Issuu on Google+

RIC-1134 5.5/640


Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

w ww

. te

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super


Foreword Society and Environment will help to increase the students’ knowledge and understanding about their local community and environment and provide them with opportunities to compare their situation to that of others. The seven workbooks in the series look mainly at Australia—its people, its heritage, its political and legal systems and its place in the world.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Each workbook is accompanied by a comprehensive Teachers Guide designed to provide a structured resource for the teacher. The Teachers Guide provides teachers with clear guidelines as to the outcomes being covered, answers, assessment, discussion and background information to support the workbook where necessary. The information provided within this Teachers Guide will assist teachers in their planning, programming and assessment. Each topic provides teachers with a number of opportunities to focus on various aspects of literacy.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

The aim of the workbook is to assist students to better understand the community they live in and to make sound decisions about local, national and worldwide issues.

This program was devised to offer students and teachers alike the opportunity to develop a wide range of language, discussion and group-working skills that will complement all learning areas in the school curriculum.

Contents

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Outcomes and Indicators Society and Environment G..................... ii – v •f orr evi ewandp ur p othes es.......................................... onl y• vi Society Environment and Teacher Resources .......................................................................................... vii How to use Society and Environment ................................................ viii

w ww

. te

m . u

Society and Environment Workbook .................................................... ix Society and Environment Teachers Guide ............................................. x Assessment/Evaluation ....................................................................... xi

o c . che e r o t r s super

Students with Special Needs ............................................................. xii Blank Map—The World .................................................................... xiii Blank Map—Australia....................................................................... xiv Blank Map—Western Australia ......................................................... xv Flags of Australia ..................................................................... xvi – xvii Blank Semantic Web ........................................................................ xviii Group Discussion Recording Sheet ................................................... xix Further Research Recording Sheet ..................................................... xx Democracy in Australia ............................................................... 1 – 18 Australia and the World ............................................................ 19 – 36 The Daintree ............................................................................. 37 – 60 Bali............................................................................................ 61 – 86

Teachers Notes

i

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


Outcomes and Indicators Society and Environment G Democracy in Australia Democracy in Australia takes students on a learning journey from the origins of democratic government through to the development of democracy in Australia. Students will gain an understanding of democratic processes and the international and national figures who have made major contributions to democracy. Students will understand of what it means to live in a democratic country and the rights and responsibilities of being an Australian citizen.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Workbook Teachers Guide Pages Pages

Early Democracy Democracy in Australia The Events that Led to Federation Key Figures in the Development of Democracy Australian Citizenship

2–4 5–9 10 – 15 16 – 19 20 – 22

3–4 5–7 7 – 10 11 – 13 13 – 14

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Topic

Time, Continuity and Change ©R . I . C . P u bl i cat i ons TCC4.1 The student understands that there is a sequence and order to the significant events, people and ideas of the past and these can be •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• related within particular time periods.

TCC4.2

m . u

w ww

. te

• select information from a range of sources to describe a particular event in Australian history • make a time line to show given periods in the history of Australia before and after European colonisation • sequence some events which led to the federation of the Australian colonies in 1901

The student understands that change at a particular time reflects the beliefs of individuals and groups within societies at that time.

o c . che e r o t r s super

• describe the achievements of a person who championed human rights

Natural and Social Systems NSS4.2 The student understands that rules and laws result from decisions about rights and responsibilities. • describe how the purpose of law-making is to protect people and their property • describe the ways a student representative group in their school operates and makes decisions • describe the different levels of government as they affect everyday life • describe decision-making processes at the local government level • describe the structure and function of the Parliament of Western Australia

NSS4.3

The student understands that people make decisions about the production, distribution and exchange of goods and services to satisfy needs and wants. • describe and explain some services provided by the government and how they are paid for

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

ii

Teachers Notes


Outcomes and Indicators Society and Environment G Australia and the World develops the understanding that the world is a global community and studies Australia’s role within this community and how it interacts with the rest of the world. Students study the role of imports and exports throughout Australia’s history, their importance and the value placed on them by Australians and the rest of the world. The unit also provides students with an insight as to where people tend to travel throughout the world and why.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Topic

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Australia and the World

Workbook Teachers Guide Pages Pages

© R. I . CGlobal .P ubl i cat i ons24 – 27 The Village An Australian Export Industry 28 – 32 •f orr evi e w p u r p o s e s o n y Overseas Travel 33l – 35 •

w ww

. te

36 – 37 38 – 39 40 – 42

m . u

Australian Made? Global Communications Global Organisations

21 – 22 22 – 25 26 – 28 28 – 29 29 – 30 31 – 32

Resources R4.1 The student understands that people make decisions about efficient resource use to increase their ability to satisfy needs and wants.

o c . che e r o t r s super

• identify the types of manufactured resources and products made in Australia • identify examples of how technology impacts, or has in the past impacted, on the way resources are used • identify examples of how different countries around the world use and develop resources

R4.2

The student understands that people make decisions in order to be efficient and enterprising in their use of resources. • identify sources of information needed to make a decision in an enterprise • make recommendations on how consumers might use information in making decisions • discuss how the present use of non-renewable resources might limit future choices

Teachers Notes

iii

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


Outcomes and Indicators Society and Environment G The Daintree The Daintree provides students with the opportunity to investigate a rainforest environment in Australia and compare it to a rainforest environment in South America. Students are also able to develop an understanding of the nature of the biology of this precious ecosystem, its plants and animals and the people who once solely relied on the rainforest as their home. It is hoped that students will gain an awareness of the importance of rainforests, the impact humans have on them, and the part rainforests play on a global scale.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S What is a Rainforest? Parts of a Rainforest The Daintree—Part 1 The Daintree—Part 2 The Amazon Rainforest Animals of the Rainforest Plants of the Rainforest Rainforest Aboriginal People Human Impact

Workbook Teachers Guide Pages Pages 44 – 46 39 – 41 47 – 49 41 – 43 50 – 51 43 – 45 52 – 53 45 – 47 54 – 56 48 – 50 57 – 61 50 – 52 62 – 64 52 – 53 65 – 66 54 – 55 67 – 68 55 – 57

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Topic

Place and Space ©R . I . CThe .P ub l i cathat t i o nsin the natural and built PS4.1 student understands similarities features in different places give rise to patterns. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

• locate places with similar climates, landforms or vegetation and draw generalisations to describe their location • locate places using latitude and longitude in order to describe associations

w ww

. te

The student understands that people act to sustain the environment according to their values.

m . u

PS4.3

• describe the various positions individuals and groups hold on an issue related to changing the use of a place • describe the various positions individuals and groups hold on an issue related to impacts of people’s actions on plants and animals in a place • profile a group that acts to sustain the environment

o c . che e r o t r s super

Resources R4.2 The student understands that people make decisions in order to be efficient and enterprising in their use of resources. • describe ways in which information can assist in the decision-making process • discuss how the present use of non-renewable resources might limit future choices

Time, Continuity and Change TCC4.3 The student understands that people develop a perspective on a particular issue or event according to their beliefs and heritage. • justify an opinion either protesting against or supporting a particular issue

Natural and Social Systems NSS4.1 The student understands that different elements respond and attempt to adapt to changes in natural systems. • describe responses of plants, animals and people to changes in a natural system • identify examples of areas where a natural system has adapted or failed to adapt to changing conditions • describe different viewpoints of groups and individuals about people changing a natural system R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

iv

Teachers Notes


Outcomes and Indicators Society and Environment G Bali Bali provides students with the opportunity to develop an understanding of traditional Balinese culture and how it has changed because of interactions between different cultures. Students will locate Bali and its neighbours on a map; be provided with a brief overview of what Bali is like geographically; learn about the various aspects of Balinese culture, food, lifestyle and housing; and gain an awareness of Balinese events, festivals and tourist attractions.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Where is Bali? What is Bali like? Balinese Culture – Then and Now—1 Balinese Culture – Then and Now—2 Balinese Culture – Then and Now—3 Food Village Life Traditional Housing Events and Festivals Tourism

Workbook Teachers Guide Pages Pages 70 – 71 63 – 65 72 – 74 65 – 67 75 – 77 67 – 69 78 – 79 69 – 71 80 – 82 71 – 73 83 – 85 74 – 75 86 – 88 76 – 78 89 – 91 78 – 79 92 – 93 80 – 81 94 – 96 81 – 83

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Topic

Place and Space © R. I . C.P ubl i cat i ons PS4.2 The student understands that people and places are interdependent. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• • describe how irrigation technology influences how places are used • describe how different farming types are examples of interdependence

Resources R4.1 The student understands that people make decisions about efficient resource use to increase their ability to satisfy needs and wants.

Culture C4.1

m . u

w ww

. te

• identify examples of how different countries around the world use and develop resources

The student understands that beliefs and traditions influence the nature of cultures.

o c . che e r o t r s super

• recognise that family/kinship ties are consistent themes in cultures

C4.2

The student understands that groups in communities have a social organisation that reflects particular beliefs.

• describe the respective roles of men and women in a particular culture

C4.3

The student understands that cultures exert an influence on people’s identities and their roles, rights and responsibilities as members of cultural groups. • describe the importance of customs and traditions to people who observe them • describe ways in which responsibilities may be shared in a cultural group • identify and discuss ways in which cultural events may serve to maintain practices and beliefs about roles, rights and responsibilities of the individual

Time, Continuity and Change TCC4.3 The student understands that people develop a perspective on a particular issue or event according to their beliefs and heritage. • justify an opinion either protesting against or supporting a particular issue Teachers Notes

v

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


Society and Environment and the Teacher

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

The learning area of Society and Environment encourages students to develop an understanding of how groups and individuals live together and interact with their environment. Through this learning area, students understand and develop a respect for cultural heritage, social justice, democratic processes and the sustainability of their environment.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

The main goal of Society and Environment is to take students on a journey to various parts of Australia, its history, and other parts of the world—and then bring them back to their own community within Western Australia to compare and evaluate life within it. Regardless of where students live within Australia, they will all benefit from, and see relevance to themselves in, the activities within the Student Workbook. Students are constantly being asked to think about Australian and world issues in relation to their own community in order to develop their own reasoned views.

The Society and Environment workbooks encourage the students to: • study the interaction between people and their environment • make sense of these interactions and develop values aimed at improving these relationships for the future • study local, regional, national and global issues and develop an understanding of their importance • develop and extend their knowledge of those issues which are relevant to themselves • make judgments on moral and ethical issues using their understanding of democratic processes, social justice and the sustainability of their environment • use various strategies to make sense of the way the world is changing • make reasoned and informed decisions as active citizens in their community • manage their own actions based on the skills and understandings attained in this learning area Success in teaching Society and Environment depends on using a varied approach. Students may work independently, in small groups or as a whole class, depending on the situation or task involved. Flexibility is the key to encouraging students to find the mode of working which best suits them.

w ww

. te

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

Discussion is used on a regular basis throughout the program to encourage critical thinking and to provide students with the opportunity to share, listen and evaluate their own thinking and that of others. The teacher’s role in the discussion situations is that of facilitator; it is important that students are allowed the opportunity to share their own views and ideas without being judged. Questioning should be used to encourage students to search for alternatives before making a final decision in relation to a topic or situation. Grouping students helps them to get to know one another and develops an understanding of the importance of being able to work cooperatively with others to achieve a common goal. Shy students are more likely to express themselves in small groups, where they may be intimidated by a whole-class situation. Groups should be changed regularly, rather than having them set for each Society and Environment lesson.

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

vi

Teachers Notes


Resources Providing teachers with a comprehensive guide to each unit, including: •Unit focus •Unit topics •Outcomes and indicators •Focus for each topic •Keywords for each topic •Resources required for each topic •Background information for each topic •Introductory discussion for each topic •Suggested activity outlines •Clear and concise answers •Additional activities for each topic •Further topics for discussion and debate

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

The Teachers Guide

The Student Workbook

Providing students and teachers with: •a range of activities catering for different learning styles and teaching methodologies •sample studies •opportunities to relate activities to local environments and communities •a mix of contemporary and traditional content •a comprehensive range of topic areas •opportunities to develop a wide range of skills

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Additional Resources

Teachers Notes

m . u

w ww

. te

Any successful Society and Environment program draws on a range of resources to provide variety and the opportunity to use and develop skills in a wide range of areas. It is recommended that students use various sources to support their work within the Society and Environment workbook. Some of these additional resources include: •a world globe •a world map •a large map of Australia •the Internet—this resource is extremely fluid and sites were active at the time of publication. Specific sites were generally not included in the workbooks because of this limitation. Recommended sites listed within the Teachers Guide have been organised into those suitable for teachers and those suitable for students, according to the level of language used within the site and its presentation. •the school and local libraries •each other, parents, grandparents •organisations which specialise in the area being studied •local and State newspapers and magazines •video documentaries where appropriate • people from the local community

o c . che e r o t r s super

vii

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


How to Use Society and Environment 1. Select the unit you wish to teach. Each workbook contains four units—one for each term of the school year. They can be taught from the first unit in sequential order to the last unit, or you can move throughout the book in an order that suits what is happening in your classroom/community/local environment. 2. Read the complete unit. It is important to read the entire unit before dealing with it in class to avoid any surprises and to ensure you have an understanding of where the unit is heading. This allows you to be prepared with resources, to organise any incursions or excursions which may support the unit, and to ensure a collection of adequate resources is gathered within the classroom to enhance learning in that area. Each unit is broken into discrete topics. These topics may run over one or more lessons, depending on your students, the topic or the amount of work that needs to be covered. It is left to the teacher’s discretion to ensure adequate coverage of the topic is attained.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

3. Develop a plan.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

4. Encourage discussion.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Develop an interest in •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• further research.

w ww

. te

6. Provide opportunities for students to share their knowledge.

The information provided within each workbook has been thoroughly researched. Certain topics lend themselves to further research, as the topic is so large that not all information could possibly be included in a workbook for students. Students should be encouraged to research topics of personal interest. Developing skills in this area encourages independent learning which is critical in any student’s education journey.

m . u

5.

Each topic within Society and Environment relies on class or group discussion. This is a key feature for developing oral skills. Students are given the opportunity to clarify their thinking, express their views, listen to others and discuss or debate the topic or issue at hand. This technique is instrumental in students developing maturity and a level of understanding that will prepare them for the real world.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Students are often a rich source of knowledge in our multicultural society. Students are able to source information from relatives and friends and provide a valuable resource for others in their class. Students who have taken the time to further research topics of personal interest should also be encouraged to share their knowledge. This shows students you value their independent learning and gives meaning to their additional study.

7. Use your community. The community has a great deal of resources to offer the primary Society and Environment learning area—after all, that is what it is all about. Inviting community members and organisations into your classroom to impart knowledge to students adds an extra dimension to their learning, making it ‘real’ and—most importantly— giving you a break from having to ‘know everything’.

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

viii

Teachers Notes


Society and Environment Workbook The Unit Topic begins with a unit title. This can be used to lead the students into the introductory discussion found in the Teachers Guide.

The Daintree—Part 1 Lesson Focus:

You will learn about the Daintree Rainforest and what makes it so unique.

Keywords:

continents, theory, species, hectares, scientific,

Gondwana Africa

India South America Antarctica Australia

The southern boundary of the Daintree is the Daintree River. The eastern boundary is the Great Barrier Reef, a heritage-listed area—where the forest meets the sea. The northern boundary of the Daintree is the Bloomfield River, approximately 70 km north of the Daintree River. The Daintree contains significant areas which are rare in any other parts of the world. Some of these areas include: • mangrove swamps; • sclerophyll forests; • woodlands; and

IN THE BEGINNING, Australia was part of a huge landmass called ‘Gondwana’. The continents as we know them today did not exist—they were all part of this giant landmass. Gondwana began to separate into the present continents about 120 million years ago. This process took millions of years, with Australia settling into its final form and position between 40 and 50 million years ago. Scientists can support this theory because they have found many plant fossils of the same species and same time period throughout Africa, South America, Antarctica, Australia and India.

Daintree National Park

Daintree

Port Douglas

N

Cairns

Innisfail

Tully

QUEENSLAND

Townsville

Teac he r

R.I.C. Publications

50

Assisting weaker readers with this text is recommended to ensure their understanding is clear or they will struggle to complete the activities accurately. Teachers may also use the strategy of searching for keywords and phrases to further encourage students to read the text over again. These keywords and phrases help to clarify the information for the students and make the task of completing the activities easier.

ew i ev Pr

The Daintree, even though it only represents 0.1% of Australia, consists of many rare species of plants and animals. It is estimated that there are 390 species of plants which are regarded as rare or restricted to the area, while there are at least 25 species of animals in the area considered to be rare. Many species in the Daintree originated when Australia was still part of Gondwana. It is believed that this rainforest area is an almost complete record of the major stages of plant evolution on earth. Biologists consider it to be a living museum, containing more primitive plant groups than any other rainforest in the world.

Special scientific dating processes estimate the Daintree to be about 110 million years old, making it one of the oldest living rainforests in the world. Botanists have found flowering plants which are thought to be 100 million years old and existed around the time of the dinosaurs. Because Australia was reasonably stable during the evolution of flowering plants, these forests existed undisturbed for millions of years.

Text, tables and artwork provide students with a concise source of information related to the topic. Students may need to read through the information provided several times to ensure they have a clear understanding of what they are reading and to assimilate the information before tackling the supporting activities.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S • swamps.

botanist, heritage, restricted Cooktown

Australia is thought to have been covered in rainforest. Yes, covered! Even central Australia. Due to climate changes, the area of rainforest has been reduced and today only survives in limited areas of Australia. One of these areas is the Daintree, found in an area known as the Wet Tropics. It lies in north Queensland between Townsville and Cooktown and covers an area of approximately 894 000 hectares.

The Lesson Focus and Keywords provide students with a basic overview of what they will be learning about in this topic and give them the opportunity to find the meaning of any difficult words before they begin.

The Daintree

Various types of activities have been provided for the students to draw information from the text. They include: • three levels of questioning • retrieval charts; brainstorming; explosion charts • local area comparative studies • semantic grids • flags • flow diagrams; ordering • matrixes • cloze passages • tables; reading graphs • profiles • time lines • mapping; longitude/latitude • reports • cause/effect; fact/opinion • keywords/key facts

w ww

. te

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

Each unit topic is finished off with Topics for Discussion/Debate. These statements, questions or sentence starters are designed to encourage students to develop their own thoughts and ideas and share them with the class or in small groups. This technique develops oral language and critical thinking skills.

The unit topics also have Additional Activities provided. These are only suggestions and have been designed to link the students’ newfound knowledge across the learning areas. Search Engine Keywords have been included to assist the students with any further research they wish to undertake using the Internet.

Teachers Notes

ix

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


Society and Environment Teachers Guide Each Unit begins with an introductory page providing teachers with: • an overview of what students will be learning in the unit; • the topics which have been selected to develop understanding in the unit; and

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

The Unit is then broken down topic by topic, with each topic providing the teacher with: • the corresponding workbook pages;

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

• the outcomes and indicators being treated through the study of the unit.

