) Technology is

.

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Many literary devices can be used to create humour. Similes and metaphors are two such devices.


Humorous language – 2

Examples include: I am so tired I could sleep for a week; Her grandfather is older than the hills; I’ll die if I don’t get another chocolate bar! 1. Write an alternative expression for these examples of hyperbole. (a) The textbooks in my backpack weigh a tonne.

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(b) His brain is the size of a peanut.

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(c) She’s got a truckload of money.

(d) I’m so hungry, I could eat a horse!

(e) The boys ate so much junk food I thought they would explode.

(f)

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons If I’ve told you once I’ve told you a million times to clean up your room! •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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(g) She’ll go insane when she finds out I’ve won the concert tickets.

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Understand how authors often innovate on text structures and play with language features to achieve particular aesthetic, humorous and persuasive purposes and effects (ACELA1518) © Australian Curriculum: Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

Hyperbole is a figure of speech which uses obvious and intentional exaggeration to provide emphasis and humour.

(h) Bill Gates has enough money to feed an entire continent!

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Hyperbole may be included in other figures of speech such as similes: for example, ’The team swam that race like greased lightning!’ 2. Write a simile that includes hyperbole for the following. (Don’t forget to use ’like’ or ’as’.) (a) She is so skinny . (b) The music at the party was so loud . (c) Dad’s new sports car moves

.

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Simon considered himself a reasonably brave twelve-year-old. He enjoyed doing new things and finding out what he could and couldn’t do. At camp, he’d tried abseiling, rafting, rock climbing and even the flying fox. If he wasn’t very good at those things it didn’t matter, because at least he’d tried.

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Unfortunately, one biannual event always caused panic to erupt in Simon’s intrepid body. A visit to Dr Paul White for a check-up was definitely cause for panic. Mum was convinced that Dr White was an excellent dentist. Dr White was a nice enough person. He was tall and pleasant to look at. He had a mop of blonde hair, thick bushy eyebrows and twinkling brown eyes. He also liked to tell weird jokes. Dr White had attached several interesting pictures to the ceiling above the patients’ chair so they would have something to look at during examinations. Dr White, however, had one major fault—he loved cooking—usually with lots of garlic! Whenever he opened his mouth to speak, the odour of smelly garlic covered the nearest person. It seemed to hover in clouds around his body and permeate the whole room. It stung your eyes until they watered and stole your breath away until you wanted to gag. Dr White’s patients were not very sociable. They usually left as soon as they could. Today, despite his numerous failed protests, Simon’s mother was driving him to the dentist. Simon was determined to get the visit over and done with quickly. His mother parked the car, fed the parking meter and, together, they walked quickly to the surgery. They gave their names to the receptionist and settled down to wait.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons ’Simon Bailey!’ the dental nurse called out and smiled at him. Simon took a deep breath •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• and followed her into the examination room.

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’Hello, Simon!’ chortled Dr White cheerfully as he straightened the instruments on his tray. ’How have you been?’ ’Hi!’ mumbled Simon to the back of Dr White’s head as he continued with his task. ’I’m fine.’

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’Did you hear the one about ...’ Dr White began as Simon stared at him in amazement. Buzzing bees seemed to fill Simon’s head as he tried to make sense of what he was seeing. ’Not funny I know ...’ Dr White was saying, ’... but you know how I like my jokes!’ As Simon continued to stare, Dr White seemed to notice his confusion. ’Oh!’ he laughed. ’You’ve noticed the joke surgical mask my colleague brought from Germany. He’s working with me for six months and thought my patients would like them. He’s a good cook too, so he’s teaching me how to make lots of German dishes!’ That’s when Simon realised he could detect no garlic smell. He had been completely distracted by the stupidest mask he had ever seen! Australian Curriculum English – Language: Text structure and organisation (Year 6)

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A visit to Dr Paul White – 1


A visit to Dr Paul White – 2 Complete the answers after reading the text on page 30.

(a) Where is the orientation in this text and what does it include?

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(b) How has the author commenced the text, and why do you think he/she did this?

2. Tick the other aspects of narrative text structure which have been included. (a) complication

(b) events in order

(d) ending

(e) other

(c) resolution

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons verbs in the past tense (b) conjunctions to join ideas •f orr evi ew p ur posesonl y• appropriate paragraphs (d) other

3. Tick the language features of narrative texts which have been included. (a) (c)

(a) Simon’s panic at the thought of visiting Dr White

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(b) the smell of garlic emanating from Dr White

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4. Write some examples of words or phrases which show exaggeration in:

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Understand how authors often innovate on text structures and play with language features to achieve particular aesthetic, humorous and persuasive purposes and effects (ACELA1518) © Australian Curriculum: Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

1. Narrative texts usually begin with an orientation which tells who, when and where.

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5. Explain how the words of exaggeration help you empathise better with Simon’s feelings about visiting the dentist.

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The skateboard lesson – 1

2. ’They’re too dangerous! I’ve seen kids flying up and down the roads on them’, stated Mum. ’They skate all over the footpath and bowl over nearly every pedestrian in sight.’ 3. ’It’s not fair!’ mumbled Tess. ’I’ll die if I don’t get a skateboard! Bec has one and she’s younger than me! All the cool kids have one!’

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4. ’Maybe for your next birthday!’ Mum said emphatically, ending the discussion.

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5. One Sunday afternoon, Mum and Dad paid their monthly visit to batty Great Aunt Mildred and left Tess with her brothers.

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6. ’This is the perfect chance to prove I’m old enough for a skateboard. I’ll practise while Mum and Dad are away, and master the basics before they get back. Steve and Paul always let me do what I want!’ Tess thought. 7. Before long, Tess was standing on her oldest bother’s skateboard on the footpath outside her home, feet positioned correctly, feeling very confident. Even Spot the cat came to watch.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Tess pushed hard—a bit too hard! •f or r ev i ew pur posesonl y• The skateboard shot forward like

8. ’Now take one foot off, and push slowly until you start moving’, Steve ordered. 9.

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a speeding bullet while Tess shot backward. She landed heavily on her bottom with her left hand pressing on Spot’s tail. With immense horror, she watched Spot speed away. Her white face deepened to beetroot red as the skateboard flew in the opposite direction with Steve in hot pursuit.

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10. Spot hissed and bolted between Paul’s legs just as he was about to take a mouthful of red diet cordial. The drink cascaded down the front of his new white T-shirt; the remainder flowed onto the footpath like a sticky pool of blood. Spot, in a tizzy, dived under the outdoor table, upending it and sending a ceramic pot plant of herbs plummeting to the pavers. 11. The skateboard, meanwhile, continued onto the road towards Old Man Grump cycling back from the market with fruit and vegetables in his basket. Swerving to avoid the obstacle that had careered into his path, he upended the basket. Colourful vegetables splattered and bounced everywhere, while Old Man Grump struggled to Australian Curriculum English – Language: Text structure and organisation (Year 6)

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1. Despite all the arguments Tess put forward, her parents stubbornly refused to buy her a skateboard like her two elder brothers.


control his wobbling vehicle. Keeping an eye on his disappearing dinner, now bruised and bloodied, and straightening an upset bicycle, proved just too much for Old Man Grump! He landed in an untidy heap of tangled limbs in Mrs Carstairs’ prize rose garden, flattening her precious blooms. Steve, meanwhile, continued his pursuit of the escaping skateboard, dodging bicycles and squashed fruit and vegetables, in a failed attempt to stop it.

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12. The symphony of discordant noises drew the attention of the boys who lived across the street. Soon, they too were out on the footpath surveying the action. Much to Tess’s embarrassment, Elijah, her latest crush, was among them. Unable to burrow into the ground, she stood gingerly and turned her eyes to the street as if discovering what was happening for the first time. Her eyes stung with unshed tears and her shoulders hunched as if she could pull her body inside itself and disappear for good. 13. As a very familiar car turned the corner into the street, Tess groaned. Two curious parents surveyed the wreckage along the street and wondered what serious conversation Old Man Grump and Mrs Carstairs could be engaged in so heatedly. They could almost see steam emerging from the ears of the combatants. 14. The skateboard, unconcerned, came to a rest under Sergeant Plod’s police car. Steve, still closing in quickly on his prey, bumped ignominiously into the bonnet and sprang back like a puppet on a string, straight into the path of his parents’ approaching car. S-c-r-e-e-ch! The car slammed to a halt as horrified faces stared back at each other.

across the neighbourhood, stopping everyone in their tracks. Tess’s parents joined the crowd on the footpath and everyone began chattering at once, attempting to present their version of the events.

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 15. ’What IS going on here?’ bellowed Sergeant Plod

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The skateboard lesson – 2

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16. As he scanned the stunned faces in the street, Sergeant Plod’s laser eyes zeroed in on Tess’s stricken face. A crowd of interested faces slowly turned in her direction. 17. ’Well! What have you to say for yourself?’ he questioned Tess.

18. ’I think I need a bit more practice’, Tess said as she rubbed her sore behind and brushed her embarrassing tears away. Spot agreed.

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The skateboard lesson – 3 Complete the answers about text structure after reading the text on pages 32 and 33

(a) Where is the orientation in this text and what does it include?

(b) Why do you think the author included the four short paragraphs before the actual orientation?

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2. Explain the complication in this narrative and where it can be found.

3. Events in a narrative are given in the order in which they occur. Why is this especially important in this narrative?

4.

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the complication in this narrative? If yes, what is it? If not, explain why you think a resolution was not given.

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5. Endings in a narrative usually show what has changed. Does this happen in this narrative? If yes, what is it? If not, why do you think the author left the narrative without a change?

6.

Is the title appropriate? Suggest one or two more humorous titles below.

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1. Narrative texts usually begin with an orientation which tells who, when and where.


The skateboard lesson – 4

1. Write four examples of: (a) verbs in the past tense (b) conjunctions to join ideas

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2. A simile is a figure of speech which compares two different things using ’like’ or ’as’; for example, ’The lake was as clear as a mirror’. Write one example each from paragraphs 9, 10 and 14.

3. Personification occurs when authors apply human characteristics or attributes to inanimate objects. Write a word or phrase in Paragraph 11 which personifies: (a) Old Man Grump’s fruit and vegetables

(b) the skateboard

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4. Exaggeration helps readers identify with a character’s feelings. Select four examples of words or phrases which illustrate Tess’s embarrassment. • •

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Complete the answers about the language features relating to the text on pages 32 and 33.

5. Write phrases which exaggerate:

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(a) Mum’s statement about the actions of other skateboarders.

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(b) the argument between Old Man Grump and Mrs Carstairs.

(c) Tess’s desire to own a skateboard.

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1.

Once upon a time, in the land of Scandia, there was an extremely ugly troll, with protruding eyes and a nose as long as a tree trunk. His name was Trevor.

2.

His unpleasant features deterred others from approaching him. He had no troll friends and spent most of his time in solitary occupations. Unlike the others of his species, Trevor was a vegetarian. His one dream was to find a place of his own and live his life without censure.

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After much searching, Trevor found a comfortable abode beneath a bridge. It had a sturdy roof of wooden planks, and was close to cool, clean drinking water. The hillside nearby was coming to life with lush, green grass and other edible delights.

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3.

4. The first few nights spent in the new dwelling were rather uncomfortable. Spring had yet to take a firm hold on the weather. The nights were still bitterly cold and Trevor had yet to fill his home with his possessions or decorate it to his satisfaction. It was draughty and chilly instead of warm and cosy. As a result, Trevor soon found himself with a runny nose, scratchy throat and a rumbling voice. Trevor had troll flu, and was feeling far from happy. Each day, he laboured to finish decorating his home and fell into a fitful, feverish sleep at night. Gradually, his home began to feel ’lived in’ and his flu improved. His voice, however, remained rough and scratchy.

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5. One day, just as he was waking, Trevor heard a noise on his roof. ’Trip! Trap! Trip! Trap!’ went the bridge.

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6. ’Who’s that tripping over my bridge?’ roared the troll, in his raspy voice.

7. ’It is only I, Junior Billy Goat Buff’, said a timid voice. ’I’m going up to the hillside to make myself fat.’

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8. ’Wait! I’ll hobble up and go with you!’ said Trevor, eager to meet his new neighbours. 9. ’Oh, no! Please don’t gobble me up!’ replied Junior Billy Goat Buff. ’I’m too little! Wait for the Intermediate Billy Goat Buff! He’s much bigger!’ 10. ’I’m not going to gobble you up!’ roared the troll. ’I’ll come with you!’ But the staccato of tiny hooves could be heard above, skipping across the bridge heading towards the hillside. 11. ’Perhaps Intermediate Billy Goat Buff is less skittish!’ Trevor contemplated. ’I’ll wait for him.’ 12. Shortly afterwards, Intermediate Billy Goat Buff began to cross the bridge. 13. ’Trip! Trap! Trip! Trap!’ went the bridge. 14. ’Who’s that tripping over my bridge?’ roared the troll, in his raspy voice. Australian Curriculum English – Language: Text structure and organisation (Year 6)

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The solitary troll and the three skinny goats – 1


The solitary troll and the three skinny goats – 2

16. ’Wait! I’ll hobble up and go with you!’ repeated Trevor. 17. ’Oh, no! Please don’t gobble me up!’ replied Intermediate Billy Goat Buff. ’I’m not very big! Wait for Senior Billy Goat Buff! He’s much bigger!’ 18. ’I’m not going to gobble you up!’ roared the troll. ’I’ll come with you!’ But the staccato of hooves could be heard above, skipping across the bridge heading towards the hillside.

