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RIC-6352 4.2/736


Comprehension for independent readers (Ages 10+)

Copyright Notice A number of pages in this book are worksheets. The publisher licenses the individual teacher who purchased this book to photocopy these pages to hand out to students in their own classes.

Published by R.I.C. Publications® 2012 Copyright© Edward Connor 2012 ISBN 978-1-921750-76-2 RIC– 6352

Titles in this series: Comprehension for independent readers (Ages 8–9) Comprehension for independent readers (Ages 10+)

Except as allowed under the Copyright Act 1968, any other use (including digital and online uses and the creation of overhead transparencies or posters) or any use by or for other people (including by or for other teachers, students or institutions) is prohibited. If you want a licence to do anything outside the scope of the BLM licence above, please contact the Publisher.

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This information is provided to clarify the limits of this licence and its interaction with the Copyright Act.

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Internet websites In some cases, websites or specific URLs may be recommended. While these are checked and rechecked at the time of publication, the publisher has no control over any subsequent changes which may be made to webpages. It is strongly recommended that the class teacher checks all URLs before allowing students to access them.

View all pages online PO Box 332 Greenwood Western Australia 6924

Website: www.ricpublications.com.au Email: mail@ricgroup.com.au


Foreword Comprehension for independent readers (Ages 10+) offers a range of writing genres and activities to develop the skills required for comprehension. The aim is to provide students with the opportunity to work independently to extract information from different texts and to demonstrate the different levels of comprehension: literal, inferential and applied. The other title in the series is: Comprehension for independent readers (Ages 8–9)

Contents

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Teachers notes ....................................................................................................................................................... iv Curriculum links ............................................................................................................................................... v – vii Daily Script (Newspaper) ................................................................................................................................... 2–4 The meaning of proverbs (Proverbs) .................................................................................................................. 5–8 J R R Talkman’s travelling circus (Poster) ........................................................................................................ 9–11 July/August 1969 (Diary) ............................................................................................................................... 12–16 Strine – Australian English (Language) ......................................................................................................... 17–19 What is irony? (Irony) ..................................................................................................................................... 20–22 What is sarcasm? (Sarcasm) ......................................................................................................................... 23–25 In space you can hear the engine (Data grid) ................................................................................................ 26–28 What does it mean? (Symbolism) .................................................................................................................. 29–31 Bringing writing to life (Metaphor) ................................................................................................................ 32–35 Mixed metaphors (Metaphor) ........................................................................................................................ 36–37 Statistics (Tables and graphs) ........................................................................................................................ 38–40 Who’s who in Mother Goose (Biography) ...................................................................................................... 41–43 Biological classification (Classification) ......................................................................................................... 44–46 Major events of the 20th century (Time line) ................................................................................................ 47–49 How to play the guessing game (Flowchart) ................................................................................................. 50–52 Logical arguments (Syllogism) ....................................................................................................................... 53–55 Sim Sala’s Magic Emporium (Sales catalogue) ............................................................................................. 56–58 Cryptic puzzles (Crosswords) .......................................................................................................................... 59–60 Missing word puzzles (Crosswords) .............................................................................................................. 61–62 Word search puzzles (Crosswords) ................................................................................................................ 63–64 Target words (Scanning) ................................................................................................................................ 65–67 Time line puzzles (Scanning) .......................................................................................................................... 68–72 Answers ......................................................................................................................................................... 73–78

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Note: R.I.C. Publications® punctuates speech as recommended by Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 6th edition 2002.

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Comprehension for independent readers

iii


Teachers notes Most units in the book focus on the literal, inferential and evaluative comprehension of a particular text type or the use of a specific figure of speech. Appreciation of the latter is necessary for the inferential and evaluative levels of comprehension. A number of units are puzzle-based and focus on the understanding of vocabulary and the skill of scanning as well as extracting information from text types such as time lines. T focus of the unit is highlighted The aat the top of each page.

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The format of questions ranges © R. I . C.Publ i cat i o nschoice and matching from multiple to those requiring a full written •f orr evi ew pur pose sonl y• explanation.

Front page of newspaper Poster Diary entry Information in tables Information in graphs Biography Time line Flowchart Sales catalogue

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• • • • • • • • •

Proverb Colloquialism Irony Sarcasm Symbolism Metaphor Syllogism

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Text types used

• • • • • • •

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Figures of speech featured

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Something extra

At the end of most units, is an additional activities section with suggestions for developing students’ understanding of the theme of the unit.

Classroom organisation The aim of this book is that students work independently from the teacher but there are times when discussion with peers would be beneficial to each student’s full understanding and enjoyment of the unit.

iv

Comprehension for independent readers

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Curriculum links for Year 6 NOTE: All Curriculum links are copyright of ACARA

TEACHERS NOTES ©Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

LANGUAGE STRAND

ACTIVITY • Diary • Classification

• Strine

• Understand the uses of objective and subjective language and bias (ACELA1517)

• • • •

• • • •

• Understand how authors often innovate on text structures and play with language features to achieve particular aesthetic, humorous and persuasive purposes and effects (ACELA1518)

• Newspaper • Diary • Symbolism

• Proverbs • Strine • Metaphors

• Investigate how complex sentences can be used in a variety of ways to elaborate, extend and explain ideas (ACELA1522)

• Newspaper • Symbolism • Syllogisms

• Data grid • Metaphors

• Understand how ideas can be expanded and sharpened through careful choice of verbs, elaborated tenses and a range of adverb groups/phrases (ACELA1523)

• Poster • Metaphors

• Symbolism

• Identify and explain how analytical images like figures, tables, diagrams, maps and graphs contribute to our understanding of verbal information in factual and persuasive texts (ACELA1524)

• Poster • Time line • Sales catalogue

• Statistics • Flowchart

• words, word origins, base words, suffixes and prefixes, morphemes, spelling patterns and generalisations to learn and spell new words, for example technical words and words adopted from other languages (ACELA1526)

• Crosswords

• Scanning

Newspaper Poster Symbolism Statistics

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Proverbs Diary Metaphors Classification

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• Understand that strategies for interaction become more complex and demanding as levels of formality and social distance increase (ACELA1516)

LITERATURE STRAND

ACTIVITY

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• Poster • Strine • Sales catalogue

• Identify and explain how choices in language, for example modality, emphasis, repetition and metaphor, influence personal response to different texts (ACELT1615)

• Proverbs • Data grid

• Poster • Sales catalogue

• Identify the relationship between words, sounds, imagery and language patterns in narratives and poetry such as ballads, limericks and free verse (ACELT1617)

• Diary • Irony • Metaphors

• Strine • Symbolism

• • • •

• • • •

• Experiment with text structures and language features and their effects in creating literary texts, for example, using imagery, sentence variation, metaphor and word choice (ACELT1800)

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• Proverbs • Diary • Statistics

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• Make connections between students’ own experiences and those of characters and events represented in texts drawn from different historical, social and cultural contexts (ACELT1613)

Proverbs Strine Metaphors Crosswords

o c . che e r o t r s super LITERACY STRAND

Poster Symbolism Sales catalogue Scanning

ACTIVITY

• Compare texts including media texts that represent ideas and events in different ways, explaining the effects of the different approaches (ACELY1708)

• Newspaper • Diary

• Poster

• Analyse how text structures and language features work together to meet the purpose of a text (ACELY1711)

• Proverbs • Biographies • Scanning

• Statistics • Crosswords

• Select, navigate and read texts for a range of purposes, applying appropriate text processing strategies and interpreting structural features, for example table of contents, glossary, chapters, headings and subheadings (ACELY1712)

• • • • •

Newspaper Irony Statistics Classification Syllogisms

• • • •

Strine Data grid Biographies Scanning

• Use comprehension strategies to interpret and analyse information and ideas, comparing content from a variety of textual sources including media and digital texts (ACELY1713)

• • • • •

Proverbs Diary Irony Metaphors Biographies

• • • • •

Poster Strine Symbolism Statistics Classification

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Comprehension for independent readers

v


Curriculum links for Year 6 (continued) NOTE: All Curriculum links are copyright of ACARA

TEACHERS NOTES

©Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

• Analyse strategies authors use to influence readers (ACELY1801)

• Proverbs • Irony

• Poster • Symbolism

• Plan, draft and publish imaginative, informative and persuasive texts, choosing and experimenting with text structures, language features, images and digital resources appropriate to purpose and audience (ACELY1714)

• Newspaper • Poster • Sales catalogue

• Proverbs • Statistics

• Develop a handwriting style that is legible, fluent and automatic and varies according to audience and purpose (ACELY1716)

• Diary • Sales catalogue

• Poster

• Use a range of software, including word processing programs, learning new functions as required to create texts (ACELY1717)

• Proverbs

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©Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012

LANGUAGE STRAND

ACTIVITY

• Understand how accents, styles of speech and idioms express and create personal and social identities (ACELA1529)

• Newspaper • Irony • Metaphors

• Understand how language is used to evaluate texts and how evaluations about a text can be substantiated by reference to the text and other sources (ACELA1782)

• Symbolism • Classification

• Understand and explain how the text structures and language features of texts become more complex in informative and persuasive texts and identify underlying structures such as taxonomies, cause and effect, and extended metaphors (ACELA1531)

• Newspaper • Statistics • Classification

• Understand that the coherence of more complex texts relies on devices that signal text structure and guide readers, for example overviews, initial and concluding paragraphs and topic sentences, indexes or site maps or breadcrumb trails for online texts (ACELA1763)

• • • •

• Understand the use of punctuation to support meaning in complex sentences with prepositional phrases and embedded clauses (ACELA1532)

• Newspaper • Diary

• Recognise and understand that subordinate clauses embedded within noun groups/ phrases are a common feature of written sentence structures and increase the density of information (ACELA1534)

• Newspaper

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NOTE: All Curriculum links are copyright of ACARA

• Statistics

• Strine • Sarcasm

• Statistics • Syllogism

• Symbolism • Sales catalogue • Syllogism

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Statistics Time line Flowchart Sales catalogue

• Biographies • Classification

• Understand how modality is achieved through discriminating choices in modal verbs, adverbs, adjectives and nouns (ACELA1536)

• Classification

• Investigate vocabulary typical of extended and more academic texts and the role of abstract nouns, classification, description and generalisation in building specialised knowledge through language (ACELA1537)

• Time line • Sarcasm • Statistics

• Understand how to use spelling rules and word origins, for example Greek and Latin roots, base words, suffixes, prefixes, spelling patterns and generalisations to learn new words and how to spell them (ACELA1539)

• Classification • Scanning

• Diary

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LITERATURE STRAND

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• • • •

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Newspaper Data grid Biographies Classification

• Irony • Metaphors • Classification

• Crosswords

ACTIVITY

• Identify and explore ideas and viewpoints about events, issues and characters represented in texts drawn from different historical, social and cultural contexts (ACELT1619)

• Proverbs • Irony • Symbolism

• Strine • Sarcasm • Metaphors

• Reflect on ideas and opinions about characters, settings and events in literary texts, identifying areas of agreement and difference with others and justifying a point of view (ACELT1620)

• Diary

• Biographies

Comprehension for independent readers

R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricpublications.com.au


Curriculum links for Year 7 (continued) NOTE: All Curriculum links are copyright of ACARA

TEACHERS NOTES

©Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority 2012 • Diary • Irony • Metaphors

• Strine • Sarcasm • Biographies

• Discuss aspects of texts, for example their aesthetic and social value, using relevant and appropriate metalanguage (ACELT1803)

• • • •

• • • •

• Recognise and analyse the ways that characterisation, events and settings are combined in narratives, and discuss the purposes and appeal of different approaches (ACELT1622)

• Diary • Biographies

• Symbolism

• Understand, interpret and discuss how language is compressed to produce a dramatic effect in film or drama, and to create layers of meaning in poetry, for example haiku, tankas, couplets, free verse and verse novels (ACELT1623)

• Proverbs • Metaphors

• Symbolism

• Create literary texts that adapt stylistic features encountered in other texts, for example, narrative viewpoint, structure of stanzas, contrast and juxtaposition (ACELT1625)

• Proverbs • Symbolism

• Diary • Metaphors

• Experiment with text structures and language features and their effects in creating literary texts, for example, using rhythm, sound effects, monologue, layout, navigation and colour (ACELT1805)

• Proverbs • Diary • Symbolism

• Metaphors • Strine

Newspaper Poster Irony Symbolism

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S LITERACY STRAND

Proverbs Strine Sarcasm Metaphors

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• Compare the ways that language and images are used to create character, and to influence emotions and opinions in different types of texts (ACELT1621)

ACTIVITY

• Identify and discuss main ideas, concepts and points of view in spoken texts to evaluate qualities, for example the strength of an argument or the lyrical power of a poetic rendition (ACELY1719)

• • • • • •

Newspaper Diary Sarcasm Symbolism Biographies Crosswords

• • • • •

Proverbs Irony Data grid Metaphors Classification

• Analyse and explain the ways text structures and language features shape meaning and vary according to audience and purpose (ACELY1721)

• • • • •

Newspaper Strine Sarcasm Metaphors Sales catalogue

• • • •

Diary Irony Symbolism Statistics

• • • • •

Proverbs Irony Symbolism Classification Flowchart

• • • • •

Strine Sarcasm Metaphors Time line Syllogism

• Use comprehension strategies to interpret, analyse and synthesise ideas and information, critiquing ideas and issues from a variety of textual sources (ACELY1723)

• • • • • •

Newspaper Strine Sarcasm Symbolism Statistics Syllogism

• • • • •

Proverbs Irony Data grid Metaphors Classification

• Plan, draft and publish imaginative, informative and persuasive texts, selecting aspects of subject matter and particular language, visual, and audio features to convey information and ideas (ACELY1725)

• • • •

Proverbs Strine Sarcasm Metaphors

• Diary • Irony • Symbolism

• Edit for meaning by removing repetition, refining ideas, reordering sentences and adding or substituting words for impact (ACELY1726)

• Data grid

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• Use prior knowledge and text processing strategies to interpret a range of types of texts (ACELY1722)

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Comprehension for independent readers

• Syllogism

vii


Daily Script

The

NEWSPAPER

Daily Script Wednesday 1 April 2012

Published in Cityton since 1893

Two Navy Ships Collide - Man Dies

Stolen Painting Found by Tree The Mona Lisa disappears.

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By Newsiah Ound, Europe correspondent

By Nosey Parker, senior reporter

The world’s most famous painting, the Mona Lisa, also known as La Gioconda, was painted by Leonardo di Vinci more than five hundred years ago. It was stolen from the Louvre museum Paris, France, Europe, near Italy and Germany. On Monday morning staff were shocked when they entered the great hall to gaze at the renowned painting, as they do every morning, but discovered it had been stolen during the night. The French police, known as the Gendarme (zhahne dahrm), were immediately contacted and a nationwide search was instigated. To everyone’s relief the precious painting was found the next morning resting by a tree. The hunt for the criminals continues.

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The two ships of the Swiss navy collided while on a naval exercise in the Mediterranean Sea. The SSS Alpboat, was a minesweeper and the SSS Cuckoo a frigate. The two ships were part of an international flotilla that consisted of more than fifty warships sailing in a tight formation. The collision of the Swiss ships created a dangerous situation that resulted in several other vessels having to steer dangerously close to one another. As some of those ships were nuclear-powered the incident could have resulted in a major catastrophe. Neither of the Swiss ships was damaged; however, in the confusion the captain of the SSS Cuckoo fired one of its torpedoes. Unfortunately a fisherman’s dinghy was blown apart, along with the man. ‘It was a terrible accident’, said the captain of the SSS Cuckoo. ‘I thought I was pressing the emergency button. They look so much alike.’

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$1.50

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Continued PAGE 10

Golf News

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Grandmother of Eight Makes a Hole in One

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By Jiminy Cricket, sports reporter

To everyone’s surprise the oldest player in the Women’s Worldwide Golf Championship, Wilma Whack, shot a hole in one off the tenth tee to take the trophy. Wilma said she had promised her eight grandchildren she would win the tournament, so she had to. ‘I may be the oldest player here,’ she said, ‘but that doesn’t mean I’m past my prime’. No, sir, she certainly isn’t.

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o c . c e School Dropout Figures Cuth in e Half r o t r s super Weather The SSS Alpboat on its maiden voyage, 2001.

Read more in the sport section.

EXCLUSIVE by Penny Ink, education reporter

A new report just released by the Education Department shows why the number of students dropping out of school before they complete their final year has dramatically declined. Continued PAGE 14

Cloudy, Showers 13 –21 Thursday Friday Saturday

What’s Inside: Arts Page 25 Letters Page 38 Comics Page 62

2

Entertainment Page 58 Classifieds Page 35 Puzzles Page 63

Business Page 42 Obituaries Page 45

Comprehension for independent readers

14 –19 14 – 22 13 – 18

Pixie Cola The only cola with pixie-sugar. The most pixielicious cola of all! Contains no additives.

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Daily Script

NEWSPAPER

EXTRA! Newspaper articles are traditionally set out in columns, using different font sizes and weights, to make the headlines and article titles stand out from the rest of the text.

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Use the newspaper front spread on page 2 to answer the questions.



(a) What is the name of this newspaper?

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(b) Where is it published?

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(c) When was it first published?

(d) What day was this issue put out? (e) How much does the newspaper cost? (f) Describe the weather on the day the newspaper was sold.



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Of the four journalists featured on the front page, who do you think is the most popular or important reporter? Give reasons for your answer.

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Only one of the articles featured on the front page seems to be complete.

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(a) Which one is it?



o c (b) How can you tell? . che e r o t r s super The advertisement appears to have a contradiction. What is it?



(a) What is the part titled ‘What’s Inside’ usually called in a book?

(b) What other sections of a newspaper can you suggest to add to it?

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Comprehension for independent readers

3


Daily Script

NEWSPAPER

Use the newspaper front spread on page 2 to answer the questions.



