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Society and Environment – C Published by R.I.C. Publications PO Box 332, Greenwood Western Australia 6924 © R.I.C. Publications 2000 ISBN 1 86311 661 3 Copyright Notice No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying or recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system without written permission from the publisher. R.I.C. Publications

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Society and Environment


Foreword Society and Environment will help to increase your knowledge and understanding about your local community and environment and compare them to others. The seven books in the series look mainly at Australia—its people, its heritage, its political and legal systems, and its place in the world. The aim of the book is to assist you to better understand the community you live in and to make sound decisions about local, National and worldwide issues.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Contents

Australian Environments ...................... 51–74

Studying the evolution of families and communities over time, focusing on technology and gender roles.

Comparative studies of wet and dry environments in Australia.

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The Changing Community ...................... 1–26

What People Do What Do You Remember? What Might You Do in the Future? Changing Lifestyles What Do I Do? Toys and Games of the Past Favourite Toy Survey Toy Interview Toys—New and Old Toys—Then and Now Technology in Our Home Ways Technology Has Changed Old and New History of Food How Food has Changed How Our Lives Change Keeping in Contact—Then and Now How Do You Keep in Contact?

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What is an Environment? Types of Environments Glossary of Terms Use of the Environment Changes in the Natural Environment Changes in the Local Environment Environmental Organisations Natural Changes Water and the Environment

................................... 75–100 © R. I . C.PubCelebrations l i c a t i ons Studying cross-cultural celebratory customs and practices. •f orr evi ew pur p osesonl y•

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What is a Celebration? What Makes a Celebration? What Do People Celebrate? Celebrations from Other Countries Australian Celebrations Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Celebrations Common Celebrations around the World Feelings about Celebrations Local Community Celebrations Celebrations Calendar

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Transport ......................................... 27–50 Studying the benefits and responsibility of transport use in the community.

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An Emergency in Woodside Transport—Past and Present Transport Diary The Wheel Transport Profiles Transport Problems—1 Transport Problems—2 Transport Survey Transport Facilities Map Improving Transport Facilities Traffic Survey Transport—Benefits and Concerns Bus Timetable Transport Occupations

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Society and Environment


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The Changing Community or e t

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What People Do Lesson Focus:

You will learn that the things people do change over different stages in their lives.

Keywords:

stages, activities, lifestyle, change, technology

People do different activities at different stages in their lives. Babies might crawl or play with rattles. A person your age might ride a bike, while an adult activity might be driving a car. Sometimes all age groups do the same activity, such as sleeping or eating. However, the place we sleep or the foods we eat will change. Babies sleep in cots and eat soft foods. As we grow we need a bed to sleep in and we eat a wider variety of food.

r o e t s Bo r e p o u k (a) What activities could people of different ages all do? S (b) Will the way different age groups do the same activity change?

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1. Look at these photographs showing people of different ages doing different activities. Discuss the following.

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2. (a) Find pictures in magazines showing people of different ages doing different activities. Label each activity and write the person’s approximate age. For example: surfing—teenager.

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(b) Compare your collection with other classmates’.

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What Do You Remember? What do you remember about each stage of your life in the time line below? What did you look like? Where did you live? What activities did you do? What did you eat and drink?

Baby

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Complete each stage of the time line using keywords and phrases. Draw a picture or glue a photo of yourself at each stage. (It need only be your face.)

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What Might You Do in the Future? What school might you go to? What activities might you do? What job/jobs might you have? Where might you be living?

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Complete this time line of your future using keywords and phrases. Draw a picture of what you think you might look like at each stage.

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Upper primary

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Changing Lifestyles The way you live, what you do and how you do it is called your lifestyle. Lifestyles have changed a lot over time for many reasons. The main reason is to do with changes in the way of doing work with tools and machinery—we call this technology. Here is an example of how technology has changed our lifestyles. Imagine someone your grandparents’ age was your age. If they wanted to hear music they could listen to the radio or put a record on a record player. The radio and record player could not be moved very easily. Today we still listen to the radio but they are more ‘portable’ or easily carried around. We can also put a CD into a compact disc player. We are able to carry our music around with us by using headphones and a compact cassette radio or a compact disc player etc.

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(a) lifestyle

(b) technology

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r o e t s Bo r e Answer the questions below. p o u k 1. Explain what these words mean. S

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons What is/was used to listen to music Where and how we listen to music •f orr evi ew pur p osesonl y•

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2. Complete the table to show how listening to music has changed.

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3. Briefly describe another way technology has changed lifestyles. It could be the way we watch TV, cook our food or travel to school.

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In the past

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What Do I Do?

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Make a list of as many activities you can think of that you do. Use the list to complete the diagram below.

What I play with

What I eat

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How I get from place to place

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People that I know

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Discussion

Additional Activities

What are other reasons for lifestyle changes? (money, books, art, manners, war etc.) The Changing Community

Ask a parent or grandparent to list activities he or she did at the same age as you are now. Complete a concept diagram as above and compare with own. 7

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Toys and Games of the Past Lesson Focus:

You will learn of the similarities and the differences among the toys and games you play with and use now and those used in the past.

Keywords:

toys, games, materials, operated, handmade, technology

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Cards Cards were first played in China about the year 1000! They were made by hand and only played by adults. Now children also play with them. An old, but favourite, card game is ‘Snap’.

Hoops

Hoops are a very old toy. Children from all over the world have played with hoops from the earliest times. Hoops were once made from twisted reeds, vines, wood or metal. In 1957, the first hollow plastic hoop was made.

Marbles Marbles were first handmade from stone or baked clay. Now machines make them from plastic or glass. Many games once played are still played today.

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Toys and games have always been popular with children of all ages—adults too! Many of the toys and games of the past are still used and played today, though they may be made from different materials, made in factories instead of by hand or played with in a different way. Dolls, balls, hoops, hide and seek, leapfrog and charades are examples of toys and games still being played or used by children today. Read about these toys and games.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur poseThe sBarbie onDoll l y•

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She was the first doll to have an adult-shaped body and a wardrobe of clothes. Barbie was created in 1958. Ken, a male doll, was created later. Barbie and Ken are the names of the inventors’ children.

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Dolls Dolls have been played with since the earliest times. They were once made by hand from wood and cloth. Over the years they have become more beautiful and lifelike. A wide variety of materials is used including plastic, china and cloth. Some are still handmade, but most are made in factories.

o c . che e r o t r s super Frisbees Throwing a frisbee was first made popular in America in 1947. They were really tin pie plates thrown about by students when they had finished eating. Today these saucer-shaped toys are made of coloured plastic.