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19. ’Perhaps Senior Billy Goat Buff is less skittish!’ Trevor contemplated. ’I’ll wait for him.’

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20. Shortly afterwards, Senior Billy Goat Buff began to cross the bridge.

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21. ’Trap! Trap! Trap! Trap!’ went the bridge, as loud thudding hooves ventured onto the bridge. The wooden planks of the troll’s house began to echo and tremble. 22. ’Who’s that trapping over my bridge?’ roared the troll, in his raspy voice. 23. ’It is I, Senior Billy Goat Buff’, said a very loud voice. ’I’m going up to the hillside to join my brothers who are busily making themselves fat.’

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Which• have only improved since day Ir was f o r r evi e wthep u pborn. osesonl y•

24. ’If you wait, I’ll hobble up and go with you!’ replied Trevor. 25. ’Well, come along! I’ve two gorgeous horns

I’ve got, besides, four sleek polished hooves and a body so fit. There is no handsomer animal. I dare you to prove it!’

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26. That was what the Senior Billy Goat Buff said, as Trevor emerged cautiously from beneath the bridge. Surely such a fine, confident animal would be utterly appalled at his horrendous appearance. He braced for the ridicule that usually followed.

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15. ’It is only I, Intermediate Billy Goat Buff’, said a louder voice. ’I’m going up to the hillside to make myself fat.’

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27. At the sight of the protruding eyes and nose as long as a tree trunk, the eyes of Senior Billy Goat Buff widened in amazement. His mouth opened and closed as he struggled to find his voice. 28. ’I beg your pardon, sir, for my obnoxious behaviour. If I had known I was in the presence of such illustrious company, I would never have bragged about myself. Your appearance leaves me totally flummoxed. Never in my life have I seen such fine examples of olfactory or ocular organs. You are a king among the stupendous. In this region, the unusual is revered and treasured’, Senior Billy Goat Buff waffled. 29. So Trevor joined the goats on the hillside and became very fat. And if Trevor has not changed his dietary habits, they continue to coexist quite happily. 30. SO: If you want to live a happy life, ’do your own thing’ and when others confront you ... well ... you can cross that bridge when you come to it! R.I.C. Publications®

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The solitary troll and the three skinny goats – 3

A fairytale follows a basic narrative format. 1. Write the title and an alternative.

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2. Where does the orientation occur in this text and which features does it include? Write each part of the orientation.

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3. Copy one or two examples from the text which tell about the complication. After each, in brackets, state the paragraph (para.) where it was found.

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4. State the main events in the correct order they occurred.

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5. Briefly explain how the complication was resolved.

6. Was it resolved to your satisfaction? Yes No Explain.

7. What changed at the end?

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Complete the answers about text structure after reading the text on pages 36 and 37.


The solitary troll and the three skinny goats – 4

1. The word ’deterred’ in paragraph 2 is an example of a verb in the past tense. Find and write four examples of simple past tense verbs from the text.

2. The author has substituted a number of different words for ’said’ to enrich the vocabulary of the text. Find three other verbs with the same meaning as ’said’.

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3. Conjunctions join ideas in a text. Write the two ideas as separate sentences in the examples given. Underline the conjunctions.

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(a) After much searching, Trevor found a comfortable abode beneath a bridge. • •

(b) Gradually, his home began to feel ’lived in’ and his flu improved. •

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Exaggeration can be achieved in many ways. Find examples of each in the text. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Paragraphs where they can be found are given. •

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(a) a simile (a figure of speech which compares two different things using ’like’ or ’as’) which shows how ugly Trevor feels his nose is. (Para. 1)

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Complete the answers about the language features relating to the text on pages 36 and 37.

(b) hyperbole (obvious and intentional exaggeration) to illustrate: (i)

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Senior Billy Goat Buff’s ’over the top’ reaction to seeing Trevor for the first time. (Para. 27)

(ii) Trevor’s feelings about how others will react to him (Para. 25)

5. Write some interesting words which paint visual images in the text. (a) short, sharp noises, size and how quickly Junior Billy Goat Buff went across the bridge (Para. 10)

(b) Trevor’s unhappiness (Para. 2) R.I.C. Publications®

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Can you handle it?

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1. Read and view the mobile phone advertisement below.

2. Give examples of exaggeration that illustrate the advertiser’s and manufacturer’s opinion that this mobile phone: (a)

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons is something that you cannot live without. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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(b) has many good features.

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(c) is of a very good quality.

3. Give two examples of the author’s attempts at humour.

4. Why would the author use the adverbs ’forever’ and ’always’ in the text?

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Many advertisers use exaggeration and humour to grab the viewer’s attention and to convince them to buy their products.


Holidays that don’t ’suck’!

2.

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1. Read and view the advertisement below.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Which adjectives exaggerate the positive experience of holidaying in Transylvania in •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Paragraph 1? holiday

(a)

(b)

Transylvania

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3. Write all the examples from the text in the box below.

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The author has used exaggeration and attempts at humour following a vampire theme to grab the attention of the readers and entice them to consider booking a holiday through them to Transylvania.

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Many advertisers use exaggeration and humour to grab the viewer’s attention and to convince them to buy their products.

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4. Suggest one or two other exaggerations of a humorous nature using the vampire theme that could be included in the holiday advertisement.

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1. Long ago in the Dreamtime, a young duck had developed the habit of swimming by herself in the creek. The elders of her tribe warned her repeatedly that Mulloka the water devil would capture her if she continued to swim alone. Of course, being headstrong and immature, she paid no attention to their persistent warnings. 2. One day, having swum a long way down the creek, she stopped on the bank to rest and feed. While she was consuming some tender green grass, an enormous water rat emerged from hiding and seized her. Biggoon was urgently seeking a wife because he was extremely lonely.

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3. In a soothing voice, he explained that if she agreed to stay with him, he would not harm her. However, he threatened that if she struggled or tried to escape, he would strike her on the head with the spear he carried.

4. The duck was utterly terrified so she obeyed her captor’s commands. From that day onwards, to lure him into complacency, she pretended to enjoy her new life and that she would remain forever. Eventually, Biggoon began to believe the duck was contented with her new life, and ceased guarding her day and night. He returned to his former practice of sleeping for long periods during the daytime.

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5. One day, while Biggoon slept soundly, the duck slipped stealthily into the river and swam away as swiftly as she could towards her old camp. When she finally reached camp, she told her tribe how Biggoon had captured her and forced her to remain with him as his wife, and about her eventual escape. So the young duck was able to resume her old life.

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6. When the time came, the young duck established a nest and covered her eggs with mirria bushes beside the creek. She had quickly forgotten her ordeal with the water rat. When her two babies hatched, their appearance was immensely different from that of the other tribal members. Their bodies were covered with soft fur instead of downy feathers; they had duck bills and four webbed feet instead of two. On the back of the feet were spear points like the one Biggoon perpetually carried.

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7. Much to her dismay, the tribe banished the young duck and her scorned children because they were so dissimilar to the other members. So the small family retreated upstream to hide from the tribe and Biggoon. Finally, she found a narrow, scrubby creek in the mountains where she could live unseen on the banks with her children. Soon her children began to see how different her appearance was from theirs and they too avoided her. Too lonely and miserable to even search for food, the desolate little duck began to waste away. In the mountains far from her old hunting ground, she died, forgotten, in grief. 8. Her children, however, flourished and produced more babies like themselves. The mountain creeks became the habitat of the Gaya-dari, the platypus. And a new tribe was created from the mournful experiences of a young duck. Australian Curriculum English – Language: Text structure and organisation (Year 6)

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Gaya-dari the platypus – 1


Authors use pathos—a literary device—to try to develop feelings of pity or sympathy for characters in a text. Certain words, phrases or images help readers understand how the characters are feeling. 1. Biggoon was really committed to having the duck for a wife. What two methods did he use to make her comply with his wishes? Which words tell you this?

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2. The tale does not say how Biggoon felt after he discovered that the duck had disappeared. What words and phrases in Paragraph 4 tell you he may have been really disappointed?

3. Which words in the first sentence in Paragraph 5 tell you that the young duck had to be sneaky and dishonest about her actions when she escaped the rat? Would you have done the same thing? Explain.

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4. Which words or phrases in Paragraph 7 emphasise the duck’s situation and her feelings about it?

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Gaya-dari the platypus – 2

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5. What are your feelings about what happened to the duck? Do you feel that one silly action should result in her exile and eventual death? Explain.

6. The young duck is never given a name. What do you think is the reason for this?

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The rhetorical triangle

The ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle stated that a person’s ability to persuade an audience depended on how effectively he or she appealed to them at three different levels. The three levels or elements are: • ethos, which refers to the credibility and authenticity of the writer. • pathos, which refers to the emotional response of the audience to the text.

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• logos, which refers to the validity of the evidence used to support an opinion and how effectively the author has argued his or her point.

Ethos (about the writer)

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The rhetorical triangle is an illustration of how these three elements of writing should be balanced within a text.

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Pathos (about the audience)

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Logos (about the text)

o c . c e hthese r It is important to remember that elements are not separated within a text but blend e o t r s s r up e together to form a creative, balanced text. Any aspect of a text can include more than

Authors strive to balance ethos, pathos and logos within their writing but an author may alter this balance depending on the purpose of the writing and the audience for whom it is intended.

one element; for example, an author can appeal to the values of an audience (pathos) by giving statistical evidence (logos) of the numbers of people benefitting from the proceeds of a charity event. If the author also refers to his or her role in organising the event, this presents him or her as a caring person who is involved in the event (ethos).

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Resource sheet


Resource sheet

Ethos appeals to the character of an author. When ethos is used in persuasive writing, the author’s image is the key ingredient in persuading the audience that the point of view is valid. The author aims to convince the reader that he or she is qualified to speak on the subject and does so honestly. An author has a greater chance of persuading the audience if he or she has their respect. The ethos element of a persuasive text is characterised when the writer:

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• states his or her qualifications and experience on the subject under discussion or outlines his or her interest in the subject

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• treats other points of view with respect even though he or she does not agree with them

• uses appropriate word choice and formality for his or her audience

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• refers to credible sources or evidence that validate his or her argument and show that other points of view are misguided

• presents the written text in an organised manner using a recognised format for persuasive writing with an introduction, arguments presented in a logical manner from strongest to weakest and a conclusion

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• The ethos element of a persuasive text can be harmed if the writer verbally attacks the people holding • delivers the text in a confident manner without a suggestion of arrogance or disapproval towards those holding other points of view.

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different opinions rather than just questioning their opinions. This tactic is often used when politicians from opposing parties want to highlight the differences between their policies. The idea is to create a great divide in the electorate so that at election time voters are sure of the party they want to vote for.

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Ethos

The ethos element of persuasive text can be deceptive if it is delivered by another person chosen on the basis of popularity or charisma. This tactic is often used in advertising when the physical appeal of actors or models is used to sell products.

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All about the author – 1

For an effective piece of persuasive text, the writer uses ethos to convince the audience that he or she is someone worth listening to. For an audience to be persuaded by the text, they must believe in the authenticity of the writer.

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Writer 1 – Smoking kills So, you want to look cool, act older, feel independent. OK. Go ahead. Do it. Say ’yes’ the next time someone offers you a cigarette. You’ve heard all about the health problems but you’re young, you’re invincible. Nothing bad will happen to you. But that’s where you’re wrong. Smoking kills!

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Examine the extracts of the three persuasive texts and consider how you feel about the author of each.

I have been a doctor for over 20 years and have seen so much suffering because people thought that nothing bad would happen to them. Smoking is the catalyst that causes multiple fatal diseases to different parts of the body. Think of them as a hail of arrows on a Middle Ages battlefield. It only takes one to kill you and as there are so many of them, one is bound to get you. Let me tell you about some of the cases I have had to deal with ...

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Writer 2 – Smoking rocks

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I’ve been a sales representative for a cigarette company for almost 20 years and I know the pleasure people get from having a cigarette. I know some are a bit expensive and people keep going on about them being bad for you but hey, life’s too short to be worrying all the time. All my family smoke and my Grandpa is still going strong at nearly 90. He’s got a bit of a cough but what do you expect at that age? Let me tell you about him and how he got started ...

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At the end of the day, whether you smoke or not is your choice. No-one can live your life for you and if smoking makes you feel better, then do it. Let’s face it, we all have so many problems these days, why shouldn’t we be free to enjoy a cigarette when we want to?

