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Foreword Society and Environment will help to increase the students’ knowledge and understanding about their local community and environment and provide them with opportunities to compare their situation to that of others. The seven workbooks in the series look mainly at Australia—its people, its heritage, its political and legal systems and its place in the world.

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Each workbook is accompanied by a comprehensive Teachers Guide designed to provide a structured resource for the teacher. The Teachers Guide provides teachers with clear guidelines as to the outcomes being covered, answers, assessment, discussion and background information to support the workbook where necessary. The information provided within this Teachers Guide will assist teachers in their planning, programming and assessment. Each topic provides teachers with a number of opportunities to focus on various aspects of literacy.

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The aim of the workbook is to assist students to better understand the community they live in and to make sound decisions about local, national and worldwide issues.

This program was devised to offer students and teachers alike the opportunity to develop a wide range of language, discussion and group-working skills that will complement all learning areas in the school curriculum.

Contents

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Outcomes and Indicators Society and Environment E ..................... ii – v •f orr evi ew pand ur ose stheo nl y• vi Human Society Itsp Environment and Teacher.......................... Resources .......................................................................................... vii How to use Society and Environment ................................................ viii

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Society and Environment Workbook .................................................... ix Society and Environment Teachers Guide ............................................. x Assessment/Evaluation ....................................................................... xi

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Students with Special Needs ............................................................. xii Blank Map—The World .................................................................... xiii Blank Map—Australia....................................................................... xiv Blank Map—New South Wales ......................................................... xv Flags of Australia ..................................................................... xvi – xvii Blank Semantic Web ........................................................................ xviii Group Discussion Recording Sheet ................................................... xix Further Research Recording Sheet ..................................................... xx British Arrival in Australia ............................................................ 1 – 30 Local History ............................................................................. 31 – 52 This is Australia......................................................................... 53 – 78 Enterprise in the Community ..................................................... 79 – 95

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Outcomes and Indicators Society and Environment E British Arrival in Australia This unit provides students with the opportunity to study Australia’s original human inhabitants, and the arrival and consequences of occupation by the British. Students are encouraged to provide their own opinions on the events that took place during settlement and thereafter. The unit also provides students with the opportunity to study and reflect on the European and Aboriginal people who made major contributions to Australian society in the early days of colonisation.

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Workbook Teachers Guide Pages Pages

Aboriginal Australia Before Colonisation Asian Influence on Australia Early European Exploration Log Book for the Endeavour Establishment of the British Colony Early Settlement Aboriginal Resistance to Colonisation The Convicts Consequences of Colonisation for Aboriginal People Early Pioneers Significant Australian Aboriginals

2–4 5–7 8 – 10 11 – 13 14 – 16 17 – 19 20 – 22 23 – 25

3–5 5–7 7 – 10 10 – 12 13 – 15 15 – 17 17 – 19 19 – 21

32 – 34

26 – 27

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Topic

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Describes events and actions related to the British colonisation of Australia and assesses changes and consequences.

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• sequences significant events related to human occupation in Australia • explains the roles played by significant people during the British colonisation of Australia as a penal colony • describes some of the consequences of British invasion for Aboriginal peoples • identifies the consequences of the assumption of terra nullius by the British Government • describes the involvement of people and groups from other countries in Australia’s heritage, including European and Asian contact and exploration • describes aspects of ways of life and achievements in the early colony for male and female convicts and ex-convicts, the military and their families, officials and officers, Aboriginal people, free settlers • refers to different viewpoints and perspectives on a significant historical event • explains why terms such as ‘invasion’, ‘occupation’, ‘settlement’, ‘exploration’ and ‘discovery’ reflect different perspectives on the same event • acquires and critically evaluates information from source material

Environments ENS2.6

Describes people’s interactions with environments and identifies responsible ways of interacting with environments. • identifies the consequences of using features, sites and places in different ways • identifies issues about the care of places in the community or places of importance to them

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Outcomes and Indicators Society and Environment E Local History This unit provides students with the opportunity to study their local area in relation to the information provided about historical events. Students are encouraged to make detailed studies of their local community, its people, its plants and animals and its history. Students are able to develop an understanding of significant places in Australia and their community and the history behind them that makes them so important.

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Workbook Teachers Guide Pages Pages

Food Sources for Traditional Aboriginal Australians Aboriginal Trade Routes Heritage Places Cemeteries Comparing Histories Sacred Site – Uluru Advertisements Pictures and Photographs

36 – 38 39 – 41 42 – 44 45 – 47 48 – 51 52 – 53 54 – 56 57 – 60

33 – 34 35 – 36 36 – 38 38 – 40 40 – 42 43 – 44 45 – 46 46 – 48

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Topic

Change and Continuity © R. I . C.P ub l i c acommunity t i on s CCS2.2 Explains changes in the and family life and evaluates the effects of these on different individuals, groups and environments. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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• identifies the contributions of significant people and events to local community heritage • collects and uses primary and secondary sources to investigate the history of their community • explains why some natural and built features in the local area are heritage sites and why they are valued • demonstrates an understanding that different groups may have different points of view about changes in the local community • compares different versions of local history, beginning with the Aboriginal community that lives/lived in the area • identifies the effects of change on the environment • identifies continuing and changing roles, practices, traditions and customs of men and women in the community • listens to life stories of Aboriginal people • uses historical language when referring to source material • distinguishes between primary and secondary source material when acquiring information • compares their local history with that of another local area • discusses Aboriginal place names

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Describes events and actions related to the British colonisation of Australia and assesses changes and consequences. • sequences significant events related to human occupation in Australia • investigates the local area to identify the peoples who originally lived there and those who live there now

Cultures CUS2.3

Explains how shared customs, practices, symbols, languages and traditions in communities contribute to Australian and community identities. • examines the different perceptions that people living within a community have of that community • identifies some customs, practices and traditions of their local community, beginning with the Aboriginal people • gives some reasons why their local community is different to others and why it is of value and should be respected

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Outcomes and Indicators Society and Environment E This unit provides students with the opportunity to investigate some of Australia’s built and natural features. Students will develop an understanding that different places are considered famous or significant for various reasons. They will use maps to locate places and to aid in the gathering of information. Students will also have the opportunity to examine various points of view and discuss why different groups often have a different point of view.

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This is Australia

Workbook Teachers Guide Pages Pages

Australia: What’s in it? – Part 1 Australia: What’s in it? – Part 2 Australia: Looking at Sites Australia: A Matter of Heritage – Part 1 Australia: A Matter of Heritage – Part 2 It Depends on How You Look at it Our Heritage Aboriginal Heritage Sites

62 – 64 65 – 66 67 – 69 70 – 72 73 – 75 76 – 77 78 – 80 81 – 84

55 – 57 57 – 60 60 – 63 63 – 65 66 – 68 69 – 70 71 – 73 73 – 75

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Describes places in the local area and other parts of Australia and explains their significance.

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• locates and names the capital city of Australia and of each State/Territory, and major regional centres • gives reasons why particular activities may be associated with particular natural, built and heritage features and places • compares natural and built features, sites and places in their local area with other locations in Australia or the world • describes how people can construct and modify environments in a manner that reflects ideas, culture, needs and wants • locates and maps cities, rivers and mountains in NSW and uses locational terminology such as north, south, east, west • recognises that Aboriginal nations and boundaries provide a way of understanding the Australian continent • recognises Aboriginal place names for places in Australia

ENS2.6

Describes people’s interactions with environments and identifies responsible ways of interacting with environments. • identifies issues about the care of places in the community or places of importance to them • examines the effects of regulations, laws and practices associated with the management and care of natural and built features and sites • evaluates the necessity of caring for and conserving a feature, site or place • identifies the consequences of using features, sites and places in different ways.

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Outcomes and Indicators Society and Environment E Enterprise in the Community

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This unit provides students with the opportunity to review their own needs and wants, how these affect the way they live and how they can be satisfied. Students will also study change and the effects of change on shopping, processing, storage, costs and manufacturing. Students will also explore the skills required to perform certain duties in the workplace and the responsibilities of companies when it comes to protecting the environment.

Workbook Teachers Guide Pages Pages

Needs and Wants — 1 Needs and Wants — 2 Shopping Now and Then Shop Profile Where Does It Come From? Who Is Responsible? Working Skills

86 – 87 88 – 89 90 – 92 93 – 94 95 – 97 98 99 – 100

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Social Systems and Structures SSS2.7

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81 – 82 82 – 84 84 – 86 86 – 87 88 – 89 90 – 91 91 – 92

Describes how and why people and technologies interact to meet needs and explains the effects of these interactions on people and the environment.

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• identifies the components of a system that provides goods and services and how the components need to interlink • examines a variety of systems that have been designed to meet needs in communities and identifies the advantages and disadvantages of their use, e.g. sewerage treatment works, postal system, electricity system • examines possible consequences if a system changes in some way, e.g. if components are missing or break down, if technology improves • explains the changes to a system over time and the advantages and disadvantages of these changes, e.g. shops, market gardens • examines the goods and services provided within the community and by community organisations to meet needs • makes statements about the social and environmental responsibilities of producers and consumers • describes how changes in technologies involved with monetary exchange

SSS2.8

Investigates rights, responsibilities and decision-making processes in the school and community and demonstrates how participation can contribute to the quality of their school and community life. • explains the processes involved in civic action within the community • investigates current community issues • investigates consumer rights and responsibilities

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Human Society and Its Environment and the Teacher

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The learning area of Human Society and Its Environment encourages students to develop an understanding of how groups and individuals live together and interact with their environment. Through this learning area, students understand and develop a respect for cultural heritage, social justice, democratic processes and the sustainability of their environment.

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The main goal of Society and Environment is to take students on a journey to various parts of Australia, its history, and other parts of the world—and then bring them back to their own community within New South Wales to compare and evaluate life within it. Regardless of where students live within Australia, they will all benefit from, and see relevance to themselves in, the activities within the Student Workbook. Students are constantly being asked to think about Australian and world issues in relation to their own community in order to develop their own reasoned views.

The Society and Environment workbooks encourage the students to: • study the interaction between people and their environment • make sense of these interactions and develop values aimed at improving these relationships for the future • study local, regional, national and global issues and develop an understanding of their importance • develop and extend their knowledge of those issues which are relevant to themselves • make judgments on moral and ethical issues using their understanding of democratic processes, social justice and the sustainability of their environment • use various strategies to make sense of the way the world is changing • make reasoned and informed decisions as active citizens in their community • manage their own actions based on the skills and understandings attained in this learning area Success in teaching Human Society and Its Environment depends on using a varied approach. Students may work independently, in small groups or as a whole class, depending on the situation or task involved. Flexibility is the key to encouraging students to find the mode of working which best suits them.

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Discussion is used on a regular basis throughout the program to encourage critical thinking and to provide students with the opportunity to share, listen and evaluate their own thinking and that of others. The teacher’s role in the discussion situations is that of facilitator; it is important that students are allowed the opportunity to share their own views and ideas without being judged. Questioning should be used to encourage students to search for alternatives before making a final decision in relation to a topic or situation. Grouping students helps them to get to know one another and develops an understanding of the importance of being able to work cooperatively with others to achieve a common goal. Shy students are more likely to express themselves in small groups, where they may be intimidated by a whole-class situation. Groups should be changed regularly, rather than having them set for each Human Society and Its Environment lesson.

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Resources Providing teachers with a comprehensive guide to each unit, including: •Unit focus •Unit topics •Outcomes and indicators •Focus for each topic •Keywords for each topic •Resources required for each topic •Background information for each topic •Introductory discussion for each topic •Suggested activity outlines •Clear and concise answers •Additional activities for each topic •Further topics for discussion and debate

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The Teachers Guide

The Student Workbook

Providing students and teachers with: •a range of activities catering for different learning styles and teaching methodologies •sample studies •opportunities to relate activities to local environments and communities •a mix of contemporary and traditional content •a comprehensive range of topic areas •opportunities to develop a wide range of skills

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Additional Resources

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Any successful Human Society and Its Environment program draws on a range of resources to provide variety and the opportunity to use and develop skills in a wide range of areas. It is recommended that students use various sources to support their work within the Society and Environment workbook. Some of these additional resources include: •a world globe •a world map •a large map of Australia •the Internet—this resource is extremely fluid and sites were active at the time of publication. Specific sites were generally not included in the workbooks because of this limitation. Recommended sites listed within the Teachers Guide have been organised into those suitable for teachers and those suitable for students, according to the level of language used within the site and its presentation. •the school and local libraries •each other, parents, grandparents •organisations which specialise in the area being studied •local and State newspapers and magazines •video documentaries where appropriate •people from the local community

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How to Use Society and Environment 1. Select the unit you wish to teach. Each workbook contains four units—one for each term of the school year. They can be taught from the first unit in sequential order to the last unit, or you can move throughout the book in an order that suits what is happening in your classroom/community/local environment. 2. Read the complete unit. It is important to read the entire unit before dealing with it in class to avoid any surprises and to ensure you have an understanding of where the unit is heading. This allows you to be prepared with resources, to organise any incursions or excursions which may support the unit, and to ensure a collection of adequate resources is gathered within the classroom to enhance learning in that area. Each unit is broken into discrete topics. These topics may run over one or more lessons, depending on your students, the topic or the amount of work that needs to be covered. It is left to the teacher’s discretion to ensure adequate coverage of the topic is attained.

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3. Develop a plan.

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4. Encourage discussion.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Develop an interest in •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• further research.

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6. Provide opportunities for students to share their knowledge.

The information provided within each workbook has been thoroughly researched. Certain topics lend themselves to further research, as the topic is so large that not all information could possibly be included in a workbook for students. Students should be encouraged to research topics of personal interest. Developing skills in this area encourages independent learning which is critical in any student’s education journey.

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Each topic within Society and Environment relies on class or group discussion. This is a key feature for developing oral skills. Students are given the opportunity to clarify their thinking, express their views, listen to others and discuss or debate the topic or issue at hand. This technique is instrumental in students developing maturity and a level of understanding that will prepare them for the real world.

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Students are often a rich source of knowledge in our multicultural society. Students are able to source information from relatives and friends and provide a valuable resource for others in their class. Students who have taken the time to further research topics of personal interest should also be encouraged to share their knowledge. This shows students you value their independent learning and gives meaning to their additional study.

7. Use your community. The community has a great deal of resources to offer the primary Human Society and Its Environment learning area—after all, that is what it is all about. Inviting community members and organisations into your classroom to impart knowledge to students adds an extra dimension to their learning, making it ‘real’ and—most importantly—giving you a break from having to ‘know everything’.

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Society and Environment Workbook The Unit Topic begins with a unit title. This can be used to lead the students into the introductory discussion found in the Teachers Guide. The Lesson Focus and Keywords provide students with a basic overview of what they will be learning about in this topic and give them the opportunity to find the meaning of any difficult words before they begin. Text, tables and artwork provide students with a concise source of information related to the topic. Students may need to read through the information provided several times to ensure they have a clear understanding of what they are reading and to assimilate the information before tackling the supporting activities.

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Teachers may also use the strategy of searching for keywords and phrases to further encourage students to read the text over again. These keywords and phrases help to clarify the information for the students and make the task of completing the activities easier.

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Assisting weaker readers with this text is recommended to ensure their understanding is clear or they will struggle to complete the activities accurately.

Various types of activities have been provided for the students to draw information from the text. They include: • three levels of questioning • retrieval charts; brainstorming; explosion charts • local area comparative studies • semantic grids • flags • flow diagrams; ordering • matrixes • cloze passages • tables; reading graphs • profiles • time lines • mapping; longitude/latitude • reports • cause/effect; fact/opinion • keywords/key facts

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Each unit topic is finished off with Topics for Discussion/Debate. These statements, questions or sentence starters are designed to encourage students to develop their own thoughts and ideas and share them with the class or in small groups. This technique develops oral language and critical thinking skills.

The unit topics also have Additional Activities provided. These are only suggestions and have been designed to link the students’ newfound knowledge across the learning areas. Search Engine Keywords have been included to assist the students with any further research they wish to undertake using the Internet.

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Society and Environment Teachers Guide Each Unit begins with an introductory page providing teachers with: • an overview of what students will be learning in the unit; • the topics which have been selected to develop understanding in the unit; and

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The Unit is then broken down topic by topic, with each topic providing the teacher with: • the corresponding workbook pages;

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• the outcomes and indicators being treated through the study of the unit.

• the focus of the topic;

• the keywords being introduced within the topic;

• resource requirements for successful completion of the topic, including relevant Internet sites listed separately for the teacher and student; • background information for the teacher on areas which may appeal to students, require clarification or possibly lead to misunderstanding;

© R. I . .Pquestions ubl i t i on s to lead the students •C suggested forc ana introductory discussion into thinking about the topic; •f orr evi e wguidelines, pur posuggestions seso nl •the class for • activity offering on how toy organise the particular lesson or activity; • suggested additional activities; and

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• clear and concise answers for each activity; • suggested topics for discussion and debate.

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Each Unit then concludes with an assessment tool (see following page) which has been designed to indicate broad student understanding and also provide opportunity for student feedback. It is recommended that students work through the assessment independently where possible to provide feedback to the teacher of where understanding has taken place or where the student needs further development.

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Assessment/Evaluation Assessment and evaluation is an ongoing process conducted in a variety of ways by the teacher or a support person within the classroom. Teachers generally evaluate students based on: • observations—noting any key learning milestones; • anecdotal—keeping general notes on student behaviour, skills, techniques, strengths and weaknesses; • evaluation of written work—collating and marking students’ work;

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• evaluation of oral work—recording students’ skills and techniques in this area; and

Assessment and evaluation techniques may vary from student to student depending on their individual abilities, strengths and weaknesses. For example, you would not expect a student who is working at a reduced level to achieve the same results with the activities in the workbook as a student who is working at his/her optimum level or above.

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• evaluation of activities designed as assessment tools and provided in the Teachers Guide.

Through assessment of each student’s individual work practices, teachers are able to gauge which students require extension and which require remediation. Assistance can then be given to those students where necessary to ensure they are developing to their full potential.

Because allP students work att their own ability level, assessment of their © R. I . C. ubwilll i c a i o ns understandings should not consist solely of one piece of work. Ite is envisaged teachers will assess regularly on their day-to-day •f orr evi w pthat ur po s esstudents onl y•

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performance, as well as using the assessment tool provided at the end of each unit of work in the Teachers Guide. The assessment tool used on its own will not be an accurate representation of the student’s ability or understanding of the unit and should be used only in conjunction with the term’s work.

The assessment tool provided at the end of each unit in the Teachers Guide as shown on this page is supported with a proforma which can be copied for each student and attached to his or her portfolio assessment. It provides the Outcomes covered over the unit and room for the teacher to comment on the various aspects involved in the Society and Environment workbook program.

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Students with Special Needs All students will work at different rates at different ability levels—which should be taken into consideration when planning a unit of work from the Society and Environment workbook. It is important to remember that we are assessing students’ skills, knowledge and understanding in this area, not their ability to read and write. Human Society and Its Environment is the study of people as social beings, as they have existed and interacted with each other and the environment, in time and in place. Therefore, students who have particular difficulty with literacy should not be disadvantaged in this learning area.

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It is crucial that the teacher takes the time to develop a rapport with the student— develop a relationship in which the student feels comfortable with the expected tasks. Those students who need additional assistance could be given the unit to read through prior the lesson, so when they come into the lesson they already have a headstart on the rest of the class.

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Remediation

Providing students with the opportunity to read and reread the text as often as they feel comfortable with prior to the lesson offers them one strategy to familiarise themselves with the text. Encourage students to look for keywords and phrases and to use any maps, tables or diagrams to help them develop meaning from the text.

Encourage students to then reada through then questions ©R . I . Cthe. Pub l i c t i o s and work out where they might find the answers, without actually completing the activities. After this work, the o students will come thel lesson armed with the •f orr e vi eintroductory w pu r p se s oton y•

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resources and confidence they need to complete the activity along with the rest of the class. Their confidence will grow as they feel they are keeping up with everyone else and their time won’t be wasted during the lesson.

Teachers can also assist students by establishing a language-rich environment where print is presented in natural and meaningful contexts. Depending upon the unit topic for the term, classroom displays could reflect the information students may require.

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Those students who find the activities in the workbook too easy can be extended through various additional activities. Students can be encouraged to research the topic further through the use of the Internet, library, newspapers, or by contacting specific organisations and sourcing local information. Students can be responsible for gathering resources to provide the class with additional topic material. Displays can be created to benefit the entire class. A group of students can also be made responsible for assisting the teacher when organising guest speakers or when on excursions to various facilities in the local area.