• the focus of the topic;

• the keywords being introduced within the topic;

• resource requirements for successful completion of the topic, including relevant Internet sites listed separately for the teacher and student; • background information for the teacher on areas which may appeal to students, require clarification or possibly lead to misunderstanding;

© R. I . .Pquestions ubl i t i on s to lead the students •C suggested forc ana introductory discussion into thinking about the topic; •f orr evi e wguidelines, pur posuggestions seso nl •the class for • activity offering on how toy organise the particular lesson or activity; • suggested additional activities; and

w ww

. te

m . u

• clear and concise answers for each activity; • suggested topics for discussion and debate.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Each Unit then concludes with an assessment tool (see following page) which has been designed to indicate broad student understanding and also provide opportunity for student feedback. It is recommended that students work through the assessment independently where possible to provide feedback to the teacher of where understanding has taken place or where the student needs further development.

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

x

Teachers Notes


Assessment/Evaluation Assessment and evaluation is an ongoing process conducted in a variety of ways by the teacher or a support person within the classroom. Teachers generally evaluate students based on: • observations—noting any key learning milestones; • anecdotal—keeping general notes on student behaviour, skills, techniques, strengths and weaknesses; • evaluation of written work—collating and marking students’ work;

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

• evaluation of oral work—recording students’ skills and techniques in this area; and

Assessment and evaluation techniques may vary from student to student depending on their individual abilities, strengths and weaknesses. For example, you would not expect a student who is working at a reduced level to achieve the same results with the activities in the workbook as a student who is working at his/her optimum level or above.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

• evaluation of activities designed as assessment tools and provided in the Teachers Guide.

Through assessment of each student’s individual work practices, teachers are able to gauge which students require extension and which require remediation. Assistance can then be given to those students where necessary to ensure they are developing to their full potential.

Because allP students work att their own ability level, assessment of their © R. I . C. ubwilll i c a i o ns understandings should not consist solely of one piece of work. Ite is envisaged teachers will assess regularly on their day-to-day •f orr evi w pthat ur po s esstudents onl y•

w ww

. te

Teachers Notes

m . u

performance, as well as using the assessment tool provided at the end of each unit of work in the Teachers Guide. The assessment tool used on its own will not be an accurate representation of the student’s ability or understanding of the unit and should be used only in conjunction with the term’s work.

The assessment tool provided at the end of each unit in the Teachers Guide as shown on this page is supported with a proforma which can be copied for each student and attached to his or her portfolio assessment. It provides the Outcomes covered over the unit and room for the teacher to comment on the various aspects involved in the Society and Environment workbook program.

o c . che e r o t r s super

xi

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


Students with Special Needs All students will work at different rates at different ability levels—which should be taken into consideration when planning a unit of work from the Society and Environment workbook. It is important to remember that we are assessing students’ skills, knowledge and understanding in this area, not their ability to read and write. Society and Environment is the study of people as social beings, as they have existed and interacted with each other and the environment, in time and in place. Therefore, students who have particular difficulty with literacy should not be disadvantaged in this learning area.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

It is crucial that the teacher takes the time to develop a rapport with the student— develop a relationship in which the student feels comfortable with the expected tasks. Those students who need additional assistance could be given the unit to read through prior the lesson, so when they come into the lesson they already have a headstart on the rest of the class.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Remediation

Providing students with the opportunity to read and reread the text as often as they feel comfortable with prior to the lesson offers them one strategy to familiarise themselves with the text. Encourage students to look for keywords and phrases and to use any maps, tables or diagrams to help them develop meaning from the text.

Encourage students to then reada through then questions ©R . I . Cthe. Pub l i c t i o s and work out where they might find the answers, without actually completing the activities. After this work, the o students will come thel lesson armed with the •f orr e vi eintroductory w pu r p se s oton y•

w ww Extension

. te

m . u

resources and confidence they need to complete the activity along with the rest of the class. Their confidence will grow as they feel they are keeping up with everyone else and their time won’t be wasted during the lesson.

Teachers can also assist students by establishing a language-rich environment where print is presented in natural and meaningful contexts. Depending upon the unit topic for the term, classroom displays could reflect the information students may require.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Those students who find the activities in the workbook too easy can be extended through various additional activities. Students can be encouraged to research the topic further through the use of the Internet, library, newspapers, or by contacting specific organisations and sourcing local information. Students can be responsible for gathering resources to provide the class with additional topic material. Displays can be created to benefit the entire class. A group of students can also be made responsible for assisting the teacher when organising guest speakers or when on excursions to various facilities in the local area.

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

xii

Teachers Notes


Teac he r

The World

ew i ev Pr

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

w ww

. te

Teachers Notes

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

xiii

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


Teac he r

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

. te

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

m . u

Australia

ew i ev Pr

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

o c . che e r o t r s super

xiv

Teachers Notes


r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Western Australia

w ww

. te

Teachers Notes

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

xv

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Australian flag

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Flags of Australia

w ww

. te

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Aboriginal flag

o c . che e r o t r s super

Torres Strait Islander flag R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

xvi

Teachers Notes


Flags of Australia

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

New South Wales

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

South Australia

w ww

. te

m . u

Northern Territory © R. I . C. Publ i cat i ons Western Australia •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super Tasmania

Queensland

Victoria Teachers Notes

xvii

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


Teac he r

. te

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

Semantic Web (Brainstorming)

ew i ev Pr

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

o c . che e r o t r s super

xviii

Teachers Notes


Group Discussion HOW

Group Members:

TO

KEEP

THE

PEACE

1. Take any disputes to the Mediator. 2. Each person must take a turn to express an opinion, WITHOUT INTERRUPTION, to the Mediator.

ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES

3. Remember, don’t interrupt the person expressing a point of view.

Group Leader:

r o e t s Bo r Mediator (peacekeeper): e p o u k Reporter: S Researcher(s): Scribe:

Teac he r

4. The Mediator must listen carefully to each person. Ask questions if something is unclear.

ew i ev Pr

5. Allow each person to ask the speaker questions to clarify anything that is not understood. 6. Ask each person what information he/she has to back up his/her opinion.

DISCUSSION/DEBATE TOPIC

7. Sometimes we have to agree to disagree. Not everyone has to agree on everything.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

8. Remember to respect that we all have different ideas— and because someone else’s idea is different from ours, doesn’t necessarily mean his/ her idea is wrong.

• • •

w ww

. te

OUR FINDINGS

Teachers Notes

m . u

OUR PLAN

o c . che e r o t r s super

xix

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


Further Research TOPIC

Where I will get my resources

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

RESOURCES I will use

NOTES

w ww

. te

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . Information should be presented chein a clear and e r easy-to-follow format. See the example. o t r s super Heading • You are now ready to present your information.

Clear paragraphs, each with its own idea • Introduction and conclusion • Accurate facts •

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

xx

Teachers Notes


Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

w ww

. te

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super


Democracy in Australia Unit Focus Democracy in Australia takes students on a learning journey from the origins of democratic government through to the development of democracy in Australia. Students will gain an understanding of democratic processes and the international and national figures who have made major contributions to democracy. Students will understand what it means to live in a democratic country and the rights and responsibilities of being an Australian citizen. Unit Topics

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

• Early Democracy .................................................................... 2 – 4 • Democracy in Australia .......................................................... 5 – 9 • The Events that Led to Federation ...................................... 10 – 15 • Key Figures in the Development of Democracy .................. 16 – 19 • Australian Citizenship ......................................................... 20 – 22

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

The topics selected to develop this understanding are:

Outcomes and Indicators

Time, Continuity and Change TCC4.1 The student understands that there is a sequence and order to the significant events, people and ideas of the past and these can be related within particular time periods. • select information from a range of sources to describe a particular event in Australian history • make a time line to show given periods in the history of Australia before and after European colonisation • sequence some events which led to the federation of the Australian colonies in 1901

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr e vi ew pur posesonl y• TCC4.2 The student understands that change at a particular time reflects the beliefs of individuals and groups within societies at that time. • describe the achievements of a person who championed human rights

m . u

w ww

. te

Natural and Social Systems NSS4.2 The student understands that rules and laws result from decisions about rights and responsibilities. • describe how the purpose of law-making is to protect people and their property • describe the ways a student representative group in their school operates and makes decisions • describe the different levels of government as they affect everyday life • describe decision-making processes at the local government level • describe the structure and function of the Parliament of Western Australia

o c . che e r o t r s super NSS4.3

The student understands that people make decisions about the production, distribution and exchange of goods and services to satisfy needs and wants. • describe and explain some services provided by the government and how they are paid for

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

2

Democracy in Australia


Early Democracy Workbook Pages: 2 – 4 Topic Focus Students will develop an understanding of the development of democracy as a government form through history. Keywords citizen, democracy, assembly, accused, verdict, council, elected, lottery

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S • dictionaries • The following websites are recommended: Teacher Greek Democracy

http://www-adm.pdx.edu/user/sinq/greekciv2/politics/jamie/jamie.html

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Resources

World-Wide Web Virtual Library History Index: Ancient Greeks (extremely comprehensive links) http://www.westernculture.com/ancientgreeks.html

Students Daily Life in Ancient Greece

http://members.aol.com/Donnclass/Greeklife.html

Ancient Greece Resources for 6th Grade Social Studies (USA school site— many links)

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Background •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• This topic provides students with a brief overview of the origins of democracy. http://www.dalton.org/groups/Greece/#hist

Students are also treated to an insight of what life was like for the people of the time.

Democracy in Australia

m . u

w ww

. te

Democracy: 1. a way of governing a country, in which you elect people to form a government on your behalf; 2. a country with such a government; 3. the idea that everyone in a country has equal rights. Democracy can vary from one country to another, but it generally works on some basic principles: • Free elections – giving people the opportunity to choose those they think will do the best job of leading the country. • Majority rule and minority rights – decisions must be approved by the majority of the people before they can take effect in the community. Governments also recognise that in a majority vote, the minority are at risk of losing basic freedoms such as speech, media, assembly and religious worship. • Political parties – having more than one party creates rivalry and provides people with choices of candidates who generally represent different ideals and points of view. • Controls on power – democracies provide for systems to be in place to prevent any one person or group in government from becoming too powerful. Power is divided among local, State and federal governments to ensure any one of these groups does not become too powerful. • Constitutional government – a constitution outlines the laws and states the powers and duties of the government, limiting what the government can do.

o c . che e r o t r s super

3

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


• Private organisations – individuals and organisations are able to carry on many social and economic activities free of government control. Introductory Discussion What is meant by democracy? Is Australia a democratic country? How do you know this? Has Australia always been a democratic country?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

It is best for students to read through the questions on page 3 before reading the text. Asking students to read through the questions, alerts them about the information they need to find in the text. Once students have read the questions, read the text and ask students to highlight any words or phrases they do not understand. As a group, ensure that all words and phrases are clarified before the students go any further. Students can then work through the activity. Answers 1. Answers will vary 2. Someone whose parents were both Athenian citizens.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Activity – Page 3

3. Because women weren’t included, nor foreigners, slaves or freed slaves. 4. Answers will vary

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 5. Advantages: – Members of the Assembly could vote out politicians once a year. – Assembly was held every nine days. – The whole of the Assembly could have their say and vote on issues. – Poor citizens were paid a day’s wage to attend the Assembly.

m . u

Disadvantages: – Women, foreigners, slaves and freed slaves were not included. – Minimum of 6 000 citizens to be present before an Assembly meeting could begin.

w ww

Activity – Page 4

. te

Read the text at the top of page 4 to the students. Set the mood. Ask the students to close their eyes while you are reading to them so they can imagine they are in Athens.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Ask students to form groups to discuss the lives of Tacisto and Agaqameria in Athens. Would they rather be a male or female in Athens? Ask students to explain their answer. Students can then complete the diary entry in the space provided on page 4.

Additional Activities

1. Role play the Greek system of government to introduce a new class rule. 2. Compare and contrast the roles of men and women in today’s society with those of men and women in Athens. Discussion/Debate Discuss the practicality of everyone being able to have a say when 6 000 people attend the Assembly to pass laws.

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

4

Democracy in Australia


Democracy in Australia Pages 5 – 9 Topic Focus Students will learn about the development of democracy in Australia and the various aspects that are involved. Keywords constitution, referendum, colonies, preamble, immigration, criteria

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S • dictionaries • The following websites are recommended: Teacher The Australian Constitution

http://www.aph.gov.au/senate/general/constitution/

Australia’s Immigration History

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Resources

http://www.cowan.edu.au/ses/commserv/cware/hsa2101/content/guide/ module_02_02.html

Australia’s Legal System

http://law.gov.au/auslegalsys/auslegalsys.htm

Students The Australian Constitution—Beginners Guide

© R. I . C Pu bl i ca i ons The. History of Immigration to t Australia Chinese on the •f orr evi e wp uDiggings r posesonl y• http://www.statusquo.org/Story.html

http://www.ozramp.net.au/~senani/peoplehi.htm

http://www.sovereignhill.austasia.net/education/chinese.htm

The Goldfields Experience: The Chinese (school website)

m . u

http://www.heathcoteps.vic.edu.au/goldfields/info/chinese.htm

w ww

Background

. te

When the colonies voted to come together as a new country under one flag, it was inevitable they would choose to adopt the British system of government. A constitution was adopted which defined the roles and powers of the State and federal governments.

o c . che e r o t r s super

The Constitution: • defines the powers of federal Parliament. • sets out the rules for electing members of the Senate and House of Representatives. • gives specific areas of responsibility to the federal Parliament. • forbids the States and Territories to do certain things. • contains provisions on finance and trade. • outlines the powers of the high court and its judges. • sets out rules that govern setting up new States. • sets out rules as to how to make alterations to the Constitution itself.

Introductory Discussion Ascertain from students what they know about the Constitution and its relationship to democracy within Australia. Democracy in Australia

5

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


What makes up the ‘Constitution of Australia’? Activity – Page 5 The main aim of this activity is to encourage students to give their own opinions. This may require guidance from the teacher as to the best way students can express their views. Students need to: 1. Clearly state their point of view.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

2. Support their point of view, showing they have considered both the positive and negative aspects.

Answers

1. A public vote taken on a question of government or law. 2. Current year subtract 1901 3. Answers will vary

Activity – Pages 6 – 9

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

This expectation may need to be discussed with the students before they begin to complete the activity to ensure it is completed in a meaningful way.

It is important students are aware that people from certain countries were not always well-accepted into Australia. Reading the text on pages 6 and 7 will give students an overview of the development of Australia’s immigration policy over time.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons The different text forms provided give the students factual information from a •f orr e vi e wp r p osetos on l y •of writing to variety of sources. It isu a good opportunity examine these pieces

m . u

w ww

. te

point out how each text is constructed. For example, the sentences used in the time line are brief and to the point, while the text in the newspaper extract incorporates more descriptive language to make the reader feel empathy for the situation. Bullet points are used to summarise information more clearly, while paragraphs are used to express new ideas and information. Ask students to read through the text, perhaps in three groups: one group reading the text on page 6, another group reading the time line and the last group reading the newspaper article. Each group can then be responsible for reporting back to the whole class the information gleaned from the text.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Ask the students to then read through the questions. Ask them to think about where they may find the answer to each question. Students can then read the text provided on pages 6 and 7 and highlight the parts that will help them answer the questions on pages 8 and 9. Ask students to complete the activities on pages 8 and 9. Answers 1. They worked as market gardeners, tailors, shoemakers, traders, shopkeepers and in the furniture trade—providing goods and services to the colony. 2. Because they had a different religion, foods, language, look and dress, ‘wasted water’, sent gold to China and took jobs. 3. Answers will vary 4. Answers will vary

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

6

Democracy in Australia


5. Answers will vary 6. Answers will vary

Additional Activities 1. Research the rights of children and write your own list of children’s rights. 2. Select one incident from question 6. Write a newspaper report outlining the event and what is being done to stop it happening.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

3. Develop a time line of major events through history where human rights have been denied.

Discussion/Debate

2. Only students in their final year should have a say in the running of a school.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

1. All Australians now share human and citizenship rights equally.

3. Only parents should have a say in the running of the household.

The Events that Led to Federation

Pages 10 – 15

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Students will learn about the events and issues in the development of Australian democracy. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Topic Focus

Keywords

m . u

referendum, national pride, Federation, markets, free trade, suffrage, manufacturing, defence, constitution

w ww

Resources

. te

• calculators • The following websites are recommended: Teacher Sir Henry Parkes—text of his 1889 speech at Tenterfield

o c . che e r o t r s super

http://www.waverley.nsw.gov.au/federation/parkes.htm

Students Centenary of Federation: The Federation Story

http://www.centenary.gov.au/resources/history/federation_story.php

Centenary of Federation: Time Line of the Nation

http://www.centenary.gov.au/resources/history/timeline_nation.php

Centenary of Federation: Leading Figures in the Federation Movement http://www.centenary.gov.au/resources/history/leading_figures.php

Centenary of Federation: The ‘Yes’ Referendum http://www.centenary.gov.au/resources/media_centre/archive/ media_federation.php?column=5

Democracy in Australia

7

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


Background There were several phases in the lead-up to Federation.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

The second phase • Australia’s population passed 2 000 000. • Several issues arose that needed united action; e.g. Colonial governments felt there was a need to restrict Chinese immigration. • Henry Parkes put forward the idea in 1880 that the colonies form a permanent intercolonial legislative body. • The first intercolonial conference was held and a constitution drawn up with the consent of the British government. Not all colonies were represented equally. • The issue of rising taxes for revenue caused a rift between New South Wales and Victoria and hindered the process of Federation. Victoria, along with other colonies believed that taxes and tariffs were necessary to fund the government, whereas New South Wales wanted to keep these to a bare minimum. • In 1889, Sir Henry Parkes made a widely publicised speech calling on all Australians to work for the establishment of a central parliament with executive powers.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

The first phase • Colonists in five different areas of the east coast of Australia began seeking self-government 50 years after Britain had sent the first convicts to Australia. • The British government granted the request and also discussed the possibility of a federal government. • The colonists wanted independence from each other, so the idea of a federal government was dropped. • Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia each had their own elected government. Western Australia was still under British control. • Problems began to arise between the colonies due to a lack of unity.

w ww

. te

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

The third phase • Sir Henry Parkes organised another conference in Melbourne in 1890. Each colony was well represented and his opening speech was greeted with great applause. • Delegates agreed that Australia needed a federal government with its own powers to make laws and carry them out. • The first federal convention was held in Sydney in 1891. All colonies sent representatives, as did New Zealand. • The first constitution was drawn up by Sir Samuel Griffith (Queensland), Edmund Barton (New South Wales), Inglis Clarke (Tasmania) and Charles Cameron Kingston (South Australia). • The first draft of the constitution put forward the concept of a federal government and a Commonwealth of Australia, consisting of six States. This document was rewritten over the next 10 years. • None of the colonies followed the constitution that came out of the first federal convention in 1891.

o c . che e r o t r s super

The fourth phase • Edmund Barton began a one-man campaign for Federation in 1893. • The idea of Federation became popular with various support groups in Victoria and New South Wales. R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

8

Democracy in Australia


r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

• The Cowra Conference was called by the support groups and John Quick, a lawyer, suggested that another convention should take place. He also suggested that each colony should hold a referendum on the draft constitution. • George Reid, premier of New South Wales, called another conference and was joined by other premiers from around Australia in 1895. They decided to hold a convention of elected representatives from all colonies. The final phase • Queensland was the only colony not represented at the convention of 1897 and 1898. Each of the other colonies sent 10 delegates. • The constitution was redrafted and then put to a referendum in New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania. Western Australia and Queensland did not participate. • Changes were made to the constitution and another referendum was held. This time all colonies were active participants. Every colony recorded a majority in favour of the constitution. • All colonies agreed to become States in a federal system.