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Writer 3 – Smoking stinks

’Phew! What is that smell?’ I asked myself as I walked past a group of young teenagers. You’ve got it! They were smoking, all of them and it was disgusting. I could almost see the cloudy haze developing above them. The problem is, the smell doesn’t disappear once the cigarette is put out. It lingers, on your clothes, in your hair and on your breath. The bottom line is, smoking and smokers stink. If a person smells for some other reason, we would all agree that it’s not very attractive. Why then, is it so hard to convince people not to take up smoking? Surely they’re smart enough to know that no amount of deodorant, perfume or toothpaste will stop them smelling like a stale ash tray! Let me tell you about what made me stop smoking ...

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Resource sheet


All about the author – 2 Read and discuss the texts on pages 45 and 46 before answering the questions.

Writer 1: For Against

Writer 2: For Against

Writer 3: For Against

2. (a) Briefly explain each writer’s stance on smoking. Writer 1:

Writer 3:

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Writer 2:

(b) Compare and contrast the opinions on smoking of Writer 1 and Writer 3. Similarities

Differences

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Writer 1: Yes No

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(c) Would you be interested to hear the things each writer wants to tell you? Circle.

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1. Circle For or Against smoking for each writer.

Writer 3: Yes No

3. As a doctor, Writer 1 is professionally qualified to discuss the health problems associated with smoking and has a good chance of convincing his audience that his arguments are valid.

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But what of Writers 2 and 3? Evaluate their chances of convincing an audience to agree with their opinions. Writer 2

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Pathos

Pathos appeals to the emotions, empathy, beliefs and values of the audience. When writers use pathos in their work, they want the audience to respond emotionally. People can win support for their cause if their audience can imagine being the person or being in the situation that is described. While pathos often conjures up an image of sadness, it includes all emotions. Our emotions do influence the decisions we make and this is considered by writers of persuasive texts, including political speeches and advertising campaigns. The pathos element of a persuasive text is characterised when the writer:

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• focuses on emotions he or she can genuinely relate to

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• addresses the values and interests of the audience to bring them into the argument, making them feel personally involved • addresses the audience from the text, referring to them in a positive way

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• evokes empathy in the audience so they can identify with the writer’s point of view

• uses narrative and powerful descriptive language such as metaphors and similes to create an image that evokes the required emotion and inspires the audience to adopt the point of view • uses an appropriate style that is appealing to the audience

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• evokes emotions that inspire the audience to agree with his or her point of view and disagree with those of his or her adversaries •

nature of the text.

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The pathos element of a persuasive text can be harmed if the writer evokes the wrong emotion in an attempt to shock the audience into agreeing with his or her point of view. Pathos is deemed to be manipulative if the writer attempts to evoke in the audience an emotion he or she does not personally feel.

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The effect of pathos is lost if the text is presented in an emotional way. This creates in the audience a feeling that the writer is too emotionally involved to produce a credible text.

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Resource sheet


Resource sheet

For an effective piece of persuasive text, the writer uses pathos to stir the emotions of the audience to respond positively to his or her arguments. Before writing, an author will consider who the audience is and adjust the style and vocabulary to suit them.

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Examine the extracts of the three persuasive texts and consider how each writer attempts to evoke feelings in the audience.

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All about the audience – 1

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All about the audience – 2 1. Each writer is attempting to evoke a different emotion in his or her audience. What do you think they are? Writer 1:

Writer 2:

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Writer 3:

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2. (a) What simple strategy does each writer use to immediately engage the audience in the text?

(b) Each writer uses examples to illustrate his or her arguments. What are they and how effective are they at engaging your interest in their arguments?

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Writer 1:

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Writer 3:

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Writer 2:

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3. Rate each writer for his/her attempts to engage you as the audience.

Writer 1: Poor

Excellent

Writer 2: Poor

Excellent

Writer 3: Poor

Excellent

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Read and discuss the texts on pages 48 and 49 before answering the questions.


Logos

Resource sheet

Logos appeals to reason and how effectively the author has presented the text. Writers scientific and mathematical evidence and observed patterns to explain objectively how or why their opinions and argument are valid. If readers recognise the validity of the evidence and follow the writer’s reasoning, they are likely to accept his or her point of view.

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The logos element of a persuasive text is characterised when the writer: • focuses clearly on specific arguments rather than giving a general opinion • supports the argument with simple reason and valid evidence

• uses validated statistics sparingly for good effect

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• chooses evidence that is relevant to the topic

• is direct and to the point and keeps the argument moving forward from the most to the least significant points

• uses an appropriate style that is appealing to the audience

• evokes emotions that inspire the audience to agree with his or her point of view and disagree with those of his or her adversaries

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• delivers the text in a controlled, objective manner, thus emphasising the reasoned nature of the text

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The logos element of a persuasive text can be harmed if the writer includes too much data in support of an argument as this can detract from the message of the text.

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who uses logos are basing their arguments on reasoning. They use statistics, known facts,

Using logos inspires in the audience the feeling that the writer knows what he or she is talking about. Unless the reader/listener has valid evidence to the contrary, it is likely that he or she will accept the writer’s point of view.

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Some evidence used to support the logos element of a persuasive text is anecdotal. This type of evidence is a commonly-held belief based on the personal experiences of many people.

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All about the text – 1

Resource sheet

For an effective piece of persuasive text, the writer uses logos to support his or her present an argument based on reason.

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Examine the extracts of the three persuasive texts and consider how each writer uses logos to convince the audience to accept his or her point of view.

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argument. Using statistics, known facts and other forms of valid evidence, writers can


All about the text – 2 Read and discuss the texts on pages 51 and 52 before answering the questions.

(a) Smoking kills

anecdotal evidence

(b) Smoking rocks

known facts

(c) Smoking stinks

statistics

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2. Describe your response to the evidence of each argument.

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(a) Smoking kills

(b) Smoking rocks

(c) Smoking stinks

3.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Facts and statistics are often presented in graphic organisers to make the evidence easier to absorb.

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(a) Use this table to present the evidence given in the text, Smoking kills.

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1. Match the text with form of evidence used.

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Fit for life – 1

Resource sheet

Keeping fit refers to looking after your physical health. In an age when modern technology has greatly reduced the need or desire for movement, keeping fit is more important than ever. As a paediatrician and a university Professor of Child Health, I have discovered through research that a poor diet and lack of exercise in young children is increasing their risk of heart disease, diabetes and stroke. A recent study shows that today just over 30% of primary school students and 25% or preschoolers are overweight or obese.

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The foundations of adult health are laid down in childhood. The habits you develop now will be with you for life. Take time to consider your current lifestyle. Be honest with yourself. Is it healthy? Can you see where you can make improvements?

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A young animal’s natural inclination is to be active. Can you imagine any young animal choosing to sit for hours, crossed-legged in front of a computer screen instead of being active? When you reduce your activity, your metabolism slows down. But when you’re less active, you also have more time to snack on foods like chips and sweets. Think about it. You’re less active, you burn fewer calories, you eat more food. What do you think is going to happen? You don’t need to be a genius to work out the answer!

There are many ways to keep fit that don’t involve sport; for example, get around by walking, cycling, skating or riding your scooter; meet up with friends to have fun at a local park or the beach instead of at each other’s homes; help your parents in the house or garden. Have you ever considered what great workouts hanging out the washing, weeding, washing windows or the cars, vacuuming and ironing can be? Whatever you choose, it all adds up.

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Keeping fit is easy. The difficult thing is the initial step, making the decision to change your ways. But this decision must come from within you. Others are important for motivation and support but without your commitment, it will always be an uphill struggle. Your future is in your hands.

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Keeping fit does not mean the same as playing sport. For many people, the idea of taking part in sport is abhorrent, but this does not mean that they want to be or should be destined to live an unfit life.


Fit for life – 2 1. Explain how the author has used the elements of ethos, pathos and logos to present the argument.

(a) Ethos

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(b) Pathos

(c) Logos

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2. (a) Describe what you like and dislike about the way the writer has presented the argument. (Note: This does not mean whether you agree or disagree with the author’s opinion.)

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Read and discuss the text on page 54 before answering the questions.

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Dislike

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Assessment checklist

Identifies the elements of logos used in texts

Identifies the elements of pathos used in texts

Identifies the elements of ethos used in texts

Analyses and compares particular elements of text structures and language features chosen by writers

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Student Name

Identifies language features used to create humour in text

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Understands why writers choose a particular text type to suit their purpose

Text and structu orga r nisa e tion

Understand how authors often innovate on text structures and play with language features to achieve particular aesthetic, humorous and persuasive purposes and effects (ACELA1518)

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Text and structu orga r nisa e tion

Understand how authors often innovate on text structures and play with language features to achieve particular aesthetic, humorous and persuasive purposes and effects (ACELA1518)

Interrelated English links

© Australian Curriculum: Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

Below is a list of links within the Language strand, Literature strand and Literacy strand of English that are covered within the activities provided with the content description above:

E1. Analyse and compare some elements of the text structure and language features of a range of texts, to identify the reasons for the writers’ choices. E2. Examine works which include humour and pathos to look at strategies the author used to tell the reader about the characters’ feelings, to develop empathy for their point of view or concern for them.

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E3. Examine the three elements of persuasion (ethos, pathos, logos) used by a writer to appeal to an audience. • Understand the uses of objective and subjective language and bias (ACELA1517)

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• Understand how ideas can be expanded and sharpened through careful choice of verbs, elaborated tenses and a range of adverb groups/phrases (ACELA23) • Identify and explain how analytical images and figures, tables, diagrams, maps and graphs contribute to our understanding of verbal information in factual and persuasive texts (ACELA1524) • Investigate how vocabulary choices including evaluative language can express shades of meaning, feeling and opinion (ACELA1525) • Analyse and evaluate similarities and differences in texts on similar topics, themes and plots (ACELT1614)

• Identify and explain how choices in language, for example modality, emphasis, repetition and metaphor, influence personal response to different texts (ACELT1615) • Experiment with text structures and language features and their effects in creating literary texts, for example using imagery, sentence variation, metaphor and word choice (ACELT1800) • Compare texts including media texts that represent ideas and events in different ways, explaining the effects of the different approaches (ACELY1708)

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• Analyse how text structures and language features work together to meet the purpose of a text (ACELY1711) • Analyse strategies authors use to influence readers (ACELY1801)

• Plan, draft and publish imaginative, informative and persuasive texts, choosing and experimenting with text structures, language features, images and digital resources appropriate to the purpose and audience (ACELY1714) • Investigate how complex sentences can be used in a variety of ways to elaborate, extend and explain ideas (ACELA1522)

• Identify the relationship between words, sounds, imagery and language patterns in narratives and poetry such as ballads, limericks and free verse (ACELT1617)

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• Participate in and contribute to discussion, clarifying and interrogating ideas, developing and supporting arguments, sharing and evaluating information, experiences and opinions (ACELY1709) • Select, navigate and read texts for a range of purposes, applying appropriate text processing strategies and interpreting structural features, for example table of contents, glossary, chapters, headings and subheadings (ACELY1712) • Use comprehension strategies to interpret and analyse information and ideas, comparing content from a variety of textual sources including media and digital texts (ACELY1713)

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Modes, capabilities and priorities covered by the activities in this Content description

The above links are reproduced with permission from ACARA. © Australian Curriculum: Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

Language modes

General capabilities ✔

Listening

Literacy

Speaking

Numeracy

Reading

Information and communication technology (ICT) capability

Viewing

Critical and creative thinking

Writing

Personal and social capability

Ethical behaviour Intercultural understanding Cross-curriculum priorities Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures

Asia and Australia’s engagement in Asia Sustainability

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Text and structu orga r nisa e tion

Understand that cohesive links can be made in texts by omitting or replacing words (ACELA1520) © Australian Curriculum: Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

Related terms

Teacher information

Texts

?

Written, spoken or multimodal forms of communication for a range of purposes. Text forms, organisation and conventions have been developed to enhance effective communication. Cohesion

• Text cohesion is achieved in many different ways and it is important that students can recognise some of the ways in which writers do this. These include: by using word associations, keyword repetition, word omission and substitution, and by visual representations.

Devices used to connect different parts of a text, including paragraphs, connectives, ellipses and word associations. Word associations

Teaching points

• When you read, it is important to think about how information in the text is linked. If you don’t understand how things are linked, you won’t be able to understand the text. • There are many ways writers make links between different ideas and information in the texts they write. They do this so we know when they are referring to the same thing or when they are letting us know that things are connected in a particular way.

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• For a text to be understood it must be cohesive.

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Grammatical or lexical relationships that make links between different parts of a text and hold it together. Cohesion is achieved through devices such as paragraphs, connectives, ellipses and word associations. Linking devices

What this means

• Word associations are used to make text more interesting and to add more information. Examples include: synonyms such as ’bears’ and ’these wild creatures’; pronoun reference, such as ’them’; and antonyms such as ’tame’. • Keywords can be repeated for effect and to link ideas; for example, in a poster promoting a resort as a retreat, the words ’relaxing’ and ’peaceful’ could appear in each different section of the poster describing a particular feature of the resort.

