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Book D

RIC-6263 4.7/669


PRIMARY WRITING (Book D) Revised and reprinted by R.I.C. Publications® 2008 Copyright© R.I.C. Publications® 2006 ISBN 1 74126 336 0 RIC–6263

Additional titles available in this series:

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PRIMARY WRITING (Book A) PRIMARY WRITING (Book B) PRIMARY WRITING (Book C) PRIMARY WRITING (Book E) PRIMARY WRITING (Book F) PRIMARY WRITING (Book G)

This master may only be reproduced by the original purchaser for use with their class(es). The publisher prohibits the loaning or onselling of this master for the purposes of reproduction.

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Internet websites

In some cases, websites or specific URLs may be recommended. While these are checked and rechecked at the time of publication, the publisher has no control over any subsequent changes which may be made to webpages. It is strongly recommended that the class teacher checks all URLs before allowing students to access them.

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Primary writing Foreword

BOOK D

Primary writing is a series of seven books designed to provide opportunities for students to read, examine and write a variety of text types; narratives, recounts, procedures, reports, explanations and expositions. Titles in this series:

• • • •

Primary writing Book A Primary writing Book B Primary writing Book C Primary writing Book D

• Primary writing Book E • Primary writing Book F • Primary writing Book G

Narratives

Teachers notes........................................................................................iv – v Curriculum links............................................................................................. v Writing format information..................................................................... vi – vii Writing format checklists......................................................................viii – xiii Blank writing formats.......................................................................... xiv – xix Proofreading and editing checklist.............................................................. xx Class recording sheet..................................................................................xxi

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................................................................................................................2–13 1 – Trefin................................................................................................... 2–5 2 – Old Sultan........................................................................................... 6–9 3 – Hungry hill....................................................................................... 10–13

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Recounts r ..............................................................................................................14–25 • f o r evi ew pur posesonl y• 1 – Whistlestop tour.............................................................................. 14–17

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2 – Zoo visit...........................................................................................18–21 3 – Terror in the music room..................................................................22–25 ..............................................................................................................26–37 1 – Banana and choc chip muffins........................................................26–29 2 – Making a gas...................................................................................30–33 3 – Pinhole camera............................................................................... 34–37

Reports

..............................................................................................................38–49 1 – Fairview Hockey Club..................................................................... 38–41 2 – A new planet?................................................................................. 42–45 3 – Movie review................................................................................... 46–49

Explanations

..............................................................................................................50–61 1 – ‘X’ marks the kiss............................................................................ 50–53 2 – A clever invention............................................................................ 54–57 3 – Pasta.............................................................................................. 58–61

Expositions

..............................................................................................................62–73 1 – The old drama hall.......................................................................... 62–65 2 – Museum matters............................................................................. 66–69 3 – A dark and dull night....................................................................... 70–73

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Procedures

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PRIMARY WRITING

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Teachers notes Six text types have been chosen: • narratives • recounts • reports • explanations

• procedures • expositions

Three examples of each text type are given for students to read and analyse. Following each example, a framework is provided for students to use in planning and writing that text type.

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The text type and number of the example are given.

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The parts of each text type are given with relevant information for the teacher.

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Teacher information provides suggestions for using the worksheet in the classroom and ideas for display, publishing, purposes for writing, appropriate audiences and the context in which students may be asked to write the particular text type.

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Some examples of language features used in each text type are indicated. Also see pages vi – vii.

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Teachers page

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Each text type is presented over four pages: ~ teachers page ~ student page – 1 includes an example of the text type ~ student page – 2 uses a framework for analysing the text type on student page – 1 ~ student page – 3 provides a framework for the student to write his or her own example of the particular text type

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Answers are provided for student page – 2 where the students are analysing the text type. PRIMARY WRITING


Teachers notes Student pages

Student page – 1

The text type and number of the example are given. The text type example is supplied.

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Artwork appropriate to the example is provided.

Student page – 2

Questions are given to help students to identify particular parts of a text type framework. The questions may also be used to assess student knowledge of a particular framework.

Student page – 3

The text type and plan number are given.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur poThe se son l y• framework for

A suggested text type topic has been chosen for students. (Blank frameworks for each text type can be found on pages xiv – xix.)

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writing the text type is provided for students to follow. Students are encouraged to proofread their work.

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• Student page – 1 may be used at a later date to identify specific spelling, grammar or punctuation examples, as a reading comprehension activity or reading assessment.

Curriculum links WA W 3.1, W 3.2, W 3.3, W 3.4

PRIMARY WRITING

SA 2.4, 2.7, 2.8, 2.11, 2.12

NSW WS2.9, WS2.10, WS2.11, WS2.12, WS2.13, WS2.14

Vic. ENWR0301 ENWR0302 ENWR0303 ENWR0304

QLD Refer to www.qsa.qld.edu.au

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Writing format information Below are general descriptions of the text types included in this book.

Narrative Report – is a framework which describes aspects of a

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living or non-living thing in detail – includes: • Title • Classification: a general or classifying statement • Description: accurate and detailed • Conclusion: a comment about the content of the report (optional) – uses the following language features: • factual language rather than imaginative • the third person • the timeless present tense • information organised into paragraphs A report may be written in the form of a book review, scientific report, newspaper or magazine article, eyewitness account or a progress report.

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– is a framework which tells a story – includes: • Title • Orientation: the setting, time and characters • Complication: involving the main character(s) and a sequence of events • Resolution: to the complication • Ending: often showing what has changed and what the characters have learnt – uses the following language features: • a range of conjunctions to connect ideas • appropriate paragraphing • descriptive language • usually written in past tense A narrative may be written in the form of a poem, story, play, imaginative story, fairytale, novel, myth, legend, ballad, science fiction story or modern fantasy.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Procedure •f orr evi ew p ur posesonl y•

– is a framework which outlines how something is

– is a framework which retells events as they

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happened in time order – may be factual, personal or imaginative – includes: • Title • Orientation: all relevant background (who, when, where, why) • Events: significant events in detail • Conclusion: often with an evaluative comment – uses the following language features: • vocabulary to suggest time passing • paragraphs to show separate sections • the past tense A recount may be written in the form of a newspaper report, diary, letter, journal, eyewitness account, biography, autobiography or history.

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made or done – includes: • Title • Goal: the purpose of the procedure shown clearly and precisely • Materials: a list of materials or requirements under appropriate headings or layout • Steps: the method in a detailed, logical sequence • Test: an evaluation (if appropriate) – uses the following language features: • instructions often with an imperative verb • subject-specific vocabulary • simple present tense • concise language A procedure may be written in the form of a recipe, instructions for making something, an experiment, an instruction manual, a maths procedure, how to play a game, how to operate an appliance, how to use an atlas or how to deal with a problem.

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Recount

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PRIMARY WRITING


Writing format information Exposition – is a framework which argues for a

Explanation

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– is a framework which outlines how something occurs, works or is made – includes: • Title • Statement: precisely what is to be explained • Explanation: a clear account in logical sequence of how and why the phenomenon occurs • Conclusion: an evaluation and comment about what has been explained OR • Title • a definition • a description of the components or parts • the operation—how it works or is made • the application—where and when it works or is applied • special features—interesting comments • evaluation or comment/conclusion – uses the following language features: • subject-specific terms and technical vocabulary where appropriate • simple present tense is often used • linking words to show cause and effect • information is organised into paragraphs An explanation may be written in the form of an essay, or a handbook—for example, how a kite works—a science, health or society and environment text.

particular position and attempts to persuade the audience to share this view – includes: • Title • Overview: statement of the problem or issue and the writer’s position • Arguments: presented in a logical manner with supporting detail, usually from the strongest to the weakest • Conclusion: a restating of the writer’s position and a summary of the arguments presented – uses the following language features: • a variety of controlling and emotive words and conjunctions • paragraphs to state and elaborate on each point An exposition may be written in the form of an essay, a letter, policy statement, a critical review, an advertisement, an editorial or a speech.

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Modelled writing

The role of the teacher is to observe and support students as they develop as writers. Writing is an extremely complex activity, simultaneously involving decisions on content, text coherence and cohesion, spelling, grammar, punctuation and a sense of audience and purpose. Because it takes time and practice to develop understanding of the writing process and the different writing formats, many opportunities for students to interact with their teacher and their peers are essential. Modelled writing is an effective way of supporting student writers, particularly when the focus is on the cognitive processes involved. Frequent modelling of the planning process and how these plans can be used to write text in different formats, is strongly recommended.

PRIMARY WRITING

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The title is interesting and suggests the topic.

where they were

when the story happened

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The events are described.

The solution to the problem is explained.

The story has a suitable ending.

m Conjunctions are used to connect ideas. . Varied and interesting words are used. u Date:

Verbs are used in the past tense.

Paragraphs are used to separate ideas.

when the story happened

where they were

the characters

Information is provided about:

The events are described.

The problem is explained.

The solution to the problem is explained. The story has a suitable ending.

Date:

Varied and interesting words are used.

Conjunctions are used to connect ideas.

Verbs are used in the past tense.

Paragraphs are used to separate ideas.

Name:

Writing skills:

Conclusion:

Resolution:

Complication:

The title is interesting and suggests the topic.

Teac h Orientation: e r

Title:

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Name:

Writing skills:

Conclusion:

Resolution:

The problem is explained.

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Complication:

the characters

Information is provided about:

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Orientation:

Title:

Student narrative checklist

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Student narrative checklist

Writing format checklists

PRIMARY WRITING


PRIMARY WRITING

Information is provided about:

when it happened

where it happened

why it happened

The events are written in the correct order.

A personal comment is included.

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Date:

Paragraphs show separate sections.

The title is interesting and suggests the topic.

why it happened

where it happened

when it happened

who was there

Information is provided about:

The events are written in the correct order.

Details about the events are given.

A personal comment is included.

A concluding statement is included.

Date:

Verbs in the past tense are used.

Words to suggest time passing are used.

Paragraphs show separate sections.

Name:

Writing skills:

Conclusion:

Events:

Orientation:

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Name:

Writing skills:

m . Words to suggest time passing are used. u Verbs in the past tense are used.

A concluding statement is included.

Conclusion:

Details about the events are given.

Events:

who was there

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The title is interesting and suggests the topic.

Orientation:

Title:

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Student recount checklist

Writing format checklists

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Facts are accurate.

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Information is clearly presented.

A final comment is included.

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Information is organised in paragraphs.

Name:

in the third person.

The report is written:

in the present tense.

Technical words are included.

Factual language is used.

Writing skills:

Conclusion:

Relevant information is included.

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The subject of the report is stated.

Description:

Classification:

Title:

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• The subject of the report is stated.

Information is clearly presented.

Relevant information is included.

Facts are accurate.

A final comment is included.

Date:

Information is organised in paragraphs.

in the third person.

in the present tense.

The report is written:

Technical words are included.

Factual language is used.

Name:

Writing skills:

Conclusion:

T eac Classification: he r Description:

Title:

Student report checklist

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Student report checklist

Writing format checklists

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The purpose of the procedure is clearly stated.

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A list of the materials needed is provided.

The steps are clearly explained.

The steps are written in the right order.

Information about how it should look or work is included.

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m . Unnecessary words have been omitted. u Date:

Verbs are in the present tense.

The purpose of the procedure is clearly stated.

A list of the materials needed is provided.

The steps are written in the right order.

The steps are clearly explained.

All necessary steps are included.

Information about how it should look or work is included.

Date:

Unnecessary words have been omitted.

Verbs are in the present tense.

Words relating to the topic are included.

Command verbs are used.

Name:

Writing skills:

Test:

Steps:

Materials:

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Name:

Words relating to the topic are included.

Command verbs are used.

Writing skills:

Test:

All necessary steps are included.

Steps:

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Materials:

Goal:

Title:

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Student procedure checklist

Writing format checklists

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The subject is stated.

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All important information is included.

Information is correct.

Information is provided in logical order.

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An interesting comment or conclusion is made.

Linking words are used to show cause and effect.

Information is organised in paragraphs.

The explanation is easy to understand.

Name:

Verbs are in the present tense.

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Words relating to the topic are used.

Writing skills:

Conclusion:

Explanations are clear and easily understood.

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Description:

Definition:

Title:

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• The subject is stated.

Information is provided in logical order.

Information is correct.

All important information is included.

Explanations are clear and easily understood.

An interesting comment or conclusion is made.

Date:

The explanation is easy to understand.

Information is organised in paragraphs.

Linking words are used to show cause and effect.

Verbs are in the present tense.

Words relating to the topic are used.

Name:

Writing skills:

Conclusion:

Description:

Teac Definition: h er

Title:

Student explanation checklist

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Student explanation checklist

Writing format checklists

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A point of view is expressed.

The arguments are clearly explained.

Supporting information is provided.

The strongest arguments are presented first.

The language is persuasive.

The point of view is re-stated.

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Name:

The topic is stated.

A point of view is expressed.

The language is persuasive.

The strongest arguments are presented first.

Supporting information is provided.

The arguments are clearly explained.

The arguments make sense.

The point of view is re-stated.

Arguments are summarised.

Date:

The text is divided into paragraphs.

Conjunctions are used to connect ideas.

Different controlling words are used.

Name:

Writing skills:

Conclusion:

Arguments:

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Date:

Conjunctions are used to connect ideas.

Different controlling words are used.

m . The text is divided into paragraphs. u

Writing skills:

Arguments are summarised.

Conclusion:

The arguments make sense.

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Arguments:

The topic is stated.

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Introduction:

Title:

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Student exposition checklist

Writing format checklists

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Blank writing format – Narrative Title

Orientation

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Who? When? Where?

Complication and events

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Resolution

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How was it solved?

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PRIMARY WRITING


Blank writing format – Recount Title

Orientation

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Events

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Who? Where? When? Why?

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Conclusion

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Blank writing format – Procedure Title

Goal

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Steps

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Materials

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Test

How will you know if your procedure works?

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Blank writing format – Report Title

Classification

What is it?

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Description

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Conclusion

What I think about it (my opinion).

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Blank writing format – Explanation Title

Definition

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Description

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Conclusion

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What I think.

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PRIMARY WRITING


Blank writing format – Exposition Title

Overview

What is the topic?

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Arguments

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What is my point of view?

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Conclusion

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Proofreading and editing checklist Name:

Date:

Title:

Text type:

Punctuation: I have included:

capital letters for:

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beginning sentences.....................................................................................

proper nouns.................................................................................................

titles...............................................................................................................

question marks........................................................................................................

full stops..................................................................................................................