Which of the four articles is written in the most informative style? Give reasons for your answer.



What caption appears on the front page?



One of the articles is an ‘exclusive’.

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(a) What does this mean?

(b) Why is it highlighted?



Why could the minor collision between the two Swiss ships have resulted in something much more serious?

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(a) Describe the paper’s logo.

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(b) Explain the logo’s significance.

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Why is the print used in the advertisement different from the rest of the text?

SOMETHING EXTRA

Many schools send home a weekly newsletter which is similar to a newspaper. • Look at back issues of your school’s newsletter and suggest contributions you could make to it. • Design a school newspaper spread, reporting on some of the many activities that go on in your school. Interview some teachers and students. • Design a fictitious newspaper spread with articles that will amuse and amaze its readers. 4

Comprehension for independent readers

R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricpublications.com.au


The meaning of proverbs

PROVERBS

Proverbs are defined as easy to remember short statements of general truth to do with everyday experiences. Read and discuss these proverbs and decide if you think they are truthful and if they relate to your life or to anyone you know.

1. Actions speak louder than words.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok First come, first served. u Absence makes theS heart grow fonder.

2. Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. 3.

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5. One good turn deserves another. 6. Spare the rod and spoil the child. 7. Fools rush in where angels fear to tread. 8. All that glitters is not gold.

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4.

16. Out of sight, out of mind.

© R. I . C.Pu17.bl i c at i on swork. Many hands make light 18.r A stitch ine time nine. 10. The more• haste, the speed. f o rlessr e vi ew pu p os ssaves on l y• 9. Too many cooks spoil the broth.

19. You can’t make a silk purse out of a sow’s ear.

12. A friend in need is a friend indeed.

20. Better be the head of a dog then the tail of a lion.

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13. Don’t judge a book by its cover.

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11. You scratch my back and I’ll scratch yours.

21. Lightning never strikes in the same place twice.

14. An apple a day keeps the doctor away.

22. Great oaks grow from little acorns.

15. Fools and their money are soon parted.

23. Those who play with fire get burnt.

o c . 24. However long thee night, the dawn will break. che r o r st sup 25.e Hunger is the best sauce. r 26. It never rains but it pours.

27. Learn to walk before you run. 28. They can who believe they can. 29. Practise what you preach. 30. The darkest hour is just before dawn. R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricpublications.com.au

Comprehension for independent readers

5


The meaning of proverbs

PROVERBS

Use the proverbs on page 5 to answer the questions.



Write the number of the proverb that matches each meaning. (a) Do not judge anyone or anything simply by appearance. ................................................. (b) Something unusual is unlikely to re-occur in exactly the same place. ........................... (c) Take your time and learn how to do something first; don’t rush into it. ..........................

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(d) Even when things are at their worst there is still hope. .....................................

and

(e) Someone who helps you when you need it is a true friend. .............................................

Some of the proverbs seem to contradict each other. Write the number of the proverb that seems to contradict these.

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(f) It’s what people do that matters, not what they say. ..........................................................

(a) Absence makes the heart grow fonder. ...............................................................................

(b) Learn to walk before you run. ................................................................................................



Proverbs 9 and 17 seem to contradict each other. Give a practical example of each.

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(a) Too many cooks spoil the broth.

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Write the number of the proverb that has a similar meaning to these.

. te o (b) One good turn deserves another. ............................................... c . c e he r Write the number of the proverb for which each of these is ao clue. t r s super (a) Be early. .......................................................................................... (a) A stitch in time saves nine. ..........................................................



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(b) Many hands make light work.

(b) About being cautious in practical matters. ............................... (c) So easy to forget. .......................................................................... (d) You get what you deserve. ........................................................... (e) Do not be a hypocrite. .................................................................. (f) Be a leader rather than a follower. ............................................ 6

Comprehension for independent readers

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The meaning of proverbs

PROVERBS

Use the proverbs on page 5 to answer the questions.



Use all the words in the box to write three proverbs. their soon a a makes and of you grow silk are ear fonder purse parted absence the sow’s make out money heart can’t fools

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Which proverbs do you think relate to you and your teacher? Explain why you think so.

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Which proverb would you definitely not want your teacher to literally believe in?

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Me

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My teacher

Rearrange the words to find proverbs that are not on page 5.

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(a) When play mice cat’s the away the will

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(b) The hardest is step first the

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o c . (c) You new teach c an tricks old can’t dog e her r o t s super (d) The worm bird early the catches

(e) A worth two bush in in hand is the the bird

(f) Two don’t right wrongs make a

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Comprehension for independent readers

7


The meaning of proverbs

PROVERBS

Use the proverbs on page 5 to answer the questions.



Which of the proverbs have the opposite meaning to these fake proverbs? (a) Your attitude will not affect your achievement.

(b) Don’t think twice, just go for it.

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(c) Don’t worry about minor problems, they will just go away.

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(d) It’s what you say that matters, nothing else.

(e) Something small will always stay small.

(f) If it looks good then it must be good.



© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Explain the meanings of each proverb. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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(a) Beauty is in the eye of the beholder.

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(b) However long the night, the dawn will break.

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(c) Hunger is the best sauce.

o c . (d) They can who believec they can. e her r o t s super SOMETHING EXTRA • Write a story that includes as many proverbs as possible yet still makes sense. • Write your own proverbs and explain their meaning. • Look at this website and test yourself on your knowledge of proverbs: <http://www.englishclub.com/ref/Sayings/Quizzes/index.htm> 8

Comprehension for independent readers

R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricpublications.com.au


J R R Talkman’s Travelling Circus

POSTER

ember 19 Augu st to 5 Sept

Yes folks, you can get in for

*

FREE Cost only $25 for adults and $15 for

The Fantastic flying falconos Family

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The world’s greatest family on the high trapeze.

Two of the funniest clowns ever, as well as eight other hilarious clowns.

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or FREchildren. E*! Biffo and Butto

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Many, Many more stupendous acts!

. te o Pinta the pony girl c . che e r o S E M t A r G E s s r u PLAY TH e p ZES!

An angel with wondrous equestrian skills.

PRI AND WINeBhoIG rseshoes.

Toss th coconuts. Knock over the . s over the prizes Throw the hoop outh. to the clown’s m Drop the balls in ng bag. Punch the punchi with the dart. Hit the bullseye oo. Lasso the kangar Lucky dips.

Leopold — the bravest lion trainer in the world. Pyroguy — the man who eats fire. Vipera — the beautiful snake charmer. Brutto — stronger than Hercules. Tosser — the ambidextrous juggler. Balancia — the discalced tightrope walker. Mr Yakkitiyak — the verbose Ringmaster.

INDULGE your BELLIES with popcorn, sweets, fairy floss, apple pies, cherry pies, meat pies, hotdogs, doughnuts, Coke®, Pepsi®, Fanta® and Schweppes®. * People over 90 and children under 5 enter free.

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Comprehension for independent readers

9


J R R Talkman’s Travelling Circus

POSTER

In each multiple-choice question, one of the answers is correct, two are incorrect and one is totally, even absurdly, wrong. In a group, read the questions and discuss why the absurd answers are so wrong. Use the poster on page 9 to answer the questions.

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Shade the bubble next to the answers you think are correct.



What is the poster about?

About 30 cm × 20 cm.

The circus coming to town.



How to join the circus.

Which word on the poster means very funny?

hilarious

hysterical

clowns

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The history of the circus.

funny has a double ‘n’



How many clowns are there in the circus?



© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons When does• thef circus leave? or r evi ew pur posesonl y• eight

ten

When it is gone.

19 August

31 August

5 September

What do you think the word ‘ambidextrous’ means? Very strong and can lift heavy weights.

. tehands equally well. Able to use both o c . Can do somersaultsc and jump high. e her r o t s s r u What does the asterisk (*) that appears by the cost mean? e p Look the word up in a dictionary.



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big funny feet

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two

The circus has star performers. This is a special offer. There is more information about the cost. To attract your attention to the cost.

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Comprehension for independent readers

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J R R Talkman’s Travelling Circus

POSTER

Use the poster on page 9 to answer the questions.





To discard something valuable.

It is a made-up word.

Not calceate.

To be barefooted.

Why does each of the last four products you can ‘indulge your stomach’ with have a capital letter?

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They are actual names.

They are the last ones in the list.

They are the most expensive ones.

To highlight them.

What is unusual about the names of the ‘Stupendous Acts’? They are stupendous. They come from words connected with the acts. They sound interesting. They attract your attention.



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What does the word ‘discalced’ mean?

©R . I . C.Publ i cat i onslion octopus horse •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Which animal is connected with the word ‘equestrian’?

elephant

SOMETHING EXTRA

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Imagine your school is having a concert and you are drawing a poster to advertise it. • Choose what you want the concert to be; for example, a play, a talent show, a choir, a musical recital, a comedy show. • Make your poster attractive and colourful to catch the attention of readers. • Include all the relevant information; for example, name, date, time, venue.

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Comprehension for independent readers

11


July/August 1969

DIARY

These are extracts from the personal diary of a teenage girl in 1969. They are as she wrote them, including her doodles, vernacular and slogans from that time.

Monday 21 July 1969. Dear Diary. THE EAGLE HAS LANDED! How historic! An American astronaut named Neil Armstrong landed on the moon this morning! WOW! Everyone was talking about it. The whole school gathered in the hall to watch a film of it on the tele. We all cheered. I wish I could see it in colour.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

NEIL ARMSTRONG

Sunday 26 July 1969. Dear Diary. ROLLING, ROLLING, ROLLING. Its been such a good weekend. Went shopping with Betty for a new pair of rollerskates. I would love to skate. Betty is so good at it! She even belongs to a club and she said she will teach me when I get a pair. Soon! I had a phone call from that new girl, Marcie. She wanted to go out but I told her I was busy with Betty and she just hung up. Weird. Tuesday 28 July 1969. Dear Diary. PEACE! Guess what? Today was super great! Because dreamy Bobbie smiled at me! He is so copacetic! There’s not a zit on his sharp face and that jellyroll way he combs is hair makes him look like a movie star. All the girls at school think he is a hunk.

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Wednesday 23 July 1969. Dear Diary. OUT OF SIGHT! A new girl, Marcie, came to school today. She is weird. We tried to be friendly. Betty asked her what she ate under there, and she said, Under where? and Betty said, Eww, you ate underwear. We laughed but Marcie said it wasn’t funny. It was just a joke.

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Wednesday 29 July 1969. Dear Diary. FLOWER POWER. Betty is a skuzz! She is not, not, NOT my best girlfriend forever anymore. Marcie told me she was flirting with Bobbie and she knows I have a crush on him! Marcie is my new best girlfriend forever.

Friday 31 July 1969. Dear Diary. PEACE, LOVE, DOVE. Marcie is so cool. She told me she saw Bobbie smile at me again today. Far out! She said I should smile back at him. I said I couldn’t but she said I had to or I would lose him, maybe even to Judy. She is so clever. Monday I will. It will be so groovy!

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Saturday 1 August 1969. Dear Diary. RIGHT ON! Betty came to see why I wasn’t speaking to her and was so upset when I told her I was angry because she flirted with Bobbie. She said she didn’t. We had such a fun time. Marcie phoned when I was out and Mum said she sounded very odd. What’s wrong with the girl?

Monday 3 August 1969. Dear Diary. UP YOUR NOSE WITH A RUBBER HOSE. Betty is a dipstick! She is just so jealous of Bobbie and me. Marcie said that Betty made gooey eyes at him. What a dork! It’s just like Marcie said she would. I shouldn’t have chickened out of smiling at him. Marcie said I would be a ditz to miss my chance with a hunk like him. She said she saw him smile at me again. Thursday 6 August 1969. Dear Diary. GIVE PEACE A CHANCE, DUDE. In art Marcie drew a picture of me and Bobbie inside a . It was so lovely. But our teach, Mrs G, saw it and yelled at her. Marcie said she was a jealous old chick and too old to know what love was. Then Mrs G got angry and sent her to the office. 12

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July/August 1969

DIARY

Friday 7 August 1969. Dear Diary. LOVE AND PEACE, MAN. Marcie was not copacetic because of that stupid teach, Mrs G. It spoilt my whole day. But I stood right next to dreamy Bobbie in the tuck shop for a whole minute. He brushed against me. I’m sure it wasn’t by accident. He gets hotter every day. Saturday 8 August 1969. Dear Diary. DON’T HAVE A COW! Today was such a drag. All I could think of was being back at school on Monday and standing next to Bobbie again. I phoned Marcie to rap a bit but she just went on about how much she hates Mrs G. I suggested we go out somewhere but she raved on how she was too busy planning revenge on Mrs G to go out.

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I’m thinking that maybe Abigail would be a better best girlfriend forever.

Saturday 15 August 1969. Dear Diary. RIGHTEOUS DAY! Today was a gas with Abi! She’s so great at netball. She is going to get me on her team and she is going to coach me herself. I love netball so much! I’ve always wanted to play and finally I’ve got my chance. Abi is such a doll. We went to lunch and a movie. Her family is so cool and she has a cute brother too. He is out of sight!

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r o e t s Bo r e Monday 10 August 1969. Dear Diary. WHAT A BUMMER! p o u I was all set to smile at Bobbie, but Marcie was no support at all. She had a weird look k S and said ‘Doom!’ about a million times. I chickened out because she was no help to me.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Wednesday 19 August 1969. Dear Diary. SOCK IT TO ME. Abigail is not my best girlfriend forever anymore. Marcie said it wasn’t none of her business but she had to protect me. Marcie said that Abigail picks her nose and she eats it too! Major YUK! Marcie warned me because if I hang around with her too much the other kids would think I did that too. Even Bobbie would think it. It would be so embarrassing. I’d die! Marcie is my best girlfriend forever and she said she isn’t upset that I went with Abigail for a while. She said she is going to do something to show me what a real friend she is. But I wish that weird expression would leave her face.

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Monday 17 August 1969. Dear Diary. DON’T FLIP YOUR WIG! Somehow a whole lot of superglue got spilled on Mrs Gs chair and she got stuck! The school had to call an ambulance. They carried her away still stuck to the chair. She kept yelling, “I’m stuck! I’m stuck!” It was sad but funny too. We were all giggling and feeling sorry for her at the same time. Except Marcie, she just had that weird look on her face. Abi said we should show more sympathy even if she is a tyrant. The girls quietened down then and agreed with her. She is so sweet.

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Thursday 20 August 1969. Dear Diary. PSYCHEDELIC! I can just die! Marcie is the coolest girlfriend in the whole world. She told me that she spoke to Bobbie and he said he likes me a lot!!!!! But he told her that he was very shy and he wants me to walk right up to him in the yard at lunchtime tomorrow and yell out that I love him with all my heart and then he wouldn’t be shy anymore. Marcie said it was a shame I didn’t have the courage to do it but I said I do. I would do anything for Bobbie. I can hardly wait. I’m freaking out thinking about it but it’s going to be fab! R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricpublications.com.au

Comprehension for independent readers

13


July/August 1969

DIARY

Use the diary entries on pages 12 and 13 to answer the questions.



The name of the author has not been explicitly stated, but it can be found in the text. What is her name?



The girl has made a few grammatical errors in writing her diary. This is common when people are writing for themselves. What errors did she make in these entries? (a) Sunday 26 July

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(b) Monday 17 August

(c) Wednesday 19 August

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• The words spoken by Neil Armstrong as he stepped onto the moon’s surface are generally written as: ‘One small step for (a) man, one giant leap for mankind.’ Why do you think the ‘(a)’ is written in that manner?



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What is the significance of the famous statement, ‘The Eagle Has Landed!’ that she wrote at the beginning of her entry for Monday 21 July?

Teac he r



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There are many colloquialisms (slang terms) of the 1960s in the girl’s diary. What do you think these mean? (a) Jellyroll: (b) Copacetic: (c) Freaking out: (d) Groovy:

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Comprehension for independent readers

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July/August 1969

DIARY

Use the diary entries on pages 12 and 13 to answer the questions.



The diarist begins each entry with a slogan from her time. Which slogan means: (a) remain calm? (b) an insult? (c) a salutation?

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(d) really good?

Describe the opinion you have formed of the character of the girl writing the diary. Support your opinion with examples from the text.



Describe the opinion you have formed of Marcie’s character. Support your opinion with examples from the text.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Complete the next day’s entry. (A skag is a really rotten person.)

Friday 21 August 1969. Dear Diary. SKAG!

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Comprehension for independent readers

15


July/August 1969

DIARY

On 23 July the diarist described a conversation between Betty and Marcie; however, she paid no attention to the use of correct punctuation. Rewrite the conversation correctly.



Find five colloquialisms in the diary that were not mentioned in Question 5. Explain their meaning.



Find two colloquialisms of the 1960s that are not greatly used these days.

Which entries concern friends making up after a falling out?

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Find two colloquialisms ofe the 1960s that are inp use these days. •f orr v i ew pstill ur o se sonl y•

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. te o • Begin keeping your own diary, if you don’t already do so. It doesn’t have c . ch e to be elaborate, just enter a few sentences each day. Personalise it with r er o decorations, comments and a handwriting style that express your feelings. t s s r u e p • You need not be overly concerned about the proper use of SOMETHING EXTRA

grammar and spelling. Its intention is to reflect your thoughts and feelings, not to be an extra school project. • After a while, read through your diary. Assess different events that occurred and consider how you might have enjoyed certain things more, or even prevented an unpleasantness happening had you approached them differently. • How might events have turned out if you had behaved in a different way towards people? 16

Comprehension for independent readers

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Strine – Australian English

LANGUAGE

Strine began diverging from British English soon after the first arrival of settlers, military personnel and convicts in New South Wales in 1788. Most of these people came from large English cities and from Ireland. The early form of Strine was a combination of their variations in speech. As Strine was first spoken by the children, it can be argued that it was children who created our form of English.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u STRINE SMEANING

The Australian goldrushes, in the 1850s, and film and television in the 20th century, saw an increasing influence from US English.