Electronic games The first electronic games were very simple compared to now and were first developed in the 1970s. Today more and more are being produced each year that are quicker and more colourful— some even have 3-D viewing. R.I.C. Publications

Rollerskates The first rollerskates were worn in 1760 to a fancy dress ball. The person arrived at the ball on skates playing a violin at the same time! Unable to stop, the wearer crashed into a mirror! Today, inline skates are very popular. 8

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Answer the questions below. 1. Many toys and games of the past are still used and played today. However, there are differences among these toys and games. List three ways toys and games may have changed. (i) (ii) (iii)

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2. Write an interesting ‘then’ and ‘now’ fact for each of these toys. Then

Now

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Toy

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Dolls

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(d) 1970s

4. Where are these toys or games played? Write O for outdoors, I for indoors and B for both. (a) leapfrog

(b) rollerskates

(c) charades

(d) hide and seek

(e) cards

(f) marbles

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Favourite Toy Survey 1. (a) As a class, brainstorm students’ favourite toys. Choose the six most popular and write them in the table below. (b) Now ask each class member to choose his/her favourite among the six you listed below. Tally the results. Tally

Total

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Toy

2. Show your results on the graph below.

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Number of Children

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Toy Interview Interview one of your parents, grandparents or another adult about a toy he/she had as a child. Ask this person the following questions and record the answers. Share your interview with your class.

Person’s Name

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What is the name of your toy?

What did it look like?

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What was it made of?

When did you play with it?

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How did you play with it?

Why did you like this toy?

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Toys—New and Old 1. Choose a toy you like to play with and complete this report.

Toy’s Name

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Draw it.

What is it made of?

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What does it look like?

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2. Choose a toy from the past to complete this report. Toy’s Name What did it look like?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u What was it made S of?

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Draw it.

How was it used?

© R. I . C.Pub l i c at i on sinvolved? What technology was •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Where was it used?

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3. Compare your reports about an old and new toy. What do you think are the main differences? Think carefully about the technology involved in each toy. Write what you found below.

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Toys—Then and Now You will have learnt a lot about toys from the past through reading about them, reporting about them and listening to your classmates’ interviews. Discuss the differences between the toys you play with and toys from the past and the changes that have taken place. Complete the chart below with keywords and phrases under each heading.

Now

Then

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Materials toys are made from

How they are operated

The noise they make

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Cost Additional Activities

Discussion

Construct a class museum of ‘Toys from the Past’ using photographs or actual toys.

1. Do you think toys are better today? 2. How did older people feel about their toys? 3. How do children today feel about their toys? R.I.C. Publications

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Technology in Our Home Lesson Focus:

You will learn how technology has changed over time in your home and community.

Keywords:

technology, century, invention, chores, ancestors, environment

Technology, or the way we work with tools and machinery, has changed over time, especially during the past century. Many different things have been invented and improved upon during this time. Our lifestyles in our home and community have also changed, mainly because of technology.

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1. (a) In the chart below, brainstorm different technologies for each room. For example, kitchen – electric kettle, microwave etc.

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Ways Technology Has Changed You have learnt a lot about how toys have changed over time. The following information will show you how technology has changed other areas of our life. Light The only light our early ancestors had was from the sun. After people discovered fire they found other ways of making light so they could see when there was no sunlight. Campfires gave light at night. Hand-held torches using flames allowed people to travel with light. Later, people developed wax candles, lanterns, oil lamps and gaslights. It was the invention of the electric light that led to the well-lit world we know today. It is hard to imagine living in a world without streetlights, car headlights and lights in our homes and other places in the community.

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r o e t s Bo r e p o u k Telling the Time S A long time ago, people told the time by watching the shadows cast by the sun. When the

shadows were short, it was near the middle of the day. When the shadows were long, people would know the day was beginning or ending. Other ways people told or measured the time long ago were by sundial, hourglasses and water clocks. As the sun moved across the sky it cast a shadow across the sundial and pointed to the hours.

© R. I . C.Pu b l i c a t i o n s Hourglasses and water clocks measured sand ore water •f orr evi ew p u r p o s sonl y• flowing from one container

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to another. People could tell how much time had passed.

Early mechanical clocks had no hands or dial and told the time by ringing a bell every hour! Now we have all kinds of clocks—grandfather clocks, cuckoo clocks, alarm clocks, wall clocks and digital watches to name a few.

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Water Long ago, people’s homes had no running water. It was usually collected from wells, rivers or streams and carried home in containers such as stone urns or wooden buckets. People in some parts of the world still collect water this way. Later, in many parts of the world, a person called a ‘water carrier’ collected water from these places and delivered it to homes. A ‘water carrier’ used a large wooden tank on a cart, drawn by a horse. The next step saw water piped into a house but you needed to use a hand pump to get it to run from the ‘tap’. Today, pipes from huge storage dams bring clean water straight to our homes. R.I.C. Publications

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Answer the questions. 1. List three ways people in the past had light.

2. Describe one early way of telling the time.

4.

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r o e t s Bo r e Explain who the person in the picture is and how he p ok did his job. u S

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o c . che e r o t r s super It is important we look after our environment by not wasting water and light. Write an example of how to save water and light.

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Old and New New technology in our homes means a lot less work is needed to be done by people than in earlier times. In the past many household chores had to be done by hand and everything had to be made by hand—each piece of furniture, each carpet and each brick or tile. Of course, some chores are still done by hand, but machines do most of the work for us.

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1. Study the information about an old way of doing these things. Draw and label a new way.

People made clothes by hand using a needle and thread.

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A straw broom was used for sweeping up dirt.

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People cooked food in a wood-fired oven. R.I.C. Publications

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People typed information, letters etc. on mechanical typewriters.

People washed their clothes by hand using a scrubbing board.

2. Think of two more ways that technology has changed in or outside your home or community. Draw and label an old and new way.

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Discussion

Additional Activities

1. Why has technology changed more over the past 100 years than during any time before?

1. Act out the ‘old’ and ‘new’ ways of doing things in various rooms and places around the house.

2. If everything was still made by hand we wouldn’t be able to supply everybody. Why?

2. Research how changes in technology have affected the environment.

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History of Food You will learn how the food we eat, the way we eat it and the way it is grown, prepared and provided for has changed over time.

Keywords:

hunter, gatherer, provide, plentiful, reared, preserve, appliance, process

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Lesson Focus:

In the past, people spent a lot of time searching and hunting for food. They ate food from the area near to where they lived. Foods were natural and fresh—there were no tinned or frozen foods and certainly no takeaway foods as we know today. There were no freezers, refrigerators or microwaves. Fire was used for cooking. You could not go to a supermarket to buy food or have a meal in a restaurant.

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Traditional Aboriginal Australians are one group of people that hunted and gathered food in this way. Groups would camp near a fresh water source and where food was plentiful. Foods hunted or gathered included yam tubers, white or honey ants, witchetty grubs, shellfish, snakes, lizards, kangaroos, fruits, berries, seeds, nuts and bird and turtle eggs. The choice depended on which area the group travelled. Aboriginal people would only take what food was needed. They were experts at knowing the correct way to care for and use their environment. Elsewhere in many parts of the world people gradually learnt to farm, instead of searching for food. They ploughed fields and sowed seeds such as wheat, barley and oats. Horses and oxen pulled ploughs to turn the soil, and crops were cut by hand with sharp tools. Later, machines were invented to help farmers even more. A seed drill planted seed in rows and steam tractors took the place of horses. Today, a combine harvester cuts, threshes and stores the grain, as well as making bales of hay, while moving across the paddocks!

