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Society and Environment G Published by R.I.C. Publications PO Box 332, Greenwood Western Australia 6924 © R.I.C. Publications 2000 ISBN 1 86311 665 6 Copyright Notice No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying or recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system without written permission from the publisher.


Foreword Society and Environment will help to increase your knowledge and understanding about your local community and environment and compare them to others. The seven books in the series look mainly at Australia—its people, its heritage, its political and legal systems, and its place in the world. The aim of the book is to assist you to better understand the community you live in and to make sound decisions about local, national and worldwide issues.

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The Daintree ...................................... 43–68 A case study of a rainforest environment. What is a Rainforest? Parts of a Rainforest The Daintree—Part 1 The Daintree—Part 2 The Amazon Rainforest Animals of the Rainforest Plants of the Rainforest Rainforest Aboriginal People Human Impact

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Democracy in Australia ....................... 1–22 Studying the history of democracy in Australia. Early Democracy Democracy in Australia The Events that Led to Federation Key Figures in the Development of Democracy Australian Citizenship

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Bali ...................................................... 69–96 Studying a traditional culture •f orr evi ew pur po s e s o n l y• Where is Bali?

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What is Bali like? Balinese Culture – Then and Now—1 Balinese Culture – Then and Now—2 Balinese Culture – Then and Now—3 Food Village Life Traditional Housing Events and Festivals Tourism

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Australia and the World ..................... 23–42 Studying Australia’s place in a technologically advanced world environment. The Global Village An Australian Export Industry Overseas Travel Australian Made? Global Communications Global Organisations

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Early Democracy Lesson Focus:

You will develop an understanding of the development of democracy as a government form through history.

Keywords:

bill of rights, preamble, citizen, democracy, assembly, accused, verdict, council, elected, lottery, human and citizenship rights, immigration restriction

ATHENS INTRODUCED A SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT CALLED A DEMOCRACY

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The Assembly became the central power of the state, consisting of all the freeborn (no freed slaves) male citizens of Athens over 20 years of age. In reality this still was not a true democratic state as women weren’t included, nor were foreigners, slaves, or freed slaves. The rules of citizenship demanded that both parents be Athenian citizens. Therefore the democracy was only a very small minority of the people living in Athens. It was, however, the closest any country has come to an unadulterated democracy.

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Democracy comes from two Greek words: ‘demos’ meaning people, and ‘krata’, meaning power. In ancient Athens all citizens had an equal right to take part in government.

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point of view to the Assembly. The Assembly would listen to all opinions on a matter and then the whole Assembly would vote on it. Council members were drawn by lottery and consisted of 500 citizens who could serve for one year. It was their job to suggest new laws and policies. Citizens voted at the Assembly to accept, change, or reject the suggestions. Poor citizens were paid a day’s wage to attend the Assembly so they could afford to take an active part in government. Wealthy citizens were expected to make extra contributions to the state.

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If numbers for the Assembly were too low the police dragged people off the streets.

The Assembly was given unprecedented power over the selection of officials. Elected officials, such as military generals, were not chosen by the Assembly, but the Assembly did hire and fire all other public officials. The Athenians had a way of getting rid of politicians they did not trust. Once a year, Assembly members could vote against the ones they disliked by writing the names of unpopular politicians on pieces of pottery called ‘ostraka’. A man who received more than 6 000 votes had to leave Athens for ten years.

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Trial by jury was introduced in Athens The Assembly also served as a law court, hearing major cases. Any decision made in a court of law could be appealed to the Assembly where a court of free citizens would hear the case. To be on the jury, your name had to be drawn. There were no lawyers. After a trial, jury members cast their verdicts with bronze discs. They used tokens with solid centres to show the accused was innocent, and tokens with hollow centres to show the accused was guilty.

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Use the information on page 2 to answer the following questions. 1.

Find two other words in the English language derived from the Greek words ‘demos’ or ‘krata’ and include their meanings. (a) (b) Who qualified as a citizen in ancient Athens?

3.

Why wasn’t Athens classed as a pure democracy?

4.

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How does the development of democracy in ancient Athens relate to your life today?

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Complete the following chart.

DEMOCRACY IN ANCIENT ATHENS

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DISADVANTAGES

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Your name is Tacisto and you are married to Agaqameria. You have two children, a boy and a girl. You are an Athenian citizen. You have been very well educated. Up until the age of seven you were educated by a male slave. After that you attended a local school where you learnt reading, writing, mathematics and drama. You excelled in public speaking and you learnt to play the flute beautifully. In high school you achieved good results in government studies and at this age developed a love of drawing.

You often invite your friends home for drinking parties. You are loud but entertaining. In your spare time you keep fit wrestling and you love to read poetry.

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You support the idea of a democratic government wholeheartedly and when you attend the Assembly meetings held every nine days you have a lot to say. Politics and your job as an architect keep you very busy. With the amount of money being spent on building you have plenty of work. You have a dream to build something wonderful one day.

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Your name is Agaqameria and you are the wife of Tacisto and the mother of two children, a boy and a girl. You did not attend school. From the time you were eight years old you have helped your mother in the house. She taught you to cook and run a household. In the home you are the boss and you enjoy this because you have many restrictions placed on you elsewhere. You believe that women will never take part in government or even vote. Your children keep you very busy but you have many slaves to help you in the home with the cleaning and the cooking. You have many female friends in your neighbourhood and you visit them whenever you get a chance. Tacisto often brings his friends around for drinking parties, which you organise but can not attend. You like being married to Tacisto because he is well respected, provides for the family and is always making you laugh with his quick wit. He also reads to you sometimes.

Write a diary entry for one of the two characters above. Include their thoughts on the democratic system of government.

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Topics for Discussion/Debate

Additional Activities

Search Engine Keywords

Discuss the practicality of everyone being able to have a say when 6 000 people attend the Assembly to pass laws.

Role play the Greek system of government to introduce a new class rate.

Athens democracy; ancient Greece

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Democracy in Australia Lesson Focus:

You will learn about the development of democracy in Australia and the various aspects that are involved.

Keywords:

constitution, referendum, colonies, preamble, immigration, criteria

THE AUSTRALIAN CONSTITUTION A constitution is like a set of rules and the ideas and beliefs behind them. It is the highest law of the country and can only be changed by referendum. The Australian constitution was written for the Federation of Australia to bring the six colonies together under a new level of government. The document sets out the powers of the federal government.

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The Australian constitution introduced in 1901 is one of the oldest written constitutions in the world. Since it was introduced there have been twelve changes made, which means it is relatively unchanged. Many Australian people have been pushing for changes to the Australian constitution. The following are some of these proposed changes:

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Use the information about the Australian constitution to complete the following. 1.

What is a referendum? (A dictionary may help.)

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• the constitution be changed to allow a republican form of government • the commonwealth government should have power over the environment

• the preamble should include recognition of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island people of Australia • the flag be changed • a bill of rights should be included in the constitution

2.

How old is the Australian constitution?

3.

Next to each of the proposed areas of change tick or cross whether you agree or disagree. Give an argument for and against each one. Discuss each area of proposed change.

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IMMIGRATION POLICIES Australia has a non-discriminatory immigration policy, which means that anyone from any country can apply to migrate, regardless of their ethnic origin, their gender, colour or religion. However this hasn’t always been the case. The officer could specify the language that the test had to be written in and therefore control who came into the country. The use of the dictation test continued until 1958.

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The act was applauded by many members of the community. In 1919 the Prime Minister, William Morris Hughes, described it as ‘the greatest thing we have achieved’. At the end of the Second World War, many of the non-white refugees who had entered Australia went home but a large number had married Australians and wanted to stay. When the immigration minister at the time tried to deport them, many Australians protested.

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In the 1850s thousands of mostly male Chinese flocked to Australia to work on the goldfields. They worked as market gardeners, tailors, shoemakers, traders, shopkeepers and gold miners and in the furniture trade. The colonists knew little about the Chinese and distrusted them because of their different religion, food, language, look and dress. They believed that the Chinese would take the jobs away from the ‘whites’, that they were not here to help the colony and that they would return to China with all the gold they had found. They also complained that the Chinese wasted water. Eventually the resentment towards the industrious Chinese diggers culminated in violence on the Buckland River in Victoria, and at Lambing Flat in New South Wales. The Chinese camps were burnt and the Chinese were beaten and robbed; some were killed by the European miners. Europeans who tried to help the Chinese were also beaten. As a result the Governments of these two colonies introduced restrictions on Chinese immigration.

In 1949 Minister for Immigration, Harold Holt, decided to allow 800 non-European refugees to stay. This was the first step towards a nondiscriminatory immigration policy.

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In 1958 a simpler system of entry permits was introduced and the controversial dictation test was abolished. Any reference to questions of race was avoided.

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In 1973 further steps were taken by the Whitlam (Labor) Government in the process to remove race as a factor in Australia’s immigration policy. They moved to: make all migrants eligible to obtain citizenship after three years of permanent residence; advise overseas representatives to totally disregard race as a factor in the selection of migrants; and to make changes to all international agreements relating to immigration and race.

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Later the resentment was aimed at the Pacific Islanders in Northern Queensland, who had been recruited or sometimes kidnapped to work in the cotton and sugar industries. Factory workers in the south were opposed to all forms of immigration which might threaten their jobs—particularly nonwhite people, whom they thought would work for lower wages and working conditions.

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The Alien Immigration Restriction Act, unofficially known as part of the ‘White Australia Policy’, was introduced in 1901. Anyone wishing to enter Australia was required to complete and sign a dictation test of fifty words in a European language in the presence of an immigration officer.

The abolition of the ‘White Australia policy’ was a gradual process that took place over a period of twenty-five years.

THE PRESENT CRITERIA FOR IMMIGRATION ARE: • skills, qualifications and abilities in demand in Australia • capital and business expertise • close family ties • refugees and humanitarian needs.

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In Victoria a poll-tax of £10 is imposed on the Chinese and they are restricted in where they can go.

1857

Rioting caused by anti-Chinese sentiment breaks out at Buckland River. The Victorian government introduces a residence tax of £6 per year and persuades the South Australian Government to impose an entry tax.

1860

Rioting caused by anti-Chinese sentiment breaks out at Lambing Flat.

1861

Rioting becomes more serious at Lambing Flat and New South Wales introduces the Chinese Immigrants Regulation Law.

1863

Robert Towns begins importation of Pacific Islanders to Queensland to work in the sugar and cotton industry.

1867

Crocodile Creek goldfield anti-Chinese riots break out in Central Queensland.

1873

Riots break out at Clunies when Chinese are used as strike breakers at mines.

1877

More anti-Chinese riots, this time at Palmer River field. Queensland introduces restriction laws.

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Shipping crews strike in Sydney against the use of Chinese crews.

1879

Intercolonial Trades Union Congress held and opposes Chinese immigration.

1880

First Intercolonial Conference held and states a need for uniform restriction laws.

1881

South Australia puts into place restriction laws in accordance with Conference recommendations.

1884

Trade unions protest against Chinese in the furniture trade.

1885

Queensland laws regulate the importation of Pacific Islanders.

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Below is a time line outlining some major events in the history of immigration in Australia.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Western Australia restricts Chinese immigration.

1887

Chinese Commission says the restriction laws breach the Anglo-Chinese treaty.

1888

Chinese prevented from disembarking at Sydney and Melbourne.

1888

New South Wales re-introduces anti-Chinese legislation.

1896

Intercolonial Conference wants to extend restrictions to all non-Europeans.

1897

Western Australia introduces a dictation test to restrict immigration.

1900

Federation gives the Commonwealth the power to legislate on immigration.

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Immigration Restriction Act 1901 and the Pacific Islands Labourers Act 1901 introduced.

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Several Chinese were killed as riots broke out at Lambing Flat. The early hours of Sunday morning saw around 1 000 miners armed with pickaxes and bludgeons assembled in Tipperary Gully. Once assembled, the group marched towards Lambing Flat in an attempt to evict the Chinese from the goldmining area. By the time they reached the diggings the mob had grown to several thousand, including women and children. The miners descended on the Chinese, plundering their

Democracy in Australia

dwellings. Mounted pursuers overtook the fleeing Chinese and degraded, beat and robbed them. Those who went to the aid of the Chinese were also beaten.

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Use the information about immigation policies to answer these. 1. In what ways do you think the Chinese contributed to the colonies’ economies?

2.

3.

Considering the Chinese made up only a small percentage of the colonies’ population, why do you think the white colonists were fearful of the Chinese?

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List some of the emotions you think the following people might have been feeling.

A Chinese miner camping at Lambing Flat.

A European miner who did not support the anti-Chinese sentiment.

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A European miner at Buckland Hill.

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Choose a point of view from one of the people of the time and write a letter to the editor in response to the article on the Lambing Flat riots.

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Do you think most people would have been in favour of the introduction of the Immigration Restriction Act 1901? Yes/No. Why or why not?

6.

Research other incidents in the world where basic human rights have been violated and record them in the chart below.

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Topics for Discussion/Debate

Additional Activities

Search Engine Keywords

1. Australians now share equal human and citizenship rights.

1. Research the rights of children and write a list of your own children’s rights.

Australian immigration; White Australia policy; Lambing Flat

2. Only students in their last year should have a say in the running of a school.

2. Select one incident from Question 6. Write a newspaper report outlining the events and what is being done to stop it happening.

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The Events that Led to Federation Lesson Focus:

You will learn about the events and issues in the development of Australian democracy.

Keywords:

referendum, national pride, Federation, markets, free trade, suffrage, manufacturing, defence, constitution

Six separate colonies were set up around Australia and from around the 1850s each of these was selfgoverning. They were like small countries, which made their laws independent of each other and had their own policies, flag and defence force. Communication between colonies was poor, with separate postal services, and railway tracks of different gauges (widths).

didn’t have, including distance from the east. However, pressure from thousands of Eastern States miners working on Western Australian goldfields persuaded the colony to hold a referendum. Western Australia agreed under the conditions that a rail link be built between Perth and the east coast and Western Australia collect its own custom duties for a further five years. In 1900 a referendum was held and Western Australia voted in favour of Federation, as had the rest of Australia in 1899.

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On 17 September 1900, Queen Victoria declared Australia a nation. The Earl of Hopetoun was sworn in as Governor-General of Australia at a ceremony in Centennial Park, Sydney, on 1 The pavilion built in January 1901.

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People in the colonies saw themselves as belonging to their colony within the British Empire. For example, people thought of themselves as Victorians or New South Welshmen—not as Australians. The population, wealth and power varied between each colony and this caused much tension. So when Federation was suggested the colonies were suspicious and not very enthusiastic. There was a fear among the smaller colonies that they would be bullied by the bigger colonies and the wealthier colonies were worried they would have to pay for the downfalls of the poorer colonies.

Centennial Park in Sydney for the swearing in of the ministers of the new nation in 1901.

The strongest argument for Federation revolved around defence and the need for a national identity. Towards the end of the century, improved transport and communication had brought the colonies closer together and a feeling of national pride was growing. At this time the fear of invasion by countries such as Germany, Russia, China and Japan was also growing and in 1889 a report on the security of the colonies recommended that the colonies act together for the country’s defence.

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New South Wales politician, Sir Henry Parkes, fought strongly for a unified Australia and in 1891 organised the first convention to discuss Federation and to formulate a constitution. Unfortunately, he died in 1896 and didn’t get to see the States of Australia come together under a Federated Parliament. Edmund Barton continued to push for Federation after the death of Parkes and people all over Australia were beginning to lean towards a united nation.

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Edmund Barton organised another convention in 1897, where another constitution was drawn up. A referendum was held in all States except Western Australia and Queensland. Without the support of these two States and because the majority in NSW wasn’t big enough, Federation did not take place.

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The situation of the States prior to Federation.

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Use the information about the events leading to Federation to answer these. 1.

What kind of problems would the different rail gauges between States have caused?