Here are some examples of Australian Strine

Banana Bender billy lids bloke bluey bog in bogan bonzer brumby Buckley’s cactus Captain Cook chook cocky cranky crook canoes cherry plum Cockroach corker Crow Eater dag daks dinkum dinky-di dog and bone dog’s eye drongo dunny dunny budgie flick g’day goose

Queenslander kids guy red-haired person start eating rough person great, wonderful a wild horse no chance dead, broken look a chicken farmer in a bad mood sick shoes mum person from NSW a nerd, goof South Australian a nerd, goof trousers something excellent the real thing telephone meat pie fool, dope outdoor toilet blowfly get rid of hello! acting foolishly

Gum Sucker grouse joey jumbuck larrikin Kiwi knock off mate mongrel mystery bag Never-never oil plonk Pommies pork pie rack off rapt reckon ripsnorter Sandgroper skite sprung squiz stickybeak stoked swag Taswegian tucker whinge wobbly wooden pegs wuss

MEANING Victorian great, terrific baby kangaroo sheep harmless prankster New Zealander steal, copy illegally buddy, friend despicable person a sausage the Outback information cheap wine the English lie push off! get lost! pleased, delighted think, presume great, fantastic Western Australian boast, brag to get caught a quick look nosy person very pleased rolled up bedding Tasmanian food complain excitable behaviour legs coward

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STRINE

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Comprehension for independent readers

17


Strine – Australian English

LANGUAGE

Some Strine phrases come from cockney rhyming slang, which originated in London and used rhyme to make up words; for example, bubble bath – laugh, pen and ink – stink. Use the Strine examples on page 17 to answer the questions.



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These Strine phrases have cockney origin. What do they mean? (The clues will help you.)

Teac he r



Find four phrases in the Strine list that come from cockney slang.

(a) Captain Cook (to do with curiosity)

(c) trouble and strife (to do with marriage) (d) tea leaf (to do with crime)



Some words have more than one Strine version; for example, both dunny and loo mean toilet.

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(b) curry and rice (to do with shopping)

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons These Strine words have a US English influence. What do they mean? •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• (a) ace (to do with value)

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(c) furphy (to do with rumours) (d) moolah (to do with wealth)



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(b) cool (to do with value)

. telids = kids) (a) aekln beirst (billy o c . che (b) bcebor (mate = friend) e r o t r s (c) agns (mystery bag = sausage) s uper

Unravel the Strine words with similar meanings to these. (Not all are listed on page 17.)

(d) benorz (ripsnorter = great) (e) idgry ddeig (dinky-di = real thing)



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Which word in the Strine list comes from the name of an escaped convict who managed to survive in the Outback against all the odds?

Comprehension for independent readers

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Strine – Australian English

LANGUAGE

Use the Strine examples on page 17 to translate the letter.



The following letter was written by a British gentleman. Rewrite it on a fresh sheet of paper as it would have been written by a Strine-speaking bloke.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons To• come the raw prawn be busy f o r r e vi ew• pur p•oTos every so nl y•

Strine also contains colourful phrases. Research to find which phrase matches which meaning. Join the dots. (a)

• To be clever and sneaky

(c) Spit the dummy

• To be very disagreeable

(d) Cunning as a dunny rat

• To be very self-satisfied

(e) He hasn’t got a brass razoo

• To be very stingy

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(b) Sit with the flies

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Hello friend, I am very pleased because I have recently received some information regarding my stolen sheep that I had no probability of rescuing. I was informed by a rather shady character who is known locally to be something of a troublesome person. Initially I thought he was from Queensland but my wife told me he was from South Australia. He approached me while I was very busy teaching the children how to put on their shoes. He was an exceedingly parsimonious fellow, smelled of cheap wine, surely a coward and so unwashed that huge flies buzzed about him. Naturally most of what he said was lies but, after threatening to lock him up in the sanitary facilities, he told me that he had eaten a wonderful sausage that was made from baby kangaroo meat and my stolen sheep. I inquired how he knew it was my sheep. The fool boasted that it tasted just like the meat pie he had cooked using my chickens and sheep! Your good friend, Percival

• To be sitting alone . t (g) Grinning e like a shot fox • • To be very poor o c . c (h) As cross as a frog h in a sock • • To throw ae tantrum r er o st s per (i) As mean as monkey muck •u • To be very angry (f) Flat out like a lizard drinking •

SOMETHING EXTRA • Look at the website to discover much about Australian history and society. <http://www.artistwd.com/joyzine/australia/strine/index.php> • Using Strine in your writing is a good way to develop some of your characters and to add contrast between them. • Write a story or play that involves an interaction between people who speak in Strine and those who don’t. R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricpublications.com.au

Comprehension for independent readers

19


What is irony?

IRONY

Irony is the unplanned, unexpected outcome of an event where there is a coincidental connection or twist between the steps that led to the outcome. But not everything that happens unexpectedly is irony. Most outcomes are just coincidence, bad timing, bad luck or something of that nature.

Examples of what irony is NOT:

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A woman won the lottery, so she went on the holiday she had been dreaming of all her life. Her plane crashed and she was killed.

This is unexpected but it is just bad luck.

A 98-year-old man won the lottery but died from a heart attack when he heard the good news.

Depending on the man’s health and considering his age, this may or may not be unexpected but it is tragic.

A boy tried to cross the road against the lights but he misjudged the speed of the traffic and was struck down.

This is not unexpected as the chances of it happening are high, but it is stupidity with a little bad luck.

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This is unexpected but it is just a coincidence.

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A girl had not seen a friend for many years then one day she went to the zoo and met her friend there.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons A 98-year-old man won the lottery buti hisw children feared Thes irony is that thel old man had the • f o r r e v e p u r p o e s o n y • that such news could cause him to have a heart attack, heart attack his children were trying

Examples of what irony IS:

The old man noticed they were behaving suspiciously and he feared they were plotting against him. This anxiety brought on a heart attack.

The coincidental connection is that it was brought on by their father’s response to their suspicious behaviour.

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to avoid.

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so they didn’t tell him.

A girl lied that her dog had eaten her homework and it worked. A week later, her dog really did eat a major project and she was desperate for extra time to redo it.

The irony is that the girl failed the assignment for which she had a genuine reason for needing more time.

everyone extra time to finish the project but because he believed that she had lied about it, he wouldn’t give her the extra time and she failed.

the dog eating her project, because the same thing couldn’t have happened twice. So he refused to grant her more time.

o c . ce e Her teacher didn’t believe that it h r o t r could happen a second time. The coincidental connection is that s s r u e p her teacher believed she lied about He had planned to give

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Comprehension for independent readers

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What is irony?

IRONY

Use the information on page 20 to help you with your discussions. With a partner, discuss each example to determine if it meets the criteria for irony. If it does, explain how. If it is not irony, then what is it?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

 Jason was a hero in Greek mythology who led one of the most incredible quests of all time. He had the great ship, Argos, built and with a renowned crew set sail across the known world to steal the Golden Fleece from King Aeetes of Colchis. The mission was a success but Jason’s life was not. He ended his life destitute and miserable, scavenging for food and living in the decrepit hulk of Argos that had been grounded and left to rot on the beach. One day a part of the famous ship broke off and struck him, instantly killing him.

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 Two women met and discovered that although they didn’t know each other, they were born on the same day and in the same hospital. They grew up in the same part of town, went to the same school, married men with the same names and both had three children.

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

. ton holiday in a big city and were A family was e o c . staying on the 80th floor of a large hotel. One c e hthey r evening after sightseeing returned to the hotel e o t r s to find that the lifts were out of order and they s r u e p had to walk up the 80 flights of stairs. The mother suggested that to make walking up so many stairs more bearable she would tell jokes for the first 20 flights, the son would whistle for the next 20, the daughter would sing for the 20 flights after him and finally the father would tell sad stories. They did that for 60 flights of stairs until it came to the father’s turn. He said, ‘I will start by telling the saddest story I know. I left the room key in the car’.

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Comprehension for independent readers

21


What is irony?

IRONY

Use the information on page 20 to help you with your discussions. With a partner, discuss each example to determine if it meets the criteria for irony. If it does, explain how. If it is not irony, then what is it?  After an oil spill disaster in Alaska, many seals were rescued. It took a lot of care and money but people thought it was worth it to save their lives.

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A special ceremony was held when two of the seals were released back into the sea. Everyone was joyous and cheered when the seals were set free.

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 Long ago, a sadistic scientist experimented on people by injecting them with small doses of poison to see how much a person can take before either dying or developing immunity to the poison.

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Within two minutes of them being released, a killer whale ate both seals.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

This man had been one of the scientist’s victims but they didn’t recognise each other.

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While rescuing the scientist the man had cut himself, and some of his infected blood got into the scientist’s bloodstream and killed him.

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Many years later, the scientist was trapped inside a burning car after a road accident. He would have died but a bystander pulled him out.

o c . che A renowned wild animal hunter e r had the stuffed head of a large lion r o t s super mounted on a wall in his home. He often stood beneath it bragging how he had killed the beast. One evening as he was walking past the stuffed head, the mounting holding the lion’s head to the wall broke and it fell onto the hunter, killing him.

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Comprehension for independent readers

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What is sarcasm?

SARCASM

Sarcasm is a deliberate, provoked, witty (clever humour) response to what has been said or done by another. It is a form of irony, but while situations can be ironic, only people can be sarcastic. Sarcasm sounds positive but its true meaning is in fact negative. It is often a criticism that appears to be a compliment but is actually a put-down.

Examples of what sarcasm is NOT:

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Telling someone something like, ‘You’re stupid!’

This is just rude and offensive.

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Someone gets badly hurt or receives bad news and you say something like, ‘I’m glad it’s you not This is insensitive and certainly not witty. me’. A girl walks up to a peer and says, ‘How many times do I have to flush before you go away?’

This isn’t provoked because the girl who speaks takes the action. Although it could be an example of sarcasm, in this case it is just hurtful.

Saying to someone who is smart enough not to want to do the wrong thing, ‘You’re a wimp’, or, ‘Everyone does it’, or, ‘Loser’.

This is simply foolish and shows the speaker in a bad light.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons It has been said that sarcasm is the lowest form of humour because the speaker ridicules or eorv i e w pHowever, ur po se s on l yfor• another • and f laughs atr his her expense. when it is done purely fun and those

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Examples of what sarcasm IS:

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on the receiving end give as good as they get, it can make good banter. In such a situation, everyone involved must be laughing.

. te o c To a friend who approaches you from a The provocation needn’t be anything . ch e distance: ‘You were looking good from far away substantial; just r walking up to someone is er o t but up close you’re far from looking good’. s enough to elicit a response from him or her. supe r To someone who has just made a silly mistake: But that is very different from the speaker To a friend who has been away: ‘I felt so miserable without you, it was almost like having you here’.

These examples all begin with a positive comment but each has that sarcastic twist which gives it a different meaning.

‘Everyone is entitled to be stupid now and again, but you abuse the privilege’.

walking up to another person with the specific intention of mocking him or her.

In response to someone who spends hours in front of the television: ‘I find television very educational. Every time somebody turns it on, I go into another room and read a book’. Or ‘I find television very healthy. Every time someone turns it on, I go outside and play’.

Objects are not offended if they are belittled. The final example shows a subtle way of criticising those who spend too much time in front of a television at the expense of doing something educational or healthy.

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Comprehension for independent readers

23


What is sarcasm?

SARCASM

Use the information on page 23 to help you with the activity.



For each example, write the most appropriate sarcastic comment from the box. You will need to understand the bold keywords in each example. Well, aren’t we just a ray of sunshine.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

I work 40 hours a week to be this poor.

I started with nothing and I still have most of it left.

Well it simply was a total waste of make-up. Not the brightest crayon in the box, are we?

It’s always darkest before it turns absolutely pitch black.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Make yourself at home! Clean my kitchen.

(a) Meryl’s assignation was a great fiasco. When I asked about it she said, ‘

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

’.

(b) I visited Nadia but she was in an audacious mood. As soon as I arrived she said, ‘

’.

w ww

m . u

(c) Sometimes events are unpropitious and my visage clearly displays the state of my disposition. At such a time, Joel’s greeting was, ’.

(d) We were comparing how rudimentary we were as pubescents with our current state, and Jacob added,

. te

’. o c . (e) My friend Eden was attempting to elucidate a particularly convoluted theory that had c e her r me looking blankly. In frustration she remarked, o t s super ‘ ’. ‘

(f) Achmed and I found ourselves in a rather precarious situation and naturally I tried to alleviate the anxiety by spouting platitudes, whereupon he said, ‘

’.

(g) Once I told Allan that if he was not so apathetic and applied himself more diligently he could well improve his fiscal situation. He glared at me as he replied, ‘ 24

’. Comprehension for independent readers

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What is sarcasm?

SARCASM

Use the information on page 23 to help you with the activity.



For each sarcastic comment, write a situation in which it could have been appropriately made. (a) He has no enemies, but is intensely disliked by his friends.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

(c) A person who aims at nothing is sure to hit it.

(d) Sometimes I need what only you can provide: your absence.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• I’m impressed; I’ve never met such a small mind inside such a big head before.

w ww

m . u

(e)

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Teac he r

(b) Don’t be humble. You’re not that great.

(f) If you find it hard to laugh at yourself, I would be happy to do it for you.

. te o (g) I never forget a face, but in your case I’ll be glad to make an exception. c . che e r o t r s super

(h) The trouble is that she lacks the power of conversation, but not the power of speech.

(i) Some cause happiness wherever they go, but with others it’s whenever they go.

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Comprehension for independent readers

25


In space you can hear the engine

DATA GRID

The detail in this story is a little hard to follow. Placing the facts in a data grid as you read will help you to answer the comprehension questions on pages 27 and 28. The small spaceship was zooming across space and although everything seemed perfectly well to the Martian and the Mercurian, Meg was looking distressingly worried. ‘Shhhhhh, listen, listen, shush-up and listen’, she urged.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Mog and Mig stopped their jabbering and listened. The Martian’s two antennae, which were his ears, wiggled about as he tried his best to listen. Mog strained his tiny ears, all seven of them including the ones on the tips of his two fat toes.

‘Can’t you hear? It’s going burr, burr, burrumph’, the Saturnian said. ‘I hear it’, said Mig. ‘It’s pretty.’ ‘Pretty schmitty!’ growled Meg, her two elephant-sized ears turning blue as she strained to hear more clearly. ‘It should be going burr, burr, burrimph, dummy.’

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

‘What are we listening to?’ asked Mog, his Mercurian accent making it hard to understand him.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons This news coming from ther engineer frightened the other two. Ins space • f o r e v i e w p u r p o esonl y• if a ship has a problem with its engine it is bad. The pilot’s long tail curled ‘The engine can say “dummy”?’ asked Mig. Meg’s short tail was fluttering furiously in frustration. ‘The engine is sick!’

w ww

The engineer looked at the navigator and said, ‘We have only ten minutes before the engine explodes. Can you get us to a planet by then?’

. te

m . u

up in a tight spiral as Mercurian tails do when they are frightened. ‘What shall we do?’

The navigator scratched his bottom and wished he had a tail to flutter or curl as the other two had because he thought it looked cool. He would have kept thinking about it but a thump on his head from Meg brought him back to reality. ‘No’, he admitted. Then he screamed.

o c . Mog screamed, then Mig screamed louder. Meg screamed, then Mig screamed louder still. The c e r three group-hugged and screamedh more. They kept screaming for an hour without hearing the e o t r sburr, burr, burrimph’, all the s engine had started going ‘burr, burr, burrimph, burr, burr, burrimph, r u e p way back home. NAMES

PLANET

Meg

Saturn

Mog

EARS

TAIL

POSITION/JOB

7 tiny ears

Mig 26

Comprehension for independent readers

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In space you can hear the engine

DATA GRID

In each multiple-choice question, one of the answers is correct, two are incorrect and one is totally, even absurdly, wrong. In a group, read the questions and discuss why the absurd answers are so wrong.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Which of the three aliens was the engineer?

Meg



Mig

Mog

Mug

somewhere

Mars

Mig was from where?

Mercury

Saturn

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr e i e w pur p sesonl • two large ears av long tail an o elephant ay short tail



Mog had which of these?



Why did the engine call Mig a dummy?

w ww

Because it thought he was so silly.

m . u



ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Use the text on page 26 to answer the questions.

It didn’t, he just thought it did.

It didn’t, he misunderstood Meg’s meaning.



. teMig like? o What sound did c . che e birr, birr, burrumph burr, burr, burrimph r o t r s super The sound of violins. burr, burr, burrumph



The tails of aliens from which planet curl up in a spiral when they are frightened?

He misunderstood what Mog said.

Earth 

Mars

Mercury

Saturn

The aliens screamed because:

they were silly.

they were afraid of Meg.

the engine was sick.

they thought the engine would explode.

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Comprehension for independent readers

27


In space you can hear the engine

DATA GRID

Use the text on page 26 to answer the questions.



Which of these was not directly or indirectly mentioned in the story?

Mars 

Earth

Meg

Mig

Who was not the pilot and did not have antennae?

Teac he r

What frustrated Meg?

ew i ev Pr



r o e t s Bo r e p ok u Mog the engine SMeg Mickey Mouse

Mig 

Saturn

Who screamed first?

Mog 

Mercury

Meg wasn’t frustrated.

Mog screaming in her ear.

The engine having a problem.

Mig being so dopey.

Who was the engineer and who was the Martian?

© R. I . C.PubMog l i c at i ons and Meg the engine and pilot Meg and Mig •f or r evi ew pur po se sonl y• Mig and Mog

SOMETHING EXTRA

28

ACTION fought against Digger and Sunny

wanted the • Write a short story based on this information. You may include more action rare carrot and other characters but you must include all for himself of the data given. wanted to • Explain what was so special about the rare share the carrot and plan your own ending to the story. dug up the rare carrot rare carrot with the warren tricked wanted to Boxer help Digger

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big, tough bully

Digger

not big but brave

Sunny

clever and cunning

REASON FOR • This data grid has information about the ACTION character and actions of three rabbits.

m . u

Boxer

CHARACTER

w ww

NAMES

o c . che e r o t r s super

Comprehension for independent readers

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What does it mean?