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Factories process much of our food now—there it may be tinned, frozen, salted or preserved and packaged ready for market. Most people buy their food from a supermarket. We cook our foods in appliances such as electric or gas ovens and microwaves. The variety of food we can choose from is enormous. R.I.C. Publications

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Answer the questions. 1. Use the information to fill in the missing words. Long ago people

a lot of time

hunting for

and

in the area near to where they . Now, we ‘search’ for food in the

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buy takeaway or have a meal in a

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3. Name three appliances we use to cook with now.

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2. How did people cook in the past?

4. How did traditional Aboriginal Australians treat the environment when hunting and gathering food?

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(b) How are these jobs done today?

6. What part do factories play in food production today?

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How Food has Changed The food we eat, the way we eat it and the way it is grown, prepared and provided has changed more in the past 100 years than at any time before. To help you further understand this, you will need to interview a grandparent, relative or another older person. 1. (a) Write your own answers to the questions below using keywords and phrases. Add a question of your own.

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Name

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(b) Interview your person, asking him/her to answer your questions when he/she was your age.

What year is your memory from? Name three of your favourite foods.

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How often do/did you eat takeaway food?

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food available?

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Name two homecooked meals you have/ had for dinner. Where and how do/did you eat your dinner? R.I.C. Publications

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Do/Did you have barbecues? What kinds of foods are/were cooked on a barbecue?

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Name some shops or places where you buy/ bought food. Do/Did you use a shopping trolley or basket?

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How is/was food packaged?

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How does/did the shop assistant pack the food?

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2. Read both sets of answers and highlight things that are similar. Were many similar? Suggest reasons why. Discussion

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How have manners and customs changed about the way we eat food at home? The Changing Community

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Construct a retrieval chart based on class interviews to investigate changes in food more thoroughly. Note similarities and differences and suggest reasons for them. 23

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How Our Lives Change Lesson Focus:

You will learn about old and new ways people communicate and keep in contact and how the people you know and things you do change over time.

Keywords:

communicate, contact, destination

Over this topic you have learnt how toys, food and technology have changed over time. The people you know and the things you do also change throughout life. Some friends will stay the same and you will also meet new friends. You may move houses, shift to a different town or city or play a new sport.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Aged 2

Aged 4

Where do you live?

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Complete the questionnaire below to show what has changed in your life up to now and at which stage. (Some changes may be blank.) Add a question of your own. Tick what is the same (S) and different (D). S

Now

D

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What daycare, kindergarten/ preschool or school do you attend?

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What do you like to eat?

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Keeping in Contact—Then and Now Long ago, the only way people kept in contact was in person. As more people learnt to write, letters became another way of communicating. The letter would be delivered by someone travelling in the letter’s destination. There was no postal system then and certainly no letterboxes! The first postal system was probably ‘pigeon post’. Trained birds carried messages over long distances. Mail was later transported in saddlebags by people on horses and by coach. Still later, mail was carried by road, rail and sea. These early ways took a long time for letters to reach their destination. Today, airmail is the quickest method of sending letters.

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today we have push button, cordless and mobile phones.

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r o e t s Bosending a r Other earlier ways of keeping ine contact were using morse code, p ok telegram by telegraph and eventually by telephone. Early telephones u needed an operator at an exchange to put your call through—you could S not dial directly to a person. Telephones have changed greatly over time—

Other modern forms of communication include fax, email and Internet chat. It is much easier to keep in contact with anyone, anywhere in the world, than ever before. Answer the questions.

1. Choose some of the ways people have kept in contact over time to complete a communication time line.

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email Internet chat 2. Why did it take a long time in the past for a letter from Australia to be delivered to someone in London or New York?

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How Do You Keep in Contact? How do you keep in contact with friends and family? What types of communication do you use? What technologies do you use? 1. (a) Choose five people whom you keep in contact with and write their names in the table below. They could include your mum, dad, grandparent, another relative, a friend or a teacher. They may live with you, live near you, live in a different place in Australia or even in a different country.

r o e t s Bo your table with other r Compare how you keep ine contact with people, then compare p ok students’. u S

(b) Add to the table each day over a set time (for example, two weeks). Make a tally against each type of communication.

Person’s Name

Type of Communication

In Person

Postal Telephone Letter

Fax

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Teac he r

(c)

E-mail

Internet chat

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Discussion

Additional Activities

1. How have changes in technology affected peoples lives?

1. Research the development of the telephone, postal service etc.

2. ‘The world today is a smaller place’.

2. Construct a class retrieval chart of people students keep in contact with in other parts of Australia and overseas. Include how they keep in contact – travel, letter etc.

R.I.C. Publications

26

The Changing Community


r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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Teac he r

Transport

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Transport

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R.I.C. Publications


An Emergency in Woodside Lesson Focus:

You will investigate how transport is a very important part of satisfying human needs and wants.

Keywords:

fauna, environment, local, relocate, tranquillise, destination

The town of Woodside is growing very quickly. It used to be a quiet country town just outside the capital city. The growth of the city means that Woodside is now quickly becoming part of the city. Many people want to live in Woodside and over 1 000 houses are built each year. This has caused problems for the native fauna. A mob of ten kangaroos has been living peacefully in a bush area outside of Woodside. Their environment has now been surrounded by houses and the animals are suffering stress and becoming ill.

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

r o e t s Bo r e The local community has become concerned and understands the need to relocate the p ok kangaroos to a safe environment more than 250 kilometres away where they will not be u disturbed again. To do this, it was necessary to tranquillise the kangaroos. This is a difficult S task, but finally it has been done and all the kangaroos are sleeping comfortably. Now comes the really big problem. How can the kangaroos be shifted 250 kilometres in three hours before the sleeping drug wears off? If they wake before they reach their destination, they could injure themselves badly. UNDISTURBED BUSHLAND Move kangaroos here.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

m . u

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FOREST

. te RIVER

o c . che e r o t r s super

Mob of kangaroos

BRIDGE

CAPITAL CITY

OCEAN

R.I.C. Publications

HILLS

WOODSIDE

28

Transport


1. Your Challenge The kangaroos must be moved 250 kilometres in under three hours. How can this be done? It is more than likely that more than one method of transport must be used. Which will combine speed, efficiency and also take the best care of the kangaroos? Discuss the problems in your group. List possible methods of transporting the kangaroos. Then decide the pros (good points) and cons (bad points) of each method. Pros

Cons

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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Teac he r

Transport Method

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Transport

m . u

2. Write and draw pictures to show how you finally decided to solve the kangaroo transport problem.

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R.I.C. Publications


3. How important was transport in solving the problem? What would have happened without these forms of transport?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

(b) In red pencil, circle the methods of transport that are NEEDS.

