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Queensland

Society and Environment – B Teachers Guide

R.I.C. Publications RIC-1129QLD 4.2/643


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Foreword Society and Environment will help to increase the students’ knowledge and understanding about their local community and environment and provide them with opportunities to compare their situation to that of others. The seven workbooks in the series look mainly at Australia—its people, its heritage, its political and legal systems and its place in the world.

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Each workbook is accompanied by a comprehensive Teachers Guide designed to provide a structured resource for the teacher. The Teachers Guide provides teachers with clear guidelines as to the outcomes being covered, answers, assessment, discussion and background information to support the workbook where necessary. The information provided within this Teachers Guide will assist teachers in their planning, programming and assessment. Each topic provides teachers with a number of opportunities to focus on various aspects of literacy.

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The aim of the workbook is to assist students to better understand the community they live in and to make sound decisions about local, national and worldwide issues.

This program was devised to offer students and teachers alike the opportunity to develop a wide range of language, discussion and group-working skills that will complement all learning areas in the school curriculum.

Contents

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Outcomes and Indicators Society and Environment B ..................... ii – v •f orr evi ewof Society pu r p ose s nl y • vi Studies and Environment and theo Teacher .......................... Resources .......................................................................................... vii How to use Society and Environment ................................................ viii

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Society and Environment Workbook .................................................... ix Society and Environment Teachers Guide ............................................. x Assessment/Evaluation ....................................................................... xi

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Students with Special Needs ............................................................. xii Blank Map—The World .................................................................... xiii Blank Map—Australia....................................................................... xiv Blank Map—Queensland ................................................................... xv Flags of Australia ..................................................................... xvi – xvii Blank Semantic Web ........................................................................ xviii People in the Community ............................................................ 1 – 14 Shelters .................................................................................... 15 – 30 Who Are We? ........................................................................... 31 – 46 Old Families, New Families ....................................................... 47 – 62

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Outcomes and Indicators Society and Environment B People in the Community To function effectively, we endeavour to meet our needs and wants. Our needs and wants change according to our environment, our age and the roles and responsibilities we have. By meeting the requirements of our roles and responsibilities, we cater to the needs and wants of others in our families and communities.

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Workbook Teachers Guide Pages Pages

What Do We Need Each Day? Responsibilities in a Home People Who Help Us at School Rockwood Community

2–6 7 – 12 13 – 17 18 – 24

3–5 5–7 8–9 9 – 11

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Topic

Time, Continuity and Change TCC2.3 Students cooperatively evaluate how people have contributed to changes in the local environment. Culture and Identity CI2.4 Students identify how their roles, rights and responsibilities change in different groups.

©R . I . C .Pu b l i cat i ons Systems, Resources and Power SRP2.2 Students create a representation of various people and resources •f orr evi ew pinu r p ose onl y •goods and involved the production ands consumption of familiar services.

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Students enact a simple cooperative enterprise to identify their own and others’ strengths and weaknesses.

SRP2.4

Students analyse information about their own and others’ rights and responsibilities in various settings.

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Outcomes and Indicators Society and Environment B Shelters The shelters chosen by living things differ according to their environment. Different climatic conditions and environmental hazards require living things to adapt their shelter for survival. People change and use elements from their environment to meet their needs and improve the comfort of their shelter. These changes affect other living things.

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Workbook Teachers Guide Pages Pages

Adapting to the Environment—1 Adapting to the Environment—2 What Do We Get from Our Environment?

26 – 29 30 – 38 39 – 44

17 – 19 20 – 23 23 – 26

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Topic

Place and Space PS2.1 Students identify how environments affect lifestyles around Australia. PS2.2

Students predict possible consequences for an ecological system when an element is affected.

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Students express a preferred future vision for a familiar place based on observed evidence of changes and continuities.

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Outcomes and Indicators Society and Environment B Who Are We? People form groups which represent a common belief or interest they share. They choose to join groups to meet a community or personal need. Many groups are seasonal or dependent on particular climatic conditions. To be part of a group, people need to keep rules and elect responsible leaders. Topic

Workbook Teachers Guide Pages Pages

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46 – 58 59 – 63 64 – 68

33 – 36 36 – 39 39 – 42

Time, Continuity and Change TCC2.2 Students record changes and continuities in familiar settings using various devices.

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Types of Community Groups How Does the Weather Affect Groups? Group Rules

Culture and Identity CI2.2 Students explain how they and others have different perceptions of different groups including families. DI2.3

Students participate in diverse customs and traditions to identify how these contribute to a sense of belonging to groups.

©R . I . CStudents .Pu bl i cat i ons CI2.4 identify how their roles, rights and responsibilities change in different groups. •f orr e v i e w pur posesonl y• CI2.5 Students identify how symbols, rituals and places reflect identities

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of different groups including Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander groups.

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Outcomes and Indicators Society and Environment B Old Families, New Families Our families’ histories are passed down through the generations by oral recounts, information evident in artefacts and family heirlooms, and storytelling. We are able to see change over time by investigating family history and comparing this information to the present. Workbook Teachers Guide Pages Pages

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Oral Histories Interview—Childhood Memories Learning about the Past Family Stories

70 – 76 77 – 80 81 – 88 89 – 92

49 – 51 51 – 52 53 – 57 57 – 59

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Topic

Time, Continuity and Change TCC2.1 Students explain different meanings about an event, artefact, story or symbol from different times. TCC2.5

Students identify similarities and differences between the experiences of family generations.

Culture and Identity CI2.1 Students describe the similarities and differences between an aspect of their Australian life and that of a culture in the Asia-Pacific region.

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons CI2.7 locate stories that promote morals and ethics they can apply. •f orr evi ew Students pur posesonl y•

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Studies of Society and Environment and the Teacher

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The learning area of Studies of Society and Environment encourages students to develop an understanding of how groups and individuals live together and interact with their environment. Through this learning area, students understand and develop a respect for cultural heritage, social justice, democratic processes and the sustainability of their environment.

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The main goal of Society and Environment is to take students on a journey to various parts of Australia, its history, and other parts of the world—and then bring them back to their own community within Queensland to compare and evaluate life within it. Regardless of where students live within Australia, they will all benefit from, and see relevance to themselves in, the activities within the Student Workbook. Students are constantly being asked to think about Australian and world issues in relation to their own community in order to develop their own reasoned views.

The Society and Environment workbooks encourage the students to: • study the interaction between people and their environment • make sense of these interactions and develop values aimed at improving these relationships for the future • study local, regional, national and global issues and develop an understanding of their importance • develop and extend their knowledge of those issues which are relevant to themselves • make judgments on moral and ethical issues using their understanding of democratic processes, social justice and the sustainability of their environment • use various strategies to make sense of the way the world is changing • make reasoned and informed decisions as active citizens in their community • manage their own actions based on the skills and understandings attained in this learning area Success in teaching Studies of Society and Environment depends on using a varied approach. Students may work independently, in small groups or as a whole class, depending on the situation or task involved. Flexibility is the key to encouraging students to find the mode of working which best suits them.

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Discussion is used on a regular basis throughout the program to encourage critical thinking and to provide students with the opportunity to share, listen and evaluate their own thinking and that of others. The teacher’s role in the discussion situations is that of facilitator; it is important that students are allowed the opportunity to share their own views and ideas without being judged. Questioning should be used to encourage students to search for alternatives before making a final decision in relation to a topic or situation. Grouping students helps them to get to know one another and develops an understanding of the importance of being able to work cooperatively with others to achieve a common goal. Shy students are more likely to express themselves in small groups, where they may be intimidated by a whole-class situation. Groups should be changed regularly, rather than having them set for each Studies of Society and Environment lesson.

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Teachers Notes


Resources Providing teachers with a comprehensive guide to each unit, including: •Unit focus •Unit topics •Outcomes and indicators •Focus for each topic •Keywords for each topic •Resources required for each topic •Background information for each topic •Introductory discussion for each topic •Suggested activity outlines •Clear and concise answers •Additional activities for each topic •Further topics for discussion and debate

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The Teachers Guide

The Student Workbook

Providing students and teachers with: •a range of activities catering for different learning styles and teaching methodologies •sample studies •opportunities to relate activities to local environments and communities •a mix of contemporary and traditional content •a comprehensive range of topic areas •opportunities to develop a wide range of skills

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Additional Resources

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Any successful Studies of Society and Environment program draws on a range of resources to provide variety and the opportunity to use and develop skills in a wide range of areas. It is recommended that students use various sources to support their work within the Society and Environment workbook. Some of these additional resources include: •a world globe •a world map •a large map of Australia •the Internet—this resource is extremely fluid and sites were active at the time of publication. Specific sites were generally not included in the workbooks because of this limitation. Recommended sites listed within the Teachers Guide have been organised into those suitable for teachers and those suitable for students, according to the level of language used within the site and its presentation. •the school and local libraries •each other, parents, grandparents •organisations which specialise in the area being studied •local and State newspapers and magazines •video documentaries where appropriate

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•people from the local community Teachers Notes

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How to Use Society and Environment 1. Select the unit you wish to teach. Each workbook contains four units—one for each term of the school year. They can be taught from the first unit in sequential order to the last unit, or you can move throughout the book in an order that suits what is happening in your classroom/community/local environment. 2. Read the complete unit. It is important to read the entire unit before dealing with it in class to avoid any surprises and to ensure you have an understanding of where the unit is heading. This allows you to be prepared with resources, to organise any incursions or excursions which may support the unit, and to ensure a collection of adequate resources is gathered within the classroom to enhance learning in that area. Each unit is broken into discrete topics. These topics may run over one or more lessons, depending on your students, the topic or the amount of work that needs to be covered. It is left to the teacher’s discretion to ensure adequate coverage of the topic is attained.

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3. Develop a plan.

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4. Encourage discussion.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Develop an interest in •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• further research.

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6. Provide opportunities for students to share their knowledge.

The information provided within each workbook has been thoroughly researched. Certain topics lend themselves to further research, as the topic is so large that not all information could possibly be included in a workbook for students. Students should be encouraged to research topics of personal interest. Developing skills in this area encourages independent learning which is critical in any student’s education journey.

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5.

Each topic within Society and Environment relies on class or group discussion. This is a key feature for developing oral skills. Students are given the opportunity to clarify their thinking, express their views, listen to others and discuss or debate the topic or issue at hand. This technique is instrumental in students developing maturity and a level of understanding that will prepare them for the real world.

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Students are often a rich source of knowledge in our multicultural society. Students are able to source information from relatives and friends and provide a valuable resource for others in their class. Students who have taken the time to further research topics of personal interest should also be encouraged to share their knowledge. This shows students you value their independent learning and gives meaning to their additional study.

7. Use your community. The community has a great deal of resources to offer the primary Studies of Society and Environment learning area—after all, that is what it is all about. Inviting community members and organisations into your classroom to impart knowledge to students adds an extra dimension to their learning, making it ‘real’ and—most importantly—giving you a break from having to ‘know everything’.

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Society and Environment Workbook The Unit Topic begins with a unit title. This can be used to lead the students into the introductory discussion found in the Teachers Guide. The Lesson Focus and Keywords provide students with a basic overview of what they will be learning about in this topic and give them the opportunity to find the meaning of any difficult words before they begin. Text, tables and artwork provide students with a concise source of information related to the topic. Students may need to read through the information provided several times to ensure they have a clear understanding of what they are reading and to assimilate the information before tackling the supporting activities.

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Teachers may also use the strategy of searching for keywords and phrases to further encourage students to read the text over again. These keywords and phrases help to clarify the information for the students and make the task of completing the activities easier.