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The World

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Australia

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New South Wales

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Australian flag

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Flags of Australia

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Flags of Australia

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New South Wales

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South Australia

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Northern Territory © R. I . C. Publ i cat i ons Western Australia •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Queensland

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Group Discussion HOW

Group Members:

TO

KEEP

THE

PEACE

1. Take any disputes to the Mediator. 2. Each person must take a turn to express an opinion, WITHOUT INTERRUPTION, to the Mediator.

ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES

3. Remember, don’t interrupt the person expressing a point of view.

Group Leader:

r o e t s Bo r Mediator (peacekeeper): e p o u k Reporter: S Researcher(s): Scribe:

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4. The Mediator must listen carefully to each person. Ask questions if something is unclear.

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5. Allow each person to ask the speaker questions to clarify anything that is not understood. 6. Ask each person what information he/she has to back up his/her opinion.

DISCUSSION/DEBATE TOPIC

7. Sometimes we have to agree to disagree. Not everyone has to agree on everything.

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8. Remember to respect that we all have different ideas— and because someone else’s idea is different from ours, doesn’t necessarily mean his/ her idea is wrong.

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OUR FINDINGS

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OUR PLAN

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Further Research TOPIC

Where I will get my resources

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RESOURCES I will use

NOTES

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o c . Information should be presented chein a clear and e r easy-to-follow format. See the example. o t r s super Heading • You are now ready to present your information.

Clear paragraphs, each with its own idea • Introduction and conclusion • Accurate facts •

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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British Arrival in Australia Unit Focus This unit provides students with the opportunity to study Australia’s original human inhabitants, and the arrival and consequences of occupation by the British. Students are encouraged to provide their own opinions on the events that took place during settlement and thereafter. The unit also provides students with the opportunity to study and reflect on the European and Aboriginal people who made major contributions to Australian society in the early days of colonisation. Unit Topics

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• Aboriginal Australia Before Colonisation ................................. 2 – 4 • Asian Influence on Australia ................................................... 5 – 7 • Early European Exploration ................................................... 8 – 10 • Log Book for the Endeavour ................................................ 11 – 13 • Establishment of the British Colony .................................... 14 – 16 • Early Settlement ................................................................. 17 – 19 • Aboriginal Resistance to Colonisation ................................. 20 – 22 • The Convicts ...................................................................... 23 – 25 • Consequences of Colonisation for Aboriginal People ............................................................... 26 – 28 • Early Pioneers ..................................................................... 29 – 31 • Significant Australian Aboriginals ....................................... 32 – 34

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The topics selected to develop this understanding are:

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Change and Continuity •f orr e vi ew pu r p o serelated so y• CCS2.1 Describes events and actions ton thel British colonisation of

Outcomes and Indicators

Australia and assesses changes and consequences.

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• sequences significant events related to human occupation in Australia • explains the roles played by significant people during the British colonisation of Australia as a penal colony • describes some of the consequences of British invasion for Aboriginal peoples • identifies the consequences of the assumption of terra nullius by the British Government • describes the involvement of people and groups from other countries in Australia’s heritage, including European and Asian contact and exploration • describes aspects of ways of life and achievements in the early colony for male and female convicts and ex-convicts, the military and their families, officials and officers, Aboriginal people, free settlers • refers to different viewpoints and perspectives on a significant historical event • explains why terms such as ‘invasion’, ‘occupation’, ‘settlement’, ‘exploration’ and ‘discovery’ reflect different perspectives on the same event • acquires and critically evaluates information from source material

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Environments ENS2.6 Describes people’s interactions with environments and identifies responsible ways of interacting with environments. • identifies the consequences of using features, sites and places in different ways • identifies issues about the care of places in the community or places of importance to them

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Aboriginal Australia Before Colonisation Workbook Pages: 2 – 4 Topic Focus Students will learn about Aboriginal Australia before colonisation in 1788 and investigate modern Aboriginal languages. Keywords colonisation, migration, inhabitants, occupation, language

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• dictionaries • The following websites are recommended: Teacher Aboriginal Studies WWW Virtual Library (very comprehensive database) http://www.ciolek.com/WWWVL-Aboriginal.html

Students Aborigines: The First Australians

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Resources

http://www.ozramp.net.au/~senani/aborigin.htm

Australian Aborigines History and Culture Research Project http://www.aaa.com.au/hrh/aboriginal/

The first. human inhabitants ofa Australia were the Aboriginal people. They are © R. I . C P u b l i c t i o n s believed to be one of the oldest, remaining civilisations in the world. They probably came to Australia from Asia around 50 000 to 60 000 years ago, walking across •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• land bridges or sailing in small dugout canoes.

Background

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The Aboriginal people were very successful nomadic hunters and gatherers, roaming from place to place according to the seasons and the cycles of the animal and plant life in the area. It is thought that there were about 500 000 Aboriginal people belonging to between 600 and 700 different language groups in Australia before European settlement. Each of these groups had its own territory, traditions, beliefs, laws, ceremonies and language. They all believed in the Dreamtime, which gave the people an understanding of life and answers to questions such as: ‘Who am I?’, ‘Where do I belong?’ and ‘What happens to me when I die?’.

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The creators in the Dreamtime made all the animals, birds, insects, plants and landscapes; they also laid down the rules and the laws. This was the basis of the people’s belief and meant that everything was made according to a plan with a distinct purpose. This in turn meant that all living things were interrelated and needed to be treated with respect. The Aboriginal people had never seen white people until Captain Cook landed in Botany Bay in 1770. They didn’t know what to make of these very pale people with their strange clothes and even stranger behaviour. The Aboriginal people thought the white people were the spirits of their dead ancestors. They could not understand why they treated each other so terribly, took food from the land without asking and walked over burial and sacred sites with a total lack of respect.

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Introductory Discussion What do you think Australia was like before it was colonised by European settlers? Imagine: no buildings, no cars, no roads, no farms or farm animals. Imagine: untouched bushland, serenity, peace, people living at one with the land. How has this changed since European settlement? Activity – Pages 3 – 4

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Read the text to the students, painting a picture of Aboriginal life before colonisation. Stop reading at the end of the fourth paragraph and initiate discussion with students in small groups. Discuss: The adaptability of the Aboriginal people. The manner in which the Aboriginal people cared for the land. The interrelationships among different Aboriginal groups. The independence and self-reliance of Aboriginal people before colonisation.

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Discuss the picture shown on page 2 of the student workbook. Ask students ‘what they see’ and probably more importantly ‘what they do not see’.

Bring the class together and generally discuss the above points as an opportunity for students to share their ideas, opinions and beliefs.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Discuss: The views of the British toward the Aboriginal people as ‘uncivilised’. The ther Aboriginal people were required to make •f orr evi e wchanges pu pos es o nl y •in order to

Read the final three paragraphs to the class. Move the students into the same small groups as earlier to initiate further discussion.

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survive. The reduction in the number of Aboriginal languages spoken today compared to before colonisation.

Ask students to highlight the words: historian, colonisation, indigenous and multicultural in the text. Encourage students to try to work out what they mean from the text (dictionaries should be used to complete the activity on page three, to ensure the correct answer is recorded).

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Students can then complete the activities provided on pages three and four. Question three on page four can be extended within the classroom to ensure maximum value of the activity and a clear understanding of local Aboriginal history. Once the language group has been highlighted, students can brainstorm the type of information they would like to find out about this group. Break the class into small groups and allocate each group one point to focus on, source and record the information, and report back to the class. A class book might be produced with the information gathered on the local Aboriginal group of the area. Answers 1. an historian: a writer of history; an expert in history colonisation: to settle, to establish a colony indigenous: natural to; originating in a particular place, country or region multicultural: a society that embraces a number of minority cultures 2. (a) Answers will vary; but could include island hopping using small vessels, eventually landing on northern shores, or using land bridges.

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(b) Answers will vary; however, the hunting and gathering nature of their culture would encourage regular movement from area to area. (c) Answers will vary 3. Answers will vary 4. Native plants and animals were the only source of food. 5. Answers will vary

Additional Activities

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2. Research to find well-known or famous Aboriginal people who come from a language area near your local community. Write a short biography about them and their achievements.

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1. Construct a time line to show the history of migration to Australia (1 cm = 200 years). Record the major events on the time line. It is important to note that only one centimetre of this time line represents the era since British colonisation.

Discussion/Debate

1. ‘European settlers could have learnt land management skills from the Aboriginal people.’ Discuss, in small groups, what you think about this statement. 2. ‘Europeans considered themselves to be civilised because they cultivated the land and developed farms.’ Do you agree or disagree with this way of thinking? Explain.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr ev i ew pur p os esonl y• Asian Influence on Australia

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Workbook Pages: 5 – 7 Topic Focus Keywords

Resources

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Students will learn about the influences of Asia on Australia before colonisation.

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influence, trade, occupation, culture, ice age, indigenous, archaeologists • dictionaries • The following websites are recommended: Teacher Discovery of Australia

http://discoveryofaustralia.homestead.com/Prehistory.html

Students Australia’s Ancient Creatures http://www.austmus.gov.au/hottest/ancient.htm

Prehistoric Australian Artefacts http://artalpha.anu.edu.au/web/arc/resources/paa/arcrock.htm

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Background It is unclear how long ago Aboriginal people first travelled to Australia, but it is believed that it occurred in waves approximately 60 000 years ago. There are at least 11 archaeological sites which represent clear evidence of human occupation dated between 30 000 and 35 000 years ago. These dates are, however, inconclusive and have been disputed by some researchers.

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The Aboriginal people developed their own methods of gathering and preparing food, medicine, tools, clothing and shelter. This meant that certain items could be traced to a specific area or Aboriginal groups. Items found in areas within Australia other than their original location suggest that the Aboriginal people developed extensive trade systems between groups.

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Items which suggest technology from South-East Asia have been found which date back to between 3000 and 2000 BC. These supports the theory of waves of migration to Australia. It is believed that Australian Aboriginals are distant relatives of people from India.

Trade practices were also developed with peoples from other countries. Trade included material goods, songs, artworks, stories and recounts of important regional events. The people of New Guinea brought items such as fishing equipment, drums and drum songs, stories and canoes to Australia of trade for Aboriginal culture and technology. Indonesian fishermen traded items such as tobacco, iron, glass and skills in exchange for the privilege of fishing in Aboriginal territorial waters. These trades have been recorded in Aboriginal song, ceremony and artworks.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Introductory Discussion •f orr e vi ew pur posesonl y• Do you think the Europeans were the first to have contact with the Aboriginal people? Why/Why not?

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How do you think the Aboriginal people travelled to Australia for the first time? Where do you think they came from originally? Why? Activity – Pages 6 – 7

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Read the first two paragraphs on page five of the student workbook and stop.

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Study the diagram of the Aboriginal people on the raft. Initiate a class discussion about ‘where they were travelling from’, ‘what they were wearing’, ‘what materials they had with them’ etc. Study the map with the class. Discuss the key and its purpose to the map. Discuss the routes taken by the travellers from their place of origin. Ask students if they would consider travelling such great distances on a raft. Why might these people have chosen to risk so much and travel so far to the unknown? Students can be put into pairs to research the archaeological significance of one of the sites labelled on the map. Read the remainder of the text. Ask students to highlight any ‘trade items’ mentioned in the text. Students can then go on to complete the activities on pages six and seven.

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Answers 1. Because the ice melted. 2. They travelled in canoes and on rafts which could not ride the open sea. 3. Answers will vary; there are positive and negative aspect to this. 4. (a) A scientist who studies and explores ancient cultures. (b) A hard kind of stone, used for striking fire. (c) A building where meat and fish are prepared for eating using a smoking process.

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(d) One who trades. A person who buys and sells goods. (e) Something delightful and pleasing, especially to the palate.

6. Answers will vary

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5. Answers will vary but should include: fragile craft; need for food and water; travelling with old or young people; weather or sea conditions.

Additional Activities

1. Use modelling clay or papier-mâché to create trading items such as dugout canoes, iron blades, spears, knives, axeheads and flint. Make a display in your school library of these items, with labels and explanations of where they came from and for what purposes they were brought here. 2. Paint a story to show the Aboriginal people travelling back to Asia with the Indonesian traders.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Discuss the importance of conserving Aboriginal historical sites. Develop a ‘top five’ list of reasons present this tos the o class. Tol carry • the idea further, send •f orr evi ew puand r p os e n y this list to your local government offices, stating why your class feels it is so

Discussion/Debate

important to conserve Aboriginal historical sites.

Topic Focus

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Early European Exploration

Workbook Pages: 8 – 10

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Students will learn about the early European exploration of Australia. explored, journey, discovered, trading, route, navigator

Resources

• atlases • reference material for: Luis Vaez de Torres; Abel Tasman; Dirk Hartog; and Willem Jansz (World Book—Australasia version) • The following websites are recommended: Teacher Australia’s Early Exploration and Colonisation (time line with notes) http://landow.stg.brown.edu/post/australia/austchron.html

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Students Discovery of Australia 1606 http://campus.northpark.edu/history/WebChron/WestEurope/Australia.html

Abel Tasman http://www.vita.org/pacific/dutch/tasman.htm

Captain James Cook http://members.tripod.com/~cuculus/cook.html

Hartog to de Vlamingh

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http://www.mm.wa.gov.au/Museum/march/hartog/hartog_hist.html

Luis Vaez de Torres

http://school.discovery.com/homeworkhelp/worldbook/atozhistory/t/561880.html

Dirk Hartog

European Discovery of Australia

http://www.finalword.com/Touring_Australia/gta_www/gta_011a.htm

Willem Jansz http://www.dmdesign.com.au/cari/

Background

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http://members.iinet.net.au/~rchapman/SwanRvr/European/hartog.htm

Reports from early exploration expeditions are sketchy and there is some doubt as to whether or not explorers were actually describing Australia. It is thought that long before any European exploration, the Chinese had landed at Darwin, and possibly even before that Chinese astronomers had used Australian land to make their observations. Of course, all this took place before recorded history and so it is very unclear as to what actually happened.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons As far as recorded history goes, the first explorers to definitely sight or land on •f orr e vi ew pur posesonl y• Australian territory came from the Netherlands (Holland). These explorers were generally on voyages to the islands of Indonesia for trade purposes and travelled further south to discover various parts of Australia.

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Luis Vaez de Torres Born: Unknown (1500s) Died: 1613 Place of Birth: Thought to be a Spanish subject born in Brittany in France Achievements: A Spanish navigator, in 1606 he was the first European to discover the strait between Australia and Papua New Guinea. Torres was the captain of Los Tres Reyes on the 1605 expedition to explore the territory known as Terra Australis Incognita (unknown southern land) in order to convert its inhabitants to Christianity.

o c . che e r o t r s super Abel Tasman Born: Died: Place of Birth: Achievements:

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1603 1659 Hoorn in the Netherlands A Dutch sea captain who explored the South Pacific. He was the first person to reach Tasmania and to sight New Zealand. He circumnavigated Australia without actually sighting land.

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late 1500s Unknown (1600s) Netherlands A Dutch navigator, in 1616 he became the first recorded European to land on the west coast of Australia. He left a plaque with an inscription: ‘On October 25, 1616 there arrived here the ship Eendract of Amsterdam, the supercargo Gillis Miebais of Liege, skipper Dirk Hartog of Amsterdam; on October 27 sailed for Bantam: The subcargo Jan Steyn, the mate Pieter Ledocker Van Bil.’ Little is known about Dirk Hartog’s life.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Willem Jansz Born: Died: Place of Birth: Achievements:

1570 Unknown (after 1628) Amsterdam in the Netherlands A Dutch navigator, he is thought to be the first European to sight and land on the Australian continent aboard the Duyfken (Little Dove). Willem Jansz and Jan Lodewycksz charted the Australian coastline for 320 km from Pennefather River. He considered the voyage a disappointment, as he did not realise that he had discovered a new continent and considered the land harsh and the natives to be unfriendly.

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Dirk Hartog Born: Died: Place of Birth: Achievements:

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Who were the first people to discover Australia? How do you know this? •f orr evi ew pfirstuEuropeans r potos esAustralia onl y • Who were the discover or parts of Australia?

Introductory Discussion

What do you think would have been their first impression of Australia?

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Why do you think the Dutch didn’t colonise Australia?

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Activity – Pages 9 – 10

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Ask students to highlight the reasons why some people became explorers and also to highlight the different explorers mentioned in the text.

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Ask students to consider: ‘The early explorers did not consider Australia worthy of further exploration’. What effect do you think it might have had on Australia’s development if no-one else had taken on the challenge of exploring the continent? Students can then complete the activities provided on pages nine and 10. They may require an atlas to complete question two and will be need to research to complete question three. Answers 1.

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r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S 3. See background notes for information.

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2.

Additional Activities

Select one explorer from the text and write a journal as if you were that person. Discuss your journey and what you can see of the Australian coastline.

Discussion/Debate

In what ways do you think Australia would be different today if the Asian and Pacific Island explorers had discovered, mapped and colonised the continent?

R. I . C.P ubl i cat i ons Log © Book for the Endeavour

•f orr evi ew pur posesWorkbook onl y • Pages: 11 – 13 Topic Focus

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Students will read and become familiar with Captain Cook’s voyage to the Pacific. Keywords

Resources

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o c . che e r o t r s super • calculators • atlases • The following websites are recommended: Teacher Biography of Captain James Cook (comprehensive) http://www.pacificcoast.net/~regent/cookbio.html

Students Captain James Cook http://members.tripod.com/~cuculus/cook.html

A Simple Experiment on Scurvy http://www.people.virginia.edu/~rjh9u/scurvy1.html

HMS Endeavour Replica (excellent photo gallery of interior) http://www.barkendeavour.com.au/

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Background The Royal Navy purchased an east-coast collier (coal ship) called Earl of Pembroke. It was refitted because of its strength and capacity for a long voyage and renamed HMS Endeavour. The ship measured 106 feet (32.3 metres) from bow to stern and 29 feet (8.8 metres) across at its widest point.

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The bow of the Endeavour was blunt, meaning that it was not a speedy vessel. It was selected because it didn’t sit too deeply in the water—lessening the risk of running aground in uncharted waters. The Endeavour also carried 12 swivel guns and 10 carriage guns to ensure a safe passage.

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The ship was to carry a large number of personnel (seamen, officers, scientists and servants), so Cook ordered another deck to be built to house them all. Endeavour was cramped inside, forcing people to walk almost doubled over in the marines’ quarters. Hammocks were also slung in this area. Doorways into the various cabins were also low, causing people to duck as they moved from section to section.

Captain James Cook’s voyage from 1768 to 1771 in the Endeavour is considered to be of great historical importance. He contributed significantly to the world’s knowledge of navigation, geography and seamanship. He was the first captain to accurately calculate his position using longitude and latitude. He was the first captain to take into consideration the wellbeing of his crew and significantly reduced the effects of scurvy. Captain James Cook is considered to be one of the greatest early explorers, along with Christopher Columbus and Vasco de Gama.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Why is the Endeavour so famous? •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Who was the captain of the Endeavour?

Introductory Discussion

What is a log book?

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Activity – Pages 12 – 13

Students can read the text provided on pages 11 and 12 of the student workbook. Break the class into five groups. Each group can take one journal entry (leaving the last journal entry to do as a whole class at the end). Each group is responsible for thoroughly reading and summarising its journal entry. Students need to provide clear explanations of any difficult words and present their summary to the class.

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Discuss the way in which the log book has been written. (Point out to students that it has been written in the first person.) Discuss the purpose of this form of writing. Ask students if they write a journal. Note that a journal entry is given for every day or even every week. Discuss the purpose of the journey.

Students can then independently read through the text and highlight any keywords or phrases directly related to the places visited by Captain James Cook on the journey. Students can then complete the activities on pages 12 and 13. They will need a calculator for question three and some may find an atlas helpful for questions four and five. Question four asks the students to assimilate the information from the text and translate it into a graphic form. Some students may have difficulty British Arrival in Australia

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completing this activity and may require assistance to break the journey into stages. Answers 1. (a) True (b) False (c) False (d) True

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2. (a) Natives of Tahiti (b) Joseph Banks

(d) Nick Young

(e) Captain Cook

3. (a) 48 000 km (b) 8 000 km 4. 5.

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(c) Halley

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

1. Read excerpts from James Cook’s diary. What were his impressions of the Aboriginal Australians and the landscape?

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3. Make a list of words from the text that are unfamiliar to you. Use a dictionary to find their meaning. Are the words commonly used today? 1. Cook was sent to look for the Great South Land. He was told that if the land was uninhabited, he should claim it for Britain. If there were ‘natives’, he was to only claim the land that was agreed to by the inhabitants. Cook had seen the Aboriginal Australians but still went ahead with claiming the east coast of Australia. What impact do you think this had on the history of Australia? 2. What health issues were a concern for sailors on the Endeavour voyage?