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commas................................................................................................................... apostrophes:

for grammatical contractions.........................................................................

to show ownership.........................................................................................

exclamation marks..................................................................................................

quotation marks.......................................................................................................

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons I have: •spelling f orofr ev i ewwords........................................................... pur posesonl y• checked the any unknown Spelling:

not confused words that sound the same...............................................................

used correct ending for plurals................................................................................

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Language features: I have included:

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a variety of different verbs.......................................................................................

correct verb tenses..................................................................................................

appropriate adverbs to describe verbs....................................................................

suitable nouns to name things, people, places and ideas.......................................

interesting adjectives in descriptions.......................................................................

suitable conjunctions to connect ideas....................................................................

appropriate paragraphing........................................................................................

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Writing: I have read through my writing to check that:

it makes sense........................................................................................................

it is easy to understand...........................................................................................

there are no repeated or omitted words..................................................................

there are no errors of fact........................................................................................

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Class recording sheet Students

Date:

✓ developed • developing ✗ not yet NARRATIVES Title is appropriate Characters are introduced Setting is described Complication is outlined Resolution is provided Conclusion is suitable

Reader is orientated

Events are described

Events are in correct order Conclusion is suitable PROCEDURES Goal is stated

Materials are listed

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Steps are clear and sequenced

Unnecessary words are omitted REPORTS

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RECOUNTS

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Subject is classified Description is clear Facts are accurate

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EXPLANATIONS Subject is defined

Explanation is clear

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Relevant information and vocabulary Order is logical

EXPOSITIONS

Topic and writer’s position stated Arguments are logical and supported Language is persuasive Arguments and position summarised

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A final comment is included

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WRITING SKILLS Spells common words correctly Uses appropriate vocabulary Punctuation is usually correct Verb tense is correct Consistent ideas, sequenced correctly Shows sense of purpose and audience Edits and proofreads writing

PRIMARY WRITING

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1 

Narratives

TEACHERS NOTES

Structural and language features are shown on the left and right of the text below.

Title

Trefin

Orientation – who, when, where, why

Complication and events

Ceridwen was a witch who lived many, many years ago in the wild, rugged mountains of North Wales. She had a beautiful daughter, Cerys, and an ugly son, Avagon. Ceridwen decided to brew for her son a magic potion of Inspiration and Knowledge. This would give him the power to know all the secrets of the future and people would think he was clever instead of laughing at his ugliness.

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Gwyn, a young servant boy, stirred the boiling mixture every day until, at last, just three powerful drops of the magic potion remained. These precious drops contained all the magic and wisdom Avagon would ever need. But on the final day, the drops splashed on to Gwyn’s hand and scalded him. He licked his hand to soothe the pain and immediately saw all the secrets of the past, present and future. Gwyn fled in terror.

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Resolution –

Ceridwen carried the grain for nine months until Gwyn was born again. She had planned to kill him but he was so beautiful, she could not. Instead, she wrapped him in blankets and cast him adrift on the sea in a small boat, to die or survive.

to the complication

indicating what has changed

• a range of conjunctions to connect text; e.g. until, and • descriptive language; e.g. pursued, cast him adrift • past tense; e.g. carried, wrapped

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• The child was rescued by a prince named Ethen, who called him Trefin. Trefin lived in the prince’s court. Having tasted the drops of Inspiration and Knowledge, he became the greatest poet in all Wales, even though he was still a child.

Teacher information

Answers

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• Discuss what a narrative is and explain that a myth is an example of a narrative. Suggest well-known myths from around the world for students to read.

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• Read and discuss the narrative on page 3 with the students.

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Conclusion –

• appropriate paragraphing

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Ceridwen chased after the frightened boy, determined to kill him. Gwyn changed into a swift hare, but she changed into a sprinting greyhound and ran even faster. He dived into a river and became a darting fish, but she turned into a slinky otter and still pursued him. He took flight and became a scurrying fieldmouse, but Ceridwen became a preying owl. He dived into a field of wheat and became a golden grain. Ceridwen became a pecking hen and swallowed the golden grain.

• varied and interesting adjectives; e.g. rugged, precious

2. (a) (wild, rugged mountains of) North Wales (b) past

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• Identify the different sections and explain that a framework gives the narrative order and helps the reader to understand the story. • Emphasise the language features listed to the right of the text above. • Work through the analysis on page 4 with the students.

• Plan a similar narrative, writing ideas for each section within the framework and discuss and model how the plan is transformed into a coherent piece of text. • Students use page 5 to plan and then write an ancient myth narrative.

(c) Ceridwen, the witch

(d) To give her son great powers of wisdom, so people would no longer laugh at him. 3. (a) Gwyn accidentally took the potion that was meant for Avagon. (b) Teacher check

4. (a) By chasing Gwyn, hoping to kill him. (b) She cast him adrift in a small boat.

5. He was rescued by Prince Ethen and became the greatest poet in Wales.

• Publish students’ work in a class book to be read by and to others. (Publish/Purpose/Audience) • Students choose a scene from the story to illustrate and use as a background for display. (Display)

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PRIMARY WRITING


Narrative

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Trefin

C

Gwyn fled in terror. Ceridwen chased after the frightened boy, determined to kill him. Gwyn changed into a swift hare, but she changed into a sprinting greyhound and ran even faster. He dived into a river and became a darting fish, but she turned into a slinky otter and still pursued him. He took flight and became a scurrying fieldmouse, but Ceridwen became a preying owl. He dived into a field of wheat and became a golden grain. Ceridwen became a pecking hen and swallowed the golden grain.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Gwyn, a young servant boy, stirred the boiling mixture every day until, at last, just three powerful drops of the magic potion remained. These precious drops contained all the magic and wisdom Avagon would ever need. But on the final day, the drops splashed on to Gwyn’s hand and scalded him. He licked his hand to soothe the pain and immediately saw all the secrets of the past, present and future.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

eridwen was a witch who lived many, many years ago in the wild, rugged mountains of North Wales. She had a beautiful daughter, Cerys, and an ugly son, Avagon. Ceridwen decided to brew for her son a magic potion of Inspiration and Knowledge. This would give him the power to know all the secrets of the future and people would think he was clever instead of laughing at his ugliness.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Ceridwen carried the grain for nine •f orr evi ew pur p ose sGwyn onwas l yborn • again. months until

PRIMARY WRITING

m . u

w ww

. te

She had planned to kill him but he was so beautiful, she could not. Instead, she wrapped him in blankets and cast him adrift on the sea in a small boat, to die or survive.

o c . che e r o t r s super

The child was rescued by a prince named Ethen, who called him Trefin. Trefin lived in the prince’s court. Having tasted the drops of Inspiration and Knowledge, he became the greatest poet in all Wales, even though he was still a child.

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3


Examining narrative

1 

Use the narrative on page 3 to answer the questions. 1. Title

What is the title of the story? 2. Orientation

(a) Where is the story set?

(b) Is the story set in the

r o e t s B r o the past? e p ok u the future? S

present?

(c) Which main character is introduced in the first paragraph?

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

(d) Why did Ceridwen want to make a special brew?

3. Complication and events

(a) What went wrong with Ceridwen’s plan?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Descriptive language is used to improve the quality of a narrative text.

w ww

adjective

. te

m . u

(b) From the text, write three adjectives and the nouns they are describing. noun

o c . che e r o t r s super (a) At first, how did Ceridwen try to resolve the What became of

4. Resolution

5. Conclusion

complication?

Gwyn?

(b) How did Ceridwen eventually solve the problem? 4 

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PRIMARY WRITING


Narrative plan 1  1. Plan an ancient myth. Title

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Orientation

Complication and events

w ww Resolution

. te

o c . che e r o t r s super

2. Write your narrative. PRIMARY WRITING

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Conclusion

3. Edit your work. R.I.C. Publications

www.ricgroup.com.au

5


2 

Narratives

TEACHERS NOTES

Structural and language features are shown on the left and right of the text below.

Title

Old Sultan

Orientation – who, when, where, why

Complication and events

Long ago, a farmer had a faithful old dog named Sultan. For many years, Sultan had served the family well, protecting their home from thieves and their livestock from wily wolves and artful foxes. But now, he was too lame to give chase and his teeth were too worn to grip any foe. The farmer’s wife decided it was time for Sultan to go. ‘We have had Sultan since he was a puppy and he has served us well. How can we abandon him now?’ argued the farmer, with tears in his eyes.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

But his wife insisted, ‘We cannot afford to feed any animal which does not work for us in return’.

Resolution –

Teac he r

‘Tomorrow, while the farmer and his wife are haymaking and the baby is lying in the shade of a tree, I will howl loudly and snatch the child in my jaws. You will start to give chase so I will gently drop the child and run away. The farmer and his wife will be so happy, they will surely let you stay.’

Conclusion –

• appropriate paragraphing • a range of conjunctions to connect text; e.g. and, so • descriptive language; e.g. argued, howl loudly

ew i ev Pr

Sultan heard the farmer and his wife discussing his fate and he crept away sadly. He visited his good friend the wolf. What a strange friend for a farm dog to have! They had played together as pups and had always been loyal to one another. Wolf suggested a cunning plan that would trick the farmer and his wife into keeping Sultan.

to the complication

• varied and interesting adjectives; e.g. wily, artful

• past tense; e.g. heard, crept

The plan worked perfectly and Sultan became the family pet, enjoying a comfortable life. His only chore was to watch over the baby and to bark if she was in any danger. Over the years, Sultan and the child enjoyed many happy times together.

indicating what has changed

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Answers

• Discuss what a narrative is and explain that a fairytale is an example of a narrative.

Page 8

• Read and discuss the narrative on page 7 with the students.

2. (a) on a farm in the past

• Identify the different sections and explain that a framework gives the narrative order and helps the reader to understand the story.

(b) Sultan, the farm dog

• Students complete the analysis on page 8.

. te

• Plan a similar narrative, writing ideas for each section within the framework and discuss and model how the plan is transformed into a coherent piece of text.

1. Teacher check

(c) Teacher check

m . u

w ww

Teacher information

3. (a) The farmer’s wife wants to get rid of Sultan.

(b) Sultan has always been hardworking and faithful and should be rewarded with a comfortable retirement.

o c . che e r o t r s super

(c) They can’t afford to feed non-working animals.

• Students use page 9 to plan and then write a fairytale narrative.

4. (a) the wolf

• Each student can adapt a fairytale from a different land and make a list of titles from that country, contributing to a class list of fairytales from around the world. (Context)

(c) crafty

(b) wily

5. (a) He became a family pet, enjoying a comfortable retirement.

• On a map of the world, the countries from which the stories originate can be highlighted and pictures of characters displayed around the map. (Display) • Students could select stories to publish and illustrate and make into a book to be read to and by other classes. (Purpose/Publishing/Audience)

6 

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PRIMARY WRITING


Narrative

2 

Old Sultan Sultan heard the farmer and his wife discussing his fate and he crept away sadly. He visited his good friend the wolf. What a strange friend for a farm dog to have! They had played together as pups and had always been loyal to one another. Wolf suggested a cunning plan that would trick the farmer and his wife into keeping Sultan.

‘We have had Sultan since he was a puppy and he has served us well. How can we abandon him now?’ argued the farmer, with tears in his eyes. But his wife insisted, ‘We cannot afford to feed any animal which does not work for us in return’.

‘Tomorrow, while the farmer and his wife are haymaking and the baby is lying in the shade of a tree, I will howl loudly and snatch the child in my jaws. You will start to give chase so I will gently drop the child and run away. The farmer and his wife will be so happy, they will surely let you stay.’

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Long ago, a farmer had a faithful old dog named Sultan. For many years, Sultan had served the family well, protecting their home from thieves and their livestock from wily wolves and artful foxes. But now, he was too lame to give chase and his teeth were too worn to grip any foe. The farmer’s wife decided it was time for Sultan to go.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

PRIMARY WRITING

m . u

w ww

. te

The plan worked perfectly and Sultan became the family pet, enjoying a comfortable life. His only chore was to watch over the baby and to bark if she was in any danger. Over the years, Sultan and the child enjoyed many happy times together.

o c . che e r o t r s super

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7


Examining narrative

2 

Use the narrative on page 7 to answer the questions. 1. Title

Suggest an alternative title for the narrative. 3. Complication and events

2. Orientation

(a) Where and when does the narrative take place?

(a) What is the complication of the story?

r o e t s B r e oo p u k S (b) Who is the main character of the story?

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

(b) What reason does the farmer give for keeping Sultan?

Narratives are usually written in the past tense.

(c) Choose four examples of past tense verbs from the text.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

(a) Who thought of the solution to Sultan’s problem?

. te

m . u

w ww

4. Resolution

(c) What reason does his wife give for letting him go?

o c Adjectives are widely used in . c e r narratives to make theh text more e o t r show the plan worked for interesting. supExplain er

5. Conclusion

(b) What adjective, meaning crafty, is used to describe wolves?

Sultan.

(c) Write another adjective from the text with a similar meaning. 8 

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PRIMARY WRITING


Narrative plan 2  1. Plan a fairytale. Title

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Orientation

Complication and events

w ww

. te

Resolution

o c . che e r o t r s super

2. Write your narrative. PRIMARY WRITING

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Conclusion

3. Edit your work. R.I.C. Publications

www.ricgroup.com.au

9


3 

Narratives

TEACHERS NOTES

Structural and language features are shown on the left and right of the text below.

Title

Hungry hill

Orientation – who, when, where, why

Complication and events

Lucy and Robert were waiting impatiently for their father and uncle to lace up their boots. They were eager to be on their way. It was a lovely spring day for walking in the mountains and they didn’t want to miss a moment. At last! The brothers threw on their backpacks and they were off. After climbing steadily for two hours, they reached the summit of the mountain. They all collapsed in a heap on the grass and gazed at the cloudless sky.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

‘Time for lunch, I think’, mumbled Dad, as he struggled to remove his backpack. ‘Hang on! I’ve got the spare clothes in here. Bill, you must have the food.’

The children’s uncle unstrapped his pack. ‘Nope, just raincoats in here. What about you, Lucy?’

Teac he r

‘No. I’m carrying the first-aid kit. Robert must have the food.’

• varied and interesting adjectives; e.g. eager, cloudless • appropriate paragraphing • a range of conjunctions to connect text; e.g. as, who

ew i ev Pr

Robert’s face began to pale as three pairs of eyes stared at him, hungrily. ‘I’m not carrying a bag.’ he stuttered.