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Assisting weaker readers with this text is recommended to ensure their understanding is clear or they will struggle to complete the activities accurately.

Various types of activities have been provided for the students to draw information from the text. They include: • three levels of questioning • retrieval charts; brainstorming; explosion charts • local area comparative studies • semantic grids • flags • flow diagrams; ordering • matrixes • cloze passages • tables; reading graphs • profiles • time lines • mapping; longitude/latitude • reports • cause/effect; fact/opinion • keywords/key facts

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Each unit topic is finished off with Topics for Discussion/Debate. These statements, questions or sentence starters are designed to encourage students to develop their own thoughts and ideas and share them with the class or in small groups. This technique develops oral language and critical thinking skills.

The unit topics also have Additional Activities provided. These are only suggestions and have been designed to link the students’ newfound knowledge across the learning areas. Search Engine Keywords have been included to assist the students with any further research they wish to undertake using the Internet.

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Society and Environment Teachers Guide Each Unit begins with an introductory page providing teachers with: • an overview of what students will be learning in the unit; • the topics which have been selected to develop understanding in the unit; and

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The Unit is then broken down topic by topic, with each topic providing the teacher with: • the corresponding workbook pages;

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• the outcomes and indicators being treated through the study of the unit.

• the focus of the topic;

• the keywords being introduced within the topic;

• resource requirements for successful completion of the topic, including relevant Internet sites listed separately for the teacher and student; • background information for the teacher on areas which may appeal to students, require clarification or possibly lead to misunderstanding;

© R. I . .Pquestions ubl i t i on s to lead the students •C suggested forc ana introductory discussion into thinking about the topic; •f orr evi e wguidelines, pur posuggestions seso nl •the class for • activity offering on how toy organise the particular lesson or activity; • suggested additional activities; and

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• clear and concise answers for each activity; • suggested topics for discussion and debate.

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Each Unit then concludes with an assessment tool (see following page) which has been designed to indicate broad student understanding and also provide opportunity for student feedback. It is recommended that students work through the assessment independently where possible to provide feedback to the teacher of where understanding has taken place or where the student needs further development.

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Assessment/Evaluation Assessment and evaluation is an ongoing process conducted in a variety of ways by the teacher or a support person within the classroom. Teachers generally evaluate students based on: • observations—noting any key learning milestones; • anecdotal—keeping general notes on student behaviour, skills, techniques, strengths and weaknesses; • evaluation of written work—collating and marking students’ work;

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• evaluation of oral work—recording students’ skills and techniques in this area; and

Assessment and evaluation techniques may vary from student to student depending on their individual abilities, strengths and weaknesses. For example, you would not expect a student who is working at a reduced level to achieve the same results with the activities in the workbook as a student who is working at his/her optimum level or above.

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• evaluation of activities designed as assessment tools and provided in the Teachers Guide.

Through assessment of each student’s individual work practices, teachers are able to gauge which students require extension and which require remediation. Assistance can then be given to those students where necessary to ensure they are developing to their full potential.

Because allP students work att their own ability level, assessment of their © R. I . C. ubwilll i c a i o ns understandings should not consist solely of one piece of work. Ite is envisaged teachers will assess regularly on their day-to-day •f orr evi w pthat ur po s esstudents onl y•

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performance, as well as using the assessment tool provided at the end of each unit of work in the Teachers Guide. The assessment tool used on its own will not be an accurate representation of the student’s ability or understanding of the unit and should be used only in conjunction with the term’s work.

The assessment tool provided at the end of each unit in the Teachers Guide as shown on this page is supported with a proforma which can be copied for each student and attached to his or her portfolio assessment. It provides the Outcomes covered over the unit and room for the teacher to comment on the various aspects involved in the Society and Environment workbook program.

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Students with Special Needs All students will work at different rates at different ability levels—which should be taken into consideration when planning a unit of work from the Society and Environment workbook. It is important to remember that we are assessing students’ skills, knowledge and understanding in this area, not their ability to read and write. Studies of Society and Environment is the study of people as social beings, as they have existed and interacted with each other and the environment, in time and in place. Therefore, students who have particular difficulty with literacy should not be disadvantaged in this learning area.

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It is crucial that the teacher takes the time to develop a rapport with the student— develop a relationship in which the student feels comfortable with the expected tasks. Those students who need additional assistance could be given the unit to read through prior the lesson, so when they come into the lesson they already have a headstart on the rest of the class.

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Remediation

Providing students with the opportunity to read and reread the text as often as they feel comfortable with prior to the lesson offers them one strategy to familiarise themselves with the text. Encourage students to look for keywords and phrases and to use any maps, tables or diagrams to help them develop meaning from the text.

Encourage students to then reada through then questions ©R . I . Cthe. Pub l i c t i o s and work out where they might find the answers, without actually completing the activities. After this work, the o students will come thel lesson armed with the •f orr e vi eintroductory w pu r p se s oton y•

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resources and confidence they need to complete the activity along with the rest of the class. Their confidence will grow as they feel they are keeping up with everyone else and their time won’t be wasted during the lesson.

Teachers can also assist students by establishing a language-rich environment where print is presented in natural and meaningful contexts. Depending upon the unit topic for the term, classroom displays could reflect the information students may require.

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Those students who find the activities in the workbook too easy can be extended through various additional activities. Students can be encouraged to research the topic further through the use of the Internet, library, newspapers, or by contacting specific organisations and sourcing local information. Students can be responsible for gathering resources to provide the class with additional topic material. Displays can be created to benefit the entire class. A group of students can also be made responsible for assisting the teacher when organising guest speakers or when on excursions to various facilities in the local area.

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The World

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Australia

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Queensland

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Australian flag

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Flags of Australia

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Aboriginal flag

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Torres Strait Islander flag R.I.C. Publications~www.ricgroup.com.au

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Flags of Australia

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New South Wales

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South Australia

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Northern Territory © R. I . C. Publ i cat i ons Western Australia •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Queensland

Victoria Teachers Notes

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Semantic Web (Brainstorming)

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People in the Community Unit Focus To function effectively, we endeavour to meet our needs and wants. Our needs and wants change according to our environment, our age and the roles and responsibilities we have. By meeting the requirements of our roles and responsibilities, we cater to the needs and wants of others in our families and communities. Unit Topics The topics selected to develop this understanding are:

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•What Do We Need Each Day? ................................................. 2 – 6 •Responsibilities in a Home..................................................... 7 – 12 •People Who Help Us at School ............................................ 13 – 17 •Rockwood Community ........................................................ 18 – 24

Time, Continuity and Change TCC2.3 Students cooperatively evaluate how people have contributed to changes in the local environment.

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Outcomes and Indicators

Culture and Identity CI2.4 Students identify how their roles, rights and responsibilities change in different groups. Systems, Resources and Power SRP2.2 Students create a representation of various people and resources involved in the production and consumption of familiar goods and services.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons SRP2.3 Students enact a simple cooperative enterprise to identify their own •f orr e vi ew pu r po s esonl y• and others’ strengths and weaknesses.

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Students analyse information about their own and others’ rights and responsibilities in various settings.

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What Do We Need Each Day? Workbook Pages: 2 – 6 Topic Focus The students will learn about their needs and wants and who helps them to get them. Keywords need, food, clothing, shelter, role, responsibility

Resources

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http://visa.edgate.com/visa/english/parents/lev_1/lesson_01/values_01.html

Survival (American but still valid)

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• The following websites are recommended: Teacher Needs and Wants

http://wildlife.state.co.us/hunt/Survival/survival.htm

General Purpose First Aid Kit (Contents) http://www.fastmed.com/generalKit.htm

I Can Do it Myself: Encouraging Independence in Young Children http://npin.org/library/1998/n00001/n00001.html

Family Works: Family Teamwork

http://www.urbanext.uiuc.edu/familyworks/learn-06.html

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons A ‘need’ is something necessary for our health or survival. A ‘want’ is something •f orr evi e wlikeptou r p se so y• we would have buto is not essential to n our l health or survival. People of

Background

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various backgrounds and cultures have the same basic needs—food, clothing, shelter and love. When we are young, we are dependent on others (e.g. adults) for our needs, but as we develop and get older we learn to take responsibility for providing for our own needs and wants.

Introductory Discussion

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Sometimes a need can be something necessary to complete a task.

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Show the students a picture to be coloured. Present them with old broken crayons and a new box of crayons or old, short, broken pencils and a new box of pencils. Which would they choose to do the job? Discuss how they can still complete the job with the old, broken crayons and pencils but may ‘want’ to use the new ones. Find and discuss other examples, e.g. water – cordial, crackers – chocolate biscuits.

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Activity – Page 2 Collect pictures from magazines, newspapers and catalogues showing items that students need or want (ensure there are several examples of food, clothing and shelters). In small groups, arrange and glue the pictures under the appropriate headings of ‘wants’ and ‘needs’. The students can then share and discuss their choices with the class. Discuss the types of things the students need each day. Allow them time to write or draw things they need at different times during a day in the boxes provided on page 2. As a whole group, ask the students to contribute why they believe they need those things they have listed. The students should be encouraged to compare their lists to other class members and identify why their choices may be different.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S 1. Teacher check

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Answers

2. Teacher check 3. Teacher check

Activity – Page 3

Ask the students to close their eyes and imagine they are on a desert island. Describe the scenario given on page 3, including the items listed they might take with them and what it might be like to live alone, away from civilisation for a week. The students can then open their eyes and look at the illustration of the island and the accompanying list of items. Have them decide upon three items they need to take with them and three items they want to take with them. Allow the students time to write their choices to complete question 1.

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As a whole group, discuss whether they feel any needs or wants have been forgotten from this list. For example, what will they use for shelter? After sharing ideas with their peers, they can write their own lists of needs and wants to answer question 2. Answers 1. Teacher check

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Discuss the things babies need. Are there any things babies can do for themselves? Discuss the things the students are able to do now that they were unable to do as babies. Are there any things they are still unable to do? Why is this? Direct the students to the table on page 4. Describe the different parts of the table and have the students use ideas from the discussion to complete it independently. Discuss the types of things adults can do that children are unable to do. Are there any things that adults can’t do for themselves? What are some things adults need help with? (For example, lifting heavy objects, completing a task that takes many people to complete in a short time such as cooking meals for a restaurant.) The students can draw an example of something adults can do for themselves and something they need help with in the boxes for question 2.

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Read page 5, about the ways Sam, his teacher and his mum help one another. As a whole class discuss who helps the students meet their needs and wants and how they can also help others meet their needs and wants. Answers 1. Teacher check 2. Teacher check 3. Teacher check

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Read together the information about roles and responsibilities at the top of page 6. Discuss the difference between a ‘role’ and a ‘responsibility’. Look at the examples given of ‘father’ and ‘pilot’ as roles and the responsibilities they have. Discuss other responsibilities someone in each of those roles might have and allow the students to record an example for each to complete question 1.