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Teac he r

4. (a) List all the methods of transport you use in a normal week.

(c) In blue pencil, circle the methods of transport that are WANTS.

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6.

m . u

5. Do you think transport is a need or a want? Explain your answer.

What is your favourite form of transport?

o c . che e r Why? o t r s super

Draw your favourite transport. Discussion

Additional Activities

If Woodside’s problem happened in your community, how could it be solved? R.I.C. Publications

Brainstorm all the transport used by class members. How important is transport to our daily lives? 30

Transport


Transport—Past and Present Lesson Focus:

You will identify how transport plays a very important part in our lives and how transport methods have become more efficient.

Keywords:

tethered, draught, motorised, contraption, muster, harvest

Over time there have been many changes and developments in forms of transport. As time goes by, we will continue to see even more. The stories below are about a day in the life of two Australian girls, both living in the country. One lived in the past and the other lives in the present. Each story shows the part transport plays in the girl’s life. Read each story and answer the questions.

r o e t s Bo r e pof magpies calling in the ok Mary was woken by the u sound trees outside her bedroom window. She quickly dressed for S school, ate her breakfast and ran to help her brother, James, to saddle the horses. It was a seven mile horse ride to the schoolhouse every school day and she did not want to be late. As she saddled her horse, Melody, she waved to her father who was leaving to plough the paddocks with his team of four huge draughthorses.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

In the Past

Mary and James arrived at school on time and tethered their horses in the grassy paddock beside the school building. As they were walking into school, the horses in the paddock became nervous and whinnied. Mary and James turned to see what was causing the problem and were amazed to see a strange motorised cart coming down the school track, making a lot of noise and billowing smoke. ‘This must be one of those “motor car” things,’ Mary said. She had read about these contraptions in school. Before she had time to say anything more to James, the car had whizzed past and was soon out of sight.

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In the Present

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Mary ran into school. Today was geography class where they learnt about far-off lands full of mysterious people and wild animals. Mary often dreamt about visiting these strange lands, but thought that her chance of seeing them was impossible. Instead, Mary thought about the next school holiday trip when the family would load their wagon and with a team of six horses travel 125 miles to visit their cousins’ farm on the other side of the Blue Mountains.

o c . che e r o t r s super

The alarm rang loudly to wake Alyssa, reminding her it was another day at school. Only 14 more days to the school holidays—she couldn’t wait! She quickly dressed, ate breakfast and ran out to the shed where her brother, Mark, was waiting impatiently with their bicycles. They used the bikes to ride the 750 metres down the farm track to the main road. They chained their bikes to the fence before the bus collected them at their bus stop. As they set off down the road Alyssa waved to her father who was sitting comfortably in the air-conditioned cab of his harvester, as it collected wheat from the newly-ripened crop. Transport

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R.I.C. Publications


Alyssa and Mark were collected, on time, by the school bus and spent the next thirty minutes talking with their friends as the bus picked up children from the many farms in the district. The bus dropped the students in front of the school. All of the ‘town children’ arrived by foot, bicycle or were dropped off by their parents in motor cars. As they were walking into school all the children turned, startled by the loud sound of a helicopter as it swept over the roof and gently touched down in the middle of the oval. Of course, it was Jonathon Carter. His father was a helicopter pilot who helped to muster cattle on the large stations to the east of the town. He was dropping Jonathon off to school on the way to a job.

Teac he r

was looking good. She couldn’t wait to catch the train to Sydney and get on that huge aeroplane to travel to Los Angeles, where she would meet Angela, the girl she had been communicating with in her Society and Environment class. Answer the questions.

ew i ev Pr

r o e t s Bo r e p Alyssa was excited, as todayu was Society and Environment day. Her o class was studying North k America via email and the Internet. Alyssa and Mark had been promised a holiday to North S America at the end of Term, as long as the wheat harvest was a good one—and everything

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

1. List each type of transport in the stories and describe its use.

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Mary

. te

Use

m . u

Transport

o c . che e r o t r s super

Alyssa

R.I.C. Publications

32

Transport


2. What type of transport is the same in both stories? Why do you think this is so?

Why?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

3. Who would you rather be, Mary or Alyssa?

4. Each story comes from a different time in history. Describe how you think each type of transport in each story is good or bad for the environment.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Alyssa

Bad

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Mary

Good

o c . che e r o t r s super

5. Both of these stories are set in the country. Explain how you think they would be different if the children lived in a large city.

Transport

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R.I.C. Publications


Transport Diary Transport is about moving from one place to another. Complete a transport diary for yourself. Select two or three days over the past week to complete your diary.

Travelled From

Travelled To

Transport Method

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

S

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Teac he r

Time

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1. What was the most common method of transport used? Why?

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2. How important was travel to your day? What would you have been unable to do without transport?

R.I.C. Publications

34

Transport


-G R RS PE IP

The Wheel SUP

RS PE IP

AGR No-one really knows who invented the wheel or when it was invented. Some people think it was invented in Asia about 10 000 years ago. People found that a heavy load could be moved SUPA -G more easily if a roller was placed under it. They also found that a heavy load was easier to R pull if runners were placed under the roller. Gradually, people improved on these ideas, combining the roller and runner to create one of the earliest forms of the wheel. The design of SUPAtoday. the wheel has changed and improved over many years into the form we know -G R

RS PE IP

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S SUPA -

RS PE IP

1. Brainstorm different machines that use wheels. GR

RS PE IP

GR RS PE IP

SUPA -

SUPA -

GR

ew i ev Pr

GR

RS PE IP

Teac he r

RS PE IP

SUPA -

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

RS PE IP

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o c . che e r o t r s super SUPA -

GR

RS PE IP

SUPA -

3. The wheel has changed a lot since it was first invented. Draw how you think the wheel will look 200 years in the future.

m . u

GR

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SUPA -

GR RS PE IP

RS PE IP

UPA 2. Can you imagine transport without Sthe -G R wheel? Write what you think it would be like.

SUPA -

GR

RS PE IP

SUPA -

GR RS PE IP

SUPA -

SUPA -

Additional Activities GR

Transport

SU

Compare transport diaries with other students. How are they different/the same?

RS PE IP

Discuss how the stories on pages 31 and 32 would have been different in an Aboriginal community 250 years ago.

GR RS PE IP

Discussion

35

R.I.C. Publications


Transport Profiles Lesson Focus: You will identify many different forms of transport, both old and new, and how different forms can cause problems for people and the environment. Keywords:

environmentally-friendly, pollution, greenhouse, accidents, erosion, salinity, emissions

What are some of the various types of transport, both old and new? What are their uses? Are they used on land, sea or air? 1. Choose eight forms of transport to complete a profile. You may choose from the words below or add some of your own choice. • station wagon • helicopter

Form of Transport: land

Form of Transport:

sea

air

land

Uses:

sea

Uses:

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

• bicycle

• hot-air balloon • horse and cart r o e t s • cargo B r • trucke ship o • passenger ship p o • van • ferry • jumbo jet u k S • goods train

air

© R. I . C.Pub l i c at i o ns If this form was not available ... •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

If this form was not available ...