The semantical relationships between words which form links within texts. Pronoun reference

• Texts can be cohesive when words are omitted; for example, information which is closely linked to and builds on the previous sentence, such as: ’Bill favourite food is fish. Ben’s is chocolate’.

Word a pronoun is replacing and referring to.

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Synonyms

• Word substitutions can transfer information from the more specific to the general or vice versa; for example, from ’whales’ to ’sea creatures’ or ’large mammals’, or from ’insects’ to ’mosquitoes’.

Words with the same or a similar meaning. Antonym

• Writers can also use visual information to link ideas and to further explain concepts. Examples include diagrams, graphic organisers, flow charts, maps, illustrations and photographs.

Words with the opposite meaning. Ellipsis

Elaborations

Graphic organisers

E1. Identifying how cohesion is developed in text through word associations such as

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Visual representations of ideas, knowledge and concepts. Juxtaposition

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synonyms, including pronoun reference, antonyms and the repetition of keywords.

E2. Noting how writers can make text cohesive by omitting words or substituting a more general word for a more specific one.

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Elements placed side by side, leaving it to the reader to establish connections and to impose meaning. Continuity

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The omission of words that have gone before, sometimes indicated with three dots.

E3. Understanding ways in which writers can link information and show relationships visually. Examples include: similarity, contrast, juxtaposition, repetition, class-subclass diagrams, part-whole diagrams, cause and effect figures, and visual continuities and discontinuities.

Uninterrupted connection, succession or union.

Further resources

Student vocabulary linked

ellipsis

word association

vice versa

synonyms

flow chart

antonyms

diagram

pronoun reference

graphic organisers

keywords

juxtaposition

cohesive

continuity

• http://www.netrover.com/~kingskid/graphic/graphic.htm#persuasion An excellent collection of free online graphic organisers

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Activities to develop the content description

E1. Identifying how cohesion is developed in text through word associations such as synonyms, including pronoun reference, antonyms and the repetition of keywords. • Synonym search (page 60) Discuss different ways in which writers refer to something in their text and explain that writing without synonyms would be repetitive, extremely dull and boring. Provide an example by reading the paragraph ’Skateboarding’ from page 60 and discuss how it sounds and some synonyms that could have been used instead of ’children’. Select and read another piece of informative text substituting the same noun for all synonyms, including pronouns, in a similar way to ’Skateboarding’.

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Students then work with a partner to identify and list words, including pronouns, used to refer to one principal thing in a selected text. They share their work with another pair whose task it is to confirm the synonyms they selected and to identify any further synonyms in the text. • Pronoun reference (pages 62 and 63)

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Some of the pronouns in the text on page 62 (Pronoun reference), have been highlighted. Students read the text then complete the table on the following page by listing each pronoun, the paragraph it is in and what it refers to. The table can be used for similar future activities.

• Keyword repetition (page 60)

The newspaper report, ’Destructive storm strikes city’ on page 60, is a simple example of repetition of keywords to develop cohesion by linking elements of a text. In this example the word ’destruction’, ’destructive’ and ’destroy’ are repeated. The effect of this is to emphasise the destructive nature of the storm—the focus of the report—and to link the different aspects of the storm which are described in the article.

• Ellipsis (page 61)

This resource page explains ellipsis and provides some examples teachers can analyse and discuss with their classes.

Interrelated English links: See page 75.

E2. Noting how writers can make text cohesive by omitting words or substituting a more general word for a more specific one.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

• What’s been omitted? (page 64)

In this activity students are required to identify and write words that have been omitted from sentences. They also practise writing sentences using ellipsis marks to show that a section of a text has been omitted. • Find another word (page 65)

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Students read two sentences. The first has highlighted word(s) and the second has a blank space. They are required to think of a more general term, linking the two concepts, to replace the more specific one used in the first sentence. The last two sentences are more challenging because there are two specific words to replace with two more general ones. Interrelated English links: See page 75.

E3. Understanding ways in which writers can link information and show relationships visually. Examples include: similarity, contrast, juxtaposition, repetition, class-subclass diagrams, part-whole diagrams, cause and effect figures, and visual continuities and discontinuities.

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• Representing relationships visually 1 to 8 (pages 66–73)

The examples on these resource pages are just some of the ways similarity, contrast, juxtaposition, repetition, class-subclass diagrams, part-whole diagrams, cause and effect figures, and visual continuities and discontinuities could be represented visually. Interrelated English links: See page 75.

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Sample texts

Resource sheet

Text one

Skateboarding Grabbing their skateboards, the children rushed out the door. The children’s mother reminded the children to take the children’s helmets with the children. The children’s mother is very safety conscious and the children’s mother is always worried that one of the children’s mother’s children or one of the children’s friends will fall and hurt the girl child or the boy child’s head. The children find this very irritating, but the children realise that if the children didn’t wear the children’s helmets the children’s mother wouldn’t allow the children to go skateboarding. And skateboarding is something the children all love! Text two

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y © R. I . C.Publ i c a t i o n s so clearl l a s a w ion destruct e h r where T u o b e r v a i t h c tru hee •f or i ew p ur p so nl ya• ts esv de no ts ar visible i tore bo esterday

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or Late y e winds ngton. F v i i l t l c e u r W t s k e d threw c d n u r a t s g c i n i m n r r o o cl sto their mo hour, cy n m a o The full r . f n s a y h o t h t g e e r u k o li m hro around ipped t m r e will not h s t d n n o i i t d w c a u e r e r t p es lik g wides of the d n i t s s u ime but o a t c c e y t t i m s c o o l s e r gs th nown fo y buildin k n a e expected b M . e e r s g a a w s o m im nd da and wi ance cla r u , s s f n i o o r ng their by flyi high. d e e h b s o a t m s n were estructio d e h T many debris. , d a e r p s e wid d was ected an f f a e r e es w as business t glass w n o r f p o sh d a lot of oncerne c e r a e c i Pol g broken. a stron d e u s s i ve be and ha ers will t o o l t a th . warning charged d n a d nde apprehe

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Understand that cohesive links can be made in texts by omitting or replacing words (ACELA1520) © Australian Curriculum: Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

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Destructive storm strikes city


Ellipsis

Resource sheet

Ellipsis can be defined as the omission of a word or words from a sentence which would complete or clarify meaning. This simply means that something has been left unsaid. When ellipsis is used by a writer or speaker the context makes what is meant clear to the reader and makes the text cohesive. In other words, some preceding item in the text serves as a source for the missing information. Examples of ellipsis for class discussion Take your free kick now. If you don’t, they’ll have time to get into position.

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(If you don’t – take your free kick now, ...) I love ice-cream. My brother doesn’t.

Teac he r

(My brother doesn’t – like ice-cream.)

I lost my shoe. My mother thinks I’m very careless.

Kai won five swimming medals. I won two. (I won two – swimming medals.) Can I come with you? No. (You can’t come with me?)

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons It could rain. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• It won’t. (It won’t – rain.) I’ll be good. (I’ll be good if you let me come with you.)

Tim. (My name is – Tim.) What’s your favourite sport? Football. (Football is my favourite sport.)

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What’s your name?

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(My mother thinks I’m very careless for losing my shoe.)

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I’ve been waiting here for 20 minutes. I’ve had enough. (I’ve had enough – of waiting here.)

The doctor said I need to go straight to hospital. I’ll take you. (I’ll take you – straight to hospital.) My family all love hiking and camping. I don’t. (I don’t – like hiking and camping.)

Note: In written material ellipsis can be indicated by three punctuation marks. Examples include: … or ***. Ellipsis marks can show: • Part of a quotation has been omitted. (This example is from Winston Churchill’s wartime speech. ’Never was so much owed by so many to so few’) ’... so much owed ... to so few.’ • Indecision or incompleteness of speech or thought. For example: ’I’m reading a book about …’ Anna started to reply before becoming lost in her library book again. R.I.C. Publications®

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Pronoun reference Pronouns are highlighted in this text. Read it and list them in the table on the next page. Study the text to find what each pronoun is referring to, write this beside the pronoun in the table and the paragraph it is in. Ladies and gentlemen, My name is Max White and I’m a nutritionist. I have been invited to speak to you tonight about your children’s health. This I know is a matter close to the hearts of most parents, but I have two areas of concern. Firstly, do you know enough about it and secondly are you prepared to do something about it?

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Doing something about it is harder. You have to be •f orr evi e w because pur poiss e so nl yagainst • you. strong, there so much working

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All the advertising seems to promote foods with sugar and fat and it’s everywhere you look. Furthermore, there is so much available for them to see and do on a screen instead of doing something more active.

Do you let your children play with dangerous objects or expose them to too much sun? Of course not! They could injure them. But these foods are just as dangerous in the long term. Think of their hearts, their joints and about cancer and diabetes. It’s your job to protect your children from them. I’m not saying children should never eat these foods. But they should be occasional treats, not part of their everyday diet.

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It will help if we all work together on this. Think about your child’s next party and how it can be healthier. And think about the example you set your children. What do you eat and what exercise do you do? Can your family do something active together? Think about your school canteen and what it serves and about what you give your children for lunch. Even if your children look healthy, it doesn’t mean they are. It’s not just about how they look. It has been said that ’you are what you eat!’ I strongly believe children become what they eat and that poor nutrition always catches up with us eventually. Australian Curriculum English – Language: Text structure and organisation (Year 6)

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I believe you do have the knowledge you need. It’s so simple really. Children need to eat more vegetables and less sugar and fat, and they need to exercise. However, all the evidence suggests that they’re not doing this. I strongly believe this is your responsibility. Schools try to help, but it’s really up to you. There is no magic pill to fix this problem. The answer to it is so easy. You don’t need to study nutrition or follow any fad diets. You do have the knowledge and it’s easy to find out more. Look at the nutritional panels on the food you buy. The sugar and fat they contain are clearly listed there to help you to make informed choices.


Pronoun reference table Write the pronouns, the paragraph number and the words the pronouns refer to in the text, in the table.

Words referred to

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Paragraph

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Pronoun

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What’s been omitted? Writers often deliberately leave out words. (This is called ellipsis.) They do this to improve their writing and because they expect their readers will understand the text without them. This isn’t difficult for good readers, because the words in other sentences of the text help them to know what’s missing. For example:

’We’ll get it.’ ’You can’t.’ (get it)

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’We can.’ (get it)

1. Write the omitted word or words in each sentence.

)

(a) My brother eyes are blue. My sister’s aren’t. (

(c) It started raining at 4 o’clock. It still hasn’t stopped. (

)

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Teac he r

(b) She is an excellent student. I am too. (

)

(d) It’s my best friend’s birthday today. I have to wait until the end of the year. (

)

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Don’t worry. ( ) I’m sure the fire officers will be able to • rescue your kitten. f o rr evi ew pur posesonl y•

feeling? (

(f)

)

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Ellipsis marks can also be used to show a pause. For example:

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Writers can show that words have been missed out of text by putting in an ellipsis marks or points. These are usually three dots. ( ... )

His refusal to name the source of the incriminating evidence he presented to the court contributed to the accused man’s acquittal.

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His refusal to name the source ... contributed to the accused man’s acquittal.

2. Write each sentence replacing the highlighted words with ellipsis marks.

(a) The event was won by a team of players from New Zealand who were touring Australia.

(b) My mother entered her sponge cakes which were the best and lightest in the district and she won first prize in the local show again.

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(e) I’m feeling quite concerned about doing my music exam. How are you


Find another word Writers sometimes want to link something that is quite specific in their writing with something that is more general. They can do this by replacing the more specific word with a more general one.

For example:

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

My favourite animal is a horse. I would love to have one.

Teac he r

My teacher has a dog, two cats, some birds and some fish. She loves having pets.

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1. Read the two sentences. Link the second one by adding a word that is more general than the highlighted one(s) in the first sentence. (a) Mum paid a lot of money for a new chair. She believes buying good is a wise investment for the future.

(b) That restaurant uses very fresh fruit and vegetables in all its dishes. I

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f rr e vi w ur posesonl yof• down ino a storm. This ise just onep the many kind really enjoy the healthy

they serve.

and helpful things he has done.

Australia. These aggressive many of the tourists who visit this unique area.