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Activity – Page 6

Ask the students to reflect upon the different roles they have. For example, at school they may be a friend or a student, while at home they may be a son or daughter. Have the students identify two of their roles and use these to complete question 2. Answers 1. Teacher check

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Additional Activities Make mobiles oru display charts about students’ needs and• wants. •f orr evi ew p r p os es on l y 2. Teacher check

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Resources

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Responsibilities in a Home Workbook Pages: 7 – 12

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The students will learn how family members help to meet each other’s needs. help, care, tasks

• The following websites are recommended: Teacher Home Responsibilities (Children’s viewpoint)

http://www.sdhc.k12.fl.us/~kindergarten.elementary/pg_ten.htm

Board of Studies (NSW): Unit Topic (.pdf file) http://www.bosnsw-k6.nsw.edu.au/linkages/brokenbay/unit_topics.html

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Background There are many different types of family groups but most have the common element of working together and helping each other. Families provide the basic needs of love, food, shelter, clothing, companionship, protection and support of their members. Each member has responsibilities or a ‘role’; that is, something they are in charge of. As people grow they rely less on others to provide their needs and wants to the stage, as adults, they become responsible for their own needs and those of their children. This represents a cycle of responsibility. Introductory Discussion

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Can one person be a family? Why or why not?

Do the people in your family help one another? What are some examples of how they help each other? What would happen if they did not help each other? Do you help other people in your family? How do you help them? Why do you help them?

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How does it feel to be in your family?

Activity – Pages 7 – 8

As a whole class, view the diagram of a floor plan on page 7. Discuss the different things that happen in each room. Allow the students time to draw furniture or equipment that might be used in each room. Discuss the types of tasks which need to be done in each room to maintain the house. The students can use the table on page 8 to record the responsibilities associated which each of the rooms in the floor plan.

©R . I . C.Publ i cat i ons Answers •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 1. Teacher check 2. Teacher check

Activity – Pages 9 – 11

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Explain to the students that you will be reading two stories about families who help each other. Encourage the students to follow along as the stories are read and to underline the parts which describe someone helping another. They can then record the ways in which each family member was helpful in the tables provided on page 10.

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Discuss the different ways people were helpful in the stories and whether any of the students in the class have been helpful in these ways. Have the students record an example of how they are helpful in their family to complete question 2. Read question 3 together. Encourage the students to give their opinions in response to the questions and allow them to complete them independently. As a whole class, investigate what responsibilities different class members hold by conducting a survey. Create an enlarged version of the tally chart and graph provided on page 11. Ask each member to put a tally mark in the boxes for the responsibilities he/she holds in the family. Guide the students through the process of transferring the tally totals onto the graph. Work through two or three examples together and allow the students to complete the rest of the graph independently. Discuss which responsibilities are most commonly held by the members in the class and infer why this might be the case.

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People in the Community


Answers 1.

helped to get picnic set, set the table, looked after Jody or took tongs to Uncle Craig

Family 1

Tom

made birthday cake

Aunty Clare

made salads or put chairs around table

Family 2

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packed food into cardboard box, made everyone breakfast or carried bags to the car

Cassie

put bags by front door, helped Georgia tie her shoelaces, woke Georgia up, told Mr Abbot they were going away, made sure lights were off

Georgia

helped to make sure lights were switched off

2. Teacher check

3. (a) Teacher check (b) Teacher check

Activity – Page 12

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Grandma

The activities provided on page 12 require the input of a family member at home and could be used as a homework task. The students should be encouraged to share their family’s job suggestions with the class.

Answers © R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 1. Teacher check 2. Teacher check

Additional Activities

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People in the Community

2. Constuct a family tree. 3. Design a family crest.

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1. Students can keep a diary to record when their new responsibility has been carried out.

4. Make a book titled ‘Important things about my family’.

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People Who Help Us as School Workbook Pages: 12 – 17 Topic Focus The students will learn about the roles and responsibilities of people who help them in their school community. Keywords buddy, helper

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Individuals learn about needs, wants, their roles and responsibilities from being part of a family, school or community group. These communities allow the individual to grow and learn in a supportive environment. They learn that many individuals work together to make a responsible and successful community. In the school community, friends, teachers, gardeners, cleaners, administrative staff, parent helpers, canteen workers and many more, all work together for the good of the school community.

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Background

Introductory Discussion

Who are the people who work together in your school community?

Why do we need them to do the jobs they do? What would happen if these people did not do their job?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons As ai whole class,p discuss thep roles ofs thee different characters on • page 13. Decide •f orr e v ew ur o so nl y together what the responsibilities of each of these people are. The students can

Activity – Page 13

note in point form the responsibilities discussed.

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Answers Teacher check

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Activity – Pages 14 – 16

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Read together the story about Imogen and Amrita on page 14. Discuss what it feels like when you are new to a school. Encourage students who have changed school to share their experiences. How do the older students at your school help the younger or newer students? The students can then complete question 2.

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Explain to the students how an interview can be used to find out information about another person. Direct them to the interview proforma on page 15. Read each part and hold a ‘pretend’ interview with a class member to demonstrate how the data can be collected. Ask the students to nominate someone in their school to interview and provide them with an opportunity to conduct the interview. They should be encouraged to share their findings with their peers. As a whole class, use the information from the interview to complete the grid on page 16. Each class member should contribute the name of the person he or she interviewed and suggest the box describing how that person helps us.

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People in the Community


Answers 1. Teacher check 2. Teacher check

Activity – Pages 17 Discuss why we should thank the people who help us. The students can use the template on page 17 to make a ‘thank you’ message for a favourite school helper Ensure they are given an opportunity to show the page they have created to the helper.

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1. Teacher check

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2. Teacher check

Additional Activities

1. Brainstorm things students can do to make school helpers’ jobs easier. 2. Interview school helpers about their role and responsibilities in the school community.

Rockwood Community

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Workbook Pages: 18 – 24 •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Topic Focus

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The students will learn about the roles and responsibilities of people in a community.

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Resources

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community, worker, occupation, equipment, service

o c . che e r o t r s super • The following websites are recommended: Teacher Community Helpers

http://www.beenleigss.qld.edu.au/requested_sites/services/

Background

Communities are important groups of people that make up a society. It takes many varied jobs for a city or town to work as a community. Some of the roles taken by people in the community are in paid work, such as shop assistants, mechanics, teachers and police officers. Others work in voluntary or unpaid roles within the community, such as church workers, local sports committees and charity workers. Some family members need to work outside the home and in the community to earn money to buy the things a family needs like food, clothing and shelter. Jobs within the community cater for a family or individual’s basic needs by providing a variety of goods and services.

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‘Goods’ are physical wants or needs such as clothing, cars, food, house items, etc. ‘Services’ are the types of jobs that people do for others, such as dentists, teachers, or working in schools, banks, hospitals etc. Introductory Discussion Make a class list of ‘people who help us’ who are not family or in the school community; for example, doctors, police officers etc. Discuss the ways each of these community members can help us. Activity – Page 18

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View together the map on page 18. Locate each of the different services on the map and discuss how each helps us. The students can work in pairs to locate and colour each of the places represented by the statements 1 – 7 at the bottom of the page. 1. Bakery, Supermarket

2. Recreation Centre, Police Station, Dentist, Pool, Medical Centre 3. School 4. Movie Theatre, Library, Video Store, Pool, Playground 5. Service Station 6. Teacher check

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr e vi e psmall ur po se on l y • Divide thew class into groups. Ask the s students to take turns reading aloud 7. Teacher check

Activity – Pages 19 – 21

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the descriptions for each of the workers in the community on pages 19 and 20. The students can then use the information they have gained to complete the table on page 21 together. Answers 1. Teacher check 2.

Role

Where do they work?

What are their responsibilities? What do they need to do this? (skills/equipment)

o c . che e r o t r s super (If examples given are chosen) • Parent

home, classroom

walking Adam to school, looking after Rachel, cleaning house, shopping, helping in Adam's classroom

Teacher check

• Shop Assistant

shoe shop

open shop, tidy shop, take money, give receipts

Teacher check

• Police Officer

Teacher check

keep people and their property safe

Teacher check

• Emergency Service Volunteer

Teacher check

help or rescue people in emergencies, training with other volunteers

Teacher check

• Ambulance Officer

ambulance

drive to accident scenes, helping ill people

ambulance, radio, medical equipment

• Mechanic

service station

look after and fix cars

Teacher check

• Cleaner

primary school

cleaning school

Teacher check

• Doctor

aeroplane, local, clinics

helping sick or injured people

Teacher check

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Activity – Pages 22 – 23 Discuss what is meant by the term ‘occupation’. Change the title on the list of ‘people who help us’ developed during the introductory discussion to ‘Occupations’. Direct the students to the occupations on page 22. Discuss what each of these occupations involves and allow the students time to complete the matching task and write responsibilities independently. Read together the headings on the boxes on page 23. Discuss what else is provided in their community. Direct the students to write one of the suggestions into the blank box. They can then use old magazines, brochures or newspapers to find examples of a place associated with each title to glue in each box.

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Activity – Page 24

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Invite a community member to speak to the class about his or her ‘role’ and associated responsibilities. The students can use the template on page 24 to record information about the guest speaker. Ask the children to reflect upon the role and responsibilities of the guest speaker and indicate whether they would like to hold this position in the community. Responses can be recorded in question 2. Answers

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Additional Activities 1. Teacher check 2. Teacher check

1. Role-play or mime community workers in their job. Other students guess the occupations.

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2. Organise an excursion to note jobs and buildings in the local community. 3. Invite guest speakers or interview local members of the community with various jobs. 4. Create a ‘goods’ and ‘services’ poster by gluing pictures under the appropriate headings of the things their families may use.

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People in the Community Assessment and Evaluation The activity on page 14 is provided as one assessment tool in the study of this unit. It is designed to indicate broad student understanding and also provide opportunity for student feedback. The following outcomes were addressed in this topic of study. The following pages can be photocopied as a record of student performance or as a proforma for portfolio assessment. Outcomes

Administration

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Culture and Identity CI2.4 Students identify how their roles, rights and responsibilities change in different groups. Systems, Resources and Power SRP2.2 Students create a representation of various people and resources involved in the production and consumption of familiar goods and services.

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Time, Continuity and Change TCC2.3 Students cooperatively evaluate how people have contributed to changes in the local environment.

SRP2.3

Students enact a simple cooperative enterprise to identify their own and others’ strengths and weaknesses.

SRP2.4

Students analyse information about their own and others’ rights and responsibilities in various settings.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Distribute the activity sheet on page 14 of the Teachers Guide, one per student. •f orr e vstudents i ewto write pu r po se on l yof• Ask their name in the tops right-hand corner the page. Read

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through the activity sheet to ensure students are clear about what they are being asked to do. At this stage, give students the opportunity to seek clarification of any part of the activity sheet they may not understand. It is important students work independently on these activities—this provides a true representation of what students understand or of their lack of understanding. Once students have completed the activity, collect the worksheets. Mark and record results. From this activity sheet, some students may be found to require further work to develop their understanding in a particular area.

o c . che e r o t r s super 1. (a) fruit, house, singlet

(b) ring, teddy, hair-dryer, rollerskate, book

2. Answers will vary

3. (a) Pilot – fly aeroplanes safely (b) Teacher – help children learn to read (c) Parent – care for their children (d) Police Officer – keep people safe (e) Mechanic – fix customers’ cars 4. Answers will vary 5. Answers will vary

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People in the Community


People in the Community Student Name:

Date:

Task At the conclusion of the unit ‘People in the Community’, students were asked to complete an activity sheet independently to demonstrate their understanding of the unit.

Pointers

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Demonstrated

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Understands the difference between ‘needs’ and ‘wants’. Identifies different ways in which people can help each other. Relates responsibilities to the roles people hold in the community. Demonstrates an awareness of their own responsibilities.