Everyone was furious with Robert, who was afraid he might be lunch! His father told him he was selfish and foolish and asked what made him think he had no responsibility on this trip.

Resolution –

A young couple heard what was going on and brought their picnic over to the miserable four.

to the complication

‘Please share our lunch. We always prepare far too much’, offered the man, winking at Robert.

Half an hour later, after every crumb of food had been eaten, the walkers continued on their way. As they descended the mountain, the late afternoon sunshine created long shadows on the hillside. Dad made a mental note to ensure the food was never forgotten again. Uncle Bill decided he’d always bring his own sandwiches and Lucy resolved to write a ‘Things to bring on a walk’ list. Robert just enjoyed his walk, knowing that everyone else would remember to bring all the essentials next time!

w ww

Teacher information

. te

• Discuss what a narrative is.

Answers Page 12

m . u

indicating what has changed

• past tense; e.g. mumbled, heard

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Everyone laughed and Dad gave Robert a huge bear hug.

Conclusion –

• descriptive language; e.g. descended, created

o c . che e r o t r s super

• Read and discuss the narrative on page 11 with the students.

1. Teacher check

• Identify the different sections and explain that a framework gives the narrative order and helps the reader to understand the story.

(b) Lucy, Robert, Dad and Uncle Bill, a young couple

• Students complete the analysis on page 12.

• Plan a similar narrative, writing ideas for each section within the framework and discuss and model how the plan is transformed into a coherent piece of text. • Students use page 13 to plan and then write a narrative about a family mishap. • Students present their final work with comic strip illustrations which may be delivered to parents as a record of the family mishap. (Publishing/Purpose/Audience)

2. (a) in the spring

(c) up a mountain (d) for a walk

3. (a) There was no food for lunch. (b) Robert

(c) Robert thought he had no responsibility for carrying anything. 4. (a) The young couple (b) They heard the commotion. (c) They shared their ample lunch. 5. (a) To take personal responsibility for all that is required on a trip. (b) To trust everyone to be responsible for him.

10 

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PRIMARY WRITING


Narrative

3 

Hungry hill Robert’s face began to pale as three pairs of eyes stared at him, hungrily. ‘I’m not carrying a bag.’ he stuttered.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

After climbing steadily for two hours, they reached the summit of the mountain. They all collapsed in a heap on the grass and gazed at the cloudless sky.

Everyone was furious with Robert, who was afraid he might be lunch! His father told him he was selfish and foolish and asked what made him think he had no responsibility on this trip.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Lucy and Robert were waiting impatiently for their father and uncle to lace up their boots. They were eager to be on their way. It was a lovely spring day for walking in the mountains and they didn’t want to miss a moment. At last! The brothers threw on their backpacks and they were off.

A young couple heard what was going on and brought their picnic over to the miserable four.

‘Time for lunch, I think’, mumbled Dad, as he struggled to remove his backpack. ‘Hang on! I’ve got the spare clothes in here. Bill, you must have the food.’

‘Please share our lunch. We always prepare far too much’, offered the man, winking at Robert.

The children’s uncle unstrapped his pack. ‘Nope, just raincoats in here. What about you, Lucy?’

Half an hour later, after every crumb of food had been eaten, the walkers continued on their way. As they descended the mountain, the late afternoon sunshine created long shadows on the hillside. Dad made a mental note to ensure the food was never forgotten again. Uncle Bill decided he’d always bring his own sandwiches and Lucy resolved to write a ‘Things to bring on a walk’ list. Robert just enjoyed his walk, knowing that everyone else would remember to bring all the essentials next time!

w ww

‘No. I’m carrying the first-aid kit. Robert must have the food.’

. te

PRIMARY WRITING

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Everyone laughed and Dad gave •f orr evi ew pur p osesonl y• Robert a huge bear hug.

o c . che e r o t r s super

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11


Examining narrative

3 

Use the narrative on page 11 to answer the questions. 1. Title

(a) Does the title give any clues to the content of the narrative? (b) Explain your answer.

r o e t s Bwas r e oo (a) When does the story occur? (a) What the problem? p u k S 3. Complication

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

2. Orientation

(b) Who are the characters?

(b) Who was responsible?

(c) Where are they going?

(c) How did it happen?

© R. I . C.Pu bl i cat i ons (d) Why are there? •they f ogoing rr e vi ew pu r posesonl y•

4. Resolution

5. Conclusion

w ww

(a) Who provided the solution?

. te

(a) What important lesson did Dad, Uncle Bill and Lucy learn?

o c . che e r o t r s sup er

(b) How did they learn of the problem?

m . u

(c) What was the solution?

(b) What special lesson did Robert learn?

12 

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PRIMARY WRITING


Narrative plan 3  1. Plan a narrative about a family mishap. Title

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Orientation

Complication and events

w ww Resolution

. te

o c . che e r o t r s super

2. Write your narrative. PRIMARY WRITING

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Conclusion

3. Edit your work. R.I.C. Publications

www.ricgroup.com.au

13


1 

Recounts

TEACHERS NOTES

Structural and language features are shown on the left and right of the text below.

Title

Whistlestop tour

• appropriate paragraphing

Dear Grandma Alice

Orientation – who, when, where, why

Events –

I must tell you about the wonderful capital cities tour we did as part of our August holiday in Europe. Mum, Dad and I had the best time! We didn’t stay in any hotels because, after dinner each night, we took a train to the next city, arriving there early the following morning.

• vocabulary to suggest passing of time; e.g. In the morning, Later on

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Day 1: Amsterdam, Netherlands. Our first stop was Anne Frank’s house where she wrote her diary while she and her family were hiding from the Germans. It was so sad. Mum and I both cried. Dad was very quiet too. After lunch, we visited the Van Gogh museum. Did you know he was Amsterdam’s most famous artist? Later on, we went to the Bloemenmarkt, a world famous floating flower market. The flowers were stunning but we didn’t think it was a good idea to buy any!

in order with detail

• past tense; e.g. went, strolled

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

Day 2: Brussels, Belgium. In the morning, we strolled through the Grand Place, a 13th century market. I loved the medieval Town Hall with its crooked spire, topped with a statue of archangel St Michael slaying the devil! At midday, we joined a tour around the Royal Palace before enjoying a relaxing picnic lunch in Brussels Park. Dad and I both fell asleep while Mum read her book. Our last visit of the day was to Mini Europe, which has 300 doll-sized versions of Europe’s most famous monuments. It was so cool! Day 3: Paris, France. In the morning, we climbed the Eiffel Tower. The view of the city was amazing! Later on, we took a boat trip on the River Seine, followed by a drive along the famous Champs Elysee, and then passed the Arc de Triomphe, where the Tour de France finishes each year. We ended the day by attending a service at the Sacré-Coeur Church.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Day 4: Vienna, Austria. Our last day! In the morning, we wandered around Marie Antoinette’s childhood home, the Schonbrunn Palace. It’s quite magnificent. We lazed in the gardens for a while before going to the Spanish Riding School to see the Lipizzaner horses practising their dressage. Then after dinner, it was off to the airport! Well, Grandma, we’re back home now and I’m busy with my diary and photographs because I’m writing a book about my holiday. I’ve collected lots of maps and leaflets from the places we visited. I’ve never enjoyed a holiday so much! When I grow up, I want to travel the world! With love from Sally

w ww

Teacher information

. te

Answers

• Discuss what a recount is, explaining that a letter is only one example.

Page 16

• Read and discuss the recount on page 15 with the students.

2. (a) Capital cities tour

• Identify the different sections and ensure students understand how the text fits into each one.

(b) Europe

• Emphasise the language features listed to the right of the text above.

(d) By train

m . u

Conclusion – indicating what has changed

o c . che e r o t r s super

• Work through the analysis on page 16 with the students.

• Plan a similar recount, writing ideas for each section within the framework and discuss and model how the plan is transformed into a coherent piece of text. • Students use page 17 to plan and then write a recount in the form of a letter to a friend about a holiday experience.

1. Teacher check

(c) Dad, Mum, Sally 3. (a) (i) 3

(ii) 6

(iii) 2

(iv) 5

(v) 4

(vi) 1

(b) Answers may include: after dinner, after lunch, later on, in the morning, at midday 4. She is writing a book about her holiday and wants to travel the world when she’s older.

• Students collect pictures and photographs of the places they visited, using them as a background for displaying their letters. (Display) • In a small authors circle, students read their letters, giving a brief description of their holiday destination. (Purpose/ Audience)

14 

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PRIMARY WRITING


Recount

1 

Whistlestop tour Dear Grandma Alice I must tell you about the wonderful capital cities tour we did as part of our August holiday in Europe. Mum, Dad and I had the best time! We didn’t stay in any hotels because, after dinner each night, we took a train to the next city, arriving there early the following morning.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

Day 1: Amsterdam, Netherlands. Our first stop was Anne Frank’s house where she wrote her diary while she and her family were hiding from the Germans. It was so sad. Mum and I both cried. Dad was very quiet too. After lunch, we visited the Van Gogh museum. Did you know he was Amsterdam’s most famous artist? Later on, we went to the Bloemenmarkt, a world famous floating flower market. The flowers were stunning but we didn’t think it was a good idea to buy any! Day 2: Brussels, Belgium. In the morning, we strolled through the Grand Place, a 13th century market. I loved the medieval Town Hall with its crooked spire, topped with a statue of archangel St Michael slaying the devil! At midday, we joined a tour around the Royal Palace before enjoying a relaxing picnic lunch in Brussels Park. Dad and I both fell asleep while Mum read her book. Our last visit of the day was to Mini Europe, which has 300 doll-sized versions of Europe’s most famous monuments. It was so cool!

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Day 3: Paris, France. In the morning, we climbed the Eiffel Tower. The view of the

m . u

w ww

city was amazing! Later on, we took a boat trip on the River Seine, followed by a drive along the famous Champs Elysee, and then passed the Arc de Triomphe, where the Tour de France finishes each year. We ended the day by attending a service at the Sacré-Coeur Church.

Day 4: Vienna, Austria. Our last day! In the morning, we wandered around Marie Antoinette’s childhood home, the Schonbrunn Palace. It’s quite magnificent. We lazed in the gardens for a while before going to the Spanish Riding School to see the Lipizzaner horses practising their dressage. Then after dinner, it was off to the airport!

. te

o c . che e r o t r s super

Well, Grandma, we’re back home now and I’m busy with my diary and photographs because I’m writing a book about my holiday. I’ve collected lots of maps and leaflets from the places we visited. I’ve never enjoyed a holiday so much! When I grow up, I want to travel the world!

With love from Sally PRIMARY WRITING

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15


Examining recount

1 

Use the recount on page 15 to complete the page. 2. Orientation

1. Title

(a) Do you think the title tells you about the content of the letter?

Match the answers to the questions.

yes no

(a) What? • • Dad, Mum Sally

r o e t s (b) Where? Bo • • By train r e p (c) Who? o • • Capital u k cities S tour (d) How?

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

(b) If you answered yes, explain why. If you answered no, suggest two alternative titles.

• Europe

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons (a) Label the attractions in the order they •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• were visited. Start with number one.

3. Events

(iii) Bloemenmarkt

(ii)

Schonbrunn Palace

(iv) Sacré-Coeur Church

m . u

(i) Mini Europe

w ww

(vi) Van Gogh museum . te or phrases from the text that suggest o (b) Write three words the passing c of time. . che e r o r st super

(v) Eiffel Tower

4. Conclusion

What information does the conclusion give us about how much Sally enjoyed her holiday?

16 

R.I.C. Publications

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PRIMARY WRITING


Recount plan 1  1. Plan a recount in the form of a letter to a friend about your holiday. Title

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Orientation

Events

w ww

. te

Conclusion

o c . che e r o t r s super

2. Write your recount. PRIMARY WRITING

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

3. Edit your work. R.I.C. Publications

www.ricgroup.com.au

17


2 

Recounts

TEACHERS NOTES

Structural and language features are shown on the left and right of the text below.

Title

Zoo visit

Orientation – who, when, where, why

Events –

Last week, Year 4 students visited the city zoo as part of their class project on animals of the world. Accompanied by their teachers and some parent helpers, the students enjoyed a bright spring day. On arrival, the students headed straight for the animals of the African savanna, knowing that many of the animals would be asleep in the afternoon. They were enchanted to see the week-old giraffe as it frolicked on its spindly legs.

in order with detail

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

About mid-morning, feeding time for the otters created much amusement. The beautiful, sleek creatures delighted their audience, performing skilful swimming and diving antics as they waited impatiently to be fed.

The last stop before lunch was the penguin pool. The cute flightless birds fascinated everyone as they lumbered awkwardly on land yet swam so swiftly in the water.

• vocabulary to suggest passing of time; e.g. last week, on arrival • past tense; e.g. were enchanted, revived

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Students had to protect their ears as they followed the cries of the screeching monkeys. They had great fun recognising similarities between these likeable creatures and their friends!

• appropriate paragraphing

A well-earned rest and a packed lunch quickly revived everyone. Time on the playground equipment was followed by a game of T-ball before carrying on with the animal tour.

It was hard to keep track of individual meerkats as they suddenly dived underground in one place only to reappear moments later somewhere else. As the afternoon cooled, the students began to feel weary. But they found their last stop, the bird sanctuary, very exciting. They enjoyed the vast number of bird species and the brilliant colours of their plumage. It seemed that every possible combination of size and colour could be seen.

indicating value of event

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Climbing on to the bus, exhausted but happy, everyone agreed the day had been a huge success. The students had seen their favourite animals and each had chosen one to study in detail for a project.

Answers

• Discuss what a recount is, explaining that this magazine report is about a class excursion.

Page 20

• Read and discuss the recount on page 19 with the students.

2. (a) yes

• Identify the different sections and ensure students understand how the text fits into each one.

(b) yes

• Emphasise the language features listed to the right of the text above.

(d) no

w ww

Teacher information

. te

1. Teacher check

m . u

Conclusion –

o c . che e r o t r s super

• Students complete the analysis on page 20.

• Plan a similar recount, writing ideas for each section within the framework and discuss and model how the plan is transformed into a coherent piece of text. • Students use page 21 to plan and then write a recount in the form of a magazine or newspaper story.