. te sea

Form of Transport: land Uses:

Have you used it? Yes

No

o c . che e r o t r s supUses: er Form of Transport:

air

land

If this form was not available ...

Have you used it? Yes R.I.C. Publications

No

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Have you used it? Yes

sea

air

If this form was not available ...

Have you used it? Yes

No 36

No Transport


air

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

r o e t s Bo r e p ok Form of Transport: u Form of Transport: S land sea air land sea Uses:

Uses:

If this form was not available ...

If this form was not available ...

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Have you used it? Yes

No

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Form of Transport: land

Uses:

sea . te

No

m . u

Have you used it? Yes

Form of Transport: air

land

sea

air

o c . che e r o t r s super Uses:

If this form was not available ...

Have you used it? Yes

If this form was not available ...

Have you used it? Yes

No

No

2. Use the information gathered on your profiles and other students’ profiles to make a class retrieval chart or transport profile booklet. Transport

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R.I.C. Publications


Transport Problems—1 While transport helps us in many ways, it also causes problems for us and our environment. Some of these problems are air and noise pollution, accidents and land clearing. Air – The exhaust from many forms of transport pollutes the air, which is harmful to all life. In Australia, transport is responsible for about 17% of Australia’s greenhouse emissions. Although the air quality in Australian cities is generally good, some cities occasionally suffer from high smog levels. Groups such as the National Road Transport Commission and the Motor Vehicle Environment Committee are concerned with the problem of air pollution caused by transport. One result of this was the introduction in the 1980s of unleaded fuel for cars. These groups also encourage people to use carpooling and public transport.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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Teac he r

Air and Noise Pollution Noise – The noise of road traffic affects many people who live in cities. People’s general health and hearing can be affected by noises like engines running and squealing brakes. Although we can not stop transport noise, vehicle drivers can help to reduce it by keeping their vehicles in good working order, and driving in a way that reduces noise. Aircraft noise is also a problem for people who live near airports. As large aeroplanes are changing from pure jet to fan jet, the amount of noise is decreasing; however, the number of aircraft flying is increasing all the time.

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worldwide. In Australia, over 163 000 road fatalities have occurred since record-keeping began in 1925. As well as the tragic loss of life, the cost to the community is $6 billion every year. Road accidents are often caused by driver fatigue, speeding and driving under the influence of alcohol—all of which are preventable. Groups like the Australian Transport Safety Bureau help by educating the public about such things, as well as monitoring vehicle safety standards.

. te

m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Accidents Accidents caused• byf road transport hugep problem or r evare i eaw ur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t Land Clearing r s su per Clearing land to make way for new roads, airports and railways causes a huge problem for our environment. As well as looking ugly, it can destroy our native animals’ homes, and cause soil problems like erosion and salinity, which means that plants can’t grow. Groups like the Australian Conservation Foundation are dedicated to helping with this problem. They consider land clearing one of Australia’s most serious environmental issues.

R.I.C. Publications

38

Transport


Answer these questions. 1. Complete the table to show how transport affects us and our environment.

Effect

Problem Noise Pollution

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u Accidents S Land Clearing

2. What can be done to reduce noise and air pollution?

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Teac he r

Air Pollution

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Transport

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3. Television commercials can educate people about preventing road accidents. Write a slogan and draw a freeze-frame from a commercial to make people think about how they drive. 4. Suggest ways people could help the Australian Conservation Foundation.

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R.I.C. Publications


Transport Problems—2

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Teac he r

Study the photographs below and identify the problems that have been caused by transport. Write how these problems can affect people and the environment. Explain how the problems might be solved.

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Bushland being cleared for a new highway.

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A busy street. Discussion

Additional Activities

Is it all right to keep clearing land to make more roads? R.I.C. Publications

Rate forms of transport on a scale of 1–10 according to how environmentally-friendly you consider each to be. 40

Transport


Transport Survey Lesson Focus:

You will identify transport facilities, traffic trends and transport methods in your local community.

Keywords:

facilities, local, located, survey, catered

Complete the following survey to identify the transport facilities available to you and your community.

Transport Method

Available Quality of Facilities

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Comments

Yes

Poor Good Excellent

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Teac he r

Walking

No

Bicycle

Motor Vehicle

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Bus

Train

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Truck

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Aeroplane

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Helicopter

Hydrofoil Seaplane Transport

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R.I.C. Publications


Transport Facilities Map The transport survey identified transport methods and facilities in your community. In the space below, construct a map of your community showing these facilities.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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Teac he r

Include such things as roads, footpaths, cyclepaths, bus stops, train or bus stations, traffic lights, jetties, airports—whatever is located in your community.

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R.I.C. Publications

m . u

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Transport


Improving Transport Facilities Imagine you are the mayor of your local community. You have been reading all the comments on the transport survey and studying the facilities on the map. Make notes on the positive and negative comments about your transport facilities. Identify any problems and write how they could be solved or improvements made.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Negatives Problem

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Teac he r

Positives

Solution

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? ? Transport

?

?

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?

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?

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?ch

?

? ✓

? 43

✓ ✓ R.I.C. Publications


Traffic Survey 1. With your teacher and class, locate a busy traffic area close to your school. Walk to the area and, from a safe position, conduct a traffic survey over a 20-minute period. Some spaces have been left blank for you to fill in other transport methods if necessary. Tally

Transport Method On Foot

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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Teac he r

Car

Total

Bus

Motorcycle

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Bicycle •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Van

R.I.C. Publications

. te

m . u

Truck

o c . che e r o t r s super

44

Transport


Teac he r

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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Transport Method

2. Present your data on this graph and then answer the following questions.

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m . u

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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(a)

o c . che e r Number of Pedestrians/Vehicles o t r s super What was the most frequently occurring method of transport?

Why do you think this was?

(b) What was the least frequently occurring method of transport? Why do you think this was? Transport

45

R.I.C. Publications


(c) Order the transport methods from most used to least used. 1.

6.

2.

7.

3.

8.

4.

9.

10. r o e t s Bo r e p ok u (d) Is this what you expected to happen? S

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Teac he r

5.

Explain.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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(a) in a small country town? Same

Why?

. te

(b) in the centre of a busy city?

Different

Same

Different

o c . che e r o t r s super Why?

Additional Activities

Discussion

List safety and courtesy rules for various methods of transport.

How do transport facilities cater for people with disabilities in your school and local community? R.I.C. Publications

m . u

3. Do you think the survey would be the same or different if it was done:

46

Transport


Transport—Benefits and Concerns Lesson Focus:

You will investigate to find out how different forms of transport can be of benefit and concern to the community.