Introductory Discussion

How did Federation affect democracy in Australia?

Why do you think some people wanted a federated Australia and others didn’t? What do you think Australia would be like today if it had never become a federation?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Students will need to read and become familiar with the text and diagrams provided on pages 10 and 11 to complete the activities. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• The key points displayed on the map provide a good opportunity to demonstrate

Activity – Pages 12 – 13

to students how to represent data in a brief and concise format.

w ww

. te

Answers

m . u

Students can then complete the activities on pages 12 and 13. 1. Trains would have to stop at each change of gauge size and transfer passengers and cargo. 2. Each colony saw itself as a sort of independent country.

o c . che e r o t r s super 3. Sir Henry Parkes.

4. 1898 Referendum—For: 219 712; Against: 108 363 1899 Referendum—For: 377 988; Against: 141 386 1900 Referendum—For: 422 788; Against: 161 077 5.

Democracy in Australia

9

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


6. (a) Victoria

(b) Answers will vary

7. Answers will vary; people were more aware of what Federation meant. 8. Answers will vary 9. Answers will vary

Activity – Pages 14 – 15

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

The table provides a sample of various events and changes in Australia’s political history. All of them took time to be accepted and put into place, just as in any changes made today take time to be accepted by the majority and then to be implemented.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

It is important for students to know that the development of democracy in Australia has been a constantly evolving process. Australia has always changed and evolved as the need to do so has arisen—and will continue to do so. That is part of being a progressive country.

Students can read the information in the table on page 14 and then complete the activities on pages 14 and 15. Answers may come from a variety of sources. Answers 1.

w ww

. te

2. South Australia

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super 3. Answers will vary

4. Allowed poorer people to enter parliament—a wider range of people were able to contribute to policies and decision making. 5. Answers will vary 6. Answers will vary 7. Answers will vary

Additional Activities Investigate other key events; for example, voting rights, civil rights violations and improvements. Discussion/Debate 1. Should Australia become a republic? Support your answer. 2. What is your opinion about the 1901 constitution taking away the rights of Aboriginal men to vote? R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

10

Democracy in Australia


Key Figures in the Development of Democracy Pages 16 – 19 Topic Focus Students will explore the beliefs and efforts of key figures in the development of democracy. Keywords oppression, equality, justice, citizen, poverty, apartheid, dignity, self-discipline

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

• dictionaries • The following websites are recommended: Teacher Biography of Nelson Mandela (comprehensive) http://www.anc.org.za/people/mandela.html

Pericles: Biography

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Resources

http://www.sacklunch.net/biography/P/Pericles.html

Sir Edmund Barton

http://www.cofq.qld.gov.au/edmund_barton.html

Catherine Helen Spence

http://members.ozemail.com.au/~fliranre/spence.htm

Rose Scott

© R. I . C .Publ i cat i ons Students Biography of Nelson Mandela (Nobel Peace Prize site) •f orr evi e w pur posesonl y• http://www.slnsw.gov.au/ml/microform/feminist/scott.htm

http://www.nobel.se/peace/laureates/1993/mandela-bio.html

Pericles http://www.virtualclassroom.crc.ca/site.swl/danielle.mercredi/GREECE/pericles.html

Sir Edmund Barton

w ww

Background

. te

Catherine Helen Spence

m . u

http://www.abc.net.au/rn/sunspec/barton/barton.htm

http://www.slsa.sa.gov.au/int_pubs/women/spence.htm

Rose Scott (brief)

o c . che e r o t r s super

http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/k6_hsie_resources/back1.html

Nationally and internationally, these are many people who have had a major impact on modern-day democracy. Sadly, some of them were punished for their views and if it wasn’t for their unwavering beliefs they would not have made such a positive impact. International key figures of interest include Pericles, King John (and the Magna Carta), Abraham Lincoln, Nelson Mandela and Aung San Suu Kyi. National key figures of interest include Sir Henry Parkes, Vida Goldstein, Edmund Barton, Jack Patten and William Ferguson, George Reid, Maybanke Anderson/ Wolstenholme, Mary Lee, Rose Scott, Catherine Helen Spence and Peter Lalor.

Introductory Discussion What are your beliefs about democracy? How far would you go to fight for what you believe in? Democracy in Australia

11

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


Why is it important to have a belief in something and stick by it? What are the benefits of standing up for what you believe in? Activity – Page 17 Ask students if they have ever heard of Nelson Mandela or Pericles. They may have heard of Mandela, but may not be familiar with Pericles. Ask the students to relate what they know of these two key figures. Read the brief biographies on Nelson Mandela and Pericles. Students can highlight the major beliefs of both men. Ask students to think about the contributions of these men to our democratic society. Generate a class discussion about the contributions of these men.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Answers

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Students can then complete the activities on page 17 of the workbook. 1. apartheid: a policy of the separation of races in a country according to their differences in colour freedom: the right to speak as you wish; self-determination equality: the state of being equal (one person to another)

oppression: using authority or power in a burdensome, cruel or unjust manner 2. Awarded a Nobel Prize and made president of his country.

3. Answers will vary; because the same or similar problems can found all over the world.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

4. He established the first true democratic government; introduced salaries for public officers; created a powerful navy; built many structures; encouraged literature and philosophy. 5. Pericles led Athens to the height of its political power and artistic achievements. 6. It favoured the many instead of the few; gave equal justice to all; rewarded merit instead of privilege.

w ww

Activity – Page 19

. te

(b) both believed in equality

m . u

7. (a) neither discriminated

8. Pericles: Athens; 495 – 429 BC; established first true democratic government Mandela: South Africa; 1918 – ; fought for human rights and racial equality Answers will vary

o c . che e r o t r s super

Four brief profiles of key figures in the development of Australian democracy have been provided for the students. Providing information in this manner makes it easy for students to complete the comparative studies on the activity page. In order for students to complete the table in question 4, they may like to select one of the following people: Vida Goldstein, Jack Patten, William Ferguson, George Reid, Maybanke Anderson/Wolstenholme, Mary Lee or Peter Lalor. This question will require additional research; sites on the Internet and books in the library will help students with this task. It may be an idea to have a collection of resources available in the classroom for students to use to complete the activity. Answers 1. Answers will vary 2. Edmund Barton; Catherine Helen Spence; Rose Scott 3. Answers will vary

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

12

Democracy in Australia


4. Edmund Barton: Glebe, NSW; first Prime Minister of Australia; helped in the effort for Australian Federation Catherine Helen Spence: Scotland; campaigned for proportional representation voting Rose Scott: Glendon, NSW; fought for women’s right to vote Sir Henry Parkes: England; devised a plan that was used as a model for the federated Australia Answers will vary

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Additional Activities

Select one of the people you have added to question 4, or a person who has contributed to democracy on an international level. Write a detailed profile. 1. Voting should be compulsory.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Discussion/Debate

2. Sir Henry Parkes made the greatest contribution to Australian democracy.

Australian Citizenship

Pages 20 – 22

Topic Focus

Students will examine what it means to be an Australian citizen and the effects © R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons of exclusion. orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Keywords •f citizen, citizenship, descent, naturalisation, pledge, liberties, rights, jury

Resources

Background

m . u

w ww

. te

• The following websites are recommended: Teacher Citizenship and Australian Democracy (extremely comprehensive) http://www4.gu.edu.au/ext/civics/cv02/civ02main.htm

Students Australian Citizenship (federal government)

o c . che e r o t r s super http://www.immi.gov.au/citizenship/citizen.htm

Australia has always considered it important to attract immigrants. People from all over the world can contribute their skills and knowledge to Australian society. People migrate to other countries for many reasons, one of which is hoping for better prospects in a new country. Immigration has helped to mould Australia into the country it is today. The types of foods available, our art, culture, architecture and sport have all been influenced by the migrant groups who have made their home within Australia. The face of the migrant has changed over the years from the first British convicts and then the free British settlers who were encouraged to live in Australia. The discovery of gold in Australia saw people comingnot only from Britain but also China, Europe and the United States. Australia has also aided families from wartorn countries, such as Germany, Japan, Indonesia and the Middle East.

Democracy in Australia

13

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


Introductory Discussion Ascertain from the students who among them was born in Australia and who was born overseas. Ask students what it means to be an Australian citizen. Activity – Pages 21 – 22 Read through the text on page 20. Discuss the three ways people can acquire Australian citizenship.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Demonstrate to the class how to convert the information from the table into suitable data to be used in the pie graph on page 22. Explain to the students that the figures need to be converted into portions of a pie. A pie equals 360°, so all figures need to be worked out according to this total.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

As a class, complete the survey on page 21. Discuss the results of the survey. How many students are Australian citizens by birth, by descent or by naturalisation? How many students are not yet Australian citizens?

Students can then complete the questions on page 22. Answers

1. Australian citizens were no longer known as British subjects.

2. ‘From this time forward, under God I pledge my loyalty to Australia and its people, whose democratic beliefs I share, whose rights and liberties I respect, and whose laws I will uphold and obey.’

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

3. Answers will vary but should include the fact that Australian citizens are no longer British subjects. 4. Answers will vary 5. Answers will vary

Additional Activities

w ww

Discussion/Debate

. te

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

m . u

1. Write a pledge to become a member of your class.

2. Write a list of rights and responsibilities of a member of your class. Citizenship brings Australians closer together.

o c . che e r o t r s super

14

Democracy in Australia


Assessment Assessment and Evaluation The activity on page 17 is provided as one assessment tool in the study of this unit. It is designed to indicate broad student understanding and also provide opportunity for student feedback. The following outcomes were addressed in this topic of study. The following pages can be photocopied as a record of student performance or as a proforma for portfolio assessment. Time, Continuity and Change TCC4.1 The student understands that there is a sequence and order to the significant events, people and ideas of the past and these can be related within particular time periods. TCC4.2 The student understands that change at a particular time reflects the beliefs of individuals and groups within societies at that time. Natural and Social Systems NSS4.2 The student understands that rules and laws result from decisions about rights and responsibilities. NSS4.3 The student understands that people make decisions about the production, distribution and exchange of goods and services to satisfy needs and wants.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Outcomes

Administration

Distribute the activity sheet on page 17 of the Teachers Guide, one per student. Ask students to write their name in the top right-hand corner of the page. Read through the activity sheet to ensure students are clear about what they are being asked to do. At this stage, give students the opportunity to seek clarification of any part of the activity sheet they may not understand.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

. te

1. (a) False

(b) True

(c) False

(d) True

m . u

w ww

Answers

It is important students work independently on these activities—this provides a true representation of what students understand or of their lack of understanding. Once students have completed the activity, collect the worksheets. Mark and record results. From this activity sheet, some students may be found to require further work to develop their understanding in a particular area. (e) True

o c . che e r o t r s super

2. (a) To reduce the number of non-European immigrants settling in Australia. (b) To remove race as a factor in Australia’s immigration policy. (c) Answers will vary 3. (a) Sir Henry Parkes (b) Edmund Barton (c) Nelson Mandela (d) Catherine Helen Spence (e) Rose Scott

4. birth; descent; naturalisation 5. You must enrol to vote at the age of 18; You may be asked to defend your country; You may be asked to serve on a jury; You have the right to vote in government elections; You have the right to apply to enter the armed forces; You have the right to serve on a jury; You have the right to live in Australia and receive the support and protection provided for Australian citizens; You have the right to obtain an Australian passport. 6. Answers will vary

Democracy in Australia

15

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


Democracy in Australia Student Name:

Date:

Task At the conclusion of the unit ‘Democracy in Australia’, students were asked to complete an activity sheet independently to demonstrate their understanding of the unit.

Indicators

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

• Understands the origins and people involved in the establishment of democracy. • Demonstrates an understanding and opinion of Australia’s immigration policies. • Recalls people and events which have had a major influence on democracy and people’s rights. • Understands the process through which people can become Australian citizens and the rights and responsibilities that associated with being an Australian citizen.

Needs Further Opportunity

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Demonstrated

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr vi ew pur posesonl y• |e

Discussion and Debate

Needs Improvement

Satisfactory

|

Workbook Activities Needs Improvement

Satisfactory

|

m . u

|

w ww

Additional Activities

Further Research

. te

Skills and Attitudes

Needs Improvement

Satisfactory

|

o c . che e r o t r s super Needs Improvement

|

Needs Improvement

|

General Comment

|

Satisfactory

|

Satisfactory

|

Student Comment

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

16

Democracy in Australia


Democracy in Australia 1. Answer true or false. (a) Australia was the first country to introduce democracy.

TRUE

FALSE

(b) The Australian constitution is one of the oldest written constitutions in the world.

TRUE

FALSE

(c) The first Governor-General of Australia was Sir Henry Parkes.

TRUE

FALSE

(d) Pericles established the first true democratic government.

TRUE

FALSE

(e) Being an Australian citizen means you must enrol to vote at the age of 18.

TRUE

FALSE

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

2. (a) Why did Australia introduce the ‘White Australia Policy’?

(b) Why did Australia abolish the ‘White Australia Policy’?

(c)

3.

What is your opinion of the ‘White Australia Policy’?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Who … •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• (a) was the first person to fight for a unified Australia?

(c) devoted his life to the fight against racial oppression in South Africa?

w ww

(d) was the first female political candidate in Australia? (e) won women the right to vote in 1903?

. te

o c . che e r o t r s super

4. List the three ways someone can become an Australian citizen. (i) (ii) (iii)

m . u

(b) was the first Prime Minister of Australia after Federation took place?

5. List three rights and responsibilities of an Australian citizen. (i) (ii) (iii)

6. List two interesting pieces of information you learnt in this unit. (i) (ii) Democracy in Australia

17

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

w ww

. te

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

18

Democracy in Australia


Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

w ww

. te

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super


Australia and the World Unit Focus Australia and the World develops the understanding that the world is a global community and studies Australia’s role within this community and how it interacts with the rest of the world. Students study the role of imports and exports throughout Australia’s history, their importance and the value placed on them by Australians and the rest of the world. The unit also provides students with an insight as to where people tend to travel throughout the world and why. Unit Topics

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

• The Global Village ............................................................... 24 – 27 • An Australian Export Industry ............................................. 28 – 32 • Overseas Travel .................................................................. 33 – 35 • Australian Made? ............................................................... 36 – 37 • Global Communications ...................................................... 38 – 39 • Global Organisations........................................................... 40 – 42

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

The topics selected to develop this understanding are:

w ww

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Outcomes and Indicators

. te

Resources R4.1 The student understands that people make decisions about efficient resource use to increase their ability to satisfy needs and wants.

o c . che e r o t r s super

• identify the types of manufactured resources and products made in Australia • identify examples of how technology impacts, or has in the past impacted, on the way resources are used • identify examples of how different countries around the world use and develop resources

R4.2

The student understands that people make decisions in order to be efficient and enterprising in their use of resources. • identify sources of information needed to make a decision in an enterprise • make recommendations on how consumers might use information in making decisions • discuss how the present use of non-renewable resources might limit future choices

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

20

Australia and the World


The Global Village Workbook Pages: 24 – 27 Topic Focus Students will gather information to find out how Australia is globally connected. Keywords global village, reliant, resources, concentrated, barriers Resources

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

• The following websites are recommended: Teacher Australian Bureau of Statistics (use ‘Statistics’ link) Students Australian Imports: Processed Food and Drinks

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

http://www.abs.gov.au/

http://www.agribusiness.asn.au/Statistics/Imports/1997_99Imports.htm

Background

global: 1. spherical; globe-shaped. 2. pertaining to or covering the whole world. 3. all-embracing; comprehensive. 4. (in computers) operating over an entire database, set of records etc. global village: the inhabited world projected or perceived as a single community united by means of rapid and comprehensive information systems.

© R. I . C .P bl i cat i o n scivilisations. Then, resources The world hasu changed dramatically since early were limited and could provide only for the immediate area, with occasional •f orr evi ew pu r p oses onl y • and improved, trades between close communities. As technology developed opportunities to travel further increased, learn more about other people and acquire resources from various places.

Introductory Discussion

m . u

w ww

. te

As people’s perceptions grew, their needs and wants increased and trading of ideas and resources became commonplace. Today, we live in a world that is still geographically the same size, but seems so much smaller due to the development of technology. People can move from place to place more quickly and easily, keep in contact at the push of a button, and purchase materials using their own home computer from anywhere in the world.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Ask students to think about their belongings; e.g. games, clothes, shoes, toys, sporting equipment, books, videos. Are they all made in Australia using only Australian resources?

Activity – Pages 24 – 27 Read the text at the top of page 24 to the students. Discuss the keywords at the top of the page. Encourage students to explain their meaning after reading the text. This encourages students to use the text purposefully. Students then write their own definition of ‘Global Village’. Once students have had adequate time to do this, ask them to move into small groups and discuss their definitions. Students may find their definitions vary within the group. Reform as a class and continue discussion. Provide students with the dictionary definition: Australia and the World

21

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


global village: the inhabited world projected or perceived as a single community united by means of rapid and comprehensive information systems. The following activity, ‘How global is your life?’, may need to be completed at home so students can access their resources easily. Students may not be aware from which country some items originate. This may be followed up with discussion in class, as other students may know the answers. Once students have completed the activity, discuss the various countries listed. Students will need to use the information collected in the survey to answer the questions on pages 26 and 27.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Answers

1. Answers will vary according to the results of the survey.

3. Answers will vary according to the results of the survey. 4. Answers will vary according to the results of the survey. 5. Answers will vary according to the results of the survey.

Additional Activities

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

2. Answers will vary according to the results of the survey.

Design your own survey to find out how much food in your local grocery shop is from Australia and how much is imported from overseas.