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Establishment of the British Colony Workbook Pages: 14 – 16 Topic Focus Students will learn about the establishment of the British colony in Australia. Keywords revolution, convict, fleet, vessel, colony, harbour, natives, settlement Resources

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• The following websites are recommended: Teacher List of Livestock and Provision Carried on the First Fleet The Ships of the First Fleet

http://home.vicnet.net.au/~firstff/ships.htm

Bits of Information on the First Fleet

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http://home.vicnet.net.au/~firstff/list.htm

http://benderhutch.freeservers.com/Bits.html

Australian History—The Founders of a Nation

http://hallie.shoalhaven.net.au/~cathyd/history/ffstory.html

Students The First Fleet

http://school.discovery.com/homeworkhelp/worldbook/atozhistory/f/724556.html

The Ships of the First Fleet © R. I . C .Publ i cat i ons First Fleet: Rations on Arrival •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• http://home.vicnet.net.au/~firstff/ships.htm

http://cedir.uow.edu.au/programs/FirstFleet/s_rations.html

British Colonisation of Australia

http://www.midcoast.com.au/%7Ettc/Colonisation.html

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Background Before the arrival of the Europeans, Australia was populated solely by Aboriginal Australian people. They had never seen Europeans until coming into contact with Cook in 1770 when he discovered and named the east coast of Australia—New Holland. The British, however, did not recognise Australia as ‘belonging’ to the Aboriginal people, because they had not cultivated or ‘developed’ the land.

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In Britain, the agrarian revolution—along with a population explosion in the cities— meant that the incidence of crime had risen dramatically. Authorities acted harshly, and people were jailed in appalling conditions for trivial offences. As a result, British jails wee grossly overcrowded. Britain needed a way to ‘get rid’ of large numbers of prisoners and relieve the pressure.

When Cook’s reports back to Britain suggested Australia as a suitable place to set up a new settlement, the answer was obvious. New Holland was to become a penal colony, where convicts could be transported (sent), usually never to return to Britain. The British Government organised and outfitted 11 ships to transport 1 487 people, including 586 male and 192 female convicts, to the new colony. The fleet was commanded by Captain Arthur Phillip, who also became Australia’s first governor. This fleet of ships, to be called the ‘First Fleet’, left England on 13 May 1787. Food supplies were replenished at Tenerife, Rio de Janeiro and Cape Town. The British Arrival in Australia

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Better land was located west of Sydney Cove on the Paramatta River. A settlement was developed there, farms established and shelter built. The problem was that because of a lack of transport, the harvested crops could not be taken easily to the other colony at Sydney Cove.

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ships arrived in Botany Bay in mid-January the following year. The original site was not suitable for setting up the colony, so they moved north along the east coast to Port Jackson, arriving there on 26 January 1788. The colony experienced many problems from the very beginning. Because most of the convicts were from the cities in Britain, they did not have the skills to be farmers, the soil was poor for crop growing and the farming equipment was poor quality. All this led to the need to ration the food that was brought with them on the journey. Shelter was also a problem—Australian trees were large and hard, the tools were of poor quality and could not stand up to the work. Additional clothing had not been brought from Britain, which meant that clothing had to be repaired constantly.

It took more than two years of near starvation and isolation before the colony at Sydney Cove could begin to expand. Food was still a problem for some time, but farming slowly began to prosper and the shipping of supplies became more regular.

Introductory Discussion

What do you think it would have been like to live in Australia before the British arrived?

©R . I . C Plifeu blikel i c at o s What do you. think was in Britain ati this n time? How do you think the convicts would have felt, being sent to Australia? •f orr e vi ew pur posesonl y• What do you think were the first impressions of the convicts upon arriving in Why do you think the British sent their convicts to Australia?

Australia?

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Activity – Pages 15 – 16 Read the time line provided on page 14 of the student workbook. Students can then work in groups to illustrate a section of the time line. This artwork can be displayed as a frieze. Students can write their own version of what happened at each stage and display this underneath the appropriate artwork.

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Students can then complete the activities provided on pages 15 and 16. Answers

1. (a) Yes (b) No

(c) Yes

(d) Yes (e) Yes 2. Convict Vessels: Alexander, Friendship, Lady Pehrhyn, Charlotte, Scarborough, Prince of Wales Supply Vessels: Barrowdale, Fishburn, Golden Grove King’s Ships: HMS Sirius, HMS Supply 3. Convict Ration: 2 kg of salted beef; 1 kg of salted pork; 1.5 kg of oatmeal; 1 kg peas; butter; cheese; vinegar; 3.4 litres of water per day My Diet for One Week: Answers will vary R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

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4. To prevent the development and spread of disease. 5. Because they would never have seen European people, ships etc. before. 6. Most convicts would have come from English cities and towns and would have had few skills in farming. 7. Timber was difficult to cut down; tools were of poor quality; food was in short supply.

Additional Activities 1. Research to find out the types of crimes people were being sent to jail for in England in the 1700s. Create a record of these crimes and their punishment.

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3. Find and replicate a map of the world to show the route taken by the First Fleet on its way to Australia.

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2. In small groups, create models of the First Fleet. Use recyclable materials and display in your classroom or the school library.

Discussion/Debate

1. Discuss the importance of the Sydney Cove settlement being able to support itself with food, shelter and clothing. 2. Discuss a modern day diet and compare it with the diet of the convicts. In what ways has our diet improved?

Early Settlement ©R . I . C.P ubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesoWorkbook nl y• Pages: 17 – 19

Topic Focus

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Students will learn about violent incidents which occurred during the early stages of British occupation. Keywords

Resources

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• The following websites are recommended: Teacher Australia’s Settlement and Early History (links page) http://www.students.trinity.wa.edu.au/library/subjects/sose/austhist/settle.htm

Captain Arthur Phillip

http://school.discovery.com/homeworkhelp/worldbook/atozhistory/p/725004.html

Students Botany Bay History http://www.botanybay.nsw.gov.au/history.html

Captain Arthur Phillip http://school.discovery.com/homeworkhelp/worldbook/atozhistory/p/725004.html

Background Early governors from Britain had been clearly instructed to develop positive relationships with the native Aboriginal people. They were instructed to defend British Arrival in Australia

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and protect them wherever necessary. Governors Phillip, Macquarie and Gipps all followed their instructions carefully—unfortunately, others did not. The majority of the new colonists looked down on the Aboriginal people as an inferior race who had no rights to the land they had occupied for thousands of years.

In the early years of the establishment of the penal colony in New South Wales, the Aboriginal people in the area learnt to adapt their lifestyle to take into account the presence of the British. This adaptation meant they had to learn the rules of the ‘white man’. The British expected the Aboriginal people to learn their ‘rules’, but did not bother to learn the rules of the Aboriginal people. This meant that the Aboriginal people became reliant on the white people for handouts of food and clothing.

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Some colonists treated the Aboriginal people with total disdain and cruelty, even going as far as to poison their food or shoot them. The Aboriginal people began to retaliate by attacking the colonists and burning their farms.

Introductory Discussion

What problems do you think the colonists faced when they first settled in Australia? What problems do you think the Aboriginal people faced when the colonists first settled in Australia?

Activity – Pages 18 – 19

Read the text provided on page 17 of the student workbook.

Read the letter July Ask the students they think the British had more ©R . I . C .forP u1788. bl i c a t i oifn s right to the fish than the Aboriginal people, who were in competition for the food. Do the students thep Aboriginal behaviour toward the colonists •f orr e v i e w consider pur ose so nl y • to have been fair?

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Read the letter for September 1788. Ask students what could be done to try to resolve the situation that was occurring between the British and the Aboriginal people. Read the letter for November 1788. Ask students why they think the Aboriginal people refused to live among the British colonists. Do they think the Aboriginal people would have been better off if they had just moved in and lived among the colonists, like ‘white men’?

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Ask students to write their own letter for January 1788. Has anything improved or has the situation worsened? Students can then complete the activities provided on pages 18 and 19. Answers

1. Because they had taken over land and food supplies that had been used by Aboriginal people for many years. 2. Answers will vary 3. Lack of food; had to move from their areas; introduced illnesses; gunfire from soldiers. 4. Answers will vary; however, should reflect an understanding of how the English assumed their ‘right’ to the land of others. 5. Answers will vary 6. Answers will vary; but should reflect that these early decisions created repercussions that still affect the lives of all Australians, especially Aboriginal Australians. R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

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Additional Activities The British were unaware of the Aboriginal culture and belief system and the Aboriginal people felt their land had been invaded. The two parties could not communicate because of the language and cultural barriers and a satisfactory solution was difficult to reach. Suggest a way the British and Aboriginal people could have reached a satisfactory solution about fishing in the harbour. Discuss with a partner and explain your idea. Discussion/Debate

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1. ‘The British should not have fished in the harbour.’ Discuss this statement and explain why you agree or disagree.

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2. ‘The Aboriginal people should not have attacked the convicts.’ Discuss this statement and explain why you agree or disagree.

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Aboriginal Resistance to Colonisation Workbook Pages: 20 – 22

Topic Focus

Students will learn about the chain of events that caused friction between the ‘natives’ and the British in the first few days of colonisation.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons laws, camp, unwritten, unrest, misunderstanding •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Resources Keywords

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• The following websites are recommended: Teacher Time Line of Incidents Between British and Koori People

http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/k6_hsie_resources/back8.html

Pemulwuy

http://www.cat.org.au/forgottenwar/sydney.html

Resistance

o c . che e r o t r s super http://www.nntt.gov.au/ar9596/resistance.html

Students Time Line of Incidents Between British and Koori People http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/k6_hsie_resources/back8.html

Background

When the First Fleet arrived in Sydney in January 1788, it was the beginning of the end of sole occupation of the land by the Aboriginal people, as it had been for thousands of years. The new colonists considered the Aboriginal people to be ‘primitive’, ‘barbaric’ and some even thought they were ‘stupid’—which couldn’t have been further from the truth. The culture and social structures of the Aboriginal people were rich, diverse and very complex and were directly developed from the Dreamtime laws and rules. Some officials were aware of the effects of colonisation on the Aboriginal people and made a concerted effort to take an interest in their customs and welfare. There were several violent acts by the Aboriginal people demonstrating their

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anger at their land being taken over, their food being taken and their way of life being destroyed. Ultimately, the time came when Aboriginal people were afraid to enter the township for fear of being shot. It didn’t take long for the traditional customs and lifestyle of the Aboriginal people to be broken down by the colonists as they began to fish, fell trees and shoot kangaroos. This put pressure on the environment and resulted in the local people suffering from starvation. Captain Phillip tried to help the Aboriginal people by inviting them into the town to sleep and eat with the settlers.

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The initial contact between the Aboriginal people and the colonists introduced the local inhabitants to foreign diseases such as smallpox, colds, flu and measles. All of these could be fatal, as the Aboriginal people did not have a resistance to such diseases—and many died. What does it mean to resist?

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Introductory Discussion

Why do you think the Aboriginal people fought so hard to resist colonisation?

Activity – Pages 21 – 22

Read the text provided on pages 20 and 21 of the student workbook.

Ask students to create a picture story of the events listed in the text. They can work in small groups or individually to complete their picture story.

Discuss the events and ask students to provide alternative solutions that may ©R . I . C.P bl i c at i ons have prevented the u situation from worsening. Students can then complete the activities provided on pages 21 and 22. •f orr e vi ew pur posesonl y• Answers 1. (a) 5 (b) 4 (c) 2 (d) 1 (e) 3

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3. Answers will vary 4.

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2. Answers will vary

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5. They gave up resistance to the British and lived on farms, working for rations. 6. (a) Large numbers of animals drinking at waterholes made them muddy and unclean. (b) Rabbits, camels, horses, donkeys and water buffalo all thrive in our environment, damaging waterholes and competing with native animals for food.

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Additional Activities 1. Research to find the types of introduced illnesses that affected the Aboriginal people. Record your findings in a chart. 2. Imagine you are an Aboriginal in Australia at the time of colonisation. Write or draw how you feel about the British ‘invasion’. Discussion/Debate 1. Debate ‘Aboriginal people should have accepted the British and lived quietly under their laws’.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S The Convicts

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2. Discuss the response of the Aboriginal people to the British when they first arrived. Compare and contrast this to later events between the Aboriginal people and the British.

Workbook Pages: 23 – 25

Topic Focus

Students will learn why convicts were sent to Australia and how they responded to their new environment.

© R. I . Cimmigrant, .Pudependent, bl i ca t i ons penal, ration, assigned, probation, pardon Resources •f orr evi e w pur posesonl y• • Reference material on Australian bushrangers Keywords

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• The following websites are recommended: Teacher The Ticket of Leave

http://www.convicttrail.org/ctp/convicts/tol.html

Convicts in Australia

http://www.thecore.nus.edu.sg/landow/post/australia/convicts.html

o c . che e r o t r s super Students Port Arthur Penal Settlement: The Convicts http://www.portarthur.org.au/convicts.htm

Convicts of the First Fleet (by name and sentence)

http://carmen.murdoch.edu.au/community/dps/convicts/1stfleet.html

Australian Bushrangers

http://www.herbertonss.qld.edu.au/landofoz/bushrangers/bushranger.html

Background Convicts were the earliest European settlers in Australia. Life in England at the time was harsh and miserable. Many farmers left the land because of the technology boom and moved into the cities. They were untrained for city work and found it difficult to find employment. Cities became overcrowded and poverty increased as a result—so did crime, with people forced to steal such things as a loaf of bread to feed their family. Transportation of convicts was established in 1718 as a result of overcrowded jails. It was a form of punishment but it also provided cheap labour to new colonies. British Arrival in Australia

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When America gained independence from Britain, it no longer wanted to take the British convicts, so the government had to locate a new place for this purpose. In the meantime, convicts were imprisoned in the hulks of ships that were no longer seaworthy. Australia was officially selected in 1787 as the new penal colony, with the first convicts being sent in 1788. Sentences ranged from 7 to 21 years to life—all for stealing. Introductory Discussion What do you think it would have been like to be a convict in England in the 1700s?

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What do you think it would have been like to be a convict in Australia? Do you think life was harder for prisoners then as compared to now? Read the information provided on page 23 of the student workbook.

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Activity – Pages 24 – 25

Place students into groups, with each group having one topic—work; food; escape and rebellion; probation; pardons. Each group must read its section carefully and prepare an interview between a reporter and a convict on the topic. The interview must clearly impart the knowledge gained from the text. Students can then complete the activities on pages 24 and 25. Question three requires students to draw on the information provided in past units; while question six requires students to complete some additional research.

©R . I . C.Publ i cat i ons Answers •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 1. (a) Fact

(b) Fact (c) Fact

(e) Fact

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(d) Fact

2. cleaning, washing, sweeping, cooking, making beds, looking after young children etc. 3. bush animals, fish, some native plants

4. Conditional Pardon: meant freedom but the convict was not allowed to return to England.

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Absolute Pardon: allowed the convict to return to England if desired.

5. Work: variety of occupations; male convicts did harder work than females; convicts worked from sunrise to sunset. Food: food was scarce; colony was dependent on supplies from England; convicts received a set ration. Escape and Rebellion: many convicts tried to escape; if caught, punishment was severe, including execution; some escaped convicts became bushrangers. 6. Answers will vary 7. Answers will vary

Additional Activities 1. Research to complete a profile of a convict transported to Australia on the First Fleet. Draw a picture of what you think he or she looked like and create a class database of convicts from the First Fleet. R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

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2. Design a poster encouraging free settlers to immigrate to Australia. Display in the school library. Discussion/Debate Discuss the rations provided for the convicts. Do you think the convicts had a healthy diet? Explain why or why not.

Topic Focus

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Workbook Pages: 26 – 28

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Consequences of Colonisation for Aboriginal People or e st B r Students will learn how British colonisation negatively affected the Aboriginal people.

Keywords

Resources

culture, beliefs, convert, tolerated, ownership, malnutrition, immunity, traditional, brutal

• The following websites are recommended: © R. I . C .Publ i cat i ons Teacher Battle of Pinjarra •f orr evi e w pur posesonl y•

http://www.peel.ecommunity.com.au/wppuser/ecommur/history/pinjarra.html

Massacre at Pinjarra http://www.walkabout.com.au/locations/WAPinjarra.shtml

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The Myall Creek Massacre http://www.aaa.com.au/hrh/aboriginal/factsht49.shtml

Students Aborigines: The First Australians

http://www.ozramp.net.au/~senani/aborigin.htm

o c . che e r o t r s super Aboriginal History (links page)

http://www.students.trinity.wa.edu.au/library/aborigines/history.htm

Many incidents of violence occurred between the native inhabitants and the colonists. In the beginning, the Aboriginal people feared the British, considering them to be spirits of dead ancestors. Spirits were considered to be unpredictable and the British certainly behaved in such a manner. The Aboriginal people had developed their own laws and ways of living in harmony with the land and did not take kindly to the colonists and their ways. The colonists took food, land and other resources without asking—which the Aboriginal people rightly considered to be stealing. The fact that there were now more people relying on these resources put pressure on them and forced the Aboriginal people to move away from their traditional areas. Once the Aboriginal people realised the colonists were there to stay, they decided to fight for what they believed was rightfully theirs.

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The Aboriginal people began to retaliate by ambushing colonists if they went into the bush on their own. When word of this got back to the colony, permission was given to retaliate against the native inhabitants. Things got progressively worse over the months and years. The colonists of Tasmania even went so far as to form the ‘Black Line’ in an attempt to capture the entire Aboriginal population of the island.

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Some colonists tried to help the Aboriginal people by giving them blankets and clothing. The Aboriginal Australians weren’t used to such items and didn’t know that these could cause disease if used in an unhygienic manner. Alcohol was also introduced to the Aboriginal people for the first time.

Introductory Discussion What are consequences?

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Many Aboriginal people died in the various conflicts that occurred between the races, but more died as a result of the illnesses introduced by the British to Australia. Without resistance to diseases like smallpox, influenza, measles and whooping cough, Aboriginal people suffered severely and more often than not died as a result.

What do you think would have been some of the effects of colonisation on the Aboriginal people? How do you think the effects of colonisation on Aboriginal people could have been minimised?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Read the onr pages 26 s ande 27s of the student workbook. •f orr e vi etext wprovided pu po o nl y •

Activity – Pages 27 – 28

Ask students to highlight the keywords and phrases that provide information on the different effects colonisation had on the Aboriginal people.

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In small groups, students can take one of the effects caused by colonisation and complete a ‘Cause, Effect and Solution’ chart. Once the charts are complete, students can present them to the class and open the floor for discussion. Students can then complete the activities provided on pages 27 and 28.

o c . che e r o t r s super Answers

1. (a) No (b) No (c) No (d) No (e) No 2.

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Additional Activities 1. Research to find information about initial contact between colonists and Aboriginal people in your local area. You will need to include the name of the language group, the year of contact, the events that occurred and the response to the colonisation. 2. Research to find information about smallpox, influenza, measles and whooping cough. What are the symptoms of and cures for these diseases? Discussion/Debate

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1. Discuss reconciliation. Is this enough to make amends? What do you think should be done?

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2. Should we give all land back to the Aboriginal people? What effects would this have on today’s society?

Early Pioneers

Workbook Pages: 29 – 31

Topic Focus

Keywords Resources

Students will learn about some of the major contributors to Australian life in the early days of colonisation.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons pioneer, governor, merchants, appointed, encouraged, reform, admired •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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• The following websites are recommended: Teacher John Oxley

http://members.ozemail.com.au/~gmcbryde/explorer/oxleynsw.html

Phillip Parker King

http://werner.ira.uka.de/~westphal/australia/explore/king.html

o c . che e r o t r s super Map of Australian Exploration

http://members.ozemail.com.au/~gmcbryde/explorer/image/austexpl.gif

Students Lachlan Macquarie

http://www.dinkumaussies.com/..%2FCOLONIAL%2FLachlan%20Macquarie.htm

Caroline Chisholm

http://www.abc.net.au/btn/australians/chisholm.htm

Blaxland, Wentworth and Lawson http://www.davidreilly.com/australian_explorers/blaxland/blaxland_-easier.htm

Mary Reibey http://www.xrefer.com/entry/360573

Background The first groups of colonists to Australia consisted mainly of convicts and their jailers. They lived under a system that was considered extremely harsh by the standards of the 1700s and those of today. A small number of skilled convicts were able to make a success of their lives once their sentence was complete, British Arrival in Australia

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while others became bushrangers or just quietly survived as best they could.