Discussion and Debate Needs Improvement

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Needs Further Opportunity

Satisfactory

|

© R|. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Additional Activities •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Workbook Activities

Needs Improvement

Needs Improvement

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Satisfactory

| Satisfactory

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Further Research

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Skills and Attitudes

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Student Comment

People in the Community

Needs Improvement

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People in the Community 1.

(a) Colour the idtems which are needs blue. (b) Colour the items in the box which are wants red.

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r o e t s Bo r e p ok u Syou need help to do. 2. (a) Write something

(b) Write something you can help someone younger than you with.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

(c) Write something you can help someone older than you with.

3. Match these roles to a responsibility. •

care for their children

(b) Teacher

fix customers’ cars

(c) Parent

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(d) Police Officer (e) Mechanic

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(a) Pilot

o c . •c • keep people safe e her r o t s sup r • •e fly aeroplanes safely •

help children learn to read

4. Name two responsibilities you have at home.

5. Name two people who help you at school.

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The Changing Community


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Shelters

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Shelters Unit Focus The shelters chosen by living things differ according to their environment. Different climatic conditions and environmental hazards require living things to adapt their shelter for survival. People change and use elements from their environment to meet their needs and improve the comfort of their shelter. These changes affect other living things. Unit Topics The topics selected to develop this understanding are:

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•Adapting to the Environment—1 ....................................... 26 – 29 •Adapting to the Environment—2 ........................................ 30 – 38 •What Do We Get from Our Environment? ............................ 39 – 44

Place and Space PS2.1 Students identify how environments affect lifestyles around Australia.

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Outcomes and Indicators

PS2.2

Students predict possible consequences for an ecological system when an element is affected.

PS2.5

Students express a preferred future vision for a familiar place based on observed evidence of changes and continuities.

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Adapting to the Environment—1 Workbook Pages: 26 – 29 Topic Focus The students will learn how animals and plants use the environment for shelter and how they adapt to different environments. Keywords adapt, environment, mountain, desert, rainforest

Resources

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http://www.animalinfo.org/species/burrparv.htm

Australian Arid lands Botanic Garden

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• The following websites are recommended: Teacher Mountain Pygmy Possum

http://www.australian-aridlands-botanic-garden.org/

Australian Rainforest Wildlife http://www.wildlife-australia.com/

Background

Desert Regions Approximately two-thirds of Australia is classified as desert or semi-desert. Plants and animals living in desert regions must adapt to cope with extreme temperatures, lack of water and food shortages. Desert animals may adapt by being small, not needing to drink at all as they get all the water they need from their food, being nocturnal, digging burrows beneath the hot soils or hiding in shady areas during the hottest parts of the day, moving rapidly over hot surfaces, being paler in colour so they absorb less heat and are less conspicuous to predators, and excreting insoluble compounds, wasting very little water in the process.

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Desert plants may adapt by having short roots to collect water when the rain comes, having extremely long roots to tap into underground water supplies, storing water in their tissues, having few or no leaves to reduce transpiration, being short-lived plants that only grow and reproduce when the rains come, and producing drought- and heat-resistant seeds that can remain dormant until it rains.

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Some Australian desert plants and animals are cacti, grass trees, spinifex, eucalyptus, baobab, snakes, dingoes, lizards, bilbies, emus, numbats, frogs and wallabies. Rainforest Regions Rainforests are wet, humid, dense forests that support a huge variety of plants and animals. These conditions allow plants to grow well, which then become a source of food and shelter for the animals. Animals living here adapt to a plentiful supply of food and water. A variety of plants and animals live in different zones within the rainforest, from the top of the giant trees (emergents) to the forest floor. Unlike other forests, many of the animals are arboreal (tree-living).

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Some plant adaptations include climbing woody vines which have their roots in the forest floor but climb high into the tree canopy for sunlight, leaves of the forest trees with ‘drip tips’ (leaves with waxy surfaces enabling the raindrops to run off quickly), young leaves which are not yet waxy being red to discourage animals from eating them, and shallow, widespread root systems as the soil is so low in nutrients below the surface.

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Some animal adaptations include a prehensile tail (e.g. monkeys) which is used for mobility through the trees and to hang upside down to reach food that normally would be out of reach, the ability to glide from one tree to another (e.g. sugar glider) as an efficient way to travel and escape enemies, bright colours to warn off potential predators into thinking it is poisonous (e.g. Monarch Butterfly), many animals develop relationships with other species to benefit both (e.g. ants home in trees while they protect trees from leaf or seed predators—symbiotic relationship), camouflage to blend into their environment and avoid predators (e.g. butterflies close their wings to look like leaves), or use their camouflage to sneak up on their prey (e.g. pythons).

Antarctic Region

This frozen continent means that plant and animal life must adapt to extremely cold conditions to survive. All plants and animals have water in their cells, and if water freezes, it expands and destroys the cells. Some of the ways animals survive are by migrating to warmer waters during the coldest months, June – August (e.g. Humpback whales), breeding in warmer climates while migrating, having special ‘antifreeze’ chemicals in their bloodstream to prevent them from freezing (e.g. fish, insects), having compact body shapes and thick skins to retain body heat (e.g. seals, penguins), birds with waterproof and insulating feathers to keep them warm, keeping their body temperatures above freezing by reducing heat loss (e.g. warm-blooded animals), and attaching themselves to a warmblooded host as a parasite.

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Introductory Discussion

Plankton is the largest food source and the base for the Antarctic food chain. Low, covering plant life such as moss and lichen, survives only on the outer regions.

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What is shelter? What kind of shelter do you use? Have you ever used any different kinds of shelter? Discuss short-term shelter we use such as tents, umbrellas or tarpaulins. Do animals use shelter? Share knowledge about the shelters animals use.

Activity – Page 26

Read together the information on page 26 about animal shelters in high mountain areas. Review the different ways animals and plants have adapted to these areas and ask the students to record an example for each of the species described.

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Shelters


Answers 1.

Alpine Marsh Marigold

Makes its nest in a sheltered place, stores seeds and fruits or stops moving around for a few days when it is really cold.

Grows low to the ground to protect itself from wind and to stay close to the warmth of the soil or can flower under the snow so the flowers and seeds are nearly ready when warmer weather arrives.

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Read together the information about dry desert areas on page 27. Discuss the adaptations mentioned and have the students use this information to complete questions 1 – 2. Answers

1. To keep itself cool. 2. (a) steep, rocky hillside (b) because it is a place where water collects

Activity – Page 28

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Activity – Page 27

Mountain Pygmy Possum

Read together the information about rainforest areas. Discuss the adaptations of the plants and animals described. The students can then use this information to complete questions 1 – 2.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Answers •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

1. Because it can catch falling plant litter and insects to feed on, can absorb water as it runs down a tree’s trunk and it grows well in weak sunlight.

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2. To stay safe

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Discuss animals and insects which build homes, such as birds or ants. Discuss reasons why they may need to build a nest. Read together the passage ‘A Busy Builder’ about the North American beaver. Discuss why these nests are so special. Discuss the adaptations the beaver has which enables it to build a ‘lodge’. The students can use the table in question 1 to compare their own home to a beaver’s home.

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Shelters

Beaver

Your Home

Where is it built?

in the middle of a stream

Teacher check

What is it made from?

logs, branches, rocks, sand and mud

Teacher check

What is used to hold it together?

rocks, stones and mud

Teacher check

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Additional Activities 1. Compare other animal’s shelters with human shelters. 2. Build a model of a plant environment or animal shelter.

Adapting to the Environment—2 Workbook Pages: 30 – 38

Topic Focus

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The students will learn how people adapt to different environments and find shelter. landscape, protect, survive, comfortable

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Keywords

Resources

• The following websites are recommended: Teacher Search of the Rainforest

http://www.wautoma.k12.wi.us/parkside/bookmark/rainforest.html

Desert Animal Printouts

© R. I . CCulture .PSchool ub l i cat i ons ATSIC: Projects •f orr ev i e wFirep ur p ose onl y• SA Country Service: Prevention ands Survival http://www.zoomdinosaurs.com/biomes/desert/desert.shtml

http://www.atsic.gov.au/culture/school_projects/Default.asp http://www.cfs.org.au/protect_yourself/frames2.html

Tasmania Fire Service: Will You Survive?

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Amazon Tribes The Indians in more than 370 different Amazon tribes have adapted to their environment and developed a way of life that has now been established for thousands of years. Most Amazonians are agriculturalists, clearing land for use. Some are nomadic, moving every few years when the soil is exhausted.

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Villagers rely heavily on the forest and the river for much of their food and building supplies. They generally settle in larger groups in houses on stilts along the river’s edge. Dugout canoes are their most common form of transport. On a daily basis, people tend small gardens or crops, women wash at the river’s edge and children play in dugout canoes. Most villagers wear western clothing, except for when traditional dances or ceremonies are performed. Most speak Spanish. The forest provides more than just food and is essential to the people’s daily lives. Musical instruments like flutes and maracas can be made from bamboo or small gourds. Houses are built from timber and climbing vines, and roofs from palm leaves. Villagers make bows and arrows, blowguns or spears for hunting from the forest (although today many use firearms). Dyes for making clothes, body paints or baskets come from the forest plants. The forest is also a treasure trove of medicinal cures for ills from stomach aches to poisonous bites.

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Inuit These people lived in the Arctic regions of North America, stretching from the Bering Strait to Greenland. The land is flat except for central Alaska and temperatures can drop to -40°F. Traditionally, Inuit were generally nomads whose life was based on following herds of caribou, seals, whales or other animals and birds.

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Warm clothing was important in this cold climate. Sealskins were usually worn in summer and caribou in winter. Caribou skin was light but very warm. Clothing was also made of other skins like musk oxen, polar bears and birds. The women were responsible for skinning the animals and making the clothes. Both men and women wore hooded tunics and trousers over long boots and stockings. It was also important that the clothes be loose and allow for easy movement.

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Permanent homes were made of stone and earth and were built partially underground. Temporary or nomadic homes could be built when hunting for food. Some were simple lean-tos made from plant materials or animal skins. Sometimes they built homes out of snow and ice called igloos.

The otter, walrus, seal and other seal mammals provided food, tools, weapons, shelter and clothing for the Inuit. All parts of the animals were used. Today, these same people exist but their lifestyles are very different. Most Eskimos or Inuit live in Northern Alaska—in homes like our own in large towns. Dog-sleds are rarely seen except in racing. Snowmobiles are a common form of transport in the winter. Many work in jobs that use their traditional hunting and gathering skills, like the fishing industry or guiding hunters through the rugged Alaskan terrain.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Masai Tribes (African)

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Masai tribes today are struggling to keep their identity and their land. They share the tourist and safari lands of East Africa. They are well known by travellers for their distinctive dress, weapons and bead jewellery. There are twelve main sectors to these tribes, many of which are culturally and politically different, and geographically separated. They do, however, all speak the common language, ‘Maa’.

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Cattle are essential to these people’s way of life. They also keep sheep, goats, and donkeys for transport. Milk is their everyday food. Cattle are killed for meat only on special occasions. Today, many grow grain and other food crops. They are nomadic tribes, moving their herds from one place to another to allow the soil to replenish and to find new water sources. To survive today, more Masai tribes are joining forces with tourist parks and safaris to demonstrate their traditional ways of life and to earn an income for their tribe.

Introductory Discussion What are you wearing today? Why did you choose to wear those clothes? Suggest other clothing and decide why it might not be appropriate. Would you need to wear something different if you lived in another part of the world? Why? What else might you need to change about the way you live?