(c) yes

3. (a) Answers may include: last week, on arrival, about midmorning, before lunch, as the afternoon cooled (b) Teacher check (c) Teacher check 4. Teacher check

• Students present their work as a class magazine or newspaper, giving each story an appropriate eye-catching title and illustration. A copy of the publication could be printed for other classes. (Publishing/Purpose/Audience) • A montage of photographs and pictures could be made to highlight a display of students’ work. (Display)

18 

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PRIMARY WRITING


Recount

2 

Zoo visit The last stop before lunch was the Last week, Year 4 students visited the city zoo as part of their class project on penguin pool. The cute flightless birds animals of the world. Accompanied by fascinated everyone as they lumbered their teachers and some parent helpers, awkwardly on land yet swam so swiftly in the water. the students enjoyed a bright spring day. A well-earned rest and a packed lunch

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

quickly revived everyone. Time on the playground equipment was followed by a game of T-ball before carrying on with the animal tour.

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On arrival, the students headed straight for the animals of the African savanna, knowing that many of the animals would be asleep in the afternoon. They were enchanted to see the week-old giraffe as it frolicked on its spindly legs.

It was hard to keep track of individual meerkats as they suddenly dived underground in one place only to reappear moments later somewhere else.

About mid-morning, feeding time for the otters created much amusement. The beautiful, sleek creatures delighted As the afternoon cooled, the students their audience, performing skilful began to feel weary. But they found swimming and diving antics as they their last stop, the bird sanctuary, very waited impatiently to be fed. exciting. They enjoyed the vast number Students had to protect their ears of bird species and the brilliant colours as they followed the cries of the of their plumage. It seemed that every screeching monkeys. They had great possible combination of size and colour fun recognising similarities between could be seen. these likeable creatures and their friends! Climbing on to the bus, exhausted

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PRIMARY WRITING

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

but happy, everyone agreed the day had been a huge success. The students had seen their favourite animals and each had chosen one to study in detail for a project.

o c . che e r o t r s super

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Examining recount

2 

Use the recount on page 19 to complete the page. 1. Title

The title describes the text but it is not very inspiring. Suggest an alternative.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u (a) Who went to S the zoo? (b) When did they go?

2. Orientation

Are all of these question answered in the first paragraph?

(c) Why did they go? 3. Events

yes no

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Teac he r

yes no

(d) How did they get there?

(a) Write three phrases from the (b) Which event took text which show the passing of place at each of time. these times?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

m . u

w ww

(c) Suggest a phrase to show the passing of time in each paragraph.

visiting the monkeys

lunchtime

. te o climbing on the bus c . che e r o t r s super (a) Do you think the concluding paragraph has a link

4. Conclusion

yes

no

with the orientation paragraph? (b) Explain your answer. 20 

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Recount plan 2  1. Plan a recount in the form of a magazine or newspaper story. Title

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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Teac he r

Orientation

Events

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Conclusion

o c . che e r o t r s super

2. Write your recount. PRIMARY WRITING

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3. Edit your work. R.I.C. Publications

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3 

Recounts

TEACHERS NOTES

Structural and language features are shown on the left and right of the text below.

Title

Terror in the music room

Orientation – who, when, where, why

Events –

• appropriate paragraphing

Thursday 23 February Never again! That was the last music exam I shall ever, ever take! No-one will ever make me change my mind. I don’t think I even want to touch my flute again. I have never been so humiliated in my entire life. It all started during the rehearsal in the main hall, just before I went into the music room. Mr Saunders, the accompanist, was very grumpy with me, treating me like a three-year-old. I’m ten, for goodness sake! Couldn’t he see that! I was practising my scales and arpeggios when the giggling first started. I lost my concentration, so Mr Saunders tut-tutted. More giggling and sniggering. Who was it? I had no idea. As I played my pieces, the loud laughing started and from the corner of my eye I saw James and Anthony from my class, running out of the hall. By now, Mr Saunders had lost all patience with me. He picked up his manuscript and swept into the music room. I waited nervously for my name to be called.

Teac he r

in order with detail

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

• vocabulary to suggest passing of time; e.g. As I played, By now • past tense; e.g. swept, rushed

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As I stepped into the room, the examiner greeted me warmly, telling me not to worry, to take my time and relax. Mr Saunders tutted again and raised his eyes. He began to play. I raised the flute to my mouth but I couldn’t blow. Tears welled in my eyes and I started to choke. Mr Saunders began again, pounding the keys in annoyance. I tried to play. It didn’t sound like music at all, more like the yowling of an angry cat. I was sobbing as I played. I could barely read the music through my tears.

Just when I thought it couldn’t get any worse, James and Anthony appeared at the window, pulling faces and pretending to cry. That was it for me! I garbled an apology and rushed out of the room in tears.

Conclusion –

indicating value of event

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Writing this has made me feel calmer. I didn’t fail that exam because I can’t play the flute, I failed because I allowed two no-hopers and a grumpy man get to me! First thing tomorrow, I’m going straight to my music teacher to ask for a repeat exam. This time, I’ll play so well, I’ll pass with distinction!

• Discuss what a recount is, explaining that a diary entry is only one example.

Page 24

• Read and discuss the recount on page 23 with the students.

2. (a) Who? What? When? Why?

• Identify the different sections and ensure students understand how the text fits into each one.

(b) Who? The writer

• Emphasise the language features listed to the right of the text above.

What? last music exam

When? 23 February 2006

Why? humiliation

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1. Teacher check

m . u

Answers

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Teacher information

o c . che e r o t r s super

• Work through the analysis on page 24 with the students. • Plan a similar recount, writing ideas for each section of the framework and discuss and model how the plan is transformed into a coherent piece of text.

3. Teacher check 4. Teacher check

• Students use page 25 to plan and then write a recount in the form of a diary entry. • Students handwrite their entries, with appropriate illustrations around the edge of the page. (Publishing)

• In groups of five, over one week, students take turns to read their diary entries. (Purpose/Audience) • As each student reads his/her work, it is displayed for all to read. (Display) • Each day, the entries can be replaced, putting those from the previous day on a large sheet. At the end of the week, the five sheets can be joined together as a book and sent to other classes. (Purpose/Audience)

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Recount

3 

Terror in the music room Thursday 23 February Never again! That was the last music exam I shall ever, ever take! No-one will ever make me change my mind. I don’t think I even want to touch my flute again. I have never been so humiliated in my entire life.

Anthony from my class, running out of the hall. By now, Mr Saunders had lost all patience with me. He picked up his manuscript and swept into the music room. I waited nervously for my name to be called.

Teac he r

into the music room. Mr Saunders, the accompanist, was very grumpy with me, treating me like a threeyear-old. I’m ten, for goodness sake! Couldn’t he see that! I was practising my scales and arpeggios when the giggling first started. I lost my concentration, so Mr Saunders tut-tutted. More giggling and sniggering. Who was it? I had no idea. As I played my pieces, the loud laughing started and from the corner of my eye I saw James and

ew i ev Pr

r o e t s Bo r e p o u As I stepped into the room, the k It all started during the rehearsal S examiner greeted me warmly, telling in the main hall, just before I went

me not to worry, to take my time and relax. Mr Saunders tutted again and raised his eyes. He began to play. I raised the flute to my mouth but I couldn’t blow. Tears welled in my eyes and I started to choke. Mr Saunders began again, pounding the keys in annoyance. I tried to play. It didn’t sound like music at all, more like the yowling of an angry cat. I was sobbing as I played. I could barely read the music through my tears.

w ww

. te

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Just when I thought it couldn’t get any worse, James and Anthony appeared at the window, pulling faces and pretending to cry. That was it for me! I garbled an apology and rushed out of the room in tears.

o c . che e r o t r sthis has made me feel supe Writing r calmer. I didn’t fail that exam

because I can’t play the flute, I failed because I allowed two no-hopers and a grumpy man get to me! First thing tomorrow, I’m going straight to my music teacher to ask for a repeat exam. This time, I’ll play so well, I’ll pass with distinction! PRIMARY WRITING

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23


Examining recount

3 

Use the recount on page 23 to answer the questions. 1. Title

Why do you think the writer has chosen the title Terror in the music room?

r o e t s Bo r e p o u kthe events from (a) Circle the questions that are In note form, write S answered in the orientation. paragraph three of the events

2. Orientation

Who?

What?

When?

How?

Why?

Where?

(b) Answer the questions you have circled.

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Teac he r

3. Events

section as they occurred.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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m . u

o c . Write a different conclusion to this recount. che e r o t r s super

4. Conclusion

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Recount plan 3  1. Plan a recount in the form of a diary entry. Title

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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Teac he r

Orientation

Events

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. te

Conclusion

o c . che e r o t r s super

2. Write your recount. PRIMARY WRITING

m . u

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3. Edit your work. R.I.C. Publications

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1 

Procedures

TEACHERS NOTES

Structural and language features are shown on the left and right of the text below.

Title

Banana and choc chip muffins

Goal

This recipe will make 12 banana choc chip muffins.

Materials

Ingredients

Equipment

• 2 cups self raising flour

• large bowl

• 1/3 cup sugar

• microwave safe jug

• 1 cup choc chips

• medium bowl

• 60 g margarine plus extra for greasing

• fork

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S • sifter

• 300 mL milk

• measuring cups

• 3 eggs

• measuring spoons

• 1 teaspoon vanilla essence

• wooden spoon

• 2 soft bananas

• muffin tray – 12 muffins

Teac he r

Method

• clear concise information; e.g. 300 mL milk, Add sugar and choc chips

• instructions begin with command verbs; e.g. Sift, Melt

ew i ev Pr

Method

• steps in logical order

1. Preheat oven to 210 ºCelsius. 2. Grease muffin tray with margarine. 3. Sift flour into large bowl. 4. Add sugar and choc chips. 5. Melt margarine in a microwave safe jug. 6. Add milk to the melted margarine and stir. 7. Break eggs into cup, making sure there is no shell. 8. Add eggs to milk mix and whisk with fork to combine.

• the present tense is used; e.g. combine, Cook

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 9. Mash bananas with fork in smaller bowl.

10. Stir mashed banana and vanilla essence into milk mix. 11. Make a well in flour and add milk mix.

12. Gently combine mixture with wooden spoon. Do not over mix, or muffins will not be light! 13. Cook on top shelf in oven for about 15 to 20 minutes, until golden.

14. Test that muffins are cooked by gently touching the top of one. (Make sure your hands are clean!) Muffin should spring back.

w ww

Test

Now test your muffins by tasting them!

Teacher information

. te

• Read the text on page 27 with the class. Enlarge the text by photocopying it onto an overhead transparency and displaying it on a white board or wall. Point out and discuss each section of the text with the students. • Focus on the language of the text. Note that unnecessary words (such as ‘the’) are omitted. The steps are written simply and clearly and are easy to follow. • Work through the analysis on page 28 with the class. • Before students attempt to plan and write their procedure, model this process to the class. Write a procedure for a simple recipe such as a sandwich. • Students write their new muffin recipe. Once the work has been proofread and edited, students publish their recipes using a word processor. Collate the recipes and make a class recipe book. (Publish/Purpose/Audience) • Choose a recipe to follow and make during a cooking lesson. (Purpose/Context) R.I.C. Publications

• Use a digital camera to take photographs of each step of the new recipe being made. Enlarge the procedure for the recipe to A3 and attach the photographs to each step. Discuss sequencing with the class. Note: Sequencing is part of the reading and viewing sections of most English curriculums. Cooking can be part of lessons investigating ‘technology and enterprise’. (Display/Publish/Context)

o c . che e r o t r s super

• Collect a variety of recipe books. Distribute to students in small groups and give them the task of finding the ‘structure’ of a recipe. Groups report back to the class.

26 

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15. Ask an adult to remove muffins from oven. Allow to cool.

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Answers Page 28

1. Banana and choc chip muffins 2. The goal of the recipe is to make 12 banana choc chip muffins. 3. Teacher check 4. (a) (i) 9

(ii) 4

(iii) 15

(iv) 11

(v) 1

(vi) 13

(b) Answers will vary. Possible answer: It is important that the steps are followed in order otherwise the recipe will not work. For example, the oven needs to be turned on before the mixture is placed in it etc. (c) capital letter, full stop 5. The muffins will taste good.

PRIMARY WRITING


Procedure

1 

Banana and choc chip muffins This recipe will make 12 banana choc chip muffins.

Ingredients

Equipment

• 2 cups self raising flour

• large bowl

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

• 1/3 cup sugar

• microwave safe jug

• 1 cup choc chips

• 60 g margarine plus extra for greasing • 3 eggs

• 1 teaspoon vanilla essence • 2 soft bananas

Method

1. Preheat oven to 210 ºCelsius.

• fork

• sifter

• measuring cups

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

• 300 mL milk

• medium bowl

• measuring spoons • wooden spoon

• muffin tray – 12 muffins

12. Gently combine mixture with wooden spoon. Do not over mix, or muffins will not be light!

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f or r e vi ew pu po se s oshelf nl y • for 3. Sift flour into large bowl. r 13. Cook on top in oven

4. Add sugar and choc chips.

5. Melt margarine in a microwave safe jug.

about 15 to 20 minutes, until golden.

14. Test that muffins are cooked by gently touching the top of 6. Add milk to the melted one. (Make sure your hands are margarine and stir. clean!) Muffin should spring back. 7. Break eggs into cup, making sure 15. Ask an adult to remove muffins there is no shell. from oven. Allow to cool. 8. Add eggs to milk mix and whisk

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2. Grease muffin tray with margarine.

. te

m . u

o c . c e her r with fork to combine. o t s super 9. Mash bananas with fork in smaller bowl.

10. Stir mashed banana and vanilla essence into milk mix. 11. Make a well in flour and add milk mix. Now test your muffins by tasting them! PRIMARY WRITING

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Examining procedure

1 

Use the procedure on page 27 to complete the page. 1. Title

2. Goal

The recipe is for which type of muffins?

3. Materials

Complete the sentence. The goal of the recipe is to make

r o e t s Boof each step in the r (a) Write the number e p ok box. u S (i) Mash bananas with fork in 4. Method

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Teac he r

Draw two of the ingredients and two pieces of equipment. Label them.

smaller bow.

(ii) Add sugar and choc chips

(iii) Ask an adult to remove muffins from oven. Allow to cool.

P (iv) Make a well inn flour © R. I . C. ubl i c a t i o sand add milk mix. •f orr evi ew p ur posesonl y• (v) Set oven to 210 ºCelsius.

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(b) Explain why the order of the steps is important.

o c . che e r o t r s s uper (c) Complete the sentence.