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All of the early colonists in Australia can be considered to be pioneers. They were carving a new life for themselves, getting used to new and harsh conditions, making do with what they had, learning to use new and unfamiliar resources for their survival and most were away from their families and friends. While the majority of colonists went about their daily business of survival, others became famous for various reasons. These pioneers are held in high esteem because most of them overcame the harsh environment, new circumstances and great hardship to become successful.

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Later groups of colonists were free settlers, mainly British farmers who were promised land and a life of wanting for nothing. These settlers began arriving in Australia in 1793. They brought their first homes of canvas tents with them on the journey. Once here, life was a disappointment. Work was hard to find, it was difficult to get from one place to another, food was scarce and rationing was severe. Many of these early pioneers began to rear their own sheep, cows, pigs and poultry and grow vegetable gardens to support themselves.

These pioneers are responsible for the foundation of the Australian economy, for setting the tone of ‘Australian mateship’ and for creating the ‘Aussie battler’.

Introductory Discussion What is a pioneer?

©R . I . C.Publ i cat i ons Do you think there are more pioneers today, or were there more pioneers in the past? •f orr e vi ew pur posesonl y• Do you think the pioneers of the past are more important or made more of an Why are pioneers so important?

impact than the pioneers of today?

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Activity – Pages 30 – 31 Separate the class into four groups to read and summarise the text provided on pages 29 and 30 of the student workbook. Two groups can read the text on Lachlan Macquarie, two groups can work on Caroline Chisholm, two groups on Arthur Phillip and two groups on Mary Reibey. Each group is responsible for reading and summarising the text on its pioneer.

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Once the groups have completed their summary, they can share their work with the class. As students listen to the oral summaries, they should highlight the keywords and phrases in the written text. Students can then go on to complete the activities provided on pages 30 and 31. Answers

1. (a) Thomas Reibey (b) Caroline Chisholm (c) Arthur Phillip (d) Thomas Reibey (e) Lachlan Macquarie 2. (a) 48 years old (b) 13 years old R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

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(c) 17 years old (d) 30 years old (e) 60 years old

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3.

Additional Activities

1. Research the lives and exploration routes of one of the following explorers: Blaxland, Lawson, Wentworth, Oxley, Meehan, Throsby or Hume. 2. Research and complete biographies of other well-known Australian figures from the days of early colonisation. Present your biography to the class and make the class collection into a book which can be kept in the school library as reference material.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Discussion/Debate •f orr evi e w pur posesonl y• 1. Lachlan Macquarie worked very hard to develop positive relationships

with the Aboriginal people. Do you think he helped them or did his actions cause more damage? Discuss your ideas in small groups.

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2. Of the four people on the previous page, which do you think had the greatest impact on Australian history? Make sure you can back up your choice with facts.

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Significant Australian Aboriginals Workbook Pages: 32 – 34 Topic Focus Students will learn about some of the major contributors to Australian life in the early days of colonisation. Keywords prisoner, hostage, ambassador, interpreter, beheaded, traditional

Resources

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S http://members.nbci.com/athw/pemul.htm

Bennelong

http://members.nbci.com/athw/bennel.htm

The Story of Yagan

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• The following websites are recommended: Teacher Pemulwuy (Caution: Graphic text not suitable for students)

http://members.iinet.net.au/~daviess/yagan/start.html

Sydney: Significant Aboriginal People

http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/hs_ahb_essay_7.asp

Students Pemulwuy

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons The Story of Yagan •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

http://edtech.nepean.uws.edu.au/wslh/MA%20Students%20web%20pages/Legge/ Pemulwuy.htm http://members.iinet.net.au/~daviess/yagan/start.html

Background

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The Aboriginal people who lived in the Sydney area before the British arrived were the Eora people. Despite instructions from England ordering Governor Phillip to treat the Aboriginal people with the same kindness and respect he might treat a British subject, some 20 000 Aboriginal Australians were killed as a direct result of British colonisation. Just as there were significant British pioneers in the early days of colonisation, there were also significant Aboriginal people who were fighting for what they believed in and who tried to make life better for their people.

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Once the Aboriginal people realised the ‘white’ people were here to stay, they knew they had to fight to keep what was theirs. Even though the Aboriginal people didn’t believe they owned the land—they believed the land owned them— they had to fight for it as it formed the very basis of their existence. Without the land, they had nothing. While the British used guns and poisoned foods to kill any ‘troublesome natives’, some Aboriginal people went into guerilla warfare against the British.

Introductory Discussion Can you name any significant Aboriginal people from the time of colonisation? Why/why not? Why do you think less is known about Aboriginal people than the British of this time? R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

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Activity – Pages 33 – 34 Separate the class into four groups to read and summarise the text provided on pages 32 and 33 of the student workbook. Two groups can read the text on Arabanoo, two groups can work on Pemulwuy, two groups on Bennelong and two groups on Yagan. Each group is responsible for reading and summarising the text on its significant Aboriginal. Once the groups have completed their summary, they can share their work with the class. As students listen to the oral summaries, they should highlight the keywords and phrases in the written text.

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Students can then go on to complete the activities provided on pages 33 and 34. Answers

(b) early part of 1833

(c) 31 December 1788 (d) May 1790 (e) 1802 (f) October 1832 (g) 18 May 1789 (h) 11 July 1833

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1. (a) 1813

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 2. (a) Pemulwuy (b) Yagan

(c) Arabanoo

(d) Bennelong

3. Answers will vary

5. Answers will vary

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1. Research and write a biography on another high profile Aboriginal Australianfrom the time of early colonisation. Compile these biographies and display in the library.

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2. Create a time line of the events outlined on the previous pages. 1. The heads of Pemulwuy and Yagan have recently been returned to Australia. Discuss how their people must have felt about the taking of their heads. How do you feel about it? 2. Discuss in small groups why Pemulwuy was an Australian hero. Talk about what ‘hero’ means to you. Can we compare people such as ‘sportstars’ to heroes like Pemulwuy? Why/Why not?

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Assessment Assessment and Evaluation The activity on page 30 is provided as one assessment tool in the study of this unit. It is designed to indicate broad student understanding and also provide opportunity for student feedback. The following outcomes were addressed in this topic of study. The following pages can be photocopied as a record of student performance or as a proforma for portfolio assessment.

Administration

Change and Continuity CCS2.1 Describes events and actions related to the British colonisation of Australia and assesses changes and consequences. Environments ENS2.6 Describes people’s interactions with environments and identifies responsible ways of interacting with environments.

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Outcomes

Distribute the activity sheet on page 30 of the Teachers Guide, one per student. Ask students to write their name in the top right-hand corner of the page. Read through the activity sheet to ensure students are clear about what they are being asked to do. At this stage, give students the opportunity to seek clarification of any part of the activity sheet they may not understand. It is important students work independently on these activities—this provides a true representation of what students understand or of their lack of understanding. Once students have completed the activity, collect the worksheets. Mark and record results. From this activity sheet, some students may be found to require further work to develop their understanding in a particular area.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Answers 1. (a) Aboriginal Australian people

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2. (a) 1788 (b) British convicts and their jailers.

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3. Answers will vary; uncomplicated, multicultural, peaceful, nomadic, harmonious, independent, self-reliant, respectful

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4. Answers will vary; unrest, misunderstood, ignored, disease, unhappy, dependent, mistreated, resentful, 5. (a) Willem Jansz (b) Duyfken

(c) Dirk Hartog and Frederik de Houtman (d) Abel Tasman (e) James Cook

6. To monitor Venus passing in front of the sun; to explore new lands in the Pacific Ocean. 7. Answers will vary; shelter, lack of food, equipment, unrest with the native Aboriginal people, new environment, lack of skills. 8. Answers will vary; unrest, sharing the land and animals, disease, loss of harmony with their environment, lack of understanding.

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British Arrival in Australia Student Name:

Date:

Task At the conclusion of the unit ‘British Arrival in Australia’, students were asked to complete an activity sheet independently to demonstrate their understanding of the unit.

Indicators

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Demonstrated

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• Demonstrates knowledge and understanding of the original inhabitants of Australia, and their way of life before and after colonisation. • Displays knowledge and understanding of the British settlers in Australia and the hardships they faced. • Relates knowledge of the history of early exploration of Australia by the Dutch and British. • Understands the effects of British colonisation on Aboriginal Australians.

Needs Further Opportunity

© R|. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Workbook Activities •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Discussion and Debate

Needs Improvement

Needs Improvement

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Satisfactory

| Satisfactory

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Additional Activities

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Further Research

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General Comment

Needs Improvement

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Satisfactory

| Satisfactory

| Satisfactory

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Student Comment

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British Arrival in Australia 1. (a) Who were the first inhabitants of Australia? (b) When is it thought these people arrived in Australia? 2. (a) When did the first European settlement commence in Australia? (b) Who were these people?

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3. Write six words to describe what life was like for the Aboriginal people before colonisation.

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4. Write six words to describe what life was like for the Aboriginal people after colonisation.

5. Use brief answers for these.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •thef o r vi ew pur posesonl y• What was name ofr hise vessel?

(a) Which Dutch explorer made the first sighting of the north coast of Australia? (b)

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(d) Which Dutch explorer discovered the west coast of Tasmania? (e) Which British captain accurately charted the east coast of Australia?

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(c) Which Dutch explorers ended up shipwrecked on the west coast of Australia?

6. Explain why Lieutenant (later Captain)James Cook journeyed to the Great South Land.

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7. What were some of the problems faced by the new colonists during the early settlement of Australia?

8. What were some of the problems faced by the Aboriginal people during the early settlement of Australia?

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Local History Unit Focus This unit provides students with the opportunity to study their local area in relation to the information provided about historical events. Students are encouraged to make detailed studies of their local community, its people, its plants and animals and its history. Students are able to develop an understanding of significant places in Australia and their community and the history behind them that makes them so important. Unit Topics

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• Food Sources for Traditional Aboriginal Australians ......................................................... 36 – 38 • Aboriginal Trade Routes...................................................... 39 – 41 • Heritage Places .................................................................. 42 – 44 • Cemeteries ......................................................................... 45 – 47 • Comparing Histories ........................................................... 48 – 51 • Sacred Site – Uluru ............................................................ 52 – 53 • Advertisements .................................................................. 54 – 56 • Pictures and Photographs ................................................... 57 – 60

Outcomes and Indicators Change and Continuity

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The topics selected to develop this understanding are:

CCS2.2 the community and family life and evaluates the effects ©R . I . CExplains . Pchanges u binl i cat i on of these on different individuals, groups ands environments. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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• identifies the contributions of significant people and events to local community heritage • collects and uses primary and secondary sources to investigate the history of their community • explains why some natural and built features in the local area are heritage sites and why they are valued • demonstrates an understanding that different groups may have different points of view about changes in the local community • compares different versions of local history, beginning with the Aboriginal community that lives/lived in the area • identifies the effects of change on the environment • identifies continuing and changing roles, practices, traditions and customs of men and women in the community • listens to life stories of Aboriginal people • uses historical language when referring to source material • distinguishes between primary and secondary source material when acquiring information • compares their local history with that of another local area • discusses Aboriginal place names

o c . che e r o t r s super CCS2.1

Describes events and actions related to the British colonisation of Australia and assesses changes and consequences. • sequences significant events related to human occupation in Australia • investigates the local area to identify the peoples who originally lived there and those who live there now

Cultures CUS2.3

Explains how shared customs, practices, symbols, languages and traditions in communities contribute to Australian and community identities. • examines the different perceptions that people living within a community have of that community • identifies some customs, practices and traditions of their local community, beginning with the Aboriginal people • gives some reasons why their local community is different to others and why it is of value and should be respected

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Food Sources for Traditional Aboriginal Australians Workbook Pages: 36 – 38 Topic Focus Students collect information on animal and plant life that provided food for the Aboriginal people and look at changes that have taken place. Keywords

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natural, fauna, flora, traditions, bush tucker, cycads, nectar, hunting, gathering • The following websites are recommended: Teacher Australian Bush Tucker

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Resources

http://www.globalgourmet.com/food/egg/egg0597/bushtuck.html

Contemporary Use of Bush Tucker

http://www.geocities.com/thaliebel/Contents.html

Students Bush Tucker Glossary

http://www.globalgourmet.com/food/egg/egg0597/glossary.html

Bush Tucker Plants

© R. I . C Pu bAl i cat i ons Sir . Joseph Banks: Biography orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Background•f http://www.teachers.ash.org.au/bushtucker/

http://www.anbg.gov.au/biography/banks.biography.html

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‘Bush tucker’ is food that was available on this continent before colonisation. It was once a resource used in harmony with natural cycles to ensure there was always an abundant supply. After colonisation and the introduction of foreign plants and animals which affected the native species, the clearing of land for farming and housing, the use of natural resources in construction and the inability to access natural areas, the Aboriginal people were unable to use the bush resources to the extent they once had. They were forced to rely on the colonists for their food.

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Foods varied from area to area; those groups which lived by the sea had a diet rich with fish and seafood; those who lived inland relied more heavily on mammals, insects and reptiles. Plant species also varied according to the location of the group. Today, Aboriginal people rely less and less—if at all—on bush food. These changes are due to the introduction of European foods, the breakdown of traditional lifestyles and the lack of available natural resources in the area.

Introductory Discussion How do you think the Aboriginal people survived before there were shops? What types of foods do you think the traditional Aboriginal people ate? Is all bush food safe to eat? Do you think all food was eaten raw or cooked? Explain. Local History

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Activity – Pages 37 – 38 Read the first two paragraphs on page 36 of the student workbook. Discuss how the Aboriginal people relied on their environment for survival. Ask students to highlight this information in the text. For example, students should highlight ‘mostly on the season and their locality’. Read the next two paragraphs. Discuss the roles of men and women in relation to hunting for and gathering of food. Ask students to highlight the types of foods which were collected.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Read the next paragraph about cooking.

Read the final two paragraphs.

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Discuss with students the cooking methods of the Aboriginal people. Compare this with how people might cook food when they are camping. Discuss with students the necessity of ensuring the food was safe to eat. How do you think the Aboriginal people worked out these techniques? Students can then complete the activities provided on pages 37 and 38 of the student workbook. Answers

1. Knowledge of flora and fauna; patterns of nature; edibility of plants; seasons; where to find food.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

2. No need to carry it from place to place; handle any size animal; could construct an oven anywhere. 3. Answers will vary 4. Answers will vary

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Additional Activities Discussion/Debate

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5. Clearing of the land; spread of European civilisation encroaching on Aboriginal land; competition for food from the Europeans; availability of European food; introduction of foreign plants and animals. 6. Answers will vary; could include land cleared for farms or buildings, population increases etc. 7. Answers will vary 8. Answers will vary

o c . che e r o t r s super Research bush tucker that still exists in your community. What would life have been like before electricity?

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Aboriginal Trade Routes Workbook Pages: 39 – 41 Topic Focus Students will learn about the existence of trade routes in Australia prior to 1788. Keywords hunter, gatherer, ceremonial, technologies, mainland, complex Resources

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• The following websites are recommended: Teacher Trade Routes—includes map (scroll down the page) Queensland Aboriginal Trade Route

http://www.geologyone.com/esa/axehead/axehead.html#Terrain

Students Aboriginal History

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http://gunada.curtin.edu.au/students/scitech/a_d.html

http://library.thinkquest.org/28994/abhistory.html?tqskip=1

Background

Trade routes are common to all countries and people, so it really comes as no surprise that Aboriginal people also used them. Once people realised there were groups different from their own, located in different areas and which had different resources that could be of use, trade was introduced. Trade relies on the fact that people need and want things that others have in abundance or produce.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Ae trade routep is au means ofo bringing new goods from one community to another. •f orr evi w r p s e s o n l y • Trade routes also increase contact between groups of people and result in a

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Introductory Discussion

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Activity – Pages 39 – 41

What is a trade route? What is the purpose of a trade route?

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regular exchange of ideas and ways of doing things. The Aboriginal people used these trade routes as a way to exchange both material and cultural resources.

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What specific things would you expect to have been traded?

Do you think Australia was the only country to use trade routes? Explain. Read the text on page 39 of the student workbook.

Discuss the following and ask students to highlight the information in the text. • What was traded along the trade routes? • What item was traded most often and over the largest distance? • Why was the technology found in Tasmania less complex than that of the mainland? • Was trade restricted to certain areas? Explain. Students can then complete the activities provided on pages 39 to 41.

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Answers 1. A path where Aboriginal people travelled to trade with other Aboriginal groups. 2. Food and raw materials abundant in one area would be traded for materials from another area. 3. Items such as pearl shells, which can only be found naturally in the north, were found in the south. 4. Items traded: food and raw materials.

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Location: short trade routes often on watercourses, joined up to become routes that went from one side of the country to the other. Art styles: many cultural styles were transferred as part of the trading meetings. Tasmania: Tasmania is an island; hence trade did not occur outside Tasmania.

5. Answers will vary; but most significant items would include: fire, rain, floods, cyclones etc. as natural interference. Other human interference would include roads, towns, cities, farms etc. 6. Answers will vary 7. Answers will vary

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World scale: one of the most extensive series in the world.

8. Lack of trading opportunities because of being cut off from the rest of Australia. 9. Answers will vary 10. Answers will vary

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons What effect did European settlement have on trade routes? •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Discussion/Debate Additional Activities

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Heritage Places

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Find information about trade routes in your area. Discuss their significance to the local community.

Workbook Pages: 2 – 4

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Students will understand what a community heritage site is and how it is identified. cultural heritage, natural heritage, community, grinding-groove, significance

Resources • The following websites are recommended: Teacher National Trust of Australia (NSW) http://www.nsw.nationaltrust.org.au/

Students National Trust of Australia (NSW) http://www.nsw.nationaltrust.org.au/

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Sydney Harbour National Park http://www.npws.nsw.gov.au/parks/metro/harbour/

Sydney Opera House: A Cultural Heritage Site http://www.artsednet.getty.edu/ArtsEdNet/Resources/Maps/Sites/Sydney/

Sydney: Aboriginal People and Places http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/hs_ahb_essay_1.asp

Background

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When we first think of heritage, we tend to think of well-known places like the Great Barrier Reef, Sydney Harbour Bridge or Uluru. These are good examples of heritage places—but Australia has many more heritage sites which represent Australia’s culture and history and which come together to make this country unique. They all help to explain who we are and how Australia and its people have taken shape and developed a very individual identity.

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Heritage: the culture, traditions and national assets preserved from one generation to another.

Heritage places are those parts of Australia's natural, indigenous and historic environment that have particular value for current and future generations. The natural heritage of Australia is unique in that it covers a vast range of different environments which provide a refuge for many plant and animal species. These environments range from rainforests to grasslands, deserts to wetlands, and beaches to rocky outcrops.

Aboriginal Australians have lefta signs ofo theirn occupation throughout the continent © R. I . C . P u b l i c t i s over many thousands of years. These are the reminders of where people once lived, ate, collected food and hunted.They include examples of artwork as well •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• as sacred sites. These places document the lives of the Aboriginal people indigenous to Australia.

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Introductory Discussion

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Australia is also lucky enough to have a rich and diverse Europeanhistorical heritage which tells the story of modern-day Australia, its people and its development. It is important to conserve Australia’s indigenous, natural and historical heritage sites for future generations to be able to appreciate.

o c . che e r o t r s super What is a heritage place?

Do you know of any heritage sites in Australia? What makes a site a heritage site?

Do you think there are any heritage sites in your community?

Activity – Pages 42 – 44 Read the text under the heading ‘Community Heritage’ on page 42 of the student workbook. Ask students to name any other heritage sites they know of and to explain why they think they are classed as heritage sites. Read the text in the box ‘Heritage places can be:’. Ask students if any areas in their local community could be classed as heritage places. Ask students to highlight the features listed that would apply to the sites they have selected. Students can then complete the activities provided on pages 42 to 44. Local History

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Answers 1. Uluru; Sydney Harbour Bridge and Opera House; Kakadu; the Great Barrier Reef etc. 2. Answers will vary (a) All major events would have occurred at a town hall which was often the only community meeting place. (b) These are dents where stone axes, spears and other tools have been sharpened. They are mostly found near creek beds and water. They represent the indigenous culture and techniques used by Aboriginal people.

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(c) Could have been a traditional meeting place for many generations of people or may have had a history prior to it being a cafe.

3. Answers will vary

5. Answers will vary

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4. Answers will vary

Additional Activities

Take photos of heritage buildings in your area. Find out the history of the buildings and compile a report.