A current isl on buying Australian products only. Discuss the ©R . I . Cnational .Pfocus ub i c at i ons advantages and disadvantages of this focus. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Discussion/Debate

An Australian Export Industry

w ww

m . u

Workbook Pages: 28 – 32 Topic Focus

Keywords

. te

Resources

Students will explore the wool industry and see how Australia is globally connected through trade.

o c . che e r o t r s super export, merino, trade, industry

• atlases • The following websites are recommended: Teacher History of the Wool Industry

http://www.dfmg.com.tw/mirron/wool/industry.html

Economic information, including trade with overseas countries http://www.dfat.gov.au/geo/fs/

Students About Wool http://www.woolmark.com/twc/aboutwool04.htm R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

22

Australia and the World


Australian Wool Industry Statistics http://www.dfmg.com.tw/mirron/wool/statistics.html

Selling Wool http://www.dfmg.com.tw/mirron/wool/selling.html

Background

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

One of these landowners, Captain John Macarthur, felt that these sheep could be used to develop the economy of the colony. He thought wool could become a viable industry, covering the cost of the long voyage for export, be in considerable demand and also be produced with minimal labour.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

The first sheep brought to Australia with the First Fleet were reared for meat. It was not until later that sheep were also reared for wool. In 1796 two ships were sent to Cape Town from Australia to buy cattle. The captains also decided to purchase 26 Spanish merino sheep that were up for sale. Once back in Australia, the sheep that survived the journey were sold to landowners in the colony.

Macarthur went to England in 1803 and took samples of the merino wool. The English wool merchants were very interested in the stock. On his return to Australia he also brought back five rams and one ewe direct from King George’s own flock of pure Spanish merino sheep. Australia sent its first stock of fine wool to London in 1807. It was received eagerly and merchants paid high prices for the wool, which was considered to be longer, softer and more resilient than most other wools available at the time.

During the 1830s, the Australian wool industry grew rapidly. Exports of wool © R. I . C.from Pu l i c at o ns increased fourb million pounds toi 13 million pounds in seven years. Over the years, Australia has experienced hard times within the wool industry as demand •f orr evi eand wrisesp ur p esneeds on y• falls according too thes economic of l countries around the world.

Introductory Discussion

m . u

w ww

. te

Merino Sheep There are five main groups of domestic sheep which are grouped according to their fleece. These are: fine wool, long wool, crossbred wool, medium wool and coarse wool. Merino sheep fit into the fine wool group. The merino was developed in Spain. The Spanish government forbade anyone taking them out of Spain until the late 1700s; however some were smuggled into Germany and France. These countries were responsible for further developing them into the type of sheep we are familiar with today. More sheep contain merino blood than any other type of sheep in the world.

o c . che e r o t r s super What does it mean to export something? Why is it important to export resources?

What are the benefits of having a successful export industry? Activity – Pages 29 – 32 The information provided for the students on these pages includes text, tables and a graph. This variety of presentation gives students opportunities to glean information from a variety of sources. Ask students to read through the text provided on pages 28 and 29. Highlight any keywords and phrases that provide the key information in the text—names, dates, places etc. Australia and the World

23

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


Study Table A. Ask students to work out the total increase in the wool export industry for the years displayed in the table. Study the graph on page 29. Discuss the major purchasers of Australian wool. Which countries purchase the most Australian wool? Ask students to complete the activities on pages 29 to 32. It may be appropriate to direct the students how to complete a line graph for question 6. Answers

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

1. Australia’s major exports were lamb and wool—providing a major source of income. 2. Cape Town—South Africa 3. (c) John Macarthur

5. When two countries are vying for a particular marketplace. 6.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

4. (b) 5%

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 7. three years of drought

w ww

. te

m . u

8.

o c . che e r o t r s super

9. Lower international wool prices; large national stockpile of wool; increased use of synthetic materials for clothing.

10. Answers will vary 11. Answers will vary

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

24

Australia and the World


r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

12.

13.

w ww

. te

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super 14. Australia’s balance of trade was in deficit by $M11 623 15. Answers will vary

Additional Activities Select a major Australian export industry and research the production process and the countries to which the product is exported. Discussion/Debate Discuss everyone’s opinions from question 10. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the choices made.

Australia and the World

25

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


Overseas Travel Workbook Pages: 33 – 35 Topic Focus Students will discover how Australia is globally connected through travel. Keywords travel, destination, purpose Resources

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Students Universal Currency Converter http://www.xe.com/ucc/

Weather Underground: World Weather http://www.wunderground.com/

Australian Passports http://www.passports.gov.au/index.html

Because of Australia’s isolation, overseas travel hass always been more difficult ©R . I . C . P u b l i c a t i o n and expensive. The distance from other countries means it takes a longer time to travel from Australia. •f orr e vi ew pur posesonl y• It has been a comparatively recent development for Australians to travel as much

w ww

as they do today. Our isolation, has in part forced us to travel to other places in the world for business, holidays, education or employment. Because of our increasingly multicultural nature, people also tend to travel more to visit family and friends.

m . u

Background

http://www.abs.gov.au/

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

• atlases • The following websites are recommended: Teacher Australian Bureau of Statistics

Introductory Discussion

. te

Activity – Pages 33 – 35

Ascertain from students whether or not any of them have been overseas and if so, for what purposes.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Complete a class survey of places travelled to and reasons for travelling. Ask students to read through the activities on pages 33 to 35. Clarify any areas students may not understand.

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

26

Australia and the World


Answers

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S 2. Holiday/Visiting People 3. (a) New Zealand (b) Answers will vary

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

1.

4. Most Popular: 1. New Zealand 2. USA 3. Other Asia 4. Other Europe 5. Singapore Least Popular: 1. Other 2. Middle East/North Africa 3. Italy 4. Other Africa 5. Philippines

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Answers will vary

5. Answers will vary 6. Answers will vary

w ww

. te

m . u

7.

o c . che e r o t r s super 8. (a) United Kingdom

(b) Holiday/Visiting People 9. (a) New Zealand (b) Other 10. Answers will vary 11. Answers will vary 12. Answers will vary 13. Answers will vary

Australia and the World

27

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


Additional Activities 1. Calculate the time each flight will take for chosen destinations if a jet travels at approximately 920 km/h. 2. Research major sea routes to find the length of these and the time taken for each journey. 3. Create a brochure to encourage people to visit your local area. Discussion/Debate

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u SAustralian Made? 1. Air travel is better than sea travel.

2. What are the benefits of modern air travel?

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

3. How else can you travel to other countries?

Workbook Pages: 36 – 37

Topic Focus

Keywords

Resources

Students will learn about the importance of encouraging Australian-made purchases.

©R . I . C .Pub l i cat i ons product, advertisement, trade, internationally •f orr ev i ew pur posesonl y• • The following websites are recommended: http://www.australianmade.com.au/

w ww

. te

Background

m . u

Teacher Australian Made Campaign Students Have you got it Made in Australia? (‘A Current Affair’) http://aca.ninemsn.com.au/stories/268.asp

Australian Made Campaign

o c . che e r o t r s super http://www.australianmade.com.au/

The Australian Tourism Net http://www.atn.com.au/

The Australian Made campaign was launched by the government to attempt to encourage Australians to buy products either made in Australia, or made using Australian resources. Part of the campaign was also to encourage Australians to travel within Australia. Both of these ideas were designed to encourage growth in Australian industry, thereby creating more jobs and using Australian resources in the process. The campaign is marketed in such a way that companies who abide by the rules receive considerable public exposure for their products which fit into the Australian Made range. Any products which potentially comply are checked thoroughly by the organisation before they are allowed to display the Australian Made tag with the familiar green and gold kangaroo.

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

28

Australia and the World


Introductory Discussion What products do you buy which you know have been made in Australia? Is this decision a conscious one or do you just happen to like that product better? Have you ever travelled within Australia? Where to and for what purposes? Activity – Pages 36 – 37

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Study the images provided on page 36. Elicit from students how they know if a product is Australian made or not. Discuss with the class the methods by which Australian-made products are advertised. 1. To encourage people to buy Australian-made products and to holiday within Australia in order to keep money within Australia.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Answers

2. Answers will vary 3. The label attached to the product. 4. Answers will vary 5. Answers will vary 6. Answers will vary

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Select a product made in Australia and develop an advertising campaign. It can be a poster, pamphlet, TV or radio ad. Present your campaign to the class. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Additional Activities

Discussion/Debate

w ww

Topic Focus

Global Communications

. te

Keywords

m . u

Australia would be better off if everyone bought Australian-made products.

Workbook Pages: 38 – 39

o c . che e r o t r s super

Students will examine some of the history of global communications. communications, invention, networks, linking, information

Resources • The following websites are recommended: Teacher The Media History Project http://www.mediahistory.com/

Students History of Communications (Time line) http://tqjunior.thinkquest.org/5729/timeline.htm

All about the Internet (links page) http://www.isoc.org/internet-history/ Australia and the World

29

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


Background Communication is all about passing on information and sharing thoughts and ideas. For this to happen on a global scale, technology is essential—whether it be sending a letter by the Pony Express to the next town (as in the past) or sending an email halfway around the world, as we can today. Each development in communication technology has made the process of communicating easier, faster and more readily accessible by people all over the world.

Introductory Discussion

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Ask students how they communicate the most each day.

Activity – Pages 38 – 39

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Who do they communicate with the most each day? Does this vary from a weekday to the weekend? Read through the time line provided on page 38 of the student workbook. Ask students to form groups and decide which communication advancement has been the most important in their opinion. Students must be able to support their choice with a convincing argument. As a whole class, ask students to share their groups’ view of the most important advancement in communication. Encourage discussion and debate among the students. Ask students to complete the activities provided on pages 38 and 39.

Answers ©R . I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 1. Answers will vary 2. Answers will vary

Additional Activities

Discussion/Debate

m . u

w ww

. te

1. Choose a global communication system in use today and research its development and its effectiveness. Use real-life examples to support your information. 2. Follow a particular news item through different sources, e.g. newspapers, magazines, television, radio and the Internet. Compare the images and presentation of each version. Make a list of similarities and differences and explain why they might be similar or different.

o c . che e r o t r s super

1. Discuss which communication development was the most significant. Support your reasoning. 2. Discuss the development of communication. Its speed helps us in many ways every day. How does it help you?

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

30

Australia and the World


Global Organisations Workbook Pages: 40 – 42 Topic Focus Students will learn about Australia’s efforts to help developing countries. Keywords various, support, assistance, objective, poverty, peace

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

• atlases • The following websites are recommended: Teacher Amnesty International homepage (Caution: Some topics are NOT suitable for students) http://www.amnesty.org/

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Resources

International Red Cross homepage (Caution: Some topics may distress students) http://www.icrc.org/eng

Students Greenpeace International http://www.greenpeace.org/

AusAID: The Australian Government’s Overseas Aid Organisation

© R. I . C .P ub l i cat i ons United Nations homepage •f orr evi e wWide pu p osesonl y• World Fundr for Nature http://www.ausaid.gov.au/ http://www.un.org/

http://www.panda.org/

Background

m . u

w ww

. te

AUSaid Australia gives aid to help reduce poverty and make a positive difference to people's lives. By giving aid, Australia also improves regional security and creates jobs and opportunities for all Australians. How does giving aid improve regional security? If poverty is reduced in a country, stronger communities are built and governments are more stable. Then, if and when conflict ever arises, there will be a greater chance it can be resolved peacefully.

o c . che e r o t r s super

More than 6 000 Australians have volunteered overseas through the aid program, in organisations such as the Australian Red Cross, Rotary and Australian Volunteers International since the 1960s. Australia will provide aid worth approximately $1.6 billion for the financial year of 2000 – 2001. All Australians are shareholders in Australia's aid program. Every week, each of us puts in $1.60 to pay for our aid program. On top of this Australians donated over $12 million during the East Timor crisis.

Introductory Discussion Ask the students if they have ever heard of: the United Nations, Greenpeace, Amnesty International, the Red Cross, the World Wide Fund for Nature and AUSaid. Do they know what any of these organisations do for the community? Australia and the World

31

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


Activity – Pages 40 – 42 Read the text provided on page 40. The information on East Timor highlights one example of where AUSaid has helped a neighbouring community. Ask students if they know of another situation in which Australia has helped another community. Allow students the opportunity to research and share their information with the class. Ask students to complete the activities on pages 40 to 42. Answers

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

1. United Nations, Greenpeace, Amnesty International, Red Cross, World Wide Fund for Nature, AUSaid

3. To help maintain peace in Australia’s neighbouring countries. 4.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

2. To help reduce poverty in developing countries and achieve a suitable level of development.

w ww

. te

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

5. 1514: Portuguese came to Timor and occupied the eastern half of the island. 1975: Portuguese moved out of East Timor. Indonesian soldiers invaded East Timor. 1999: East Timor voted for independent rule.

o c . che e r o t r s super 6. Unrest followed and Dili and parts of East Timor were destroyed.

7. AUSaid sent in a peacekeeping force and provided food, shelter and health supplies. 8. Answers will vary 9. Answers will vary

Additional Activities

1. Research and describe the situation in East Timor today. 2. Investigate one of the following global organisations to find out what it does, how Australians help the organisation and the benefits of the organisation’s work: Red Cross, Amnesty International, International Olympic Federation, United Nations, Greenpeace or the World Wide Find for Nature. Discussion/Debate Australia should only help Australian citizens—not people in other countries. R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

32

Australia and the World


Assessment Assessment and Evaluation The activity on page 35 is provided as one assessment tool in the study of this unit. It is designed to indicate broad student understanding and also provide opportunity for student feedback. The following outcomes were addressed in this topic of study. The following pages can be photocopied as a record of student performance or as a proforma for portfolio assessment. Outcomes Resources R4.1 The student understands that people make decisions about efficient resource use to increase their ability to satisfy needs and wants. R4.2 The student understands that people make decisions in order to be efficient and enterprising in their use of resources.

Answers

Distribute the activity sheet on page 35 of the Teachers Guide, one per student. Ask students to write their name in the top right-hand corner of the page. Read through the activity sheet to ensure students are clear about what they are being asked to do. At this stage, give students the opportunity to seek clarification of any part of the activity sheet they may not understand.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Administration

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

It is important students work independently on these activities—this provides a true representation of what students understand or of their lack of understanding. Once students have completed the activity, collect the worksheets. Mark and record results. From this activity sheet, some students may be found to require further work to develop their understanding in a particular area.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

1. ‘Global Village’ means that people from all countries rely on people from other countries to provide for their needs. 2. (a) wool

3. John Macarthur

m . u

w ww

. te

(b) The ‘Boom’ is when an industry experiences positive growth and financial returns, while the ‘Bust’ is when an industry experiences a downturn, meaning poor financial returns.

o c . che e r o t r s super

4. ‘Balance of Trade’ is the total figure of exports compared to the total figure of imports. 5. Conference/Business; Holiday/Visiting People; Education; Employment 6. To keep money within Australia and to create jobs. 7. Answers will vary 8. Answers will vary

Australia and the World

33

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


Australia and the World Student Name:

Date:

Task At the conclusion of the unit ‘Australia and the World’, students were asked to complete an activity sheet independently to demonstrate their understanding of the unit.

Indicators

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

• Understands of the terms: ‘Global Village’, ‘Boom and Bust’, and ‘Balance of Trade’. • Demonstrates an understanding of the wool industry and the people involved in its beginnings. • Understands the reasons Australians travel overseas and that Australia is globally connected through travel. • Is an aware of the importance of supporting Australian-made products. • Understands that they use communication systems on a regular basis to share knowledge and ideas.

Needs Further Opportunity

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Demonstrated

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Discussion and • Debate f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Needs Improvement

Satisfactory

|

|

Workbook Activities Satisfactory

w ww

m . u

Needs Improvement

|

Additional Activities

Further Research

. te

Skills and Attitudes

Needs Improvement

|

Satisfactory

|

o c . che e r o t r s super Needs Improvement

|

Needs Improvement

|

|

Satisfactory

| Satisfactory

|

General Comment

Student Comment

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

34

Australia and the World


Australia and the World 1. Explain the term ‘Global Village’.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

2. (a) Name Australia’s oldest export industry.

3. Who was responsible for the first wool exports in Australia? Rev. Samuel Marsden

John Macarthur

4. What is ‘Balance of Trade’?

(ii)

William Cox

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

5. List three reasons why Australians travel overseas. (i)

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

(b) Explain the term ‘Boom and Bust’.

(iii)

w ww

. te

m . u

6. Explain why it is considered important to buy Australian-made products and to travel within Australia.

o c . che e r o t r s super

7. Name two communication systems you have used over the past week and explain why you used them. (i)

(ii)

8. List three interesting pieces of information you learnt in this unit. (i) (ii) (iii) Australia and the World

35

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

w ww

. te

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

36

Australia and the World


Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

w ww

. te

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super


The Daintree Unit Focus The Daintree provides students with the opportunity to investigate a rainforest environment in Australia and compare it to a rainforest environment in South America. Students are also able to develop an understanding of the nature of the biology of this precious ecosystem, its plants and animals and the people who once solely relied on the rainforest as their home. It is hoped that students will gain an awareness of the importance of rainforests, the impact humans have on them, and the part rainforests play on a global scale. Unit Topics

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

• What is a Rainforest? ......................................................... 44 – 46 • Parts of a Rainforest ........................................................... 47 – 49 • The Daintree—Part 1 ......................................................... 50 – 51 • The Daintree—Part 2 ......................................................... 52 – 53 • The Amazon Rainforest ...................................................... 54 – 56 • Animals of the Rainforest ................................................... 57 – 61 • Plants of the Rainforest ...................................................... 62 – 64 • Rainforest Aboriginal People ............................................... 65 – 66 • Human Impact.................................................................... 67 – 68

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

The topics selected to develop this understanding are:

Outcomes and Indicators

Place and Space ©R . I . CThe .P ub l i cathat t i o nsin the natural and built PS4.1 student understands similarities features in different places give rise to patterns. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

• locate places with similar climates, landforms or vegetation and draw generalisations to describe their location • locate places using latitude and longitude in order to describe associations

w ww

. te

The student understands that people act to sustain the environment according to their values.

m . u

PS4.3

• describe the various positions individuals and groups hold on an issue related to changing the use of a place • describe the various positions individuals and groups hold on an issue related to impacts of people’s actions on plants and animals in a place • profile a group that acts to sustain the environment

o c . che e r o t r s super

Resources R4.2 The student understands that people make decisions in order to be efficient and enterprising in their use of resources. • describe ways in which information can assist in the decision-making process • discuss how the present use of non-renewable resources might limit future choices

Time, Continuity and Change TCC4.3 The student understands that people develop a perspective on a particular issue or event according to their beliefs and heritage. • justify an opinion either protesting against or supporting a particular issue

Natural and Social Systems NSS4.1 The student understands that different elements respond and attempt to adapt to changes in natural systems. • describe responses of plants, animals and people to changes in a natural system • identify examples of areas where a natural system has adapted or failed to adapt to changing conditions • describe different viewpoints of groups and individuals about people changing a natural system R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

38

The Daintree


What is a Rainforest? Workbook Pages: 44 – 46 Topic Focus Students will learn about the features of a rainforest. Keywords dense, diverse, biome, tropical, temperate, species, ecosystem, vulnerable

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S • atlases • dictionaries • The following websites are recommended: Teacher World Rainforest Information Portal http://rainforestweb.org/

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Resources

Students World Rainforest Information Portal http://rainforestweb.org/

Background

Rainforests are large areas of evergreen trees and plants found in tropical and temperate areas. Tropical rainforests in particular experience more warmth, humidity and rain than anywhere else on earth. The rainforests have an abundance of animal and plant life— over half of all species of plants and animals on earth inhabit the rainforests.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Several million forest-dwelling people worldwide live in or depend on •f orr evi ewhundred pu r p oses on l y• rainforests. Many of the world’s important food crops and domestic animals have

m . u

w ww

. te

been developed from rainforest species. Humans depend on rainforests in many different ways. Rainforests are thought to have covered 14 per cent of the earths’s surface. Now they cover only seven per cent. No-one knows to what extent the rest of the global ecosystem depends on rainforests. It is estimated that it will take 30 to 50 years for tropical forests to disappear altogether if current trends continue. What effect will this have?

o c . che e r o t r s super

Rainforests have been described as global heat and water pumps because of their influence on climate. Rainforests are dark and absorb heat. The air above a rainforest is cooler so it is more likely to rain. Beneath the dense canopy of the rainforest, humidity stays high and steady compared with the outside world. The forests stay wet and transpire vast quantities of water through their foliage and into the air above, forming clouds. Some falls as rain in the tropics, but clouds are often carried far away to produce rain in other areas. The hotter air that is found over deserts and grasslands discourages cloud formation and the deserts remain dry. As rainforests disappear this will dramatically affect weather patterns all over the world.