5. Test

How will you know if you have followed this procedure well?

Each step of the method begins with a c

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l

and ends in a f s

28 

(vi) Cook on top shelf in oven for about 15 to 20 minutes, until golden.

m . u

. PRIMARY WRITING


Procedure plan 1  1. Plan and write a procedure for a recipe you know well or for a different type of muffin (e.g. instead of banana choc chip, it could be carrot and walnut.) Title

Goal

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Numbered and in order

w ww

. te

m . u

Method

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Equipment

Teac he r

Ingredients

o c . che e r o t r s super

Test

How will you test if your recipe works?

2. Write your procedure. PRIMARY WRITING

3. Edit your work. R.I.C. Publications

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2 

Procedures

TEACHERS NOTES

Structural and language features are shown on the left and right of the text below.

Title

Making a gas

Goal

To create a gas

Materials

Materials: • small plastic bottle with narrow neck (e.g. soft drink bottle)

Method

• large tray

• balloon

• bicarbonate of soda

• vinegar

• teaspoon

• funnel

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Method

• steps in logical order

3. Place one teaspoon of bicarbonate of soda into bottle.

4. Pour small amount of vinegar into bottle—carefully.

• instructions begin with command verbs; e.g. Place, Insert

5. Place balloon securely over neck of bottle. Important: This needs to be done immediately after the vinegar is added!

6. Shake bottle gently from side to side.

Teac he r

7. Observe what happens to the balloon.

Results:

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2. Insert funnel into neck of bottle.

1. Place bottle in tray.

Test

• clear concise information— unnecessary words omitted; e.g. small plastic bottle with narrow neck, Place bottle in tray

• the present tense is used; e.g. Observe, Shake

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• A fizzing noise is heard when adding vinegar. Bubbles appear in bottle and bottle becomes warmer. Balloon begins to inflate. This shows that a gas has been created.

• Ask the class to think about science experiments. What is included in an experiment? Explain to the class that an experiment is written similarly to a recipe but some sections have different names; e.g. ‘the ingredients’ are called ‘materials’.

w ww

• Read the text on page 31 with the class. Enlarge the text by photocopying it onto an overhead transparency and displaying it on a whiteboard or wall. Point out and discuss each section of the text with the students.

. te

card and display them. Ask the class to read the procedures and write any questions they may have on paper. Students attach their questions to the display. As a class, face the display and ask the author to answer the questions. (Display/Purpose)

• Choose the best ‘Dissolving’ science procedure and give to small groups to follow. The activity could be completed during a science lesson investigating the properties of materials. Students feed back suggestions for improving the procedure to the author. (Audience/Context)

m . u

Teacher information

• Focus on the language of the text. Note that unnecessary words (such as ‘the’) are omitted. The steps are written simply and clearly and are easy to follow.

Answers

• Explain command verbs; e.g. place, shake, pour.

2. create a gas

• Work through the analysis on page 32 with the class.

3. (a) 7

• Before students attempt to plan and write their procedure, model this process to the class. Write a procedure for a simple science experiment, such as melting a solid substance like butter. Show the class how to use the plan to write the procedure. It is important that the class understands that a plan does not contain every word of the written text—just the main points.

(b) Answers will vary. Possible answer: So the reader can collect the items required before beginning the procedure.

o c . che e r o t r s super

• Dissolving happens when two substances (like salt and water) combine completely. The result is called a solution. Suggestions for solid substances for students to include as a material in their procedures are sugar, salt, coffee, jelly crystals, washing powder, sand etc. • Students plan, write and edit their procedures. • View each of the students ‘Dissolving’ science procedures and choose some that are different. Place them on coloured

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Page 32

1. Making a gas

4. (a) immediately after adding the vinegar (b) If the steps are not followed in the correct order, the procedure will not work. For example, if the balloon is placed on the neck of the bottle before the vinegar is added, a gas will not be created. (c) Place, Insert, Place, Pour, Place, Shake, Observe (d) Command verbs (e) Answers will vary 5. • fizzing noise heard

• bubbles appear

• bottle becomes warm • balloon inflates

PRIMARY WRITING


Procedure To create a gas

2 

Making a gas

Materials: •small plastic bottle with narrow neck (e.g. soft drink bottle) • large tray • vinegar Method:

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S • balloon

• bicarbonate of soda

• teaspoon

• funnel

Teac he r

2. Insert funnel into neck of bottle.

ew i ev Pr

1. Place bottle in tray.

© R. I . C.Pub l i ca t i oamount ns 4. Pour small •f orr evi ew pur pofbottle—carefully. ovinegar sesinto onl y•

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. te

5. Place balloon securely over neck of bottle. Important: This needs to be done immediately after the vinegar is added!

m . u

3. Place one teaspoon of bicarbonate of soda into bottle.

o c . che e r o t r s super 6. Shake bottle gently from side to side.

7. Observe what happens to the balloon. Results: A fizzing noise is heard when adding vinegar. Bubbles appear in bottle and bottle becomes warmer. Balloon begins to inflate. This shows that a gas has been created. PRIMARY WRITING

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Examining procedure

2 

Use the procedure on page 31 to complete the page. 1. Title

Write the title of the procedure. 2. Goal

The aim (or goal) of the procedure is to

r o e t s B r How many items are e used to make this gas? o p o u Why are the materials listed before the method? k S

3. Materials

(a)

4. Method

(a) The balloon should be placed over the neck of the bottle:

(b) Why is the order of the steps important?

© R. I . C.P ubl i cat i ons while adding the vinegar. • f o r r e v i e w p ur posesonl y• immediately after adding

before adding the vinegar.

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Teac he r

(b)

the vinegar.

(d) (e)

m . u

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(c) List the first word of each of the seven steps in the method. (Remember the capital letters.)

. te o c What are these verbs called? . che e r o Do you think the diagrams included are useful? t r s Why? super

5. Results

Write four things that show a gas has been created.

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PRIMARY WRITING


Procedure plan 2  1. Plan a science procedure to show if a solid dissolves in water. Title

Goal

The goal is to

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Method

Numbered and in order

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Materials

.

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. te

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

Results

2. Write your science procedure. PRIMARY WRITING

3. Edit your work. R.I.C. Publications

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33


3 

Procedures

TEACHERS NOTES

Structural and language features are shown on the left and right of the text below.

Title

Pinhole camera

Goal

To make a pinhole camera

Materials

Materials: • 2 cardboard tubes (one smaller so that it will fit inside the other) • 5-cm square piece of aluminium foil • 5-cm square piece of greaseproof paper

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

• 2 rubber bands • small pin

Method

Method:

1. Cover one end of smaller tube with greaseproof paper and secure with rubber band.

Teac he r

3. Poke small hole in centre of aluminium foil with pin. 4. Slide smaller tube inside larger tube.

5. Look at brightly lit objects through pinhole camera. Look through open end of tube. Slide tubes back and forth.

Test

• steps in logical order • instructions often begin with command verbs; e.g. Cover, Poke

ew i ev Pr

2. Cover one end of bigger tube with aluminium foil and secure with rubber band.

• clear concise information— unnecessary words omitted; e.g. 2 rubber bands, Slide smaller tube inside larger tube

Test pinhole camera by going outside on a sunny day and looking through it at a tree or another large object. What do you notice?

• the present tense is used; e.g. secure, Look

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Teacher information

• Ask students to think of objects they have made by following instructions, such as models, construction toys, craft items etc. What is usually included in the instructions?

• Students pair up with a student in another class and give him/her their paper glider procedures to follow and make. Students feed back to author of procedure suggestions for improvement. (Purpose/Audience)

• Focus on the language of the text. Note that unnecessary words (such as ‘the’) are omitted. The steps are written simply and clearly and are easy to follow.

Answers

. te

m . u

• Students may write their procedures in science when investigating flight. (Context)

w ww

• Read the text on page 35 with the class. Enlarge the text by photocopying it onto an overhead transparency and displaying it on a whiteboard or wall. Point out and discuss each section of the text with the students.

• Students can also write instructions for ‘How to play a game’ or ‘How to use a DVD player’ etc. Page 36

o c . che e r o t r s super

• Work through the analysis on page 36 with the class.

• Before students attempt to plan and write their procedure, model this process to the class. Write a simple procedure that explains how to make something (such as a house, dog or snowman from modelling clay, or a hat from newspaper.) • Show the class how to use the plan to write the procedure. It is important that the class understands that a plan does not contain every word of the written text—just the main points.

1. Teacher check

2. To make a pinhole camera.

3. (a) Answers will vary. Possible answer: So they can be read quickly and easily. (b) If an item is left off the materials list, the reader will be unable to follow the procedure to make the object. 4. (a) capital letter, command verb

(b) The steps are numbered to show the reader that each step must be followed in order.

• Students plan, write and edit their procedures.

(c) Use pin to poke small hole in centre of aluminium foil.

• Students publish their ‘Paper glider’ procedures using a word processor and display them. They attach examples of the glider at different stages of creation and label with the step number being displayed. Coloured paper could be used to make a bright display. (Publishing/Display)

5. By going outside on a sunny day and looking through it at a tree or another large object.

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PRIMARY WRITING


Procedure

3 

Pinhole camera This procedure will make a pinhole camera.

Materials: • 2 cardboard tubes (one smaller so that it will fit inside the other)

• 5-cm square piece of aluminium foil

• 5-cm square piece of greaseproof paper

• 2 rubber bands

• small pin

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Steps: 1.

Cover one end of smaller tube with greaseproof paper and secure with rubber band.

2.

Cover one end of bigger tube with aluminium foil and secure with rubber band.

3.

Poke small hole in centre of aluminium foil with pin.

5.

Slide smaller tube inside larger tube.

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4.

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Teac he r

o c . c e r Look at brightlyh lit e objects through o t r s sup er pinhole camera. Look through open end of tube. Slide tubes back and forth.

Test: Test pinhole camera by going outside on a sunny day and looking through it at a tree or another large object. What do you notice? PRIMARY WRITING

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Examining procedure

3 

Use the procedure on page 35 to complete the page. 1. Title

2. Goal

Write the title of the procedure using interesting lettering and colour.

3. Materials

The goal of the procedure is

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

4. Method

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

(a) Why are the materials set out (b) What would happen if something needed was left off the list? in lists with bullet points?

Why are the steps numbered? © R. I . C.P(b) ubl i cat i ons Each step in the method • f o r r e v i e w p ur posesonl y• begins with a (a) Complete the sentence.

c

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l and starts with a

m . u

. tewritten clearly so they can be easily o (c) Procedures are c . followed. Unnecessary words are not included. c e and phrases. h r Rewrite this passage removing all unnecessary words er o st super Use the pin listed in the material c

verb.

section above to poke a small hole right in the centre of the aluminium foil you put around the end of the bigger tube.

5. Test

How should you test a pinhole camera?

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PRIMARY WRITING


Procedure plan 3  1. Plan and write a procedure for making a paper glider. (Use scrap paper to practise making gliders before you write the steps.) Title

Goal

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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Teac he r

Materials

Steps

Numbered and in order.

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o c . che e r o t r s super

Results

How will you test if your paper glider works?

2. Write your science procedure. PRIMARY WRITING

3. Edit your work. R.I.C. Publications

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1 

Reports

TEACHERS NOTES

Structural and language features are shown on the left and right of the text below.

Title

Fairview Hockey Club

• the report is written in the third person; e.g. Elise, she

Classification – general statement about the subject of the report

Description –

Progress report – Elise Brown – mixed under 12, 2006

Elise plays hockey for the Fairview Hockey Club. She is a member of the mixed under 12-year-old team.

provides accurate description and facts

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Elise attends training every week and is always punctual. She remembers her hockey gear, including her hockey stick, mouthguard and shin pads. During games, Elise is always in the correct Fairview hockey uniform. Although this is only Elise’s second season playing hockey, she is learning important skills such as passing, hitting and dribbling.

Teac he r

• the present tense is used; e.g. appears, travels • technical vocabulary is used; e.g. short corners, tackling

ew i ev Pr

Elise is gaining an understanding of the positions on the field and the player’s roles in these positions. Playing left wing for two years now, Elise appears quite confident in the role. She travels with the ball down the left side of the field and passes it off to her team mates. Next season, Elise needs to work on travelling with the ball into the D and scoring goals. With confidence, Elise will be able to do this.

• information is organised into paragraphs

Elise positions herself well during short corners and is gaining some tackling skills. She is progressing well as a hockey player and continues to improve her skills.

Conclusion –

Well done on a great season, Elise! Keep it up!

a personal comment about the subject

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Answers

• Read the progress report with the students and discuss the features of a report.

Page 40

• Work through the analysis on page 40 with the class. Explain that I, we, my, our are examples of the first person, you and yours are examples of the second person and he, she, it, they, their and names are examples of the third person; for example: I hit the hockey ball. – first person You hit the hockey ball. – second person James hit the hockey ball. They hit the hockey ball – third person

2. (a) True

• Before students attempt to plan and write their own progress report, model this process with the whole class. Suggested topics could include a dance recital report, school report or a piano exam report.

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1. Fairview Hockey Club (b) False (c) True 3. (a) 5 (b) (i) Paragraph 2

(ii) Teacher check

(c) (i) plays

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Teacher information

o c . che e r o t r s super

• Students should use page 41 to plan and write their own progress report. Suggest to the class they should choose the sport they know the most about.

(ii) attends, is

(d) (i) Elise positions herself well during short corners. (e) Teacher check

4. (a) Elise’s hockey coach (b) Teacher check

• If the students have written their progress report about a well-known athlete, find pictures of the athlete and display the reports with the pictures. Alternatively, students could draw the subject of their report playing the sport they have chosen. (Publishing/Display/Purpose) • Choose the best or most humorous report and publish it in the school’s weekly newsletter. Ask a group of students to write a paragraph explaining the task to accompany the report. (Audience/Purpose) • The activity can be integrated with health and physical education. Discuss the importance of feedback and guidance when learning a new sport. (Context/Purpose)

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PRIMARY WRITING


Report

1 

FAIRVIEW HOCKEY CLUB Progress report – Elise Brown – mixed under 12, 2006

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

Elise plays hockey for the Fairview Hockey club. She is a member of the mixed under 12-year-old team.

ew i ev Pr

Elise attends training every week and is always punctual. She remembers her hockey gear, including her hockey stick, mouth guard and shin pads. During games, Elise is always in the correct Fairview hockey uniform. Although this is only Elise’s second season playing hockey, she is learning important skills such as passing, hitting and dribbling. Elise is gaining an understanding of the positions on the field and the player’s roles in these positions. Playing left wing for two years now, Elise appears quite confident in the role. She travels with the ball down the left side of the field and passes it off to her team mates. Next season, Elise needs to work on travelling with the ball into the D and scoring goals. With confidence, Elise will be able to do this.

w ww

Elise positions herself well during short corners and is gaining some tackling skills. She is progressing well as a hockey player and continues to improve her skills.