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(d) The number of crocodiles has increased dramatically in parts of northern

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Understand that cohesive links can be made in texts by omitting or replacing words (ACELA1520) © Australian Curriculum: Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

(c) While we were at work our neighbour fixed our fence after it blew

are seen as a threat by

(e) Fire officers are very careful to make sure all their fire hoses, tools, trucks, uniforms and communication devices are always kept in perfect

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working order. They never know what need in an emergency.

they will

(f) There were so many beautiful flowers blooming in her garden. The florist had difficulty choosing and bridesmaids’ bouquets.

to use in the bride’s

(g) Two women were seriously injured when their car rolled over on a country road. Accidents like this

would be far less

traumatic if

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Representing relationships visually – 1

Resource sheet

There are many ways that relationships between concepts can be represented visually. These include diagrams, graphic organisers, graphs, maps, photographs and illustrations. Visual representations may stand alone, but they can often complement, support and help to simplify or clarify written text. 1. Similarities Visual representations of similarities include:

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Similarities and differences table

few hairs

6 legs

usually slender and smooth

narrow junction between thorax and abdomen

stinger is pulled from honey bee's abdomen and worker bee dies other bees: live to sting again

small barbs; stinger can be removed from victim; wasp lives to sting again

Colouring

more muted colours

bright yellow and black

Diet

feed on pollen and nectar

predators or parasites of other insects or scavengers

Stinger

8

backwardpointed barbs on stinger to penetrate victim

6

4

2

0

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• brown

blue

green

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Comparison web map

save lives

• small, hooked mouth for feeding on trees and shrubs • solitary

• both grey in colour

• both have 2 horns on their forehead, one larger than the other • both have poor eyesight

hazel

Can you find the 5 differences?

Venn diagram showing similarities and differences White o rhi hin r no k c la

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grey

Eye colour

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B

10

Both

• broad, flat mouth for feeding on grass

arrest criminals

• sociable

army pilot

badges

fire-proof helmets

fighter jets fly planes

fire fighter

police person airline pilot

uniforms fights fires

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handles guns

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Airbus

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rounder body, usually appears hairy

Wasp

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Body

hairy

Teac he r

Legs

Bee

Number of students

Characteristic

Graph showing the number of students with a similar characteristic


Representing relationships visually – 2

Resource sheet

2. Contrast Visual representations of contrast include: Differences between butterflies and moths Insect Antennae Body Active Colour

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S rounded clubs on the ends

thin or often leathery

thin and smooth

thick and fuzzy

during the day

during the night

colourful

dull

chrysalis

cocoon

held vertically when resting

held flat against cody when resting

Moth

Butterfly antennae

forewing

antennae

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• forewing

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body

hind wing

body

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hind wing

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Understand that cohesive links can be made in texts by omitting or replacing words (ACELA1520) © Australian Curriculum: Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

Wings

Moth

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Teac he r

Pupal stage

Butterfly

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Representing relationships visually – 3

Resource sheet

3. Juxtaposition

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Cooking

w ww HOT DOG $2

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Slaving

DOG $1

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Teac he r

Visual representations of juxtaposition include:


Representing relationships visually – 4

Resource sheet

4. Repetition Visual representations of repetition include:

Teac he r

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Cycle chart

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m . u

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Understand that cohesive links can be made in texts by omitting or replacing words (ACELA1520) © Australian Curriculum: Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

Escher

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r o e t s Bo r e Chicken life cycle p okTesselations u S

o c . che e r o t r s Pattern super

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Representing relationships visually – 5

Resource sheet

5. Class-subclass diagrams

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Visual representations of class-subclass include:


Representing relationships visually – 6

Resource sheet

6. Part-whole diagrams Visual representations of part-whole diagrams include:

Pie chart

Pyramid diagram

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shoes

designer

Six questions

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur poses onl y• topic where?

how?

why?

what?

who?

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when?

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Understand that cohesive links can be made in texts by omitting or replacing words (ACELA1520) © Australian Curriculum: Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

Jigsaw

cobbler

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customer

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Picture it o c . che e r o r st super Organising tree

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Representing relationships visually – 7

Resource sheet

7. Cause and effect figures

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Visual representations of cause and effect include:


Representing relationships visually – 8

Resource sheet

8. Continuities and discontinuities Visual representations of continuities and discontinuities include:

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i oan s life cycle •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Understand that cohesive links can be made in texts by omitting or replacing words (ACELA1520) © Australian Curriculum: Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

Spot the 5 differences

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Teac he r

Complete the drawing

Optical illusion

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Continunity through life

8 years old

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38 years old

72 years old

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Recognises ways in which relationships in texts can be represented visually

© Australian Curriculum: Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

Understands text can be cohesive when words are omitted

Understands how specific words can be replaced by more general words in text

Identifies how keywords are used to contribute to text cohesion

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Understands pronoun reference in text

Identifies word associations such as synonyms used to link ideas in text

Student Name

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Text and structu orga r nisa e tion

Understand that cohesive links can be made in texts by omitting or replacing words (ACELA1520)

Assessment checklist

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Text and structu orga r nisa e tion

Interrelated English links

Understand that cohesive links can be made in texts by omitting or replacing words (ACELA1520) © Australian Curriculum: Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

Below is a list of links within the Language strand, Literature strand and Literacy strand of English that are covered within the activities provided with the content description above:

E1. Identifying how cohesion is developed in text through word associations such as synonyms, including pronoun reference, antonyms and the repetition of keywords. • Investigate how vocabulary choices, including evaluative language can express shades of meaning, feeling and opinion (ACELA1525) • Reread and edit students’ and others’ work using agreed criteria and explaining editing choices (ACELY1715)

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• Develop a handwriting style that is legible, fluent and automatic and varies according to audience and purpose (ACELY1716)

E2. Noting how writers can make text cohesive by omitting words or substituting a more general word for a more specific one. • Reread and edit student’s own and others’ work using agreed criteria and explaining editing choices (ACELY1715)

Teac he r

• Develop a handwriting style that is legible, fluent and automatic and varies according to audience and purpose (ACELY1716)

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E3. Understanding ways in which writers can link information and show relationships visually. Examples include: similarity, contrast, juxtaposition, repetition, class-subclass diagrams, part-whole diagrams, cause and effect figures, and visual continuities and discontinuities. • Identify and explain how analytical images like figures, tables, diagrams, maps and graphs contribute to our understanding of verbal information in factual and persuasive texts (ACELA1524) • Plan, draft and publish imaginative, informative and persuasive texts, choosing and experimenting with text structure, language features, images and digital resources appropriate to purpose and audience (ACELY1714)

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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The above links are reproduced with permission from ACARA. © Australian Curriculum: Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

Modes, capabilities and priorities covered by the activities in this Content description Language modes

General capabilities

o c . che e r o t r s super Literacy

Listening

Speaking Reading

Numeracy

Viewing Writing

Information and communication technology (ICT) capability Critical and creative thinking

Personal and social capability Ethical behaviour Intercultural understanding

Cross-curriculum priorities Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures Asia and Australia’s engagement in Asia Sustainability

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Understand the uses of commas to separate clauses (ACELA1521) © Australian Curriculum: Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

Related terms

Teacher information

Punctuation/Punctuation marks

?

The system of inserting marks in text to clarify meaning. Punctuation marks include full stops, question marks, exclamation marks, commas, colons, semicolons and quotation marks. Commas

• While the main emphasis in this unit is on understanding the uses of commas to separate clauses in sentences, using commas to separate words and phrases will also be covered.

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A word or group of words in a sentence which does not have a finite verb (i.e. a verb with a subject). Clause

A group of words, including a verb and its subject. (A clause can be a simple sentence.)

• Punctuation is an important part of written text. Using the correct punctuation makes a difference in how a sentence is read or spoken, and understood. Punctuation gives writing structure and organisation so a reader (or listener) understands the message conveyed by the writer. • Presenting sentences to students with correct and incorrect use of commas will enable them to realise the relevance of their use. Commas that are omitted, or used in the wrong place, can completely change the meaning of a sentence. For example: ’Let’s eat Dad’ has a different meaning from ’Let’s eat, Dad’.

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Teac he r

• Commas are punctuation marks that are used to separate words, phrases or clauses. They inform a reader when to pause and, in doing so, clarify meaning.

Teaching points

Punctuation marks used to separate words, phrases or clauses to clarify meaning. Phrase

What this means

• Students should identify that punctuation marks such as commas are a guide to using the correct intonation and pauses when reading or talking.

Serial comma

In a series of words, phrases or clauses, a comma stands for an omitted conjunction, such as ’and’ or ’or’. A comma placed before the actual conjunction in a series is called a serial comma. It is usually unnecessary, unless omitting it would cause confusion as to the meaning of a sentence. For example:

• Students will need revision/teaching in understanding and identifying phrases and clauses in sentences before completing some of the activities provided with this content description.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Elaborations

E1. Identifying and using commas in a series of words, phrases or clauses

E2. Identifying and using commas in sentences containing phrases and clauses that are

Without a comma after ’banana’, it seems like the monkey is eating a banana and a python!

E3. Identifying and using commas in other ways.

Conjunctions

Further resources

Joining words such as ’and’, ’or’, ’since’ and ’unless’ which can be used to connect words, phrases, clauses or sentences.

• Primary grammar and word study (Books E, F and G) R.I.C. Publications

Transition words

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not in a series.

• Posters: Introducing punctuation R.I.C. Publications

• Interactive software: Introducing punctuation R.I.C. Publications

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Words that assist a writer to get from one idea to another; e.g. however, therefore, otherwise.

Student vocabulary punctuation

conjunction

punctuation marks

introductory phrases and clauses

comma phrase clause

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Zac photographed a lion roaring, a monkey eating a banana and a python. (incorrect)

nouns transition words

serial comma

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Text and structu orga r nisa e tion

Understand the uses of commas to separate clauses (ACELA1521) © Australian Curriculum: Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

Activities to develop the content description

E1. Identifying and using commas in a series of words, phrases or clauses. • Resource sheet (page 78) This resource sheet gives rules and examples for using commas in a series of words, phrases or clauses. It can be enlarged and displayed as a reference chart; distributed to students as a personal reference; or scanned, copied and pasted into an interactive whiteboard program. • Identifying commas in a series in texts

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Identify how commas in a series are used (correctly or incorrectly) in class texts, and everyday, community, literary and informative texts. These could include texts students have written in class, class novels, nonfiction material based on a science theme being covered, newspapers, online texts, notices on community notice boards in shopping centres, and posters or signs in the community. • Blackline masters (pages 79 and 80)

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The activities on page 79 involve students identifying commas in a series and adding them in the correct places. On page 80, students can identify the absurd meaning an incorrectly placed or omitted comma can produce. This activity could be extended by students creating their own sentences with incorrect commas and giving them to other students to read.

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Interrelated English links: See page 93.

E2. Identifying and using commas in sentences containing phrases and clauses that are not in a series. • Resource sheets (pages 81 and 82)

These resource sheets give rules and examples for using commas in phrases or clauses that are not in a series. They can be enlarged and displayed as a reference chart; distributed to students as a personal reference; or scanned, copied and pasted into an interactive whiteboard program.

• Identifying commas in texts

Identify how commas are used (correctly or incorrectly) in sentences containing phrases and clauses in class texts, and everyday, community, literary and informative texts. These could include texts students have written in class, class novels, nonfiction material based on a science theme being covered, newspapers, online texts, notices on community notice boards in shopping centres, and posters or signs in the community.

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• Blackline masters (pages 83 and 84)

The activities on page 83 involve identifying commas which separate phrases or clauses in a sentence which provide the reader with extra information. Page 84 involves identifying commas used after an introductory clause. • Comma confusion cards (page 85)

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Eight different cards have been provided, each with two sentences. Each sentence has a comma in a different position or omitted. A suggestion for using the cards is to give pairs of students a card, they work out the meaning of each sentence according to the comma placement and share this knowledge with another pair of students. Interrelated English links: See page 93.

E3. Identifying and using commas in other ways.

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• Resource sheets (pages 86, 88 and 90)

These resource sheets gives rules and examples for using commas in ways other than the two elaborations above. They can be enlarged and displayed as a reference chart; distributed to students as a personal reference; or scanned, copied and pasted into an interactive whiteboard program. • Identifying commas in texts

Identify how commas are used (correctly or incorrectly) in ways other than the above elaborations in class texts, and everyday, community, literary and informative texts. These could include texts students have written in class, class novels, nonfiction material based on a science theme being covered, newspapers, online texts, notices on community notice boards in shopping centres, and posters or signs in the community. • Blackline masters (pages 87, 89 and 91) The activities on page 87 involve identifying commas used to set off geographical names. Page 89 gives students practice in using a comma and a conjunction to join simple sentences, therefore making their writing more interesting. Page 91 gives students’ practice using commas with transition words. Transition words connect ideas and improve the flow of writing. Interrelated English links: See page 93.

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Commas in a series

Resource sheet

Commas are used in sentences to separate a series of words, phrases and clauses to make meaning clear. Comma rule: A comma is placed after every word, phrase or clause in a series except for the last two. The conjunction ’and’ or ’or’ is written between the last two. Examples:

The price of basic foods like bread, milk and eggs has risen sharply. (words)

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Will we find the cleaning products up this aisle, in the next aisle or along the back wall? (phrases)

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The shop assistant stacked the shelves, the cleaner washed the floors and the manager checked the stock. (clauses)

Comma rule:

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We bought pumpkin, two cartons of vegetable stock and a large stockpot in which to cook the soup. (word, phrase and clause)

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If the last two items in a series already have ’and’ because they belong together, add a comma before them. Example:

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A comma is necessary before a conjunction such as ’and’ in a series of items, if omitting it might lead to confusion as to the meaning of the sentence.