SYMBOLISM

Symbolism is using any object or action that has both a meaning in itself and also stands for something else. It can create powerful and fanciful images that force you to look beyond the obvious. Imagine a flag waving on a battlefield rallying the spirits of the soldiers. That is symbolism. Imagine looking at an eagle soaring high in a clear blue sky. Can anything be more symbolic of unfettered freedom of spirit?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Symbolism in literature seeks to capture such imagery and emotion in words.

He rode upon a horse of grey, And Greyling was its name. He thundered to my garden gate, To play the final game.

I saw his eyes as red as flame, And then he called my name. His voice was hollow as the grave, And cold as clay and slate. I forced my hand in a lifeless wave, And found the strength to say, ‘Please wait’. He rode upon a horse of grey…

Everburning flame by Jenni Kirby The flame of life shoots inside you, but no matter what, that flame shall burn. You let your freedom hang high over the raging fire of truth…

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Teac he r

He came to my garden gate by Edward Connor

Death by Emily Dickinson Because I could not stop for Death, He kindly stopped for me; The carriage held but just ourselves And Immortality.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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To the poet by Valerij Brjusov You have to hold yourself high as a banner, You have to be sharp as a sword; Your cheeks, like Dante’s, forever By flames of the Hell must be burnt.

m . u

w ww

I saw his eyes as dark as night, He called my name with fierce delight. Malignant flesh fell off his bones, With green fluorescent light did glow. My flesh went cold as graveyard stones. But life still in my lungs I uttered, ‘No’. He rode upon a horse of grey…

o c . Tranquility by Silvia Hartmann che e r Time slides, a gentle ocean o t r s super waves upon waves, washing the shore, loving the shore.

I saw his eyes as pale as dawn, He called my name and I was drawn. In silent awe I felt life drain, I knew the stranger then had won. No longer could I fight and strain, Resistance failed, my time was done.

I died I felt very sick but I didn’t die. Another time I was very sick but I didn’t die. But on the third time that I felt very ill I died.

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Comprehension for independent readers

29


What does it mean?

SYMBOLISM

Many of the following questions ask for opinions, so there are no right or wrong answers, but you do need to state why you have formed your opinions. Use the text on page 29 to answer the questions.



In the poem He came to my garden gate, (a) Who is ‘He’ and why do you think he comes to the garden gate and not to the front door?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

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(b) Why do you think the horse is grey rather than black? (Compare the ‘fear factor’ of the two colours and how brutal and forceful was the poem.)

(c) What do you think is the significance and meaning of the last four lines?

w ww



In the poem, Everburning flame,

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(a) What do you think the line ‘The flame of life shoots inside you’, means? (The poem is about fighting oppression at great risk to life.)

m . u



© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons What image of death do you think the poem by Emily Dickinson presents? oruthless rr e vi e w pand ur poro sesino nl y• (Is Death a fi• ercef and being, or thoughtful kind, something between?)

o c . che e r o t r s super

(b) What do you think the line ‘But no matter what, that flame shall burn’, means?

30

Comprehension for independent readers

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What does it mean?

SYMBOLISM

Use the text on page 29 to answer the questions.



Explain the meaning and symbolism of the poem Tranquility by Silvia Hartmann.



Which of the following words do you think express the meaning of To the poet by Valerij Brjusov?

r o e happy t s Bo r e pangry ok devilish determination u wild insane S hot cunning



Join these common picture symbols to their meanings. Baby changing room Drinking fountain Stairs Women’s toilet Telephone No entry Biohazard Radiation Peace Wheelchair access No weapons Men’s toilet Fire extinguisher Caretaker First aid No smoking

shrewd resolute proud

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Teac he r

stupid

w ww

. te

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s uper SOMETHING EXTRA s

I died is a rewriting of He came to my garden gate. It shows how dull writing can be without symbolism. • Rewrite this description excluding the use of symbolism. The fog sneaks into town on little mouse feet, Scurrying into every hidden corner, Scampering into every nook and cranny. And soon it is a cold blanket with its long tendrils of icy fingers Quietly suffocating our little boxes that we call home. R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricpublications.com.au

Comprehension for independent readers

31


Bringing writing to life

METAPHOR

Metaphors are sparks of energy that bring words to life. They do not mean exactly what the words say. They are figurative, not literal. Metaphors combine two things in such a way that they suggest a resemblance between them. Metaphors can be either single words or phrases.

MEANING

His head was spinning with ideas.

You can sense how the boy is so excited with many thoughts that his head is ‘spinning’.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Her home was a prison.

You had better pull your socks up.

The girl is not literally locked behind bars but you can feel her claustrophobia.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

EXAMPLES

What has pulling your socks up got to do with working harder, getting a move on, being more alert? Of course it’s only figuratively raining cats and dogs, but you know that you will need a very large umbrella.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew p ur posesonl y• Don’t be fooled, her heart is She has a heart of gold.

actually just a muscle, but ‘she’ is obviously very special.

w ww

More examples

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You light up my life with your presence.

m . u

It is raining cats and dogs.

o c . ch e r Mye brother was boiling mad. o t r s sua breeze. er The test wasp The sound is music to her ears. Keep your eyes peeled.

My memory is a little cloudy about that incident. He basted her with flattery to get the job. You’ve given me something to chew on. The stench of failure should not depress you. Her bubbly personality cheered him up. 32

Comprehension for independent readers

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Bringing writing to life

METAPHOR

Some words used in metaphors have symbolic meanings. – – – – – – – – – –

joy, freedom bad luck life communication, union hope in the darkness cowardice wholeness, perfection joy, celebration chance for happiness (supernatural) power, wisdom, hidden knowledge loyalty, vigilance inspiration, victory, freedom, pride inspiration, hell youth obscurity, isolation, (approaching) death crafty life envy, evil, trickery, growth, youth strength, aggressiveness (fiery-red horse) destruction and (white horse) victory death, sacrifice (when tied) continuity, fate and (when untied) freedom (ignorance of) destruction, punishment majesty, strength, courage, justice fertility, abundance immortality, eternity absolute truth obscurity, mystery dignity formlessness, chaos wisdom perfection, incorruptibility, long life royalty, justice

Dog Eagle

– –

Fire Flower Fog

– – –

– –

Lightning – Lion

Milk – Moon – Mirror – Night – Necklace – Ocean – Owl – Pearl – Purple

Thunder Torch Umbrella Unicorn Water Wind Wolf Yellow

– – – – – – – –

transfiguration anger, blood lust, vengeance power, dignity, strength love companion to the dead equality, justice, harmony death, destruction, evil infinity, eternity, immortality anguish leadership, power, guidance power, protection, authority, strength, courage wraithlike voice intelligence, spirituality shelter, protection purity, strength life, refreshment elusive, intangible enemy, menacing cowardice, betrayal

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• – – – – –

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Knife Knot

– – – – – – – – – – –

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m . u

Fox Garden Green Horns Horse

Rainbow Red Ring Rose Raven Scales Serpent Sky Spider Staff Sword

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Bells Black cat Blood Bridge Candle Chicken Circle Dance Dawn Dragon

o c . che e r o t r s super

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Comprehension for independent readers

33


Bringing writing to life

METAPHOR

Use the text on pages 32 and 33 to answer the questions.



Some symbolic words in the list have two very different meanings. Write three of the words and their different meanings.



Many different symbolic words in the list have the same meaning as each other. Write the missing words or shared meanings.

WORDS

eagle, horse

joy

blood, garden, pearl, water

youth

horns, lion, ring, sword, unicorn cowardice

pearl, circle

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Teac he r

bells, eagle, knot

r o e t s B r e SHARED MEANING WORDSo p okSHARED MEANING u S evil

fog, knife, serpent

© Rpower . I . C.Publ i cat i ons destruction • f orr evi ew pur po se sonl y• dragon, owl moon, sky

sword, umbrella

lion, sword

w ww



justice

m . u

inspiration

Choose two words from the list of symbolic words that could be used to describe each scene.

. te

(a) A king is trying on new clothes when he is suddenly struck with bad luck.

o c . (b) A sneak avoiding thec truth is confronted by a ghost insisting that he become honest. e her r o st super (c) Someone who was thought to be courageous and strong turns out to be a coward.

(d) You are attacked by your enemy but your friend stands by you.

(e) There is evil all around you but you still have hope for the future. 34

Comprehension for independent readers

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Bringing writing to life

METAPHOR

Use the text on pages 32 and 33 to answer the questions.



Which metaphors have these meanings? (a) Stay alert. (b) Work harder! (c) I liked what I heard.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

(d) Something was very easy.

(e) That’s something to think about.

Explain the meanings of these metaphors.

Teac he r



ew i ev Pr

(a) He has a heart of stone.

(b) She has the heart of a lion.

(c) For some people time is money.

(d)

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons His silken lies went unheard by the judge. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

m . u

(e) Be sure he is not just shedding crocodile tears.

SOMETHING EXTRA

. t hungry e

funny o c . adorable laughing che e r o t • Illustrate each metaphor on plain paper and present them in a booklet. r s s r u e p • Work in a group to present a selection of your metaphors as tableaux. • Make up your own metaphors for these ideas. fast ignorant

smelly naughty

poor boring

Ha!

Ha!

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Comprehension for independent readers

35


Mixed metaphors

METAPHOR

A mixed metaphor can be made by combining two metaphors. The new metaphor may be quite ridiculous but it does make the reader think; for example, ‘As soon as we started the game, I knew I could beat him with my eyes tied behind my back’. This sentence combines the metaphors, ‘with my eyes closed’ and ‘with my hands tied behind my back’. It is a foolish sentence but it makes its own kind of sense.



r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

What are the two original metaphors that make up these mixed metaphors?

(b) Keep your eyes in the bush.

(c) It isn’t rocket surgery!

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• The early bird gathers no moss.

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(e) A stitch in time is worth a pound of cure.

(f)

m . u

(d)

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Teac he r

(a) His head was spinning with cats and dogs.

. te o He has a heart as big as gold. c . che e r o t r s super

(g) We’ll burn that bridge when we come to it.

(h) If worst comes to shove.

36

Comprehension for independent readers

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Mixed metaphors Combine each pair of metaphors to make a mixed metaphor. (a) To be stuck up a tree.

To be up a creek without a paddle.

(b) The goose that laid the golden egg.

Every grey cloud has a silver lining.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

(c) Spare the rod, spoil the child.

Too many cooks spoil the broth.

(d) It’s like pulling teeth.

As rare as hen’s teeth.

(e) Ignorance is no excuse.

Silence is golden.

SOMETHING EXTRA

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r



METAPHOR

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons I’m sweating like a stuck pig. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• (Sweating like a pig. Bleeding like a stuck pig.)

• Choose four of these mixed metaphors to put into sentences.

m . u

I wish they’d hurry up and get their act in gear. (Get their act together. Get into gear.)

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I want to see you go to town like greased lightning. (Go to town. Move like greased lightning.)

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I guess the shoe’s on the upper hand now! (Shoe’s on the other foot. Have the upper hand.)

o c . c e he r He’s been burning the midnight oil at both ends. o t r s (Burn the midnight oil. Burn the candles atu bothp ends.) er Don’t bite the bullet that feeds you. (Bite the hand that feeds you. Bite the bullet.)

Bite the hand that rocks the cradle. (The hand that rocks the cradle. Bite the hand that feeds you.)

A rolling stone is worth two in the bush. (A rolling stone gathers no moss. A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.) • Illustrate each mixed metaphor on plain paper and present them in a booklet. • Work in a group to present a selection of the mixed metaphors as tableaux.

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Comprehension for independent readers

37


Statistics

TABLES AND GRAPHS

Tables and graphs are an effective way to present statistical information. Similarities and differences between elements can be recognised immediately.

Average maximum temperatures in Australian cities

Celsius 30

5 0

ec

D

J

an

eb

F

ar

M

pr

A

ay

M

Europe

Africa

Asia

(Antarctica 0)

un

J

ul

J

ug

A

ep

S

O

ct

ov

N

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesTallest onmountains l y•

Famous people

NAME OF PERSON

LIFE SPAN

NATIONALITY

1930–2012 American 1910–1997 Macedonian 1908–2001 Australian 1728–1779 English 1879–1955 German 1926 – English

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Neil Armstrong Agnes Bajaxhiu Donald Bradman James Cook Albert Einstein Elizabeth Windsor

. te

ACHIEVEMENT Astronaut (Mother Teresa) Cricketer Explorer Physicist (Queen Elizabeth II)

Metres 9000 8800 8800 8600 8400 8200

o c . che e r o t r s super

MOVIE Pirates of the Caribbean: At world's end Tangled Spider-Man 3 Harry Potter and the half-blood prince Avatar

8000 7800

A

Expensive movies and how much money they made at the box office

38

North America

Oceania

m . u

10

Hobart Brisbane Canberra

South America

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15

Teac he r

25 20

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

World population by continents

35

COST BOX OFFICE (Million US$) 300 260 258 250 237

Comprehension for independent readers

960 560 890 933 2700

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

A = Mount Everest B = Qogir (K2) C = Kangchenjunga D = Lhotse E = Makalu F = Cho Oyu G = Dhaulagiri H = Manaslu I = Nanga Parbat J = Annapurna

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Statistics

TABLES AND GRAPHS

Use the charts and graphs on page 38 to answer the questions.



Which two pairs of adjacent mountains on the list have the largest difference in height? and and



(a) Which two cities have the same average temperature for two different months?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S and

(b) What are the two months?



Which famous person was born in the eighteenth century?



Which of the populated continents is the: (a) most populated? (b) least populated?



© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons least money? •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Which of the films listed made the: (a)

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Teac he r

and

(b) most money?

w ww



Which famous person was still alive when this table was composed?

Which mountains appear to be close in height?

. te

and

m . u



o c . che , and e r o t r s supe andr and

What two other aspects of the films listed could have been shown in the table?

Which famous person was not alive during the lifetime of any of the others?

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Comprehension for independent readers

39


Statistics

TABLES AND GRAPHS

Use the charts and graphs on page 38 to answer the questions.



(a) Which Australian city listed in the table has the lowest average maximum temperature for any month?

(b) What is that month?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S



What is the approximate height of the smallest mountain on the chart?



Why do you think the mountains’ height chart does not begin at 0 metres?

Teac he r

Why do you think the table of Australian temperatures begin at December?

ew i ev Pr



• •

w ww

– the longest roads in the world. US Interstate 80, 4682 km US Interstate 90, 5010 km Trans-Canada Highway, 8050 km Trans-Siberian Highway, 11 000 km Australia’s Highway 1, 14 484 km Pan American Highway, 4377 km – large animals (weight and length shown) African Elephant: 13 000 kg, 6.5 m Asian Elephant: 5200 kg, 6 m White Rhinoceros: 3850 kg, 3.5 m Hippopotamus: 3400 kg, 3 m Walrus: 2150 kg, 3 m Giraffe: 2100 kg, 4.5 m Black Rhinoceros: 1900 kg, 11.25 m Saltwater Crocodile: 1600 kg, 6 m Gaur: 1600 kg, 3 m Wild Asian Water Buffalo: 1250 kg, 3.5 m

. te

40

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Use computer software to present the data in tables and graphs f or r e v i ew pur posesonl y• Make charts• to present the data on:

SOMETHING EXTRA

o c . che e r o t r s super

Comprehension for independent readers

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Who’s who in Mother Goose

BIOGRAPHY

JACK AND JILL (1828 – ?) They were twin brother and sister, both blue-eyed, fair-haired, slim and 157 cm tall. They worked fetching water from a well at the top of a hill for lazy folk who couldn’t be bothered straining their own muscles. Unfortunately they were clumsy. Their little business came to a sudden ending when Jack fell down the hill and Jill went tumbling after. They both suffered head injuries, got amnesia and wandered off in opposite directions.

HUMPTY DUMPTY (1831–1855)

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

MISS MUFFET (1817–1880)

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Teac he r

He was totally bald, yellow-eyed, 143 cm tall and 143 cm wide. He spent his time sitting on a wall poking fun at people. Needless to say he was very unpopular and there was doubt as to whether or not the terrible accident he had was an accident. The local paramedics, known as the King’s Men and Horses, could do nothing for him, although there is also doubt as to how hard they really tried. After the ‘accident’ the town entered the Guinness book of records for making the world’s largest omelette. She had red curly hair, brown eyes and was 152 cm tall. Miss Muffet suffered from a medical condition known as arachnophobia and she was grossly overweight. She ate anything she could get into her mouth, even milk that had been left to curdle and go sour as it turned into a kind of repulsive cheese (known as curds and whey). She also had terrible halitosis (bad breath) and very few friends.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

BO PEEP (aka Little Squinty Eyes) (1884 – ?)

m . u

w ww

She was a 144 cm, 49 kg, brown-eyed, black-haired gangster. This shepherdess came into conflict with another young lady who also had a fondness for sheep, Miss Mary Had. One day after one of Bo’s sheep had disappeared, Bo saw Mary eating lamb chops and she jumped to a horrible conclusion. She took Mary’s lamb and hid it in school where it pooped on the teacher’s desk. That caused Mary a lot of trouble so she snipped off the tails of Bo’s poor sheep. The two kept at each other’s throats and there was very little laughter and play at their school from then on. However, they teamed up as adults and formed the Sheep Mafia. They made a lot of money on the black-sheep market.