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m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

Well done on a great season, Elise! Keep it up!

PRIMARY WRITING

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39


Examining report

1 

Use the report on page 39 to complete the page. 1. Title

2. Classification

(a) Elise plays hockey.

True

False

False r o e t s True B r (c) Elise is less than 12 years old. False e oo p u k S (a) How many paragraphs make up the (b) There are only girls in Elise’s team. True

description section of this report.

(b) (i) Which paragraph has information about Elise’s hockey gear?

2

3

4

5

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Teac he r

3. Description

(ii) Draw and label the gear she brings to training.

(c) Circle the verbs written in the present tense.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Elise plays hockey for the Fairview Hockey Club. •f o rr ev i ew pur posesonl y•

(i)

(ii) Elise attends training every week and is always punctual.

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(d) Use a person’s name (Elise) and pronouns like, ‘he’, ‘she’ and ‘they’ to change this sentence from the second to the third person.

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You position yourself well during short corners.

o c . chewords used in the report. (e) Add three more technical e r o t r s super mouthguard,

4. Conclusion

(a) Who do you think has written this progress report?

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(b) Colour the face to show how you think this person feels about Elise’s progress in hockey.

PRIMARY WRITING


Report plan 1  1. Think of a sport you know well. Can you name any successful athletes who play it? Write a progress report about an athlete—real or imaginary. Remember: Use the third person (he/she/they) and the present tense. Title

Name of athlete. General statement

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Include type of sport and number of years playing.

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Teac he r

Description

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Conclusion

m . u

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The final sentence(s) about the athlete. Include your opinion about the success of the athlete in his or her sport.

2. Write your report. PRIMARY WRITING

3. Edit your work. R.I.C. Publications

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2 

Reports

TEACHERS NOTES

Structural and language features are shown on the left and right of the text below.

Title

A new planet?

Classification: – general statement about the subject of the report

Description –

A lonely chunk of rock and ice known as 2003 UB313 is the furthest known object from the sun in our solar system. It is so large that it was once thought of as possibly being a new planet. From 1930 to 2006, Pluto was considered to be the ninth planet of the solar system. It was also considered to be the largest object in the Kuiper Belt—a dark area beyond the planet Neptune, filled with thousands of small icy bodies. But the discovery of 2003 UB313, believed to be 27 per cent larger than Pluto, has changed this.

provides accurate description and facts

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

To estimate a celestial object’s size, astronomers study its brightness. Planets do not transmit their own light. They reflect light from the sun and the amount of this reflection can be used to calculate their size.

Teac he r

Astronomers estimate 2003 UB313 to be about 97 times further from the sun than the Earth and three times further from the sun than Pluto. It has a surface similar to Pluto, of frozen methane gas, and appears red in colour.

• the report is written in the third person; e.g. Pluto, It • language is factual rather than imaginative; e.g. ninth planet of the solar system • information is organised into paragraphs

ew i ev Pr

• the present tense is used; e.g. In 2006, scientists announced that 2003 UB313 is not considered to be a major estimate, reflect planet. In fact, they also stated that Pluto was no longer a major planet! Both are now classified as dwarf planets.

Conclusion –

So 2003 UB313 lost its chance to be considered a major planet. This is unfortunate, but at least it has had one lucky break; it is no longer known as 2003 UB313 and instead has the much friendlier name of Eris.

a personal comment has been made about the subject

• technical vocabulary is used; e.g. per cent, 2003 UB313

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Teacher information

Answers

• Read the scientific report with the students and discuss the features of a report.

Page 44

• Revise the third person (see page 38). Students complete the analyses on page 44.

2. (a) 2003

• Students should use page 45 to plan and write their own scientific report. They should have gathered sufficient information about the planet of their choice prior to planning their report.

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(b) ice and rock 3. (a) 4

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w ww

• Before students attempt to plan and write their own scientific report, model this process with the whole class. The moon and the sun are possible topics for this modelling process.

1. A new planet?

(b) astronomers, brightness, transmit, reflect, sun, reflection, calculate (c) has, appears

(d) Pluto was once the ninth planet and it was considered to be the smallest.

o c . che e r o t r s super

• Students could present an oral report to the class or small group about their planet. Reports can be presented on different days so those about the same planet are not repeated. (Audience/Purpose)

4. (a) The author thinks that the one lucky break 2003 UB313 has had is receiving the much friendlier name of Eris. (b) Teacher check

• Published reports could be displayed in the shape of a circle, which students could paint in the colours of their planet. Appropriate drawings or pictures from magazines could be included. (Display/Publishing) • The activity could be integrated into a science topic. (Context)

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PRIMARY WRITING


Report

2 

A new planet? A lonely chunk of rock and ice known as 2003 UB313 is the furthest known object from the sun in our solar system. It is so large that it was once thought of as possibly being a new planet.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

Neptune Uranus

Saturn Jupiter

Pluto

ew i ev Pr

From 1930 to 2006, Pluto was considered to be the ninth planet of the solar system. It was also considered to be the largest object in the Kuiper Belt—a dark area beyond the planet Neptune, filled with thousands of small icy bodies. But the discovery of 2003 UB313, believed to be 27 per cent larger than Pluto, has changed this.

2003 UB313

The diagram shows part of the solar system viewed from the north, which is why the orbits appear to be irregular. The remainder of the solar system, including the sun, the Earth and the other planets, is not shown, but is represented by the larger white dot.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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m . u

w ww

To estimate a celestial objects’s size, astronomers study its brightness. Planets do not transmit their own light. They reflect light from the sun and the amount of this reflection can be used to calculate their size. Astronomers estimate 2003 UB313 to be about 97 times further from the sun than the Earth and three times further from the sun than Pluto. It has a surface similar to Pluto, of frozen methane gas, and appears red in colour.

o c . c e hscientists r In 2006, announced that 2003 UB313 is not e o t r s In fact, they also stated u considered tos be ap major planet. er

that Pluto was no longer a major planet! Both are now classified as dwarf planets. So 2003 UB313 lost its chance to be considered a major planet. This is unfortunate, but at least it has had one lucky break; it is no longer known as 2003 UB313 and instead has the much friendlier name of Eris.

PRIMARY WRITING

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43


Examining report

2 

Use the report on page 43 to complete the page. 1. Title

The title of this scientific report is 2. Classification

(a) Circle the year you think the ‘planet’ was discovered.

(b) What is the ‘lonely’ object made of?

and r o e t s B r e oo p u k (a) How many paragraphs S 3 4 5 make up the description? 2

2003

2004

2005

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Teac he r

3. Description

(b) Use factual language and technical vocabulary to complete how astronomers estimate the size of planets.

To estimate a planet’s size, Planets do not

study its their own light. They

.

and the amount of © R. I . C. Pu bl i cat i othis ns can be used to r their size. • f or evi ew p ur posesonl y• light from the

(c) Circle the present tense verbs in this sentence.

It has a surface similar to Pluto, of frozen methane gas, and appears red in colour.

w ww

m . u

(d) Use a name (Pluto) and pronouns like ‘he’, ‘she’ and ‘it’ to change this sentence from the first to the third person.

. teninth planet and I was considered to beo I was once the the smallest. c . che e r o t r s super

4. Conclusion

(a) What does the author believe is the one lucky break 2003 UB313 has had?

(b) The eight major planets of the solar system are named after mythical gods. If a new ninth planet was discovered, what do you think its name should be?

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PRIMARY WRITING


Report plan 2  1. Choose one of the eight major planets in the solar system and plan a scientific report about it. You will need to gather information about the planet to help you. Remember to be accurate with facts and use scientific vocabulary. Title

General statement

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Description

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Teac he r

A sentence about the planet such as its position in the solar system.

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Conclusion

m . u

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o c . che e r o t r s super

The final sentence(s) about the planet.

2. Write your report. PRIMARY WRITING

3. Edit your work. R.I.C. Publications

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45


3 

Reports

TEACHERS NOTES

Structural and language features are shown on the left and right of the text below.

Title

Movie review Zac in the land of chocolate (PG)

Classification: – general statement about the subject of the report

Description –

• information is organised into paragraphs

Zac in the land of chocolate is the third instalment in the ‘Zac’ series. It follows Zac and the three dozen space cowboys and the very popular Zac in a land before grown-ups. In this current film, Zac, played by the cheeky child actor Daniel Puffin Jr, is stranded in a world where almost everything is made of chocolate. With milk chocolate buildings and houses, and dark and white chocolate cars that drive on licorice roads and park in bubble gum garages, Truffle Town is spectacular and delicious!

provides accurate description and facts

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

With his mission complete, Zac begins to shimmer and disappears, at the end of the film, off on his next space adventure, which is due to reach the cinemas in time for the next summer holidays.

Conclusion –

• the report is written in the third person; e.g. his, Zac • language is factual rather than imaginative; e.g. an actionpacked kids film

ew i ev Pr

Zac explores the town and meets the locals, who are interestingly smaller versions of human beings. Having a ‘giant’ in Truffle Town attracts the attention of the authorities. Much humour and adventure follows as Zac tries to avoid the miniature police and seeks out his ‘mission’— the common thread in all three ‘Zac’ movies.

• the present tense is used; e.g. explores, meets

Zac in the land of chocolate is an action-packed kids film filled with adventure, mystery and mountains of chocolate! It will entertain the kids for a few hours and perhaps make the wiser ones wonder for some time after how the chocolate houses and cars keep their shape in the blazing summer sun!

a personal comment has been made about the subject

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Teacher information

Answers

• Read the movie review with the students and discuss the features of the report.

Page 48

• Revise the third person. (See page 38.) Students complete the analysis on page 48.

2. three, space, Zac, before

• Collate the published reports into a class ‘movie review’ book for the reading corner. Students read the reviews and write their own comments about the movies they have seen in a space underneath the review or to an attached page. Smiley faces could be drawn if the student agrees with the review or a sad face if they do not. (Audience/Purpose/ Display)

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(b) (i) 1

(ii) Teacher check

(c) Answers may include: meets, are, Having, attracts, follows, tries, to avoid, seek (d) Zac tries to avoid the police and seeks out his ‘mission’. (e) Zac shimmers and disappears.

o c . che e r o t r s super

• Watching and reviewing films is part of the English curriculum. (Context)

46 

3. (a) 3

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• Before students attempt to plan and write their own movie review, model this process with the whole class. Choose a recent film or documentary the class watched together.

1. Zac in the land of chocolate

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4. (a) The author thinks children will be wondering why the cars and houses never melt in the blazing summer sun. (b) Answers may vary.

PRIMARY WRITING


Report

3 

Movie review

Zac in the land of chocolate (PG) Zac in the land of chocolate is the third instalment in the ‘Zac’ series. It follows Zac and the three dozen space cowboys and the very popular Zac in a land before grown-ups.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

With his mission complete, Zac begins to shimmer and disappears at the end of the film off on his next space adventure, which is due to reach the cinemas in time for the next summer holidays.

ew i ev Pr

In this current film, Zac, played by the cheeky child actor Daniel Puffin Jr, is stranded in a world where almost everything is made of chocolate. With milk chocolate buildings and houses, and dark and white chocolate cars that drive on licorice roads and park in bubble gum garages, Truffle Town is spectacular and delicious!

Teac he r

and seeks out his ‘mission’—the common thread in all three ‘Zac’ movies.

Zac in the land of chocolate is an action-packed kids film filled with adventure, mystery and mountains of chocolate! It will entertain the kids for a few hours and perhaps make the wiser ones wonder for some time after how the chocolate houses and cars keep their shape in the blazing summer sun!

w ww

. te

PRIMARY WRITING

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Zac explores the town and meets the locals, who are interestingly smaller versions of human beings. Having a ‘giant’ in Truffle Town attracts the attention of the authorities. Much humour and adventure follows as Zac tries to avoid the miniature police

o c . che e r o t r s super

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47


Examining report

3 

Use the report on page 47 to complete the page. 1. Title

The title of the movie being reviewed is 2. Classification

Complete the titles of the two other ‘Zac’ movies.

cowboys r o e t s Bo r grown-ups e in a land p ok u S (a) How many paragraphs Zac and the

dozen

make up the description? 2

3

4

(b) (i) Which number paragraph in this section describes Truffle Town? (ii) Add four more facts about Truffle Town. milk chocolate buildings,

5

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Teac he r

3. Description

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• (c) List three more verbs written in the present tense from the second

explores

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m . u

paragraph of the description.

(d) Use a name (Zac) and pronouns like ‘he’, ‘she’ and ‘it’ to change this sentence from the first to the third person. I try to avoid the police and seek out my ‘mission’.

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o c . e (e) What happens toc Zac at the end of the movie? her r o t s super

4. Conclusion

(a) What does the author think children may be wondering after they see the film?

(b) Would you like to see Zac and the land of chocolate?

Yes No Unsure

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PRIMARY WRITING


Report plan 3  1. Plan a movie review about the last film you watched. Remember: Write it in third person (he/she/they, person’s name) and use the present tense. Title

General statement

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

An opening sentence about the movie.

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Teac he r

Description

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Conclusion

m . u

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o c . che e r o t r s super

The final sentence(s) about the movie. It can include your opinion about whether the movie is worth watching.

2. Write your report. PRIMARY WRITING

3. Edit your work. R.I.C. Publications

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49


1 

Explanations

TEACHERS NOTES

Structural and language features are shown on the left and right of the text below.

Title

‘X’ marks the kiss

Definition – one

• information is organised into paragraphs

All over the world, letters, emails, messages and postcards sent between family and friends often finish with small crosses like these, ‘x x’, to stand for kisses.

or more sentences that state what the explanation is about

Description –

To find out how this came about, we have to travel back in time many hundreds of years to the Middle Ages. Most adults who lived during this time never learnt to write as children. Some could not even write their own name.

information presented in logical order

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

But, like today, sometimes people had to sign important papers or documents. So instead of signing their name, they would use an ‘x’. This is a symbol that represents Saint Andrew, the patron saint of Scotland. Signing with his cross showed that a person meant to keep his or her promise.