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Activity – Pages 30 – 31 Direct the students to the subtitles on page 30. Discuss what each of these environments might be like to live in. Read the information together and encourage the students to identify the adaptations mentioned. Look at the table on page 31 and discuss how it should be completed. Allow the students to discuss each and complete the table with a partner. Answers 1.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Weather/Landscape

Shelter

Clothing

• hot during the day, cool at night • covered with sand and gravel • some oases

• homes made from stone, baked mud, clay or grasses • tents

• long loose robes covering the whole body

Antarctica

• cold, windy (blizzard) • covered in ice all year round

• wooden huts, polar tents, snow tunnels, heated homes

• layers of protective clothing

Tropical Rainforest

• hot and wet with high rainfall

• houses with stilts, sloping roofs and verandas

• loose cotton clothing and wide-brimmed hats

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Sahara Desert

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Read the information on page 32o as as whole class. Read and discuss each of the •f orr e v i e w p u r p e s o n l y • questions which follow, allowing time for the students to record their answers.

Activity – Pages 32 – 33

Answers

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2. When the food supply was running low

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1. Because it was easier to have drinking water close by

3. Used bark shelters, fires, caves, rock shelters and wore fur cloaks and blankets 4. Teacher check

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(b) Yes (c) No

(d) Yes

Activity – Pages 34 – 35

Discuss situations in which shelter may help to survive a disaster. Read the information about protecting yourself and your home from bushfires. Evaluate whether the school is protected from bushfires. Discuss evidence to support this conclusion. Allow the students to work in pairs to read and complete questions 1 – 2.

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Answers 1. Hoses should reach all areas of your house and garden – so you can put the fire out wherever it is; Wait on burnt ground – because it is already burnt, it won’t catch alight again; Turn on your headlights – so other people can see you; Cover any bare skin – so you don’t get burnt. 2. The plants are overgrown and too close to the house.

Activity – Pages 36 – 38

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Direct the students to the photos on page 38. Discuss how the rooms are different and what climates (hot or cold) they might be better suited to. They can then work in pairs to list reasons to support their choice.

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Discuss the types of things which can be used to make our homes more comfortable. Discuss different types of houses found in different climates in Australia. Use the double page spread on pages 36 – 37 to glue pictures from magazines of things which make homes more comfortable in different weather conditions.

Answers 1. Teacher check

2. Hot weather: it has a fan, there are tiles on the floor, you can open the window for a breeze, it is shady outside. Cool weather: it has a heater, there are cushions and a blanket, there is carpet on the floor, the curtains are closed.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Additional Activities Read storiesp about people surviving ins different situations and the shelters they •f orr evi e w u r p o s e o n l y • constructed.

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Keywords

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What Do We Get from Our Environment? Workbook Pages: 39 – 44

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The students will learn how people change the environment to meet their needs for shelter and how these changes affect other living things. habitat, extinct, endangered, introduced, native

Resources

• The following websites are recommended: Teacher Introduced Species in Australia http://www.yprl.vic.gov.au/yprl/intspeaus.htm

Endangered and Threatened Species of the World http://www.geocities.com/RainForest/Vines/2182/

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Landcare in Your Hands http://www.eddept.wa.edu.au/deo/midlands/inetpub/wwwroot/avoncatchment/ LIYH/Default.htm

Environmental Damage by Wild Rabbits http://www.csiro.au/communication/rabbits/qa2.htm

Threatened Species Foundation of Australia: The Bilby http://www.threatenedspecies.org.au/tsf/tsf.asp?m=2&t=bbrochure

Background

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• recycle (newspapers, aluminium cans, plastic bottles, glass etc.); • reduce or stop junk mail (junk mail delivered to the average household per year is the equivalent to 1 1/2 trees); • attach simple devices to water taps and showers to reduce water flow and consumption in the house; • use reusable containers to store food instead of wrapping things in foil or plastic wrap; • use rags to wipe up spills instead of paper towels; • save electricity and money by checking that household appliances are working efficiently; • take cloth or string bags to carry shopping instead of using plastic bags; • keep our oceans clean by not littering in the water or on the shore. When visiting the beach take a paper bag and collect some litter; • don’t buy products that endanger animals (e.g. buy only ‘dolphin safe’ tuna); • watch your water consumption in the shower; • use fluorescent lighting to save energy; • buy products that are recycled to conserve natural resources; • do not dump oil, grease, pesticides, fertilisers, paint cleaners or other toxic liquids down drains as they go straight to rivers, lakes and oceans and threaten marine life; • start a backyard compost from lawn clippings and food scraps; • donate large items (like furniture, appliances, clothing) to charities; • don’t feed wild animals as this makes them dependent on human food.

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There are many changes we can make in our lives to help save our environment. Some things we can do to help are:

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What do you think the land where the school is would have looked like before anything was built there? Why do you think this place was chosen to build the school? Were the lives of other living things affected by building the school here?

Activity – Page 39 Direct the students to the pictures on page 39. Discuss each picture and how each is used by people. Have the students record their ideas and suggest a fourth environment people use to help provide for their needs.

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Answers 1. Farm – Answers will vary, Sheep– wool for things such as clothes and carpet, Forest – timber for building houses, Teacher check.

Activity – Pages 40 – 41 As a whole class read the information about the problems with changing the environment. Have the students underline or highlight the ‘changes’ discussed in the passage. Discuss each of the questions on page 41 and allow them time to record their answers independently after each question.

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1. To make space for people to live and for farms and for wood.

3. Teacher check

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2. It helps to grow food and plants.

4. Teacher check

Activity – Page 42

Talk about why cats might be a problem in Australia. Debate whether cats should be allowed outside at night. Read together the passage on page 42. Allow the students time to read and complete the questions which follow. Answers

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 1. When people from other countries came to live in Australia. 2. (a) Yes (b) No

(c) Yes

3. (a) cats

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Activity – Page 43 – 44

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(b) rabbits (c) pigs (d) rats (e) goats

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Read the example given on page 43 describing the effect rabbits have had upon bilbies and their environment. Use this information to encourage discussion about the impact introduced animals can have upon native animals. The students can use the information from this passage and from the class discussion to complete questions 1– 4.

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Answers 1. burrows, crumble, grow 2. Teacher check 3. (a) Bilbies live under the ground in burrows. (b) Today bilbies live only in some desert areas of Australia. (c) The bilby is an endangered animal. (d) A bilby’s burrow can collapse if cattle walk over it.

Additional Activities

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2. Find ways we can build and use shelters in a more environmentallyfriendly way.

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1. Make a class flow chart of the building of a house. Consider the changes to the environment that might occur.

3. Find out about other endangered Australian animals. 4. Organise a ‘School Clean-up’ or Recycling Day.

5. Graph litter around the school. Explore ways to reduce the litter. What can be recycled?

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Shelters Assessment and Evaluation The activity on page 29 is provided as one assessment tool in the study of this unit. It is designed to indicate broad student understanding and also provide opportunity for student feedback. The following outcomes were addressed in this topic of study. The following pages can be photocopied as a record of student performance or as a proforma for portfolio assessment. Outcomes

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Students predict possible consequences for an ecological system when an element is affected.

PS2.5

Students express a preferred future vision for a familiar place based on observed evidence of changes and continuities.

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Place and Space PS2.1 Students identify how environments affect lifestyles around Australia.

Administration

Distribute the activity sheet on page 29 of the Teachers Guide, one per student. Ask students to write their name in the top right-hand corner of the page. Read through the activity sheet to ensure students are clear about what they are being asked to do. At this stage, give students the opportunity to seek clarification of any part of the activity sheet they may not understand. It is important students work independently on these activities—this provides a true representation of what students understand or of their lack of understanding. Once students have completed the activity, collect the worksheets. Mark and record results. From this activity sheet, some students may be found to require further work to develop their understanding in a particular area.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Answers

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1. We need shelter to protect us from the environment and potential environmental and people-created hazards. 2. (a) A Mountain Pygmy Possum stops moving and sleeps in its nest when the weather gets cold. (b) Thorny Devils dig themselves into the sand at night to keep warm.

(c) Spectacled Flying-foxes can only live in places like a rainforest where the blossoms and fruit they eat can be found all year round.

o c . che e r o t r s super 3. (a) Sahara Desert – tents

(b) Antarctica – heated homes

(c) Rainforest area – homes built on stilts

4. Some traditional Aboriginal Australians moved from place to place to find fresh food and water supplies and to stay in a comfortable climate. 5. Answers will vary (a) fans, verandas, airconditioning, windows, on stilts etc. (b) fire place, reverse cycle airconditioning, heaters etc. 6. Teacher check

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Shelters Student Name:

Date:

Task At the conclusion of the unit ‘Shelters’, students were asked to complete an activity sheet independently to demonstrate their understanding of the unit.

Pointers Demonstrated

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Discussion and Debate Needs Improvement

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• Understands that living things need shelter. • Demonstrates an understanding of ways living things adapt to their environments. • Can identify shelters which meet people’s needs in different environments. • Demonstrates an understanding of the problems people have caused by changing elements in the environment to meet their needs.

Needs Further Opportunity

Satisfactory

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons | • f o r r evi ew pur posesonl y• Additional Activities |

Workbook Activities

Needs Improvement

Satisfactory

Needs Improvement

|

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Satisfactory

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Skills and Attitudes

General Comment

|

Satisfactory

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Needs Improvement

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|

Satisfactory

|

Student Comment

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Shelters 1. Why do you need shelter?

2. Circle the correct answer.

r o e t s Bo r e (b) Thorny Devilsu digp themselves into the sand at nighto tok keep (warm/cool). S (c) Spectacled Flying-foxes can only live in places like a (desert/rainforest)

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(a) A Mountain Pygmy Possum stops moving and sleeps in its nest when the weather gets (cold/hot).

where the blossoms and fruit they eat can be found all year round.

3. Match these environments to a suitable shelter. (a) Sahara Desert •

• heated homes

• . tents ©R I . C.P•u bl i cat i ons (c) Rainforest area •v •u homes built ons stilts •f or r e i ew p r po se onl y• (b) Antarctica

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4. Why did traditional Aboriginal Australians move from place to place?

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5. Write two things which make your home comfortable during: (a) Summer (b) Winter

6. Describe a problem people have caused by changing the environment.

The Changing Community

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Who Are We?

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Who Are We? Unit Focus People form groups which represent a common belief or interest they share. They choose to join groups to meet a community or personal need. Many groups are seasonal or dependent on particular climatic conditions. To be part of a group, people need to keep rules and elect responsible leaders. Unit Topics The topics selected to develop this understanding are: •Types of Community Groups ................................................ 46 – 58 •How Does the Weather Affect Groups?............................... 59 – 63 •Group Rules ......................................................................... 64 – 68

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Time, Continuity and Change TCC2.2 Students record changes and continuities in familiar settings using various devices.

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Outcomes and Indicators

Culture and Identity CI2.2 Students explain how they and others have different perceptions of different groups including families. DI2.3

Students participate in diverse customs and traditions to identify how these contribute to a sense of belonging to groups.

CI2.4

Students identify how their roles, rights and responsibilities change in different groups.