. te o An unattractive and envious woman, Mary was 189 cm tall when standing straight, although c she was always hunchedc over. She had grey eyes and wispy grey hair.. She was the daughter e r of John and Betty Mary, whoh were nice but unimaginative parents. However, Mary Mary was e o t r screatively she had decorated her sup very imaginative. One day the local policeman noticed how er MARY MARY (1789–1866)

garden with silver bells and cockleshells. He was fascinated, but on looking closer discovered the whereabouts of the pretty maids who had mysteriously disappeared over the years.

JACK NIMBLE (1842–1865) He was a superb athlete, 180 cm tall and weighing 70 kg. There were high hopes of him winning gold at the 1864 Olympic Games in Bremen. Unfortunately, his coach had unorthodox training methods. He made Jack jump over lit candles, regardless of the fact that Jack was a swimmer. The candles got larger and taller and Jack discovered that he was not a high jumper. He spent most of 1864 in hospital recovering from third-degree burns to his feet. The following year he took up giant-beanstalk climbing with his friend, also named Jack, which ended tragically. R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricpublications.com.au

Comprehension for independent readers

41


Who’s who in Mother Goose

BIOGRAPHY

In each multiple-choice question, one of the answers is correct, two are incorrect and one is totally, even absurdly, wrong. In a group, read the questions and discuss why the absurd answers are so wrong. Use the biographies on page 41 to answer the questions.

robbery

Who was the tallest and shortest of those mentioned?

Miss Muffet and Bo Peep

Mary Mary and Humpty Dumpty

Jack Nimble and Jill

The shortest one was shorter than the tallest one.

What does ‘unorthodox’ mean?

Not orthodox.



When something is deliberately kept simple.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Not following the usual method. When something is wrong. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

What does the question mark beside Jack and Jill’s name mean?

They could be still alive.

The year of their death is not known.

They were twins.

It is not certain that they were born in 1828.

w ww



. te

Which two characters were partners in crime?

o c Bo Peep and Mary. Mary che e r o t r s super

Bo Peep and Miss Mary Had Jack and Jill

42

jealousy

ew i ev Pr



Teac he r

ambition 

r o e t s B r Mother Goose e oo p u k S

What was Mary Mary’s most likely motive for murdering the pretty maids?

m . u



Comprehension for independent readers

Jack and Jack Nimble

R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricpublications.com.au


Who’s who in Mother Goose

BIOGRAPHY

Use the biographies on page 41 to answer the questions.



In which century were most of the characters mentioned born?

17th century



18th century

19th century

A century means 100 years.

What do the initials ‘aka’ mean?

another knee accident r o e t s Bo as r e Rest In Peace p also known ok u S anyone knows anything

What does arachnophobia mean?



Fear of spiders.

Bad breath.

Someone who overheats.

Being too sick to exercise.

What pooped on the teacher’s desk?

A ship has a poop deck.

Bo Peep’s lamb

Mary’s lamb

Bo Peep’s sheep

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons poison a fallp old a disease • f orr evi ew ur pos eage sonl y•

What did Jack Nimble likely die of?

w ww

. te

SOMETHING EXTRA

m . u



ew i ev Pr

Teac he r



o c . che e r o t r s super

• Write a set of short biographies on some of your class friends. Ask their permission first and ask them to answer some questions that will give you some facts to include. • Write a set of short biographies on other fictitious characters such as superheroes, super villains and fairytale characters. • Write a series of short biographies on historical figures. You will need to research first to obtain some facts to include. R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricpublications.com.au

Comprehension for independent readers

43


Biological classification

CLASSIFICATION

Classification systems are used to organise information. This means putting things into groups according to the features they have in common. The classification of all life on Earth uses Greek and Latin names which scientists all over the world know and understand. This means there is no confusion with translating from one spoken language to another.

r o e t s ANIMALIA PROTISTA B r e oo p u k S

All life on Earth is first classified into five Kingdoms.

PLANTAE

e.g. mushrooms, toadstools, mould

e.g. flowers, shrubs, cereals, grasses, trees

e.g. humans, insects, lizards

e.g. red, brown and green algae; kelps, seaweeds

BACTERIA e.g. bacteria (germs), bluegreen algae

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Teac he r

FUNGI

Each Kingdom is then classified into smaller groups called Phyla (singular Phylum). There are 36 Animalia Phyla that include:

CHORDATA

ARTHROPODA

animals with a backbone

cold-bloodied without bones but with a hard outer covering (exoskeleton), segmented body, many-jointed legs/ limbs

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f o redr e i ew ur pos es l yPhylum • are: Each Phylum is further classifi intov smaller groupsp called Classes. Classes in o the n Chordata PISCES

MAMMALIA

REPTILIA

cold-blooded, live in water and on land e.g. frog, toad, newt

warm-blooded with hollow bones, feathers and wings e.g. penguin, owl

cold-blooded with fins, scales and gills e.g. shark, salmon, manta ray

warm-blooded with hair and young drink mother’s milk e.g. humans.

cold-blooded with hard skin e.g. tortoise, crocodile, lizard

m . u

AVES

w ww

AMPHIBIA

. tethe classification groups are Order, Family, Genus and Species. After Classes, o c . c e CLASSIFICATION OF LIONS AND MOSQUITOES her r o t s super LIONS MOSQUITOES

KINGDOM PHYLUM CLASS ORDER FAMILY GENUS SPECIES 44

Animalia

Animalia

Chordata

Arthropoda

Mammalia

Hexapoda

Carnivora

Diptera

Felidae

Culicidae

Panthera

Culiseta

Leo

There are around 2500 species of mosquito.

Comprehension for independent readers

R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricpublications.com.au


Biological classification

CLASSIFICATION

In each multiple-choice question, one of the answers is correct, two are incorrect and one is totally, even absurdly, wrong. In a group, read the questions and discuss why the absurd answers are so wrong. Use the information on page 44 to answer the questions.



r o e t s Protista Chordata B r e oo p u k S

Which of these are a class in the Kingdom Animalia?

Teac he r

Mammalia

What kind of group is Culicidae?

Class



calcium

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The king leads the kingdom.

Order

Family

Which of these sets of animals comes entirely from the Class Aves?

{kangaroos, koalas, wombats, dingoes}

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i o ns Kingdom {galahs, wattle birds, fie nches, mosquitoes} •f o rr e vi wp ur posesonl y• {hawks, magpies, emus, rosellas}

Fungi

Plantae Animalia Protista Bacteria

{grade 3, grade 4, grade 5, grade 6} Phylum

Which of these is a human feature?

w ww

Teeth are replaced only once in a lifetime.

m . u



Class

. te o c Have feathered wings. . che e r o t r In which group order do scientists classify all life on Earth? s s r upe Have gills to breathe in water.

Chew only strawberry-flavoured bubblegum.



Order

Family

Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Genus, Species, Order, Family Fungi, Plantae, Animalia, Protista, Bacteria, Chordata Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species

Genus

Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Genus, Family, Species Species R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricpublications.com.au

Comprehension for independent readers

45


Biological classification

CLASSIFICATION

Use the information on page 44 to answer the questions.



What is the singular of Phyla?

Philadelphium



Phylum

Pisces r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Order Phylum Hexapoda

Aves

Genus

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Teac he r

At which level of classification do lions and mosquitoes diverge?

Tigers



One Phyla

In which Class would dragonflies be classified?

Class



Phyla

Are ants in the same Kingdom as tigers?

Yes. They are both animals. No. Tigers have fur and ants don’t.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Tigers• don’t eatr ants. f o r evi ew pur posesonl y• No. Ants are insects and tigers are mammals.

How many different Kingdoms is life on Earth classified into?

four

w ww

Life is classified into Kingdoms.

. te

five

six

m . u



o c • Conduct some research to find out about other classification systems; e.g. the . Dewey Decimal c e h r System used in libraries around the e globe. o r st suasp r • Set out the classification of lions and mosquitoes a fle owchart. SOMETHING EXTRA

• Choose a plant or animal at the Species level and work backwards to find out which Genus, Family, Order, Class and Phylum it belongs to and how it is similar to and different from others in the same group. • Try some classification of your own by classifying people you know according to their personal traits. The first level could be Gender: Male and Female. This can be subdivided by Age: Adults, Teenagers, Preteens and Babies. Then you can subdivide these groups by physical features such as hair colour, eye colour, height etc. Or by values such as: what kind of music they like, what kind of food they prefer, favourite sport etc. 46

Comprehension for independent readers

R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricpublications.com.au


Major events of the 20th century AUSTRALIA

THE WORLD

Olympic Games in Sydney

2000

1997: Scientists clone sheep. South Africa repeals apartheid laws 1994: English Channel tunnel opens 1992: Official end of the Cold War 1991: Operation Desert Storm (first US military action against Iran) 1990: Hubble telescope launched. Nelson Mandela freed

1990

1986: Halley's Comet. Challenger Space Shuttle explodes. Chernobyl nuclear accident 1985: Famine in Ethiopia. Wreck of the Titanic found 1980: New plague identified as AIDS. Personal computers introduced by IBM

A referendum on changing to a republic is unsuccessful Port Arthur massacre NSW last state to abolish capital punishment. Mutitjulu people granted freehold title of Uluru

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

‘Advance Australia Fair’ becomes the national anthem Kakadu inscribed on the World Heritage List

1980

Vietnam War ends, 500 Australians dead

1970

Australia goes decimal

Australian troops sent into Vietnam War Olympic Games in Melbourne Television broadcast begins

1960

1979: Mother Theresa awarded the Nobel Peace Prize 1977: Elvis found dead 1976: Tangshan earthquake kills over 240 000 1975: Microsoft founded 1972: Pocket calculators introduced 1971: VCRs introduced

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Teac he r

Sydney Opera House opens

TIME LINE

1969: Neil Armstrong becomes the first man on the moon. ARPANET created. ‘Sesame Street’ begins 1967: First heart transplant 1964: Nelson Mandela sentenced to life in prison 1961: Soviets launch first man in space 1960: Lasers invented 1957: Soviet satellite Sputnik launches space age 1953: DNA discovered 1955: Disneyland opens. McDonald's founded 1952: Car seat belts introduced. Polio vaccine created 1951: Colour TV introduced

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons 1950 •f orr evi ew p ur posesonl y•

First nuclear test conducted in Australia Construction on the Snowy Mountains Hydro-Electric Scheme begins

1947: Chuck Yeager breaks the sound barrier 1945: Atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. World War II ends. First computer built (ENIAC) 1944: D-Day. Ballpoint pens go on sale 1941: Japanese attack Pearl Harbour

Battle of the Kokoda Trail

1940

Australia enters World War II

w ww

Last Thylacine (Tasmanian Tiger) dies

. te

Sydney Harbour Bridge opens

General Motors Holden formed

Shrine of Remembrance is built QANTAS is founded

1939: Helicopter invented. World War II begins 1934: Cheeseburger created. ‘Monopoly’ game comes out 1933: Loch Ness monster claimed to be first spotted 1932: Air-conditioning invented 1931: Empire State Building completed 1930: Pluto discovered

m . u

World War II ends, 40 000 Australians dead

o c . che e r o t r s super

World War I ends, 60 000 Australians dead

1930

1920

1910

1919: World War I ends 1917: Russian Revolution. USA enters World War I 1914: World War I begins. First traffic light 1913: First crossword puzzle 1912: The Titanic sinks 1910: Halley's Comet appears

1900

1909: Plastic is invented 1908: Ford introduces the Model-T 1903: First powered aircraft flight at Kitty Hawk 1902: The teddy bear is introduced 1901: First transatlantic radio signal

Surfing first introduced to Australia Australia enters World War I First successful powered aircraft flight in Australia (by H Houdini) Australia becomes a nation. Edmund Barton is the first Prime Minister. First time Australian flag is flown R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricpublications.com.au

1929: Great Depression. First Academy Awards 1928: Penicillin discovered 1927: The first talking movie, The Jazz Singer 1924: First Olympic Winter Games 1922: Tomb of King Tutankhamun discovered 1920: Bubble gum invented

Comprehension for independent readers

47


Major events of the 20th century

TIME LINE

In each multiple-choice question, one of the answers is correct, two are incorrect and one is totally, even absurdly, wrong. In a group, read the questions and discuss why the absurd answers are so wrong. Use the time line on page 47 to answer the questions.



1916 and 1984

I956 and 2000

Which was invented first: air-conditioning or lasers?

lasers



television

air-conditioning

In which year was the polio vaccine created?

1952



both together

I948

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r



r o e t s B2022 1896 and 1928 and 1976 r e o p ok u S

In which two years were the Olympic Games held in Australia?

invented by Dr Jonas Salk

1963

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• A man landed on the moon.

What also happened in the year when the first plane flight was made in Australia?

The first crossword puzzle was made.

w ww

Bubble gum was invented.





. te Neil Armstrong

Who was listed as having been awarded a Nobel Peace Prize?

m . u

Plastic was invented.

o c . c e he r Mother Theresa Halley Comet o t r s super On to which two cities were atomic bombs H Houdini

dropped?

Tokyo and Kyoto Yokohama and Osaka Karaoke and Mitsubishi Hiroshima and Nagasaki 48

Comprehension for independent readers

R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricpublications.com.au


Major events of the 20th century

TIME LINE

Use the time line on page 47 to answer the questions.



How many times did Halley’s Comet pass by the Earth during the 20th century?

twice 

once

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u Olympic Games S in Sydney. World War III

Vietnam War

World War II

The Winter Olympics. Aboriginal people first came to Australia.

Which of these companies was the first to be founded?

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

What else took place in the year that television began in Australia?

Olympic Games in Melbourne.



21st century

During which war did the battle of the Kokoda Trail take place?

World War I 

four times

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Microsoft®

McDonald’s™

Two’s Company Three’s a Crowd

Qantas

SOMETHING EXTRA

w ww 8.00

Woke up. Had breakfast.

9.00

. te

10.00

11.00

12.00

m . u

Nog the dwarf kept a journal in the form of a time line. Write a story based on the entries. Add some colourful detail to enhance the story.

1.00

o c . che e r o t r s super

Set out to visit Grimbo. Met Truff & Sandy.

R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricpublications.com.au

Arrived at G’s. Argued about Dragon’s gold. He acted suspiciously.

Left G’s. Had lunch at tavern.

Met Mugwin. Made plan to go after D’s gold.

Comprehension for independent readers

2.00

Went with M. Searched for D’s gold. Saw G hiding in bushes.

49


How to play the guessing game

FLOWCHART

Is there someone you can depend on thinking of a number from 1 to 10 for you to guess?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Make a guess at a number from 1 to 10 that you have not guessed before.

Was your guess correct?

No

Yes

Was this the tenth guess you made?

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Yes

No

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons No Yes •f orr evi e w pur posesonl y•

w ww

Congratulations! You have won!

. te

m . u

An error has been made.

o c . c e Congratulations! No h r er o t s super Yes

Was there a prize if you won?

Collect your prize.

Do you want to play again?

No

Yes

Now you must find something else to do.

50

Comprehension for independent readers

R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricpublications.com.au


How to play the guessing game

FLOWCHART

In each multiple-choice question, one of the answers is correct, two are incorrect and one is totally, even absurdly, wrong. In a group, read the questions and discuss why the absurd answers are so wrong. Use the flowchart on page 50 to answer the questions.



r o e t s Bo r e pof the arrows. ok Only in the direction u Clockwise. S

In which direction must you move along the lines?

Opposite to the direction of the arrows.



What can happen if players lose count of the number of guesses they made?

They have to count backwards. They could get into a loop. They have to brush their teeth.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons According to the flowchart, players getr stuck in s a loop when: •f o r r evi e wcan pu po es onl y• They have to give the prize to the winner.



ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Either way as it does not matter.

they play with a hula-hoop.

m . u

they win the game.

w ww

there is no-one they can depend on. there isn’t a prize.



. tehas to guess again. The player o c . che The game ends. e r o t r s super If it’s 10 October, it is my birthday.

What happens on the tenth incorrect guess?

The player must restart the game. 

Some flowcharts have the ‘No’ reply in a different shape, like No . Why?

They don’t have diamond shapes. It is more attractive to have it different. To distinguish it from the ‘Yes’. It has more room than a diamond shape. R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricpublications.com.au

Comprehension for independent readers

51


How to play the guessing game

FLOWCHART

Use the flowchart on page 50 to answer the questions.



When are players congratulated?

When they successfully reach the end. When they learn to count up to ten. When they win the game and receive a prize.

r o e t s Bo r e pyes okon Tuesdays sometimes u S

When they win the game. 

Can a player go into a loop if there is no prize?

According to the flowchart can you lose this game?

no



yes

sometimes

on Tuesdays

How many ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ choices would players who guess the correct number with their third guess have to make before reaching the very end of the flowchart?

three four © R. I . C.Publ i c at i onsgoogolplex •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• What happens if players want to play the game again? two



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Teac he r

no

They go to the start of the flowchart.

They fall into a loop.

. te

They go almost back to the start of the flowchart.

Yes

m . u

w ww

They have to find something else to do.

o c . SOMETHING EXTRA che e r o t Construct a flowchart of this trip to Grandmother’s house. r s super

• Start by standing outside your house facing east down street S1. (Give your streets proper names.) Walk to the first intersection. Ask if it is street S2. • If ‘No’ go back to Start. If ‘Yes’ proceed to next intersection. Ask if it is street S3. If ‘No’ go back to Start. If ‘Yes’ turn into S3 and walk north to the next intersection. Ask if it is street S4. If ‘No’ go back to Start. If ‘Yes’ turn west and walk into S4, looking at the house numbers as you walk. Ask if you see house number 27. If ‘No’ keep walking. If ‘Yes’ you have arrived. If you reach the end of S4 without seeing house number 27 then you are lost, so go back to Start.