Introductory Discussion What is a rainforest? Where might you find a rainforest? Why do you think rainforests are important? Has anyone ever visited a rainforest? The Daintree

39

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


Activity – Pages 45 – 46 Read through the text provided on page 44 with the class. Number each paragraph one to seven. Number students one to seven to form groups. Those students who were given the number one will work on paragraph one, those students given the number two will work on paragraph two and so on. Ask students to read their paragraph carefully, underlining any keywords and phrases that are important to its meaning. As a whole class ensure that all keywords and phrases have been included. This may be done through discussion among the groups.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Ask students to complete the atlas activity. Assistance will need to be given to ensure all students complete the map correctly for question 3. Answers

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Ask the students to complete the remainder of the activities on pages 45 and 46. 1. 2. 3.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

. te

m . u

4. (a) a major regional ecological community of plants and animals extending over large natural areas (b) a community of organisms interacting with one another and with the environment in which they live (c) one of the groups into which animals and plants are divided according to their characteristics

o c . che e r o t r s super (d) the state or fact of being diverse; difference; unlikeness

5. A temperate region is generally located near the coast while a tropical region is located near the equator; a temperate region is, overall, cooler than a tropical region. 6. Similarities—dense vegetation; diverse animal and plant species; very lush and wet Differences—location; tropical climate is warm and moist while a temperate climate is cooler; temperate is less diverse than tropical; temperatures and rainfall vary more in a temperate forest

7. (a) False (b) False (c) True (d) False (e) True 8. Answers will vary

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

40

The Daintree


9. Answers will vary but could include: provide home to about half of the plant and animal species in the world; play an important role in the water cycle. 10. Answers will vary

Additional Activities 1. Research the water cycle and draw a chart to show how it works. Remember to include labels to explain your diagram. 2. Research to find out how quickly rainforests are disappearing.

Discussion/Debate

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Parts of a Rainforest

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Discuss the importance of rainforests using the information you provided in question 9. What do the other members of your class think? Do you all agree on the same things? Why/Why not?

Workbook Pages: 47 – 49

Topic Focus

Students will learn about the various layers of a rainforest and the role of each.

crown, foliage, dense, disperse, nutrients, predators, © R. I . C. Pu bl i ca t i on s forage Resources •f orr evi e wfollowing pu r po esonl y• • The websites ares recommended: Keywords

Teacher Rainforest Australia

w ww

. te

Background

Students Rainforest

m . u

http://www.rainforest-australia.com/

http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/rainforest/Allabout.shtml

Tropical Rainforest

o c . che e r o t r s super

http://www.cap.nsw.edu.au/moama/zoo/tropical_rainforest.htm

Rainforest Australia

http://www.rainforest-australia.com/

‘ ...trees of a thousand kinds and tall, so that they seem to touch the sky. I am told they never lose their foliage, and this I can believe for I saw them as green and lovely as they are in Spain in May...’ Christopher Columbus It is thought that Christopher Columbus wrote the earliest description of a rainforest. Exploration of rainforests had a deep effect on the thinking of many 19th century biologists and naturalists, one of whom is very familiar—English naturalist, Charles Darwin. Darwin’s experiences in rainforests helped to shape his theory of evolution through natural selection. Recently people have developed new techniques whichhave allowed researchers to explore the canopy for the first time and to record its otherwise unseen inhabitants.

The Daintree

41

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


Introductory Discussion What makes up a rainforest? What would you expect to see if you flew over the top of a rainforest? What would you expect to see if you walked through a rainforest? Activity – Pages 48 – 49 Have the subtitles Emergent Layer, Canopy Layer, Understorey and Forest Floor written on the board, with space underneath each to write one sentence describing its main feature.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Ask students to complete the activities on pages 48 and 49. Answers

1. (a) four

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Ask students to read the text on page 47. They can then offer suggestions for the sentence to be written under each title. Working as a group, these sentences can be refined through discussion.

(b) emergent layer, canopy layer, understorey, forest floor

(c) Answers will vary; Most likely answer should be the canopy layer because it blocks out the most sun which creates the proper environment for a rainforest. 2. Canopy – animals, insects, birds

Understorey – butterflies, bees, beetles, moths, spiders, crickets, birds, geckos, skinks, lizards

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Forest Floor – birds, insects, lizards, mammals

w ww

. te

m . u

3.

o c . che e r o t r s super

4. (a) The amount of water vapour in the air. (b) The native environment or kind of place where a given animal or plant naturally grows. R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

42

The Daintree


(c) A person, organism or thing that preys on others. (d) An environment which lacks good air flow. 5. Answers will vary 6. To collect water and nutrients before they are washed away. 7. The roots tend to spread out wide along or just under the surface—giving a broad base of support.

Additional Activities

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

1. Research a plant or animal that lives in the rainforest. Complete a description and provide detailed diagrams.

Discussion/Debate

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

2. Research and draw a diagram of the cycle of life in a rainforest. Be sure to include how the various layers support each other.

In question 1. (c) you had to state which layer of the rainforest is most important. Discuss your opinion and support it with facts. Is your viewpoint different from or the same as the other students in your class?

The Daintree—Part 1

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Students learn Daintree Rainforest and what• makes it so unique. •f orr evi ewwillp uabout r ptheo ses on l y

Workbook Pages: 50 – 51

Topic Focus Keywords

w ww

Resources

. te

m . u

continents, theory, species, hectares, scientific, botanist, heritage, restricted • The following websites are recommended: Teacher Gondwana: Gondwanaland (Very comprehensive)

o c . che e r o t r s super

http://www.gondwana-it.org/xGeneral/GondwanaLand/GondwanaLand.html

Students Gondwanaland

http://www.nsf.gov/od/opp/support/gondwana.htm

Pangaea

http://library.thinkquest.org/17701/high/pangaea/

Tropical Rainforest Project: Daintree

http://www.thekoala.com/camp/rainforest/rainforest.htm

Australia: Daintree Forest http://www.jeger.ch/default.asp?A=Australia&L=Daintree%20Forest

Background The major theory, known as ‘continental drift’, proposes the idea that the continents have moved great distances across the earth’s surface and are still moving today. The original single landmass, known as Pangaea, eventually broke into two segments, Laurasia in the Northern Hemisphere (except India) and Gondwana in the Southern Hemisphere (including India). The Daintree

43

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


Laurasia consisted of North America and Eurasia, while Gondwana consisted of South America, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica. Eventually, the continents which made up these landmasses began to break away and drift at about 2 – 3 centimetres each year to their current locations.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Between the early and mid-1900s, earth scientists worked steadily to gather information which lent support to Wegener’s continental drift theory. Studies showed that the Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States are linked with those that run through Newfoundland, Caledonia, Northern Ireland, Scandinavia and Scotland. Fossils of mammals have also been found in Asia, Europe and North America which suggest a strong link. Scientists began to recognise that Alfred Wegener’s theory might actually be correct during the 1960s.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Alfred Wegener, a German meteorologist, is thought to be the first to have developed the idea of continental drift in 1912. His theory, published in 1915, was supported when he showed that plants almost identical to those in tropical areas once grew in Greenland and that glaciers once covered great equatorial regions across Africa and Brazil. He believed that the huge amount of movement caused massive change in climatic conditions. Other scientists didn’t believe in his theory and rejected it on the basis that they couldn’t explain how the continents managed to move such great distances.

Introductory Discussion

Is it possible that Australia, Africa, South America, India and Antarctica were all joined together as one great landmass?

©R . I . C.Publ i cat i ons Do you think it is possible that Australia was covered completely with rainforest? •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Activity – Page 51

w ww

. te

m . u

Study the map of Gondwana on page 50. Discuss how the continents were joined—almost like a jigsaw puzzle. Read the first paragraph describing what happened to Gondwana and the breaking away of the continents. Ask students to read the rest of the text, highlighting keywords and phrases which provide an explanation for the existence of the Daintree rainforest. Study the map of Queensland showing the location of the Daintree rainforest. Discuss its size in relation to Queensland and Australia. It covers a relatively small area, but is significant in the number of plants and animals that call the area home.

o c . che e r o t r s super Ask students to complete the activities on page 51. Answers

1. (a) True

(b) True (c) False (d) False 2. South America, Africa, India, Australia, Antarctica 3. 120 million years ago – Gondwana begins to separate into the present continents 110 million years ago – Daintree develops 100 million years ago – Dinosaurs exist 40 – 50 million years ago – Australia settles into its current position R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

44

The Daintree


4. Daintree River; the Great Barrier Reef; Bloomfield River 5. (a) contains mangrove swamps, sclerophyll forests, woodlands, swamps (b) 390 rare plant species, 25 rare animal species (c) an almost complete record of the major stages of plant evolution

Additional Activities Select one of the following and research to write a report about its features.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u SThe Daintree—Part 2

mangrove swamp; sclerophyll forest; woodlands; swamps.

Discussion/Debate

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Complete this statement and discuss people’s different viewpoints: ‘The Daintree is unique and should be looked after because …’

Workbook Pages: 52 – 53

Topic Focus

Students will learn why the Daintree was selected to be a natural World Heritage Site.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons convention, proposal, criteria, nominated, evolutionary, declared, monitored orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Resources •f Keywords

http://www.environment.gov.au/heritage/

World Heritage Information Network

m . u

w ww

. te

• atlases • The following websites are recommended: Teacher Australian Heritage Commission

http://www.bigvolcano.com.au/natural/whin.htm

o c . che e r o t r s super Students Managing a Living Resource

http://www.wettropics.gov.au/mlr/a_contoversial_begnning.htm

UNESCO homepage

http://www.unesco.org/

Background

In 1966 it was obvious to many that the rainforests in tropical North Queensland needed protecting. However, not everyone agreed that the area should be protected and it was only after blockades, protests, legal cases and petitions that the area was listed as a World Heritage Site in 1988. 1966 – Dr Len Webb of the CSIRO wrote a paper stressing the importance of conserving Australia’s rainforests. 1972 – The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) developed the concept of World Heritage and set forth to define appropriate values. The Daintree

45

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


1978 – Conservation groups were given the opportunity to list areas on the National Heritage Register. Some of them included Palmerston National Park, Mossman Gorge and all areas north of the Daintree. 1980 – The Australian Heritage Commission listed a number of rainforests in the northern area in the Register of the National Estate. 1981 – A forester with the Queensland Forestry Department presented the idea that logging in North Queensland was an unsustainable project at the Forestry Conference held in Gympie.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

1983 – A road was cleared by bulldozers to connect the Daintree rainforest with Cape Tribulation and the Bloomfield area. Conservationists created a blockade which drew attention to the area from all over Australia.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

A petition was signed by 12 000 Queensland residents to protect the area of North Queensland. The petition was presented to State parliament.

The Aboriginal Development Commission took court action to stop the construction of the road. 1984 – A visit by the House of Representatives Environment Committee to North Queensland recommended that the Greater Daintree National Park be created. The Rainforest Conservation Society of Queensland evaluated the area between Townsville and Cooktown, known as the Wet Topics, for its conservation significance. The Society decided that the region was one of the most significant regional ecosystems in the world and that it fulfilled the criteria for World Heritage listing. It was recommended that Australia nominated the area for the World Heritage list based on its outstanding universal value.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr e vi ew pur posesonl y• 1986 – The Commonwealth Government established a $22.5 million National Rainforest Conservation Program.

m . u

w ww

. te

1987 – The Commonwealth Government nominated the area for a World Heritage listing against the wishes of the Queensland government. Action was taken in the High Court of Australia by Queensland to stop the nomination on the grounds that it was an infringement on State rights. 1988 – Commercial logging was banned in the area in January. The IUCN sent a team of experts to inspect the site of its value to the World Heritage Commission in April.

o c . che e r o t r s super

The area was approved to be listed as a World Heritage Site in December. It was named the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. 1989 – A new Queensland government was elected and withdrew Queensland’s High Court challenge against the Commonwealth government. 1990 – The Queensland and Commonwealth governments joined together to fund and manage the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area.

Introductory Discussion What is the significance of a World Heritage Site? What does it mean to the area if it is a World Heritage Site? What are the benefits of listing an area as a World Heritage Site? What does UNESCO stand for and what does it do? R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

46

The Daintree


Activity – Page 53 Read the text provided on page 52. Ask students to list all the organisations (including its acronym and its full name) mentioned in the text and all the places mentioned in a separate list. Discuss the number of organisations, planning and coordination involved in such a project. Ask students to complete the activities on page 53. Students will need an atlas to complete the first activity.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Answers

1. (1) Heard and McDonald Islands – lat: 55°S; long: 75°E

(3) Tasmanian Wilderness – lat 42°S; long: 145°E (4a) Australian Fossil Mammal Sites —Naracoorte – lat: 36°S; long: 140°E (4b) Australian Fossil Mammal Sites —Riversleigh – lat: 19°S; long: 139°E

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

(2) Macquarie Island – lat 52°S; long: 160°E

(5) Lord Howe Island Group – lat: 31°S; long: 159°E (6) Central Eastern Australia Rainforest Reserves lat 35°S; long: 150°E

(7) Willandra Lakes Region – lat: 33°S; long: 145°E

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• (8) Shark Bay – lat: 26°S; long: 114°E

(9) Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park – lat 25°S; long: 131°E (10) Kakadu National Park – lat: 14°S; long: 133°E (11) Fraser Island – lat: 25°S; long: 153°E

(12) Wet Tropics of Queensland – lat: 16°S; long: 145°E

w ww

. te

Additional Activities

m . u

(13) Great Barrier Reef – lat: 10°S – 22°S; long: 142°E – 154°E 2. (a) Dr Len Webb identified the tropical rainforest area of North Queensland. (b) UNESCO saw the need to develop the World Heritage Convention.

(c) Twenty countries approved the proposal and the convention was adopted.

o c . che e r o t r s super

(d) Areas of Queensland were nominated for the convention.

(e) The Wet Tropics was declared a natural World Heritage Area.

3. It fulfilled all four criteria of a natural World Heritage Area. It is the only place in the world where two World Heritage Sites actually meet—the Wet Tropics and the Great Barrier Reef.

1. Select one World Heritage Site and research to present a talk to your class about the area. 2. Nominate an area within Australia that is not currently listed as a World Heritage Area. Provide supporting evidence why it should be regarded as such. Present your nomination with supporting evidence to your class. Discussion/Debate Discuss people’s responses to question 3. Not everyone will have the same explanation. Why do you think this is? The Daintree

47

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


The Amazon Rainforest Workbook Pages: 54 – 56 Topic Focus Students will learn the main features of the Amazon Rainforest and have an opportunity to compare it to the Daintree. Keywords continuous, plateau, biological, region, endemic, ecological

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S • atlases • The following websites are recommended: Teacher Journey into Amazonia http://www.pbs.org/journeytoamazonia/

Students Amazon Interactive http://www.eduweb.com/amazon.html

Journey into Amazonia http://www.pbs.org/journeytoamazonia/

Background

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Resources

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

The Amazon Rainforest is the world's largest tropical rainforest, covering more than half of Brazil. It is brimming with life—including 500 mammals, 175 different lizards, 300 other reptile species, tree climbers of every kind and a third of the world's birds. New rainforest species are discovered each year and scientists estimate that less than half of the existing species have been described. Many of these organisms remain unknown due to the remoteness of their habitat.

m . u

w ww

. te

The Amazon Rainforest contains many resources that people need and want. One of these is rubber, collected as liquid latex from rubber trees. In the rainforests of Brazil, people depend on rubber tapping for their livelihood. Cattle ranchers want to clear the land for their cattle herds to graze. These two groups are at opposing ends of the argument to save the rainforest. Some pockets within the Amazon Rainforest are now protected in order to save the rubber tapping industry.

o c . che e r o t r s super

The origins of the Amazon date back some 15 million years when the Andes Mountains formed. The Amazon River flowed west, emptying into the Pacific Ocean before this. When South America collided with another tectonic plate, the Andes formed, blocking the Amazon River, forcing it eventually to flow in the opposite direction. The river reached the Atlantic about 10 million years ago. This changed the environment of the Amazon Basic dramatically, forming the rainforest area we know today.

Introductory Discussion Is the Amazon Rainforest bigger or smaller than the Daintree? Do you think it is more important to preserve the Daintree or the Amazon Rainforest? What would you expect to find in the Amazon Rainforest? Do you think it would be very different from the Daintree Rainforest? R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

48

The Daintree


Activity – Page 55 Study and discuss the map of South America on page 54. Point out that most of the Amazon Rainforest is found in Brazil. Ask students to read the text provided, highlighting the major features of the Amazon Rainforest. Share, as a class group, the features highlighted. Did some students highlight features that others didn’t consider to be important? Why/ Why not? Students can then complete the activities on page 55. Students will require the assistance of an atlas for the first activity.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Answers 1. (a)

(c)

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

(b)

(d) (e)

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 2. tropical; high rainfall, high humidity, high temperatures

3. Brazil, French Guyana, Suriname, Guyana, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia

m . u

4. (a) 1 200 (b) 40% (c) 20% (d) 30 000 (e) six million square kilometres

w ww

Activity – Page 56

. te

The Daintree

Students will need to refer to the information provided on the Daintree and the Amazon Rainforests in order to complete the table and question on page 56. Answers

o c . che e r o t r s super 1.