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©R . I . CStudents .Pu bl i csymbols, at i o ns CI2.5 identify how rituals and places reflect identities of different groups including Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander groups. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Types of Community Groups Workbook Pages: 46 – 58 Topic Focus The students will learn about the groups people belong to in their community and the reasons why. Keywords sporting, artistic, religious, cultural, celebrate

Resources

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Guides Australia

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• The following websites are recommended: Teacher Scouts Australia

http://www.guidesaus.org.au/guides/newsite/default.htm

Little Athletics Australia (Links)

http://www.coolrunning.com.au/lalinks.shtml

Kids’ Clubs Australia http://www.vicnet.net.au/kids/clubs.htm

Religious Groups Australia (Directory)

http://au.yahoo.com/Arts/Cultures_and_Groups/Religious

Firefighter’s Uniform © R. I . C .Publ i cat i ons Goalie: Ice Hockey •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

http://www.wilsonstuart.bham.sch.uk/mainsite/student/fire/fire2.html http://www.gatewest.net/~ringette/main.html

Background

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Communities are groups of people who come together from a variety of backgrounds to work together and share common ideals, goals, needs and interests. Some community groups may include sporting clubs (e.g. golf, bowling, football, tennis, hockey etc.), church groups, craft and hobby groups, surf lifesaving clubs, Scouts/Girl Guides, senior citizen clubs, youth clubs, entertainment/cultural organisations (e.g. movies, concerts, dinner, music clubs etc.), child care centres, library groups (e.g. committees, fundraisers, teachers, parent-helpers), charity/ volunteer groups, community services (e.g. SES, Sea Rescue, Bushfire Brigade).

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People come together in such groups for a variety of reasons; to meet new people, help others, learn new skills, relax, keep healthy, share experiences or beliefs or just for the enjoyment of the activities themselves.

Introductory Discussion What groups and clubs run at the school (e.g. sporting teams, dance groups, music groups, other interest clubs)? Who participates in these groups? Why do they want to be part of these groups? What groups can you be a part of outside school? Discuss groups the students may already be part of and the things which happen in these groups. What types of groups would you like to be part of in the future? Who Are We?

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Activity – Pages 46 – 47 Look at the pictures together on page 46. Discuss briefly what each item is. The students can then write a group from the list beneath the corresponding pictures. Direct the students to the titles in each box on page 47. Together, decide which groups belong in each category and record this information. They can then add their own suggestions to each box. When finished, their suggestions can be shared with other class members to build a comprehensive list. Give the students time to reflect upon and answer questions 3 – 4 independently.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Answers

1. (From left to right) swimming, Christian group, Cub Scout, Irish dancing, T-ball, Muslim group, painting, violin, ballet

(b) Teacher check (c) Teacher check

3. Teacher check 4. Teacher check

Activity – Pages 48 – 49

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2. (a) Answers will vary

Ask the students to work in pairs, taking turns to read aloud the passage on page 48. They can then discuss aspects of the text to answer questions 1 – 5 together.

Answers ©R . I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 1. Hayley – acting in short plays

Adam – working with partners

2. Answers will vary; Hayley – voice, body, act, plays, performing, listen; Adam – fall safely, throw, partners, fun 3. Hayley – performing a special play for her parents

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Activity – Pages 50 – 51

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4. Hayley – helps her to not feel so shy Adam – helps him to do his best 5. Teacher check

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Adam – entering judo contests or competing in the Olympic Games

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Together, read the information about religious groups on page 50. Briefly discuss what the students know about the beliefs and activities which are particular to each faith. Allow the students to work with a partner to find the information they need to answer questions 1 – 2. They can then share an occasion they celebrate with their family with their partner and work independently to complete question 3.

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Answers 1.

Group

Celebration

Place to Pray

Jews

Purim

Synagogue

Muslims

Eid-ul-Fitr

mosque

Christians

Christmas

church

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My mum bought me some new clothes. I give people presents at this time. My friends and I acted in a play. We have a special place where we pray.

Muslims

Christians

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2. (a)

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• (b) Teacher check

3. Teacher check

Activity – Pages 52 – 56

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As a whole class, brainstorm the types of groups people might choose to belong to. Consider all types of groups including sport, music, religion, leisure and school or class groups. Ask the students to contribute any groups they belong to. Direct the students to the report framework on page 52. Read each of the headings and allow the students time to use the framework to summarise aspects of a group they belong to. To complete the report on page 53, you will need to invite a representative from a community group to speak to the students. Ideally, a number of representatives from different groups could be invited to speak to small groups of students who could then conduct an interview to complete the report framework. The students should then be given an opportunity to share their findings with the class.

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Using the list generated through the class brainstorm, have the students select two community groups to analyse using the spreadsheet provided on pages 54 – 55. Ask the students to look at the example given as a guide for the types of information required. Conduct research into the types of groups the students in the class belong to. Create a whole-class tally to identify the ‘top five’ groups. Use an example to demonstrate to the students how the information from the top five tallies can be transformed into data in a bar graph. Graph axes have been provided on page 56 for the students to complete their own graphs.

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Answers Teacher check

Activity – Pages 57 – 58

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Read the reasons why people join groups listed on page 58. Are there any other reasons the students can think of? Have the students contribute reasons why they became involved in various groups. Using this information, they can then write appropriate reasons why people might choose to become involved in the groups in the explosion chart.

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Discuss why uniforms are often worn at school. Why are they important? Debate how wearing a uniform can make you feel. Discuss other groups which wear uniforms and why their uniforms are important. Look at the pictures on page 57. Together, identify the features of what each person is wearing which are uniform. Discuss the importance of each uniform and allow the students time to label each uniform accordingly.

Answers 1. Teacher check

2. T-ball – badge on hat to tell what group he belongs to, helmet to protect head, shoes to protect feet Horseriding Club – hat to protect head, badge on shirt to tell what group she belongs to, boots to protect feet

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Bring photographs, equipment, clothing, badges etc. from groups students and •f orr e vi ewbelongptou o sesonl y• their families forr ap class display.

Additional Activities

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How Does the Weather Affect Groups? Workbook Pages: 59 – 63

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The students will learn how the environment affects the groups to which people belong. weather, environment, natural, built, recreation

Resources

• The following websites are recommended: Teacher NSW Department of Sport and Recreation http://www.dsr.nsw.gov.au/

Finland: Recreation and Sports Links (Directory) http://portal.brint.com/cgi-bin/getit/links/Regional/Europe/Finland/ Recreation_and_Sports

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Community groups can often be affected by factors within the environment. Some of these may include seasonal sports where groups operate according to the seasonal time frames of their particular sport (usually over summer/winter, e.g. football, netball, cricket) and sports which rely heavily on weather conditions to enable them to occur (e.g. snow-skiing, kite flying, bushwalking, fishing, sailing etc.). Some groups are put under more pressure during holiday periods. For example, Sea Rescue and surf lifesaving clubs are more active when the number of people in boats or on the beaches increases suddenly over short periods. Charity groups can struggle during holidays (e.g. Christmas) or because of seasonal conditions. For example, blankets, warm clothing and food for the needy, and care to the aged or homeless are in greater demand during cold weather. Annual events such as fairs and fundraisers for the community are always organised around the most pleasant weather opportunities to encourage greater participation.

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Background

Introductory Discussion

Some groups meet only during certain seasons. Why might this be? Can you think of any groups which only meet when the weather permits? Do you participate in groups which only meet at certain times of the year or during certain weather conditions?

Look at. theP Venn diagram on page 59. Read together each of the groups listed © R. I . C u b l i c a t i o n s and have the students write each group into the appropriate part of the Venn diagram. Give them an opportunity to share their reasons for placing each group •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• where they did. Allow them to complete question 2 independently.

Activity – Page 59

Answers

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Activity – Pages 60 – 61

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Direct the students to the map of ‘Mountainview’. Divide the class into small groups and nominate a member of each group to be the ‘reader’, who will direct discussion and the completion of activities by reading aloud each question to the group. Ask the students to join together as a whole group and share their answers.

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Answers 1.

mountains

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n

lake

n

recreation centre

netball courts

oval

b

b

beach

n

b

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Activity

Place

Painting

recreation centre, lake, park

Swimming

lake, beach, reacreation centre

Drama

recreation centre

Volleyball

recreation centre, oval

Windsurfing

beach, lake

Kite Flying

beach, park

Skiing

mountains

Hiking

mountains

Netball

netball courts

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3. Answers will vary

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Teacher check

4. Teacher check

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Activity – Pages 62 – 63 As a whole class, read the information on page 62 about group activities in Finland. Use a globe to locate Finland in relation to Australia. Discuss why the weather conditions are different from those in Australia and how this has affected the types of groups in that country. The students can then colour Finland on their map. Read and discuss questions 2 – 4 allowing time for the students to write answers to each. Discuss the types of sports Australians play and the best way to describe them to people who live in Finland. The students can then complete question 5 in their own words.

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2. Because there is a lot of ice and snow and the winter is very long. 3. Answers will vary; Winter – cross-country skiing, ski-jumping, skating, ice hockey, swimming; Summer – water sports (fishing, sailing, whitewater rafting, swimming); All-year-round – bushwalking, long distance running, jogging, cycling, pesapallo

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4. Teacher check 5. Teacher check

Additional Activities

Contact students from other Australian States or other countries by e-mail or letters. Find out what group activities they participate in.

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Workbook Pages: 64 – 68

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Resources

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The students will learn how to be a good group member now and in the future.

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rules, safety, health, courtesy, protection, time, leader, member • The following websites are recommended: Teacher Bike Safety Rules

http://www.greenweb.com.au/kidsafe/html/bike_safety_rules.html

Food Safety Rules http://www.science.org.au/nova/030/030box04.htm

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Background Freedom of choice and decision making are essential components to consider when choosing a community group to join. Community groups usually function within a set of rules, goals or standards for their members to follow which suit the needs of their groups. Rules, like those within families or schools, are set so that each member can get the maximum enjoyment out of the activities offered in a safe, structured, supporting and pleasant environment.

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Community groups usually elect leaders or committee members to represent, organise and maintain group policies and standards. Group members may be expected to wear uniforms or have some form of identification to indicate their membership or to meet the requirements of the activities performed within that group.

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Rules generally ask club/group members to be courteous and considerate of others, participate safely and sensibly, listen to others, contribute and carry out responsible roles and enjoy the activities offered by the club.

Introductory Discussion

What kinds of rules are needed in groups? What would happen if there were no rules in groups? Can you think of any rules which should be kept by all groups?

Activity – Page 64

Discuss the classroom rules listed on page 64. Have the students suggest other ©R . I . C.Publ i cat i ons rules which apply to their classroom or school. They can then write an additional rule to the list in the space provided. Discuss the meanings and examples of •f orr e vi e wof thepheadings ur p es on ystudents • can then rules for each ino the s boxes in question 2.l The record suggestions for each independently. Answers

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Read together the website information for the Horseshoe Pony Club on page 65. Ask the students to underline the things riders must remember if they are going to be part of the club. Direct them to the first rule written below. Locate the information this rule was constructed from. Allow them time to construct four other rules from the information they have underlined. Encourage the students to share the rules they have written with the class.

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Answers 1. Answers will vary 1.

All riders must arrive by 8.30 a.m. for a 9.00 a.m. start.

2.

All riders must wear long pants, a hard hat and riding boots.

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All riders must saddle their horse and check the reins are safe.

4.

Stay at the front of your horse when

5.

Let the instructors know how fast you want to go before you start.

Activity – Page 66

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you are saddling it.

Discuss the class rules and why they are important to follow. Relate these reasons to the group rules and ask the students to consider the importance of rules in a group they belong to. Allow the students time to answer questions 1 – 4. Ask them to work with a partner to decide what might happen in each of the scenarios listed in the table about ‘Tadpole Creek Clubhouse’ at the bottom of page 66 and record their ideas.

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o c . che e r o t r s super Please put your rubbish in the bin.

It would attract flies, look messy and might be dangerous

Don't run on the pathways.