52

Comprehension for independent readers

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Logical arguments

SYLLOGISM

A syllogism is a logical argument that draws, from two related statements, a conclusion about the relationship among three objects. A syllogism consists of three lines: • Statement one (the major ‘premise’) includes objects 1 and 2. All trees are plants. • Statement two (the minor premise) includes objects 3 and 1 (or 2). The prickly ash is a tree.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

• The conclusion includes objects 3 and 2 (or 1). Therefore, the prickly ash is a plant. This type of argument can be defined as:

Teac he r

A VALID SYLLOGISM

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If a syllogism is logically correct, it is referred to as valid; for example: Lions eat meat. Grass is meat. Therefore, lions eat grass.

This syllogism is valid but the minor premise is not true so it is not sound. (We need not say it is not sound. We only indicate when a syllogism is sound.)

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons A SOUND SYLLOGISM • or ev i ewarep ur p osesonl y• If a syllogism isf valid andr both premises factually correct,

w ww

All dogs are canines. Kelpies are dogs. Therefore, kelpies are canines

m . u

it is referred to as sound; for example:

This syllogism is valid because dogs = canines, kelpies = dogs, so kelpies = canines. It is also sound because each premise is factually correct. Dogs are canines and kelpies are dogs.

. te AN INVALID SYLLOGISM

o c . c e r If a syllogism is not logical, ith cannot be valid and e o t r s it is referred to as invalid; for example:s uper All ants are hard workers. All hard workers are insects. Therefore, all insects are ants.

This syllogism is invalid because other animals besides ants could be hard workers and ants are not the only insects. Because the syllogism is invalid, it cannot be sound.

NOT A SYLLOGISM An argument is not a syllogism if it does not have two premises, and a conclusion that shows a relationship among three objects. R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricpublications.com.au

Comprehension for independent readers

53


Logical arguments

SYLLOGISM

Use the information on page 53 to answer the questions. Shade the bubble next to the answers you think are correct. All carrots are vegetables. All vegetables are plants. Therefore, all carrots are plants.



(a) What type of syllogism is this argument?

invalid not a syllogism r o e t s Bo r e p o u carrots and plants. the premises. k S plants, carrots and vegetables. valid and invalid. valid

sound

(c) The conclusion is:

All carrots are vegetables.

All vegetables are plants.

Therefore, all carrots are plants.

There isn’t one.

Every superhero is a good guy. All good guys are happy people. So, all happy people are superheroes.

 (a)

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• What type of syllogism is this argument? valid

sound

invalid

w ww

Every superhero is a good guy.

not a syllogism

m . u

(b) The major premise is:

All good guys are happy people.

. te

So, all happy people are superheroes.

There isn’t one.

o c six ve four three . chfie e r o All horses are hay-eating animals. t r s super Therefore, all cows are horses.

(c) How many objects in this argument?



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Teac he r

(b) The objects are:

(a) What type of syllogism is this argument?

valid

sound

invalid

not a syllogism

(b) How many premises in this argument?

one 54

two

Comprehension for independent readers

three

four

R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricpublications.com.au


Logical arguments

SYLLOGISM

Use the information on page 53 to answer the questions. Shade the bubble next to the answers you think are correct.



All balloons are goofy things. All goofy things are baboons. Therefore, all balloons are baboons.

r o e t s Bo r e valid sound p o u k invalid not a syllogism S

Teac he r

(a) What type of syllogism is this argument?

one

two

three

four

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(b) How many objects in this argument?

(c) The objects are:

balloons and baboons.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons baboons and things. •balloons, f orr evi e wgoofy pu r posesonl y• balloons and goofy things.

All baboons are apes. All apes are teachers. Therefore, all baboons are teachers.

w ww



m . u

baboons and goofy things.

. te

o c . chesound e r • Rewrite 5 changing only o not a syllogism t r sone of theArgument super objects to make it a sound syllogism.

(a) What type of syllogism is this argument?

valid

invalid

SOMETHING EXTRA

(b) The conclusion is:

All baboons are apes. Therefore, all baboons are teachers. All apes are teachers. There isn’t one.

R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricpublications.com.au

• Construct some of your own syllogisms. Be creative and true to life or outrageous and ridiculous, but always logical. Ask a friend to determine if they are valid, sound or invalid, giving reasons for their answers. • Illustrate your syllogisms.

Comprehension for independent readers

55


Sim Sala’s Magic Emporium

SALES CATALOGUE

Sim Sala’s The only place for a sagacious magician to shop. We stock all the conjuring paraphernalia you can imagine!

12 – 22 Potter Street, Haunton. phone: 321 MAGIC email: abra@liame.com

r o e t s Bo Magic Wands e r Capes p o Teac he r

Sizes to fit all. Guaranteed not to wrinkle. Only black, but with a choice of silk lining: red, blue or silver. Prices range from $80 – $200* (Show us your Magician’s Union card and get your cape dry-cleaned.)

Special Sale item! Hurry!

k ew i ev Pr

u S

Lots of sizes and shapes, decorated and plain. Classic magician’s wand and special ones decorated with genuine imitation jewellery. Sparkling fairy wands and powerful wizard staffs. From $15.00

Rabbits

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Doves •f orr evi ew p ur posesonl y• Top Hats

w ww

. te

They make you look sophisticated as well as having a hidden base for concealing rabbits and doves. (Large enough to hold a

m . u

Doves have been trained by SSME to perch and not poop. (Conditions apply.) $8.00 each or $20 for three.

From bunnies, less than 0.5 kg, to fully grown rabbits weighing 2.5 kg. White, black and brown. (We also dye any colour.**) Kittens $3.50 Adults $9.00

2 kg rabbit or three doves.)

$28.00 Until sale ends.

(Free hat wax and polish for Magician’s Union members.)

o c . che e r o t r s super

Next generation ‘Saw-the-lady-in-half’ box: Brightly coloured with more leg room. (Doubles as a storage unit.)

Marked cards: easily identify each card by the secret code hidden in the decoration on the back. $6.75 for the regular pack, $17.25 for the waterproof pack. Flash powder: Ignite it and it will flash so brightly your audience will gasp. $23.00 for 250 grams. This product is the best, and exclusive to us. For the escapologist we have the highest quality handcuffs, straitjackets and chains. Escape cabinets can be constructed to your specifications.

Our prices are second to none! Talk to our Houdini about your needs. *Invisibility cloak not in stock. ** All such work is done under supervision of the RSPCA. Money back guarantee on all living items that naturally expire before a month after purchase.

56

Comprehension for independent readers

R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricpublications.com.au


Sim Sala’s Magic Emporium

SALES CATALOGUE

Use the sales catalogue on page 56 to answer the questions. Which two items in the catalogue are described as having a dual purpose?



In the Magic Wands description, what is meant by ‘classic magician’s wand’?



In the Top Hats description, what additional information regarding the price could have been mentioned?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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What item does the emporium claim you can buy only from them?



What word in the catalogue is a synonym for the word ‘clever’? (It is used to describe magicians.)



What words on the catalogue page mean magical supplies?



On which products can some magicians get a special deal?

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Oxymoron means when two opposite meaning words appear side-by-side but still make some kind of sense, like dry ice and fine mess. What oxymoron appears on the sales catalogue page?

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Comprehension for independent readers

57


Sim Sala’s Magic Emporium

SALES CATALOGUE

Use the sales catalogue on page 56 to answer the questions. What information is given to reassure people about the dyeing of rabbits?



What assurance is given to customers regarding any animals they purchase?



Is it an error in the Rabbits section to say ‘Kittens’? Explain your answer.



Which product is a new and improved model?



The escapology description ends with the claim that the emporium has its own Houdini. Explain what this means.

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• Create your own sales catalogue. Keep it real and include actual products and prices or have fun with it and invent products to sell; for example: – a catalogue for witches with products like bat wings, rat tails, eye of newt, love potions. – a catalogue of the future selling a range of robots. Describe what they do and what special features they possess. They wouldn’t be cheap! – a catalogue for prehistoric people with stone tools for hunting, gathering, carving and weaving.

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •byf o rr v i ew pur posesonl y• What is meant SSME ine the Doves section?

SOMETHING EXTRA

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Comprehension for independent readers

R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricpublications.com.au


Cryptic puzzles â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 1

CROSSWORDS 1.

2.

3.

In this cryptic crossword the clues are given in two parts. Part one is a regular definition or a synonym which is written in bold print.

6.

4.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

Part two presents the answer within another word or words; for example:

14.

18.

15.

17.

19.

23.

The word is camel which is found in â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;... came last ...â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

20.

24.

21.

22.

25.

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â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;She came last night riding an animal.â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

26.

27.

DOWN

 Forever will the social way sound best. Š R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons  Singing eroded the amber coloured tonsil. o Its is e nots trueo thatn lilies areâ&#x20AC;˘ purple. â&#x20AC;˘f orr evi ew pur p l y  Mac and Les lit the wax torches.

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 The heavenly creature rode a mustang elegantly.  Please arrive on a bronco merrily singing.  Hi dear, have a thought.  She will win terribly easily, as she likes the cold season sports.  At the time that was it.  In time, the territoryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s abbreviation was known.  Pass the fruit to the chap please.  He was so red that it hurt.  Eve read as she always did.  She makes fun of me but offers me tea served with lemon.  One who takes advantage of others is an abuser of them.  The negative is nothing new.  Wind will frequently unroof ten houses.  Now is the negative again.  Unfasten the can of propenol.  The marker will upgrade results.

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 In the east erupted a volcano on the Sunday holiday.  We had rope to prevent a fall.  The indefinite articles are â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;aâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; and another.  Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s not odd that the evening is dark.  The boy sternly rebuked the shellfish.  Come in and meet ten terrapins.  Donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t go to Grandmotherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s house by the byroads but by the street.  Just a single person phoned me.  To never hear a melodic sound would be sad.  At this time there are no weasels here.

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ACROSS

12.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S 13.

â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;He wears it in Manhattanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;.

The word is hat which is found in â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Manhattanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;.

5.

o c . che e r o t r s super

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Comprehension for independent readers

59


Cryptic puzzles â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2

CROSSWORDS 1.

2.

3.

4.

In this cryptic crossword the clues are given in two parts. Part one is a regular definition or a synonym which is written in bold print. Part two presents the answer within another word or words; for example,

â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;He took a bath then drew a shower.â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

The word is wash which is found in â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;... drew a shower ...â&#x20AC;&#x2122;



   

60

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

21.

17.

22.

18.

23.

24.

26.

19.

20.

25.

The abandoned child was found lingering Š R. I . C.Pub l i cat i ons around the pet shop.  The cobweb camera is watching you. â&#x20AC;˘f orr evi ew p ur posesonl yâ&#x20AC;˘  Honestly, you are all young and so foolish.

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 Feeling cheerful he said â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Come up, be at ease and enjoy yourself!â&#x20AC;&#x2122;  They were given a definite article.  It was a very funny cartoon.  Some fish feel sardines are silly.  Did I see bigfoot or a cowâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s hoof?  My shoe kicked the garden tool.  The number is even in England.  I can hear someone talking with my auricles.  The street has a large plant growing right in the middle of it.  Colour is hereditary.  Those who speak negatively are naysayers.  We are usually much smarter than this.

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8.

9.

DOWN

Jeff, lower some pretty plants to us. Stop over it. The macadamia will arrive in a minute. The sandy place can be a cheesy place. Nonetheless he replied negatively. The vision organ came yesterday to see. The matador able to kiss the bull was lovable. But yesterday he replied positively. If I show you the seahorse will you be amazed? Drape a tablecloth only over the table. The bug is hiding in sector â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Wâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. The dog rested after escaping the monsters. Dr Krunurâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s expert assistant. Dr Yneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s suffered from dehydration.

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The word is pig which is found in â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;spigotsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;.

     

6.

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â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;A little hog swallowed some spigotsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;.

ACROSS

5.

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Comprehension for independent readers

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Missing words â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 1

CROSSWORDS

To solve this crossword, write the missing word from each sentence in the puzzle. 1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

13.

12.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S 14.

15.

16.

18.

20.

19.

21.

22.

23.

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17.

ACROSS

DOWN

 Eating a a day has to be good for your eyesight because you never see a rabbit wearing glasses.  He is not completely fit yet at half way, you might say he is .  The wrestler is big in Japan in more ways than one.  I like my sister but definitely, positively, absolutely, unconditionally not .  In winter, some trees look without their leaves.  We have seven in our neck. How many do you think a giraffe has?  is the Japanese art of paper folding. However, it originated in China.  The Roman numerals are: I = 1, V = five, X = , L = 50, C = 100, D = 500 and M = 1000. But what happened to 0?  â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Most people like the light but I prefer â&#x20AC;&#x2122;, said Dracula.

 There is a saying, â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;What up must come downâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. So be good to people on your way up.

The photographers had their poised to get a shot of the celebrity.

 Such a foul stench! It made me .

 When the rain stopped, the spider to take in the sunshine and perhaps a fly or two.  Eating a carrot a day has to be good for your eyesight because you never see a wearing glasses.  Native Americans constructed poles to tell stories of significance.  Your home might not be a mansion but it is better than a , and many people donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t even have that much.  This it!  I wonder who was the clown ever.  Sheâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s here, youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re here and here too.  Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s the Scotsman who the caber.  Being angry is bad but being in a is a lot more serious and dangerous.  Was the named after the colour or was the colour named after the fruit?  Pat-a-cake, pat-a-cake, â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s man. Bake us a cake as fast as you can.  I had an once and it was a pretty good one, but I forgot it.  Donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t giggle; an is just a donkey.

 You can have this that, but not both.

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o c . che e r o t r s super

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Comprehension for independent readers

61


Missing words â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2

CROSSWORDS

To solve this crossword, write the missing word from each sentence in the puzzle. 1.

2.

8.

3.

4.

6.

7.

9.

10.

11.

13.

12.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S 14.

15.

17.

19.

20.

ACROSS

DOWN

 The idea is to the ball with the bat.  Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s not judo or karate but .  A is a small to medium-sized primate that typically has a long tail and tends to live in trees in tropical countries.  The measuring was calibrated on one side in centimetres and inches on the other.  The battle was over and the was ours because we won, of course.  To harness the power of the wind a is needed.  Want to know where in the world you are? Get an and take a good look.  Something can either be out of the box or it, unless it is the box.  Jack was nice but Jill was .  Someone who is between thirteen and nineteen years old, inclusive, is a .  I went to a concert and I was amazed by the talented who played piano, violin and cello.



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16.

18.

5.

all that you could do if you were the king of the world. The of a mountain is called the summit, while that of oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s career is called the apex, that of the head is the crown, that of a wave is the crest and so on. Eleven pipers piping, Ten lords a, Nine ladies dancing â&#x20AC;Ś The Australian cowboy is called a . In supermarkets people should be made to get a licence before pushing around. There is a huge difference between wanting something and it. Except for the noise that drives me crazy, is the best fastener ever. The answer to the question can be , no or â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;mind your own businessâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. One of the most successful movies of all time is Gone the wind. Just because they are called â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;little white â&#x20AC;&#x2122; doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t change the fact that they are still untrue and sneaky. To be or not to be, that the question.

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Comprehension for independent readers

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Word search – 1

CROSSWORDS

All the answers to this crossword can be found in the lists of words below. There are also many other words that have nothing to do with the puzzle. Use the letter clues, the number of letters in the words and how the words fit with one another, to help you solve it. 1.

2.

n

3.

4.

a

5

6.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S 8.

l

9.

g

18.

e

22.

14.

15.

12.

m

16.

p

17.

19.

20.

u 21.

u

23.

24.

l t

25.

26.

d

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons t a w •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• at, go, ha, if, in, is, me, no, on, or, so, ta, up, we s

i

30.

28.

31.

• all, ask, bag, bat, end, ewe, fat, for, get, her, him, ill, let, man, new, not, off, pet, pin, rob, run, sit, sun, tea, tub, use, wig, you, zoo

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• able, ants, apes, born, brim, burn, call, come, cute, feet, flat, goat, hate, have, kill, kiss, like, love, made, maid, next, part, race, rise, time, toga, very, well, yawn, zone

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29.

u

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13.

27.

10.

g

11.

t

7.

o c . che e r o t r s super

• after, awake, brick, crack, crawl, crest, first, flame, games, grade, group, house, hunts, ideal, idiot, loner, loans, money, mummy, night, north, nutty, pilot, queen, quick, rusty, roast, strap, strip, strop, taper, topic, tuner, under, urged, voter, wager, yeses, young, zebra • always, animal, anyway, battle, broken, catnap, cracks, dancer, dinner, fishes, flight, goblin, hobble, hustle, jogger, kitten, laughs, lights, minute, moment, monkey, parsec, piston, rabbit, rattle, rustle, string, strong, wicked, wicket, zither • battery, butters, capital, capping, century, dancing, drawing, giraffe, gophers, guppies, hammers, haunted, hunters, juggler, justice, million, mutters, parable, platoon, problem, scanner, thought, through, troughs, warship, weeping, wiggler, zephyrs R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricpublications.com.au

Comprehension for independent readers

63


Word search – 2

CROSSWORDS

All the answers to this crossword can be found in the lists of words below. There are also many other words that have nothing to do with the puzzle. Use the letter clues, the number of letters in the words and how the words fit with one another, to help you solve it. 1.

o o

2.

3.

10.

18.

12.

28.

31.

20.

o

n

26.

n

y

30.

32.

i

24.

a r

t b r © R. I . C.Pu l i cat i ons as, at, be, go, in, me, no, r or,e ox,v oz, pi, w so, to,p ta,u wer •it,f or i e posesonl y•

p

29.

15.

a

23.

g

t

34.

• are, ate, bee, car, cot, doc, dot, ego, elm, fat, for, fun, gin, gun, had, hid, kit, lad, lap, lip, lit, man, men, nor, not, nut, oat, off, oil, peg, pig, pub, rug, run, say, sit, sum, tag, tap, use, ute, was, wet, yak, yes

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• able, barb, blob, crab, cusp, dodo, edgy, epic, flat, fold, fume, heat, hero, hire, leap, lion, logo, meek, muse, name, next, ogre, owls, oxen, part, pier, pigs, quit, rank, rose, scam, show, snob, tape, taxi, tool, trek, unit, upon, volt, wise, wish, wisp, your, zinc, zoom •

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33.