2.

Why do you think each colony had its own defence force?

3.

Who do you think was known as the ‘Father of Federation’?

The following are the results of the referendums held to decide on the Federation of Australia.

1898 REFERENDUM

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NSW SA Tas. Vic.

71 595 35 800 11 797 100 520

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107 420

82 741

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65 990

17 053

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13 437

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152 653

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38 488

Total

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Total 1900 REFERENDUM

Calculate the total of voters for and against Federation for each referendum.

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Record the results in the graph below for the 1899-1900 referendum.

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1899–1900 REFERENDUM

160 000–

130 000– 120 000– Number of Votes

110 000–

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Against

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6.

(a)

Which State was most in favour of Federation?

(b)

Why do you think that was the case?

Why do you think most colonies increased their ‘yes’ vote?

8.

Choose one of the States and create a speech to try to get people to vote for or against Federation in the referendum.

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Choose a different State and create a poster to try to get people to vote for or against Federation in the referendum.

stir One people, one destiny may it deep into our hearts but will small reach our pockets? Will the Australia manufacturers in Western survive against the big competitors? Will the new government take into g

of bein consideration the expense … so far from the east

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CHANGES TOWARDS DEMOCRACY IN AUSTRALIA Changes towards democracy NSW Vic. British government gives permission for colonies to become selfgoverning.

A method of secret voting means voters can express their preferences without fear or feeling compelled to vote in a certain way.

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Qld

1885 1885 1890 1856 1856 1859 Self-government introduced.

1858 1856 1877 1856 1858 1859 Secret ballot introduced.

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The right for all men to vote in an election.

1858 1857 1872 1856 1900 1893

Suffrage for men introduced.

Members of the lower house are paid, allowing poorer people to enter parliament.

Property qualifications for members of legislative assemblies abolished.

Payment for members of parliament introduced.

1858 1857 1893 1856 1900 1859

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Men no longer have to own property to stand for election.

1889 1870 1900 1887 1890 1886

Women given the right to vote.

1902 1908 1899 1894 1903 1905

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Aboriginal people given the right to vote.*

Suffrage for women introduced.

Suffrage for Aboriginal people introduced.

1962 1962 1962 1962 1962 1965

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In the boxes beneath the dates, number the States in the order they introduce each reform.

2.

Which State achieved most of the reforms first?

3.

Why do you think South Australia was the first to introduce suffrage for women?

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*Aboriginal men had the right to vote in four of the colonies when male suffrage was introduced. The 1901 constitution overrode that right and excluded Aboriginal people from the vote.

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4.

Explain how the introduction of payment for members of parliament helped to create a democracy.

Use your knowledge and further research to complete these. 5.

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Choose one of the reforms introduced and list the likely arguments for and against you think may have existed at that time.

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REFORM:

What further changes since Federation have been made towards a democracy in Australia?

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What citizen rights issues for Aboriginal people continue today?

Topics for Discussion/Debate

Additional Activities

Search Engine Keywords

Should Australia become a republic? Support your answer.

Investigate other key events; for example, voting rights, civil rights violations and improvements.

Australian + democracy; Australian Aboriginal rights; Australia + Federation; Australian colonies

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Key Figures in the Development of Democracy Lesson Focus:

You will explore the beliefs and efforts of key figures in the development of democracy.

Keywords:

oppression, equality, justice, citizen, poverty, apartheid, dignity, self-discipline

NELSON MANDELA—1918 – Nelson Mandela is considered an international hero. He devoted his life to the fight against racial oppression in South Africa. For his dedication to the cause he was awarded a Nobel prize and made president of his country.

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Mandela grew up in the traditional culture of his ancestors but at a young age he was aware of the persecution, discrimination and despair that existed under apartheid rule.

His fight for human rights and racial equality resulted in a sentence of life imprisonment. Tirelessly, from behind bars, he continued fighting for the cause and through careful and complex negotiations he was set free after 27 years. Along with his freedom he achieved the beginning of the end of apartheid. Following his release, his pursuit for equality continued and led to a free, multiracial democracy in South Africa.

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PERICLES—495 – 429 BC

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Nelson Mandela’s dignity, hope, love and selfdiscipline in his fight for freedom are recognised by many all over the world. His triumph over persecution, oppression and evil has touched the hearts of many.

With his daring and intelligence, Pericles became a great military leader. As a politician he cared for the welfare and happiness of his people. He established the first true democratic government.

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As the leader of a popular party he introduced salaries for public officers which allowed the poor to serve in these positions. He created a powerful navy and he built many structures for the glory of Athens. Some of these include the Pathenon, the temple of Athena and the Athenian Long Walls. Literature and philosophy were encouraged and flourished. Pericles led Athens to the height of its political power and artistic achievements. The following is part of a famous speech given by Pericles to the people of Athens, as reported by Thucydides. ‘Our political system does not compete with institutions which are elsewhere in force. We do not copy our neighbours, but try to be an example. Our administration favours the many instead of the few: this is why it is called a democracy. The laws afford equal justice to all alike in their private disputes, but we do not ignore the claims of excellence. When a citizen distinguishes himself, then he will be called to serve the state, in preference to others, not as a matter of privilege, but as a reward of merit; and poverty is no bar.’

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Use the information about Mandela and Pericles to answer the following. 1. Use your dictionary to find the meaning of the following words. apartheid: freedom: equality: oppression: How was Nelson Mandela recognised for his achievements?

3.

Why is the rest of the world interested in Mandela’s achievements?

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4.

List the important achievements of Pericles.

5.

Which sentence in the text best describes Pericles’ political success?

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2.

What are two similarities between Mandela and Pericles?

. te

(a)

(b) 8.

m . u

7.

w ww

6.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons • f o r r e v i e w p u r p o s e s o n l y • What were some of the advantages of a democracy for Athens?

o c . che e r o t r s super

Complete the following chart of people who have contributed to the development of democracy. Add one more of your own.

NAME

WHERE

WHEN

CONTRIBUTION TO DEMOCRACY

PERICLES

MANDELA

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KEY FIGURES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF AUSTRALIAN DEMOCRACY Name:

CATHERINE HELEN SPENCE

Name:

EDMUND BARTON

Born:

1825

Born:

1849

Died:

1910

Died:

1920

Place of Birth:

Scotland

Place of Birth:

Glebe, New South Wales

Occupation:

Barrister, Queen’s Counsel, high court judge, politician

Passion:

To see the Australian colonies join together and become one nation.

Arrival in Australia: 1839 Occupation:

Passion:

Teacher, author, journalist, lay preacher and social and political reformer

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Men and women should have equal rights. Responsibility of adults to all children in their society.

Achievements:

first to campaign for proportional representation voting

first female member of several reform boards

helped found the first foster scheme for children

pioneered the children’s courts in Australia

first professional female journalist in Australia

first female novelist in Australia

founded the women’s league to educate women in their political responsibilities

Teac he r

first female political candidate

youngest ever Speaker of the House in 1879

leader of the federal convention 1897–98

leader of the delegation to London with the Australian Commonwealth Bill 1900

first Prime Minister of Australia

led the Protectionist Party 1901–3

High Court judge 1903–20

ew i ev Pr

Achievements:

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Name:

ROSE SCOTT

Born:

1816

Born:

1847

Died:

1896

Died:

1920

Place of Birth:

England

Place of Birth:

Glendon, New South Wales

Arrival in Australia: 1839

Occupation:

Carer, mother

Occupation:

Labourer, bone and ivory turner, importer, journalist, politician

Passion:

To see equal rights for men and women.

Passion:

To see the Australian colonies join together and become one nation.

Achievements:

w ww

. te

Achievements:

m . u

SIR HENRY PARKES

Name:

o c . che e r o t r s super •

founded the Women’s Literary Society 1889

founded the Womanhood Suffrage League of New South Wales 1891

co-founder of the National Council for Women of New South Wales 1899

started the Empire newspaper

Premier of New South Wales

helped introduce laws which improved hospitals, prisons and the lives of farmers with small landholdings

president of the Women’s Political Education League 1902–1910

president of the Peace Society in 1908

became known as the ‘Father of Federation’

gained access for women to public offices

devised the plan that was used as a model for the Federated Australia

won women the right to vote in 1903

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Democracy in Australia


Use the information about Australian key figures to answer these. 1.

What do you think the most important achievement of each of the following people has been? (a) Edmund Barton: (b) Catherine Helen Spence: (c) Rose Scott: (d) Sir Henry Parkes:

2.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Tick which of the four Australians listed below lived to see their dream realised. Edmund Barton

Sir Henry Parkes

ew i ev Pr

4.

Rose Scott

Can you name any forms of memorial in honour of the efforts and achievements of these Australians? For example: statues, areas, streets or establishments named after them.

Teac he r

3.

Catherine Helen Spence

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons NAME WHERE BORN HOW THEY CONTRIBUTED TO DEMOCRACY •f or r evi ew p ur posesonl y•

Complete the following chart of people who have contributed to the development of democracy in Australia. Add two more of your own.

w ww

m . u

Edmund Barton Catherine Helen Spence

. te

Rose Scott

Sir Henry Parkes

o c . che e r o t r s super

Topics for Discussion/Debate

Additional Activities

Search Engine Keywords

Voting should be compulsory.

Select one of the people you have added to Question 4, or a person who has contributed to democracy on an international level. Write a detailed profile.

Mandela; Pericles; Catherine Spence; Edmund Barton; Henry Parkes; Rose Scott; apartheid

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R.I.C. Publications


Australian Citizenship Lesson Focus:

You will examine what it means to be an Australian citizen and the effects of exclusion.

Keywords:

citizen, citizenship, descent, naturalisation, pledge, liberties, rights, jury

In ancient Athens the citizens were responsible for the running of the country. They were free-born (no freed slaves) males of Athens over 20 years of age.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Birth

If you are born in Australia and one or both of your parents is an Australian citizen or permanent resident.

Descent

Most children of Australian citizens will be granted citizenship even if they are born outside the country.

Naturalisation

In Australia you can be granted citizenship if you:

• are a permanent resident

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

You can acquire citizenship in Australia by:

• have completed a two-year waiting period as a resident • are over the age of 16

From this time forward, under God

• are of good character

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

I pledge my loyalty to Australia and its people, whose democractic beliefs I share,

whose rights and liberties I respect, and

• have a knowledge of English

• understand the rights and responsibilities of citizenship (If a child is under 16, they become a citizen on their parents’ certificate.)

whose laws I will uphold and obey.

w ww

m . u

In accordance with a person’s religious beliefs, the words ‘under God’ may be left out when making this pledge. In 1994 the words ‘Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth’ were replaced with ‘Australia and its people’. Australian citizens were known as British subjects up until 1949 when the Nationality and Citizenship Act was introduced. In 1973 it was amended to become the Australian Citizenship Act.

. te

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were restricted in their right to vote until the 1960s and as citizens they were not obliged to enrol to vote until 1984.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Some of the rights and responsibilities of an Australian citizen are as follows: • You must enrol to vote at the age of 18.

• You may be asked to defend your country. • You may be asked to serve on a jury. • You have the right to: • vote in government elections • apply to enter the armed forces • serve on a jury • live in Australia and receive the support and protection provided for Australian citizens • obtain an Australian passport R.I.C. Publications

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Democracy in Australia


Survey the members of your class to find out how they obtained citizenship or whether they are still to become citizens. Birth

Descent

Naturalisation

Not yet a citizen

✔/✗

✔/✗

✔/✗

✔/✗

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Name

w ww

. te

Democracy in Australia

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Represent your results as a pie graph below and write a short paragraph interpreting the graph.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Use the information about citizenship to answer these.

2.

Write the citizenship pledge here.

Teac he r

What do the changes made in 1949 mean for Australia?

ew i ev Pr

1.

w ww

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

3.

Why were changes made to the pledge in 1994?

4.

Would you make any changes to the existing pledge?

5.

What do you think is the most important responsibility and the most important right of an Australian citizen? Explain your answer.

. te

Responsibility

o c . che e r o t r s super Why or why not?

Why?

Right

Why?

Topics for Discussion/Debate

Additional Activities

Search Engine Keywords

Citizenship brings Australians closer together.

Write a pledge to become a member of your class.

Australian citizenship; Australian passport

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Democracy in Australia


s r e p u S

Bo ok

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Australia and thetor World e

w ww

. te

Australia and the World

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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R.I.C. Publications


The Global Village Lesson Focus:

You will gather information to find out how Australia is globally connected.

Keywords:

global village, reliant, resources, concentrated, barriers

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

The words ‘Global Village’ have been used to describe the world in the 21st century. The words indicate that instead of individuals, small groups and countries relying on their own ability to provide for their needs and wants, people are more reliant on the whole world, its resources and each other. This is a far cry from the days of early civilisations where life was concentrated in a small geographic area and little was known about who lived on the other side of the hill, let alone on the other side of the world. Developments in transport, technology and communication have broken down the barriers of distance and time to a situation where the people of the world rely on many others from distant countries and indeed form a Global Village.

In one sentence describe what ‘Global Village’ means.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• HOW GLOBAL IS YOUR LIFE? TO FIND OUT, COMPLETE THIS SURVEY.

w ww

m . u

Clothes: List 10 pieces of your clothing below and indicate where in the world the clothing is made.

Clothing item

1. 2. 3. 4.

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Country of manufacture

o c . che e r o t r s super

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. R.I.C. Publications

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Australia and the World


Appliances: List five appliances that are used in your home. Indicate where in the world they are manufactured. Appliance

Country of manufacture

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Music: List your five favourite musicians or groups. Indicate their country of origin.

Country of origin

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Musician/group 1.

2. 3. 4. 5.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Motor vehicles: List five makes of popular motor vehicles. Indicate where in the world they are manufactured. • f orr evi ew pur poses onl y• Motor vehicle Country of manufacture

3. 4.

w ww

2.

. te

5.

m . u

1.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Television: List your five favourite television programs. Indicate in which country they are made. Television program

Country program made

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Australia and the World

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Sport: List your five favourite sports. List two other countries outside Australia you know of that play each sport. Sport

Country to play this sport

1. 2. 3. 4.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

5.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Which country is most frequently mentioned in your survey? •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Use the survey results to complete the following. 1.

w ww

2.

m . u

Explain why you think this is the case.

List the next three countries in order of occurrence and explain why you think they appear so frequently in your survey.

. te

Country

1

Reason

o c . che e r o t r s super

2

3 R.I.C. Publications

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Australia and the World


3.

Explain how your survey either supports or rejects the statement ‘We all live in a global village’.

4.

(a)

ew i ev Pr

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Use the data collected in your survey to indicate the countries you are ‘globally connected to’. You may need to use a key.

w ww Key:

. te

m . u

5.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Which category in your survey was the least ‘global’? Can you explain why this is the case?

Teac he r

(b)

Which category in your survey was the most ‘global’? Can you explain why this is the case?

o c . che e r o t r s super

Topics for Discussion/Debate

Additional Activities

Search Engine Keywords

The current focus is on buying Australian products only. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this focus.

Develop your own survey to find out how much food in your normal grocery shop is from Australia and how much is imported from overseas.

global village; Australia + imports; Australian Bureau of Statistics

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An Australian Export Industry Lesson Focus:

You will explore the wool industry and see how Australia is globally connected through trade.

Keywords:

export, merino, trade, industry

ONE OF AUSTRALIA’S OLDEST EXPORT INDUSTRIES IS THE WOOL INDUSTRY.