Teac he r

Conclusion

Over time, signing with a cross and kissing it was no longer done. So today, most of us write ‘x’ at the end of a letter without having any idea what it once meant. In fact, some people think it is because an ‘x’ looks like two pairs of lips touching!

– an evaluation or interesting comment

• subject-specific vocabulary; e.g. Middle Ages, Saint Andrew’s cross

ew i ev Pr

To further show that the person meant to keep the promise, he or she would also kiss the Saint Andrew’s cross. The moment this happened, the paper he or she had signed became a legal contract. This is where the saying ‘sealed with a kiss’ comes from.

• majority of verbs in simple present tense; e.g. finish, travel

• linking words to show cause and effect; e.g. To further show, So

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Teacher information

Answers

• Explanations usually outline how something occurs, works or is made. This particular explanation shows how something occurred.

Page 51

• Identify the structural and language features indicated above before the students complete the analysis on page 52.

. te

• Students may need to use encyclopedias or other resources to plan an explanation about the origin of a custom or symbol. Teachers could also have the students brainstorm a list of customs or symbols related to religious festivals or cultural/sporting events that might be suitable for them to write their explanations about.

2. (a) about (b) (at the end of) letters, emails, messages and postcards (c) family and friends (d) kisses

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• Members of the class could take turns to read this text aloud or the students could read it independently.

1. ‘x’ marks the kiss

3. (a) Answers will vary, but should be similar to the following:

Paragraph 1 Most adults in the Middle Ages couldn’t write.

Paragraph 2 People in the Middle Ages often signed important papers with a cross.

Paragraph 3 Kissing the Saint Andrew’s cross meant a paper became a legal contract.

o c . che e r o t r s super

• Model the planning and writing of an explanation using the framework on page 53. The students can then follow this example to plan and write their explanations about customs or symbols.

(b) Teacher check 4. Teacher check

• Create a class trivia book, made up of facts from the students’ explanations, that is suitable for a younger class to read. (Publishing/Audience) • The explanations about customs or symbols from other countries could be used to enhance a SOSE theme about celebrations or people from other countries. (Context)

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PRIMARY WRITING


Explanation

1 

Teac he r

All over the world, letters, emails,

ew i ev Pr

r o e t s Bo r e p ok ‘X’ marks u S the kiss

of Scotland. Signing with his cross

showed that a person meant to © R . I . C . P u b l i cat i ons keep his or her promise. between family and friends often finish with small crosses like these, •f or r ev i e w pur p seshow sothat nl y To o further the • person ‘x x’, to stand for kisses.

To find out how this came about,

w ww

we have to travel back in time many hundreds of years to the

meant to keep the promise, he or she would also kiss the Saint

m . u

messages and postcards sent

Andrew’s cross. The moment this happened, the paper he or she had signed became a legal contract.

This is where the saying ‘sealed with . te a kiss’ comes from.o write as children. Some could not c . c e even write their own h name. r Over time, signing with a cross and er o st supe r kissing it was no longer done. So But, like today, sometimes people Middle Ages. Most adults who lived during this time never learnt to

had to sign important papers or

today, most of us write ‘x’ at the end

documents. So instead of signing

of a letter without having any idea

their name, they would use an ‘x’.

what it once meant. In fact, some

This is a symbol that represents

people think it is because an ‘x’ looks

Saint Andrew, the patron saint

like two pairs of lips touching!

PRIMARY WRITING

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51


Examining explanation

1 

Use the explanation on page 51 to complete the page. 1. Title

Write the title. 2. Definition

(a) The definition tells what the explanation is

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

(b) Where do people often write small crosses?

(c) Who do they send them to?

(d) What do the crosses stand for? 3. Description

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

(a) Describe the main idea in each paragraph of the description.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Paragraph 1

w ww

Paragraph 3

. te

(b)

m . u

Paragraph 2

o c . ch In your own words, explain how ‘x’ came to stand for a kiss. e r er o st super

4. Conclusion

Add a final sentence to the conclusion that makes sense.

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.


Explanation plan 1  1. Plan an explanation about how a custom or symbol began. Title

Definition

Description

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Explain how this custom/symbol began.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

State what the explanation is about.

w ww

. te

Conclusion

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

End with an interesting comment.

2. Write your explanation. PRIMARY WRITING

3. Edit your work. R.I.C. Publications

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2 

Explanations

TEACHERS NOTES

Structural and language features are shown on the left and right of the text below.

Title

A clever invention

Definition –

• information is organised into paragraphs

A ballpoint pen, or ‘biro’, is a clever invention that many people use every day. It is a writing instrument that can roll a film of ink easily and evenly onto paper.

one or more sentences that state what the explanation is about

Description –

Before the invention of the ballpoint pen was perfected in the 1950s, people had to use quills or fountain pens if they wanted to write with ink. These are difficult to use and often annoying. It is tricky to write evenly and without smudges. Also, in a fountain pen, the thin ink can dry out in the pen, clogging it. A ballpoint pen has none of these problems.

information presented in logical order

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

As its name suggests, the most important part of a ballpoint pen is the tiny metal ball at its tip. You can see it if you look very closely at the end of a pen.

Teac he r

The metal ball also has another important job. It seals up the end of the pen and stops the ink from drying out in its tube.

Conclusion –

You should be grateful to the inventor of the ballpoint pen for making writing in ink so easy. What was his name? Laszlo Biro!

• linking words to show cause and effect; e.g. if, As

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Teacher information

Answers

• Explanations usually outline how something occurs, works or is made. This particular explanation shows how something works.

Page 51

w ww

• Members of the class could take turns to read this text aloud or the students could read it independently. Invite students to examine a ballpoint pen before or after reading the text. • Identify the structural and language features indicated above before the students complete the analysis on page 56.

. te

1. Teacher check 2. Because they can get ink easily and evenly onto a sheet of paper. 3. (a) 4 (b) Teacher check. (c) ball

socket

m . u

an evaluation or interesting comment

• subjectspecific vocabulary; e.g. quills, socket

ew i ev Pr

Inside the pen, the metal ball fits into a socket—a type of hollow. There is just enough space in the socket for the ball to be able to roll around when you write. As the ball rolls, the ink in the tube inside the pen flows onto the top of the ball and then onto the paper. The ink in a ballpoint pen does not leak out around the ball because it is thick and sticky. It also dries very quickly – almost as soon as you have put pen to paper.

• majority of verbs in simple present tense; e.g. is, can roll

ink

tube

o c . che e r o t r s super

• Look around the classroom to find some inventions we use everyday; e.g. stapler, sticky tape, velcro™ etc. List them on the blackboard and discuss how they work.

• Students may need to use encyclopedias or other resources to plan an explanation about an everyday invention. • Model the planning and writing of an explanation using the framework on page 57. The students can then follow this example to plan and write their explanations about everyday inventions.

(d) Answers will vary, but may include: are, stop, think, writing, write, use, dry, look, flows, does, suggests, fits, rolls, leak, dries, have put, seals and stops 4. You should be grateful to him for making writing in ink so easy.

• Students could add a suitable model or labelled diagram to their explanations of inventions. (Publishing) • Present the explanations as talks for younger students. (Audience) • Collate the explanations into a class book called Everyday inventions, to be placed in the school library. (Publishing/ Context)

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Explanation

2 

A clever invention A ballpoint pen, or ‘biro’, is a clever invention that many people use every day. It is a writing instrument that can roll a film of ink easily and evenly onto paper.

ew i ev Pr

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Before the invention of the ballpoint pen was perfected in the 1950s, people had to use quills or fountain pens if they wanted to write with ink. These are difficult to use and often annoying. It is tricky to write evenly and without smudges. Also, in a fountain pen, the thin ink can dry out in the pen, clogging it. A ballpoint pen has none of these problems.

Teac he r

socket for the ball to be able to roll around when you write. As the ball rolls, the ink in the tube inside the pen flows onto the top of the ball and then onto the paper. The ink in a ballpoint pen does not leak out around the ball because it is thick and sticky. It also dries very quickly – almost as soon as you have put pen to paper. The metal ball also has another important job. It seals up the end of the pen and stops the ink from drying out in its tube.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons You should be grateful to the •f orr evi ew pur p oseofstheoballpoint nl y• inventor pen for

. te

Inside the pen, the metal ball fits into a socket – a type of hollow. There is just enough space in the

PRIMARY WRITING

making writing in ink so easy. What was his name? Laszlo Biro!

m . u

w ww

As its name suggests, the most important part of a ballpoint pen is the tiny metal ball at its tip. You can see it if you look very closely at the end of a pen.

o c . che e r o t r s super

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55


Examining explanation

2 

Use the explanation on page 55 to complete the page. 1. Title

Use at least one word from the title to write a new title. 2. Definition

Why does the writer think that ballpoint pens are a clever invention?

(a) How many paragraphs are in the description section of the explanation?

(b) Write three ‘Did you know?’ facts about ballpoint pens using information from the description. Did you know?

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

3. Description

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

m . u

(c) Label the parts of the ballpoint pen mentioned in the text.

. te

(d)

o c . che e r Most of the verbs in an explanation are int the present tense; e.g. ‘is’, o r s stense r pe ‘can’. List three other presentu verbs used in this text.

4. Conclusion

What does the writer think about Laszlo Biro?

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Explanation plan 2  1. Plan an explanation about how an everyday invention works. Title

Definition

Description

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

How does this invention work?

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

State what the explanation is about.

w ww

. te

Conclusion

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

End with an interesting comment.

2. Write your explanation. PRIMARY WRITING

3. Edit your work. R.I.C. Publications

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57


3 

Explanations

TEACHERS NOTES

Structural and language features are shown on the left and right of the text below.

Title

Pasta

Definition – one or more sentences that state what the explanation is about

Pasta, like spaghetti, macaroni and farfalle, is an Italian food made from a simple dough. Pasta can be fresh or dried.

Description –

The main ingredient of most types of pasta is a type of wheat flour called ‘semolina’. Semolina is used because it makes the dough more elastic. This means it can easily be stretched into different shapes without breaking.

information presented in logical order

• information is organised into paragraphs

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

To begin making pasta, the semolina is mixed with water and salt to make a dough. Sometimes other ingredients are also added, like chopped spinach, which makes green pasta, or tomato paste, which makes red pasta.

Teac he r

Other types of pasta are made by flattening out the dough into a sheet. The pasta shapes are then cut out. Bow tie-shaped pasta is made in this way. Once the pasta dough is the correct size and shape, it is dried. This is done by huge machines which blow hot, moist air over the pasta. This step is carefully timed, because different types of pasta take different lengths of time to dry. When the pasta is dry, it is packed into bags or boxes and sent to supermarkets or other shops.

an evaluation or interesting comment

• linking words to show cause and effect; e.g. Once, When

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• It is now ready for you to buy and use to make a delicious meal! Do you have a favourite type of pasta?

Answers

• Explanations usually outline how something occurs, works or is made. This particular explanation shows how something is made.

Page 60

w ww

Teacher information

• Members of the class could take turns to read this text aloud or the students could read it independently.

. te

1. Teacher check

m . u

Conclusion –

• majority of verbs in simple present tense; e.g. made, cut

ew i ev Pr

What happens next to the dough depends on what type of pasta it is being made into. Some pasta is made by pushing the dough through a series of holes in a large metal disc called a ‘die’. The pasta dough is then cut to the required length. Spaghetti is made by this method, using a die with small, round holes.

• subjectspecific vocabulary; e.g. semolina, die

2. Pasta is an Italian food made from dough. It can be fresh or dried. Examples include spaghetti, macaroni and farfalle. 3. (a) (i) pasta dough (semolina, water and salt) with tomato paste

o c . che e r o t r s super

• Identify the structural and language features indicated above before the students complete the analysis on page 60.

• Students may need to use encyclopedias or other resources to plan an explanation about the qualities of a healthy food. Teachers may like to provide a ‘healthy eating pyramid’ to help the students choose a healthy food to write about.

(ii) a large metal disc with holes

(iii) a type of wheat flour

(b) Answers may vary but should be similar to the following:

(i) What is the main ingredient of pasta?

(ii) How do you make pasta dough?

• Model the planning and writing of an explanation using the framework on page 61. The students can then follow this example to plan and write their explanations about a healthy food.

(iii) What happens to the pasta dough?

(iv) How are other types of pasta made?

(v) How is pasta dried?

• Students could present their explanations about food on colourful posters to be displayed in the school library or canteen/tuckshop. (Publishing/Audience)

(c) Teacher check 4. Teacher check

• Explanations about how healthy foods help our bodies could be used to give talks during health lessons about our bodies or food. (Purpose/Audience/Context)

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Explanation

Pasta

Other types of pasta are made by flattening out the dough into a sheet. The pasta shapes are then cut out. Bow tie-shaped pasta is made in this way.

The main ingredient of most types of pasta is a type of wheat flour called ‘semolina’. Semolina is used because it makes the dough more elastic. This means it can easily be stretched into different shapes without breaking.

Once the pasta dough is the correct size and shape, it is dried. This is done by huge machines which blow hot, moist air over the pasta. This step is carefully timed, because different types of pasta take different lengths of time to dry. When the pasta is dry, it is packed into bags or boxes and sent to supermarkets or other shops.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

To begin making pasta, the semolina is mixed with water and salt to make a dough. Sometimes other ingredients are also added, like chopped spinach, which makes green pasta, or tomato paste, which makes red pasta.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Pasta, like spaghetti, macaroni and farfalle, is an Italian food made from a simple dough. Pasta can be fresh or dried.

3 

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

. te

PRIMARY WRITING

m . u

w ww

What happens next to the dough depends on what type of pasta it is being made into. Some pasta is made by pushing the dough through a series of holes in a large metal disc called a ‘die’. The pasta dough is then cut to the required length. Spaghetti is made by this method, using a die with small, round holes.

It is now ready for you to buy and use to make a delicious meal! Do you have a favourite type of pasta?

o c . che e r o t r s super

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59


Examining explanation

3 

Use the explanation on page 59 to complete the page. 1. Title

This explanation has a very simple title. Write a more interesting one that suits the text. 2. Definition

(a)

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Descriptions often contain technical terms. Explain what these mean.

(i) red pasta

What is pasta?