14.

22.

25.

o

13.

19.

21.

27.

7.

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i

o

s

l

Teac he r 17.

6.

h

11.

o 16.

5.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S 8.

a

9.

4.

. t e o angel, angle, avert, badge, bloom, cupid, cynic, digit, empty, every, c . feast, geese, hyper, issue, juice, juror, kiwis, lambs, lyric, media, c e he r modem, mummy, oaken, paint, quick, quite, rally, roads, rover,t o r s su er pwoman, scalp, sheep, three, torch, truck, union, until, valve, yodel

• abound, always, answer, babies, battle, bottle, carton, caught, decide, easter, eleven, empire, fennel, ferret, gnomes, hamlet, hornet, horrid, icicle, indoor, italic, kindly, kitten, lather, manner, noodle, nosier, operas, pamper, pointy, putrid, retold, rotund, sachet, sacred, season, shaman, tomato, trench, umpire • abalone, airship, android, artists, banshee, bathers, canteen, defrost, dingbat, dungeon, epitaph, frogmen, glitter, growled, heroism, holiday, isolate, Jupiter, legally, magenta, musical, ostrich, patient, physics, rebound, riddles, sceptre, sheriff, tearoom, thistle, unhappy, urgency 64

Comprehension for independent readers

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Target words

SCANNING

Here is a plethora of nursery rhymes. Ding, dong, bell, Pussy’s in the well! Who put her in? Little Tommy Thin. Who pulled her out? Little Johnny Stout. What a naughty boy was that, To try to drown poor pussy-cat. Who never did him any harm, But killed the mice in his father’s barn!

Baa, baa, black sheep, Have you any wool? Yes, sir, yes, sir Three bags full. One for my master, One for my dame, And one for the little boy Who lives down the lane.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Little Bo-Peep has lost her sheep, And can’t tell where to find them; Leave them alone, and they’ll come home, Wagging their tails behind them.

Jack and Jill went up the hill, To fetch a pail of water; Jack fell down, and broke his crown, And Jill came tumbling after. Donkey, donkey, old and grey, Open your mouth and gently bray; Lift your ears and blow your horn, To wake the world this sleepy morn. Little Miss Muffet, sat on a tuffet, Eating her curds and whey. There came a big spider, Who sat down beside her, And frightened Miss Muffet away. Rain, rain, go away, Come again another day; Little Johnny wants to play.

Bat, bat, come under my hat, And I’ll give you a slice of bacon. And when I bake I’ll give you a cake If I am not mistaken.

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Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall, Humpty Dumpty had a great fall; All the King’s horses, and all the King’s men Couldn’t put Humpty together again.

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If wishes were horses, beggars would ride. If turnips were watches, I would wear one by my side. And if ‘ifs’ and ‘ands’ Were pots and pans, There’d be no work for tinkers!

‘Pussy-cat, pussy-cat, Where have you been?’ ‘I’ve been to London To look at the Queen.’ ‘Pussy-cat, pussy-cat, What did you there?’ ‘I frightened a little mouse Under the chair.’

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons I’ll tell you a story Hush-a-bye baby, on the treetop. I had a little pony, • f o r r e v i e w p u r p o s e s o nl y About Jack• a nory, When the wind blows His name was Dapple-Grey, And now my story’s begun; the cradle will rock; I lent him to a lady,

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Tweedledum and Tweedledee Agreed to have a battle. For Tweedledum said Tweedledee, Had spoiled his nice new rattle. Then flew by a monstrous crow, As black as a tar barrel, Which frightened both the heroes so, They quite forgot their quarrel.

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To ride a mile away. She whipped him, she slashed him, She rode him through the mire; I would not lend my pony now For all the lady’s hire. Georgy Porgy, pudding and pie, Kissed the girls and made them cry. When the boys came out to play, Georgy Porgy ran away.

I’ll tell you another About Jack and his brother, And now my story is done.

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When the bough breaks the cradle will fall, And down will come baby, cradle and all.

Old Mother Hubbard Went to the cupboard, To give her poor dog a bone; But when she got there The cupboard was bare, And so the poor dog had none.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Cry, baby, cry, Put your finger in your eye, And tell your mother it wasn’t I.

Ring a ring o’ roses, A pocketful of posies. Atishoo! Atishoo! We all fall down.

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See a pin and pick it up, All the day you’ll have good luck. See a pin and let it lay, Bad luck you’ll have all the day.

Hey diddle diddle the cat and the fiddle, the cow jumped over the moon. The little dog laughed to see such fun and the dish ran away with the spoon!

Needles and pins, needles and pins, When a man marries his trouble begins. There was a little girl who had a little curl, Right in the middle of her forehead. When she was good, she was very, very good, And when she was bad she was horrid.

Comprehension for independent readers

65


Target words

SCANNING

Reading each nursery rhyme carefully in order to answer each question would be onerous and time consuming. Scan the nursery rhymes to find what could be the target word and then check more carefully. The column number or the upper part (UP) or the lower part (LP) of the table of nursery rhymes is given with each clue, most of the time.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Use the nursery rhymes on page 65 to solve the clues.



A word that starts with the letter ‘c’ and has six letters (column 1)



A word that has a double ‘d’ (column 2)



A word that rhymes with ‘glory’ (column 3)



A six-letter word that ends with a ‘y’ (UP)



A word that rhymes with ‘bell’ (LP)



Two words, each containing three different vowels (column 3)

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Two five-letter words with a vowel as the middle letter (column 1)

Four different animals (column 2)

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Sometimes, there is more than one word that matches the target and any of them will do but take note that sometimes you are asked for more than one answer.

Comprehension for independent readers

R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricpublications.com.au


Target words

SCANNING

Use the nursery rhymes on page 65 to solve the clues. A three-syllable word (UP)



A word that contains the smaller word ‘her’ (column 1)



A word that contains a smaller word which is a part of the body (LP)



A word that is the noise made by an animal (column 2)

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S



Two adjacent two-syllable words, not names (column 2)



A palindrome (column 1)



A word that has the same vowel repeated three times (LP)



A word that is a synonym for centre (column 3)



An antonym of ‘old’ (column 1)

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Two words that appear in three and only three different nursery rhymes.

o c . che e r o t r s super SOMETHING EXTRA

• Scan the poems to find some more words for which you can write clues. Challenge a partner to find them. • Choose a piece of text, either fiction or nonfiction. Write clues for others to find by scanning words within the text.

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Comprehension for independent readers

67


Time line

SCANNING

The time line lists some important events in world and Australian history from 3500 BC to 2000 AD. Some dates are approximations and others note one year of an event that occurred over several years.

BC

3500

The wheel is used in Mesopotamia

4

3000

First Egyptian hieroglyphs Egyptians create 365-day calendar Egyptians build first known dam

70

Iron used for weapons and tools Magnetic compass invented Phoenicians develop alphabetic script Chinese develop gunpowder Olympic Games start in Greece According to legend, Rome is founded

Homer writes the Iliad and the Odyssey

The earliest poem written in English

795 1023

Vikings start raiding Ireland

1096

University of Oxford is founded in Oxford, England The first crusade captures Jerusalem

1099 1140 1147 1206 1215 1223 1271 1281

The Chinese issue the first paper money

Angkor Wat is built in Cambodia Second Crusade

Genghis Khan leads the Mongol armies © R. I . C.Publ i c at i onsigns sthe Magna Carta King John of England Herodotus the first historian Genghis Khan invades Russia 300 Spartans stand at Thermopylae • f o rr evi ew pur p o s e s o nl y• Marco Polo starts on his alleged trip to China First sewer system built in Rome

The Parthenon in Athens is completed Sparta finally defeats Athens Socrates is put on trial

1285

Alexander the Great is born

1300 1346 1431 1440 1441 1476 1487 1489 1492 1500

Philip of Macedon conquers Greece Alexander the Great defeats Persia

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Alexander the Great conquers Egypt

Kublai Khan conquers most of Asia Spectacles for the farsighted are invented in Italy Anasazi of Arizona abandon their cliff dwellings

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Earliest coins appear

The bubonic plague starts in China Joan of Arc burned at the stake

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Alexander dies near Babylon

The Pharos Lighthouse is built Hannibal attacks Roman army

First emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang, dies Spartacus rebels against Rome Julius Caesar assassinated Cleopatra comes to power in Egypt

1514 1519 1521 1533 1556

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Rome sacked by Visigoths under Alaric Persians use windmills to power irrigation pumps Muhammad is born

Minoan culture destroyed

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1100 1000 776 753 750 650 578 484 480 432 404 399 356 338 334 332 323 290 218 210 73 44 51

The Romans destroy Jerusalem Colosseum is built Beginning of the Classic period for the Maya

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1120

250 410

Work begins on Stonehenge in England Trojan War

Jesus is born

r o e t s Bo r e 550 p o u k 570 S 657

Great Pyramid at Giza in Egypt

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2750 2575 2500 1450 1185

AD

Comprehension for independent readers

Johann Gutenberg invents the printing press First African slaves imported into Europe The Inca defeat the Chimu civilisation Aztec ruler Ahuitzotl sacrifices 80 400 prisoners Johann Widmann starts using ‘+’ and ‘–’ Christopher Columbus lands in the Bahamas Cabral accidentally discovers Brazil Copernicus writes the earth revolves around the sun Magellan the first to circumnavigate the globe Cortés conquers the Aztecs Pizarro conquers the Inca empire Earthquake in China kills 830 000

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Time line

SCANNING

1588 1619 1687 1712 1728 1770

Spanish Armada is defeated by England

1776

American Declaration of Independence First submarine, Turtle, used in war First manned hot air balloon flight in Paris

Isaac Newton writes of gravity Newcomen creates the first steam engine James Cook (Capt.) is born Cook arrives on the east coast of Australia

The metric system is introduced in France Napoleon is crowned Emperor of France

Atomic bombs destroy Hiroshima and Nagasaki End of World War II India and Pakistan gain independence

1947 1948 1949 1950 1954 1956

Napoleon defeated at Waterloo England outlaws slavery

Samuel Morse demonstrates the telegraph The charge of the Light Brigade Charles Darwin’s Origin of species. Pasteur shows that germs spread disease Mendel works on genetics

Enrico Fermi builds the first nuclear reactor D Day

1961 1962 1963 1966 1968 1969 1972 1984

Gandhi assassinated Mao Zedong leads China’s revolution Start of Korean War

Nautilus, the first nuclear powered submarine Olympic Games in Melbourne Sputnik I becomes the first human-made satellite Yuri A Gargarin the first human in space

Australia sends military personnel to Vietnam President John Kennedy assassinated The Battle of Long Tan

Martin L King and Robert Kennedy are slain Neil Armstrong walks on the moon

ends involvement in Vietnam © R. I . C.Publ i cAustralia a t i o n s Indira Gandhi assassinated Nelson released •f orr evi ew pur p seMandela son l yfrom •jail after 27 yrs 1990o Apartheid ends in South Africa

Telegraph cable laid across the Atlantic

Alexander Bell patents the telephone The battle of the Little Big Horn The island volcano of Krakatoa explodes Jack the Ripper strikes in Whitechapel

1991

Marconi invents the radio First modern Olympic Games in Athens Boer War

Sigmund Freud begins psychoanalysis

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Australian federation

1994 1997 2000

First US-Iraq war Communism ends in Soviet Union Mandela becomes president of South Africa Hutus massacre 800 000 Tutsis in a few weeks Mother Teresa dies

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Hollerith invents the electronic calculator

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1883 1888 1890 1895 1896 1899 1900 1901 1903 1905 1911 1912 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1926 1929 1930 1935

1945

Start of World War II

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S 1957

The French Revolution begins

Teac he r 1876

The Hindenburg explodes

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1783 1789 1795 1804 1815 1833 1837 1854 1859 1864 1865 1866

Kepler’s three laws of planetary motion

1937 1939 1942 1944

Olympic Games in Sydney

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Wright brothers fly the first aeroplane Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity Royal Australian Navy is founded The Titanic disaster Start of World War I

The Gallipoli campaign Battle of the Somme The first aircraft carrier, HMS Argus World War I is officially over Television invented The Great Depression Pluto discovered Watson-Watt invents radar

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Comprehension for independent readers

69


Time line – number puzzle

SCANNING

The answers to this number puzzle are dates from the World and Australian History time line. The clues given are two words from the description of the required date. Scan the time lines to find the date for the given clues. Use the time lines on pages 68 and 69 to solve the clues. (i)

(ii)

(iii)

(xii)

(xvi)

(xxii)

(xxiii)

(xxviii)

(vii)

(x)

(xiii)

(xiv)

(xvii)

(xix)

(xx)

(xxi)

(xxiv)

(xxv)

(xxvi)

(xxix)

(xv)

(xviii)

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(xi)

(ix)

(v)

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S (vi)

(viii)

(iv)

(xxvii)

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons ACROSS DOWN •f orr evi ew pur o se sonl y• (ii)p Trojan War (i) Australian federation

70

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(iii) (iv) (v) (vii) (ix) (xi) (xiv) (xv) (xviii) (xix) (xxi) (xxiii) (xxvi)

Cook arrives Napoleon defeated Power irrigation Alexander the Games start Bubonic plague HMS Argus Colosseum is Gandhi assassinated US-Iraq Hannibal attacks legend Rome Spartacus rebels

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Titanic disaster Cleopatra Egypt Genghis Khan Sewer system Nelson Mandela The Odyssey Rome sacked Is born Visigoths under Enrico Fermi Earliest poem Mother Teresa Spanish Armada Caesar assassinated Start of Outlaws slavery

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(iii) (v) (vi) (viii) (x) (xii) (xiii) (xvi) (xvii) (xx) (xxii) (xxiv) (xxv) (xxvii) (xxviii) (xxix)

o c . che e r o t r s super

Comprehension for independent readers

R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricpublications.com.au


Time line â&#x20AC;&#x201C; word puzzle â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 1

SCANNING

The answer to each two-word clue is the missing word from the event description. For each clue, the time line (1 or 2) where the event can be found, has been given. Scan the appropriate time line to find the event description for each clue. Use the time lines on pages 68 and 69 to solve the clues. 1.

3.

2.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

4.

5.

7.

9.

8.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

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Teac he r

6.

Š R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons â&#x20AC;˘f orr evi ew pur posesonl yâ&#x20AC;˘

20.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

w ww ACROSS     

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m . u

26.

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abandon (1) of (2) start raiding (1) coast of (2) First hot (2)

  

 

World War (2) (word) in is (1) The aircraft (2) three of (2) of Krakatoa (2)

  

is the the 300 period

    

Ripper in (2) of planetary (2) weapons tools (1) is on (1) England outlaws (2)

 writes Iliad (1)

Polo starts (1) starts â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;+â&#x20AC;&#x2122; (1)

of The

imported Europe. (1) Alexander near (1) earliest written (1) in Union (2)

DOWN     

in (1) defeats (1) are (1) stand (1) the (1)

R.I.C. PublicationsÂŽ ~ www.ricpublications.com.au

Comprehension for independent readers

71


Time line â&#x20AC;&#x201C; word puzzle â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2

SCANNING

The answers to this word puzzle are key words in the event descriptions for the given dates. Scan the time lines to find the solution to each clue.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ACRO AC ACROSS        



1945 1945 1795 1833 1687 1441 550 1776 1947 1185

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

8.

10.

11.

12.

19.

72

13.

14.

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w ww

18.

7.

Š R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons â&#x20AC;˘f orr evi ew pur posesonl yâ&#x20AC;˘ 9.

15.

16.

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Teac he r

Use the time lines on pages 68 and 69 to solve the clues.

17.

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Comprehension for independent readers

DOWN

20.