Someone might get hurt

Be quiet when other people are speaking at the meetings.

No-one would be able to hear anyone speak

Activity – Pages 67 – 68 Look at question 1 on page 67. Read aloud each of the groups and leaders listed. Ask the students to suggest any matches they know and allow them to draw lines appropriately. Give the students the correct answers to those that are unfamiliar to allow them to complete the task.

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Discuss the role of a leader in a group and why it is important for a group to have good leadership. Direct the students to the list of qualities at the bottom of the page. Ask the students to suggest other qualities a good leader should possess. In pairs, they can then debate which of these qualities are most important and order them from 1 – 8. The students should be encouraged to give reasons for why they chose their particular order. As a whole class, brainstorm the types of groups the children would like to be part of in the future. Give them time to record groups they have belonged to in the past and in the present and to decide upon a group they would like to be part of in the future to complete the grid on page 68.

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1. Cub Scouts – Akela; church – priest/pastor; synagogue – rabbi; class of students – teacher; sports team – coach/captain; Brownies – Brown Owl; orchestra – conductor 2. Teacher check

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Answers

3. Teacher check

Additional Activities

Invite adults to talk about groups they belong to or have belonged to in the past. Compare to groups students in the class belong to.

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Who Are We? Assessment and Evaluation The activity on page 45 is provided as one assessment tool in the study of this unit. It is designed to indicate broad student understanding and also provide opportunity for student feedback. The following outcomes were addressed in this topic of study. The following pages can be photocopied as a record of student performance or as a proforma for portfolio assessment. Outcomes

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Culture and Identity CI2.2 Students explain how they and others have different perceptions of different groups including families. DI2.3

Students participate in diverse customs and traditions to identify how these contribute to a sense of belonging to groups.

CI2.4

Students identify how their roles, rights and responsibilities change in different groups.

CI2.5

Students identify how symbols, rituals and places reflect identities of different groups including Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander groups.

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Time, Continuity and Change TCC2.2 Students record changes and continuities in familiar settings using various devices.

Distribute ona page 45 ofn thes Teachers Guide, one per student. © R. I . C.thePactivity ubsheet l i c t i o Ask students to write their name in the top right-hand corner of the page. Read through the activity sheet to ensure students are clear about what they are being •f orr evi ew ur po estheo nl yto• asked to do.p At this stage, gives students opportunity seek clarification of

Administration

any part of the activity sheet they may not understand.

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Answers

It is important students work independently on these activities—this provides a true representation of what students understand or of their lack of understanding. Once students have completed the activity, collect the worksheets. Mark and record results. From this activity sheet, some students may be found to require further work to develop their understanding in a particular area.

o c . che e r o t r s super 1. Sport/Leisure – swimming, scouts, ballet Artistic – painting, ballet

Religious – Christian group, Muslim group

2. Groups wear special clothing or uniforms for identification, cleanliness and/or safety and protection. 3. Answers will vary; to keep healthy, to make new friends, because they enjoy the activity, to relax, to learn a new skill etc. 4. (a) Say please – Courtesy (b) Wear a stack hat – Protection (c) Arrive by 8 a.m. – Time (d) Follow instructions – Safety (e) Drink plenty of water – Health 5. Answers will vary; listens to others, helps new group members, follows rules correctly, friendly, polite, takes turns, carries out responsibilities etc.

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Who Are We? Student Name:

Date:

Task At the conclusion of the unit ‘Who Are We?’, students were asked to complete an activity sheet independently to demonstrate their understanding of the unit.

Pointers Demonstrated

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Discussion and Debate Needs Improvement

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• Displays an awareness of the range of groups available within a community. • Understands that groups have identifying features such as the activities they conduct and the clothing they wear. • Recognises that people join groups to meet personal or community needs. • Identifies the reasons why rules are needed in groups.

Needs Further Opportunity

Satisfactory

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Needs Improvement

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Satisfactory

Needs Improvement

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Satisfactory

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Further Research Satisfactory

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Skills and Attitudes

General Comment

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Needs Improvement

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Satisfactory

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Who Are We? 1. Write each of the following community groups into the most suitable category. •painting

•Christian group

•ballet

•Muslim group

•Scouts

Sport/Leisure

Artistic

Religious

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2. Why do some groups wear special clothing or uniforms?

3.

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•swimming

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi e whave pu pos sonl y• Write two reasons people might forr joining ae group.

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4. Match these rules to the reason they are made.

o c . c e (b) Wear a stack hat h• • Healthr er o st super (c) Arrive by 8 a.m. • • Protection (a) Say please

Safety

(d) Follow instructions

Courtesy

(e) Drink plenty of watrer •

Time

5. Describe one quality a good leader should have.

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Old Families, NewstoFamilies r eB

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Old Families, New Families Unit Focus Our families’ histories are passed down through the generations by oral recounts, information evident in artefacts and family heirlooms, and storytelling. We are able to see change over time by investigating family history and comparing this information to the present. Unit Topics The topics selected to develop this understanding are: •Oral Histories....................................................................... 70 – 76 •Interview—Childhood Memories ........................................ 77 – 80 •Learning about the Past ....................................................... 81 – 88 •Family Stories ...................................................................... 89 – 92

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Time, Continuity and Change TCC2.1 Students explain different meanings about an event, artefact, story or symbol from different times. TCC2.5

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Outcomes and Indicators

Students identify similarities and differences between the experiences of family generations.

Culture and Identity CI2.1 Students describe the similarities and differences between an aspect of their Australian life and that of a culture in the Asia-Pacific region.

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CI2.7 locate that promote morals ©R . I . CStudents .Pu bstories l i c at i on sand ethics they can apply. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Oral Histories Workbook Pages: 70 – 76 Topic Focus The students will learn what an oral history is and how it can tell you about your family’s past. Keywords oral, history, events, relatives, memories

Resources

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http://www.geocities.com/oha_australia/links.htm

Australian Family History Compendium

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• The following websites are recommended: Teacher Oral History Association of Australia: Links

http://www.geocities.com/oha_australia/links.htm

Background

A family’s history of the past is more likely to be handed down through stories and discussions, visual items, historical pieces or pictorial records by older generations within the family (i.e. parents, grandparents, aunts, uncles, relatives). An oral history is the recording of people’s memories and life experiences. Oral histories are an important tool in understanding our past. They enable those interested in their past to record their personal experiences and those of their families and communities.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew arepau r p ses onabout l ypeople, • their attitudes, Interviews great wayo of gaining information

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lifestyles and experiences. They allow students to understand the continuity and changes that can occur over time. They are an important tool as the information they gather is first-hand.

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Activity – Pages 70 – 71

What is meant by the word ‘oral’? Who might we find out about the history of our family from?

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Share stories the students have heard from their parents or grandparents. Discuss events the students can remember from their past. Allow them to record the event and add words to describe how they felt about this event in the space on page 70. The templates on page 71 can be used for the students to conduct research at home to find out about other events in the family’s history. This activity will be most effectively completed as homework. Answers 1. Teacher check 2. Teacher check

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Activity – Page 72 The students can choose an event they found out about in the previous activity or another event of their choice to write a recount in the framework on page 72. Answers Teacher check

Activity – Page 73

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Sarah

Driving to the campsite Activities during the day

listened to favourite songs on personal cassette player

very long and Daniel complained all the time

liked fishing, swimming and canoeing; Daniel slowed her down bushwalking; afternoons boring when Mum and Dad read liked toasting marshmallows.

Campfire at night

Mum

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As a whole class, read the ‘different memories’ of Sarah and Mrs Ellis on page 73. Direct the students to the table at the bottom of the page. Read each of the headings and encourage the students to suggest how each of the events listed was different for Sara and her mum. The students can then record this information to complete the table.

Daniel found it hard to keep up; had to keep a good eye on him at the river; enjoyed relaxing reading books

liked watching children toast marshmallows

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Activity – Pages 74 – 76

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Discuss how the same event can be experienced differently by different people. For example, compare the family holidays of different class members. To complete the activities on pages 74 – 75, the students will need to record and compare the stories of two family members of an event. Encourage the students to share their stories with the class, indicating things which were the same and different between their family members’ stories. Write a class list of the different kinds of events which have been written about during the unit. Have the students write six examples from the list into their explosions charts on page 76. Look at each of the events and discuss how they make people feel. The students can use information from this discussion to help them complete question 4.

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1. Teacher check 2. Teacher check 3. Teacher check 4. Teacher check

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Additional Activities 1. Compile a class book or books about each student’s similar family events; for example – ‘Our Family Holiday’. 2. Create a ‘time capsule’ to be buried and dug up in 50 years. 3. Interview elderly people in the local community about their childhood experiences. Video the results.

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Interview—Childhood Memories Workbook Pages: 77 – 80

The children will learn how lifestyles have changed and may change in the future.

Keywords

memories, lifestyles, past, present, future

Resources

• The following websites are recommended: Teacher ‘The Way We Were’

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Topic Focus

© R. I . C .Publ i cat i ons One Destiny! Our Australia: Snapshots •f orr evi e w pur posesonl y• The Road to Federation: Life Then and Now http://www.att.virtualclassroom.org/vc99/vc_33/

http://www.onedestiny.com/pagi/showpage.html_file=132.html http://www.smh.com.au/news/specials/natl/federation/stats/work.html

History of Telecommunications

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Children have the ability to think about the here and now. It is difficult for them to think about the past or into the future. Research allows them to compare various aspects of modern life with life in the past. Past events offer valuable knowledge that can be used and built upon to develop our future. Many things we use today have changed from the past and are likely to improve and change in the future. Music and sound technology is one example of change, from the first recorded voices on a phonograph invented by Thomas Edison, to the latest DVD equipment used today. There are many more examples of change in our lives such as transport, household items, communication, inventions, the environment, clothes and so on.

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Introductory Discussion Do you play with the same kinds of toys that your parents played with when they were children? Why are they different? Do you think your children will play with toys which are like those you play with? Why do you think things will be different? Activity – Page 77 Ask an elderly person to talk about his/her childhood with the children. The students can take turns to ask him/her questions about the past in an interview style or alternatively, a tape could be made of his/her oral history. The students should be encouraged to take notes in the framework provided on page 77.

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Activity – Page 78

Discuss the information gained from listening to elderly people. The students can share stories that have been passed on to them from their grandparents and other relatives. Have the students work in pairs to write keywords and ideas comparing the past to the present, using the table on page 78. Answers Teacher check

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Direct the students to the table on pages 79 – 80 showing past, present and •f orr e vi e w r ptoo se stheo nl y • is to each future. Work withp theu students decide what present equivalent

Activity – Pages 79 – 80

of the pictures. Brainstorm ideas about what the future might hold for each and allow the students to complete the ‘future’ column independently.

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2. Compare and contrast changes in technology over time (household items, family entertainment, schools, sports and games, food, hobbies, transport etc.). 3. Construct time lines to show when and how items have changed over time.

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Learning About the Past Workbook Pages 81 – 88 Topic Focus The students will learn what an artefact is and how it tells us about the past. Keywords artefact, archaeologists, museum Resources

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S • The following websites are recommended: Teacher Archaeology World

Aboriginal Tools and Artefacts (Student pages)

http://www.schools.ash.org.au/elanorah/abartif.htm

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http://artalpha.anu.edu.au/web/arc/arcworld.htm

Background

Museums can be a wonderful source for collections from the past. They can provide a visual and written history of a variety of cultures or groups. Families may also have collections that, when discussed, can reveal the families’ past experiences, lifestyles and events. Some collections may include photos, medals, paintings, books or furniture that has been kept and passed down through generations.