John Macarthur played a very important role in getting Australian wool recognised for its quality and being highly regarded in world trade. In the early 1800s Germany was the major producer of wool in the world. Macarthur convinced the English that Australian wool was superior to the German product and began the export trade for Australia. What followed was a trade war between Germany and Australia over the valuable English market. Australia’s climate and large open spaces were to prove a major advantage and this, combined with the decrease in German wool quality, saw Australia become England’s major supplier of wool.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

In the very early days of colonial Australia the settlement at Sydney Cove had to provide most of its own needs for food and shelter. This proved difficult and in 1797 two ships sailed from Sydney Cove to South Africa to buy food supplies and livestock. The timing of this trip was to be a stroke of luck for the Australian wool industry, as it was at this time that a flock of rare Spanish merino sheep were put up for sale in Cape Town. The captains of both ships purchased 13 sheep each and returned to Australia. Not all the sheep survived the journey, but those that did were sold to landowners in the colony. Among these were Captain John Macarthur, Rev. Samuel Marsden, William Cox and Captain Rowley. These men were to become the pioneers of the Australian wool industry, and the sheep were the forerunners of the thousands to follow.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

At times in Australia’s history it was said that ‘Australia rode on the sheep’s back’, meaning that sheep exports were responsible for a large proportion of all exports. Wool and meat are still large export products from Australia. The history of the sheep industry in Australia is a good example of an export industry.

This table shows the success of the export industry in a short period.

1821 1823 1830 1836 1840 1844

79450kg 181600kg 499400kg 499400kg 1676220kg 6129000kg

wool wool wool wool wool wool

w ww

. te

BOOM AND BUST

Table A

o c . che e r o t r s super

The wool industry is an excellent example of how export industries face many challenges and can be affected by matters outside their control. In the 1830s the growth in Australia’s wool sales was massive. This growth brought wealth to many sheep farmers (THE BOOM). In the early 1840s the wool price fell drastically. The falling price, combined with three years of drought, saw many farmers become bankrupt and have to move from their properties (THE BUST). All this occurred in the space of three to five years.

are equally affected by the international factors such as world wars, world depressions, fuel prices, commodity prices and the value of the Australian dollar.

By 1945 the wool price had begun to recover and the industry became more stable. This ‘Boom and Bust’ cycle has repeated itself on several occasions and is not unique to the wool industry. Other export markets R.I.C. Publications

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

These factors, most of which are beyond the control of an Australian wool farmer, can occur without warning and turn Boom to Bust overnight. 28

Australia and the World


The Australian wool industry at the end of the twentieth century is suffering another ‘bust’ situation. Lower international wool prices, a large national stockpile of wool and the use of synthetic materials for clothing are all combining to put pressure on wool farming and exports. Today, Australia is still the world’s largest supplier of wool for clothing and supplies over one-third of the world’s raw wool and over half of the world’s merino wool.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Today there are approximately 160 million sheep in Australia that produce more than one-quarter of the world’s total wool. Australia is the world’s major source of fine merino apparel wool, supplying over 70%. Apparel wool is mostly made into garments such as suits and skirts.

France 5%

This graph shows the countries to which Australian wool is exported. Other countries include Indonesia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland.

UK 4%

Germany 8%

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Over 95% of the wool Australia produces is exported. Export earnings for wool come to around AUD$3 billion.

Other 22%

Italy 11%

USA 11%

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Korea 4%

China 13%

w ww

m . u

Japan 22%

Use the information to answer these questions. 1.

What does the saying ‘Australia rode on the sheep’s back’ mean?

2.

Where did Australia’s first sheep come from?

3.

Who was responsible for the first wool exports in Australia?

5.

. te

(a)

William Cox

(b) (c)

o c . che e r o t r s super 4.

What percentage of wool remains in Australia?

(a)

30%

Rev. Samuel Marsden

(b)

5%

John Macarthur

(c)

70%

Describe what a ‘trade war’ is.

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6.

Using the figures from Table A complete the following line graph. Australian Wool Exports 1821–1844 6 500 000 6 000 000 5 500 000 5 000 000 4 500 000 4 000 000

kg

3 500 000 3 000 000 2 500 000 2 000 000 1 500 000 1 000 000

1825

1830

YEARS

1835

7.

What events caused the drop in wool export prices in 1840?

8.

On this map of the world draw lines to show the countries Australia exports wool to.

1840

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

500 000

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

w ww

. te

9.

10.

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

What problems does the wool industry face today?

Make three suggestions that might help the future of the wool industry in Australia.

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Australia and the World


AUSTRALIAN EXPORTS AND IMPORTS 1998 – 1999 11.

Write an example of each in the space provided.

TABLE B

1.

Exports $M

Food and live animals

Imports $M

15 453

3 760

1 238

622

Surplus

Deficit

import: export: 2.

Beverages and tobacco import: export:

3.

import:

Mineral fuels, lubricants

17 219

1 611

14 162

4 620

377

296

import: export:

5.

Animal and vegetable oils, fats import: export:

6.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

export: 4.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Crude materials, inedible

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Chemical products

3 575

11 434

10 117

12 859

10 324

45 425

import: export:

7.

Manufactured goods import:

8.

w ww

Machinery and transport equipment import: export:

9.

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Misc. manufactured articles import: export:

10.

. te

Other import: export:

m . u

export:

3 447

14 466

10 089

2 531

Total:

12.

Complete the table by calculating the difference between each of the export figures and the import figures to show Australia’s surplus or deficit.

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13.

Complete the following bar graph using figures from Table B. Australian Exports and Imports (1998 – 1999) 46 000– 44 000– 42 000– 40 000– 38 000– 36 000– 34 000– 32 000– 30 000–

$M

28 000– 26 000– 24 000– 22 000– 20 000–

14 000– 12 000–

10 000– 8 000– 6 000–

4 000– 2 000–

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

18 000– 16 000–

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

9.

10.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• BALANCE OF• TRADE

Exp. Imp. Exp. Imp. Exp. Imp. Exp. Imp. Exp. Imp. Exp. Imp. Exp. Imp. Exp. Imp. Exp. Imp. Exp. Imp.

Types of Exports/Imports

Describe Australia’s balance of trade in 1998 – 1999.

w ww

14.

. te

15.

m . u

A country’s balance of trade is the total figure of exports compared to the total figure of imports. The preferred balance of trade is to have higher exports than imports; in other words to spend less than you receive.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Suggest how the balance of trade could be improved. Which categories would you focus on if you were in government?

Topics for Discussion/Debate

Additional Activities

Search Engine Keywords

Discuss everyone’s opinions from Question 10. Discuss the advantages and disadvantges of the choices made.

Select a major Australian export industry and research the production process and the countries to which the product is exported.

Australian imports and exports; merino sheep; Australia wool industry; Australian Bureau of Statistics

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Australia and the World


Overseas Travel Lesson Focus:

You will discover how Australia is globally connected through travel.

Keywords:

travel, destination, purpose

Complete the following chart for 1998 by calculating the totals for the reasons people travelled and the total number of people travelling to each country. COUNTRY

CONFERENCE/ BUSINESS

Teac he r

800 2 800 2 300 1 200 3 900 5 000 2 800 1 000 200 1 000 1 000 2 100 1 900 5 700 6 100 1 300 1 200 600 100

TOTAL

5 200 470 100 8 600 3 200 16 900 265 200 13 800 6 200 3 300 7 500 4 700 4 100 7 500 12 800 17 200 4 000 73 300 3 400 6 900

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

What was the most popular purpose for travelling overseas in 1998?

3.

(a)

Where was the most popular destination for Australian travellers in 1998?

w ww

4.

700 5 400 14 100 400 8 100 4 100 6 200 3 000 600 5 400 2 200 2 000 8 400 7 400 5 600 1 700 3 200 200 900

OTHER

ew i ev Pr

80 500 325 000 92 500 49 900 273 000 196 300 295 700 72 400 42 800 66 900 111 900 49 300 89 900 153 800 196 100 57 400 5 600 35 800 2 400

2.

(b)

EMPLOYMENT

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Fiji 12 000 New Zealand 109 900 Other Oceania 26 600 Italy 8 300 United Kingdom 41 400 Other Europe 44 900 Indonesia 31 100 Malaysia 28 300 Philippines 10 400 Singapore 41 800 Thailand 16 100 China 24 600 Hong Kong 39 800 Other Asia 54 000 USA 97 600 Other America 12 700 Middle East and North Africa 7 900 Other Africa 10 100 Other 900 TOTAL

HOLIDAY/ EDUCATION VISITING PEOPLE

Why do you think this was the case?

. te

m . u

1.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Complete this table with the most popular and least popular destinations for business and conferences and list underneath the reasons why this might be the case.

Most Popular 1.

Least Popular

1.

2.

2.

3.

3.

4.

4.

5.

5.

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Write a short summary of the figures shown for people travelling on holiday or to visit people.

6.

Make two predictions for next year as to where and why people might travel.

7.

On this map of the world identify the five countries Australians travel to the most.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

5.

w ww

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8.

9.

m . u

Š R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

(a)

Where is the furthest destination?

(b)

What is the most common reason for people travelling there?

(a)

Where is the nearest destination?

(b)

What is the most common reason for people travelling there?

10.

What is the most common reason for people travelling there?

11.

Do you think distance has an effect on where people choose to travel? Explain your answer.

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Australia and the World


This map shows the flight routes of two airlines from Australia in a northerly and easterly direction as far as London.

London

EUROPE

Frankfurt

Paris

North Atlantic Ocean

ASIA

Rome

Beijing

North Pacific Ocean

Tokyo

Taipei

N

Hong Kong Bangkok

Mumbai (Bombay)

AFRICA

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Kuala Lumpur

Jakarta Denpasar

Indian Ocean

Darwin

Perth

0

1 000

2 000

3 000

4 000

Cairns

Brisbane

Sydney

Adelaide 5 000 kms

Melbourne

AUSTRALASIA

You have been given a special 17-day deal which includes a return flight to London with four stopovers and three nights’ accommodation in each place. Plan your trip carefully.

Departure Date:

13.

Singapore

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

South Atlantic Ocean

12.

Manila

Return Date:

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Decide on your four stopovers and give reasons for each choice.

1.

3.

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4. 14.

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m . u

2.

Research the following information for each of your destinations and complete the chart below. Destination

o c . che e r o t r s super

Visa?

Vaccinations

Weather

Exch. Rate

Travel Warnings

Topics for Discussion/Debate

Additional Activities

Search Engine Keywords

1. Air travel is better than sea travel.

1. Calculate the time each flight will take for chosen destinations if a jet travels at approximately 920 km/h.

Australian Bureau of Statistics; Australian flight routes

2. What benefits have occurred as a result of air travel. 3. How else can you travel to other countries?

2. Research major sea routes and the lengths and time taken for these journeys. 3. Create a brochure to encourage people to visit your local area.

Australia and the World

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Australian Made? Lesson Focus:

You will learn about the importance of encouraging Australian-made purchases.

Keywords:

product, advertisement, trade, internationally

Australian Travel Perth Melbourne Adelaide Sydney Cairns Brisbane

r o e t s Bo r Australian e p o Holiday u k S M AU AD ST E IN RA LIA

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Darwin

Visit the BUY IAN R e d Ce n t r e L© R. A I . C .Publ i cat i ons R T S AU ADE •Mf orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

1.

w ww

Use the advertisements to complete the following. What are the advertisements above trying to do and why?

. te

2.

m . u

ULURU

467 km so many Abori uth-west of Alice rock forma ginal sacred sitesSprings are tio biggest an ns such as Uluru,and famous d most im the pressive mo world's nolith. The area ho lds g r li

o c . che e r o t r s super ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES

Make a list of the advantages and disadvantages of global trade and travel.

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Australia and the World


How can you tell if a product is made in Australia?

4.

What products have you or your family purchased recently which are made in Australia?

5.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

3.

Visit your local supermarket. Record five products from overseas and the same products which are made in Australia. For example, Colby cheese–New Zealand – Coon cheese–Australia.

Product

Country

Product

Country

Australia

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Australia Australia •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Australia

List ways in which your life would be different if Australians did not travel internationally or trade with the rest of the world.

w ww

. te

m . u

6.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Topics for Discussion/Debate

Additional Activities

Search Engine Keywords

Australia would be better off if everyone bought Australian-made products.

Select a product made in Australia and develop an advertising campaign. It can be a poster, pamphlet, TV ad or radio ad. Present your campaign to the class.

Australian made; Ausmade; Australian holidays; Australia tourism

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Global Communications Lesson Focus:

You will examine some of the history of global communications.

Keywords:

communications, invention, networks, linking, information

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The time line shows major events in the history of global communications.

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Use the information provided in the time line to answer these. 1.

List the communication systems you have used over the past week and where in the world the information has been communicated from or to.

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Select four communication systems and complete the following chart using research and the information provided in the time line.

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Approximate time for information delivery Technology used

When it was introduced

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Communication service

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Advantages of the service

Disadvantages of the service

2.

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Topics for Discussion/Debate

Additional Activities

Search Engine Keywords

1. Discuss which communication development was the most significant. Support your reasoning.

1. Choose a global communication system we use today and research its development and its effectiveness in communication globally. Use real-life examples to support your information.

communication systems (by name; e.g. phonograph, radio); global communications; history of (by name)

2. Discuss the development of communication. Its speed helps us in many ways every day. How does it help you?

Australia and the World

2. Follow a particular news item through different sources, e.g. newspapers, magazines, television, radio and the Internet. Compare the images and presentation of each version. Make a list of similarities and differences and explain why they might be similar or different. 39

R.I.C. Publications


Global Organisations Lesson Focus:

You will learn about Australia’s efforts to help developing countries.

Keywords:

various, support, assistance, objective, poverty, peace

There are various global organisations which provide support, information and assistance and to which Australia belongs, such as the United Nations, Greenpeace, Amnesty International, the Red Cross, the World Wide Fund for Nature and AUSaid. The objective of AUSaid is to help developing countries to reduce poverty and achieve a suitable level of development. AUSaid will respond to situations promptly and appropriately but with a focus on the Asia Pacific region, in particular, East Asia.

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Australia’s aid program is in support of the peace process. AUSaid provide assistance with government, health, education and agricultural needs to help maintain peace.

A peacekeeping force was sent in to make East Timor a safer place and aid agences provided food, shelter and health supplies.

EAST TIMOR is an area where AUSaid has been involved. East Timor is 480 kilometres north of Darwin. It is made up of the eastern part of Timor Island, a small area within West Timor and two small nearby islands. The land is mountainous with thick rainforest areas. It has wet and dry seasons.

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Use the information to answer these. 1. Name three global organisations to which Australia belongs. (a) (b) (c)

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2.

What is the objective of AUSaid?

3.

Why does AUSaid focus on the Asia Pacific area?

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In 1514 the Portuguese came to Timor and occupied the eastern half of the island. In 1975 the Portuguese moved out and a resistance group pushed for the people of East Timor to rule themselves. Very soon after, on 7 December 1975, Indonesian soldiers invaded East Timor. On 30 August 1999, Indonesia allowed a ballot to be held to decide if East Timor should rule itself. Ninety-eight per cent of the population registered to vote and 80% of them voted for independence. Dili and many other parts of East Timor were destroyed in the unrest that followed.

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PACIFIC OCEAN

Equator

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INDIAN OCEAN

Tropic of Capricorn

4.

Locate East Timor on the map above and colour the area green. Mark in the cities of Dili and Darwin.

5.

What happened in the following years?

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6.

What happened as a result of the ballot held in August 1999?

7.

In what ways has AUSaid helped East Timor?

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8.

Select one global organisation and complete the profile.

Organisation: First established: Who established the organisation?: Where?: Why was it established?:

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Purpose of organisation:

List as many ways as you can that Australia helps other countries through AUSaid. Write them under the correct headings.

GOVERNMENT

EDUCATION

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Topics for Discussion/Debate

Additional Activities

Search Engine Keywords

Australia should only help Australian citizens— not people in other countries.

1. Research and describe the situation in East Timor today.

Organisations by name; e.g. Greenpeace, AUSaid; East Timor

2. Investigate one of the following global organisations to find out what it does, how Australians help the organisation and the benefits of the organisation’s work: Red Cross, Amnesty International, International Olympic Federation, United Nations, Greenpeace or the World Wide Fund for Nature. R.I.C. Publications

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The Daintree

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What is a Rainforest? Lesson Focus:

You will learn about the features of a rainforest.