Discussion/Debate

Why do we need to preserve our historical sites?

Cemeteries © R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Pages: •f orr evi ew pur posesWorkbook onl y • 45 – 47

Topic Focus

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Resources

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Students will discover how a cemetery can provide a wealth of information on the history of a community and be a significant site. operations, headstone, memorial, bends, tombstone, prosperous

o c . che e r o t r s super • atlases • The following websites are recommended: Teacher What Causes the Bends?

http://www.howstuffworks.com/question101.htm

Students Broome Pearling History http://library.thinkquest.org/10236/int.htm

Broome Photo Gallery (includes Shinju Matsuri and Japanese cemetery) http://www.mike-fields.com/outback/broome/broome.html

Background Cemeteries have often been considered places of great historical significance. One can learn a great deal about the history of an area by reading the tombstones in the local cemetery. It is possible to trace the successive patterns of migration R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

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and settlement, marriage and intermarriage, birth and death, disease and disaster, social status, religious beliefs and high achievement and failure. Between 20 000 and 75 000 years ago, Neanderthals began to bury their dead. The first burials may not have been intentional. Hunters who were wounded or ill were left behind and sealed in caves to protect them from wild animals. When they recovered enough, they were supposed to push the stones away. Some didn't get better or were unable to push the stones away and remained trapped inside. Later, flowers and personal effects were discovered with the body. It is unclear when headstones were first used to acknowledge the person buried, with their details and an inscription of their character.

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Cemeteries have at least three heritage aspects: • Social records; • Architecture—layout and monuments; and • Conservation of flora.

Introductory Discussion What is a cemetery?

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A series of devastating epidemics in the United States led to the creation of large garden cemeteries. These proved quite popular with people who also used them as a place for their afternoon walk.

Have you ever visited a cemetery? What was it like?

How can we learn about a community when we visit a cemetery? © R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Study the photographs on o page 45 ofs theo student workbook. •f orr evi ew pur p s e nl y•Ask students to

Activity – Pages 46 – 47

complete the question at the top of the page. Discuss the gravestones, the environment, the trees.

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Read the text below the photographs. Students may be surprised to find out the photographs are of a cemetery in Western Australia. Discuss with the students some of the information they could gain by a walk through this particular cemetery. Students can highlight this information in the text. Students can then go on to complete the activities provided on pages 46 and 47.

o c . che e r o t r s super Answers 1. 2.

3. False; True; True; True 4. The weather: where cyclones or storms sank boats. Bends: where divers rise from the seabed too quickly, causing nitrogen bubbles to form in their blood. Local History

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5. Money and pride. 6. An annual festival held on 15 August each year; the Broome cemetery; statues 7. Answers will vary 8. Answers will vary; disasters; different cultural groups; male/female population; illnesses etc. 9. Answers will vary

Additional Activities

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Collect pictures of historical cemeteries from around the world.

Discussion/Debate

Comparing Histories

Workbook Pages: 48 – 51

Topic Focus

Resources

Students will compare the history of a community in Australia with a community overseas.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons inhabitants, permanent settlers, industries, penal colony, epidemic •f orr e vi ew pur posesonl y• • The following websites are recommended: Teacher Walkabout—Rottnest Island WA

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Keywords

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If a rich source of a precious metal was discovered under a graveyard, should the grave site be moved elsewhere?

http://www.walkabout.com.au/fairfax/locations/WARottnestIsland.shtml

Students Rottnest Island http://www.rottnest.wa.gov.au/home.htm

o c . che e r o t r s super Kennebunkport—History

http://www.kporthistory.org/history.htm

Maine Webcams (live)

http://www.maine-webcams.net/

Background

Rottnest Island Rottnest Island lies about 19 kilometres off the coast of Western Australia. It is roughly 10 kilometres long and five kilometres wide. The total area of Rottnest is some 1 900 hectares. Until about 6 500 years ago, Rottnest Island was joined to the Australian mainland. The Island was named by Dutch navigator William de Vlamingh after the large numbers of quokkas on the Island, which were mistaken for large rats. Rottnest is surrounded by reefs, making the area dangerous for unsuspecting captains. Several ships have been shipwrecked off the island because of the hazardous conditions.

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The Island has six major habitats: coastal, salt lakes, brackish swamps, woodlands, heath and settled areas. There are also a number of permanent lakes on Rottnest Island, while others are seasonal and usually dry out in summer.

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Kennebunk The exact date of the earliest settlement of Kennebunk is uncertain, but there is evidence to suggest that many years prior to the first permanent habitation of the area, it was visited extensively as a summer headquarters to fish and dry fish. The native Indians had moved out of the area because it had been plundered of resources. The area was resettled in the 1700s and became a bustling port for foreign trade and customs checks.

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Aboriginal people have a strong connection with Rottnest Island. Archaeological finds have discovered the remains of tools which date back 30 000 years, when Rottnest was still attached to the mainland. After the sea level rose and separated the island from the mainland, there is evidence that Aboriginal people were no longer present there.

Farming increased as did the building of sawmills and corn grinding mills after a second settlement in the area. At the beginning of the 1800s, the shipbuilding industry of Kennebunk began to thrive and the centre of the town moved its location along to the north shore of the river to take advantage of the industry. The growth of the shipping industry was so spectacular that in one year the town managed to build 100 vessels, making the community the second richest in the state.

© R. I . Cthe. Pu b l i cat i on sto decline but a new industry After 1860s, the shipbuilding industry began was only around the corner. By the 1870s, Kennebunk’s natural beauty and •f orr evi ew p ur pose stoo nsummer l y• convenient beaches encouraged people build homes and resorts, bringing with them a new life.

Introductory Discussion

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Why is the history of a community so important?

Should the history of a community be preserved for future generations? Does your community have any history that should be preserved? What is it? Why should it be preserved?

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Place students into groups of four. Each group should be nominated to read and complete the following activity for either Rottnest Island or Kennebunk. There should be an even number of students reading both pieces of text. Ask each group to read its particular text carefully. Once the groups have read the text and become familiar with it, ask them to locate and highlight the following information for their text. • Oldest evidence of occupation. • When the area was first explored and by who. • Why the area was first settled. • Industries of the area from the past and today. • Claim to fame. Ask two students from each group to move to a group that read a different text. Each group should now have two students who read the Rottnest Island text and

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two students who read the Kennebunk text. Each pair must take their turn to summarise the text they read and provide the information that was highlighted to the other pair. All students should now be familiar with both communities. Students can now complete the activities provided on pages 49 to 51. Answers 1. (a) Long cut bank—refers to Great Hill at the mouth of Mousam River.

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(b) Rat’s nest—after the large numbers of quokkas found on the island.

2. (a) Native American Indians (b) Aboriginal Australians

(b) William de Vlamingh in 1696

4. (a) Farming (b) A jail for Aboriginal prisoners

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3. (a) French and English in 1600s

5. Rottnest: Salt collecting; fishing; military installations Kennebunk: Farming; timber; shipbuilding; cotton factories; other manufacturing factories 6. Rottnest: Tourism; fishing Kennebunk: Tourism

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 7. Answers will vary

8. Both were locations of conflict with indigenous people. Both are now predominantly tourism-driven. Both were taken over by Europeans.

9. Answers will vary; they should support the preservation of historical sites as physical records of our past.

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Discussion/Debate

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Find similarities between the history of your community and the history of Rottnest Island or Kennebunk.

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‘A knowledge of your local history is important.’ Discuss this statement.

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Sacred Site – Uluru Workbook Pages: 52 – 53 Topic Focus Students will gain knowledge of the significance of Uluru and other sacred sites and what it means to preserve our culture. Keywords Uluru, Yulara, Kata Tjuta, monolith, ancestors, ancestoral beings, preserve

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• coloured pencils • The following websites are recommended: Teacher Aboriginal Spirituality, Dreaming and Sacred Sites (links page) http://www.students.trinity.wa.edu.au/library/aborigines/sites.htm

Uluru; Ayers Rock http://www.crystalinks.com/ayersrock.html

Students Uluru

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Resources

http://www.acn.net.au/articles/1999/06/uluru.htm

Background

© R. I C .site Pu l i cahast i ons A. sacred is anb area which spiritual or religious significance to living Aboriginal Australians. •f orr evi eneed wtop ur po es nl y •heritage has been The protect sacred sitess relating too Aboriginal cultural What is a sacred site?

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recognised since the 1960s. They were first included under State and Territory legislation which protected natural and built heritage. There are now more than 4 800 sites listed with the National Trust. When visiting either a well-developed sacred site in a National Park, or perhaps a little known area hidden away somewhere in the bush, people must remember: • Rock art sites are extremely vulnerable to damage, and most are already in the process of slow deterioration. It is important not to touch the artwork or to stir up dirt or dust around them. • Stay behind any barriers or fences that have been erected and adhere to any marked pathways. • Manage children’s behaviour and try to develop their understanding of the area’s significance. • If a site is located, which may not have been recorded, report it to the nearest Aboriginal Affairs Office. • All sites are protected by law and if you cause damage, fines of up to $5 000 apply.

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Uluru is considered the world’s largest monolith and Australia’s most famous landmark. It is located about 450 kilometres southwest of Alice Springs and also boasts another rocky outcrop, known as Kata Tjuta.

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Introductory Discussion What is a sacred site? Who is a sacred site most important to? Why do you think Uluru is considered a sacred site? Has anyone ever visited Uluru? What was it like? Activity – Pages 52 – 53

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Read the first paragraph on page 52 of the student workbook. Discuss the concept of a sacred site, its importance and its need for protection. Read the next two paragraphs and ask students to highlight the features of Uluru.

Read the next paragraph and discuss with students the importance of Aboriginal people working together with the Australian National Parks and Wildlife service to protect the area. This specially formed group has been given UNESCO's highest honour, the Picasso Gold Medal, in 1995, recognising the fact that it had set new international standards for world heritage management.

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Read the fourth paragraph and discuss the length of time it took for the Aboriginal claim to be passed.

Read the final paragraphs and ask students to highlight the various things they can or can not do while visiting Uluru. Discuss why they think visitors are discouraged from climbing Uluru.

Students can. then the activities on pages 52 and 53. ©R . I . C Pcomplete ubl i c at i o ns Answers •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 1. Teacher check; colours should show the change from red through to purple. 2. Pitjantjatjara and Yankuntjatjara people.

4. To discourage tourists from climbing Uluru.

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3. It was created in the Dreaming by ancestral beings.

7. Answers will vary; Sites can include paintings, camps, engravings, axe grinding grooves, fish traps, stone arrangements, middens, carved trees, ceremonial grounds, burial sites etc. These can be found in parts of Uluru, Kata Tjuta, Kakadu National Park, Namadgi National Park, Kangaroo Island, Flinders Ranges, Gammon Ranges National Park, Nullarbor National Park, Dalhousie Springs, Blue Mountains etc.

o c . che e r o t r s super 8. Answers will vary

Additional Activities

Write an information report on an Aboriginal site in or near your area. Discussion/Debate Should people climb Uluru?

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Advertisements Workbook Pages: 54 – 56 Topic Focus Students will learn how samples of old advertising provide us with information on changes that have taken place in our lives and the lives of others. Keywords communication, product, development, technology, appeal

Resources

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/adaccess/

Students Antique Radios

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• The following websites are recommended: Teacher Ad*Access (7 000 old advertisements from US and Canada)

http://antiqueradio.org/gallery.htm

Background

The development of communication is approximately as follows: • Nonverbal: 150 000 years • Oral: 55 000 years • Written: 6 000 years—including early writing (4000 BC), Egyptian hieroglyphics (3000 BC), Phoenician alphabet (1500 to 2000 BC), book printing in China (600 BC), book printing in Europe (AD 1400), printing press (1450)

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons • Other include—telegraph (1844), telephone •f orr evi e wdevelopments pur p oseso nl y •and phonograph (1876), wireless telegraph (1894), silent movies (1895), radio broadcasts

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(1922), magnetic recording tape and full-colour printing (1930), colour movies (1935), pocket paperback books (1939), black and white television broadcasts (1940), modern computers (1945), long-playing records (1947), transistor radios (1954), colour television broadcasts (1960), cassette tapes (1962), local cable television (1965), laser disks (1978), personal stereos – walkman (1979), home laser printers (1980), camcorders and mobile phones (1983), digital audiotapes (1988), high-definition television, digital photography (1990), CD-ROMs (1991), videophones, digital radio and mini-discs (1993) and MP3 technology (1998).

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Once items became available, there was a need for advertising. There is no point having a product if no-one knows it is available for purchase. Selling products to a wide market ensures that the cost of research and development of the item is covered and a profit can be made.

Introductory Discussion What is the purpose of an advertisement? Where do we see advertisements? Are certain advertisements aimed at a particular market? Why do you think this is so? Do advertisements help you to make a decision to purchase an item? What have you purchased recently based on an advertisement? Local History

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Activity – Pages 55 – 56 Study the time line on page 54 of the student workbook. Ask students if there are any items they consider to be important that have not been included. Students can research the item and when it was first invented and used. Study the advertisement for the radio on the same page. Ask students to consider the look of the advertisement compared with advertisements of today. Study the terminology used in the advertisement; how does this compare to the language used today?

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Students can work in small groups to discuss the two issues above. The class can then discuss them further as a whole group. Students can then complete the activities provided on pages 55 and 56. 1. (a) Use of children; use of words like ‘only’; use of different type styles and sizes. (b) Trying to sell radios. (c) Home and office market.

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Answers

2. writing, photographs, phonographs, record players, radio, movies, telephones

3. Main difference is that radio is now predominantly entertainment with some news. In the 1930s it was a major communication tool and also a major entertainment medium (no television). 4. Answers will vary

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Additional Activities 5. Answers will vary 6. Answers will vary

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Television is bad for you.

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Choose a household utensil and collect advertisements from the past and present to compare the development of the product.

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Topic Focus

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Workbook Pages: 57 – 60

Students will learn how pictures and photographs old and new provide us with information on changes that have taken place.

Keywords environment, structured, development, British colonisation Resources • The following websites are recommended: Teacher Picture Australia: Australia’s Cultural Heritage (Note: Some images may not be suitable for students) http://www.pictureaustralia.org/ R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

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Students Historical Images of Sydney and NSW http://www.slnsw.gov.au/imagelibrary/select.htm

Background People have used pictures in many forms for thousands of years to tell a story, to pass on information or to record events.

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No-one knows for sure when the first camera-type device was discovered; the camera obscura became popular among Renaissance artists who used it to trace the image projected by light shining through a tiny hole. The word photography— derived from the Greek words for light and writing—was first used by Sir John Herschel in 1839, the same year the invention of the photographic process was made public.

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Later, paople learnt that if light was allowed to enter a darkened room through a tiny hole in one of the walls, the scene outside would appear upside down on the opposite wall. This is the principle of the camera, which was popular with artists who wanted to record details accurately

Introductory Discussion

What is the difference between a picture and a photograph?

In what type of situation might we use a picture to record an event?

In what type of situation might we use a photograph to record an event?

Do you. think pictures photographs weren more © R. I . C P uborl i cat i o scommon when Australia was first colonised? How about today? •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Activity – Pages 58 – 60

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Use the picture and photograph provided on page 57 of the student workbook. Separate the class into two groups. Have one group study picture one and list everything they can see, while the other group studies picture two and lists everything they can see. Form pairs, each pair consisting of a student who studied picture one and a student who studied picture two. Students can share their lists and discuss the differences between the photograph and the drawing. Which gives more information?

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Students can then complete the activities provided on pages 58 to 60. Answers

1. (a) Traditional Aboriginal Australians (b) the British

2. (a) Sydney Harbour Bridge; Luna Park; The Rocks; Circular Quay; Central Business District (b) ferry, yacht, old-fashioned ship 3. Answers will vary 4. Picture 1: ship building; farming Picture 2: Sydney 2000 Olympic rings 5. Picture 1: peaceful, natural, quiet Picture 2: busy, bustling, structured, exciting Neither: systematic Local History

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6. Answers will vary 7. Answers will vary 8. Answers will vary

Additional Activities Compare old and recent photographs of your community Discussion/Debate

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How did British colonisation affect the environment?

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Assessment Assessment and Evaluation The activity on page 51 is provided as one assessment tool in the study of this unit. It is designed to indicate broad student understanding and also provide opportunity for student feedback. The following outcomes were addressed in this topic of study. The following pages can be photocopied as a record of student performance or as a proforma for portfolio assessment. Outcomes Change and Continuity

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Cultures CUS2.3

Explains how shared customs, practices, symbols, languages and traditions in communities contribute to Australian and community identities.

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CCS2.1

Explains changes in the community and family life and evaluates the effects of these on different individuals, groups and environments. Describes events and actions related to the British colonisation of Australia and assesses changes and consequences.

Administration

Distribute the activity sheet on page 51 of the Teachers Guide, one per student. Ask students to write their name in the top right-hand corner of the page. Read through the activity sheet to ensure students are clear about what they are being asked to do. At this stage, give students the opportunity to seek clarification of any part of the activity sheet they may not understand.

It is important students work independently on these activities—this provides a © R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons true representation of what students understand or of their lack of understanding. Once students have completed the activity, collect the worksheets. Mark and •f orr evi ew pFrom ur p os es ostudents nl y • record results. this activity sheet, some may be found to require further work to develop their understanding in a particular area.

Answers

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1. plants—nuts, gum, nectar, vegetables, cycad seeds animals—mammals, birds, insects, sea creatures, reptiles

2. Land was cleared, which meant the natural foods were no longer available and the Aboriginal people began to rely on food from the British.

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3. Aboriginal people used trade routes to pass on songs, stories, dances and goods. 4. (a) A heritage place is one where the culture, traditions and national assets are preserved from one generation to another. (b) Answers will vary (c) Answers will vary

5. (a) A sacred site is an area which has spiritual or religious significance to living Aboriginal Australians. (b) Answers will vary (c) Answers will vary 6. (a) Advertising styles and techniques change over the years according to technological development and the expectations of the public. It also provides us with a record of items that come into and out of vogue. (b) Pictures and photographs preserve a moment in time which can then be compared with modern times to note change and development.

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Local History Student Name:

Date:

Task At the conclusion of the unit ‘Local History’, students were asked to complete an activity sheet independently to demonstrate their understanding of the unit.

Indicators

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Demonstrated

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• Demonstrates an awareness of their own local history and its importance. • Expresses an awareness of historical change in their own community and how it has been recorded. • Shows an understanding of the change of Aboriginal culture since the colonisation of Australia by the British. • Explains the role of advertising, pictures and photographs in the recording of history and change.

Needs Further Opportunity

©|R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Workbook Activities •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Discussion and Debate

Needs Improvement

Satisfactory

Needs Improvement

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Satisfactory

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Additional Activities Satisfactory

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Further Research

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General Comment

Needs Improvement

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Satisfactory

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Satisfactory

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Student Comment

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Local History 1. List some types of animals and plants the Aboriginal people relied on for food.

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Plants

Animals

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2. How did this change when Australia was colonised?

3. Explain who used trade routes and why they were used.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons (b) heritage place ine your •f orr evi e wNamepau r po s scommunity. onl y• 4. (a) What is a ‘heritage place’?

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5. (a) What is a ‘sacred site’?

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(c) Why is it considered a heritage place?

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(b) Name a sacred site in or near your community. (c) Why is it considered a sacred site?

6. (a) Explain how advertising provides us with an historical record of change.

(b) Explain how pictures and photographs provide us with an historical record.

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This is Australia Unit Focus This unit provides students with the opportunity to investigate some of Australia’s built and natural features. Students will develop an understanding that different places are considered famous or significant for various reasons. They will use maps to locate places and to aid in the gathering of information. Students will also have the opportunity to examine various points of view and discuss why different groups often have a different point of view. Unit Topics

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• Australia: What’s in it? – Part 1 .......................................... 62 – 64 • Australia: What’s in it? – Part 2 .......................................... 65 – 66 • Australia: Looking at Sites .................................................. 67 – 69 • Australia: A Matter of Heritage – Part 1 ............................. 70 – 72 • Australia: A Matter of Heritage – Part 2 ............................. 73 – 75 • It Depends on How You Look at it....................................... 76 – 77 • Our Heritage ....................................................................... 78 – 80 • Aboriginal Heritage Sites .................................................... 81 – 84

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The topics selected to develop this understanding are:

Outcomes and Indicators

Environments ENS2.5 Describes places in the local area and other parts of Australia and explains their significance.