Example: At one of the tables in the food centre we noticed a boy adding salt to his chips, a girl eating a slice of pizza, and a crying baby in a pram. Note: Without a comma after pizza, it may seem the girl is eating pizza and a crying baby!

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w ww Comma rule:

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Foods that are delicious but are not always prepared in a healthy way include hamburgers, sausages, and fish and chips.


Commas in a series Commas are punctuation marks used to separate a series of words, phrases or clauses in a sentence to make the meaning clear. 1. Read the text about the Indian elephant.

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2. (a) Circle all the commas.

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The Indian elephant is one of four subspecies of Asian elephant. The other three subspecies are commonly known as the Sri Lankan, Sumatran and Borneo elephant. The Indian elephant is found in countries such as India, China, Burma, Thailand and Cambodia. They live in areas of forest, plains and grass. Elephants have superior hearing, quite poor eyesight, dextrous trunks and large brains. An Indian elephant’s diet includes grass, roots, leaves, bark, bananas and sugar cane. Indian elephants are endangered due to habitats being destroyed for logging, humans hunting them for their tusks and habitats being cleared for mining and dam construction.

(b) Use a red biro to underline all the lists of words separated by commas.

(c) Use a blue biro to underline a series of phrases or clauses separated by a comma.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons f or evi ew pword, ur p os eclause soinn yexcept • the last • • A comma isr placed after every phrase or al list two. Write ’and’ or ’or’ between the last two.

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If the last two items in a list already have ’and’ because they belong together, add a comma and ’and’ before them.

Understand the uses of commas to separate clauses (ACELA1521) © Australian Curriculum: Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

3. Add commas where they are needed in these sentences.

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(a) I couldn’t decide whether I enjoyed visiting the Indian city of New Delhi Kolkata Mumbai or Bangalore the most. (b) New Delhi has carefully planned colonial buildings wide streets beautiful parks modern offices shopping arcades cafes and restaurants. (c) New Delhi’s population of more than 13 million causes problems with severe overcrowding constant traffic congestion housing shortages and widespread pollution. (d) The Bengal tiger is India’s national animal. It is found in grasslands subtropical and tropical rainforests mangrove regions and wet and dry forests.

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Absurd meanings! If a comma is left out or inserted in the wrong place in a series, it can change the meaning of the sentence. This meaning can be quite absurd!

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(a) Mum finds great delight in cooking her family and the cat. Meaning:

Sentence with comma placed correctly:

(b)

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1. Read each sentence. One comma has been either left out, added or placed in the wrong position. Explain the meaning of each sentence with the incorrect comma and identify where the comma should be. Then rewrite the sentence with the comma in the correct place.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• At the zoo we spotted a tiger prowling, otters diving, a giraffe eating carrots and an

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Sentence with comma placed correctly:

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(c) The ingredients for goat’s cheese salad include baby spinach, sliced pears, walnuts, goat’s, cheese, lemon juice and olive oil. Meaning:

Sentence with comma placed correctly:

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Meaning:

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enormous python.


Commas with clauses and phrases – 1

Resource sheet

Commas are used to identify a phrase or a clause in a sentence which provides the reader with extra information. If this extra information is taken out, the sentence will still make sense.

Example 1: Astronomy, which comes from the two Greek words ’astro’ meaning ’star’ and ’nomy’ meaning

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’law’, is the study of the universe and all things in it.

If the clause between the commas is taken out, the sentence still makes sense:

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Astronomy is the study of the universe and all things in it.

Example 2:

Mercury, the smallest planet in our solar system, is about the size of Earth’s moon.

If the phrase between the commas is taken out, the sentence still makes sense: Mercury is about the size of Earth’s moon.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons The planet Mars is smaller than Earth, about half its size. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• If the phrase after the comma is taken out, the sentence still makes sense: Example 3:

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The planet Mars is smaller than Earth.

Understand the uses of commas to separate clauses (ACELA1521) © Australian Curriculum: Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

A comma can be used after an introductory clause in a sentence.

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Introductory clauses often begin with the words: as, if, when, because, after, since, although, whenever, before, though, until. Examples:

Although Mercury is the closest planet to the sun, Venus is the hottest. Because Venus is so hot, nothing can live there.

As Jupiter is by far the biggest planet, it is known as the king of planets.

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Commas with clauses and phrases – 2

Resource sheet

Commas are used to separate two nouns or phrases that refer to the same person. Examples: Mrs Hartmann, our deputy principal, is on leave next term. (The phrases ’Mrs Hartmann’ and ’our deputy principal’ refer to the same person.) My best friend, Campbell Hunter, lives in the same street as I do.

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(The phrases ’my best friend’ and ’Campbell Hunter’ refer to the same person.) Daniel Booth, our local member of parliament, will visit our school on Friday.

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(The phrases ’Daniel Booth’ and ’our local member of parliament’ refer to the same person.)

The placement or omission of a comma in between phrases, clauses (or words) determines the meaning of the sentence. The meaning changes according to the placement. Example 1:

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Let’s eat, Grandma.

The meaning of the sentence is to inform Grandma that it is time to eat.

Example 2:

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Without a comma, the sentence means that Grandma is going to be eaten!

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Slow, road workers ahead.

The meaning of the sentence is to slow down as road workers are working up ahead. Slow road workers ahead. Without a comma, the sentence means the road workers ahead are working at a slow pace!

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Let’s eat Grandma.


Commas used to identify extra information Commas are used to identify a phrase or clause in a sentence which provides the reader with extra information. If this extra information is taken out, the sentence will still make sense. 1. Underline the clause or phrase which gives extra information in each of these sentences. (a) Marathons, contested by men and women, are 42.195 kilometre running events.

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(b) BMX cycling, as an Olympic sport, was included for the first time at the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games.

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(c) Hockey, an exciting game to play and watch, is contested between two teams of 11 players.

2. Use commas to identify the clause or phrase which adds extra information in each of these sentences. (a) In rhythmic gymnastics contested by women only competitors use handheld apparatus such as a hoop or a ribbon. (b) Triathlon believed to have been invented in France is an extremely demanding sport.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Write a clause or phrase, and add commas, to punctuate each sentence. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• (c) Butterfly the most tiring swimming stroke is swum facedown.

3.

(a) Weightlifting weights on a barbell above the head.

Understand the uses of commas to separate clauses (ACELA1521) © Australian Curriculum: Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

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(b) In beach volleyball are played on a deep sandy base by teams of two players.

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(c) The platform diver from a height of 10 metres.

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involves lifting

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games

took off

(d) In synchronised swimming nose clips are worn to prevent water from entering the nose.

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Commas used after introductory clauses A comma can be used after an introductory clause in a sentence. Introductory clauses often begin with the words: as, if, when, because, after, since, although, whenever, before, though, until. 1.

Underline the introductory clause in each of these sentences. (a) As British jails were overcrowded in the 1700s, the British government decided to establish a penal colony in Australia.

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(b) When Captain Arthur Phillip and the First Fleet arrived at Sydney Cove, the land surrounding the harbour was inhabited by Aboriginal Australians (Eora people).

Use a comma to identify the introductory clause in each of these sentences.

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2.

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(c) After the Eora people realised their hunting land was being taken from them, they began to fight with the new settlers.

(a) Although 19th century maps had many coastal areas labelled not much was known about Australia’s interior. (b) Until explorers finally travelled into the interior it was believed Australia had an enormous inland sea.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Write an introductory clause for each of these sentences. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

(c) When Charles Sturt’s exploration party reached the Simpson Desert it was finally proved there was no inland sea. 3.

(a)

many convicts died on the

the new settlers and the

Aboriginal people were often in conflict. (c)

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it was difficult to climb the

blue mountains on Australia’s east coast. (d)

they did not know much

about Australia’s interior.

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(b)

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long sea journey from England.


Comma confusion cards

Resource sheet

EXAMPLE A

EXAMPLE B

1. Let’s eat Uncle Robert.

1. Charlotte said her sister was very ill.

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EXAMPLE C

EXAMPLE D

1. Mr Perkins walked on, his head a little higher than usual.

1. Olivia bought a new camera, battery and case.

2. Mr Perkins walked on his head a little higher than usual.

2. Olivia bought a new camera battery and case.

1. Hamish, said his teacher, is irresponsible.

1. The boy dropped the bee on his foot.

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2. Charlotte, said her sister, was very ill.

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2. Let’s eat, Uncle Robert.

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Understand the uses of commas to separate clauses (ACELA1521) © Australian Curriculum: Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f o rr ev ew pur posesEXAMPLE onl yF• EXAMPLE Ei

2. The boy dropped, the bee on his foot.

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2. Hamish said his teacher is irresponsible.

1. Giant moving, sale Monday.

1. Jacob said Alice was very helpful.

2. Giant moving sale Monday.

2. Jacob, said Alice, was very helpful.

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Commas used with placenames

Resource sheet

Commas are used to set off geographical names. Examples: The Great Barrier Reef is located off the coast of Queensland, Australia. A popular tourist drive is the Great Ocean Road, Victoria. Mount Wellington towers above the city of Hobart, Tasmania.

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Examples:

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Commas are used to set off parts of an address.

The Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG) is located in Brunton Avenue, Richmond. The address for the luxury Hilton Hotel in Sydney is 488 George Street, Central Business District, Sydney. Parliament House is located on Parliament Drive, Canberra, ACT.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Commas used with placenames

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The Great Barrier Reef is located off the coast of Queensland, Australia. A popular tourist drive is the Great Ocean Road, Victoria.

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Mount Wellington towers above the city of Hobart, Tasmania.

Commas are used to set off parts of an address. Examples:

The Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG) is located in Brunton Avenue, Richmond. The address for the luxury Hilton Hotel in Sydney is 488 George Street, Central Business District, Sydney. Parliament House is located on Parliament Drive, Canberra, ACT.

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Examples:

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Commas are used to set off geographical names.


Commas used with placenames Commas are used to set off geographical names. 1. Use commas to set off the geographical names in these sentences. Then write two of your own sentences, including commas to set off geographical names. (a) We live in Perth Western Australia and our cousins live in Perth Tasmania. (b) My mother was born in Rockhampton Queensland. (c) Many tourists camp at Uluru Northern Territory.

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(d) In 2000, the Olympic Games was held in Sydney New South Wales. (e) Coorong National Park is situated to the south of Adelaide South Australia.

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(f)

(g)

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Understand the uses of commas to separate clauses (ACELA1521) © Australian Curriculum: Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

Commas are used to separate parts of an address.

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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2. Use commas to separate the parts of the address in these sentences. Then write two of your own sentences, including commas to set off geographical names. (a) The courier delivered the parcel to 260 Flemington Street Carlton Victoria. (b) Farmville Primary School is located on West Highway Greenmount WA. (c) Their address is 51 Stott Way Woodvale ACT.

(d) The removalist van travelled 25 kilometres from 88 Herbert Drive Coogee to 47 Miller Avenue Northcliff. (e)

(f)

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Commas joining simple sentences

Resource sheet

A comma, together with a conjunction, can be used to join together two or more simple sentences to make your writing more interesting. Example 1: My friend invited me to the party. I do not want to go. My friend invited me to the party, but I do not want to go.

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Dad wouldn’t let me go to the party. I threw a huge tantrum.

Dad wouldn’t let me go to the party, so I threw a huge tantrum.

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Example 2:

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We all know that it is important to exercise for at least 30 minutes each day. So many of us are lucky if we do 30 minutes of exercise in one week. We all know that it is important to exercise for at least 30 minutes each day, although many of us are lucky if we do 30 minutes of exercise in one week.

Natural honey is great on toast for breakfast. It is also known for its fantastic healing properties on wounds and ulcers.

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Natural honey is great on toast for breakfast, yet it is also known for its fantastic healing properties on wounds and ulcers.


Commas joining simple sentences A common way to combine two simple sentences into one is to use a comma and a conjunction. A conjunction is a joining word which can be used to join words, clauses and simple sentences. 1. Underline each simple sentence. (a) The sun melted the snow, then in one hour it had totally disappeared.

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(b) We went swimming on Sunday, while Mum went shopping. (c) I mowed the lawn, so Jayden trimmed the edges.

(d) Our team bowler was injured, but we still won the game.

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(a) My sister just had a baby. My parents are thrilled.

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2. Use a comma together with a conjunction (although, yet, so, but, or) to join two sentences.

(b) Our family enjoyed the show. The reception afterwards was disappointing.

Understand the uses of commas to separate clauses (ACELA1521) © Australian Curriculum: Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

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3.

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(c)

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• My father loves to eat lobster. He doesn’t like prawns.

.

Use a comma together with your own conjunction to join the two sentences.

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(a) Jackie and I disagree about most things. We are still best friends.

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(b) Their family was terrified by the storm. They hid in the basement.

(c) His brother plays football. He also plays cricket.

.