49

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


2. Answers will vary

Additional Activities Select one plant or animal species found in the Amazon and write a detailed report. Present the report to your classmates in a suitable format. Discussion/Debate Discuss this statement: ‘The whole of the Amazon should be heritage listed’.

Topic Focus

r e p u S

oo k

Workbook Pages: 57 – 61

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Animals ofs the Rainforest or eB t

Students will learn about some of the animals that rely on the rainforest for survival.

Keywords

threatened, rare, lofty, solitary, nocturnal, dispersing, sonar

Resources

• The following websites are recommended: Teacher Rainforests (links page)

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr ev i ewAustralia pur posesonl y• Rainforest http://www.ilanet.net.au/clients/willoughby/crainforest.htm http://rainforest-australia.com/

w ww Background

. te

m . u

Students Daintree http://www.nma.gov.au/coasting/nature/daintree.shtml

Rainforest Australia http://rainforest-australia.com/

Animals of the Rainforest

o c . che e r o t r s super http://www.animalsoftherainforest.com/frames1.htm

Rainforests are extremely rich in animal life. They are populated with insects, arachnids, worms, reptiles, amphibians (such as frogs and toads), birds and mammals. Different animals live in the different layers of the rainforest. For example, birds live in the canopy and emergent layers. Large animals generally live on the forest floor while others are arboreal. Insects are found almost everywhere. Many species of rainforest animals are endangered and many others have become extinct as the rainforests diminish. The web of life in a rainforest is very complex. Generally there are more carnivores than herbivores and more small animals than large animals. Plants are the most abundant. The food web creates enormous competition between animals but there is also a level of interdependence. When one species becomes extinct, it can affect an entire food web and have serious consequences.

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

50

The Daintree


Some species found in the Wet Tropics have close relatives in New Guinea and south-east Asia. When Australia separated from the supercontinent of Gondwana, it slowly drifted northward. About 15 million years ago it connected with the Asian continental plate. This meant that plants and animals from Asia could move into parts of Australia, and plants and animals from Australia could move north into Asia. Introductory Discussion What types of animals would you expect to find in a rainforest?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

What parts of the rainforest do you think supports the most animal life? Why? Move the students into five groups and set each group one animal species to read about on pages 57 – 59. You may wish to have a more able group work through mammals while your less able groups may work through amphibians or freshwater fish. Each group is responsible for reading the information provided and presenting a clear report to the whole class of the information on their particular animal species.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Activity – Pages 60 – 61

Students will still need to read the entire text for themselves before completing the activities on pages 60 and 61, but the information provided by the groups will give them an overview of the text and guide their reading. Ask students to complete the activities on pages 60 and 61.

Answers © R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

1. (a) tree kangaroo, bat or tropical bettong (b) Boyd’s Forest Dragon (c) fish (d) crocodile (e) bat (f) tree kangaroo (g) cassowary (h) Common Green Tree frog (i) Archaeopteryx (j) Taipan, Death Adder 2. (a) 370 species

w ww

. te

m . u

(b) one-third of Australian mammals (~ 40 species) (c) 24 species (d) 78 species

3. The cassowary is the only bird able to distribute the seeds of more than 150 plants— this would cease if the cassowary were no longer a rainforest inhabitant.

o c . che e r o t r s super 4. Answers will vary 5. Answers will vary 6. Answers will vary

The Daintree

51

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


Additional Activities Research to find other animals that live in the rainforest. Write a report and create a class book on the animals of the rainforest. Place in the library for all to read. Discussion/Debate Many species that live in the rainforest are threatened or endangered. Find out the causes and discuss possible solutions.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Plants of the Rainforest

Workbook Pages: 62 – 64

Students will learn about some of the plants that can be found in the Daintree rainforest.

Keywords

primitive, circulate, fronds, crowns, girth, evidence

Resources

• The following websites are recommended: Teacher Rainforest Australia

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Topic Focus

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Rainforest Plants Photo Album •f orr ev i ew pur posesonl y• http://rainforest-australia.com/

http://members.ozemail.com.au/~filejest/nathist/plants.htm

Students Rainforest Australia

m . u

http://rainforest-australia.com/

w ww

Background

. te

Plants in the rainforest have adapted specifically to suit their environment in order to survive.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Buttress roots—Soils found in the typical rainforest are often shallow. Trees tend to stretch their roots out over the surface of the soil, rather than burrow deep underground. This shape serves two purposes, one to support the tall tree and the other to allow the tree to gather nutrients from a greater surface area. Stilt roots—This particular kind of root is often found in flooded or mangrove forests, where it also protects the tree against waves and currents. The roots appear like props emerging from the main trunk about one to two metres above the ground. Drip tips—Many rainforest plants have ‘drip tips’—a pointed leaf which helps drain excess water and reduces vulnerability to mould and animals. Mutualistic relationships—With a constant battle for light, water, nutrients and energy, many rainforest species develop exclusive relationships with each other in order to survive. Some plants provide homes for particular species of animals. Other plants have leaves which provide a source of food for specific species of animals.

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

52

The Daintree


Introductory Discussion What types of plants would you expect to find in a rainforest? Would you expect them to look different from those you may find in a desert (for example)? What special features would you expect rainforest plants to have? Activity – Page 64 Read through the text provided on pages 62 and 63. Ask students to make a list of all the special features of the plants listed in the text. For example, it is a special feature to produce fruit, which animals can then eat and finally disperse the seeds for further growth within the rainforest.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Answers

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Students can then complete the activity on page 64. 1. Erratum notice: The artwork for C. and E. was unclear. This has since been corrected on future copies of the student workbook and these answers reflect the new artwork. A. mushrooms

B. Tree Fern

C. Bull Kauri

D. King Fern

E. Fan Palm

F. Plum Pine

2. rare: unusual or uncommon threatened: in possible danger 3. They provide food for some rainforest animals.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Additional Activities 4. (a) Wait a While palm (b) conifers (c) Hope’s Cycad

(d) carnivorous plants (e) 700 (f) Valley of the Palms (g) 40

m . u

Select a plant which can be found in the rainforest. Write a report as if you were a botanist. Include diagrams and labels, its life cycle, where it can be found, what it lives on and any interesting facts.

w ww

Discussion/Debate

. te

The Daintree

The plants in the rainforest are some of the oldest species on earth. Discuss how these plants in the rainforest can be saved from future development.

o c . che e r o t r s super

53

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


Rainforest Aboriginal People Workbook Pages: 65 – 66 Topic Focus Students will learn about the Aboriginal heritage relating to the rainforest. Keywords obliged, custom, seasonal cycles, temporary, generation, terrain, heritage Resources

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S • The following websites are recommended: Teacher Rainforest Aboriginal Heritage Students Rainforest Aboriginal Heritage

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

http://www.wettropics.gov.au/rah/heritage_home.htm

http://www.wettropics.gov.au/rah/heritage_home.htm

Stories of the Dreaming (as text, audio or video) http://www.dreamtime.net.au/storylist.htm

Background

The rainforest Aboriginal people consider the Wet Tropics as a series of complex ‘living’ cultural landscapes. This means that natural features are interwoven with their religion, spirituality, resources (including food, medicines, tools) and social and moral organisation. The landscape identifies the place of the rainforest Aboriginal people within their country and reinforces their laws and connection to the land, which has enormous meaning and significance to its traditional owners.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr e vi ew pur posesonl y• Before European settlement, the rainforests of North Queensland were one of

m . u

w ww

. te

the most populated areas of Australia. The environment provided everything for the rainforest Aboriginal people, physically and spiritually. Aboriginal people also had an excellent system in place that involved the bartering of resources among different groups. Aboriginal people want the importance of their culture recognised, respected and protected. To ensure the ongoing survival of their culture, rainforest Aboriginal people have been negotiating with government agencies for shared management of their traditional country.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Rainforest Aboriginal people want to be recognised as the traditional land owners of the World Heritage Area, with distinct cultures and individual needs. They would like to be involved with all aspects of land management decision making, activities such as tourism and walking tracks planning, fire management and wildlife protection and management.

Introductory Discussion What do you think life was like for the rainforest Aboriginal people before European settlement? What do you think life is like now for the rainforest Aboriginal people? Activity – Page 66 Have students read the text provided on page 65. In pairs, they can design a chart which they can then use to record the life of the rainforest Aboriginal people before European settlement and life of the rainforest Aboriginal people after R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

54

The Daintree


European settlement. Keywords and phrases will need to be extracted from the text. Ask students to share their charts with the class. Students can then complete the activities on page 66. Answers 1. (a) Introduced diseases such as flu and smallpox. (b) Hunting areas could not be reached. (c) Roads were built.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

2. The network of walking tracks was no longer able to be used by the Aboriginal people, limiting access to their cultural heritage.

4. Always ensured an abundance of food and that there would be enough of a food supply each season. 5. Answers will vary

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

3. language; song; stories; dance

Additional Activities

1. Use recycled materials to recreate a shelter as used by the rainforest Aboriginal people. 2. Research to find Aboriginal Creation Stories about the rainforest. Choose your favourite and tell it to the class.

1. Debate: boriginal people should have more © R. I . C .P‘Au bl i ca t i o n sright to the land as they take more care of it than non-Aboriginal people do’. •f orr evi e ur p ose on yeveryone • have the 2. w Discussp everyone’s opinions froms question 5.l Does

Discussion/Debate

same ideas?

w ww

Topic Focus

Keywords

. te

m . u

Human Impact

Workbook Pages: 67 – 68

o c . che e r o t r s super Students will learn of the impact of humans and the steps being taken to conserve the rainforest areas.

endangered, depleted, convert, efficiently, vicious, reduction, sustain

Resources • The following websites are recommended: Teacher EPA Global Warming Site http://www.epa.gov/globalwarming/

Photosynthesis http://sambal.co.uk/photosynthesis.html

The Daintree

55

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


Pollution http://sambal.co.uk/pollution.html

Students The Greenhouse Effect (experiment) http://www.energy.ca.gov/education/projects/projects-html/greenhouse.html

How the Greenhouse Effect Works http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Forum/4821/

The Greenhouse Effect

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

http://www.epa.gov/globalwarming/kids/greenhouse.html

The rainforests are an amazing resource for millions of people around the world. Many of the things we buy and use every day, such as fruit, vegetables, ingredients for medicines and construction materials, come from the rainforest. However, rainforests are disappearing at an alarming rate daily, because they are not being sustainably harvested.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Background

Although rainforests have been around for millions of years—they may not be around much longer. At the present rate of destruction, all the earth's rainforests will be gone in 30 years. Once a rainforest is destroyed, it doesn't grow back. It is estimated that 137 species of plants and animals become extinct every day in rainforests around the world.

Introductory Discussion

Do you think rainforests will be here forever? Why/Why not? ©R . I . C.Publ i cat i ons Why are rainforests being destroyed? Why are rainforests too thes earth? •f orr e vi e w pimportant ur p esonl y•

Activity – Page 68

m . u

w ww

. te

Read the text at the top of page 67. Record the figures which demonstrate the rate at which rainforests are disappearing. To give students an idea of the size of a hectare, take them outside the classroom and walk the boundary of an approximate hectare. Discuss the flow diagram on page 67 and its implications for people, animals and plants.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Read the text at the bottom of page 67. Form students into groups to discuss how they could help environmentally, at school and at home. Every little bit makes a difference! Ask students to complete the activities on page 68. Answers

1. The temperature in the atmosphere rises as the rainforest is reduced and can not convert carbon dioxide efficiently. 2. Answers will vary 3. Answers will vary 4. Answers will vary

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

56

The Daintree


Additional Activities 1. Make a list of all the recycled products your school uses. If there are none, make suggestions for products which could be used. 2. Research and write a procedure showing how plants convert carbon dioxide to oxygen. Use diagrams wherever possible. Discussion/Debate 1. Debate: ‘Rainforests should be protected at all costs’.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

2. Discuss everyone’s education campaigns from question 4. Select the five that the whole class likes and present them to the school and local community.

w ww

. te

The Daintree

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

57

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


Assessment Assessment and Evaluation The activity on page 60 is provided as one assessment tool in the study of this unit. It is designed to indicate broad student understanding and also provide opportunity for student feedback. The following outcomes were addressed in this topic of study. The following pages can be photocopied as a record of student performance or as a proforma for portfolio assessment.

Administration

Place and Space PS4.1 The student understands that similarities in the natural and built features in different places give rise to patterns. PS4.3 The student understands that people act to sustain the environment according to their values. Resources R4.2 The student understands that people make decisions in order to be efficient and enterprising in their use of resources. Time, Continuity and Change TCC4.3 The student understands that people develop a perspective on a particular issue or event according to their beliefs and heritage. Natural and Social Systems NSS4.1 The student understands that different elements respond and attempt to adapt to changes in natural systems.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Outcomes

Distribute the. activity sheet oni page 60t ofi the ©R . I . C Pu bl ca oTeachers nsGuide, one per student. Ask students to write their name in the top right-hand corner of the page. Read through the activity sheet top ensure areo clearn about what they are being •f orr e vi e w p ur ostudents ses l y • asked to do. At this stage, give students the opportunity to seek clarification of any part of the activity sheet they may not understand.

. te

m . u

w ww

Answers

It is important students work independently on these activities—this provides a true representation of what students understand or of their lack of understanding. Once students have completed the activity, collect the worksheets. Mark and record results. From this activity sheet, some students may be found to require further work to develop their understanding in a particular area.

o c . che e r o t r s super

1. A rainforest is a biome that is most often found between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. It has a wet, humid climate and many species of plants and animals that have adapted to suit. 2. (a)

(b) (c) (d) (e)

3. Emergent Layer; Canopy Layer; Understorey; Forest Floor 4. The water cycle; home to so many animal and plant species; conversion of carbon dioxide 5. Answers will vary 6. Answers will vary R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

58

The Daintree


The Daintree Student Name:

Date:

Task At the conclusion of the unit ‘The Daintree’, students were asked to complete an activity sheet independently to demonstrate their understanding of the unit.

Indicators

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Demonstrated

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

• Demonstrates an understanding of what makes a rainforest ‘a rainforest’. • Shows specified rainforest areas, geological features and the continents which made up Gondwana on a map of the world. • Names the parts that make up a rainforest. • Demonstrates an awareness of the value of rainforests to the earth, its people, plants and animals. • Understands the importance of the traditional owners of the rainforest land.

Needs Further Opportunity

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons | • f o r r e v i ew pur posesonl y• Workbook Activities

Discussion and Debate

Needs Improvement

Needs Improvement

Satisfactory

| Satisfactory

|

|

m . u

Additional Activities Needs Improvement

w ww

|

Further Research

. te

Skills and Attitudes

Needs Improvement

o c . che e r o t r s super |

Needs Improvement

|

General Comment

Satisfactory

| Satisfactory

| Satisfactory

|

Student Comment

The Daintree

59

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


The Daintree 1. Describe a rainforest.

2. On this map of the world: (a) show the Daintree rainforest

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

(b) show the Amazon rainforest (c) label the Tropic of Cancer

(d) label the Tropic of Capricorn

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

(e) shade the continents that made up Gondwana

3. Name the parts that make up a rainforest.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

4. Give three reasons why rainforests are important to the earth. (i)

w ww

(iii)

. te

m . u

(ii)

o c . che e r o t r s super

5. Why is it important to recognise the traditional owners of the rainforest?

8. List three interesting pieces of information you learnt in this unit. (i) (ii) (iii) R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

60

The Daintree


Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

w ww

. te

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super


Bali Unit Focus Bali provides students with the opportunity to develop an understanding of traditional Balinese culture and how it has changed because of interactions between different cultures. Students will locate Bali and its neighbours on a map; be provided with a brief overview of what Bali is like geographically; learn about the various aspects of Balinese culture, food, lifestyle and housing; and gain an awareness of Balinese events, festivals and tourist attractions. Unit Topics

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

• Where is Bali? .................................................................... 70 – 71 • What is Bali like? ................................................................ 72 – 74 • Balinese Culture – Then and Now—1 ................................ 75 – 77 • Balinese Culture – Then and Now—2 ................................ 78 – 79 • Balinese Culture – Then and Now—3 ................................ 80 – 82 • Food ................................................................................... 83 – 85 • Village Life .......................................................................... 86 – 88 • Traditional Housing ............................................................. 89 – 91 • Events and Festivals ........................................................... 92 – 93 • Tourism .............................................................................. 94 – 96

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

The topics selected to develop this understanding are:

Outcomes and Indicators

Place and Space ©R . I . CThe .P ubl i cat i ons PS4.2 student understands that people and places are interdependent. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• • describe how irrigation technology influences how places are used • describe how different farming types are examples of interdependence

Resources R4.1 The student understands that people make decisions about efficient resource use to increase their ability to satisfy needs and wants.

Culture C4.1

m . u

w ww

. te

• identify examples of how different countries around the world use and develop resources

The student understands that beliefs and traditions influence the nature of cultures.

o c . che e r o t r s super

• recognise that family/kinship ties are consistent themes in cultures

C4.2

The student understands that groups in communities have a social organisation that reflects particular beliefs. • describe the respective roles of men and women in a particular culture

C4.3

The student understands that cultures exert an influence on people’s identities and their roles, rights and responsibilities as members of cultural groups. • describe the importance of customs and traditions to people who observe them • describe ways in which responsibilities may be shared in a cultural group • identify and discuss ways in which cultural events may serve to maintain practices and beliefs about roles, rights and responsibilities of the individual

Time, Continuity and Change TCC4.3 The student understands that people develop a perspective on a particular issue or event according to their beliefs and heritage. • justify an opinion either protesting against or supporting a particular issue

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

62

Bali


Where is Bali? Workbook Pages: 70 – 71 Topic Focus Students will learn where Bali is located and its physical relationship to Australia. Keywords south-east Asia, Indonesia, equator, republic, geographical Resources

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

http://sunsite.nus.edu.sg/SEAlinks/maps/cia-SouthEastAsia.jpg

Rafflesia Arnoldi

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

• atlases • The following websites are recommended: Teacher South-East Asia map

http://bengkulu.wasantara.net.id/yahoo/wisata/bunga.html

Students South-East Asia map

http://sunsite.nus.edu.sg/SEAlinks/maps/cia-SouthEastAsia.jpg

Official Website of Indonesia and Bali Tourism http://www.indonesia-tourism.com/

Bali Paradise (good overview site)

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Background Bali is a tropical island located in the Indonesian archipelago. It is thought that •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Bali has been populated since about 300 BC. Some of the earliest records found in Bali were on stone inscriptions dating back to the 9th century AD. By this stage, the Balinese way of life was already developing, with rice growing via a very complex irrigation system. Their cultural and artistic activities were already developed and probably appealed as much to visitors then as they do today.

m . u

w ww

. te

http://www.bali-paradise.com/bali/index.html

Between 1019 and 1042, during the reign of King Airlangga, Hindu Java began to spread its influence into Bali. The royal Javanese language, known as Kawi, began being used by the royalty in Bali. At Gunung Kawi near Tampaksiring, rock-cut memorials can be seen which show a strong architectural link between Bali and Java.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Dutch seamen were the first Europeans to set foot on Bali in 1597. The crew enjoyed the Bali lifestyle to such an extent, that when their ship’s captain prepared to set sail, half of them refused to leave. In 1710 the Dutch began to divide and conquer Bali. Just after the end of World War II, the leader of Indonesia at the time, Sukarno, proclaimed the nation as independent of Dutch rule. It took four years for the Dutch to realise they no longer had control over the ‘colony’.