Keywords:

dense, diverse, biome, tropical, temperate, species, ecosystem, vulnerable

When we think of a rainforest, we think of damp and lots of trees, plants and animals. Well, we are generally right. There are a number of features that make a rainforest ‘a rainforest’. Amazon Basin. The second largest area of untouched rainforest can be found in north Queensland. Known as the Daintree, it covers an area of approximately 9 000 square kilometres.

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The rainforest contains one of the most complicated ecosystems on earth and is generally an area that contains the most information about ancient plant and animal life. Some species of plants found in a rainforest are believed to have been in existence since the age of the dinosaurs. Scientists carefully study the life of a rainforest to develop a greater understanding of the evolution of many plant and animal species which can only be found in this type of environment.

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Did you know there are actually two different types of rainforests? One is known as tropical—mainly located near the Equator—and the other is known as temperate—generally found in coastal areas. Tropical and temperate rainforests are similar in a lot of ways— the vegetation is very dense and the animal and plant species are more diverse than in any other biome. Both types of rainforest are very lush and wet. The main difference between the two is that the tropical climate is warm and moist while the temperate climate is cool. There are fewer temperate rainforests in the world than there are tropical rainforests. Their climate is seasonal— which means temperatures vary and the level of rainfall is not as high. This affects the number of species of animals and plants which may be found there— making these areas less diverse than tropical rainforests.

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Rainforests also play a very important role in the water cycle. The moisture absorbed by the dense trees is transpired through the leaves and evaporates into the air to then produce rainfall. Because of the denseness of a rainforest, the amount of water which is transpired and evaporated is higher than that which occurs over a less forested area. This is part of the reason why rainforests are so important.

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Rainforests are believed to have once encircled the planet, making a green belt between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. They are thought to have covered approximately 1.6 billion hectares or about 14 per cent of the earth. Today, they are disappearing at an alarming rate and now only cover about seven per cent of the earth’s surface. The largest untouched rainforest can be found in South America,

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For a rainforest to be considered tropical it must be located between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, it must receive between 90 and 130 cm of rainfall each year, and it must be warm and frost-free all year long, with an average temperature of 27°C.

Rainforests provide a home suited to about half of the plant and animal species in the world. Some of these are the most unusual and the most beautiful found anywhere in the world. The relationship between the plants and animals in a rainforest is also one of the most complex. Any slight upset to the balance can cause severe problems for the animals and plants which rely on the rainforest for survival—making this ecosystem extremely vulnerable.

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covering about 6.9 million square kilometres of the R.I.C. Publications

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Use an atlas and the information provided about rainforests to complete these. 1.

On this map of the world, locate, draw and label: (a)

the Tropic of Cancer

(b)

the Tropic of Capricorn

(c)

the Equator

Shade, in green, the band where you will most probably find a tropical rainforest.

3.

Shade, in black, the areas which still have rainforests.

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Use the information and a dictionary to help you answer these.

5.

What is … (a)

a biome?

(b)

an ecosystem?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons • f or r e vi ew pau r p osesonl y• Explain the difference between a ‘temperate region’ and ‘tropical region’.

(c)

a species?

(d)

diversity?

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2.

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Use the information on rainforests to answer these. 6.

What are the similarities and differences between a ‘temperate rainforest’ and a ‘tropical rainforest’?

Similarities

The Daintree

Differences

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7.

8.

Tick true or false. (a)

We have approximately half of the original rainforests left.

True

False

(b)

The rainforest ecosystem is very simple.

True

False

(c)

The vegetation in a rainforest is very dense.

True

False

(d)

Rainforests provide a habitat for about one-third of all animal and plant species.

True

False

(e)

Some rainforest species were present in the time of the dinosaurs.

True

False

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Brainstorm what you would like to know about rainforests and where you think you will be able to source the information you need.

Where I can find the information

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What I would like to know

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Explain in your own words why rainforests are so important to the earth.

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Write 10 words which you could use to describe a rainforest.

Topics for Discussion/Debate

Additional Activities

Search Engine Keywords

Discuss the importance of rainforests using the information you provided in Question 9. What do the other members of your class think? Do you all agree on the same things? Why/Why not?

1. Research the water cycle and draw a chart to show how it works. Remember to include labels to explain your diagram.

rainforest, Amazon, Daintree

R.I.C. Publications

2. Research to find out how quickly rainforests are disappearing. 46

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Parts of a Rainforest Lesson Focus:

You will learn about the various layers of a rainforest and the role of each.

Keywords:

crown, foliage, dense, disperse, nutrients, predators, forage

As we have already learnt, the rainforest is a very complex habitat. If we were to look down on a rainforest from a helicopter, all we would see is a thick blanket of treetops, but there is much more to a rainforest than this. It consists of several layers, each layer just as important as the others and having its own unique purpose, flora and fauna. Let’s look at each layer, beginning at the very top.

Emergent Layer

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The very tallest trees, the ones poking their head above all the others, are called the Emergent Layer. These trees have a huge crown which spreads out over the canopy. They receive the greatest amount of sunlight, survive through high temperatures, strong winds and low humidity levels. These giant trees can grow to heights of more than 50 metres.

Canopy Layer

This layer is the dense foliage that covers the rainforest, sometimes called the ‘roof’. The nature of the foliage allows less than 15% of sunlight through to the next layer. These trees can grow to approximately 45 metres in height. Trees grow taller as they compete for light. As a gap in the canopy appears, it is soon filled with the foliage of a tree which has grown to reach the sunlight. Without the canopy blocking a large percentage of the light, there would be no such thing as a rainforest.

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Understorey

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This is the layer where most insects and animals (approximately 90%) make their home. Being up high provides them protection from some predators and allows them to be closer to the sunlight. The food source in the canopy is rich; full of fruits for the animals to eat. As the animals eat the fruit, they disperse the seeds to the forest floor, helping to continue the cycle. These animals also knock fruit from the trees, which acts as a food source for the animals which forage on the forest floor. The branches in this layer support other plants (epiphytes) while vines form a link from branch to branch for the wildlife.

protect them from some of their predators. Animals such as birds, geckos, skinks and lizards prey on the insects found in the understorey.

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This is the layer between the canopy and the forest floor. The understorey is quite dark—only between 2% and 15% of sunlight reaches this part of the rainforest. The plants you are most likely to find here are those which require little sunlight and a damp environment. Plants such as ferns, palms and climbing plants thrive in these conditions. Small trees which have not grown fully because of a lack of sunlight are a common sight. Epiphytes (plants which attach to a host plant) such as orchids, mosses, some ferns and lichens have developed successful systems to survive in these conditions. Their structures trap any falling debris and, as it rots, it provides nutrients for the plant.

The forest floor receives the least amount of sunlight, only about 2%. This, along with the humidity, provides a stagnant, warm habitat for many organisms. You will never find a thick layer of fallen leaves on the forest floor, as the conditions here allow the forest material to decompose very quickly. The nutrients are then quickly absorbed by the plants and animals before they are washed away by the rain. The soil is nutrient-poor because of many years of rain washing the nutrients away. Fungi grow best in these conditions and their colourful appearance adds interest to the forest floor. They come in many different colours, red, purple, blue, orange and yellow; while some even glow in the dark. Many animals use the forest floor to their advantage, creating homes and gathering enough food for survival.

Many animals survive in the understorey layer of the rainforest. Some of the insects include butterflies, bees, beetles, moths, spiders and crickets. These insects are generally coloured to blend in with their environment to The Daintree

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Use the information about the layers of a rainforest to answer these questions. 1.

(a)

How many layers does a rainforest have?

(b)

Name them.

(c)

Which layer do you think is the most important? Explain why.

2.

Make a list of any animals found in the rainforest. Write them under the correct headings.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Understorey

4.

Label this diagram of the layers of a rainforest.

Forest Floor

What is … (a) humidity?

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(b) a habitat?

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(d) a stagnant environment?

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Use the information and other resources to answer these. 5.

There are many different types of ferns found in a rainforest. Select three and complete the table below.

6.

Description

Where found

Drawing of leaf

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Rainforest plants have a very shallow root system. Why do you think this is?

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Type of Fern

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Trees generally rely on a deep root system to support them. That way they won’t blow over in the wind. Can you find out how the giant trees of the rainforest support themselves? If so, explain it in the space below by drawing a diagram and providing a brief explanation.

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Topics for Discussion/Debate

Additional Activities

Search Engine Keywords

In question 1. (c) you had to state which layer of the rainforest is most important. Discuss your opinion and support it with facts. Is your viewpoint different from or the same as the other students in your class?

1. Research a plant or animal that lives in the rainforest. Complete a description and provide detailed diagrams.

http://www.rainforest-australia.com/

The Daintree

2. Research and draw a diagram of the cycle of life in a rainforest. Be sure to include how the various layers support each other. 49

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The Daintree—Part 1 Lesson Focus:

You will learn about the Daintree Rainforest and what makes it so unique.

Keywords:

continents, theory, species, hectares, scientific, botanist, heritage, restricted

Gondwana

India

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Antarctica Australia

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Africa

South America

The southern boundary of the Daintree is the Daintree River. The eastern boundary is the Great Barrier Reef, a heritage-listed area—where the forest meets the sea. The northern boundary of the Daintree is the Bloomfield River, approximately 70 km north of the Daintree River. The Daintree contains significant areas which are rare in any other parts of the world. Some of these areas include: • mangrove swamps; • sclerophyll forests; • woodlands; and

IN THE BEGINNING, Australia was part of a huge landmass called ‘Gondwana’. The continents as we know them today did not exist—they were all part of this giant landmass. Gondwana began to separate into the present continents about 120 million years ago. This process took millions of years, with Australia settling into its final form and position between 40 and 50 million years ago. Scientists can support this theory because they have found many plant fossils of the same species and same time period throughout Africa, South America, Antarctica, Australia and India.

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Daintree National Park

Port Douglas Cairns

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QUEENSLAND

Australia is thought to have been covered in rainforest. Yes, covered! Even central Australia. Due to climate changes, the area of rainforest has been reduced and today only survives in limited areas of Australia. One of these areas is the Daintree, found in an area known as the Wet Tropics. It lies in north Queensland between Townsville and Cooktown and covers an area of approximately 894 000 hectares.

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Townsville

The Daintree, even though it only represents 0.1% of Australia, consists of many rare species of plants and animals. It is estimated that there are 390 species of plants which are regarded as rare or restricted to the area, while there are at least 25 species of animals in the area considered to be rare. Many species in the Daintree originated when Australia was still part of Gondwana. It is believed that this rainforest area is an almost complete record of the major stages of plant evolution on earth. Biologists consider it to be a living museum, containing more primitive plant groups than any other rainforest in the world.

Special scientific dating processes estimate the Daintree to be about 110 million years old, making it one of the oldest living rainforests in the world. Botanists have found flowering plants which are thought to be 100 million years old and existed around the time of the dinosaurs. Because Australia was reasonably stable during the evolution of flowering plants, these forests existed undisturbed for millions of years. R.I.C. Publications

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Use the information to answer these. 1.

(a)

The Daintree existed in the time of the dinosaurs.

(b)

The Daintree River is 70 km south of the Bloomfield River.

(c)

There are 390 species of animals in the area considered to be rare.

(d)

The Daintree covers an area of approximately 849 000 hectares.

False

True

False

True

False

True

False

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3.

True

Name the modern day continents and countries that made up the Gondwana landmass.

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2.

Tick true or false.

Use facts and dates from the text to complete this time line.

150 million years ago

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List the physical boundaries of the Daintree Rainforest.

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List three things that make the Daintree unique. (a) (b) (c)

Topics for Discussion/Debate

Additional Activities

Search Engine Keywords

Complete this statement and discuss people’s different viewpoints: ‘The Daintree is unique and should be looked after because … ’.

Select one of the following and research to write a report about its features.

gondwana; gondwanaland; pangaea; Daintree

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mangrove swamp; sclerophyll forest; woodlands; swamps. 51

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The Daintree—Part 2 Lesson Focus:

You will learn why the Daintree was selected to be a natural World Heritage Site.

Keywords:

convention, proposal, criteria, nominated, evolutionary, declared, monitored

By March 2000, Australia had 13 properties on the World Heritage List. Four of these met all four criteria: The Great Barrier Reef, the Tasmanian Wilderness, the Wet Tropics of Queensland and Shark Bay. Some Australian heritage-listed sites were included for their natural and cultural significance, including: Kakadu National Park, Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park, the Willandra Lakes Region and the Tasmanian Wilderness. Other Australian sites which were listed under the natural World Heritage criteria included: the Australian Fossil Mammal Sites (Naracoorte/Riversleigh), the Lord Howe Island Group, the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves of Australia, Fraser Island, Macquarie Island, and Heard and McDonald islands.

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identify and decide which properties should be listed under the World Heritage Convention. A World Heritage Area can be one of cultural

significance or one of natural significance. Each of these has certain criteria which must be met by the nominated area. To be considered as a natural World Heritage Area, these four criteria must be met:

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In 1972 the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) recognised the need to develop the World Heritage Convention to protect areas of cultural or natural significance. This Convention came into being in 1975, when 20 countries approved the proposal. Australia became one of the first of more than 140 countries to adopt the Convention. The World Heritage Committee consists of 21 nations elected every two years to

One of the most amazing things about north Queensland is that it is the only place in the world where two World Heritage Sites actually meet. The Wet Tropics meet the Great Barrier Reef in a spectacular fashion along the coastline as the forest meets the sea.

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2. It must be an outstanding example which

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respresents significant ongoing ecological and biological processes in the evolution and development of ecosystems, plants and animals. 3. It must contain superior natural phenomena.

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4. It must contain the most important significant habitats for endemic species to an area.

The management of such an area works on three levels. The day-to-day aspects of the area are monitored by several Queensland government departments, while the Wet Tropics Management Authority is generally responsible for future planning. The State and Commonwealth Ministerial Council coordinates policies and any funding required for the smooth running of the area.

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1. It must be an outstanding example which represents the major stages of the evolutionary history of the Earth.

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In 1966, Dr Len Webb from the CSIRO had identified the tropical rainforest area of north Queensland as having a significant habitat which should be protected from future development and destruction. Once the World Heritage Convention was established, areas of north Queensland were nominated in 1978. In December 1988, the Wet Tropics, including the Daintree Rainforest, was declared a Natural Heritage Area. It fulfilled all four criteria, and at the time was the only one of 13 listed areas in the world to do so. R.I.C. Publications

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Use the information about the World Heritage Convention and an atlas to answer these. 1.

Each World Heritage site in Australia has been given a number from 1 to 13. Name each area and use an atlas to write its approximate longitude and latitude. 1 10

long:

lat:

long:

lat:

2

13 12

4b

3

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8

11

7

4a

(b)

lat:

4b

3

5

2

What happened in … (a)

long:

6

1966?

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2.

lat:

4a

6

1

long:

long:

lat:

long:

lat:

long:

lat:

long:

lat:

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(c)

1975?

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(e)

3.

9

1978?

1988?

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long:

10

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lat:

long:

lat:

long:

lat:

long:

lat:

long:

lat:

11

What is so amazing about north Queensland? Explain.

12

13

Topics for Discussion/Debate

Additional Activities

Search Engine Keywords

Discuss people’s responses to Question 3. Not everyone will have the same explanation. Why do you think this is?

Select one World Heritage site and research to present a talk to your class about the area.

http://www.environment.gov.au/heritage/awhg/ whu/auswha.html; UNESCO; CSIRO

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The Amazon Rainforest Lesson Focus:

You will learn the main features of the Amazon Rainforest and have an opportunity to compare it to the Daintree.