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Commas separating transition words

Resource sheet

Transition words give helpful information in sentences and paragraphs. In writing, these words assist the writer to get from one idea to another and commas are used to identify and separate the transition words. Some transition words: however Example:

although

otherwise

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I missed the maths test last week. The teacher didn’t mind, however.

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I could see a movie on Friday. Although, I do have to go to basketball practice after school. You should always double check your work. Otherwise, you might make simple mistakes.

Transition words can be used at the beginning, middle or end of a sentence. Example:

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons It rained cats and dogs. We, however, didn’t mind. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• It rained cats and dogs. We didn’t, however, mind. It rained cats and dogs. However, we didn’t mind.

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I love to visit new places. In particular, I like places that have delicious foods. First, you plan your trip and then you book your ticket. In conclusion, I think that visiting different places helps you keep an open mind.

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Other examples of transition words include:

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It rained cats and dogs. We didn’t mind, however.


Commas separating transition words Transition words work to connect ideas and improve flow in writing. Commas are often used to separate these words from the rest of the sentence. 1. Highlight the transition word in each sentence. (a) I would like to go with you. However, my goldfish needs to go to the vet. (b) Your dog needs exercise everyday. Otherwise, it might become overweight.

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(c) First, I feed my cat and then I go to work.

(d) For example, when we go on holiday we leave our pets with my grandparents. 2. Insert a comma after the transition word.

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(a) I love eating fruit. However I don’t really like bananas or oranges.

(b) My mother was going to cook spaghetti for dinner. Instead she made pizza.

(c) To bake a cake there are many steps that you must follow. First you need to combine flour and baking powder.

3. Use a transition word from the box below to complete the sentences. similarly

however

first

instead although © R. I . C.P ubl i cat i on s I like to drink as much water as I can. , it can be hard to remember • f o r r e v i e w p u r p o s e s o nl y• when I am playing a game. otherwise

(a)

(b)

, you need to put on the equipment before you go to bat.

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(d) We could practise throwing. ball more.

, you may be

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(c) Safety is the most important thing to remember. injured.

, I really need to practise kicking the

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4. Read the paragraph and fill in your own transition words. Australia is the driest continent on Earth.

, the average monthly rainfall in January

1

for Perth, Western Australia is only 8 mm.

2

,

water is a precious resource in Australia and should not be wasted. Many native Australian animals like the koala,

3

do not require large amounts of water to survive.

, 4

,

they hydrate by eating the leaves of the eucalyptus tree or licking the dew from the leaves.

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Identifies and uses commas to separate transition words

Identifies and uses commas and a conjunction to join simple sentences

© Australian Curriculum: Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

Identifies and uses commas to separate parts of an address

Identifies and uses commas to set off geographical names

Identifies and uses commas after an introductory clause

Uses commas to identify phrases and clauses that provide extra information

Understands commas are a guide to correct intonation

Understands comma placement affects sentence meaning

Identifies when to use a serial comma

Identifies and uses commas in a series

Student Name

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Text and structu orga r nisa e tion

Understand the uses of commas to separate clauses (ACELA1521)

Assessment checklist

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Text and structu orga r nisa e tion

Interrelated English links

Understand the uses of commas to separate clauses (ACELA1521) © Australian Curriculum: Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

Below is a list of links within the Language strand, Literature strand and Literacy strand of English that are covered within the activities provided with the content description above:

E1. Identifying and using commas in a series of words, phrases or clauses. E2. Identifying and using commas in sentences containing phrases and clauses that are not in a series.

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E3. Identifying and using commas in other ways. Note: Each elaboration incorporates the same interrelated links.

• Understand the uses of commas to separate clauses (ACELA1521)

• Investigate how complex sentences can be used in a variety of ways to elaborate, extend and explain ideas (ACELA1522) • Investigate how vocabulary choices, including evaluative language can express shades of meaning, feeling and opinion (ACELA1525)

The above links are reproduced with permission from ACARA. © Australian Curriculum: Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

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• Develop a handwriting style that is legible, fluent and automatic and varies according to audience and purpose (ACELY1716)

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Modes, capabilities and priorities covered by the activities in this Content description

Language modes

General capabilities

Listening

Literacy

Speaking

Numeracy

Reading

Information and communication technology (ICT) capability

Viewing Writing

Critical and creative thinking

Personal and social capability Ethical behaviour Intercultural understanding

Cross-curriculum priorities Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures

Asia and Australia’s engagement in Asia

Sustainability

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Text and structu orga r nisa e tion

Understand how authors often innovate on text structures and play with language features to achieve particular aesthetic, humorous and persuasive purposes and effects (ACELA1518) © Australian Curriculum: Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

Young cyclist remains in coma ........................page 12

(c)

Dance of the hovercraft ..................................page 17 1. (a) (b) (c) (d)

How hovercraft work It would be an explanation with information about hovercraft. Dance of the hovercraft The author wanted to compare the way hovercraft move with dancing and to say how special it is. 2. dancing sideways, like a ballet dancer rising to her feet, pirouetting gracefully, tiptoed onto the beach 3. (a) like a ballet dancer rising to her feet, as orange as rust, like a ship of the desert (i.e. a camel) (b) dancing sideways, pirouetting gracefully, tiptoed onto the beach 4. When it stopped it very gently settled down onto the sand like a camel.

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2. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) 3 (a) (b)

(b) Examples include: rocked, rose, waking up, rising, clambered, gliding, pirouetting, tiptoed, sank (c) Examples include: sleek, powerful, purposefully, rounded, rumbling, aquamarine, fossilised, ancient

a newspaper reporter third facts the general public It was written to give information. Answers may include: a headline so readers will read on to find out what happened, a photo of the boy, comments by the boy’s father and the truck driver The boy first It expresses opinions as well as facts. It was written to persuade others to wear their helmets. parents, teachers and students from the school wear bike helmets It says the helmet was found on the handlebars. The boy tells them he wasn’t wearing his helmet and it was his fault, and that they should wear theirs. Answers will vary but may include information about the purposes for which the two texts were written; i. e. one to give information to the public and the other to persuade students and others to wear bike helmets, the intended audience, the media it was written for and the people who wrote it.

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1. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)

Answers

Coyote (Canis latrans) .....................................page 20 1. (a) ’report’, ’present’ and ’to inform’ should be circled (b) ’narrative’, ’past’ and ’to entertain’ should be circled. 2. (a) B (b) AB (c) A (d) A (e) B (f) B (g) A (h) B (i) B (j) A (k) B (l) A 3. Possible answer: There are sub headings for each paragraph in ’Coyote’ 4. Answers may include: howl, mammal, digits, forefeet, hind feet, digitigrade, territory, natural habitat, den, stalk, track, quarry 5. A very long time ago; Now, before I continue; Finally; Then; When they were in a tangled mess; When they finally

Glen Wallace Primary School newsletter .......page 13 1. (a) The text tells the story of what happened, then tells people what the writer thinks they should think about and do. (b) Answers will vary but may include that the boy did it for a more dramatic effect, that he wanted his readers to know the whole story, or he thought it would be more persuasive if he did it that way. (c) Answers will vary. Teacher check 2. (a) Examples include: ’remains in a coma’, ’expressed his family’s gratitude’, ’praised the actions’, ’Their on-going concern’ and ’the actions of the paramedics’ (b) Examples include: ’I ended up in hospital’, ’They were pretty upset’, ’The physios were tough’, ’Dad got mad with me’, ’still not right’ and ’having a really bad day’ 3. Answers may include: (a) sad, sorry, regretful, miserable, foolish, embarrassed, stupid, sore, upset, worried, jealous, frightened (b) anxious, worried, frightened, angry, cross, grateful, concerned, hopeful, sad, miserable (c) embarrassed, worried, uncertain, confused, anxious, sympathetic (d) sad, angry, concerned, admiring, determined, grateful 4. When: Tuesday afternoon Where: Juniper Avenue near the local shopping centre What: A boy was knocked off his bike and is in a coma How: He was hit by a truck Why: He lost control of his bike and it skidded onto the road.

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1. clumsily tripping, finally made, frantically snatched, desperately raced off 2. adaptable, varied, fresh spoiled, unpalatable 3. (a) Canis latrans – a member of the dog family (b) Answers may include: varied diet; eats mice, rabbits, squirrels, fish, insects, berries, reptiles, poultry, sheep and deer; eats both fresh and spoiled food; will eat unpalatable coyote melons (c) Answers may include: born blind, suckle for 5–7 weeks, remain in den until they start hunting at 6–10 weeks, independent by 12 months (d) Teacher check 4. (a) Teacher check (b) Possible answer: It may be referring to the image of dogs looking and sniffing at each other’s tail (c) Possible answers: some actions, facial expressions, voice changes, sound effects

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Dogs’ tails .........................................................page 21

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Windfarms: how good are they? ...................page 24 1. (a) No (b) Yes (c) Yes (d) Yes (e) No (f) Yes (g) No 2. (a) The words ’It is claimed ...’ start the paragraph. (b) Answers may include: the wind energy industry is booming, by 2050 one third of the world’s electricity will be generated by wind, electricity produced by windfarms is renewable, costs are low, less fossil fuel is being burned, greenhouse gases are being reduced, They cause no air or water pollution, do not harm the environment. 3. (a) against (b) Answers may include: Some have been shut down because of high costs; there have been complaints about blade glint and noise; health issues such as anxiety, epilepsy, insomnia, hearing loss; and children’s speech and learning difficulties; bird deaths (c) They say the health issues could be caused by people’s anxiety, not the windfarms.

How hovercraft work ......................................page 16 1. (a) Yes (b) Yes (c) Yes (d) Yes (e) Yes (f) Yes (g) Yes 2. (a) who, where, what and why should be ticked (b) ticked (c) ticked (d) ticked (e) ticked (f) ticked 3. (a) Examples include: pressurised air, all-terrain vehicle, main body, skirts, hovers, glides, friction, rudders, thrust, environmentally, footprint, pressure, scientific principle

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Text and structu orga r nisa e tion

Understand how authors often innovate on text structures and play with language features to achieve particular aesthetic, humorous and persuasive purposes and effects (ACELA1518)

Answers

© Australian Curriculum: Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

4. Answers will vary. Teacher check

4. Answers will vary according to student opinion. The complication may not be very obvious. Students may decide that the complication is not resolved because Tess does not convince her parents to get a skateboard for her. Tess’s aim was to show her parents how competent she was on a skateboard and this did not happen. 5. Answers will vary. It is obvious that Tess realises that she needs to practise more before she gets her own skateboard. However, she has not changed her parents’ minds about getting one. 6. Teacher check

There are monsters … .....................................page 25 1. (a) to persuade (b)–(f) Answers will vary. Teacher check 2. (a) Answers may include: they are roaring monsters, their sails are arms; they are whirling, dancing swordsmen, their sails are deadly, flashing lances; they are breathing; they are organised in battle lines. (b)–(d) Answers will vary. Teacher check

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The skateboard lesson – 4 ...............................page 35

Humorous language – 1 ..................................page 28

1. (a) Teacher check. Answers may include: ordered, pushed, watched, flew, hissed, refused, seen, stated, mumbled, paid (b) Despite (Para. 1), the second ’and’ (para. 2), as (para. 9), and (para. 10), meanwhile (para. 11), while (para. 11), As (para. 13), as horrified faces (para. 14) 2. like a speeding bullet, like a sticky pool of blood, like a puppet on a string 3. (a) bruised and bloodied (b) escaping 4. Answers may include: immense horror, Her white face deepened to beetroot red, unable to burrow into the ground, her shoulders slumped as if she could pull her body inside itself and disappear for good. 5. (a) flying up and down the roads, skate all over the footpath and bowl over nearly every pedestrian in sight (b) They could almost see steam emerging from the ears of the combatants. (c) ’I’ll die if I don’t get a skateboard. All the cool kids have one!’

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1. (a) cats and dogs (b) bat/mole (c) ice/stone (d) log/baby (e) dog (f) feather (g) snail (h) angel 2. Teacher check 3. (a) gold/He is very brave. (b) his life/He loved her very much. (c) for joy/They were extremely happy. (d) in dough/They were very rich. (e) up their socks/They had to work harder. (f) and dogs/It rained heavily. 4. Teacher check

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Humorous language – 2 ..................................page 29 1.–2. Teacher check

A visit to Dr Paul White ...................................page 31

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1. (a) The orientation is in the third paragraph and includes when (Today), who (Simon) and where (to the dentist’s [office]). (b) The author has commenced the text with a description of Simon’s character, including his bravery when facing ordeals. Answers will vary about why; it may be to introduce a different ordeal. 2. All parts of narrative text structure should be ticked. 3. All language features should be ticked. 4. (a) ’caused panic to erupt in Simon’s intrepid body’ (b) ’the odour of smelly garlic covered the nearest person; it stung your eyes until they watered, and stole your breath away until you wanted to gag’ 5. Answers will vary but may be similar to the following: You can understand why Simon wanted to avoid visiting the dentist if the smell of garlic directly in your face was so bad.