Introductory Discussion Has anyone ever travelled to Bali? Has anyone ever seen pictures of Bali, or Bali featured on a travel show? Which is the best way to get to Bali? Would anyone like to visit Bali? Why/Why not? Bali

63

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


Activity – Pages 70 – 71 Study the maps on page 70 and discuss the proximity of Bali to Australia. Students can read the text provided with the maps and highlight any information which describes Bali. Students may not have been aware that Bali is part of Indonesia. Bali’s geography is very similar to that of the rest of Indonesia, so if students have travelled to other parts of Indonesia, they will be familiar with the features of Bali. Use the circular map to discuss lines of longitude and latitude and the degrees displayed on these lines. Point out that the Equator is 0°, the next line of longitude below the Equator is 30° South etc.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Answers

1. (a) True

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Ask students to complete the activities on pages 70 and 71. Students may find the use of an atlas helpful for questions 4 and 5.

(b) False (c) Republic (d) one-twelfth (e) ~ 2 826 000

2. Because it is the greatest distance away from any other capital city in the world. 3. Summer – hot and humid; wet

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Winter – warm and dry

w ww

. te

m . u

4.

o c . che e r o t r s super 5. (a) latitude: 31.57°S

longitude: 115.51°E

(b) latitude: 12.27°S

longitude: 130.50°E

(c) latitude: 8.40°S

longitude: 115.4°E

(d) Teacher check 6. Answers will vary

Additional Activities Bali is a popular tourist destination for Australians. What are its major tourist attractions? R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

64

Bali


Discussion/Debate As part of Asia, Australia needs to become more ‘Asian’ and less ‘European’.

What is Bali like? Workbook Pages: 72 – 74 Topic Focus

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Students will investigate the geography, climate, and flora and fauna of Bali.

Keywords Resources

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

geography, flora, fauna, tropical, culture, enrich, manicured • The following websites are recommended: Teacher Official Website of Indonesia and Bali Tourism http://www.indonesia-tourism.com/

Bali Paradise (good overview site)

http://www.bali-paradise.com/bali/index.html

Students Official Website of Indonesia and Bali Tourism

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Bali Paradise (good overview site) •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• http://www.indonesia-tourism.com/

http://www.bali-paradise.com/bali/index.html

Background

w ww

. te

m . u

Bali, one of the most well-known and most beautiful islands of Indonesia, is very popular with tourists. It is a small island situated just off the coast of Java. Denpasar is located on the south of the island and is the capital of Bali. Mount Agung is the highest mountain on Bali and was once an active volcano. It last erupted in 1963. Batur, considered one of the largest lakes on Bali, is also a volcano and is still active.

o c . che e r o t r s super

The islands sits 8° south of the equator and boasts very fertile land. The most fertile areas used for agriculture are south and north of the central mountains. The south side of the island is used mainly for rice growing, while the north is used mainly for export crops such as coffee, copra and rice. Cattle are also raised on the north side of the island. Coffee, copra and cattle are Bali’s major agricultural exports. Most of the rice grown remains in Bali to feed the local population. Tourism is also important to the Balinese economy. Bali provides accommodation, meals and services to many visitors as well as cultural experiences and arts and crafts. Bali is a very densely populated island, with a population of 2.5 million people. The government is trying to control the population with a family planning slogan of ‘two is enough’, which can be seen on roadside posters. Many young families are limiting themselves to two children instead of the usual seven or nine children of past generations.

Bali

65

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


Introductory Discussion What do you think Bali is like? What would you expect to see in Bali? Do you think Bali is similar to Australia in any way? How? Would you expect to see the same animals we see in Australia in Bali? Why/why not? Activity – Pages 73 – 74

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Students can read the text with their focus on the geographical features, animals and plant life found on Bali. On notepaper, students can draw three columns, one for features, one for animals and one for plants. Record the appropriate information from the text under each heading. Some students may need to read and re-read the text to gather all the information correctly. Compare the information under each column to the features, animals and plants of Australia. Are there any similarities or differences between Australia and Bali?

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Study the photograph of the Balinese countryside provided on page 72. The land has obviously been cleared in this photograph. Ask students why they think the land has been cleared. What else can the students see in the photograph?

Ask students to complete the activities on pages 73 and 74 of the workbook. Answers

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 1. (a) black panther; leopard (b) Answers will vary

(c) form the land; enrich the soil; influence the rainfall

(d) Because of their height—they have a higher altitude which is cooler.

(e) Answers will vary; because the land is cleared of dense tropical jungles and extensively farmed.

m . u

w ww

. te

2. Bali Plants – wide variety of flowering plants; dense tropical jungles; palms; mangrove forests; bamboo Animals – large cats; monkeys; deer; wild pigs; cattle; buffalo; snakes; civet cats; insects; birds Tourist Attractions – swimming; surfing; diving; volcanoes; tourist resorts; picturesque villages; shopping; art and crafts Environmental Features – volcanoes; sandy beaches; dense tropical rainforests; mangrove forests

o c . che e r o t r s super My Community—Answers will vary

3. Teacher check

4. Answers will vary

5. (a) hot, wet season – November to March warm, ‘dry’ season – April to October (b) Summer – December to February Autumn – March to May Winter – June to August Spring – September to November 6. Answers will vary

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

66

Bali


Additional Activities Find out in what ways mountains can affect the climate of a country. Discussion/Debate ‘If an animal species becomes endangered, that’s the law of nature and humans should not interfere.’

Balinese Culture – Then and Now—1

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Workbook Pages: 75 – 77

Students will compare traditional Balinese culture with the culture of today.

Keywords

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Topic Focus

culture, traditional, contemporary, reflected, complex

Resources

• The following websites are recommended: Teacher Yothu Yindi http://www.YothuYindi.com/

Australian Music © R. I . C .PAboriginal ubl i cat i ons Balinese Art •f orr evi e w pur posesonl y•

http://www.scu.edu.au/schools/carts/contmusic/musicarchive/AusGeneral.html http://www.balifolder.com/reference/culture/02,01.shtml

Students An Overview of Balinese Culture

w ww

Background

. te

Balinese Daily Life http://pande.addr.com/culture/daily.html

Balinese Culture

m . u

http://pande.addr.com/culture/

http://www.alphalink.com.au/~grum/culture.html

o c . che e r o t r s super

Painting The village of Kamasan boasts the closest link with traditional Balinese painting. Artists and illustrators, known as ‘Sangging’, settled in this area to serve the kings. Many ruling families, up until this century, employed these artists to decorate their palaces and temples in the Kamasan style of painting. The most popular form of painting, until the beginning of this century, was the portrayal of Hindu epics or ‘Langse’. These were narratives painted on large pieces of cloth and either hung on walls in temples or used as curtains in palaces. This form of artwork was also used as decorations during festive occasions. The Kamasan artists are also famous for an East Javanese style of art known as ‘Wayang’ art. This type of artwork is governed by strict guidelines as to how the characters should be portrayed—from the colours used, to the clothes being worn, even down to which direction the character should be facing. Noblemen are always portrayed with very refined faces.

Bali

67

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


In the early 1900s, the Western art influence reached Bali. European artists moved to Bali and encouraged Balinese artists to be more expressive and less bound by tradition. Some of the different styles of painting in Bali, include: Batuan Style: This style involves hundreds of intricately painted representations of Balinese life filling every available nook and cranny of the canvas. Keliki Style: They contain scenes of mythical and Ramayanic characters engaged in battle, good versus evil, on sinister backgrounds. Paintings are rarely larger than 20 cm by 15 cm.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Ubud Style: This style is influenced by the Western use of perspective and everyday life subject matter. It still retains many traditional features, attention to detail and very stylised characters.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Pengosekan Style: These paintings are more realistic and less expressive and concentrate on natural components such as birds, insects, butterflies and plants.

Music Music, dance and drama are all very closely related in Bali. Music accompanies most dances except the ‘Kechak’. The gamelan is the major instrument in Balinese music. Because it is so important, the Balinese often refer to the entire orchestra as the gamelan. Gamelan music is predominantly percussion, which sounds strange at first to visitors. Only Balinese men are allowed to play a gamelan.

©R . I . C.Publ i cat i ons Balinese culture is the considered to be the most ‘artistic’ in the world. What term could be given Australian culture? why. •f orr e vi ew ptou r po seExplain so nl y•

Introductory Discussion

Everyone in Bali is seen as an artist. What would everyone in Australia be seen as? Explain why.

w ww

. te

m . u

Activity – Pages 76 – 77

Read through the first two paragraphs of the text provided on page 75 with the students. Break the class into two groups. One group is to read and summarise the section on painting while the other group is to read and summarise the section on music. Pair the students, so that one student has summarised painting while the other student has summarised music. The pairs can then share with each other the information they have gained from reading the text.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Bring the class back together. The photograph on page 75 shows a ‘gamelan’ in action. Ask students if the description of the text matches what they imagined a gamelan to look like. Did they expect to see the players sitting, or did they imagine they would be standing and moving around? Ask students if they can explain why the gamelan might sit during a performance. Ask students to complete the activities on pages 76 and 77. Answers 1. red – barak; vermilion – kencu; blue – pelung; indigo – tengi; yellow – kuning; white – putih; black – selem 2. (a) Balinese artists began painting scenes of daily life and landscapes in bright oilbased colours.

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

68

Bali


(b) Answers will vary 3. Answers will vary 4. Answers will vary 5. Answers will vary 6. Answers will vary

Additional Activities Using only the traditional Balinese colours, paint an artistic work showing a mystical aspect of Australia.

Discussion/Debate

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Discuss the effects visitors from other cultures have on the countries they visit. Discuss both the positive and negative aspects.

Balinese Culture – Then and Now—2

Workbook Pages: 78 – 79

Topic Focus

Students will compare traditional Balinese culture with the culture of today.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons historically, performance, epic, adapted, colonisation, classical orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Resources •f Keywords

• The following websites are recommended: Teacher Balinese Dance and Drama

w ww Background

. te

Students Balinese Dance http://pande.addr.com/culture/dance.html

m . u

http://www.balivision.com/bali/dances.htm

o c . che e r o t r s super Balinese Dance, Music and Drama (mainly pictorial)

http://sites.netscape.net/pbaturindah/pondokbaturindah/musicd.html

Dance and drama is historically the method by which Balinese culture is expressed. Its role is very important in religious ceremonies as the dance and drama is often dedicated to the gods. It is unthinkable in Bali to perform a temple ceremony without dance and drama. There are several kinds of dances: • Entertainment dances, to please the spectators including the gods. • Temple dances, such as Pendet and Kris dance. • Trance dances, such as the Fire dance. • Ritual dances, such as the Baris.

Barong and Rangda: A type of trance dance telling of the struggle between good and evil. The dancers fight in a trance and a priest helps them, with the use of holy water, to come out of the trance when the dance is finished. The dance gives the message that a balance of good and evil is necessary, that you can’t have harmony until the balance is obtained. Bali

69

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


Kris dance: A group of Balinese men with the natural ability to enter a trance are armed with a kris (traditional sword). Rangda insults Barong and taunts the men; enraged and in a trance they attack her! Her powers are so strong that they are knocked out. When they eventually come to they are so distressed by their failure, that they try to stab themselves with their kris. Their trance state protects them from injury. Pendet dance: An everyday dance of the temples, which is a small procedure to follow before making temple offerings.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Fire dance: The Sanghyang trance dance, also known as the fire dance, was originally performed to drive out evil spirits from a village. A priest is always on hand to help bring the dancers out of their trance at the end of the performance. Dance is very important to the Balinese culture. Can you name a culture in Australia that uses and values dancing in a similar fashion. Do you know how to perform any types of dance?

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Introductory Discussion

What types of things do you think Balinese dancers do in their dances?

Activity – Page 79

Study the picture provided on page 78 of the student workbook. Students can move into small groups to discuss ‘what they see’ in the photograph. Pay particular attention to the posture and gestures shown by the dancers. What can they see in the background of the photograph?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Students can then read through the text, retrieving information that explains the origins of the andr thep movements used the dancers. Ask students to •f orr e vi e wdances pu ose sbyo n l y• make brief summaries of these two aspects from the text. Answers

w ww

. te

m . u

Students can then complete the activities on page 79 of the student workbook. 1. The history and traditions of the Balinese people. They tell stories of myth and magic, good and evil. 2. (a) False (b) False (c) True (d) False (e) False

o c . che e r o t r s super 3. (a) the harmonic and rhythmic backing to a melody (b) an exceptionally enjoyable part

(c) something that brings about change

4.

5. Answers will vary; because the dances are quite long and in-depth. 6. Answers will vary

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

70

Bali


Additional Activities View a traditional Balinese dance. Afterwards, write how it made you feel; the aspects you liked best; and the parts you liked least. Discussion/Debate Traditional forms of dance should be left unchanged, not made to suit modern audiences.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Balinese Culture – Then and Now—3 Workbook Pages: 80 – 82

Students will compare traditional Balinese culture with the culture of today.

Keywords

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Topic Focus

majority, temples, offerings, rites of passage, morality, reincarnation

Resources

• The following websites are recommended: Teacher Balinese Religion and Temples

© R. I . C .Publ i cat i ons Balinese Religion •f orr evi e w pur posesonl y• Students http://www.inm-asiaguides.com/Bali/ebalirt.htm

http://www.balivision.com/BalineseCulture/Religionintroduction.htm

Balinese Religion

m . u

http://schools.4j.lane.edu/roosevelt/studentwork/cproj/studentprojects/bali/ religion.html

w ww

Background

. te

Religion The majority of Balinese follow the Hindu belief. Hinduism was the predominant religion in Indonesia but died out with the spread of Islam through the region. Bali was one of the only islands to continue with the Hindu belief even though it was quite different from the Hindu religion of India. Religion is very obvious in Bali, there are temples in every village, shrines in every field and offerings made at every corner. Religion is used as a way to celebrate and to join families and the community together.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Beliefs Manusa Yadnya is the name given to the series of ceremonies and rituals used to mark each stage of Balinese life. Birth: The very first Balinese ceremony occurs even before the birth. Soon after birth another ceremony is held to bury the placenta along with various offerings. The next ceremony occurs when the baby is 212 days old. Names: The Balinese use four basic first names, and these are repeated if families have more than four children. Children are named in order of birth, either Wayan or Putu, Made or Kadek, Nyoman or Komang and the fourth child is named Ketut.

Bali

71

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


Childhood: Older children generally are responsible for the care of the younger ones. After the initial ceremonies of babyhood, there are ceremonies to mark children moving into childhood and also puberty, where children have their teeth filed. Marriage: All Balinese people expect to marry and raise a family. Marriage generally occurs at a relatively young age. These days, marriages are generally not arranged, but couples must follow strict rules when marrying between the castes.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Death and Cremation: This final ceremony is the biggest Balinese ceremony of all. This is a spectacular, colourful, noisy and exciting event. It can sometimes take years to organise, so the body is given a temporary burial until a suitable day is selected for the cremation. The body is carried to a high tower made of bamboo, paper, string, tinsel, silk, cloth, mirrors, flowers and anything else considered to be bright and colourful. The size of the tower is dependent upon the importance of the dead person. Men carry the tower, taking precautions along the way so that the dead person’s spirit does not find its way home again. They do this by shaking the tower, running around in circles, spinning it around and throwing water at it. A gamelan travels alongside the tower to provide loud and exciting music for the journey. At the site for the cremation, the body is transferred into a sarcophagus, which can be in the shape of a bull, winged lion or a type of elephant fish. The whole lot is then set alight.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Men and Women: Certain tasks are only handled by women, while others can only be done by men. This differentiation also occurs in social and leisure activities. For example, both men and women are able to dance, but only men are allowed to play the gamelan.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Introductory Discussion What is a belief? What is a life stage?

w ww

. te

Activity – Pages 81 – 82

What life stage are you in? How are life stages celebrated by your family?

m . u

What are some of your beliefs?

o c . che e r o t r s super

Ask the students to read the text on page 80 of the student workbook. Ask them what the Balinese people do in their everyday lives to please their gods. Do they think they could follow the same approach? How do they think it would affect them and the people around them? Students can try following this approach for one week. At the end of that time, report back to the class any positive or negative effects they have experienced. Students can complete the activities on pages 81 and 82. Answers 1. (a) fruit; rice; flowers (b) To make the gods happy. 2. Think good thoughts; speak with honesty; and do good deeds. 3. Dance and drama – through morality plays and epic poetry, shadow puppet plays or operas. 4. To please the gods, which will hopefully ensure a plentiful harvest.

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

72

Bali


5. Balinese Belief When a person dies, his or her soul is ‘reborn’ as someone else. The soul is freed by cremation and the ashes are scattered over the sea. The whole family and a holy man attend the birth of a baby because it is thought to be the reincarnation of an ancestor. My Belief Answers will vary

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Marriage – The Balinese believe that they have a duty to marry and have children, so that their race may continue. Marriage is also a means of honouring their ancestors. To fail to marry is seen as being very selfish—something which will be punished in the next life. Many Balinese marriages are prearranged, though this is changing as the Balinese adopt more Western-style ideas of romance and marriage for love.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

6. Balinese Belief/Custom Birth – When a Balinese child is born it is a time for great happiness, because the child is thought to be the reincarnation of an ancestor. The whole family attends the child’s birth, as well as a holy man. At birth, the child is considered ‘sacred’, and its feet are not allowed to touch the ground. At 212 days old, the baby’s hair is cut and it is given its name. Now the baby is free to play like other children. Balinese children are not permitted to crawl—they are carried until they are old enough to walk.