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• locates and names the capital city of Australia and of each State/Territory, and major regional centres • gives reasons why particular activities may be associated with particular natural, built and heritage features and places • compares natural and built features, sites and places in their local area with other locations in Australia or the world • describes how people can construct and modify environments in a manner that reflects ideas, culture, needs and wants • locates and maps cities, rivers and mountains in NSW and uses locational terminology such as north, south, east, west • recognises that Aboriginal nations and boundaries provide a way of understanding the Australian continent • recognises Aboriginal place names for places in Australia

o c . che e r o t r s super ENS2.6

Describes people’s interactions with environments and identifies responsible ways of interacting with environments. • identifies issues about the care of places in the community or places of importance to them • examines the effects of regulations, laws and practices associated with the management and care of natural and built features and sites • evaluates the necessity of caring for and conserving a feature, site or place • identifies the consequences of using features, sites and places in different ways.

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Australia: What’s in it? – Part 1 Workbook Pages: 62 – 64 Topic Focus Students will investigate some of Australia’s built and natural heritage features. Keywords heritage, culture, settlement, natural, built Resources

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Students Uluru and Bald Rock

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• a collection of tourist brochures • The following websites are recommended: Teacher Explore Australia Network

http://www.acn.net.au/articles/1999/06/uluru.htm

Canberra: Australia’s Capital City

http://www.acn.net.au/articles/1999/02/canberra.htm

Great Barrier Reef

http://www.acn.net.au/articles/1999/02/gbr.htm

The Rocks: Sydney Photo Gallery

© R. I . C .P ub l i cat i ons Broome Tourist Information •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Background

http://goaustralia.about.com/travel/goaustralia/library/weekly/blpicrck.htm http://www.ebroome.com/tourism/

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The Rocks The Rocks is one of the most frequently visited parts of Sydney. It is located at the foot of the Sydney Harbour Bridge on the western shores of Sydney Cove. It is the foundation site of Sydney and, subsequently, Australia. As Sydney’s oldest preserved colonial district, the emphasis of the area is historical, and a conservation program has been put in place to preserve its heritage and character.

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Sandstone houses can still be seen, along with the colony’s first windmill, Sydney’s oldest remaining pub—built in 1844, and Cadman’s Cottage—built in 1816 as a barracks for the crew of the governor’s boats and known to be Sydney’s oldest surviving dwelling. Canberra Australia became a federated nation in 1901. The new Constitution stated that the Commonwealth government should occupy its own territory in New South Wales, but had to be more than 160 km from Sydney. While the search for a site was carried out, the Commonwealth of Australia was run from Melbourne. The Senators and Members of the Federal Parliament began looking for a site in 1902. Agreement was difficult to come by. In 1906, a site in the district of Yass and Canberra was recommended and greeted with enthusiasm—the site was officially declared in 1908. Approximately 1 550 square kilometres of land was finally designated as the official site in 1909.

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By 1913, the government had a site and a plan for the national capital—but no name. The government held a competition and the winning name was ‘Canberra’, an Aboriginal word said to mean ‘meeting place’. Uluru Uluru is considered the world’s largest monolith and Australia’s most famous landmark. It is located about 450 kilometres southwest of Alice Springs and also boasts another rocky outcrop, known as Kata Tjuta.

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Broome The discovery of mother-of-pearl shell beds in 1879 is responsible for Broome’s discovery and existence. By 1910, 80 per cent of the world’s pearl shell used in the making of buttons came from Broome. People came from all over the world to harvest the shell.

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The park occupies the traditional lands of the Anangu Aboriginal people, who were granted freehold title in 1985. The Anangu people jointly manage the land with the Australian Nature Conservation Agency. The park is managed according to the principles of Aboriginal law, combined with European management practices. Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park has been recognised internationally for its successful joint management program.

1950 saw the rebirth of the pearling industry in Broome as the market cried out for cultured pearls. Farming operations commenced in the area to keep up with demand. The industry is still successful today, supporting eight pearling companies in the area.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Introductory Discussion Name some different in Australia which youo think have played •f orr e vi e w pplaces ur p ose s n l y •an important part in Australia’s history. Why did you select these places?

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Why do you consider them to have played an important part in Australia’s history? Activity – Pages 62 – 64

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Use a collection of tourist brochures to explore this type of language further with the students. Students can work in groups to highlight the descriptive language used in the text on page 62 and in the brochures supplied. Develop a class list of the type of language used and encourage students to use this language in their writing. Ensure students are familiar with the text provided on page 62 before completing the activities on pages 62 to 64. Answers 1. Passage 1: Sydney; New South Wales; Shopping, museums, restaurants and cafes, transport. Passage 2: Australian Capital Territory (Canberra); So there was no argument between Australia’s two largest cities. Passage 3: Northern Territory; the traditional Aboriginal Australians of the area.

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Passage 4: Western Australia; The Kimberley. 2. Answers will vary 3. Answers will vary 4. Answers will vary 5. Ord River Dam – Built – Kununurra, WA The Olgas – Natural – Northern Territory Cradle Mountain – Natural – Tasmania Pinnacles Desert – Natural – Cervantes, WA Fremantle Gaol – Built – Fremantle, WA Fort Denison – Built – Sydney, NSW Bunurong Marine Park – Natural – Victoria Tuggeranong Schoolhouse – Built – Australian Capital Territory Wilpena Homestead – Built – Flinders Ranges, SA

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Travel agents will often let you have old brochures or books. Use them to plan a ‘dream holiday’. Where will you go? What will you see? How much will it cost you?

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Additional Activities

Discussion/Debate

1. ‘Holidays should be taken in your own country first.’

2. Tourism is said to cause damage to the local environment. Should it be encouraged so much?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Australia: What’s in it? – Part 2 •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Workbook Pages: 65 – 66

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Resources

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Topic Focus

Students will use maps to locate places and gather information. map, features, locate

o c . che e r o t r s super • atlases • a collection of different types of maps • The following websites are recommended: Teacher AUSLIG—Map of Australia http://www.auslig.gov.au/facts/map.htm

Students AUSLIG—Map of Australia http://www.auslig.gov.au/facts/map.htm

Tourist Maps Australia http://www.arta.com.au/ausmap.html

New South Wales Map http://www.csu.edu.au/links/nswmap.html

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Background A map is a drawn or printed representation of the earth, part of the earth or a particular area. Maps show information through the use of lines, colours, shapes and symbols. The features shown on a map are reduced in size (using a scale) in order to fit the map onto a piece of paper. Maps are used to locate places, measure distances, plan trips and find our way. There are many types of maps. Some of the more common are:

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• Mobility map—designed to help people find their way from one place to another. These maps include road maps, street maps, transit maps, aeronautical charts and nautical charts. • Thematic map—designed to show the distribution of a feature. These maps could show population, rainfall, surface features or a natural resource. These maps are used to study patterns.

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• General reference map—designed to show various geographical features. These maps may include land features, bodies of water, political and state or territory boundaries, cities and towns, roads, hills and mountains.

• Inventory map—designed to show the location of specific features. It could be used to show, for example, the national parks in a specific country. Cartographers are responsible for making maps. Information is gathered from many field experts and then translated into a meaningful visual representation. Mapmaking follows these four major steps: 1. observation and measurement; 2. planning and design; 3. drawing and reproduction; and 4. revision.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Mapping dates back as far as 2500 BC.

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2500 BC Oldest existing map drawn on a clay tablet made in Babylonia (now part of Iraq). The Babylonians developed the system of dividing a circle into 360 equal parts called degrees. 1300 BC Egyptians began making maps and developed the technique of surveying.

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250 BC Eratosthenes, a Greek mathematician, calculated the circumference of the earth. The Greeks began to think the earth was round. They further developed the concept of surveying, systems of map projection and the use of geometry in mapping. AD 150 Ptolemy, a Greek astronomer and geographer, was an influential mapmaker. He brought together what was known about the world in an eight-volume collection, called ‘Geography’. It included maps and a list of about 8 000 places together with their longitude and latitude.

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1155

The earliest known printed map appeared in a Chinese encyclopaedia.

1300s

European mapmakers produced the ‘portolan charts’—considered to be very accurate maps. They showed the coastline of the Mediterranean Sea and nearby regions.

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1400s

Printing press invented, making maps more widely available. Exploration of the world increased and so did the interest in map-making. The idea that the world was round was widely accepted through Europe.

1492

The first globe was produced by a German merchant and navigator named Martin Behaim. The globe only showed the areas of land known to be in existence at that time.

1500s

The Americas began to be represented on maps.

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Abraham Ortelius produced the first collection of maps to be combined into an atlas.

1600s

The Great South Land began to be represented on maps.

What is a map?

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Introductory Discussion

Are there different types of maps? If so, what are they?

What information can we get from looking at or using maps?

Activity – Pages 65 – 66

Explore different types of maps with the students before beginning this lesson. Discussion needs to draw attention to the features found on maps, their purpose and audience.

© R. I . C.P u bl i ca t i o nsto apply the knowledge they workbook. Form small groups and ask students have just gained to these maps. Discuss the features, purpose and possible audience. Groups can theno reform ass a whole to generally discuss the groups’ •f orr evi e w p u r p s e o n l y • ideas. Students can then view the three maps shown on page 65 of the student

Answers

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Students can then complete the activities provided on pages 65 and 66. 1. Answers will vary; however, should include: one is a State map; one is a road map; one is a major cities and towns map; one also includes lines of latitude and longitude; one has a scale. 2. (a) Northern Territory

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(d) Western Australia (e) True

(f) Wyndham

3. (a) east (b) Seagull Reserve; Byford Gardens (c) (C, 3) (C, 4); (K, 2); (I, 8)

Additional Activities 1. Make a map of your school area. Include any geographical or built features of interest. 2. Create a class display of various types of maps; sort them by type. This is Australia

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Discussion/Debate 1. ‘Australia may be different; it is certainly not “beautiful”.’ 2. Discuss where students have used maps in the past or where they may need to use maps in the future.

Australia: Looking at Sites

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Workbook Pages: 67 – 69

Topic Focus

Students will recognise that sites can be famous or significant for different reasons. site, significant, historical, natural, built, cultural, religious, environmental

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Keywords

Resources

• examples of various logos and designs to represent an idea • The following websites are recommended: Teacher Lonely Planet World Guide: Australia

http://www.lonelyplanet.com/destinations/australasia/australia/

Australian Tourism Net © R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Students •f orr ev i eofw pur posesonl y• Icons Australia http://www.atn.com.au/

http://www.lakemac.infohunt.nsw.gov.au/library/links/fff/iconsofaustralia.htm

Bridgeclimb—The Sydney Harbour Bridge

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World Landmarks

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http://www.harcourtschool.com/activity/wrldlmarks/landmarks.html

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A. Uluru Uluru is considered the world’s largest monolith and Australia’s most famous landmark. It is located about 450 kilometres southwest of Alice Springs and also boasts another rocky outcrop, known as Kata Tjuta. The park occupies the traditional lands of the Anangu Aboriginal people, who were granted freehold title in 1985. The Anangu people jointly manage the land with the Australian Nature Conservation Agency. The park is managed according to the principles of Aboriginal law, combined with European management practices. Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park has been recognised internationally for its successful joint management program. B. Port Arthur Port Arthur began life as a timber station in 1830 on the Tasman Peninsula. It became a prison settlement for male convicts in 1833 and developed a reputation for being ‘hell on earth’.

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With an abundance of convict labour, Port Arthur quickly became a near selfsufficient prison settlement during the 1840s. It was responsible for producing ships, sawn timber, clothing, boots and shoes, bricks, furniture, vegetables and other goods. Once convict transportation ceased in the 1850s and 1860s, the prison closed and was no longer seen as a productive centre. C. Bungle-Bungles The Bungle-Bungle massif and its surrounding national park is rated by many as one of the scenic wonders of Western Australia.

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The area, also known as Purnulula (an Aboriginal word meaning sandstone) National Park, has been protected and is currently under review to be listed as a World Heritage Site. The Park was declared an area of unique and visually outstanding landforms that has great significance to Aboriginal Australians. This means that conservation of the area has become a priority. It is also considered important to conserve the interesting local flora and fauna.

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Located in Western Australia's arid far north, hundreds of ancient beehive-shaped sandstone formations dot an ordinarily flat landscape. They rise abruptly from the dry east Kimberley plains and are a deep red, brown and ochre. The formations reach a height of approximately 300 m and cover an area of approximately 3 000 square kilometres.

D. Sydney Opera House The Sydney Opera was designed by Jorn Utzon, a Danish architect, in 1957 as a result of a competition. His design was considered revolutionary. It was officially opened on 20 October 1973 and is located at Bennelong Point on the shores of Sydney Harbour.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• It all began soon after Eugene Gooseens became the resident conductor of the

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Sydney Symphony Orchestra in 1947. He recommended that a new concert hall and opera theatre be built for Sydney along the Point. Construction began in March 1959, without the plans being completely finished. The building cost more than $100 million dollars and took more than 13 years to complete. E. Sydney Harbour Bridge The Harbour Bridge, also known as the ‘coathanger’, was first proposed in 1922, when the government thought that residents of the northern suburban areas should have a quicker and more convenient way to travel into the city. Before the bridge had been built, the only links between the city centre and the residential areas were by ferry or by a 20-kilometre road journey that involved five bridge crossings.

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On 24 March 1924, the familiar bridge plan was accepted from the English firm Dorman Long and Co. Construction of the bridge began in December 1926—the bridge was manufactured in sections on a separate site and transported in. Dr Bradfield, the Chief Engineer of Sydney Harbour Bridge, is considered to be the ‘father’ of the bridge. It was his vision, enthusiasm, engineering expertise and detailed supervision that lead to the completion of the bridge by 1932. On Saturday, 19 March 1932, the Sydney Harbour Bridge was officially opened to the public. It was estimated that between 300 000 and one million people attended the event. It took 40 000 people over six years to complete the construction of the bridge. The total cost of the Bridge was approximately $6.5 million. The annual maintenance costs are approximately $5 million.

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F. Parliament House Parliament House was designed by the American architectural firm Mitchell Giurgola and Thorp. It was opened on 9 May 1988 and is one of Australia's most acclaimed buildings. One of the most amazing features of Parliament House is the 81-metre high flagmast. It is the central landmark of Canberra and one of the world's largest steel structures.

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The Great Hall is home to one of the largest tapestries in the world, based on a work by Australian artist Arthur Boyd. The Main Committee Room displays Tom Roberts' painting of the opening of Parliament in 1901. The foyer is home to artworks by Arthur Boyd, Fred Williams and Tim McGuire. Portraits of past and present parliamentarians can be seen on the walls of the Members Hall.

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The foyer features 48 marble-clad columns and two beautifully crafted marble staircases. It was designed to give the feel of a eucalyptus forest. The foyer showcases the beautiful masonry and timber used throughout the building.

G. The Big Pineapple The Big Pineapple is located one-hour’s drive north of Brisbane. It is a working farm which allows people to learn about growing and harvesting pineapples and macadamia nuts. In 1971 Bill and Lynne Taylor purchased a small rural holding of 23 hectares on Queensland's Sunshine Coast. In under 12 months they transformed what was a humble pineapple farm into a major Australian tourist attraction. The Big Pineapple received the inaugural award for Australian Tourism Development, presented by the National Travel Association for Tourist Development.

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Introductory Discussion Why might a site be famous or significant?

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Can you think of some famous or significant Australian sites? Name them. Why are they famous or significant?

Activity – Pages 67 – 69

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Read the text at the top of page 67 of the student workbook. Ask students to sort their list of famous or significant Australian sites from the discussion into sites of ‘religious or cultural significance’, ‘beauty or uniqueness’ or ‘tourist attractions’. Students should be given the opportunity for discussion during this activity in order to support their decision for categorisation.

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Students can then complete activities one and two on pages 67 and 68. Question three on page 68 is looking at design. This would be a good opportunity to view the different collected examples of logos and designs used to represent ideas, or icons. Discuss the various aspects of the designs and any common elements which are used in this type of artwork; e.g. the object is simplified. Students can then complete the activity. Question four on page 69 is looking at famous landmarks around the world. Some students may not automatically recognise these and will require additional resources in order to complete the task. To develop this question further, students could select one landmark featured on the page and develop a project which informs others of its location, construction methods and materials, history,

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features, what the landmark represents to the people of that country and any tourist information that may be of interest. Answers 1. (a) Uluru (b) Port Arthur (c) Western Australia (d) Sydney Opera House

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S (e) Sydney Harbour Bridge (f) Parliament House (g) Queensland

3. Teacher check

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2. Answers will vary

4. (a) Paris

(b) New York (c) London (d) Rome (e) Agra (f) Venice

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons 1. Research to find 10 more cities with a famous landmark. Combine the results to form a class quiz. •f orr evi e w pur posesonl y• 2. What were the ‘Seven Wonders of the World’?

Additional Activities

Discussion/Debate

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‘The most important sites and places in Australia are those created by nature, not by people.’

Australia: A Matter of Heritage – Part 1

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Topic Focus

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Workbook Pages: 70 – 72

Students will understand that different groups may view the same site in different ways.

Keywords heritage, culture, historical, ancestors, pioneers Resources • The following websites are recommended: Teacher City of Sydney: Historical Buildings http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/hs_historical_buildings.asp

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Students City of Sydney: Historical Buildings http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/hs_historical_buildings.asp

City of Sydney: Capitol Theatre http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/hs_capitol_theatre.asp

Background

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Historic buildings and areas are often the subject of hot debate. Various groups have different reasons to save, restore or remove a building. For some groups, the idea of retaining a building to recognise the legacy of early settlers is offensive and diminishes the importance of the original inhabitants of the area.

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Australia’s heritage is shaped by nature and history and is passed on from one generation to the next. It encompasses the way we live, the traditions we hold dear, our history, stories, myths, values and places. Heritage recognises the relationship between culture, nature, country, place and religion for all, but especially for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

Over the past few decades, State and Commonwealth legislation and initiatives have been growing to reflect increasing public support for the protection of heritage places. In 1996, the Heritage Commission set about to find the best way, on a national level, to protect Australia’s heritage for the future.

Introductory Discussion

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Does everyone in the community agree that it should be considered a heritage site? Why/Why •f orr e vi ewnot? pur posesonl y•

Is there a site in your local community that is considered to be a heritage site? Why?

Activity – Pages 70 – 72

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Students read the text provided on page 70. The text is presented as newspaper articles and gives students three different points of view to consider. The opportunity can be taken to point out the conventions used in a newspaper article. The appeal is often emotive, quotations from real people support the article, and the language is usually simple and easy to read.

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Students should be given the opportunity to compare and discuss the three opinions outlined in the texts. They may find that they totally agreed Ms Brittanie Lee, until they read what Mr Ed Penny had to say about the issue. Ask students how they feel about the building, what they think should happen and why. Students must support their view with clear evidence from the text and use any other resources they have at their disposal to put across a convincing argument. Students can then complete the activities on pages 70 to 72. Answers 1. (a) Galway Greens Association; To restore natural bushland to an area that has had all the bushland removed. (b) A one-off levy on shire taxpayers and a State Government grant. (c) Because she wants the farmhouse retained as a historic record. (d) As it represents the arrival of the British all that is bad to them about European occupation.

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2. Answers will vary (a) a debate with great passion (b) destroying or damaging property wilfully (c) given to someone with no expectation of return (d) a fee charged only once for a special purpose (e) a person who pays taxes (f) destruction

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4. Answers will vary

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Research your own community or State or Territory to find a site or place that is being arguedp about in the way Grant Present your findings •f orr evi ew ur psame os eass oFarmhouse. nl y• to the class as an oral report. Be sure to:

Additional Activities

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(a) Name the location. (b) Give an historical background. (c) Present all sides of the argument. (d) Summarise your findings with your own opinion of what you think should happen.

Discussion/Debate

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‘Australia belongs to everyone; no-one can “own” the land.’

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Australia: A Matter of Heritage – Part 2 Workbook Pages: 73 – 75 Topic Focus Students will learn of one way in which our heritage can be preserved. Keywords heritage, culture, historical, ancestors, pioneers Resources

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S • The following websites are recommended: Teacher NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service Students NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service http://www.npws.nsw.gov.au/

Sydney National Parks http://www.atn.com.au/nsw/syd/parks-c.htm

Background

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http://www.npws.nsw.gov.au/

There are a number of organisations dedicated to preserving Australia’s natural heritage—be it environmental, cultural or the flora and fauna. Some of these are listed below with a brief overview of what the organisation is about.

Oz. GREEN ©R I . C.Publ i cat i ons The Global Rivers Environmental Education Network (Australia) Inc, a nongovernment, non-profit organisation, ise dedicated ton addressing critical water •f orr e v i e w p u r p o s s o l y • resource issues through an innovative combination of global communications and environmental education.