Keywords:

continuous, plateau, biological, region, endemic, ecological one-third of all species in the world live and reproduce there, making it the richest biological area in the world. The Amazon is home to approximately 1 200 species of butterfly, the threatened jaguar, the harpy eagle, the giant river otter, macaws, guans, tapirs, howler monkeys, pumas, ocelots, bush dogs and black caimans, as well as many species of freshwater fish and other forest-dwelling creatures.

Venezuela Guyana Suriname Colombia French Guyana Ecuador

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38%

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Peru

Brazil

Bolivia

Paraguay

Argentina

The Amazon is also known for its diverse number of plant species— approximately 30 000. About onethird of the world’s tropical woods are found in the Amazon Rainforest area. Trees found there include the myrtle, laurel, palm, acacia, rosewood, mahogany, Amazonian cedar, Brazil nut and rubber tree. Some of the various areas of the Amazon Rainforest include tropical rainforest and flooded savannas complete with palm trees, as well as bamboo forests.

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800

1 600

2 400

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The Amazon as a whole is not listed as a World Heritage Site, but many parts of the area have been listed for various reasons. One Amazon Forest in South America area, the Atlantic Forests (southThe largest area of continuous rainforest lies in South east), was listed because it contains the best and America along the Amazon Basin. The Amazon largest remaining example of Atlantic forest in the Rainforest covers an area of approximately 7 000 000 south-east region of Brazil. This area was noted as square kilometres. It covers about 40% of the total area meeting three of the four criteria required to be listed of Brazil, while other smaller countries in South America as a natural World Heritage Site. This region’s diversity are completely covered. Its boundaries are the Atlantic of high numbers of rare and endemic species and Ocean in the east, the Andes Mountain Ranges in the diverse landscapes, including areas where the west and the Brazilian central plateau to the south. mountains meet the sea, estuaries, waterfalls and wild rivers, make it an exceptional site on the World The rainforest in Brazil represents approximately oneHeritage list. third of all tropical rainforests in the world. The success of the rainforest in this area is due to the high rainfall, The Amazon, like all other rainforests, is under threat. high humidity and high temperatures which occur in As the population grows and more roads and homes the region. The Amazon Basin is the largest river basin are built, more forest is cleared. As tourists visit the in the world, spanning approximately six million square area and develop an ecological understanding of the kilometres and containing more than 20 per cent of the delicate nature of the forest, it is hoped steps will be world’s freshwater. taken to preserve these incredible habitats.

kilometres

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It is said that the Amazon River Basin is the world’s best example of the delicate web of life. More than R.I.C. Publications

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Use the information on the Amazon Rainforest and an atlas to answer these. On this map of the world: (a)

label North and South America.

(b)

shade the Amazon region.

(c)

label the boundaries of the Amazon.

(d)

draw and label the Amazon River.

(e)

label the Equator, Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn.

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1.

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Use the information to answer these.

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2.

Describe the climate of the Amazon.

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Name the countries which contain some part of the Amazon Rainforest.

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4.

Complete these figures. In the Amazon, what is the … (a)

number of butterfly species?

(b)

percentage of Brazil covered?

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percentage of the world’s fresh water?

(d)

number of plant species?

(e)

area of the river basin?

Topics for Discussion/Debate

Additional Activities

Search Engine Keywords

Discuss this statement: ‘The whole of the Amazon should be Heritage listed’.

Select one plant or animal species found in the Amazon and write a detailed report. Present the report to your classmates in a suitable format.

Amazon Rainforest

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1.

Use the information on the Daintree and the Amazon to complete this table.

The Daintree

The Amazon

Area Continent Percentage of coverage on that continent Location (including longitude and latitude)

Climate

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Boundaries

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Significant areas

Special features

Flora

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Explain in your own words what is similar and different between the two rainforests.

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Fauna

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Animals of the Rainforest Lesson Focus:

You will learn about some of the animals that rely on the rainforest for survival.

Keywords:

threatened, rare, lofty, solitary, nocturnal, dispersing, sonar

As you have already seen, the ecosystem of a rainforest is very delicate. Each plant and animal brings a special quality to its environment which others rely on for their own survival. Each rainforest has its own species of plants and animals that are endemic to the area. We will look at some of the animals endemic to the Daintree.

MAMMALS

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The area of north Queensland, including the Daintree, is home to about one-third of Australia’s mammals. Some of these species are extremely rare or threatened. Thirteen of these species are found nowhere else in the world.

Tree Kangaroos It is rare to see a tree kangaroo in the forest. These rather shy mammals hide in lofty places but can quickly jump to the ground to escape if the need arises.

Queensland Tube-nosed Bat

Bats

These nocturnal mammals are best seen at dusk leaving their tree camps to forage for food. They can travel large distances in search of food. They survive mainly on nectar and fruits and have an active role in dispersing the seeds of these throughout the rainforest. Bats have excellent vision and sense of smell. Some bats eat insects, using their sonar to catch the insects in flight.

The Lumholtz’s and Bennett’s Tree Kangaroos have both made their home in the Daintree. They are each only about 60 cm tall with a tail that extends almost one metre in length.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Tree Kangaroos are generally solitary mammals and spend most of their time foraging for leaves and fruit in the canopy of the forest. They are nocturnal creatures who spend their day sleeping among the branches.

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Some fruit bats are rather large, but they can be as small as 5 cm long and weigh only 15 grams. There are many species and scientists often trap and examine the bats to identify them. Some bats roost in caves, while others use tree branches, tree hollows, tunnels, roofs and loose tree bark to make their home.

o c . che e r o t r s super Tropical Bettong

This nocturnal mammal is very rare. It looks a bit like a small kangaroo leaning forward and its face is a little more pointed than that of a kangaroo. The Tropical Bettong spends its life on the ground within the rainforest, preferring the open areas. It feeds mostly on fungi and has developed a special digestive system which is able to absorb nutrients from this unusual diet.

Young Tree Kangaroo The Daintree

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BIRDS

Males are responsible for incubating the eggs and raising the chicks. Once the female lays a clutch of eggs, she will seek out other males to mate with, each time providing a clutch of eggs (about 3 to 5) for him to nurture.

The rainforest area of north Queensland is home to almost half of Australia’s birdlife. That means approximately 370 species of birds have made the habitat of the rainforest their home. Birds have evolved from the very first bird known as Archaeopteryx, which lived during the Jurassic period, 145 million years ago. It is thought that birds first evolved in the northern hemisphere and gradually spread to Gondwana. Some of Australia’s oldest birds are the flightless birds—the emu and the cassowary. The Cassowary

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S The cassowary is important to the rainforest as it is the only bird large enough to distribute the seeds of more than 70 species of trees. If it weren’t for the cassowary, these trees would only grow in small pockets. With the help of the cassowary, the trees are able to grow in all areas of the rainforest. The cassowary is also the only animal which can transfer the seeds of another 80 species of plants, which are toxic to other animals.

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The cassowary, one of the earliest types of bird, is an endangered species. The cassowary is known for its long, black feathers which, up close, look like coarse hair. Their head and neck are very colourful with bright blues and reds attracting attention.

Cassowaries are solitary animals—they find their own patch of forest when they are a young adult. They spend their time familiarising themselves with their area, feeding and staying safe from predators. This area is called a ‘home range’ and the cassowary regularly wanders through it, defending it from other cassowaries.

REPTILES

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pu r posesonl y• Crocodiles

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Crocodiles have survived over tens of millions of years and were present in the time of the dinosaurs. They can live up to 100 years and grow to five metres in length. There are about 23 species of crocodiles in the world. Those found in Australia are considered to be the most aggressive of all.

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Snakes

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There are about 24 species of reptiles which are dependent on the rainforest for survival; 18 of these are only found within Australia. Rainforest reptiles include crocodiles, snakes, lizards, geckos and skinks, and turtles.

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Australia is renowned for a large number of extremely venomous snakes. It is not so wellknown, but Australia is also home to at least 10 species of pythons as well. The largest of these is the Amethystine Python, growing to a length of about seven metres. It feeds on warm-blooded animals and has heat-seeking pits in its jaw, which are used to locate its prey. A python’s body is mostly muscle and is extremely powerful in order to suffocate its prey before eating.

Crocodiles build a mound to incubate their eggs. They lay approximately 50 eggs at a time and when they hatch, the young climb to the surface, where the mother then takes them in her mouth to the water. The females are very protective of their young and defend them from the male crocodiles.

Venomous snakes such as the Taipan and Death Adder also reside in the rainforest. These snakes are deadly to humans and administer poison through their front fangs via a bite. Venomous snakes can be found on land or in the water. R.I.C. Publications

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Geckos clings in a vertical position to tree trunks. Boyd’s Forest Dragon is thought to have originated in Southeast Asia and New Guinea.

The 23-cm Northern Leaf-tailed Gecko is a spectacular specimen of a gecko. This lizard can only be found in Australia. It has a flat body and tail with long, slender legs and sharp claws instead of the usual pads. Its body is covered with an irregular pattern, which is rough to touch and has spiky scales along the edge. This gecko forages for food at night and shelters in crevices in trees during the day.

Lizards

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Boyd’s Forest Dragon

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The Boyd’s Forest Dragon is a giant lizard with a colourful, large-scaled head and curved spikes forming a line down its back. It lives among the canopy of the forest and is not easily seen. This lizard can grow up to 50 cm in length and usually

AMPHIBIANS

FRESHWATER FISH

There are approximately 54 species of frogs found in the rainforest of north Queensland. Of these species, there are tree frogs, burrowing frogs and water-holding frogs.

There is a great diversity of freshwater fish in Australia. Of the 190 species in Australia, 78 of them occur in north Queensland in the rainforest area. Of these 78, eight are endemic to the area.

Frogs

© R. I . C.Pub l i c a t i on Some of the fish thats occur in the area include: the Rainbowfish, Pacific Blue-eye, Jungle Catfish, Barramundi, •f orr evi ew pur poPerch, ses on l y• Sooty

Male frogs use their vocal sac to make sounds when they are ready to mate. This lets the female frogs know where they are, but it is also risky, because predators also know where they are by their call.

Grunter and the Mangrove Jack.

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The Common Green Tree frog grows to approximately 9 cm in length. People generally are comfortable with these frogs, as they appear gentle and safe—probably because they look like a baby frog. These frogs prefer to live in dark, damp places and have a ‘homing instinct’. This means you will generally find the same frog in the same place every time. They make an area their home, just as we have our home. They like to make their home where there is a permanent freshwater source.

o c . che e r o t r s super Barramundi

They eat small insects, including moths, crickets and flies.

Rainbowfish The Rainbowfish is a colourful freshwater fish found in Australia and New Guinea. It prefers the tropical climate and so can be found in the tropical areas of north Queensland. In the wild, many species of Rainbowfish are endangered because of human activity and the resulting destruction of their habitat.

Green Tree Frog

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Use the information on ‘Animals of the Rainforest’ to complete these.

(a)

Name one nocturnal animal.

(b)

What animal grows to 50 cm in length?

(c)

What is a Sooty Grunter?

(d)

What animal builds a mound to incubate its eggs?

(e)

Which animal uses sonar?

(f)

What animal has a tail that is about one metre long?

(g)

What animal has a ‘home range’?

(h)

What animal has a ‘homing instinct’?

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(i)

What is the name of the first bird?

(j)

Name a deadly snake.

How many species of the following have made the rainforest their home? (a)

Birds

(b)

Mammals

(c)

Reptiles

(d)

Freshwater Fish

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Explain what the effects on the rainforest would be if the cassowary became extinct.

4.

Which rainforest animal mentioned in the text do you consider …

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3.

(a)

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the most dangerous to humans? Why?

(b)

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2.

Quick quiz.

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1.

the least dangerous to humans? Why?

5.

Crocodiles seem to be the only species that are not affected by human interaction. Why do you think this is?

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6.

Each animal below has been given a letter of the alphabet. Use the letter to place each animal in the forest picture, where you think it would be found. Provide an explanation for each of your choices.

Animal

Explanation

A

Tree Kangaroo

B

Tropical Bettong

C

Bat

Amethystine Python

F

Crocodile

G

Northern Leaf-tailed Gecko

H

Boyd’s Forest Dragon

I

Common Green Tree Frog

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Rainbowfish •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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J

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E

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D

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Topics for Discussion/Debate

Additional Activities

Search Engine Keywords

Many species that live in the rainforest are threatened or endangered. Find out the causes and discuss possible solutions.

Research to find other animals that live in the rainforest. Write a report and create a class book on the animals of the rainforest. Place in the library for all to read.

animals (by name); rainforest fauna

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Plants of the Rainforest Lesson Focus:

You will learn about some of the plants that can be found in the Daintree rainforest.

Keywords:

primitive, circulate, fronds, crowns, girth, evidence

The rainforest environment is home to more than 3 000 different plant species. Approximately 700 of these species can only be found in the World Heritage Area of north Queensland. The World Heritage Convention provides protection for more than 395 rare or threatened plant species in this area—330 of these species are only found in Australia and more than 62 of these are considered to be endangered or vulnerable. There are 19 families of primitive flowering plants in the world; 12 of those families are found in the rainforest of north Queensland.

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FERNS

Conifers are more advanced than ferns but not as advanced as flowering plants. Conifers first appear in fossil records from approximately 280 million years ago. The rainforest area of north Queensland provides a home for six species of conifer, including the largest of all conifers, the Bull Kauri.

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CONIFERS

Two of these giant trees can still be seen and they are referred to as the ‘Twin Kauris’. One of the trees measures 41.5 metres in height while the other is 44.2 metres tall. Their trunks measure almost 6 metres in girth. It is believed these trees are more than 1 100 years old. It is also believed that over 100 million years ago the whole area was forested with these trees.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Other conifers found in the area include:

• The Bunya Pine; also known as the southern conifer. It has sharp stiff leaves and produces massive cones up to 10 kilograms in weight. These trees can grow up to 40 metres tall.

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• The Plum Pine; a primitive conifer which produces a seed covered in red or purple flesh, looking rather like a plum.

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Ferns appear in fossils that are recorded to be as old as 325 million years. The tropical rainforest of north Queensland is home to about 40 species of ferns which are not found anywhere else in the world. Ferns are unique plants because they are one of the few plant types that circulate their water internally—known as ‘vascular’ plants. They have been around longer than flowering plants, conifers and cycads. Some ferns you might see in the rainforest include:

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• The King Fern, which looks a bit like a palm growing out of the ground. It has been around since the late Paleozoic era. The fronds of this fern are some of the longest of any fern in the world, growing to about five metres.

• The Tree Fern has been around since the time of the dinosaurs, though specimens were much taller then. It has a narrow trunk with long fronds like a crown. Some crowns have been measured to be 12 metres across.

• The Tassel Fern has been noted in fossils from the Carboniferous period. There are two different types of Tassel fern, one preferring to grow along the ground and the other making its home on top of another plant.

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PALMS

• The Fan Palm grows to a height of approximately 6 metres. It has a central trunk and a crown of palm fronds which can grow up to four metres in diameter. It is generally found in shady areas where drainage is poor. A small area in the Daintree, called Valley of the Palms, is dominated by these palms. They thrive in the wet season as the area becomes muddy and flooded. These palms grow quite slowly, so any tall specimens will be a considerable age.

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Teac he r

Palms come in all different shapes and sizes. Some have tall, thin trunks, others short, thick trunks. Palms originated in India and are thought to be one of the earliest types of flowering plants. They have been in Australia for at least 55 million years. Some of the palms found in north Queensland include:

• The Wait A While palm is a climbing palm found in the rainforest. It is called this because it has sharp hooks and if you get caught in this palm you have to ‘wait a while’ to untangle yourself. Water, suitable for drinking, can be found in the inner stems of this plant.

CYCADS

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Cycads are at about the same level of evolution as the conifers. Cycads first appeared some 240 million years ago. They are associated with the dinosaurs and can often be seen in pictures which interpret how the world looked when dinosaurs roamed the earth.