Keywords:

benefit, concern, problem, occupation, timetable

When identifying and solving problems, one method is to note all the ‘pros’ (good points) and ‘cons’ (bad points) about a problem or issue. By doing this you paint a word picture of the problem and can reach a decision or conclusion. In this activity you will collect information and draw conclusions about different types of transport. Walking has been given as an example. You will need to research and think about your own experiences to provide the rest. You may want to think about cost, efficiency, the environment, availability etc. Transport Method

Cons

• Walking is a healthy form of transport. • Walking does not cost anything. • Walking makes you feel good. • Walking is environmentallyfriendly. • Walking is safe on footpaths.

• Walking is not as fast as other forms of transport. • Walking is not an option for very young or very old people. • You can’t walk comfortably in very cold, hot or wet weather.

Teac he r

Pros

Conclusion

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Walking

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Walking is a very healthy form of transport, but it can be slow and other transport methods can be more efficient.

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Transport

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R.I.C. Publications


Bus Timetable Bus to Clarksville Town Burns Beach Station

Bus to Burns Beach

Two Rocks

Victoria Park

Kinross

Clarksville Town Station

7.00

6.40

7.30

7.05

7.55

7.40

8.05

8.15

8.38

8.30

8.40

8.45

8.57

7.00

E E

A.M.

E E

Two Rocks

Burns Beach Station

7.10

7.13

7.29

7.39

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S E

8.10

8.05

8.13

8.25

8.39

9.05

8.20

8.50

9.15

9.25

9.38

9.48

10.05

10.15

11.03

9.00

9.10

9.15

9.27

9.35

9.50

8.58

9.10

9.20

9.34

9.53

9.15

9.50

10.00

10.05

10.17

10.25

9.40

9.48

10.00

10.25

10.35

10.51

10.59

10.20

10.25

11.00

11.10

11.15

11.27

11.35

11.35

11.45

11.50

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Teac he r

7.25

E

Victoria Park

© 12.02 R. I . C .Pu bl i ca t i o11.59 ns — 12.13 12.10 11.40 — •f orr e vi ew pu r po ses12.20 onl y • 12.35 12.20 12.40 12.08 12.25 12.15 12.32 12.00

P.M.

11.05

11.13

11.25

11.30

11.40

12.59

1.09

P.M.

12.05

1.00

1.08

12.35

12.54

1.05

1.15

1.20

1.32

1.40

1.15

1.23

1.35

1.40

1.50

1.30

1.35

1.47

1.55

1.45

1.53

2.05

2.19

1.20

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12.35

2.40

2.50

. te

3.00

3.10

3.10

3.20

3.25

3.55

3.30

3.38

3.50

3.55

4.05

4.05

3.40

3.48

4.00

4.14

3.40

3.50

3.55

4.07

4.15

4.00

4.30

4.00

4.10

4.15

4.27

4.35

4.20

E

4.50

4.55

4.40

E

5.10

2.05

2.15

3.20

E

3.30

E

4.20

E

R.I.C. Publications

2.55

o c . che e r o t r s super —

2.38

2.20

2.28

3.07

3.15

2.50

2.58

3.26

3.34

3.10

3.37

3.45

3.20

48

E

E

2.53

3.10

3.15

3.25

3.29

3.34

3.44

3.50

Transport

— = No stop at this station

6.30

Kinross

E = Express (no stopping)

A.M.

Clarksville Town Station


Answer these questions. 1. What time does the first bus: (a) leave Burns Beach Station? (b) arrive at Clarksville Town Station? (c) leave Clarksville Town Station? (d) arrive at Burns Beach Station?

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Teac he r

2.

r o e t s Bo r e 3. You live at Burns Beach. What time will How long does it take to travel to p okthe bus if: you have to catch Clarksville Town: u S (a) you want to see a movie in (a) on an express bus?

?

?

Clarksville Town at 10.30 a.m.?

(b) on a bus that stops at all stations?

(b) you need to be home at 4.00 p.m.?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

(a) Two Rocks to arrive at Clarksville Town by 9.00 a.m.?

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(b) Clarksville Town to arrive at Kinross by 2.30 p.m.?

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o c . (d) Kinross to arrive Burns Beach Station by 4.20 p.m.?e cath r er o t How many: s super (c) Victoria Park to arrive at Kinross by 4.30 p.m.?

5.

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4. Which bus would you need to catch from:

(a) express buses run from Burns Beach to Clarksville Town? (b) express buses run from Clarksville Town to Burns Beach? (c) buses stop at all stops from Burns Beach to Clarksville Town? (d) buses stop at all stops from Clarksville Town to Burns Beach? Transport

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Transport Occupations Transport helps people in various ways. People can travel from one place to another. Goods and services which people need are transported within their community. The transport system also provides many jobs for people to earn money. Use your own knowledge and further research to complete the transport occupation profiles below. Add two of your own. Occupation: Bus Driver

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Job Description:

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Job Description:

Occupation: Pilot

Occupation: Travel Agent

Occupation: Mechanic

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Occupation:

Job Description:

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Job Description:

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Discussion

Additional Activities

Talk about the benefits of using public transport. R.I.C. Publications

Collect timetables for buses, trains and aeroplanes. Are they all the same or do they differ? 50

Transport


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What is an Environment? Lesson Focus:

You will learn what an environment is and become familiar with climatic zones.

Keywords:

environment, conditions, climate, equatorial, savanna, Mediterranean, humid

environment noun The physical conditions of a place, such as weather, water and vegetation.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Tropic of Cancer

Equator

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The world has many different types of environments. When we look at a map of our world, we can see the Equator, the Tropic of Capricorn and the Tropic of Cancer. These invisible lines surrounding our earth generally help to define the environment of the area around them.

Tropic of Capricorn

Environments depend on the climate they are found in. For example, you won’t find a rainforest in an area that doesn’t receive any rainfall. Places closest to the Equator are generally hot. The further from the Equator, the cooler the climate, until it is freezing at the Polar regions.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Because of Australia’s size, experience different in e different and• therefore •f o rwer e vi ew puclimates r pos soareas nl y have different environments.

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Semi-desert – this area falls between wet and very dry areas.

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Tropical savanna – this area generally has hot, wet summers and warm, very dry winters.

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Mediterranean – this area has hot, dry summers and mild, wet winters.

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Tropical maritime north-east – this area has hot, wet summers and warm, drier winters.

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Warm temperate south-east – this area generally has hot, wet summers and cool to mild, wet winters.

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Cool temperate – this area generally has warm, wet summers with cool to mild, wet winters.

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Desert – this area generally has hot, dry summers and mild, dry winters.

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This map shows the different climatic zones within Australia.

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Answer these questions. 1. Using the key, colour the map of Australia on page 52 according to the following. •

Blue for an area which can be classed as a wet environment.

Orange for an area which can be classed as a dry environment.

Green for an area which can be wet or dry.

2. Are there more wet environments or dry environments in Australia? Explain why you think this.

(b) Where would you be if you experienced almost no rainfall? (c) Which areas receive rain almost all year round?