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Oz GREEN facilitates effective environmental education and action programs that stimulate informed community participation in: • the care of the world’s waters; and • the development of ecologically sustainable ways of living. Oz GREEN aims to challenge people to embrace the environmental issues of our times—locally and globally; to promote informed community participation in catchment protection; to assist communities who suffer from the effects of polluted water; and to build links among local, national and international environmental projects.

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Department of Environment and Heritage The Department of Environment and Heritage’s role is to achieve three major outcomes for the Commonwealth Government. The outcomes are: • the environment, especially those aspects that are matters of national environmental significance, is protected and conserved; • Australia benefits from meteorological and related science and services; and • Australia's interests in Antarctica are advanced.

Australian Conservation Foundation The Australian Conservation Foundation campaigns on matters needing urgent action, such as preventing mining within national parks and stopping wild rivers being dammed. Their vision is also for long-term reform, for accountable and ecologically sound management of cities, industries and natural heritage. R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

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Community Biodiversity Network The Australian Community Biodiversity Network is a non-government, communitybased network of organisations acting to increase community understanding of biodiversity and its value, provide easier access to biodiversity related information, promote community involvement in biodiversity conservation, and work toward the full and effective implementation of the National Strategy for the Conservation of Australia's Biological Diversity.

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Australian Rainforest Conservation Society The Australian Rainforest Conservation Society, founded in 1982, is a national, non-government organisation with headquarters in Brisbane. Its goal, through research, lobbying, public education and grassroots support, is to protect, repair and restore the rainforests of Australia and to maximise the protection of forest biodiversity.

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A major part of the Australian Community Biodiversity Network’s work will be to raise community awareness and understanding of biodiversity and encourage community involvement in its conservation. To achieve this aim the Australian Community Biodiversity Network seeks, where possible, to use or create opportunities for cooperative and collaborative efforts with relevant networks and organisations.

The Australian Rainforest Conservation Society has played a leading role in protecting significant areas of Australia’s rainforests. Through its hardworking volunteers and scientific advisers, the Society has produced landmark studies and participated in forums and successful campaigns that have had a major influence on government policy and initiatives for rainforests and other native forests.

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Introductory Discussion Is there an area in your local community which you think should be protected?

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Activity – Pages 74 – 75

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What is it and why do you think it should be protected?

How would you go about raising awareness of the problem and providing for its protection?

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Read the text on page 73 of the student workbook to the students. Discuss with them the approach taken by Eliza Moore. Do they agree with what she did? Why/Why not?

How do the students feel about the park being named in her honour? Was this appropriate or inappropriate? Why/Why not? Students can then complete the activities on pages 74 and 75. Answers 1. (a) 600 square kilometres (b) fine furniture (c) false (d) New South Wales (e) tourism

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(f) Answers will vary 2. Answers will vary (a) to keep in its natural state (b) chopping down trees for their timber (c) growing very well in the conditions (d) close together (e) of special importance to a person or group’s beliefs

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 4. Answers will vary 5. Teacher check

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Do a ‘then and now’ presentation of your findings. ‘The environment is there to be used.’

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It Depends on How You Look at it Workbook Pages: 76 – 77 Topic Focus Students will understand how different sites have different meanings for different people. Keywords developer, protest, sacred site, union, heritage, cultural

Resources

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http://www.environment.gov.au/heritage/policies/nhc/regime.html

Teaching Heritage: Heritage and Identity

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• The following websites are recommended: Teacher A future heritage places regime for Australia (extremely comprehensive)

http://www.teachingheritage.nsw.edu.au/1views/identity.html

Students Jabiluka Online Resource—Introduction

http://www.learnline.ntu.edu.au/commonunits/jabiluka/intro3.html

Background

Various groups have a vested interest for many reasons to protect different sites, whether they be cultural, heritage, religious, environmental or economical reasons.

The government’s rolel isi to look ati both sides © R. I . C .Pub c at on sof the story and evaluate the situation to develop the best possible outcome for all involved. This is often a long-winded process and in o the past hass been very disorganised. It usually involves •f orr evi e w p u r p s e o n l y • legal battles and costs a great deal of money.

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Aboriginal groups generally see the problem from their own point of view. Theirs is a matter of cultural and religious heritage. Many of the constructions and much of the land clearing has affected significant sites and reduced the Aboriginal people’s access to the land, cultural and religious ceremonies and their Dreaming. The voice of the Aboriginal people is becoming stronger and is making the necessary impact to ensure their land is returned or protected.

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The public is sporadic in its support. Some people will feel strongly about only certain issues, while others are apathetic to any cause. People who want to fight for a cause can do so in many ways—letters to local and State governments, protests, campaigns to make the wider community aware, education programs etc. The developers of an area are generally concerned with profit which can be very high indeed. They usually have a great deal of money to spend fighting the battle through legal means and generally can out-finance the ‘little person’ and win in the end.

Introductory Discussion Think about your community. Have there ever been any disputes over the restoration or demolition of a building or the restoration or destruction of an area of land? How many different groups were involved in the dispute? Did they all have the same reasons for being involved? What were they? This is Australia

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Activity – Pages 76 – 77 Read the information on the Old Kangaroo Brewery Site on page 76 of the student workbook. Students can form groups—one group represents the government, one group represents the Aboriginal people, one group represents the public, one group represents the developers and the last group represents the union.

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Through this type of activity, students will develop an understanding of the passion groups feel for their cause. It will also allow them to develop a deeper understanding of the processes involved in this type of dispute.

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Students can then role play the situation. Discussion and debate will form an essential part of this activity and should be encouraged. Allow students time to formulate their ideas of what they should do and how they should go about getting their message across. The role of the teacher is one of facilitator only. Some rules may need to be outlined to ensure everyone is able to have a say.

Students can then complete the activities provided on pages 76 and 77. Answers 1. (a) False (b) False (c) True

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• (d) False (e) True

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Additional Activities

Research to find out more about the Aboriginal Dreaming and the sacred animals involved.

Discussion/Debate ‘Everyone has the right to protest against unfair laws.’

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Our Heritage Workbook Pages: 78 – 80 Topic Focus Students will explore the different types of ‘heritage’. Keywords heritage, natural, cultural, indigenous Resources

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S http://www.environment.gov.au/heritage/

Australian Heritage Web Sites

http://www.heritage.gov.au/

Students The Australian Heritage Commission http://www.environment.gov.au/heritage/

Heritage Web Sites: New South Wales

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• atlases • The following websites are recommended: Teacher The Australian Heritage Commission

http://www.heritage.gov.au/index_nsw.html

Heritage: the culture, traditions andt national assets preserved from one generation © R. I . C . P u b l i c a i o n s to another. When we first ofp heritage, we tend think well-known •f orr evi ew pthink ur os e stoo nofl y • places like the Great Barrier Reef, Sydney Harbour Bridge or Uluru. These are good examples of

Background

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heritage places—but Australia consists of far more heritage sites which represent differing cultures and histories which come together to make this country unique. They all help to explain who we are and how Australia and its people have taken shape and developed a very individual identity. Heritage places are those parts of Australia's natural, indigenous and historical environments that have particular value for current and future generations.

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The natural heritage of Australia is unique in that it covers a vast range of different environments which provide a refuge for many plant and animal species. These environments range from rainforests to grasslands, deserts to wetlands, beaches to rocky outcrops. Aboriginal Australians have left signs of their occupation throughout the continent over many thousands of years. These are the reminders of where people once lived, ate, collected food and hunted. They include examples of artwork as well as sacred sites. These sites document the lives of the Aboriginal people indigenous to Australia. Australia is also lucky enough to have a rich and diverse historical heritage which tells the story of Australia, its people, culture and development. It is important to conserve Australia’s indigenous, natural and historical heritage sites for future generations to be able to appreciate.

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Introductory Discussion What is ‘heritage’? What is ‘indigenous heritage’? What is ‘cultural heritage’? What is ‘natural heritage’? Activity – Pages 79 – 80

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Once the groups have had enough time do this task, move the class into groups of four. Each group of four should have one person who summarised each section. Each person then gives an oral presentation of their summary of their section. Other students in the group may like to use this summary to highlight any keywords and phrases in their workbook. Students are also able to ask each other questions about their particular piece of text.

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Students can work in four groups to read and summarise the text provided on pages 78 and 79 of the student workbook. Each group is responsible for reading and summarising its section of the text. For example, group 1 will read and summarise ‘What is a “Heritage”?’.

Once this task is complete the students work through the activities on pages 79 and 80. Answers

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1. Natural Heritage: those natural features we wish to safeguard and preserve for future generations. Cultural Heritage: places and sites that have become important since the first arrival of the British in Australia. Indigenous Heritage: sites and places relating to Aboriginal Australians.

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Additional Activities Conduct a survey at school and home, asking people to name Australia’s bestknown heritage site. Graph and analyse the results. Why do you think this site was chosen?

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Discussion/Debate 1. ‘We should be more concerned about the future than the past.’ 2. ‘Those who forget the past are doomed to relive it.’

Aboriginal Heritage Sites Workbook Pages: 81 – 84

Topic Focus

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Students will investigate different Aboriginal heritage sites. heritage, Aboriginal, indigenous, occupation, middens, sacred, legislation

Resources

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Keywords

• atlases • The following websites are recommended: Teacher National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Education Website http://www.natsiew.nexus.edu.au/

Students Koorie Heritage Trust

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Prehistoric Australian Artefacts •f orr evi e w pur posesonl y• http://home.vicnet.net.au/~koorieht/

http://artalpha.anu.edu.au/web/arc/resources/paa/arcrock.htm

Yellowstone National Park http://www.yellowstone.net/introduction.htm

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Kruger National Park http://www.parks-sa.co.za/knp/

Dartmoor National Park

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http://www.swparks.com/uk/travel/england/dartmoor.html

Many Aboriginal organisations keep lists of important sites to help ensure their protection. The Commonwealth Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Heritage Protection Act 1984 provides a means for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people to gain protection for areas and objects of significance in accordance with their tradition. Under the Act, the Minister for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Affairs can make a declaration protecting significant objects or areas anywhere within Australia or Australian waters. The Act also encourages heritage protection through mediated negotiation and agreement between land users, developers and indigenous people. The Heritage Protection Act was legislated to provide an avenue of last resort— that is, to allow the Commonwealth Minister to protect indigenous heritage where State and Territory heritage laws or processes had failed.

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The Commonwealth’s Heritage Protection Act is important because it: • reminds State and Territory governments that the protection of indigenous heritage is a matter of national importance; • provides indigenous people with some bargaining power in negotiations over areas and objects of significance with State and Territory governments as well as developers; and • enables areas and objects to be protected on the basis of their significance to indigenous people rather than to the scientific or wider community. Introductory Discussion

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S What is a heritage site?

Do you consider an Aboriginal heritage site more important than any other heritage site? Why/Why not?

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What is the difference between a heritage site and an Aboriginal heritage site?

Why are heritage sites so important? What are the different types of heritage sites?

Activity – Pages 81 – 84

Read the text provided on page 81 of the student workbook.

Discuss the various examples of Aboriginal heritage sites and ask students if they know of any sites in the local or wider community.

Students can. then the activities on pages 81 to 83. ©R . I . C Pcomplete ubl i c at i o ns Ask students to read the text ‘Daily Blurb—Ancient Site Uncovered’ on page 83. •f orr e vi ew uartefacts r po ses nl y What were somep of the mentioned or o described in the• text? Were the scientists’ descriptions accurate?

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Do you think our descriptions or explanations of ancient treasures are always accurate? Why/Why not? Students can then complete the activities on page 84. Answers 1. (a) True

(b) False

(c) True

(d) True

(e) True

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(b) a scientist who studies the earth and rocks of which it is made (c) a scientist who studies fossil remains of animals and plants (d) a scientist who studies animals and the animal kingdom (e) a scientist who studies poisons and their antidotes

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r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S 4. Answers will vary 5. Answers will vary

6. (a) remote control; mouse; television (b) Answers will vary (c) Answers will vary 7. Answers will vary

Additional Activities

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Assessment Assessment and Evaluation The activity on page 78 is provided as one assessment tool in the study of this unit. It is designed to indicate broad student understanding and also provide opportunity for student feedback. The following outcomes were addressed in this topic of study. The following pages can be photocopied as a record of student performance or as a proforma for portfolio assessment. Outcomes ENS2.5

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S ENS2.6

Answers

Distribute the activity sheet on page 78 of the Teachers Guide, one per student. Ask students to write their name in the top right-hand corner of the page. Read through the activity sheet to ensure students are clear about what they are being asked to do. At this stage, give students the opportunity to seek clarification of any part of the activity sheet they may not understand.

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Administration

Describes places in the local area and other parts of Australia and explains their significance. Describes people’s interactions with environments and identifies responsible ways of interacting with environments.

It is important students work independently on these activities—this provides a true representation of what students understand or of their lack of understanding. Once students have completed the activity, collect the worksheets. Mark and record results. From this activity sheet, some students may be found to require further work to develop their understanding in a particular area.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 1. (a) built feature – an object built by humans

(b) natural feature – an object or area which was formed naturally

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2. (a) The Rocks, Circular Quay, Canberra, Broome Pearl Farm, Ord River Dam, Fremantle Gaol, For Denison, Tuggeranong Schoolhouse, Wilpena Homestead, Sydney Opera House, Sydney Harbour Bridge, Parliament House, Port Arthur, The Big Pineapple etc. (b) Uluru, Gantheaume Point, The Olgas, Cradle Mountain, Pinnacles Desert, Bunurong Marine Park, Bungle-Bungles, Uluru, Kakadu National Park, Great Barrier Reef, Ningaloo Reef, Daintree rainforest, Tasmanian wilderness etc.

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3. (a) Indigenous Heritage means sites and places relating to Aboriginal Australians, both before and after the arrival of Europeans in Australia. (b) Cultural Heritage usually refers to places and sites that have become important since the first arrival of the British in Australia. These are usually built features. (c) Natural Heritage is those features we wish to safeguard and preserve for future generations. No-one created these places, they are a part of nature.

4. (a) shell middens – a sort of rubbish dump

(b) campsites – appear as a scattering of stones to the untrained eye (c) paintings/engravings – the ‘written’ history of Aboriginal people (d) caves/rock shelters – a more sheltered campsite (e) natural sacred sites – rocks, mountains, rivers etc. which have religious significance (f) ceremonial grounds – places where religious, spiritual and social ceremonies were held 5. No; Answers will vary – everyone has different reasons for wanting to preserve, restore or demolish an area or object. 6. Teacher check R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

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This is Australia Student Name:

Date:

Task At the conclusion of the unit ‘This is Australia’, students were asked to complete an activity sheet independently to demonstrate their understanding of the unit.

Indicators Demonstrated

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• Displays an understanding of built and natural features and provide examples to support their understanding. • Demonstrates their knowledge of the different types of heritage. • Matches Aboriginal heritage sites to their meaning to demonstrate an understanding of Indigenous Heritage. • Demonstrates an understanding that agreement on what is considered to be a ‘heritage site’ is not always achieved.

Needs Further Opportunity

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Workbook Activities •f orr ev i ew pur posesonl y• | Needs Improvement

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Needs Improvement

Satisfactory

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Satisfactory

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Additional Activities Needs Improvement

Satisfactory

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General Comment

Needs Improvement

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| Satisfactory

| Satisfactory

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Student Comment

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This is Australia 1. (a) What is a ‘built’ feature?

(b) What is a ‘natural’ feature?

(b) Name five natural features found in Australia mentioned in this unit.

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2. (a) Name five built features found in Australia mentioned in this unit.

3. What is … (a)

‘indigenous heritage’?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons ‘natural • heritage’? f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

(b) ‘cultural heritage’?

(c)

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• the ‘written’ history of Aboriginal people

(b) campsites

• rocks, mountains, rivers etc. which have religious significance

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(c) paintings/engravings • (d) caves/rock shelters • (e) natural sacred sites • (f)

ceremonial grounds •

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• a place where religious, spiritual and social ceremonies were held

• a more sheltered campsite

• appear as a scattering of stones to the untrained eye

5. Does everyone always agree with which sites should be considered heritage sites?

YES

NO

Explain.

6. Write two things you have learnt from this unit. (a) (b) R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

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Enterprise in the Community Unit Focus This unit provides students with the opportunity to review their own needs and wants, how these affect the way they live and how they can be satisfied. Students will also study change and the effects of change on shopping, processing, storage, costs and manufacturing. Students will also explore the skills required to perform certain duties in the workplace and the responsibilities of companies when it comes to protecting the environment. Unit Topics

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• Needs and Wants — 1 ...................................................... 86 – 87 • Needs and Wants — 2 ...................................................... 88 – 89 • Shopping Now and Then .................................................... 90 – 92 • Shop Profile ........................................................................ 93 – 94 • Where Does It Come From? ............................................... 95 – 97 • Who Is Responsible? .................................................................. 98 • Working Skills ................................................................... 99 – 100

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The topics selected to develop this understanding are:

Outcomes and Indicators

Social Systems and Structures SSS2.7 Describes how and why people and technologies interact to meet needs and explains the effects of these interactions on people and the environment.

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• identifies the components of a system that provides goods and services and how the components need to interlink • examines a variety of systems that have been designed to meet needs in communities and identifies the advantages and disadvantages of their use, e.g. sewerage treatment works, postal system, electricity system • examines possible consequences if a system changes in some way, e.g. if components are missing or break down, if technology improves • explains the changes to a system over time and the advantages and disadvantages of these changes, e.g. shops, market gardens • examines the goods and services provided within the community and by community organisations to meet needs • makes statements about the social and environmental responsibilities of producers and consumers • describes how changes in technologies involved with monetary exchange

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Investigates rights, responsibilities and decision-making processes in the school and community and demonstrates how participation can contribute to the quality of their school and community life. • explains the processes involved in civic action within the community • investigates current community issues • investigates consumer rights and responsibilities

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Needs and Wants — 1 Workbook Pages: 86 – 87 Topic Focus Students will identify many of the things they did in one day and classify them in a variety of ways. Students will understand the difference between needs and wants. Keywords

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S items, need, want, survive, essential

• The following websites are recommended: Teacher The basics: Needs, wants, scarcity and resources http://www.curriculum.edu.au/download/lesspln/needs.htm

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Resources

Needs and Wants: Human Rights Education

http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/education/4thR-F97/NeedsAndWants.html

Students Universal Declaration of Human Rights http://www.hrweb.org/legal/udhr.html

Background

Students must be made aware that people have both basic needs and wants and that the basic needs of all people are similar despite differing cultures and environments. Society faces conflict between unlimited wants and limited resources and must therefore make choices.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Basic needs, such as food, protective clothing and shelter, are factors considered

Introductory Discussion

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necessary for survival. Other special requirements, such as health care, education, love and friendship are considered more important than wants, but are not considered vital to life. Wants are items considered unnecessary for human survival. What is a need? Ask students to provide examples.

o c . che e r o t r s super Does everyone have the same needs?

What is a want? Ask students to provide examples. Does everyone have the same wants?

Explain the difference between a need and a want.

Activity – Pages 86 – 87

Activities one to four on pages 86 and 87 need to be completed independently by students according to the events experienced by the individual. Ask students to think carefully about the previous day. • Think about the food eaten for breakfast. Record in the table. • What did you have for lunch? Record in the table. • Now what did you eat for dinner last night? Record in the table. • Think carefully about all the foods you ate in between meals, including morning recess and after school snacks. Record in the table. • What clothes did you wear before you came to school yesterday? Remember Enterprise in the Community

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to include underwear and footwear. Record in the table. • What items of clothing did you wear while you were at school yesterday? Record in the table. • What clothes did you change into after school yesterday? You may have worn sporting gear for practice or special clothes for playing. How about your pyjamas? Record in the table. • Think about all the different ways you travelled yesterday—to school, from school, to practice, to the shops perhaps. Record them all in the table. • What types of shelter did you use yesterday—to keep out of the sun, rain, wind etc.? Record in the table.

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Students can work in pairs to brainstorm examples of needs and wants. Record their examples in the space provided on page 87. Use these lists to develop a class list of needs and wants through discussion.

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Read the text on page 87, which explains what a need is and what a want is. Ask students to highlight any keywords and phrases which will help them to remember what each of these thingsis.

Answers 1. Answers will vary 2. Answers will vary 3. Answers will vary

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Additional Activities 4. Answers will vary

5. Needs: Answers will vary; need to be items that determine human survival Wants: Answers will vary; must be nonessential items

Identify if/how people’s needs or wants change at different stages of their lives.