(ii) die

(iii) semolina

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

3. Description

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Paragraph 1:

Paragraph 2:

Paragraph 3:

Paragraph 4:

Paragraph 5:

w ww

(c)

m . u

(b) Each paragraph in the description answers a question about how pasta is make; e.g. ‘How is pasta dried?’ Write a question that is answered by each paragraph.

. te o Do you think the order in which these c . ch e paragraphs were written was the best choice?r Yes e o t r s s r u e p Explain

No

4. Conclusion

Write a new conclusion to this text that contains an interesting comment.

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Explanation plan 3  1. Plan an explanation about how a healthy food helps your body. Title

Definition

Description

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

How does this food help to keep your body healthy?

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

State what the explanation is about.

w ww

. te

Conclusion

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

End with an interesting comment.

2. Write your explanation. PRIMARY WRITING

3. Edit your work. R.I.C. Publications

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61


1 

Expositions

TEACHERS NOTES

Structural and language features are shown on the left and right of the text below.

Title

The old drama hall

Introduction –

• a variety of controlling and emotive words; e.g. beloved, disgusted

Dear community member

one or more sentences that state the problem and the writer’s position

Are you aware that our beloved and beautiful Bridgeman drama hall is in danger of being demolished to make way for a new apartment block? I hope you are as disgusted by this as I am.

Arguments – presented in logical manner with supporting details, usually from strongest to weakest

• For over 80 years, Bridgeman children have been learning drama and presenting top-quality plays and musicals in the hall. Many of them have gone on to use their talents and skills as adults in jobs that require public speaking. We should continue to give our children this unique opportunity.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

• The old drama hall puts Bridgeman on the map! Many tourists come to visit us to see the hall and learn about its history. It would be a crime to demolish it. The council has already destroyed three other historic Bridgeman buildings. If we stand by and do nothing, it will happen again.

Conclusion –

For the sake of your children and to save Bridgeman’s history, I ask you to please support my protest to stop the drama hall being demolished.

restates the writer’s position

• a variety of conjunctions; e.g. and, If

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

• There is nowhere else in our small community that children would be able to do drama lessons. The scout hall and the church hall are busy every day of the week with other activities. They are also too small to hold an audience.

• paragraphs used to state and elaborate on each point

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Teacher information

Answers

• Expositions argue for a particular position and attempt to persuade an audience to share this view. This particular exposition is in the form of a flyer.

Page 64

• Identify the structural and language features indicated above before the students complete the analysis on page 64.

. te

• Teachers should hold a class discussion about some appropriate community issues the students could write their expositions about. Pamphlets, leaflets or other material produced by community groups may provide further information or ideas for the students.

2. (a) To make way for a new apartment block (b) disgusted

m . u

w ww

• Members of the class could take turns to read this text aloud or the students could read it independently.

1. Teacher check

3. (a) Answers will vary, but should include some of these ideas:

Bridgeman children will be denied the opportunity to learn skills they can use as adults; there is nowhere else in the community for them to learn drama; tourists will no longer come to Bridgeman; and destroying the drama hall means destroying a historic building.

o c . che e r o t r s super

• Model the planning and writing of an exposition using the framework on page 65. The students can then follow this example to plan and write their expositions about community issues.

(b) Teacher check (c) Teacher check

(d) Teacher check

4. Support his/her protest to stop the drama hall being demolished

• Students could publish their expositions as flyers aimed at a particular group of people in their community. (Publishing/ Audience) • Students may write an exposition about a community issue as part of a society and environment unit. The expositions, in the form of letters, could be sent to a local politician or other community leader. (Purpose/Audience/Context)

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Exposition

1 

The old drama hall Dear community member Are you aware that our beloved and beautiful Bridgeman drama hall is in danger of being demolished to make way for a new apartment block? I hope you are as disgusted by this as I am.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

• For over 80 years, Bridgeman children have been learning drama and presenting top-quality plays and musicals in the hall. Many of them have gone on to use their talents and skills as adults in jobs that require public speaking. We should continue to give our children this unique opportunity. • There is nowhere else in our small community that children would be able to do drama lessons. The scout hall and the church hall are busy every day of the week with other activities. They are also too small to hold an audience. • The old drama hall puts Bridgeman on the map! Many tourists come to visit us to see the hall and learn about its history. It would be a crime to demolish it. The council has already destroyed three other historic Bridgeman buildings. If we stand by and do nothing, it will happen again.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

. te

PRIMARY WRITING

m . u

For the sake of your children and to save Bridgeman’s history, I ask you to please support my protest to stop the drama hall being demolished.

o c . che e r o t r s super

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63


Examining exposition

1 

Use the exposition on page 63 to complete the page. 1. Title

Write a suitable new title. 2. Introduction

(a) Why is the hall going to be demolished?

r o e t s Bo r e pfeel about it? ok u (b) How does the writer S

3. Arguments

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

(a) List three problems the writer thinks will be caused by demolishing the drama hall. (i)

w ww (iii)

(b) (c)

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons orr evi ew pur posesonl y• (ii) •f

. te o c Which argument above do you think is the strongest? . che e r o Did the writer start with this argument? t r s super

(d) Do you think other people will agree with the writer? 4. Conclusion

How do you think people could show their support for the writer?

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Exposition plan 1  1. Plan an exposition about something you would like to see happen in your community. Title

Introduction

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Arguments

List your arguments, starting with the strongest one.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

State what the problem is and your point of view about it.

w ww

. te

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

Conclusion

End by restating your point of view.

2. Write your exposition. PRIMARY WRITING

3. Edit your work. R.I.C. Publications

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65


2 

Expositions

TEACHERS NOTES

Structural and language features are shown on the left and right of the text below.

Title

Museum matters

Introduction –

• a variety of controlling and emotive words; e.g. greedy, should

Dear Editor

one or more sentences that state the problem and the writer’s position

I understand our local council is planning to start charging people to visit the Madison History Museum. The suggested fee for an adult is the same as the cost of a movie ticket! I think the council is being greedy and unreasonable.

Arguments –

Everyone, no matter how rich or poor, should be able to visit a museum. You can learn about history in a fascinating way—by seeing and touching objects. But if people suddenly have to pay high prices to visit a museum, they may decide to read a library book or use the Internet instead. I think this is a shame because it will cause many people to miss out on a unique experience.

• paragraphs used to state and elaborate on each point

In our town, the museum is one of the last free places that people can visit on the weekends. Almost every other form of entertainment, from the movies to the art gallery, costs money.

• a variety of conjunctions; e.g. or, If, because

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

If the council needs more money to run the museum, it should try fundraising or asking for donations at the door. It could even ask some volunteers to work there. There must be better ways of making money than forcing the public to pay.

Conclusion –

Everyone in our community should avoid going to the museum if the council starts charging to get in. This will give the council members a loud and clear message that they are being unfair and thoughtless.

restates the writer’s position

Yours sincerely Fiona Vicary

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

presented in logical manner with supporting details, usually from strongest to weakest

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Teacher information

Answers

• Expositions argue for a particular position and attempt to persuade an audience to share this view. This particular exposition is in the form of a letter to the editor.

Page 68

• Identify the structural and language features indicated above before the students complete the analysis on page 68.

. te

• Model the planning and writing of an exposition using the framework on page 69. The students can then follow this example to plan and write their expositions about a price rise.

2. The writer believes it is unreasonable that the local council is going to start charging people to visit the Madison History Museum. The cost for an adult will be about the same price as a movie ticket. 3. Teacher check. 4. (a) unfair, thoughtless (b) Teacher check

m . u

w ww

• Members of the class could take turns to read this text aloud or the students could read it independently.

1. Teacher check

o c . che e r o t r s super

• Read local newspapers to find current community issues. Students could write a letter to the editor of the newspaper, expressing their views. (Publishing/Purpose) • Use the ideas expressed in expositions as the basis for small-group or class debates. (Context)

• Express the feelings described in an exposition through a collage. (Display)

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Exposition

2 

Museum matters Dear Editor I understand our local council is planning to start charging people to visit the Madison History Museum. The suggested fee for an adult is the same as the cost of a movie ticket! I think the council is being greedy and unreasonable.

Teac he r

r o e t s Bo r e phow rich or poor, should be able ok Everyone, no matter to visit a museum. u You can learnS about history in a fascinating way­—by seeing and touching

ew i ev Pr

objects. But if people suddenly have to pay high prices to visit a museum, they may decide to read a library book or use the Internet instead. I think this is a shame because it will cause many people to miss out on a unique experience.

In our town, the museum is one of the last free places that people can visit on the weekends. Almost every other form of entertainment, from the movies to the art gallery, costs money.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons If the council needs more money to run the museum, it should try •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• fundraising or asking for donations at the door. It could even ask some

w ww

m . u

volunteers to work there. There must be better ways of making money than forcing the public to pay. Everyone in our community should avoid going to the museum if the council starts charging to get in. This will give the council members a loud and clear message that they are being unfair and thoughtless.

. te Yours sincerely Fiona Vicary

PRIMARY WRITING

o c . che e r o t r s super

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67


Examining exposition

2 

Use the exposition on page 67 to complete the page. 1. Title

Write a new title for this exposition that tells us more about the writer’s point of view. 2. Introduction

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

(a) What information does the introduction to this exposition give us?

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

3. Arguments

(a) Which do you think is the strongest argument?

(b) Which do you think is the weakest argument?

© R. I . C.Pu l i at i o nyour s choice. Gb ive ac reason for •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

m . u

Give a reason for your choice.

. te

o c . che e r o Expositions often use words that describe strong emotions. Write t r s s r u e p two examples found in the conclusion.

4. Conclusion

(a)

(b) Would you do as the writer asks in the conclusion? Explain why/why not. 68 

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Exposition plan 2  1. Plan an exposition about a proposed price rise for something you enjoy. Title

Introduction

Arguments

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

State what the problem is and your point of view about it.

List each argument you will use, giving the strongest one first.

w ww

. te

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

Conclusion

End by restating your point of view.

2. Write your exposition. PRIMARY WRITING

3. Edit your work. R.I.C. Publications

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69


3 

Expositions

TEACHERS NOTES

Structural and language features are shown on the left and right of the text below.

Title

A dark and dull night

Introduction –

• a variety of controlling and emotive words; e.g. eagerly, should

Many theatregoers in this city had been eagerly looking forward to seeing Jacob Golding’s famous play, Moonless night, at the Rose Theatre. I was among them. But it could hardly have been a more boring night out. Don’t waste your hard-earned money buying a ticket to see it.

one or more sentences that state the problem and the writer’s position

Arguments – presented in logical manner with supporting details, usually from strongest to weakest

Director Todd Cunningham should have chosen two strong actors to play the lead roles. But instead, both women were softly-spoken and mumbled their words. It was almost impossible at times to understand either of them, which was extremely frustrating. Members of the audience who didn’t know the plot very well must have found the storyline completely puzzling.

Teac he r

The set and props in the play were white, which was effective. But unfortunately, the actors’ costumes were also white, so they seemed to disappear on stage. Why would such a terrible decision have been made? It would have been much better to have used colourful or black costumes. Finally, the use of the enormous stage space was appalling. The actors barely moved throughout the entire play. If they had got up out of their chairs at least a few times, the play would have been much more interesting.

Conclusion –

restates the writer’s position

I think poor Jacob Golding would have been devastated by this shocking performance of his wonderful script. There was very little that was enjoyable. I wouldn’t be surprised if the play closes after the first week.

• a variety of conjunctions; e.g. so, or, If.

ew i ev Pr

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

• paragraphs used to state and elaborate on each point

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Teacher information

Answers

• Expositions argue for a particular position and attempt to persuade an audience to share this view. This particular exposition is in the form of a critical review.

Page 72

• Identify the structural and language features indicated above before the students complete the analysis on page 72.

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2. Not attend the play 3. (a) (i) The actors were softly-spoken and mumbled their words, making the play difficult to follow.

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• Members of the class could take turns to read this text aloud or the students could read it independently. A class discussion could then be held about what other aspects of a performance a critic could comment on.

1. Teacher check

(ii) The actors were dressed in white – the same colour as the set and props – so the actors seemed to disappear.

(iii) The use of space was appalling – the actors barely moved. They should have got up from their chairs.

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• Model the planning and writing of an exposition using the framework on page 73. The students can then follow this example to plan and write their expositions.

• Students could use their expositions as debating speeches. A full debate could then be presented to other classes. (Context/Purpose/Audience)

(b) Answers will vary

4. poor Jacob Golding, devastated, shocking performance, very little that was enjoyable

• Have each student compare his/her exposition to that of another student who held the opposite point of view. (Context)

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PRIMARY WRITING


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Exposition

A dark and dull night

Many theatregoers in this city had been eagerly looking forward to seeing Jacob Golding’s famous play, Moonless night, at the Rose Theatre. I was among them. But it could hardly have been a more boring night out. Don’t waste your hard-earned money buying a ticket to see it.

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Director Todd Cunningham should have chosen two strong actors to play the lead roles. But instead, both women were softly-spoken and mumbled their words. It was almost impossible at times to understand either of them, which was extremely frustrating. Members of the audience who didn’t know the plot very well must have found the storyline completely puzzling. The set and props in the play were white, which was effective. But unfortunately, the actors’ costumes were also white, so they seemed to disappear on stage. Why would such a terrible decision have been made? It would have been much better to have used colourful or black costumes.

o c . che e r o t r s sup er Finally, the use of the enormous stage space was appalling. The actors barely moved throughout the entire play. If they had got up out of their chairs at least a few times, the play would have been much more interesting. I think poor Jacob Golding would have been devastated by this shocking performance of his wonderful script. There was very little that was enjoyable. I wouldn’t be surprised if the play closes after the first week.

PRIMARY WRITING

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Examining exposition

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Use the exposition on page 71 to complete the page. 1. Title

Give your opinion on the title. Suggest a different one.

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3. Arguments

(a) In the writer’s opinion, what were the problems?

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2. Introduction

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(b) Which of these arguments do you think was the strongest? Why?

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4. Conclusion

List the emotive words or phrases the writer uses in the conclusion to persuade you to agree with his/her point of view. 72 

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PRIMARY WRITING


Exposition plan 3  1. Plan an exposition that gives your point of view on the following topic: ‘Which is better: watching a movie or reading a book?’ Title

Introduction

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Arguments

List your arguments starting with the strongest one.

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State the issue and your point of view.

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Conclusion

End by restating your point of view.

2. Write your exposition. PRIMARY WRITING

3. Edit your work. R.I.C. Publications

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Primary Writing: Book D - Ages 8-9