4. What type of climatic zone do you live in?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Which • typef of climatic zone would top live and why? o rr e vi e wyouplike ur oins es onl y•

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How do you know this?

5.

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3.

r o e t s Bo r e p okAustralia. Answer these questions using the key numbers from the map of u S (a) Which area experiences hot, dry summers?

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Topics for Discussion

Additional Activities

Our climate is changing. How do you think this will affect the different environments? Explain your answer. Australian Environments

Select one climatic zone. Find out what features can be found in this type of environment; for example, ponds, lakes etc. Report your findings to the class. 53

R.I.C. Publications


Types of Environments Lesson Focus:

You will learn about the different types of environments in Australia and become familiar with the different terms used to describe them.

Keywords:

continent, sparsely, proportion, regions, landscape, unique, glossary

Australia is the sixth largest country in the world and the only one to be called a continent. It is the flattest, driest and most sparsely populated continent in the world after Antarctica—more than 90% of Australia is flat and dry.

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Desert

This pie chart shows what proportion of r o e t s AustraliaB experiences these climatic r e oo zones. p u S Semi-desert Deserts are very aridkregions which do

not receive much rainfall. Without rainfall, not many plants grow. Without plants, the land erodes from the wind. Because there is little water and few plants, the number of animals which live in the desert is small.

Tropical Temperate Mediterranean

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Savanna areas have more trees, more rainfall and more wildlife than the desert and semidesert areas. The tropical area is a rainforest area, with a huge number of different plants, trees and animals. This area of Australia contains some of the oldest trees in the world. The south and south-western areas of Australia are temperate areas (Mediterranean), have rivers that flow all year round, bushland, hills and a large number of different animals. The warm humid areas, along the east coast of Australia, have large numbers of trees, hills, rivers and animals. This area also has some of the highest mountains in Australia. Snowfall in Tasmania and NSW can be greater than that received in Switzerland.

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Semi-desert areas receive more rainfall than desert areas. There are more plants and animals and the landscape isn’t as flat or eroded. Trees and shrubs are not common; most plants are grasses and small bushes. Hills, rivers, streams and lakes can be found in these areas, providing a home to many different animals.

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Australia has a rich environment with many animals and plants that are found nowhere else in the world. R.I.C. Publications

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Answer these questions. 1. Approximately what fraction of Australia is … (a) semi-desert?

(b) desert?

2. List five special features of Australia. (a) (b) (c)

(e)

3. Name these environments and write keywords to describe them.

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(d)

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Keywords

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Glossary of Terms A glossary is a list of words about a particular subject. Different terms can be used to describe different environments and climatic zones, as we have just learnt. We can also use terms to describe the features of these environments. Word

Meaning

archipelago

a group of islands in a sea

basin

land drained by a river

beach

the pebbles or sand at the edge of a sea, ocean, lake or river

coast

r o e t s Bo r e p ok a hollow place in a hillside or cliff u S the shore or land alongside the sea

crater

a round hole in the ground, sometimes made by a meteorite

delta

the land at the mouth of a river

desert

an arid place without enough rainfall to grow many plants

estuary forest

grassland

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cave

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons land covered with many trees •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• the mouth or the part of a river which meets the sea

an area which has mainly grasses and few trees

lake

a large area of water surrounded by land

mountain plateau pond river

a large raised part of the earth, higher than a hill

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a raised part of the earth, smaller than a mountain

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hill

. at large flat stretch of high ground e o c a body ofc water, smaller than a lake, surrounded by. land e hstream r o t r a large naturale of water flowing in a definite course s super

sand dune

a sandhill formed by the wind

shore

the land along the edge of the sea or a lake

stream

a small river or creek

valley

the low land between hills or mountains, usually with a river flowing through it

wetland

an area where the soil is always wet or underwater

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Answer these questions. 1. Which two words mean almost the same thing?

2. Sort the words into groups which can be used to describe wet environments and those which can be used to describe dry environments. dry environments

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wet environments

3. What natural features do you have in your local environment? Write them below.

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• beach

• cave

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• hill

• delta

• river

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Topics for Discussion

Additional Activities

Talk about how dry Australia is as a continent. Why do you think it is so dry? How does this affect plants, animals and humans? Can anything be done? Australian Environments

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4. Use these words to label the diagram below. Colour the diagram.

Make a 3-D map of your local community showing the natural features you listed in question 3. You can use modelling clay, recycled materials and anything else you can think of. Label the different parts clearly and display in the library. 57

R.I.C. Publications


Use of the Environment Lesson Focus:

You will learn how people and animals use the environment in many different ways.

Keywords:

recreation, destruction, public, visit, provide, features, purpose, shelter, adapt

People live, work and play in many different environments. Within Australia, we have many different types of environments. There are people who work in these environments to care for them or the people who visit them. Others use the environment for recreation.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Brainstorm all the people who …

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Many people enjoy visiting the beach and swimming in the ocean. But have you ever stopped to think about the people who work in that environment? Many people work together to help protect the beach from destruction, to provide goods and services for the public and to make sure that the beach is a safe place to be.

look after the environment

make sure the beach is a safe place

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi e wBeach pur posesonl y• The

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Lots of people work together to make the beach an enjoyable place to be. Other places we visit, like parks, national parks, rivers etc., also have people who work together to care for the environment, provide goods and services and to make sure it is a safe place to be. These environments are mostly natural, but there are also some built features to make things easier for the people who work there and the people who visit. For example, pathways might be built to stop people trampling all over dunes. A shop may be built to provide people with food, while a first aid station is needed in case there is an emergency. R.I.C. Publications

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While there are people who work in a natural environment, there are people who change the environment to suit their purpose. Farmers cut down trees and plough the land to plant crops or keep farm animals. They build fences to show the boundaries of their land and create roads to get from place to place. Miners change the environment by digging great holes in the ground, building housing, roads and airstrips, and transporting huge trucks, machinery and loads of ore in and out of the area.

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2. List all the built features in your local environment.

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3. Use these words to say where you would find these houses.

Australian Environments

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Different shelters suit different environments. In hotter environments, we have houses which protect us from the heat; in colder environments we have houses which protect us from the cold. In the northern parts of Australia, houses are often built on stilts. This has many advantages—it allows the air to move freely under the house, helping to cool it down; it also means the house is high off the ground in case of flooding during the wet season. In the outback, houses usually have a big veranda all the way around them to keep the hot sun off the walls and windows. This helps to keep the house cool and provides people with a shady place to sit in the evening and cool down. In the southern parts of Australia, houses have heaters or fires to keep the home warm during the cooler months. • northern

• outback

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Animals use the environment in different ways from people. They rely on their environment to provide them with shelter, protection from predators and food. They rely on humans to take care of the environment and not to destroy it. Animals have different ways of adapting to their environment—they have special features. For example, polar bears have a thick fur coat which helps to protect them from the cold, while fish have gills to help them breathe under water. Some animals in very hot environments live underground during the day and only come out at night to feed. Let’s go back to the beach and think about all the animals that rely on this environment as their home.