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The skateboard lesson – 3 ...............................page 34 1. (a) The orientation begins in the fifth paragraph and includes who (Tess, Mum, Dad, Tess’s brothers) and when (One Sunday afternoon). (b) Including the four short paragraphs before the orientation sets up the situation for the main events to follow. It gives background information for the main focus of the narrative. It gains reader interest by using the non-standard orientation format. 2. The complication is found in the first paragraph. Tess really wanted a skateboard like her friends at school and her parents weren’t willing to give her one. 3. One event leads to other events causing a ’ripple’ effect.

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Text and structu orga r nisa e tion

Understand how authors often innovate on text structures and play with language features to achieve particular aesthetic, humorous and persuasive purposes and effects (ACELA1518)

Answers

© Australian Curriculum: Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

The solitary troll and the three skinny goats – 3 .....................................page 38

3. Holidays that don’t ’suck’!, Count Tours, pale imitations, clan, sink their fangs into, slayer, lord of the clan, life’s blood, Don’t get sucked into ..., dead holiday, cross, stake, still light outside 4. Teacher check

Gaya-dari the platypus ....................................page 43 1. At first Biggoon was cajoling and unthreatening; then he tried to intimidate her with violence/soothing, threatened 2. Biggoon began to believe the duck was contented with her new life and ceased guarding her day and night. He returned to his former practice of sleeping for long periods during the daytime. 3. stealthily, swum away as swiftly as she could. Teacher check student explanations 4. dismay, banished, scorned, retreated, hide, unseen, too lonely and miserable, desolate, waste away, forgotten, in grief 5. Teacher check 6. Answers will vary but may include: Her name may not be known; The duck herself may not be important to the storyteller, rather she is simply a means to explain how the platypus was created.

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1. The solitary troll and the three skinny goats; Teacher check alternative titles. 2. The orientation occurs in the first paragraph. It includes who (ugly troll, Trevor), when (Once upon a time) and where (the land of Scandia). 3. Trevor had unpleasant features (which) deterred others from approaching him (para. 2). He had no troll friends (para. 2) .... His one dream was to find a place of his own and live his life without censure (para 2.). 4. Trevor found a nice home under a bridge. He caught troll flu which gave him a rough voice. The first Billy Goat Buff crossed the bridge and was frightened by Trevor. The second Billy Goat Buff crossed the bridge and was frightened by Trevor. The third Billy Goat Buff came onto the bridge and conversed with Trevor, boasting how attractive he was. Trevor appeared and the third Billy Goat Buff seemed to think he was unique. Trevor was appreciated and went to the hillside to eat with the goats. 5. Trevor was appreciated for his uniqueness and who he was, and becomes friends with the goats. 6. Teacher check 7. Trevor made friends, was not lonely and he was appreciated for who he was.

The solitary troll and the three skinny goats – 4 .....................................page 39 1. Answers will vary but may include the following: laboured, remained, roared, replied, contemplated, repeated, ventured, emerged, braced, widened, opened, closed, joined 2. Answers may include: roared, replied, contemplated, repeated, waffled 3. (a) ’After’ should be underlined. Sentences may vary slightly but should be similar to: Trevor searched for a long time before he found a home. Trevor found a comfortable abode beneath a bridge. (b) ’and’ should be underlined. Sentences may vary slightly but should be similar to: Gradually, his home began to feel ’lived in’. Gradually, his flu improved. 4. (a) as long as a tree trunk (b) (i) obnoxious behaviour, such illustrious company, totally flummoxed, such fine examples of olfactory or ocular organs, a king among the stupendous, revered, treasured (ii) emerged cautiously, utterly appalled, horrendous appearance, braced for the ridicule that usually followed 5. (a) staccato, skipping (b) solitary occupations, one dream was to ... live life without censure

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Can you handle it? ...........................................page 40

1. Teacher check 2. (a) ... solution to all your problems; cater for all your needs (b) most compact, user-friendly device ever invented; operated simply and easily (c) connoisseurs of distinction, surpasses others by a country mile, only the best manufacturers 3. Put your hand up for one today!, Now you really do have a reason to stick your fingers in your ears! 4. Answers will vary but should indicate exaggeration.

Holidays that don’t ’suck’! ..............................page 41 1. Teacher check 2. (a) unique (b) extraordinary

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Text and structu orga r nisa e tion

Understand how authors often innovate on text structures and play with language features to achieve particular aesthetic, humorous and persuasive purposes and effects (ACELA1518)

Answers

© Australian Curriculum: Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

All about the author ...................................... page 47

(b) 35

Percentage of smokers

30 25 20 15 10

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1984 2012 12–15yr olds

1984

2012 16–17 yr olds

Fit for life ........................................................ page 55 1. (a) The author: states his/her professional qualification, recognises that sport is not for everyone, refers to credible resources and statistics, writes appropriately for the audience, using examples that are relevant to them. (b) The author: encourages the audience to be involved in the argument by asking them to consider questions; evokes feelings of concern in the audience, for their health; offers suggestions to evoke motivation to ’get up and do’; evokes sense of control in one’s future. (c) The author: presents known facts related to health problems associated with poor diet and fitness, statistics related to childhood obesity, reasoned arguments related to the effects of reduced activity and increased snacking. 2. (a) Teacher check. Answers may reflect how the student feels about the way in which the author speaks to him/her, the appropriateness of the evidence given in support of the argument, the examples suggested for keeping fit, that the author acknowledges that not everyone is keen on sport. (b) Teacher check

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1. Writer 1: Against; Writer 2: For; Writer 3: Against 2. (a) Teacher check. Possible answers include: Writer 1: He cares about people’s health but is frustrated that so many don’t take the effects of smoking seriously until it’s too late. Writer 2: He thinks people should be allowed to choose and if they do smoke, they should not be made to feel guilty. Writer 3: He thinks people should realise that smoking makes you socially unacceptable because it makes you smell. (b) Similarities: They are both against smoking. Differences: Writer 1 is against smoking because it damages your health and can kill you. Writer 3 is against smoking because it makes you smell. (c) Teacher check 3. Writer 2 would be unlikely to convince an audience because many young children take up smoking and they are not mature enough to make an informed choice about smoking; there are many ways to overcome problems that do not damage health; he has a vested interest in people smoking; the phrase, ’life’s too short’ could relate to the effects of smoking; his grandpa maybe almost 90 years old but he would be an exception. Writer 3 would be likely to convince an audience because as an exsmoker, she can see the argument from both sides; she talks about the immediate rather than long-term effects of smoking; the smell cannot be disguised and no-one wants to be a social outcast.

All about the audience .................................. page 50

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1. Writer 1: concern for themselves; gravity of the problem; realism of the situation Writer 2: rebellion against parents, teachers, coaches; injustice against themselves; independence for themselves Writer 3: disgust against the smells of smoking; mistrust of advertising; despair of intolerance brought about by the smells of smoking 2. (a) Speaks directly to the audience by using the pronoun ’you’. (b) Writer 1: a computer slowing down with each download Writer 2: other people telling you what to do – parents, teachers, coaches Writer 3: advertisements for air fresheners and mouthwash 3. Teacher check

All about the text ........................................... page 53

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Arsenic

well-known poison

Benzene

solvent used in petrol extraction

Cadmium

toxic metal used to make batteries

Formaldehyde

used to preserve bodies

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Text and structu orga r nisa e tion

Understand that cohesive links can be made in texts by omitting or replacing words (ACELA1520)

Answers

© Australian Curriculum: Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

Pronoun reference table........................ page 63 Pronoun

Paragraph Words referred to

this

2

it they there it it's them they them they this it it us

2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 5

Max White their children's health the parents/audience their children's health children eat more vegetables, less sugar and fat, and to exercise the problem the food they buy on the nutritional panel their children's nutrition/health advertising children their children cancer and diabetes these foods/fat and sugar the problem their next party the school canteen everyone/people

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I This you it they

What’s been omitted? ........................... page 64 1. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) 2. (a) (b)

blue an excellent student raining for my birthday about doing your music exam about your kitten The event was won by a team of players ... touring Australia. My mother entered her sponge cakes ... she won first prize in the local show again.

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Suggested answers 1. (a) furniture (b) food (c) example (d) creatures/animals/reptiles (e) equipment/gear (f) some (g) one, people

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Find another word .................................. page 65

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Text and structu orga r nisa e tion

Answers

Understand the uses of commas to separate clauses (ACELA1521) © Australian Curriculum: Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

Commas in a series ..........................................page 79 2. Teacher check 3. (a) I couldn’t decide whether I enjoyed visiting the Indian city of New Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai or Bangalore the most. (b) New Delhi has carefully planned colonial buildings, wide streets, beautiful parks, modern offices, shopping arcades, cafes and restaurants. (c) New Delhi’s population of more than 13 million causes problems with severe overcrowding, constant traffic congestion, housing shortages and widespread pollution. (d) The Bengal tiger is India’s national animal. It is found in grasslands, subtropical and tropical rainforests, mangrove regions, and wet and dry forests.

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Absurd meanings!............................................page 80 1. (a) Meaning: Without the comma, Mum finds great delight in cooking her family and the cat. Correction: Mum finds great delight in cooking, her family and the cat. (b) Meaning: Without the comma, the giraffe is eating carrots and an enormous python. Correction: At the zoo we spotted a tiger prowling, otters diving, a giraffe eating carrots, and an enormous python. (c) Meaning: When the comma is incorrectly placed, one of the ingredients is goats, rather than goat’s cheese. Correction: The ingredients for goat’s cheese salad include baby spinach, sliced pears, walnuts, goat’s cheese, lemon juice and olive oil.

Commas joining simple sentences ........... page 89

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(b) My mother was born in Rockhampton, Queensland. (c) Many tourists camp at Uluru, Northern Territory. (d) In 2000, the Olympic Games was held in Sydney, New South Wales. (e) Coorong National Park is situated to the south of Adelaide, South Australia. (f)–(g) Teacher check 2. (a) The courier delivered the parcel to 260 Flemington Street, Carlton, Victoria. (b) Farmville Primary School is located on West Highway, Greemount, WA. (c) Their address is 51 Stott Way, Woodvale, ACT. (d) The removalist van travelled 25 kilometres from 88 Herbert Drive, Coogee to 47 Miller Avenue, Northcliff. (e)–(f) Teacher check 1. (a) The sun melted the snow, then in one hour it had totally disappeared. (b) We went swimming on Sunday, while Mum went shopping. (c) I mowed the lawn, so Jayden trimmed the edges. (d) Our team bowler was injured, but we still won the game. 2. Teacher check. Possible answers: (a) My sister just had a baby, so my parents are thrilled. (b) Our family enjoyed the show, although the reception afterwards was disappointing. (c) My father loves to eat lobster, but he doesn’t like prawns. 3. Teacher check. Possible answers: (a) Jackie and I disagree about most things, but we are still best friends. (b) Their family was terrified by the storm, so they hid in the basement. (c) His brother plays football, yet he also plays cricket.

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Commas used to identify extra information ......................................................page 83

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Commas separating transition words ........ page 91 1. (a) I would like to go with you. However, my goldfish needs to go to the vet. (b) Your dogs needs exercise everyday. Otherwise, it might become overweight. (c) First, I feed my cat and then I go to work. (d) For example, when we go on holiday we leave our pets with my grandparents. 2. (a) I love eating fruit. However, I don’t really like bananas or oranges. (b) My mother was going to cook spaghetti for dinner. Instead, she made pizza. (c) To bake a cake there are many steps that you must follow. First, you need to combine flour and baking powder. 3. Teacher check. Possible answers: (a) however, although (b) first (c) otherwise, although (d) although, however 4. Teacher check. Possible answers: 1. For example 2. Therefore 3. however 4. Instead

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1. (a) Marathons, contested by men and women, are 42.195 kilometre running events. (b) BMX cycling, as an Olympic sport, was included for the first time at the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. (c) Hockey, an exciting game to play and watch, is contested between two teams of 11 players. 2. (a) In rhythmic gymnastics, contested by women only, competitors use hand-held apparatus such as a hoop or ribbon. (b) Triathlon, believed to be invented in France, is an extremely demanding sport. (c) Butterfly, the most tiring swimming stroke, is swum facedown. 3. Teacher check

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Commas used after introductory clauses .......page 84

1. (a) As British jails were overcrowded in the 1700s, the British government decided to establish a penal colony in Australia. (b) When Captain Arthur Phillip and the First Fleet arrived at Sydney Cove, the land surrounding the harbour was inhabited by Aboriginal Australians (Eora people). (c) After the Eora people realised their hunting land was being taken from them, they began to fight with the new settlers. 2. (a) Although 19th century maps had many coastal areas labelled, not much was known about Australia’s interior. (b) Until explorers finally travelled into the interior, it was believed Australia had an enormous inland sea. (c) When Charles Sturt’s exploration party reached the Simpson Desert, it was finally proved there was no inland sea. 3. (a) Teacher check

Commas used with placenames......................page 87 1. (a) We live in Perth, Western Australia and our cousins live in Perth, Tasmania. R.I.C. Publications®

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