Death – Part of the Balinese Hindu belief is reincarnation. That is, when a person dies, his or her soul is ‘reborn’ as someone else. However, for this to happen the soul has to be ‘freed’ from the earthly body. The Balinese do this by cremation—burning the coffin and body to free the soul. After the cremation, the ashes are scattered over the sea. To the Balinese, a cremation is a time of joy, not sadness; with laughter, music and dancing.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Additional Activities My Belief/Custom Answers will vary

Research to find pictures of Balinese masks. Design your own mask in the Balinese style.

w ww

. te

Bali

m . u

Discussion/Debate

The aim of Balinese belief is to reach harmony between the spirit and the material life. Discuss people’s views about this.

o c . che e r o t r s super

73

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


Food Workbook Pages: 83 – 85 Topic Focus Students will examine some areas of change in Balinese society and compare them to Australia. Keywords adapted, produce, influences, imported, familiar, cuisines

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

• atlases • recipe books may be helpful to display the types of foods mentioned in the text • The following websites are recommended: Teacher Food in Bali: Island Cuisine in Context http://www.99bali.com/food/food/index.html

Students Balinese Food http://www.baliclick.com/food/1/index.asp

Balinese Food

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Resources

http://travel.roughguides.com/content/11760/27929.htm

Balinese Food © R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Balinese Lamb (recipe) •f orr ev i ew pur posesonl y• http://www.indo.com/culture/food.html

http://www.99bali.com/food/recipes/kambingmekuah.html

Background

m . u

w ww

. te

A typical Balinese meal is quite simple; it consists of plain rice, one or two dishes of vegetables and a piece of dry fish or meat, served with some grated coconut, peanuts and a mixture of spices—mainly turmeric and chilli. Rice is eaten at every meal, hence the relatively huge amount of land set aside for rice crops. Balinese people usually eat three meals a day. Breakfast can be a cup of coffee, or a plate of ‘nasi goreng’ or fried rice. Lunch is the main meal of the day, with a plate of steamed rice, complete with a number of main courses, usually meat or fish, vegetables and soup. Dinner is a smaller version of lunch. Desserts for both lunch and dinner can vary from a range of fruits, depending on the season, to a special dessert such as fried banana fritters (pisang goreng) or fermented sticky rice (tape).

o c . che e r o t r s super

Extra effort is made to prepare foods for special occasions and ceremonies. A favourite at this time is ‘babi guling’ or spit-roasted pig, served with ‘lawar’, a spicy raw meat mash. Another speciality is ‘betutu bebek’ or smoked duck, cooked very slowly in an earth oven.

Introductory Discussion What types of foods do you eat every day? Do you eat any special foods during special occasions? Name some foods that are eaten in Australia that come from other countries. R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

74

Bali


Activity – Pages 84 – 85 Students can read the text on page 83 of the student workbook. Ask them to highlight the Balinese foods mentioned in the text. Ask the students if they have ever tasted any of the foods mentioned. Are any of these foods available in Australia? Students can then discuss the various foods that are also available in Bali from other countries. It is a good opportunity to point out that this has, also occurred in Australia. Encourage students to discuss why other nations foods are readily available in Australia. Do they think it is good to have such a variety of choices available?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Answers

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Students can then complete the activities on pages 85 and 86. They may need some introduction to various tropical fruits to help them with their understanding of what they look and taste like. 1.

2. Answers will vary

w ww

. te

3. Answers will vary 4. Answers will vary

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

5. Bali – white rice; lauk; sambal; satay; mie goreng; gado-gado; bakso; pisang goreng; tupat; lawar Australia – Answers will vary

o c . che e r o t r s super 6. Answers will vary

7. Pictures from left to right – jackfruit; papaya; durian; rambutan; mango; pawpaw

Additional Activities

Design and present a menu for a Balinese restaurant.

Discussion/Debate When visiting another country, people should eat only the national cuisine.

Bali

75

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


Village Life Workbook Pages: 86 – 88 Topic Focus Students will examine traditional Balinese village life and compare it to Australia. Keywords extended family, self-sufficient, industrialised, administered, hereditary Resources

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S • The following websites are recommended: Teacher Village Life and Ceremonies Students Village Life (Follow topics in submenu)

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

http://www.reachtheworld.org/village_life_and_ceremonies_in.html

http://www.balifolder.com/reference/folks/11,01.shtml

Bali Photo Gallery: Village Life

http://www.indopac.com/bali_gallery/village_life_gallery/villagelife.html

Background

Most Balinese people live on the land and support themselves through agriculture. Those people who live in tourist locations tend to prefer the higher-paying jobs in the tourism or hospitality industries.

The. Balinese relyP onu theb caste system in i their ©R I . C. l i cat oeveryday nslife—similar to a class system known to the Western world. There are four castes: •e Pedanas: the highest caste, consisting ofo priests ory scholars. •f orr evi w p u r p o s e s n l • • Satrias: the second caste, consisting of warriors and nobility. • Wesias: the third caste, consisting of merchants. • Sundras: the fourth and lowest caste, consisting of farmers and labourers.

m . u

w ww

. te

Bali consists of eight districts known as ‘kabupatens’. They are: Badung; Bangli; Buleleng; Gianyar; Jembrana; Karangasem; Klungkung; and Tabanan. Badung is the most densely populated of all the districts and is located in the south, with the capital of Denpasar.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Each district is headed by a government official known as a ‘bupati’. Each district is then further divided into subdistricts known as ‘kecamatan’. The head of this subdivision is known as the ‘camat’. Kecamatans are further divided into villages, known as ‘desa’. The people in charge of the desa are known as ‘perbekels’. These villages are then broken down into the smallest unit, known as the ‘banjar’. The head of each family is represented at the banjar when it meets to make and vote on decisions affecting the community. The family is the basic unit in Balinese society. A group of families living together in a village is called a ‘banjar’. Farmers also have their own organisation, known as a ‘subak’. This group controls and manages village life, rice fields and, in particular, irrigation. There may be several subaks in one banjar. The banjar and subak work together to maintain Balinese life in the face of increasing pressure for change.

Introductory Discussion Who makes the decisions in your community? What are the levels of government in Australia? R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

76

Bali


What are the names given to the heads of government in Australia? How would you take an idea you have for improving your community to the government? Activity – Pages 87 – 88 Study the photograph on page 86 of the student workbook. How does this scene differ from a scene from your community?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Are the differences or similarities greater?

Students can then read the text on page 86, highlighting the information pertaining to the government system in Bali. This is a good opportunity to draw comparisons, through discussion, between government in Australia and government in Bali. Which system do the students prefer?

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Why do you think there are a lot of scooters/motorbikes?

Students complete the activities on pages 87 to 88. Answers 1. (a) banjar (b) caste (c) three (d) Wesias

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• (e) community centre (f) married men (g) Sundras (h) four

(i) Bahasa Indonesia

w ww

. te

m . u

(j) mass tourism/Western ways 2.

o c . che e r o t r s super

3. (a) All members are sure the idea is a good one for the village and will support it. (b) Answers will vary 4. Answers will vary 5. Answers will vary

Additional Activities Develop a class government. Use the Balinese system as your model. Make decisions about your class and put them into place. Bali

77

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


Discussion/Debate Discuss the possibility of village life surviving Westernisation. What do you think will happen to the various aspects of life in Bali in the future?

Traditional Housing Workbook Pages: 89 – 91

Topic Focus

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Students will examine traditional Balinese village housing and the lifestyle it promotes. compound, walled, status, harmony, carved, pavilion

Resources

• The following websites are recommended: Teacher Living Outside Inside

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Keywords

http://www.bali-travelnews.com/Batrav/Batrav12/nature.html

Bali Modern—The New Bali Style

Students © R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons The Family Compound •f orr ev i ew pur posesonl y• Culture—The Balinese Compound http://www.99bali.com/architecture/balimodern/

http://www.balifolder.com/reference/folks/11,04.shtml

http://www.balifolder.com/reference/culture/02,06,06,06.shtml

Background

m . u

w ww

. te

Most Balinese people live in traditional family compounds, keeping the home hidden and private. Each compound is surrounded by a high mud wall covered with thatch. There is a single entrance leading to each compound which is narrow and often turns a corner to confuse bad spirits and hopefully prevent them from entering the compound. The thick mud walls of the enclosure define and protect the family.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Inside are many separate residences laid out according to a hierarchical structure. The father and the first son's family have the most important places in the family; therefore their residence can be found closest to the entrance. Most of the buildings are open air, and many are made from natural materials. The Balinese people believe each part of the house corresponds to a part of the human anatomy. For example, the head is represented by the family shrine and the belly button is represented by the courtyard. Each corner of the yard has a temple, which is dedicated to a guardian spirit. All buildings face inwards towards the inner courtyard, where the family may join together for prayers and meals. The open-air style of living suits the tropical conditions, allowing the easy flow of air through the building to keep it and the residents as cool as possible.

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

78

Bali


Introductory Discussion What is your house like? How many rooms does it have? Are some rooms only used for a special purpose? Which family members live with you in your house? Do you all have your own space or do you have to share?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Which room is shared by all the family to coming together at various times of the day?

Activity – Pages 90 – 91

Discuss the materials that have been used for the buildings in the compound. How are they different from the materials used in Australia? Ask students why they think the materials are different.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Study the drawing of a section of a Balinese family compound shown on page 89 of the student workbook.

Students can read the text on page 89. Ask them to retrieve information pertaining to the style of housing in Bali and how the Balinese spend their day. Discuss how these things are different from Australia.

Students can then complete the activities on pages 90 to 91.

Answers © R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 1. To protect the ‘spirit’ of the family. 2. meetings; eating meals; sleeping

w ww

. te

m . u

3.

o c . che e r o t r s super 4. Answers will vary 5. Answers will vary 6. Teacher check

Additional Activities

Work in small groups to create a scale model of a Balinese home using recycled material and natural resources. Discussion/Debate Discuss the benefits of the Balinese lifestyle. Could any aspect of their approach to life be incorporated into Australian life? Explain.

Bali

79

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


Events and Festivals Workbook Pages: 92 – 93 Topic Focus Students will examine some traditional Balinese events and festivals. Keywords festival, celebrate, commemorate, offerings, sacred Resources

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S • The following websites are recommended: Teacher Bali—Events and Festivals Students Balinese Festivals

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

http://www.marimari.com/content/bali/events/events.html

http://www.balix.com/travel/guide/chapters/festival/festival.html

Events and Festivals http://www.bali-thepages.com/events.shtml

Background

The Balinese year is full of celebrations and festivals—more than 60 religious holidays each year!

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Balinese life is defined by the Hindu religion, which is found in every part of daily life. Offerings are made to the Hindu gods two and sometimes three times a day in every household and in all the temples. Household offerings can be as small as a single banana leaf with a few grains of rice and a stick of incense, while temple offerings are usually more complex creations of food, flowers and weavings.

m . u

w ww

Many of the festivals and events that take place in Bali are to please the gods. It is believed that if the gods are happy, the people will be rewarded with a successful harvest and a peaceful year. During these festivals, temples and homes are brightly decorated, making Bali a treat to see for all visitors to the island.

Introductory Discussion

. te

What are some special events and festivals celebrated in Australia?

o c . che e r o t r s super How do we celebrate different special days in Australia?

Are there any special days which are celebrated in Australia by religious groups or people of certain nationalities? How are they celebrated?

Activity – Page 93

Read through the first paragraph on page 92 of the student workbook. Break the class into seven groups, so each group can read and summarise one Balinese event. Give the students time in their groups to discuss and clearly summarise the event. Restructure the groups, so that each new group has one person from each original group. Students take turns to share their summary with the new group and answer any questions that may arise. If questions arise that can not be answered, record the question and ask it again when the whole class is together. R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

80

Bali


Bring the groups back together as one and clear up any questions that may have been asked and not answered. Read through the miscellaneous events that occur in Bali. Give students the opportunity to read through the whole text on their own. Students may like to underline the keywords and phrases. Students can then move on to complete the activities on page 93. Answers 1. (a) a festival marking the beginning of the new lunar year – Balinese New Year

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

(b) a tall bamboo pole decorated with flowers, leaves, cakes and fruit (c) something offered to please the gods (d) a time of religious celebration

3. Similarities – loud music; shouting; parties Differences – all must remain silent; no fires lit on New Year’s Eve; all amusements closed in Bali on New Year’s Day

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

2. Answers will vary

4. Answers will vary

Additional Activities

In small groups, research to create a list of events and festivals celebrated in Australia. Include a brief explanation of how and when each is celebrated.

Discussion/Debate

Discuss everyone’s responses to question 2 and question 4. Does everyone have © R. I . C. Pub l i ca t i on s the same opinions? •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Tourism

w ww

m . u

Workbook Pages: 94 – 96

Topic Focus

Keywords

Resources

. te

Students will examine the tourist attractions offered by Bali and the effects tourism can have on a culture.

o c . che e r o t r s super

heritage, renowned, genuine, terraces, destination, prominent • atlases • The following websites are recommended: Teacher Bali—Places of Interest (two pages)

http://www.baratatours.com/bali_info/places_of_interest1.html

Bali—The Pages http://www.bali-thepages.com/

Students Bali: The Online Travel Guide http://home.mira.net/~wreid/bali_p1a.html

Bali

81

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


Bali Today: An Insider’s Guide (includes detailed map of Bali) http://www.balivillas.com/map.html

What to See and Do in Bali http://www.balivillas.com/see.html

Background Bali seems to have something to appeal to everyone. Whether visiting Bali to relax and unwind, to explore its culture and history, or to party and do something different everyday, Bali has it all.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Introductory Discussion

What type of holiday would you like to go on?

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Nearly one million tourists visit Bali each year. The majority of people take advantage of package deals which include flights, transfers, accommodation and some tours. The southern side of Bali seems to be more popular, with its beaches, shopping districts, nightclubs, pubs and restaurants.

Where would you like to go on holiday? Why? What is the best way to get there?

Activity – Page 95

Students can read the text on page 94 of the student workbook. Ask them to underline any locations mentioned in the text. This will help them when completing the map in the first activity. It also gives them some direction in their reading.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr e vi ecan wthenp ur p seprovided soonn l y Students complete theo activities page 95.•

Read each paragraph one at a time and stop the class to encourage discussion. Ask students what their interests would be. For example, would they shop in Bali or would they prefer to spend their time doing something else? Answers

w ww

. te

m . u

1.

o c . che e r o t r s super 2. Answers will vary 3. (a) Ubud

(b) West Coast (c) Denpasar

(d) East Coast (e) East Coast (f) Sanur

4. It has placed a strain on the capacity of Bali to produce genuine, first-class products.

Activity – Page 96 Students will need to refer to the entire unit on Bali to complete this final page. It is a culmination of everything they have learnt about Bali.

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

82

Bali


Answers 1. Answers will vary; November to March because it is warm and dry. 2. Answers will vary 3. Answers will vary 4. Answers will vary 5. Answers will vary 6. Because there is so much to see and do. It is very relaxed and casual.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Additional Activities

Discussion/Debate

Discuss: ‘Is tourism helping or destroying Bali?’

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Design and present a holiday brochure for Bali. Include prices, accommodation, interesting information, facilities, attractions, special events etc.

w ww

. te

Bali

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

83

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


Assessment Assessment and Evaluation The activity on page 86 is provided as one assessment tool in the study of this unit. It is designed to indicate broad student understanding and also provide opportunity for student feedback. The following outcomes were addressed in this topic of study. The following pages can be photocopied as a record of student performance or as a proforma for portfolio assessment.

Administration

Place and Space PS4.2 The student understands that people and places are interdependent. Resources R4.1 The student understands that people make decisions about efficient resource use to increase their ability to satisfy needs and wants. Culture C4.1 The student understands that beliefs and traditions influence the nature of cultures. C4.2 The student understands that groups in communities have a social organisation that reflects particular beliefs. C4.3 The student understands that cultures exert an influence on people’s identities and their roles, rights and responsibilities as members of cultural groups. Time, Continuity and Change TCC4.3 The student understands that people develop a perspective on a particular issue or event according to their beliefs and heritage.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Outcomes

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Distribute the activity sheet on page 86e of the Guide, •f orr e vi ew pu r p os sTeachers onl yone •per student. Ask students to write their name in the top right-hand corner of the page. Read

w ww Answers

. te

m . u

through the activity sheet to ensure students are clear about what they are being asked to do. At this stage, give students the opportunity to seek clarification of any part of the activity sheet they may not understand. It is important students work independently on these activities—this provides a true representation of what students understand or of their lack of understanding. Once students have completed the activity, collect the worksheets. Mark and record results. From this activity sheet, some students may be found to require further work to develop their understanding in a particular area.

o c . che e r o t r s super

1. One of more than 13 000 islands which make up Indonesia; 145 km long and 80 km wide; 8° south of the Equator; dominated by large volcanoes; sandy beaches, clear waters, coral reefs; dense jungles, manicured rice paddies, mangrove forests. 2. It provides people with shopping, wide variety of water activities, adventure tours, cultural and religious experiences, traditional arts and crafts. It is relaxing, the people are friendly and the atmosphere is ‘laid back’. 3. (a) True (b) False (c) False (d) True (e) True 4. (a) banjar (b) married men (c) community centre (d) four (e) Bahasa Indonesia 5. (a) The whole family attends the child’s birth, as well as a holy man. (b) Teeth may be filed flat in a special ceremony. (c) Balinese cremate the body and the coffin and release the ashes over the sea. 6. Answers will vary

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

84

Bali


Bali Student Name:

Date:

Task At the conclusion of the unit ‘Bali’, students were asked to complete an activity sheet independently to demonstrate their understanding of the unit.

Indicators

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Demonstrated

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

• Recalls Bali’s geographical features. • Explains the features of Bali that attract people to the island. • Demonstrates an understanding of the system of government that operates in Bali. • Recalls knowledge about Bali, its history, religion and people. • Demonstrates knowledge of the religious rituals that govern the life stages of the Balinese people.

Needs Further Opportunity

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons | Workbook Activities •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Discussion and Debate

Needs Improvement

Needs Improvement

|

Satisfactory

| Satisfactory

|

Additional Activities

w ww

m . u

Needs Improvement

|

Further Research

. te

Skills and Attitudes

General Comment

Needs Improvement

|

o c . che e r o t r s super Needs Improvement

|

Satisfactory

| Satisfactory

| Satisfactory

|

Student Comment

Bali

85

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au


Bali 1. List Bali’s main geographical features.

3. Answer true or false.

2. Explain why Bali is a popular holiday destination.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

FALSE

(b) If you wanted to buy art and crafts, you would visit Denpasar.

TRUE

FALSE

(c) Bali is still governed by the Dutch.

TRUE

(d) Bali is 8° south of the Equator.

TRUE

(e) Hindu is the main religion of Bali.

TRUE

4. (a) What is the smallest unit of Balinese government?

ew i ev Pr

TRUE

Teac he r

(a) Bali is one of more than 13 000 islands that make up Indonesia.

FALSE FALSE FALSE

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons How many Bali? •castes f oare rthere r einv i ew pur posesonl y•

(b) Who is eligible to vote?

(c) Where are meetings held? (d)

(e) What is the name of the modern Balinese language?

m . u

5. What happens when …

w ww

(a) a child is born?

. te

(b) moving into adulthood?

(c) someone dies?

o c . che e r o t r s super

6. List four interesting pieces of information you learnt in this unit. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

86

Bali


Society and Environment Teachers Guides WA: Book G - Ages 11-12