Artefacts relics are l generally found by archaeologists. They © R. I . C.orP ub i caancient t i opieces ns often reveal ways in which ancient cultures or groups lived. For example, the Roman city ofp Pompeii was ins 79 AD when the volcano, •f orr evi ew ur pdestroyed ose o nl y •Mount Vesuvius, suddenly erupted. The townspeople were caught unaware and the entire city of more than 16 000 was buried under thick layers of hot lava, mud and poisonous gases.

Introductory Discussion

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This historic disaster, however, has provided us with evidence of the ways of life in early Roman times. Since 1798 archaeologists have unearthed shells (moulds) of bodies and artefacts that have been preserved in the lava layers from the eruption.

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About three-quarters of the city of Pompeii has now been uncovered. Today, visitors to the area can view building and statues that stood almost 2 000 years ago. Tourists can even walk into old Roman houses and along narrow streets. A bakery oven still contains the loaves of bread that were being baked at the time of the eruption all those years ago! Show the students a range of available artefacts. Discuss what each artefact tells us about the past. What is an archaeologist? What kinds of things would you look for if you were an archaeologist? What would those things tell you about the past?

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Activity – Page 81 Read together the information at the top of page 81. Look at the artefacts depicted at the bottom of the page. Discuss each artefact, where it might have been found, and what might become of it in the future. Read questions 1 – 3 with the students and allow them time to complete the task. Answers painting

spear

jewellery

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knife

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furniture

clay pot

book

Activity – Pages 82 – 83

Answers 1.

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Ask the students to work in pairs, taking turns to read aloud the information about Aboriginal Australian artefacts. Allow the students to discuss questions 1 – 3 and complete them together.

o c . che e r o t r s super Traditional Aboriginal Australian

Task

animal skin bag, large

You

Teacher check

Carrying water shell or in 'coolamon' or

'pitchi'

shell fishhook

Teacher check

wooden digging stick

Teacher check

Catching fish

Digging in the ground

2. (a) ‘woomera’, throw, accurate (b) grinding, fruits, paste

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3. (a) false (b) false (c) true (d) false (e) true

Activity – Pages 84 – 85 As a whole class, read the text of Artefacts for Family History on page 84. Review each of the stories read, identifying key factors about each artefact. Allow the students to choose two of the artefacts and imagine they are the person the artefact was given to, completing the interview questions provided on page 85.

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Name of person Answers will vary What is your artefact? ring

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Describe it greyhound engraved in the stone

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What did you do with it? lost it when I was twenty after I took it off

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Name of person Doug What is your artefact? diary

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to wash the dishes

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How old were you when you first owned it? eight

What did you do with it? wrote in it almost every day and wrote 'Doug's Diary – Keep Out!' on the front

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Name of person Answers will vary What is your artefact? piano Describe it used to have candlestick holders so the music

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How old were you when you first owned it? eight

over and scratched it

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What did you do with it? got cross one day and pushed the stool

Name of person Answers will vary What is your artefact? doll's pram Describe it Answers will vary

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• How old were you when you first owned it? five

What did you do with it? used to take it for walks around the park

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and made lots of blankets and quilts to put in it

Activity – Pages 86 – 88

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An excursion to a museum can be valuable in reinforcing the information presented in this unit. Artefacts seen at a museum can be chosen for review by the students to complete page 87. If this is not possible, revisit the artefacts which have been discussed or presented during the unit and allow the students to select four of these for review. Discuss the types of things which might give future generations information about our lifestyle. Ask the students to choose four things they feel would be significant and imagine they are on display in a museum in the future. They can then write place cards to describe each one to complete the activity on page 88.

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Answers Teacher check

Additional Activities 1. Have students bring family artefacts from home to present at ‘show and tell’ times. 2. Organise an excursion to a museum or historical place.

Topic Focus

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Workbook Pages: 89 – 92

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Family Stories or eB st

The students will learn about stories that are told in families and the reasons why.

Keywords

culture, Dreaming, legend, traditional, folktale

Resources

•’The Sun Dancer’, World Myths and Legends II, Central American, Simon and Schuster, Inc. •‘How Grandmother Spider Stole the Sun’, Joseph Bruchac, Keepers of the Earth, Native American Stories, Fulcrum Inc., Colorado, 1989. •The following websites are recommended: Teacher Stories of the Dreaming http://www.dreamtime.net.au

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Each country has its own traditions of storytelling which illustrate cultural identity. They include Irish folktales, Viking myths, Australian ‘yarns’, and Aboriginal Australian Creation stories. These stories may be factual or fictional or a mixture of both. Traditions are an integral part of our lives. Many cultures keep these traditions alive by passing down tales or stories from generation to generation. (Fairytales are a good example of this.) In retelling the stories many of the values and customs of that culture are also passed along. These stories can also provide an understanding of why these tales were first told or of differences between beliefs and customs now compared to the past.

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Here is a synopsis of two legends passed down through generations about ‘how we got a sun’.

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The next tale is from the Muskagee Native American of Oklahoma. It tells the story of animals living on earth without light. Fox and Possum try to bring the sun from the dark side of the Earth, but fail. Grandmother Spider spins a web to catch the sun. Buzzard has the feathers on his head burnt off as he carries the sun high into the sky. According to the legend, this is why buzzards are bald and fly high, circling the sun. The sun also makes rays across the sky like the shapes in Grandmother Spider’s web.

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‘The Sun Dancer’ is a tale from Guatemala. It tells the story of a man who discovers a trunk full of magnificent, brightly coloured clothes. He decides to try them on only to find he becomes caught in a trance and mysteriously begins to dance. His dancing gets quicker and wilder and takes him all around the forest. He dances close to a cliff and falls, but unbelievably he floats, higher and higher into the sky. As he rises he looks life a huge red ball. The dancing man with the colourful clothes has now become the sun.

These are just two examples depicting the importance of the sun as part of our environment. Many indigenous groups tell similar traditional tales to explain environmental happenings. Today we may have scientific reasons for why things happen on earth, but these tales provide a greater insight into the thinking of ancient times.

©R . I . C.Publ i cat i ons Do members of your family tell you stories? Why do they tell you stories? Share a story family have with theo students. Ask• the students to •f orr e vi e wyourp ur ptold oyou se s nl y

Introductory Discussion

share stories they have been told by their family. Why are stories important?

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Activity – Pages 89 – 91

Divide the class into three groups. Ask each group to read ‘The Legs of the Kangaroo’, ‘The Flying Contest’ or ‘My Convict Relative’. Older students from a buddy class could be used to facilitate this reading to ensure the group understands what the story is about. Members from each group can then give the rest of the class a synopsis of their story. Each group can then read the two stories they have not yet read.

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Discuss questions 1 – 2 as a whole group and allow the students time to record answers. They can then continue with question 3 independently.

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Old Families, New Families


Answers 1. Through telling stories. 2. They can teach us about life in the past, about how to behave, or teach us about a culture or way of life. 3.

The Legs of the Kangaroo

Who is the story about?

kangaroo

The Flying Contest

an eagle and a wren

Thomas Grayson

Australia

Africa

England/ Australia

Kangaroo was resting in the shade when he say a man come towards him with a spear

the birds decide to hold a contest to see who could fly the highest

Thomas was arrested for pickpocketing and sent to Australia

Kangaroo found out he could hop

The wren wins the contest

Thomas bought his own jewellery shop

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S What happens at the end?

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Teac he r

Where did it happen?

What happens at the beginning?

My Convict Relative

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons The students can write their own family story following the framework provided •f orr evi e w92.p ur pos so n l y • on page When complete, thee students can take turns in presenting their

Activity – Page 92

story to the class. Answers

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Teacher check

Additional Activities

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Old Families, New Families

1. Read different versions of traditional stories from various cultures. Explore how they change over time.

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2. Research and collect myths and legends of similar topics (sun, moon, animals etc.) from different cultural backgrounds. Compare and contrast the stories. What information do they give about these groups’ past ways of living?

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Old Families, New Families Assessment and Evaluation The activity on page 62 is provided as one assessment tool in the study of this unit. It is designed to indicate broad student understanding and also provide opportunity for student feedback. The following outcomes were addressed in this topic of study. The following pages can be photocopied as a record of student performance or as a proforma for portfolio assessment. Outcomes Time, Continuity and Change TCC2.1 Students explain different meanings about an event, artefact, story or symbol from different times.

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Students identify similarities and differences between the experiences of family generations.

Culture and Identity CI2.1 Students describe the similarities and differences between an aspect of their Australian life and that of a culture in the Asia-Pacific region. CI2.7

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TCC2.5

Students locate stories that promote morals and ethics they can apply.

Administration

Distribute the activity sheet on page 62 of the Teachers Guide, one per student. Ask students to write their name in the top right-hand corner of the page. Read through the activity sheet to ensure students are clear about what they are being asked to do. At this stage, give students the opportunity to seek clarification of any part of the activity sheet they may not understand.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr e vi ew pur posesonl y• It is important students work independently on these activities—this provides a

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1. oral histories, artefacts, stories

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Answers

true representation of what students understand or of their lack of understanding. Once students have completed the activity, collect the worksheets. Mark and record results. From this activity sheet, some students may be found to require further work to develop their understanding in a particular area.

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2. No; People experience the same event in different ways and therefore have different memories of it. 3. Answers will vary

4. (a) record player – CD player (b) telegram – email (c) icebox – fridge

(d) horse and cart – car 5. An artefact is something that was made and used by people in the past and tells us about the way they lived. 6. Answers will vary; they will tell us about the way Aboriginal Australians lived hundred or thousands of years ago. 7. Answers will vary; teach us about life in the past, how to behave, culture, or give explanations about why things in our environment exist.

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Old Families, New Families


Old Families, New Families Student Name:

Date:

Task At the conclusion of the unit ‘Old Families, New Families’, students were asked to complete an activity sheet independently to demonstrate their understanding of the unit.

Pointers

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Demonstrated

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Discussion and Debate

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• Displays an awareness of and respect for other religions. • Demonstrates an understanding of what influences their own and others’ beliefs. • Can link commonly held beliefs to key issues in their community. • Demonstrates an ability to identify their own beliefs and justify why they hold them.

Needs Further Opportunity

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Workbook Activities •f orr ev i ew pur posesonl y• | Needs Improvement

|

Needs Improvement

Satisfactory

|

Satisfactory

|

Additional Activities Needs Improvement

Satisfactory

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Further Research

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Skills and Attitudes

General Comment

Needs Improvement

|

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| Satisfactory

| Satisfactory

|

Student Comment

Old Families, New Families

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Old Families, New Families 1. How can we find out what life was like in the past?

2. Do all people have the same memories of an event?

Yes

No

r o e t s Bo r e p o u k 3. Name an event which makes you feel: S Happy Sad

Excited

4. Match these items from the past to what is used today.

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Why?

CD player

(c) icebox

email

(d) horse and cart •

fridge

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(b) telegram

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5. What is an artefact?

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons (a) record player • • car •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . c e hehave 6. Aboriginal Australian artefacts been dug up from oldr campsites in many places o t r s s r u e p in Australia. What might these artefacts tell us about traditional Aboriginal Australians? 7. Give an example of something a family story might try to tell us.

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The Changing Community

Society and Environment Teachers Guides QLD: Book B - Ages 6-7  

The Society and Environment Teachers Guides form a structured seven-book resource designed to support the activities provided in the Society...

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