Fan Palm

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Two species of cycad which may be seen in the rainforest area of north Queensland are:

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• The Bowenia; the smallest cycad found in Australia. Fossil evidence suggests this cycad has not changed over the past 45 million years. It has glossy emerald leaves, which are poisonous.

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• Hope’s Cycad may be the tallest cycad in the world, growing up to 20 metres tall. The cones on this cycad can grow up to 70 cm in length. It produces bright red toxic seeds.

Other plants found in the rainforest include: • flowering plants—including those which produce fruit; e.g. the Blue Quondong and the Roundleaf Banana Fig. • carnivorous plants—relying on insects for food, these plants are common in the rainforest area. These include the Notched Sundew and the Pitcher Plant. • mushrooms and fungi—these interesting plants play an important role in rainforest life. Fungi break down wood and soil into smaller nutrients so other plants and animals are then able to use them. Some mushrooms will only live and reproduce on certain plants. Mushrooms and fungi can be seen at most times of the year in the rainforest. The Daintree

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Use the information about rainforest plants to answer these. 1.

Name these plant types.

C.

B.

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E.

D.

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Teac he r

A.

Explain the difference between ‘rare’ and ‘threatened’.

3.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• The flowering plants are considered extremely important to the rainforest environment. Why do you think this is?

4.

Quick quiz. Answer these briefly. (a)

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2.

(b)

Which plant type is about 280 million years old?

(c)

Which plant produces cones about 70 cm long?

(d)

What types of plants rely on meat for survival?

(e)

How many plant species can only be found in the World Heritage area?

(f)

What type of valley can be found in the Daintree?

(g)

How many species of ferns are found in North Queensland?

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Which plant provides water suitable for drinking?

Topics for Discussion/Debate

Additional Activities

Search Engine Keywords

The plants in the rainforest are some of the oldest species on earth. Discuss how these plants in the rainforest can be saved from future development.

Select a plant which can be found in the rainforest. Write a report as if you were a botanist. Include diagrams and labels, its life cycle, where it can be found, what it lives on and any interesting facts.

plants (by name); rainforest flora; Daintree

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Rainforest Aboriginal People Lesson Focus:

You will learn about the Aboriginal heritage relating to the rainforest.

Keywords:

obliged, custom, seasonal cycles, temporary, generation, terrain, heritage

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The rainforest Aboriginal people used language, song, stories and dance to pass down important information about survival to the younger generation. They told how to use the plants of the rainforest for food, shelter and medicine. They also told about the animals, the best time to collect eggs and when to hunt. The information that was passed down also gave each person a place in the Aboriginal community so each knew his or her role and what was expected.

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Teac he r

The rainforest Aboriginal people are the original owners of the rainforests of north Queensland. More than 16 Aboriginal language groups have direct traditional ties to the area. Each group is obliged by custom to manage its country under Aboriginal law. The rainforest Aboriginal people rely on the land for their religion, spirituality, food, medicine and tools. The landscape—which includes mountains, rivers, waterfalls, trees and swimming holes—is important to the traditional land owners as it represents many Creation stories which are also known as the Dreaming.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons EUROPEAN •f orr evi ew pur poseso nl y• SETTLEMENT

The rugged terrain of the rainforest protected the rainforest Aboriginal people from European settlement for some time. But, eventually, as more land was cleared and people trekked north in search of gold, the land was gradually taken away from its traditional owners. With the inroads of these settlers came the introduced diseases (influenza, smallpox) which killed many of the rainforest Aboriginal people. Areas that were previously harvested or hunted could no longer be reached and many traditional owners of the land died from starvation. Roads were built over the traditional Aboriginal walking tracks, limiting the people’s access to their cultural heritage.

BEFORE EUROPEAN SETTLEMENT

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The traditional ways of the rainforest Aboriginal people were to follow seasonal cycles. They camped, hunted, gathered food and medicines according to the time of the year. During the wet season, those people who lived in the rainforest moved to drier land and built shelter to protect them from the heavy and constant rains. In the dry season, they moved to the coast and built temporary dwellings, using dugout canoes to travel up and down the coastline to collect important resources for cultural ceremonies.

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Movement from place to place was along a very complex network of walking tracks. These tracks led to other camps, neighbouring groups and places of cultural significance. The tracks also defined the boundaries between each group. These tracks are now considered to be significant cultural heritage sites.

The rainforest Aboriginal people began to fight back for their land. Many of the beautiful waterfalls we see in the rainforest are places of great sorrow for the Aboriginal people as these waterfalls were often used to send them to their deaths.

Food was hunted and gathered according to season. The rainforest Aboriginal people knew when certain fruit was ripe and ready to eat; they also knew when certain animals would be ‘fat’ and ready to eat, as well as when not to eat certain animals because of their breeding cycle. The Daintree

Today, the rainforest Aboriginal people pass down their culture the same way they have done for thousands of years. They care for the rainforest environment using the methods they have always used and they play a major role in ensuring the survival of their culture and the rainforest environment. 65

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Use the information about rainforest Aboriginal people to complete these. 1.

List three ways European settlement had an impact on the rainforest Aboriginal people. (a) (b) (c) Why do you think building roads had a negative effect on the Aboriginal culture?

List the four ways Aboriginal culture is passed down. (a) (b) (c)

(d) © R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Explain the importance of hunting for and gathering food according to cycles. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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5.

3.

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4.

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2.

What is your opinion about the treatment of the rainforest Aboriginal people as the Europeans took over their land for their own purposes? Explain your opinion.

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Topics for Discussion/Debate

Additional Activities

Search Engine Keywords

1. Debate: ‘Aboriginal people should have more right to the land as they take more care of it than non-Aboriginal people do’.

1. Use recycled materials to recreate a shelter used by the rainforest Aboriginal people.

rainforest Aboriginal; Aboriginal Creation stories; Aboriginal Dreaming (or Dreamtime)

2. Discuss everyone’s opinions from Question 5. Does everyone have the same ideas? R.I.C. Publications

2. Research to find Aboriginal Creation Stories about the rainforest. Choose your favourite and tell it to the class. 66

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Human Impact Lesson Focus:

You will learn of the impact of humans and the steps being taken to conserve the rainforest areas.

Keywords:

endangered, depleted, convert, efficiently, vicious, reduction, sustain

Did you know that tropical rainforests are the most endangered habitats on the earth? They are the most complex and fragile ecosystems in the world. Thousands of species of plants and animals rely on them for survival.

Rainforests have an extremely important part to play in maintaining safe levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. They do this by converting carbon dioxide into oxygen.

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As the forests are reduced, they are unable to perform this function to the same level. As the amount of carbon dioxide rises, so does the temperature of the atmosphere. Unfortunately, as the temperature rises, more rainforests die due to the climatic change. With the reduction of rainforest environment, more plant and animal species are lost. It is a vicious cycle.

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Tropical rainforests are disappearing at a staggering rate—some estimates place it at 1 hectare every second = 60 hectares every minute = 86 000 hectares every day = 31 million hectares every year! This is only the land, what about the special plants and animals? It is estimated that about 137 species become extinct every day. More than 78% of the earth’s old-growth forests have already been logged or depleted. These figures are extraordinary—mind blowing in fact!

Not enough rainforest to keep up the conversion of carbon dioxide

Rainforests convert carbon dioxide into oxygen

The rainforest dies because the earth is heating up

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons The earth heats Rainforests are ups due ton anl •f or r evi ew pur pose o y• reduced by increase in human consumption

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carbon dioxide

As the human population grows, roads are built and land is cleared for housing or business development; our impact on the earth increases and we produce more carbon dioxide and other gases which are, basically, killing the Earth. If all the forests are cleared completely, Earth has no way to sustain itself. Once an area of rainforest is cleared, there is not a great deal of life left. The animals that rely on that habitat have to move elsewhere for survival and the ecosystem of the area is destroyed. The impact on the complex rainforest environment is devastating for plants, animals and humankind. What can be done?

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1.

Reduce the amount of paper and wood used every day.

2.

Reduce the amount of greenhouse gases produced every day.

3.

Increase the number of trees.

4.

Choose to recycle products or use products which have been recycled.

5.

When visiting a rainforest area, leave only footprints and take only photographs.

These sound pretty easy, don’t they? The problem is educating people globally. It comes down to people breaking their everyday habits and choosing a positive path to help. Sometimes, it means more work on our part, but it is definitely worthwhile. The Daintree

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Use the information provided, along with any other information you can find, to answer these. 1.

What are the consequences of losing large areas of rainforest?

2.

List three things you can do every day to help reduce your impact on the environment. (a)

Make a list of rules which people should follow when in a rainforest.

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(c)

Plan an information campaign to educate people about the world’s rainforests. (a)

What message needs to be given to the public about rainforests?

(b)

How could you get this message across?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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4.

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(b)

3.

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(c)

Write a catchy slogan, jingle or title to get people’s attention.

(d)

Present your campaign to your class. Use any method needed to get your message across.

Topics for Discussion/Debate

Additional Activities

Search Engine Keywords

1. Debate: ‘Rainforests should be protected at all costs’.

1. Make a list of all the recycled products your school uses. If there are none, make suggestions for products which could be used.

photosynthesis; oxygen cycle; global warming; greenhouse effect

2. Discuss everyone’s education campaigns from Question 4. Select the five that the whole class likes and present them to the school and local community. R.I.C. Publications

2. Research and write a procedure showing how plants convert carbon dioxide to oxygen. Use diagrams wherever possible. 68

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Bali

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Bali

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Where is Bali? Lesson Focus:

You will learn where Bali is located and its physical relationship to Australia.

Keywords:

south-east Asia, Indonesia, equator, republic, geographical

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Tokyo

ASIA

Bangkok

INDONESIA

Sumatra

MALAYSIA

0

30

0

135

Sulawesi

Borneo

PAPUA NEW GUINEA

Manila

00

EQU AT O

R

Jakarta

Darwin

0

105

AUSTRALIA

Irian Jaya

Java

Bali

Timor

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Perth

0

30

Jakarta

SOUTH PACIFIC OCEAN

Sydney

As you can see from the maps, Bali is very small. It is only about 145 kilometres long and 80 kilometres across at its widest point. Bali is less than one-twelfth the size of Tasmania; but it has almost six times as many people as Tasmania! At one time in the past, Bali was a part of the larger island of Java, and still shares many of the same geographical features.

300

Wellington

0

135

ANTARCTICA

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INDIAN OCEAN

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(a) (b) (c)

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Use the information above to answer the following questions. 1.

N

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BALI is an island, one of more than 13 000 islands that make up the Republic of Indonesia, of which it is a part. It lies between the islands of Java and Lombok, to the north-west of Australia. Bali is only 8° below the equator. Compare this to Darwin, which is 12° below the equator. It is only three hours’ flying time from Bali to Perth in Western Australia, and half that to Darwin in the Northern Territory.

Bali is further north than Darwin.

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Perth is closer to Bali than Darwin. Bali is part of the

True True

False False

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(d)

Bali is less than

(e)

If Tasmania has a population of about 471 000, what is Bali’s approximate population?

the size of Tasmania.

2.

Perth, in Western Australia, has been called ‘the most isolated capital city in the world’. Why do you think this might be?

3.

Considering where Bali is located, make a prediction about the type of climate you think it might have.

Summer

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Winter

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4.

Using an atlas, locate the following places and features of the region on the blank map below. Darwin Auckland Timor Sea Jakarta Arafura Sea Perth East Timor

Singapore

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Thailand

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Papua New Guinea Tasmania

Hong Kong

(a) Perth:

longitude:

(c) Denpasar:

longitude:

latitude:

(d) Your town/city:

longitude:

latitude:

Complete the following table.

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6.

© R. I . C.Pulatitude: bl i cat i ons (b) Darwin: longitude: latitude: •f or r evi ew pu r posesonl y• Using an atlas, write the longitude and latitude of these cities.

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5.

What I know about Bali

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What I would like to know about Bali

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Topics for Discussion/Debate

Additional Activities

Search Engine Keywords

As part of Asia, Australia needs to become more ‘Asian’ and less ‘European’.

Bali is a popular tourist destination for Australians. What are its major tourist attractions?

Bali, plus keywords such as ‘geography’, ‘location’ etc., south-east Asia, Asia-Pacific region

Bali

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What is Bali like? Lesson Focus:

You will investigate the geography, climate, and flora and fauna of Bali.

Keywords:

geography, flora, fauna, tropical, culture, enrich, manicured Unfortunately, these animals are now gone, and others, such as the black panther and the leopard, are faced with extinction. However, there is still much wildlife on Bali, including several species of monkey, deer, wild pigs, native cattle, buffalo, snakes, civet cats and especially the thousands of insects, some up to 20 cm long. There are also over 300 species of birds on the island, and the waters around Bali are alive with colourful fish, crustaceans, sponges and corals.

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‘Paradise’ would not be complete without flowers, and Bali is no exception. Everywhere throughout Bali visitors can expect to see frangipani, hibiscus, bougainvillea, poinsettia, oleander, jasmine, water lily,

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Teac he r

BALI has been called ‘paradise on earth’ not just for its culture and relaxed lifestyle, but also for its magnificent natural scenery. The island is dominated by a range of volcanoes, the highest of which, Gunung Agung (3 142 m), is still active. These volcanoes form the land, enrich the soil and even influence the rainfall. There is more than just volcanoes, however. Bali also features sandy beaches for swimming and surfing, clear waters and coral reefs for scuba diving, dense tropical jungles, manicured rice paddies, modern tourist resorts and picturesque villages. Being so close to the equator, Bali has no distinct winter and summer. Rather, it has a hot ‘wet’ season

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(November to March), and a warm ‘dry’ season, from April to October. During the wet, daytime temperatures climb into the low-30s Celsius, with high humidity (up to 96%). In the dry, temperatures are in the high 20s Celsius, with less humidity and pleasantly cool evenings. Because of their height, the mountains are wet all year round, averaging 2 500 mm to 3 000 mm of rain per annum. The mountains can also be significantly cooler at night— it has been known to drop to 8°C.

roses, begonias, magnolias, orchids and hydrangeas. On the beaches are found palms and mangrove forests; on the riverbanks, bamboo; in the mountain gorges, the sacred banyan and ebony trees. One of the strangest plants to be found in Bali is the Rafflesia. It is officially the world’s largest flower, growing to a metre across, or even larger! It is a parasite, with no root system of its own, living off other plants. It also has a distinct, very strong, ‘perfume’— like rotting meat! This attracts insects to pollinate the plant.

About a hundred years ago, the wild animal population of Bali included tigers and elephants. R.I.C. Publications

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Answer the following questions using the information about Bali. 1.

(a)

Name two Balinese animals faced with extinction. and What time of the year would you prefer to visit Bali?

(c)

Name two influences volcanoes have on Bali.

(d)

What reason can you think of as to why the mountains might be cooler at night?

(e)

2.

Why?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Why does the writer say the rice paddies are ‘manicured’?

Make a comparison chart between Bali and your local community. Use the headings given.

Bali

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(b)

My Community

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Plants

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Tourist Attractions

Environmental Features

3.

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Animals

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Work in pairs or small groups to prepare a report (oral or written) on the differences between rice and wheat. Some possible headings to look at include: method of growing; method of harvesting; special requirements (e.g. soil, water, temperature); growing season; nutritional comparison; uses; recipes.

Bali

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4.

Bali is not the only country with endangered animal species; Australia has some too. Research one Australian endangered animal to complete the following table.

Animal name: Brief description: Habitat: Food: Why is it endangered?

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Action to protect this animal?

(a)

Bali has two distinct seasons. Name them and their months.

(i)

(ii)

(b)

Parts of Australia have four seasons. Name them and their months. (i)

(ii)

(iii) (iv)

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

If you went to Bali for a holiday, what activities could you do while you were there? You need to include the beach, the mountains, the tropical jungles, the volcanoes and the rice paddies.