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Discussion/Debate 1. How are our needs and wants different from children in … (country)? 2. Is friendship a need or a want?

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Workbook Pages: 88 – 89

Topic Focus

Students will identify sources for satisfying needs and wants.

Keywords source, satisfy, community, satisfied, material Resources • The following websites are recommended: Teacher City of Sydney: Shopping Walk http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/vg_cw_shop_walk.asp R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

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Yahoo! Shopping http://shopping.yahoo.com/

Students Westfield Galleria Shopping Centre http://www.quakk.com/Austmain/wa/shopping/galleria.htm

Guide to Online Shopping http://onlineshopping.about.com/shopping/onlineshopping/

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There are many ways we can satisfy our needs and wants. We can get just about anything we desire from one source or another, from shops in our local community, to overseas purchases, to shopping on the Internet. Competition in the market to fulfil our needs and wants has never been more fierce and people are constantly bombarded with advertising material telling them what they need or should have.

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Background

Other needs, however, can only be met by us or the people around us. For example, we all need exercise, so it is up to us to work out what exercise we would enjoy, how often we need to exercise, how much we are prepared to spend on exercise and how important it is to us. Other needs, such as love, can be fulfilled by the people around us who show us love in the form of hugs, kisses, friendship, companionship etc. Each person and family will have different needs and wants—although some will be constant; e.g. shelter, food, clothing etc. These will vary according to their background, religion, culture, socioeconomic status, what they consider to be important or not important and their belief system.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Introductory Discussion What types of things does your family consider to be a need?

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Where do they get their needs met?

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How do they fulfil this need? What types of things does your family consider to be a want? How do they fulfil this want?

o c . che e r o t r s super Where do they get their wants met?

How does your family decide whether something is a need or a want? Who makes the decision?

Activity – Pages 88 – 89

The tables on page 88 of the student workbook will need to be completed independently by students according to their own personal experience. Once students have completed the table, they can move into pairs to discuss and compare the items their families consider to be needs and the items they consider to be wants. Discuss any similarities and differences between the two families. Why might there be similarities and differences? Through discussion, create a list of the sources students and their families use to meet their needs and wants. Read the paragraph at the top of page 89. In pairs, students can brainstorm all the shops they or their families use in the local community. Some communities will have only a few. They could be food

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shops, clothing shops, mechanic, newsagent, sporting shops etc. Students can record these shops in the space provided. As a class, discuss all the shops in the community. Develop a whole-class list. Through discussion, explore whether or not shops can be categorised in any way. For example, Coles, Woolworths, Action, Foodland, the greengrocer, the butcher and the fishmonger could all be classified as food shops. Students can then devise their own categories for the list of shops their family uses and organise them accordingly.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Answers

Answers will vary

On your list of shops, indicate how often your family would visit each in a onemonth period.

Discussion/Debate

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Additional Activities

1. When do people shop? What patterns are there? 2. What shops are most frequented? Why?

Shopping Now and Then

Topic Focus

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i oWorkbook ns Pages: 90 – 92 •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Students will identify the difference between shopping now and 50 years ago.

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appearance, purchase, survey

Resources

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Keywords

o c . che e r o t r s super http://amol.org.au/midnightgrocer/grocer1.htm

Students Midnight Grocer Exhibition

http://amol.org.au/midnightgrocer/mgcollec.htm

Background

Due to changes in technology over the past 40 – 50 years, packaging, costs and shopping locations have changed. Food items, in particular, have changed due to improved techniques in preservation and storage. Large shops have taken the place of the small local deli and offer people all the food services they require in one place. There is no longer the need to purchase meat from the butcher, fish from the fishmonger, bread from the baker and fruit and vegetables from the greengrocer. We can now go to one shop for all of these items. Items such as clothing and shoes have changed according to fashion and the materials used. Forty or fifty years ago, people probably travelled into the central R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

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city to purchase the best selection of these items. Today, many of us can go to the nearest shopping centre and be bombarded with a huge selection of shops which provide for all tastes, styles, budgets and sizes.

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Housing has also changed over the years. More and more people are able to buy or build their own home. Materials have changed and the requirements of a home have changed. People are building bigger homes, providing themselves with more storage, space, entertaining areas and style. A home is no longer looked at as just a home, it makes a statement about the family that lives there. Forty to fifty years ago, most homes had the basics—kitchen, bathroom, toilet, laundry, lounge and perhaps two bedrooms. Each room had a specific purpose and emphasis was not placed on being able to store lots of items. As land today becomes scarcer, prices increase, adding to the value of the home.

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Petrol has changed over the years to keep up with the technology of the cars and to make it safer for people and the environment. As transport needs have increased, so has the price of petrol. Cars that would once be filled on a can of petrol purchased at the local petrol station no longer exist and have been superseded with cars that pull into service stations and fill the tank directly from the pump. People have more choice today of different types of petrol they can use in their cars to enhance performance; something not really considered 40 or 50 years ago.

Introductory Discussion

What do you think life was like 40 or 50 years ago? © R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Do you think people’s needs and wants were different then as compared to now? Do you thinkp theu ways people their needs wants •f orr evi e w r p omet se s oand nl ywere •different then as compared to today? Do you think people had fewer needs and wants 40 or 50 years ago? Why/Why not?

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Activity – Pages 90 – 92

Students can complete their section of the table on pages 90 and 91 of the workbook in class and then ask a family member or friend to complete the table for homework.

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The table at the top of page 92 also needs to be completed in the same way. Students complete their section in class and ask the family member or friend to complete the information from 40 or 50 years ago. Students can then compare and contrast, through discussion, the information about today and that of 40 – 50 years ago. What are the main differences in appearance and packaging between today and the past? What are the main differences in where an item can be purchased then and today? What are the main differences between the cost of an item today and 40 or 50 years ago? Do people shop differently today from the way they did 40 or 50 years ago? What are the main differences between paying for shopping today and 40 or 50 years ago?

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Students can work in pairs to complete the questions on page 92. Students should be able to use the knowledge gained to answer the questions correctly. They need to consider their responses carefully, as they may not have been in a situation where they had no money to fulfil their needs. Once students are satisfied with their ideas, record them on the page and encourage a whole-class discussion. Students will need to support their ideas with examples. Answers Answers will vary

Additional Activities

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Use your survey to write a report titled ‘Shopping—Now and Then’.

Topic Focus Keywords

1. Debate the topic ‘I would rather live today than 50 years ago’.

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Discussion/Debate

2. Why are there more shops today than 50 years ago?

Shop Profile

Workbook Pages: 93 – 94

Students will. investigate andl produce profile as shop in your community. ©R . I . C Pub i caat i oonn •f orr e vi ew pur posesonl y• profile, interview, observation, stock, disability, location

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http://www.screenweb.com/business/cont/shoplayout.html

Students Glass and Powder Boardshop (shop profile)

o c . che e r o t r s super http://www.glassandpowder.com/info/shop-profile.html

Different shops have different purposes, markets, requirements and stock. These things affect the way the shop is presented to the public. For example, a shop aimed at teenagers is likely to be darker, the shop fittings will be ‘fashionable’, loud, popular music is likely to be playing and items which will appeal to the teenage market will be stocked and displayed. The prices of the products will also generally reflect the average budget of this market. A toyshop will be bright, colourful, have sample toys to play with and items will be down low to encourage young children to pick up the toys and ask the parents to buy them. By studying shops, their purpose, market, requirements and stock, we can begin to categorise them accordingly. Certain shops will require certain equipment; for example, food shops will require fridges, freezers, aisles of shelving, storage for fruit and vegetables, check-outs, large storage area for stock supplies etc.

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The layout and furnishings of a shop will depend on the purpose of the shop and the market or clientele. For example, a supermarket will generally position the milk and bread at the far end of the shop, so the customer has to walk through the whole shop—and hopefully, gather more grocery items along the way—to collect the basic items. Lollies and treats are located at the counter in easy reach of children to encourage last-minute sales. Introductory Discussion Do all shops look the same?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Why are they different?

Should all shops look the same? Explain.

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Does the size of the shop depend on the size of business?

Activity – Pages 93 – 94

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Students will need to select a local shop in their community in order to complete the activities on pages 93 and 94 of the student workbook. Students must gain permission from the shop owner or manager as they will need to be interviewed to complete the survey. Students will need to complete the activity outside of school hours to allow for diversity. Students complete the survey on page 93 and interview the shop owner or manager to complete the questions on page 94. All information needs to be recorded clearly in the workbook.

© R. I . Cstudents .Pu bgathered l i ca t i onsthe class can then begin to Once have their information, compare and contrast how different shops operate according to their stock, clientele purpose. •f orr evi ewandp ur posesonl y•

Additional Activities

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If some students have selected the same shop or similar type of shop, allow them to work closely together to process their information to explore whether particular types of shops operate in the same way. For example, if one child chooses Jeanswest and another child chooses Just Jeans, they have the perfect opportunity to compare and contrast shops which focus on the same product, clientele and have the same purpose. This does not mean they operate in the same manner. This would be quite an interesting learning experience for all involved.

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Answers will vary

Compare the results of surveys within the class. What are the similarities/ differences to all shops?

Discussion/Debate What shops are ‘missing’ from your local community? How would the community benefit from these shops if they were available? Why are they missing?

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Where Does It Come From? Workbook Pages: 95 – 97 Topic Focus Students will learn how products that we consume often are manufactured in a way that involves many stages and processes. Keywords process, food supplements, pasteurisation, package

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S • dictionaries • The following websites are recommended: Teacher Vegemite (Teacher’s section) http://www.vegemite.com.au/

Students How milk is processed http://www.arpsdairy.com/corral/process.html

Vegemite (Kid’s section) http://www.vegemite.com.au/

Background

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Resources

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Introductory Discussion

The size of a dairy farm depends on how many cows the farmer needs to keep in order to make a suitable living. Farmers who produce butter fat, to be made into dairy products, such as cheese or cream, earn less money and therefore require more cows. A farmer who produces fresh milk earns more money and therefore requires fewer cows to make the same amount of money. Farmers also need to keep different breeds of cows, depending on what they are going to produce. For example, a farmer who wishes to produce fresh milk will keep mainly Friesian cattle, while the farmer who wishes to produce butter fat will keep mainly Jersey cattle or Illawarra shorthorns. Farmers usually allow their cattle to graze freely in pastures. Additional fodder is also supplied which contain nutrients to enhance the cows’ milk production.

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The Australian dairy industry is concentrated in the temperate regions of the east, southeast and southwest of the continent. It began almost from the time of early European settlement in Sydney in 1788. The industry was restricted due to the size of the population and the lack of refrigeration to store dairy products. The development of refrigeration in 1889 saw an increase in the dairy industry and the beginning of Australia exporting dairy products to large markets in Europe.

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What foods have you eaten over the past 24 hours? Create a list. Which of these foods were fresh? Mark the fresh foods on the list clearly with a capital F. Which of these foods had to go through some sort of processing before you could buy them? Mark the processed foods on the list clearly with a capital P. Discuss the differences with the students. Packaging, cost and taste may vary between processed and packaged foods. A good way to demonstrate this would be to have some frozen peas, canned peas, R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

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dried peas and fresh peas. Compare the taste, colour, texture and price. Then discuss the purpose of processing some foods and not others. For example, people who live in remote areas probably don’t have access to fresh produce and rely on processed foods in some instances. Ask students to discuss the pros and cons of processing some foods and not others. Activity – Pages 95 – 97

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Questions six, seven and eight may require some student research before they can complete the activity. Through earlier discussion, some of the information should have already been gathered as a starting point for the students.

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Read the text on page 95 of the student workbook. Dairy products have been used as the example here due to the amount of processing they go through before they can be eaten. Students can then complete questions one to five using the text and their dictionary.

Students may need an explanation of how a flow diagram works in order to complete question eight satisfactorily. They should be encouraged to pencil the stages in before going ahead and drawing detailed diagrams, to ensure all stages of the process can be included. Students can complete the remaining activities, recording their answers in their workbook. Answers

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1. The food requires processing before it is ready for human consumption. 2. 6 000 litres

3. Answers will vary; cheese, milk, cream, yoghurt, sour cream, flavoured milk, butter etc. 4. (a) The process of removing microorganisms from milk. (b) To avoid transfer of disease.

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Additional Activities

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5. Cost, breakage, weight, transport. 6. Answers will vary; but include meat, vegetables, water, fish, eggs etc. Basic reason these require very little or no processing is the food is often best eaten fresh or will be cooked in the home. 7. Answers will vary

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8. Teacher check; Cow – milking – transport to milk processor – milk is processed and packaged, transported to shops – sale at shop or home delivery – table

1. Research to show how the following foods get from their source to your table: vegetables; fish; fruit; bread. 2. Research the process of homogenisation. 3. Research to find out how a cow produces milk.

Discussion/Debate Debate the topic: ‘The only good food is natural, unprocessed food’.

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Who Is Responsible? Workbook Page: 98 Topic Focus Students will identify the need for all people to be aware of their responsibilities in caring for the environment. Keywords environment, responsibility, consumer, potential

Resources

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S http://www.dairy.com.au/

Students Australian Dairy Industry Council Kids’ Page http://www.dairy.com.au/kids/index.html

Background

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• The following websites are recommended: Teacher Dairy Australia

The impact of farming or mining on the environment can be devastating. Land is cleared to make flat pastures for farming and to get to the minerals below the surface. This in turn destroys the environment. The lack of trees raises the level of the water table, increasing soil salinity. Erosion becomes a major problem because of a lack of root systems holding soil together. Fauna moves out of the area because of lack of shelter and food. And the cycle continues—and worsens.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Delivery ofw products thep farm ors mine clearing of land to create •f orr e vi e pfrom ur o erequires sothen l y• a road network. It is also responsible for releasing pollution into the air from the trucks and pollution into the waterways from the runoff of oils and rubber from the vehicles using the road.

Introductory Discussion

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Factories are built on cleared land, which has destroyed the homes of the native fauna. They release chemical gases into the air or pollute the environment with other waste products. Packaging—produced to present the items—often end up in rubbish dumps, causing more pollution and sometimes taking many years to break down.

o c . che e r o t r s super Who is responsible for caring for the environment? Why do people need to care for the environment?

Activity – Page 98

Using the information gathered to complete the flow diagram on page 97, students can then discuss and complete the activity on page 98 of the student workbook. Begin by discussing ‘The Farm’. Ask students what possible environmental damage they think could happen because of a dairy farm. Record all suggestions on the board in one column. Move down the list one by one and ask students to provide ideas to prevent the environmental damage. Record students’ responses on the board. Students can then select the environmental damage and solution they think has the most effect on the environment and record it in the table on page 98. R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

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Repeat this process in pairs for ‘Delivery to the Factory’. Students can then record the appropriate information in the table. Once all students have recorded their information, ideas can be discussed as a whole group. Students can then justify why they think their ideas are the most important. Students can then complete the remainder of the table on their own. At the end of the activity, a general class discussion can explore the various effects on the environment and possible solutions. Answers

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Answers will vary

Additional Activities Discussion/Debate

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Select another food production process and identify environmental issues. Debate the topic: ‘If it damages the environment it should be stopped’.

Working Skills

Workbook Pages: 99 – 100

Students will the work undertaken in and © R. I . C. Pidentify ub l i ca t i on sskills needed for different jobs in the manufacturing process of a dairy product. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Keywords Topic Focus

task, skills, metropolitan, shortage

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Background

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Resources • Invite one or more of the people listed on page 99 to come into the class to talk to the students about their job and the skills they need. Different jobs require people to have different skills and training. Any process requires a number of people with different skills to complete a set task in order for the next person to be able to complete his or her task. For example, look at the publishing of a book. The author writes the book, the publisher reviews the book and provides feedback to the author. An editor is brought in to ensure the book is technically correct. A typist will type in the text, while a typesetter will use specific skills to lay the book out. An artist is then responsible for drawing the art to suit the book. A printer then steps in to print the book, followed by a shop owner who presents the book to the public for sale. Without all of these people in the process and their individual skills and training, the book could not be published and sold to the consumer. Each person plays an integral role and this is the same for any process in any industry.

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Introductory Discussion What is a process? Can one person do every job in the process of manufacturing something? Why/ Why not? Enterprise in the Community

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Is it important to have different people with specific skills performing a certain role? Explain why. Is one person in a process more important than any other person? Explain. Activity – Pages 99 – 100 For students to complete the table on page 99 of the student workbook, some discussion may be needed to share knowledge about the various skills required. As a whole class, discuss each job and brainstorm the skills students feel are necessary to perform each. Students can record the answers in the table.

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Students can then discuss their response to question three. Explore the different reasons students have for selecting their particular job. Answers Answers will vary

Additional Activities

1. Visit a dairy farm.

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Students can then complete the activities on page 100 independently. Once students have completed the task, move them into small groups to discuss the consequences they wrote in response to question two. Students can then develop possible solutions in their groups and share them with the class.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Debate the topic: ‘One process in this cycle is more important than the others’. •f orr e vi ew pur posesonl y• 2. Visit a milk processing factory.

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Discussion/Debate

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Assessment Assessment and Evaluation The activity on page 95 is provided as one assessment tool in the study of this unit. It is designed to indicate broad student understanding and also provide opportunity for student feedback. The following outcomes were addressed in this topic of study. The following pages can be photocopied as a record of student performance or as a proforma for portfolio assessment. Outcomes SSS2.7

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SSS2.8

Administration

Describes how and why people and technologies interact to meet needs and explains the effects of these interactions on people and the environment. Investigates rights, responsibilities and decision-making processes in the school and community and demonstrates how participation can contribute to the quality of their school and community life.

Distribute the activity sheet on page 95 of the Teachers Guide, one per student. Ask students to write their name in the top right-hand corner of the page. Read through the activity sheet to ensure students are clear about what they are being asked to do. At this stage, give students the opportunity to seek clarification of any part of the activity sheet they may not understand. It is important students work independently on these activities—this provides a true representation of what students understand or of their lack of understanding. Once students have completed the activity, collect the worksheets. Mark and record results. From this activity sheet, some students may be found to require further work to develop their understanding in a particular area.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Answers 1. (a) A need is something that a human must have in order to survive. For example, food, clothing and shelter.

2. Answers will vary 3. (a) True

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(b) A want is something that a human would like to have but which is not essential for survival. For example, television, radio, CDs, computer etc.

o c . che e r o t r s super (b) False (c) False

(d) False

4. Answers will vary, but should include storage, packaging, cost, convenience, availability etc. 5. Answers will vary, but should include products, fittings, layout, clientele etc. 6. The cow is fed to produce milk. The cow is milked to obtain the product. The milk is transported to the factory via a truck. The milk is processed and packaged in the factory. The milk is then taken by truck to the shop. The milk is sold at the shop or delivered to your home. 7. Answers will vary

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Enterprise in the Community Student Name:

Date:

Task At the conclusion of the unit ‘Enterprise in the Community’, students were asked to complete an activity sheet independently to demonstrate their understanding of the unit.

Indicators

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Demonstrated

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• Displays an understanding of needs and wants and provides clear examples to support this. • Demonstrates knowledge of how they can meet their needs and wants using resources in the community. • Expresses knowledge of change in how needs and wants are met over the past 40 to 50 years. • Demonstrates an understanding of how shops cater for our needs and wants. • Clearly describes the manufacturing process of milk.

Needs Further Opportunity

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons | • f o r r evi ew pur posesonl y• Workbook Activities Discussion and Debate

Needs Improvement

Satisfactory

Needs Improvement

Satisfactory

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|

w ww

. te

Skills and Attitudes

m . u

Additional Activities

Further Research

Needs Improvement

Satisfactory

| Needs Improvement

o c . che e r o t r s super |

Needs Improvement

|

General Comment

|

|

Satisfactory

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Satisfactory

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Student Comment

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

94

Enterprise in the Community


Enterprise in the Community 1. (a) Explain what a ‘need’ is. Provide examples.

(b) Explain what a ‘want’ is. Provide examples.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

3. Answer true or false. (a) A want is more important than a need.

TRUE

(b) All your needs and wants can be bought at the shop.

TRUE

(c) Shops only supply our wants.

TRUE

(d) Everyone has the same needs and wants.

TRUE

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

2. How do you fulfil your needs and wants?

FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE

w ww

5. How do shops cater for our needs and wants?

. te

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

4. Explain how things have changed from 40 or 50 years ago to today.

o c . che e r o t r s super

6. Briefly describe the process of milk from the cow to your home.

7. List three interesting pieces of information you learnt in this unit. (i) (ii) (iii) Enterprise in the Community

95

R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

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