         

795 1120 1963 1285 1912 1942 1997 1859 44 1956

R.I.C. PublicationsÂŽ ~ www.ricpublications.com.au


Answers DAILY SCRIPT – Newspaper

pages 2 – 4

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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Teac he r

1. (a) The Daily Script (b) Cityton (c) 1893 (d) Wednesday 1 April 2011 (e) $1.50 (f) Cloudy with showers 2. Nosey Parker. Answers may include: second article on front page, the only complete article on the front page, senior reporter 3. (a) Stolen Painting Found by Tree (b) It is the only one that doesn’t continue on another page. 4. It says it is the only cola with pixie-sugar, yet it also states that it contains no additives. 5. (a) Contents page (b) Teacher check. Answers may include: shipping, television, tributes 6. Stolen Painting Found by Tree – Answers may include: it has information about the history of the painting, the French word for the French police as well as its pronunciation 7. The SSS Alpboat on its maiden voyage, 2001. 8. (a) Its reporter is the only one to get that news information. (b) It is highlighted to attract attention and impress readers with its significance. 9. Some of the other ships were nuclear-powered and they could have exploded, causing more deaths. 10. (a) A man writing using a quill. (b) The paper has a long history and is a classic in its own right. A man writing with a quill indicates wisdom and a formal education. 11. It is larger print to attract attention. THE MEANING OF PROVERBS – Proverbs pages 5 – 8

5. (a) 3 (b) 7 (c) 16 (d) 23 (e) 29 (f) 20 6. You can’t make a silk purse out of a sow’s ear. Fools and their money are soon parted. Absence makes the heart grow fonder. 7. Spare the rod and spoil the child. 8. Teacher check 9. (a) When the cat’s away the mice will play. (b) The first step is the hardest. (c) You can’t teach an old dog new tricks. (d) The early bird catches the worm. (e) A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. (f) Two wrongs don’t make a right. 10. (a) They can who believe they can. (b) Fools rush in where angels fear to tread. (c) A stitch in time saves nine. (d) Actions speak louder than words. (e) Great oaks grow from little acorns. (f) All that glitters is not gold. 11. (a) Different people have different opinions about what looks good and what doesn’t. (b) Bad things/times don’t last forever and eventually things will get better. (c) Everything tastes good when you are hungry. (d) People who have a positive attitude about their abilities are more likely to succeed. J R R TALKMAN’S TRAVELLING CIRCUS – Poster pages 9 – 11

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1. (a) (d) 2. (a) 3. (a)

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

1. The circus coming to town. 2. Hilarious 3. Ten 4. 5 September 5. Able to use both hands equally well. 6. There is more information about the cost. 7. To be barefooted. 8. They are actual names. 9. They come from words connected with the acts. 10. horse JULY/AUGUST 1969 – Diary pages 12 – 16

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13 (b) 21 (c) 27 24 and 30 (e) 12 (f) 1 16 (b) 3 Too many people doing the same task get in each other’s way and can ruin the outcome. It’s better to leave it to one or two people to do the task properly. (b) A lot of people joining in to help will get the job done more quickly; for example, picking up litter in the class after a craft activity day. 4. (a) 14 (b) 11 R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricpublications.com.au

1. Julie 2. (a) Its (been such a good weekend) should be It’s (b) Mrs Gs (chair) should be Mrs G’s (c) wasn’t none (of her business) should be either was none or wasn’t any 3. It describes the landing on the moon of the first manned spacecraft. 4. He had left it out, but it is quoting him as he meant to say it. Comprehension for independent readers

73


Answers bloke, who everyone knows is a larrikin. At first I reckoned he was a Banana Bender but me trouble ‘n’ strife told me he was a Crow Eater. He came up to me when I was flat out like a lizard drinking teaching the billy lids how to put on their canoes. He was as mean as monkey muck, smelt of plonk, a wuss and so dirty that dunny budgies hung on him. ‘Course most of what he said was pork pies, but after I threatened to stuff him in the dunny he told me that he had scoffed down a bonzer mystery bag made from joey meat and me knocked off jumbuck. I asked how he reckoned it was me jumbuck. The drongo skited that it tasted like the dog’s eye he had cooked using me chooks and jumbuck! Your ol’ mate, Perc 7. (a) to be very disagreeable (b) to be sitting alone (c) to throw a tantrum (d) to be clever and sneaky (e) to be very poor (f) to be very busy (g) to be very self-satisfied (h) to be very angry (i) to be very stingy WHAT IS IRONY? – Irony pages 20 – 22

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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Teac he r

5. (a) a hairstyle (b) extremely satisfactory (c) getting scared (d) ok, fine, cool 6. (a) Don’t have a cow!/Don’t flip your wig! (b) Up your nose with a rubber hose. (c) Peace! (d) Out of sight! 7. Teacher check. Answers may include: Easily manipulated, quick to jump to conclusions, overly romantic and hopeful, doesn’t take the initiative 8. Teacher check. Answers may include: Manipulative, sneaky, possessive 9. Teacher check 10. A new girl, Marcie, came to school today. She is weird. We tried to be friendly. Betty asked her what she ate under there, and she said, ‘Under where?’ Betty said, ‘Eww, you ate underwear’. We laughed but Marcie said it wasn’t funny. It was just a joke. 11. (There are many possible answers.) tele = television zit = pimple hunk = handsome skuzz = loathsome far out, fab, psychedelic, a gas and out of sight = very good; dipstick and dork = a fool chicken = coward teach = teacher drag = boring 12. Answers may include: far out, fab, psychedelic, a gas and out of sight. 13. Answers may include: tele, zit, hunk, skuzz, dipstick, dork, chicken, drag and teach. 14. Saturday 1 August and Thursday 20 August STRINE – AUSTRALIAN ENGLISH – Language pages 17 – 19

© R. I . C.Pu bl i cat i ons 1. This is coincidence; nothing more than that happens. •f orr evi ew pu r posesonl y• 2. This is irony. The great ship had made Jason a hero

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1. Answers may include: billy lids, canoes, cherry plum, dog and bone, dog’s eye, pork pie, wooden pegs 2. (a) look (b) price (c) wife (d) thief 3. (a) great (b) great (c) rumour (d) money 4. (a) ankle biters (b) cobber (c) snag (d) bonzer (e) ridgy didge 5. Buckley’s 6. Teacher check. Answers should be similar to below paragraph: G’day mate. I’m stoked ‘cos I just got some oil ‘bout me knocked off jumbuck that I had Buckley’s of getting back. I was told by a crook

74

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and it was possible that it would be the cause of his death when he sailed it on his quest, but not that it would kill him in this way. 3. No. This is just being foolish. 4. This is irony. The great care taken was all for nothing. That a whale would eat the seals was probable but the coincidence that it would happen during the ceremony to celebrate their freedom and escape from a disaster was ironic. 5. This is irony. There is a coincidental connection between the sadistic scientist and his ex-patient but there was no deliberate act by the patient to exact revenge, as would have been anticipated if he had recognised the scientist. 6. Not irony, just bad workmanship. (Had the accident happened while the hunter was bragging about killing the lion then it would have been ironic.) WHAT IS SARCASM? – Sarcasm page 23 – 25

Comprehension for independent readers

1. (a) Well it simply was a total waste of make-up. (b) Make yourself at home! Clean my kitchen. (c) Well, aren’t we just a ray of sunshine. R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricpublications.com.au


Answers

6. Baby changing room

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Drinking fountain

Stairs

Women’s toilet

Telephone

No entry

Biohazard Peace

No weapons

Radiation

Wheelchair access

Men’s toilet

©R . I . C .Publ i cat i ons TAIL POSITION/JOB First aid No smoking short engineer •f orr evi ew pur p os es nl y• pages 32 – 35 BRINGING WRITING TO LIFEo – Metaphor

PLANET

EARS 2 elephantMeg Saturn sized ears Mog Mercury 7 tiny ears Mig Mars 2 antennae

long no tail

pilot navigator

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1. Meg 2. Mars 3. a long tail 4. It didn’t, he misunderstood Meg’s meaning. 5. birr, birr, burrumph 6. Mercury 7. they thought the engine would explode. 8. Earth 9. Mig 10. Meg 11. Mig being so dopey 12. Meg and Mig WHAT DOES IT MEAN? – Symbolism pages 29 – 31

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Fire extinguisher

Caretaker

1. fire: inspiration, hell; green: envy, evil, trickery, growth, youth; horse: destruction, victory; dragon: wisdom, hidden knowledge; dog: loyalty, vigilance; eagle: inspiration, victory; lion: strength, justice; purple: royalty, justice; torch: intelligence, spirituality; unicorn: purity, strength 2. WORDS SHARED MEANING

m . u

NAMES

(b) You will never give in or give up, and oppression or challenges will be overcome. 4. The passage of time, a gentle aging – irresistible and constant as waves on the shore. 5. shrewd, determination, hot, cunning, resolute, wild, proud

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Teac he r

(d) I started with nothing and I still have most of it left. (e) Not the brightest crayon in the box, are we? (f) It’s always darkest before it turns absolutely pitch black. (g) I work 40 hours a week to be this poor. 2. Teacher check. Examples of situations could include: (a) Introducing a friend to someone. (b) When someone is showing off. (c) To someone unambitious. (d) On parting with a friend. (e) To someone who had just had a good idea. (f) To someone being too serious. (g) On parting with a friend. (h) To one friend about another, preferably while the one you are talking about is present. (i) On meeting a good friend especially when it is unexpected. IN SPACE YOU CAN HEAR THE ENGINE – Data grid pages 26 – 28

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Teacher check. Answers may include: 1. (a) Death – He is waiting for the writer inside to give up the fight for life and come to him. (b) In this case, death is not a brutal force but is determined and patient. His horse reflects this. (c) The writer can no longer resist the pull of death. He gives himself up and dies. 2. Death is gentle and obliging, not to be feared but to be readily accepted. 3. (a) A fierce determination or great strength or desire R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricpublications.com.au

bells, eagle, knot bells, dance blood, garden, pearl, water chicken, yellow pearl, circle dragon, ring, staff, sword dragon, owl eagle, fire sword, umbrella eagle, horse flower, green horns, lion, ring, sword, unicorn

freedom joy life cowardice perfection power wisdom inspiration protection victory youth strength

Comprehension for independent readers

75


Answers WORDS green, serpent fog, knife, serpent horse, lightning, serpent moon, sky lion, purple lion, sword

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

purple/lion, black cat fox, mirror lion/sword, chicken/yellow wolf, dog green/serpent, candle Keep your eyes peeled! Pull your socks up! The sound is music to my ears. It’s a breeze. You’ve given me something to chew on. He is insensitive/cold/uncaring. She is very brave. For some people, time should not be wasted when there is work to be done and money to be earnt. (d) He lied well but not well enough. (e) Be sure his tears and distress are genuine. MIXED METAPHORS – Metaphor pages 36 – 37

1.b jealousy © R. I . C.Pu l i cat i ons 2. Mary Mary and Humpty Dumpty 3. r Not following thes usual method. •f orr evi ew pu p ose o nl y•

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4. The year of their death is not known. 5. Bo Peep and Miss Mary Had 6. 19th century 7. also known as 8. fear of spiders 9. Mary’s lamb 10. a fall BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION – Classification pages 44 – 46

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1. (a) His head was spinning with ideas. It’s raining cats and dogs. (b) Keep your eyes peeled. A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. (c) It isn’t rocket science. It isn’t brain surgery. (d) The early bird catches the worm. A rolling stone gathers no moss. (e) A stitch in time saves nine. An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. (f) He has a big heart. He has a heart of gold. (g) Don’t burn your bridges. We’ll cross that bridge when we come to it. (h) If the worst comes to the worst. If push comes to shove. 2. Teacher check. STATISTICS – Tables and graphs pages 38 – 40

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1. Mount Everest (A) and K2 (B); Makalu (E) and Cho Oyu (F)

76

2. (a) Canberra and Hobart (b) May and September 3. James Cook (1728) 4. (a) Asia (b) Oceania 5. (a) Tangled (b) Avatar 6. Elizabeth Windsor 7. K2 (B) and Kangchenjunga (C); Lhotse (D) and Makalu (E); Cho Oyu (F), Dhaulagiri (G) and Manaslu (H); Nanga Parbat (I) and Annapurna (J) 8. Teacher check. Examples could include: genre, year made, location, studio, stars, director 9. James Cook 10. (a) Canberra (b) July 11. To group the months in seasons, starting with summer 12. 7900 metres 13. When comparing differences in height, it is only necessary to begin at a point close to the summit of the lowest mountain. WHO’S WHO IN MOTHER GOOSE – Biography pages 41 – 43

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3. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 4. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 5. (a) (b) (c)

SHARED MEANING evil death destruction immortality, eternity justice courage, strength

Comprehension for independent readers

1. 3. 4. 5.

Mammalia 2. Family {hawks, magpies, emus, rosellas} Teeth are replaced only once in a lifetime. Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species 6. Phylum 7. Hexapoda 8. Phylum 9. Yes. They are both animals. 10. five MAJOR EVENTS OF THE 20TH CENTURY – Time line pages 47 – 49 1. 3. 5. 6. 8. 9.

1956 and 2000 2. air-conditioning 1952 4. Plastic was invented. Mother Theresa Hiroshima and Nagasaki 7. twice World War II Olympic Games in Melbourne. 10. Qantas R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricpublications.com.au


Answers HOW TO PLAY THE GUESSING GAME – Flowchart

pages 50 – 52

1. Only in the direction of the arrows. 2. They could get in a loop. 3. there is no-one they can depend on. 4. The player must restart the game. 5. Teacher check 6. When they win the game. 7. no 8. no 9. four 10. They go almost back to the start of the flowchart. LOGICAL ARGUMENTS – Syllogism pages 53 – 55

Across: 1. flowers 5. top 9. no 10. eye 14. fish 16. on 24. nurse 26. dryness Down: 1. foundling 2. webcam 5. the 7. too 15. hoe 18. nine 22. red 23. say MISSING WORDS – 1 – Crossword

4. candles 12. even 21. one page 60

6. nut 8. beach 11. adorable 13. yes 17. insect 21. ogres

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1. (a) sound (b) plants, carrots and vegetables (c) Therefore, all carrots are plants. 2. (a) invalid (b) Every superhero is a good guy. (c) three 3. (a) not a syllogism (b) one 4. (a) invalid (b) three (c) balloons, baboons and goofy things 5. (a) valid (b) Therefore, all baboons are teachers. SIM SALA’S MAGIC EMPORIUM – Sales catalogue pages 56 – 58

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Down: 1. always 2. ginger 3. lie 5. Easter 7. drop 9. an 14. oyster 17. enter 19. road 22. tone 24. now CRYPTIC PUZZLES – 2 – Crossword

3. 12. 19. 25.

really eels ears us

Across: 1. carrot 4. semifit 10. my brother 13. bare 15. origami 17. ten 20. goes 22. cameras Down: 1. came out 2. rabbit 4. shed 5. is 7. I’m 8. tosses 12. orange 14. baker 19. ass 21. or MISSING WORDS – 2 – Crossword

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 1. Top Hats and ‘Saw-the-lady-in-half’ box.

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Across: 1. angel 9. as 15. ever 23. often

4. 10. 16. 25.

come NT tease no

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6. 11. 18. 26.

idea apple user open

R.I.C. Publications® ~ www.ricpublications.com.au

8. 13. 20. 27.

winter sore not grader

Across: 1. hit 10. tape 15. atlas 18. teenager Down: 2. imagine 6. jackaroo 11. velcro 14. lies

page 61

9. 14. 18. 23.

sumo bones darkness retch

3. 6. 11. 16.

totem funniest rage idea

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2. The most familiar, common, traditional wand. 3. The end-date of the sale and the price before and after the sale. 4. flash powder 5. sagacious 6. conjuring paraphernalia 7. capes and top hats 8. genuine imitation 9. RSPCA supervision 10. There is a money-back guarantee in the event of natural death of the animal within one month of purchase. 11. No. Kitten is the correct term for a young rabbit. 12. ‘Saw-the-lady-in-half’ box 13. Harry Houdini was a famous escapologist. 14. Sim Sala’s Magic Emporium CRYPTIC PUZZLES – 1 – Crossword page 59

4. upbeat 14. foot 20. tree

page 62

5. 11. 16. 20.

jujitsu victory in soloists

8. monkey 13. windmill 17. nicer

3. 7. 12. 19.

top trolleys yes is

4. leaping 9. needing 13. with

Comprehension for independent readers

77


Answers WORD SEARCH – 1 – Crossword

page 63

Across: 1. catnap 4. able 8. 11. brim 13. urged 14. 18. yeses 20. group 21. 24. pilot 25. end 28. 30. animal 31. ewe Down: 1. century 3. troughs 3. 6. no 7. hammers 8. 12. rattle 15. problem 16. 23. use 24. pin 26. WORD SEARCH – 2 – Crossword

9. 17. 22. 29.

lights after burn feet

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S all tub capital new

5. 10. 19. 27.

bat get sun if page 64

8. 15. 23. 29. 34.

easter no fold not rug

9. 16. 25. 31.

riddles icicle peg oil

3. 10. 14. 22. 28.

at ego lit

17. indoor 23. feast 30. tag pages 65 - 67

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Across: (i) 1901 (iii) 1912 (vi) 1223 (viii) 578 (xii) 750 (xiii) 410 (xvii) 410 (xx) 1942 (xxiv) 1997 (xxv) 1588 (xxviii) 1939 (xxix) 1833 Down: (ii) 1185 (iii) 1770 (v) 550 (vii) 334 (xi) 1346 (xiv) 1917 (xviii) 1984 (xix) 1991 (xxiii) 753 (xxvi) 73 TIME LINE – WORD PUZZLE – 1 – Scanning

(v) (x) (xvi) (xxii) (xxvii)

51 1990 356 657 44

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Across: 1. holiday 6. or 12. it 13. flat 19. oat 21. avert 26. every 27. tool 32. airship 33. part Down: 1. horrid 2. lad 5. heat 7. retold 12. in 13. for 18. lap 20. nor 24. lyric 27. tap TARGET WORDS – Scanning

toga topic ill at

14. Answers may include: horses, beggars; tumbling, after; after, donkey; donkey, donkey; tuffet, eating; little, pony; diddle, diddle 15. eye 16. needles 17. middle 18. new 19. frightened, fall TIME LINE – NUMBER PUZZLE – Scanning page 70

(iv) (ix) (xv) (xxi)

1815 776 70 218

page 71

© R. I . C.Pu bl i cat i ons Across: yes 4. isolate 3. Arizona 5. charge 6. Vikings docr 11.i eleven •f or ev e w pu r p o s e s o n l y 9. Australia 11. manned 12. • two

5. 6. 7. 8.

9. 10. 11. 12.

78

cradle Answers may include: pudding, diddle, fiddle story Answers may include: Humpty, Dumpty, gently, sleepy, Johnny tell Answers may include: mistaken, cupboard, another them Answers may include: Stout, drown, great, again, sheep, where, leave, alone, tails, blows, bough, black, quiet, their Answers may include: horses, donkey, pony, spider, dog, cat, cow mistaken, another Answers may include: father’s, where, heroes, mother whipped 13. bray

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15. laws 22. dies

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1. 2. 3. 4.

13. Athens 14. first 17. explodes 20. into 23. poem 26. Soviet Down: 1. founded 2. great 7. Spartans 8. for 11. motion 16. and 19. slavery 21. the 25. using TIME LINE – WORD PUZZLE – 2 – Scanning

4. 10. 18. 24.

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Comprehension for independent readers

Across: 1. destroy 9. England 16. power 20. Trojan Down: 2. raiding 7. Italy 12. Teresa 18. in

farsighted strikes put Marco page 72

4. war 11. gravity 17. American

5. metric 15. Europe 19. India

3. iron 8. Titanic 13. origin

6. president 10. nuclear 14. Caesar

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Comprehension for Independent Readers: Ages 10+