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6.

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5.

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Topics for Discussion/Debate

Additional Activities

Search Engine Keywords

‘If an animal species becomes endangered, that’s the law of nature and humans should not interfere.’

Find out in what ways mountains can affect the climate of a country.

Bali + geography; + flora; + fauna; + climate; endangered species + Bali; + Australia; Rafflesia

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Balinese Culture – Then and Now—1 Lesson Focus:

You will compare traditional Balinese culture with the culture of today.

Keywords:

culture, traditional, contemporary, reflected, complex

ALL things change, and the culture of a country is no exception to this rule. The Balinese culture is a complex one, and extremely rich. Over thousands of years, it has borrowed heavily from other cultures it has made contact with, including Javanese, Polynesian, Chinese and Indian. The end result has been the creation of a culture like no other.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Painting

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Teac he r

Balinese culture has been described as one of the most ‘artistic’ in the world. It has ancient traditions in art, music, dance, drama, sculpture and even architecture. To the Balinese, ‘art’, in all its forms, is inseparable from daily life and as much a part of it as work. In fact, in Bali there is no separate word for ‘art’ or ‘artist’ because everyone is seen as an artist.

Traditionally, Balinese paintings have reflected religious or mystical themes. The painter of traditional works had a strict set of rules to paint by. Only red (barak), vermilion (kencu), blue (pelung), indigo (tengi), yellow (kuning), white (putih), and black (selem), plus ochre for skin tones, could be used. In the 1900s, European artists visiting and living in Bali began to have a profound effect on the traditional Balinese painters. Many of the strict rules about religious or mystical subjects were dropped, and Balinese painters began to paint scenes from their daily lives, landscapes, human figures and even animals. Modern oil paints gave the artists a huge range of colour to choose from, and the traditional colours were replaced with bright, vibrant hues.

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Originally, gamelans played almost exclusively for the royal courts of Bali. However, in the 1900s, under the Dutch, the power of the royal courts was lost, and music-making passed into the hands of the ordinary population. The music became wilder, louder and less like its original Javanese style.

Traditional painting is still carried out, but sadly the number of people who have learnt how to paint in this fashion is declining. So too is the number of painters who know how to make the ‘traditional’ paints from natural materials.

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Music is played for almost every occasion in Bali— births, deaths, funerals, birthdays, religious ceremonies, ‘operas’, and even for tourists. In fact, if it was not for tourists, some forms of traditional Balinese music may have died out completely over the last 40 or 50 years, or been totally ‘swamped’ by Western music. Now, however, there is a revived interest in traditional music.

Producing large numbers of paintings to sell to tourists has also meant that, in many cases, the quality of the artwork has suffered. However, works of genuine artistic merit can still be found if the buyer is prepared to search for them.

Young people in Bali enjoy much the same music as you do—pop, rap, heavy metal, country, hip-hop— whatever. But now some talented Balinese composers are taking the sounds and rhythms of traditional music and combining them with modern instruments and ‘themes’. The end result is a new form of music with a traditional base—much the same result as Aboriginal Australian group Yothu Yindi achieve by combining Aboriginal and Western music.

Music The Balinese people like their music loud and exciting, with many changes in pace, volume and musical emphasis. The best-known Balinese music is that of the ‘gamelans’—orchestras of tuned percussion instruments which include xylophones, gongs, flutes, fiddles, rattles, cymbals and drums. To Western ears, it can sound strange, even slightly ‘out-of-tune’. Bali

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Use the information about Balinese culture to complete the following.

3.

red

kencu

vermilion

putih

blue

tengi

indigo

selem

yellow

white

black

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barak

kuning

pelung

(a)

How did European artists influence Balinese artists?

(b)

Why do you think they had this effect?

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2.

Match these colours to their Balinese term.

Teac he r

1.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons ‘All things change.’ is true world over. Interview older person lived in your local for a• long time about •This f o rther ev i e wanp u r pwhoohass es o narea l y how things have changed. (The last box is for a subject of your choice.)

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How long has this person been in the area? What changes has he/she noticed in … buildings?

roads?

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Name:

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transport?

people?

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‘The Balinese people like their music loud and exciting.’ Describe how you like your music.

Teac he r

4.

Listen to a traditional Balinese piece of music and a traditional piece of Aboriginal Australian music. Compare the two.

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5.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Balinese

Aboriginal Australian

What instruments can you hear?

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Pace

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Volume

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Musical emphasis

6.

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In Australia, we don’t have ‘special’ music for every occasion. Choose a suitable piece of music for these events. (a)

birth

(b)

birthday

(c)

graduation

(d)

last day of school

Topics for Discussion/Debate

Additional Activities

Search Engine Keywords

Discuss the effects visitors from other cultures have on the countries they visit. Discuss both the positive and negative aspects.

Using only the traditional Balinese colours, paint an artistic work showing a mystical aspect of Australia.

Bali + art; + culture; Australian Aboriginal music; Yothu Yindi

Bali

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Balinese Culture – Then and Now—2 Lesson Focus:

You will compare traditional Balinese culture with the culture of today.

Keywords:

historically, performance, epic, adapted, colonisation, classical

Dance and Drama Dance and drama performances can be seen virtually all over Bali, from small villages to large tourist resorts. For tourists, many of the performances presented are just highlights from much longer works. However, in some places, such as Ubud, more authentic performances may be seen.

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The largest dance event is the Bali Art Festival, held in the middle of each year. For five weeks, crowds flock to the Art Centre in Denpasar to see the island’s top musicians and performers. This gives new composers and choreographers the chance to display their productions before a huge audience of enthusiastic Balinese people and tourists.

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THESE have, historically, been twined together in Balinese culture. It has also been said that they are the main forms of Balinese cultural and artistic expression. They are not seen so much as a performance, but rather as a means of learning about the history and traditions of the Balinese people. They tell stories of myth and magic, good and evil, in much the same way as Western ‘epic’ poems, such as Homer’s ‘The Iliad’. Many of the stories come from the Mahabharata, an epic story from ancient India. These were adapted by the Javanese when they conquered Bali in the 14th century.

With colonisation in the twentieth century, these traditional forms were handed back to the people, and as a result they underwent even further change. New solo dance forms and livelier musical accompaniment appeared, but fortunately the traditional forms survived as well. In the 1960s and 1970s, there was yet another change, when the ancient Indian and Javanese stories were modified to suit modern audiences.

Despite the influences of television, movies and Western music, traditional Balinese dance and drama are still very much a part of everyday life.

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Dance and drama are closely tied in with religion. People believe that peace and prosperity depend on pleasing the gods, and dance and drama are one means of doing this. Even today, many dancers will still pray at small shrines before each and every performance. Dances are also performed to drive evil spirits out of villages and temples.

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The dances may have a religious story to tell. For example, at a wedding, a wedding story, giving guidance to the newlyweds, may be performed. At a funeral, the story may be of heroes visiting hell and surviving.

To watch a classical Balinese dance is to see all parts of the dancer’s body ‘speak’. Hands, fingers, wrists, knees, hips, elbows, even the spine are twisted into amazing and carefully controlled movements to tell a story. The eyes, especially, are always moving, giving expression to the story. Every one of these hundreds of movements and positions has to be learnt by heart and has to be perfect. With more than 200 separate dances to learn, it is no wonder that dancers must start as young as four or five years of age. Bali R.I.C. Publications

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Use the information about dance and drama in Bali to answer these. 1.

What can we learn from traditional Balinese dance and drama?

2.

Tick true or false. Ubud dancers are less authentic.

(b)

Balinese tell the story while they dance.

(c)

Dance and drama are believed to please the gods.

(d)

The Bali Art Festival is held in Ubud.

Teac he r

(a)

(e)

True

False

True

False

True

False

True

False

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‘The Iliad’ is a Javanese poem.

What is … (a)

a musical accompaniment?

(b)

a highlight?

(c)

an influence?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons 5. Why do you think tourists are shown only ‘highlights’ of dances? •f orr evi ew pur po sesonl y•

Highlight the parts of this Balinese dancer which ‘speak’ during the performance.

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4.

False

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3.

True

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Research to name two other countries that use dance as a form of expression.

Topics for Discussion/Debate

Additional Activities

Search Engine Keywords

Traditional forms of dance should be left unchanged, not made to suit modern audiences.

View a traditional Balinese dance. Afterwards, write how it made you feel; the aspects you liked best; and the parts you liked least.

Bali + dance; + drama; Mahabharata; Bali Art Festival

Bali

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Balinese Culture – Then and Now—3 Lesson Focus:

You will compare traditional Balinese culture with the culture of today.

Keywords:

majority, temples, offerings, rites of passage, morality, reincarnation

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Part of the Balinese Hindu belief is reincarnation. That is, when a person dies, his or her soul is ‘reborn’ as someone else. However, for this to happen the soul has to be ‘freed’ from the earthly body. The Balinese do this by cremation—burning the coffin and body to free the soul. After the cremation, the ashes are scattered over the sea. To the Balinese, a cremation is a time of joy, not sadness, with laughter, music and dancing.

Life Stages

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Teac he r

The aim of the Balinese belief is to reach a harmony between the spirit and the material life. To this end, the Balinese people try to think good thoughts, speak with honesty, and do good deeds. Religion is taught most often through dance and drama—through morality plays and epic poetry. Other theatre forms, such as shadow puppet plays or operas, are also used to teach religious principles.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

ALTHOUGH the vast majority of Indonesians are Muslem, the Balinese people are overwhelmingly Hindu. In fact, Bali has the largest Hindu population outside of India.

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When a Balinese child is born it is a time for great happiness, because the child is thought to be the reincarnation of an ancestor. The whole family attends the child’s birth, as well as a holy man. At birth, the child is considered ‘sacred’, and its feet are not allowed to touch the ground. At 212 days old, the baby’s hair is cut and it is given its name. Now the baby is free to play like other children. Balinese children are not permitted to crawl—they are carried until they are old enough to walk.

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Beliefs

Because life to the Balinese is a continuous cycle, they have developed ceremonies for different stages of life. These are what we would call ‘rites of passage’.

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In Balinese Hinduism, there is a single god, from which all other ‘gods’ evolve. Not only are there good gods and spirits, there are also evil gods and spirits, and much of the Balinese religion is concerned with the battles between good and evil.

To the Balinese, pointed teeth (canines) are animalistic—you can see this in some of their dance and drama masks. Therefore, when a boy or girl begins to enter adulthood, his or her teeth may be filed flat in a special ceremony. This filing is done without the benefit of any anaesthetic.

Balinese religion is mixed with everyday life; almost everything the people do is somehow related to their religion. At temples throughout the country, you can see offerings of fruit, rice or flowers to make the gods happy. For every stage of agriculture (planting, harvesting etc.) there is a special religious ceremony. Similarly, for every ‘rite of passage’ (birth, marriage, death etc.) there is a ceremony. In all, there are over 60 religious holidays each year in Bali!

Marriage is another important life stage. The Balinese believe that they have a duty to marry and have children, so that their race may continue. Marriage is also a means of honouring their ancestors. To fail to marry is seen as being very selfish—something which will be punished in the next life. Many Balinese marriages are prearranged, though this is changing as the Balinese adopt more Western-style ideas of romance and marriage for love.

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Use the information on Balinese culture to answer these. 1.

(a)

What items are offered to the gods?

(b)

Why are these items offered to the gods?

What do Balinese people do in their everyday lives to please their gods?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S 3.

What methods are used to teach religious beliefs in the Balinese culture?

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Teac he r

2.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

5.

The Balinese belief about reincarnation may be different from yours. Compare the two.

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BALINESE BELIEF

Bali

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Why do you think the Balinese people have a special ceremony for every stage of agriculture?

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4.

MY BELIEF

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6.

Use the information provided and other sources to complete the table below. Write notes and draw pictures if necessary.

Life stages

Balinese Beliefs/Customs

My Beliefs/Customs

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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Teac he r

Birth

Marriage

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Death

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

Topics for Discussion/Debate

Additional Activities

Search Engine Keywords

The aim of Balinese belief is to reach harmony between the spirit and the material life. Discuss people’s views about this.

Research to find pictures of Balinese masks. Design your own mask in the Balinese style.

Bali + beliefs; + customs; reincarnation

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Food Lesson Focus:

You will examine some areas of change in Balinese society and compare them to Australia.

Keywords:

adapted, produce, influences, imported, familiar, cuisines

FOOD is a traditional means of identifying or labelling a culture—even if sometimes it is not accurate. For example, if someone says ‘pasta’, what culture do you think of? Italian? If someone says ‘sushi’, do you immediately think ‘Japan’?

become part of the cuisine. Some, such as the durian, taste far better than they smell! You will also find papaya, pawpaw, mangos, rambutans, jackfruit, bananas, custard apples, pineapples, oranges, coconuts and melons … to name just a few. Fruit is often served as dessert with Balinese meals.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

There are many places to eat in Bali, from five-star restaurants in big hotels, to small beach-side cafes. But one of the most famous sights is the small mobile snack bars and food stalls. Called warungs, these cater mainly to Balinese people, and offer a wide range of food. They may sell satay (spiced meat on skewers), mie goreng (fried noodles), gado-gado (vegetables in a peanut sauce), bakso (small meatballs in a soup), pisang goreng (fried banana fritters), tupat (steamed

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Teac he r

Balinese cuisine is a magical mixture of foods from other countries—especially China and Indonesia— adapted to meet local tastes and available produce. The food is, by Western standards, strongly spiced— but delicious. There are influences from India (curries, eggplant), China (stir-fries, Chinese vegetables), Arabia (kebabs), and even from Europe (peanuts, pineapples, tomatoes, cauliflower). Meats include goat, all types of seafood, pork and poultry. Sometimes lamb is served, but rarely beef, unless it is imported. Many

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

spices are added, usually with coconut milk, to give a rich, creamy sauce.

rice and vegetables in a hot peanut sauce) or the Balinese specialty, lawar, which is minced pork, coconut and spices, although it can include chicken, egg, beans and even jackfruit.

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White rice (nasi putih) is the staple of any Balinese

meal. Normally, it is eaten three times a day. There is generally a main serving of rice, with three or four meat or vegetable dishes, called lauk. Quite often, there are side dishes as well—such as sambal. For those who haven’t tried Balinese cooking, sambal is a sauce made with ground red chillies, shrimp paste and usually lime juice. Is it hot? You bet! If you eat some and it starts to burn, don’t reach for the water—that won’t help. Instead, try some slices of cooling banana, or even cucumber. Other side dishes may include small spiced peanut cookies or savoury soya bean cake.

To many tourists, eating the local food is part of the attraction of an overseas holiday. But there are also those who want to eat ‘familiar’ food. To cater for the tourist trade, there are now many restaurants in Bali serving different cuisines, such as Mexican, French, Austrian, Japanese, Indian, Korean, Italian, German, Swedish, Filipino, Chinese and even Brazilian! ‘Fast food’ addicts are catered for, too, with international food chains serving chicken, hamburgers and pizza, as well as ‘American-style’ sandwiches, ribs, fries and soft drinks. Younger Balinese people are eating more ‘fast food’ than their parents.

Because of the tropical climate and fertile soil, many exotic fruits grow extremely well in Bali, and have Bali

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Use the information provided, research and your knowledge to complete the following. 1.

Food from many countries is on offer in Bali. On this map of the world, shade each country mentioned in the text.

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Teac he r

Key:

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

3.

(a)

Which Balinese food would you most like to try?

Why?

(b)

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‘Younger Balinese people are eating more “fast food” than their parents.’ What is your opinion of this statement? Support your ideas.

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2.

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Which Balinese food would you least like to try? Why?

4.

Fruit is often served as a dessert. What type of desserts do you prefer?

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5.

Make a list of dishes each country is famous for.

Foods from other nationalities help to make Balinese cuisine what it is today. Name five dishes and their origins which are now widely eaten in Australia. (a)

dish

origin

(b)

dish

origin

(c)

dish

origin

(d)

dish

(e) 7.

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Match these fruits to their label.

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MANGO

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AUSTRALIA

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BALI

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DURIAN

JACKFRUIT

PAPAYA

RAMBUTAN

PAWPAW

Topics for Discussion/Debate

Additional Activities

Search Engine Keywords

When visiting another country, people should only eat the national cuisine.

Design and present a menu for a Balinese restaurant.

Bali + cuisine; + cooking; + fruits by name

Bali

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Village Life Lesson Focus:

You will examine traditional Balinese village life and compare it to Australia.

Keywords:

extended family, self-sufficient, industrialised, administered, hereditary

WHEN people talk of Balinese ‘village’ life, they are speaking of something that is almost like an extended

As if this isn’t complex enough, the Balinese people also use different forms of their language when

family. Traditionally, each village was self-sufficient,

speaking to people of different castes! Basically, there

providing all the goods and services its people

are two languages—a ‘high’ form which is used when

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needed. Now, however, as the country becomes more

speaking to someone of a higher caste; and a low form

industrialised, the larger city centres are beginning to

or common language, used when speaking to a lower

take over the provision of some goods and services.

caste. To avoid embarrassing someone whose caste you don’t know, there is also a polite ‘middle’ language

The smallest unit of government in Bali is the banjar. more than one banjar, each with a separate area of

responsibility. Only the married men of the village can vote in the banjar, and any decision made by the banjar needs to have 100% agreement among all its members. This has disadvantages in that new ideas

are sometimes slow to be accepted and spread. But it also has the advantage that before any decision is made, everyone is convinced it will be the best

you can use. Today, much of this language distinction is being lost, as the schools teach just one common language, Bahasa Indonesia. This has been done to

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This is like a village council. A large village may have

make Indonesia more unified as a country, but many

believe it will also mean the loss of an important cultural factor of Bali. Of course, more and more people speak English, too. Strictly speaking, people from one caste should only ever marry someone from the same caste. However, this rule is no longer rigidly observed.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

decision for the entire village.

The banjar meets in a special

pavilion, which is also used as a community centre. People go

there to play cards, to talk, plan

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and prepare feasts and ceremonies, or even just to

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sleep. All community work is administered from the banjar. This work may consist of tasks

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such as road-building or repair,

working on irrigation channels, maintaining or building bridges, and the upkeep of the village temples. Within the banjar, all people are

o c . che e r o t r s super The Balinese village lifestyle is under threat from mass tourism and Western ways.

equal. But in everyday life, the Balinese observe a caste system, whereby people are placed into social

The Balinese village lifestyle is under threat from mass tourism and Western ways. More and more young

groups of varying importance. These groups are

people are leaving the villages and heading to the cities

hereditary (passed down from previous generations)

and resorts, eager to make money and a better life than

and based on the Indian Hindu caste system. There

they think their parents had. They see Western clothes

are four castes in Bali; Pedanas, the holy men and

and electrical goods, motor vehicles, luxury

priests (brahman); Satrias, the caste of kings; Wesias, the warrior caste, which also includes traders and

accommodation, television and all the other ‘benefits’ of tourism. It is only natural for them to want their share.

some nobility; and Sundras, the remainder, who make

Whether or not the traditional village structure can

up over 90% of the population.

survive these influences in the future remains unknown.

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Use the information about village life to answer these. 1.

Quick quiz.

???

Quiz

10

The smallest unit of government in Bali.

(b)

The system of placing people in social groupings.

(c)

Number of languages traditionally spoken in the caste system.

(d)

Name of the Warrior caste.

(e)

Where do people go to play cards?

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(f)

Who is eligible to vote in the banjar?

(g)

Which caste group makes up 90% of the population?

(h)

How many castes are there in Bali?

(i)

The modern common language of Bali is …

(j)

What is Balinese village life under threat from?

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(a)

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons 2. Compare the banjar to your local government. •f orr evi e w pur poseson l y• Life stages Bali Australia

Who is eligible to vote? Where are meetings held?

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Name of smallest unit of government

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Types of decisions made

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3.

What is the advantage of having 100% agreement among members?

(b)

Explain why you think this is important.

(a)

What is your opinion about the use of different forms of language according to the caste system?

(b)

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Do you think this system would work in Australia? Explain.

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4.

(a)

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

(a)

(c)

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(b)

In your opinion, explain in detail the benefits or disadvantages of only being allowed to marry within your caste.

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5.

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Could this system operate successfully in Australia?

Some cultures within Australia believe in prearranged marriages. What is your opinion on this? Explain.

Topics for Discussion/Debate

Additional Activities

Search Engine Keywords

Discuss the possibility of village life surviving Westernisation. What do you think will happen to the various aspects of life in Bali in the future?

Develop a class government. Use the Balinese system as your model. Make decisions about your class and put them into place.

Balinese + caste; banjar

R.I.C. Publications

Explain.

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Bali


Traditional Housing Lesson Focus:

You will examine traditional Balinese village housing and the lifestyle it promotes.

Keywords:

compound, walled, status, harmony, carved, pavilion reflected within their relationship with the larger village—they consider the entire village to be ‘one big family’. Within these walls, the Balinese strive to maintain a life of peace and harmony, to pass on their religious teachings to their children, and to promote love, respect and duty.

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The separate ‘buildings’ inside the compound face inwards into a courtyard, which quite often contains a large pergola. The pergola or open pavilion is called a bale, and usually has a thatched roof but no walls. It’s a multipurpose structure; during the day it can be used for meetings or eating meals, and in the evening it can be used as a sleeping area. The entire compound is generally alive with flowers and shrubs. There will nearly always be a small family shrine here as well.

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TRADITIONALLY, most Balinese people live in a walled residence or family ‘compound’. This is not a ‘house’ as we would think of it. Imagine if each of the rooms in your home was a separate building, and you will have a better idea of a traditional Balinese home. Their entire home may be thought to consist of the wall, the courtyard inside, and a number of smaller buildings. Balinese buildings are designed to make the most of the climate. They feature lots of open space, with high ceilings, cool tiled floors, natural light, verandas and natural materials such as wood, stone or thatch.

Being so in touch with the elements, the Balinese daily life usually begins at first light. Breakfast is coffee, with small cakes or sweets. After breakfast, the entire daily supply of the family’s rice is usually put on to cook. Schooldays start early for the students—generally about 7.00 a.m.—and by early morning everyone is going about their daily work. Wives may be shopping in the village market, while the men may be in the fields or working in the village. The first rice meal of the day is generally eaten late morning, before the heat of the day gets too intense. The middle of the day—the hot part—is for resting or general social activities in the shade of the banjar house or the village banyan tree, before work resumes.

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More than one family may live inside the same compound, such as sons and their wives or even cousins and their families. If so, the position of their ‘house’ is decided according to strict rules. For example, the father and the oldest son’s family will have the ‘best’ location, near the entrance gateway. Others will be arranged according to their status. Gateways are very important to the Balinese. They are generally quite narrow, and may even turn a corner on the way in. This is done deliberately, to confuse the evil spirits and stop them from entering the home. Each gate has a gateway, a frame around it, which may be wooden or stone, simply or elaborately carved. The thick wall is also a traditional feature. Balinese people believe that it protects the ‘spirit’ of the family, and helps mould them into a single unit. This belief is Bali

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

By late afternoon, the working day is finishing. Most villages have a sort of ‘club’, where villagers can enjoy a drink of palm wine before dinner. Some people visit a warung (food stall) for a late afternoon snack, or have an afternoon bath—or just gossip. The final meal is eaten just after sunset. Modern Balinese homes, while retaining the open spaces and natural light of traditional homes, are now quite likely to use Western building materials and methods of construction. 89

R.I.C. Publications


Use the information about Balinese housing to complete the following. 1.

Why is the thick wall considered to be important?

2.

What is the ‘bale’ used for?

Complete this timetable for daily life in Bali.

Time

Male

Female

5.00 a.m. 6.00 a.m. 7.00 a.m.

10.00 a.m.

Child

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3.

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons 3.00 p.m. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 5.00 p.m.

12.00 p.m.

Compare a traditional Balinese house with your own.

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4.

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7.00 p.m.

SIMILARITIES

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5.

DIFFERENCES

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What changes would you like to make to your home?

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Bali


Use the description of Balinese housing to draw a plan of a Balinese house. Be sure to include labels where appropriate.

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6.

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Topics for Discussion/Debate

Additional Activities

Search Engine Keywords

Discuss the benefits of the Balinese lifestyle. Could any aspect of their approach to life be incorporated into Australian life? Explain.

Work in small groups to create a scale model of a Balinese home using recycled material and natural resources.

Bali + housing

Bali

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Events and Festivals Lesson Focus:

You will examine some traditional Balinese events and festivals.

Keywords:

festival, celebrate, commemorate, offerings, sacred

CONSIDERING how much the Balinese people enjoy life and living, it seems only appropriate that they should also have a large number of festivals. And they do. There are festivals for just about every occasion—and every day! Following is a brief explanation of some selected festivals.

Galungan

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accommodation—must remain silent. No work is done, there is no travel, fires are not to be lit and amusements of all kind are closed. The Balinese believe that the evil spirits will leave Bali, having been fooled by the silence into thinking the island is uninhabited. For many, the day of silence and rest is welcome, because the previous night’s festivities have left them exhausted!

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Kuningan

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This is the most important of the Balinese festivals. It celebrates the creation of the world and the triumph of good over evil. Every house has a penjor fitted beside the gate. A penjor is a tall bamboo pole decorated with flowers, leaves, cakes and fruit. Traditionally, Balinese people wear their finest clothes and jewellery, and spend the day visiting friends and feasting.

Saraswati

This is a day devoted to Dewi Saraswati, the goddess of Knowledge, Art and Literature. Special offerings are made and books and manuscripts are blessed.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Held ten days after Galungan, this festival celebrates the end of the holiday period. On this day, ancestral spirits are honoured by special ceremonies held at temples.

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Melasti

Odalan

This is a purification festival held the day before the Balinese New Year (Nyepi). Carrying sacred statues, umbrellas and offerings, villagers dress in their finest clothes and make their way to the sea or holy springs. The sacred statues are washed in the sea or the springs. The entire festival is carried out amid loud gamelan music, drums and merry shouting and chanting.

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FESTIVALS

Independence Day

Indonesian Independence Day is celebrated on 17 August, and commemorates the date the Republic of Indonesia became independent from Dutch rule.

Nyepi

Miscellaneous

Usually falling during the spring equinox (March – April), this festival marks the beginning of the new lunar year—the Balinese New Year. It is celebrated by observing a day of total silence. Everyone—including tourists, who are advised to stay in their R.I.C. Publications

This is a religious festival which celebrates the anniversary of a temple’s opening. Temples are decorated with flowers, leaves and flags, and noisy parades, offerings of food, and prayers complete the festival.

Wayang celebrates puppets and masks; Krulut celebrates birds and musical instruments; and Landep celebrates metal objects—including highly-decorated motorcars and motorcycles! 92

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Use the information about events and festivals to answer these. What is … (a)

Nyepi?

(b)

a penjor?

(c)

an offering?

(d)

a festival?

2.

(a)

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Which festival or event would you most like to experience?

Why?

(b)

Which festival or event would you least like to experience?

Why?

3.

Compare New Year celebrations in Australia to those in Bali.

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1.

DIFFERENCES © R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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4.

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SIMILARITIES

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Where would you prefer to celebrate New Year? Why?

Topics for Discussion/Debate

Additional Activities

Search Engine Keywords

Discuss everyone’s responses to Question 2 and Question 4. Does everyone have the same opinions?

In small groups, develop a list of events and festivals celebrated in Australia. Include a brief explanation of how and when it is celebrated.

Bali + festivals; + events; festivals by name

Bali

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Tourism Lesson Focus:

You will examine the tourist attractions offered by Bali and the effects tourism can have on a culture.

Keywords:

heritage, renowned, genuine, terraces, destination, prominent

BALI is said to have something for everyone, from modern Western-style tourist facilities, to world-famous shopping, to traditional art and crafts, to a rich and varied heritage. Balinese people are renowned for being friendly, and the lifestyle is, overall, relaxing and ‘laidback’.

Shopping

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You will often hear people say that Bali is a ‘shopper’s paradise’. This is particularly true for clothing—both casual ‘off-the-shelf’ and tailor-made—locally made jewellery and handicrafts, and artworks.

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Unfortunately, tourism—and the money it brings—has placed a strain on the capacity of Bali to produce genuine, first-class products. Instead, the tourist may be faced with, for example, paintings of very little artistic merit, churned out one after the other as quickly and cheaply as possible. Clothing may be only partially ‘genuine’; for example, a T-shirt with a Balinese print on it may actually have been made in China. Even the gamelan performances, as well as the dances and dramas, may be just short ‘highlights’ from the original work, to suit Western tastes.

Beaches

The east and west coasts of Bali offer two totally different seascapes. On the west coast, the seas can be large, the swell rolling in from the ocean—and just right for experienced surfers! By contrast, the east coast has gentle seas, with white sandy beaches—perfect for families or the not-so-adventurous. Surfing and swimming aren’t the only two watersports on offer. There is also parasailing, jetskiing, scuba diving and snorkelling, coral viewing, ocean kayaking, fishing—and just relaxing on the beach.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Inland

On Bali, the landscape varies quite dramatically. There are rice paddies, like giant terraces, stepping down the mountainsides. Volcanoes—some still active—reach for the skies, while dense jungles carpet their feet. Rain-fed rivers crash down through narrow mountain gorges. Ancient volcanic craters have become filled with water, mirroring the clouds.

The Towns

The Temples

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Denpasar, the capital, has a population in excess of 350 000. It is a popular tourist destination for department store shopping. Kuta, in the south, is a tourist town, packed with shops, nightclubs, restaurants and tourist accommodation. The beaches are the nicest in Bali. Sanur is a little quieter than Kuta—but has all the same Western-style tourist attractions. Ubud, in the hills, is the island’s leading art and crafts centre.

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There are, quite literally, thousands of temples in Bali, from small home temples to larger city temples—they are everywhere. Balinese temples generally feature detailed sculptures on the walls or the gateway, with the faces of gods and demons most prominent. Smaller or less important temples may have very little or even no sculpture at all. It is a constant battle to restore or replace the temple sculptures.

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Bali


Use the information about tourism in Bali to answer these. On this map of Bali, use an atlas to help you locate and highlight each location mentioned in the text.

2.

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Imagine you are going to Bali for a five-day holiday. Develop an itinerary for your holiday.

DAY 1

DAY 2

DAY 3

DAY 4

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1.

DAY 5

4.

Bali

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Where would you visit to …

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(a)

buy arts and crafts?

(b)

surf?

(c)

shop at a department store?

(d)

swim?

(e)

see the nicest beaches in Bali?

(f)

experience a quieter holiday with all the attractions?

What are the negative effects of tourism in Bali?

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Use everything you have learned about Bali and any tourist information to complete the following. 1.

When would be the best time of the year to visit Bali? Explain why.

How much would it cost a family of four to travel to Bali at this time of the year?

3.

List the things you would expect to see and do in Bali at this time of the year.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Where would you stay in Bali?

(a)

Which part of Balinese culture interests you the most?

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Explain.

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6.

(b)

Which part of Balinese culture interests you the least?

Explain.

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Why?

5.

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4.

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2.

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Bali is a popular tourist destination. Can you explain why?

Topics for Discussion/Debate

Additional Activities

Search Engine Keywords

Discuss: ‘Is tourism helping or destroying Bali?’

Design and present a holiday brochure for Bali. Include prices, accommodation, interesting information, facilities, attractions, special events etc.

Bali + tourism; + temples; towns by name

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Society and Environment - Student Workbook: Book G - Ages 11-12