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4. Brainstorm animals that rely on the beach and ocean as their home.

land animals

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air animals The Beach

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ocean animals

Plants rely on their environment and the climate to survive and reproduce—they also have special features. For example, seaweed lives best in the ocean; once it ends up on a shore, it begins to die and rot. A cactus stores enough water to survive so it can go without rain in a desert environment. Some plants rely on animals or weather to reproduce; for example, bees often carry pollen from one plant to another, or the wind may carry seed pods to a new location.

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o c . che e r o t r s super Sort these plants according to where you would find them. lily, seaweed, gum tree, rose, fern, seagrass, cactus, palm tree

wet environments

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dry environments

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6. Choose a local environment and complete the following. Type of environment:

Location:

What animals are found in this environment?

How does the environment meet their needs?

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How do people in the local area use this environment?

How does the environment meet their needs?

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What plants are found in this environment?

What changes have people made to the environment?

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How do people outside the local area use this environment?

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How does this affect the environment?

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Topics for Discussion

Additional Activities

Talk about the effects people have on the environment. How do you feel about these effects? Are they positive or negative effects? If they are negative, is there anything that can be done to make them more positive? Australian Environments

Use the information from the table above and the discussion to produce an information pamphlet for the local community. How can people look after their environment? 61

R.I.C. Publications


Changes in the Natural Environment Lesson Focus:

You will learn how Aboriginal Australians used the environment and how Europeans have changed the environment to suit their purposes.

Keywords:

permanent, harmony, natural, native, resources, shelter, introduced, survival

Europeans

The Aboriginal Australians lived on this land for thousands of years. They did not build permanent homes, they did not build roads or create dams.

The Europeans discovered Australia a short time ago in comparison, and have only ever changed the natural environment to suit their needs. They built homes, roads, buildings, dams, farms and destroyed a lot of natural environments.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Shelter was made permanent and used many natural resources. Trees were cut down to

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Aboriginal Australians

make space or for building resources and areas of land were cleared for farming and dams, forcing the native animals away from their natural habitat.

Instead, they lived in harmony with the land, moving from place to place according to the season and the food available to them.

As farms were developed, fences were built which stopped the native animals from moving freely from one place to another. Roads were built, which meant more clearing of the land. Cars were introduced as the main form of transport—many native animals were, and are still, killed crossing these roads.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons f or evfrom i ew pur posesonl y• Their shelter was• simple andr made

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natural resources. It could be easily constructed and just as easily destroyed. Land was not cleared for the shelter, it was simply built where there was enough space. When the Aboriginal Australians wanted to get from place to place, they walked. Over time, narrow pathways formed tracks for them to walk along. The paths also formed the boundaries between different groups.

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o c . c e her r If water was needed, the Aboriginal o t s super Australian people would seek out water. They would perhaps set up camp near a water supply. This also provided them with a food supply as the animals came to the waterhole to drink.

Europeans also introduced animals such as rabbits, cats and foxes which were not native to Australia. Some of these animals have become pests and destroyed the environment because they have no natural predators in Australia. These animals also introduced diseases which the Australian animals were not immune to, causing illness and even death among the animals native to Australia.

Natural resources were used carefully and the area was not destroyed as they relied on the area for their survival. Animals were hunted and plants gathered to eat or for medicine. Nothing was wasted. R.I.C. Publications

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Answer these questions. 1. What does ‘they lived in harmony with the land’ mean?

2. Compare the way the Aboriginal Australian people used the environment with how Europeans used the environment.

What …

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Aboriginal Australian people

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animals

land

shelter

Europeans

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3. How did the Europeans affect the environment?

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4. (a)

o c . che e r o t r sbehaved responsibly? r upe Do you think the Aboriginals Australian people

Yes

No

Yes

No

Explain.

(b) Do you think the Europeans behaved responsibly? Explain.

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5. Draw what you think these shelters would have looked like. A European shelter.

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An Aboriginal Australian shelter.

Clearing the land for farming has caused a number of problems. Without enough trees or plants on the land, the soil begins to erode from the wind and rain. As the land erodes, fewer trees and plants can survive, so they die. Another problem caused by removing trees and plants is ‘salinity’. If there are no trees or plants drinking the water in the earth, the water table rises and forces salt to the surface. This destroys the land completely and nothing can grow in this type of environment.

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6. What is a water table?

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7. How do you think we can solve the problem of …

o c . che e r o t r s super salinity?

Topics for Discussion

Additional Activities

Talk about the effects Europeans had on the Aboriginal Australian people’s way of life. Do you think the European people cared for the land as well as the people native to Australia did? R.I.C. Publications

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Use this information and your own research to complete these.

Draw a map of your local community. Highlight the natural features that are still close to how they would have been 200 years ago. Highlight the natural features which have changed in the past 200 years. 64

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Changes in the Local Environment Lesson Focus:

You will learn how your local community and surrounding environments have changed.

Keywords:

comfortable, shelter, elements, population, settlement, natural features, built features

Simply by living in the environment, we make changes so our lives are more comfortable. We build shelter to protect us from the elements. We create roads, so we can move from place to place more easily. We develop farms, so we can provide ourselves with food. We build dams, so we can store water for future use. We change the environment a great deal to suit our needs. As time goes by, the population grows bigger and our needs increase.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u Draw a map of S your local environment as it may have been before European settlement.

1.

Include the natural features. You may need to use a key.

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Imagine your local environment as it would have been before European settlement. Think of the natural features—the hills, valleys, rivers, lakes, beaches etc. Close your eyes and imagine you are walking through the area as it was then.

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o c . che e r o t r Write two sentences to describe s your local environment s as you think it would have been r u e p before European settlement.

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Now think about your local environment as it is today. Think about the built features—the roads, buildings, dams, bridges etc. Talk about the natural and built features of your local community. Are there more natural or built features in your community? 3. Make a list of the natural features and built features in your community.

built features

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natural features

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4. Draw a map of your local community as it is today. Use a key to show natural and built features.

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5. Some changes to the environment have benefits for the community, but have negative effects on the environment. Some changes to the environment benefit the environment but not the community. Can you think of any changes to your community that have had: (a) a positive effect on the community, but a negative effect on the environment?

(b) a negative effect on the community, but a positive effect on the environment?

6. Are there any places in your local area that have not been changed by people or have only limited access?

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(c)

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u positive effects S for both the community and the environment?

Yes

No

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What are they?

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Why do you think these areas have been left unchanged?

7.

. te o Do you think there are any areas in your local environment that c . Yes e should be protectedc from further use by people? her r o t s super What are they?

Topics for Discussion

Additional Activities

Talk about the areas in your local community people in your class think should be protected from further use by people. Does everyone agree on the same places? As a class choose one or two environments everyone can agree on. Australian Environments

No

From the discussion and the class choices of environments that should be protected, design and develop a poster. The poster should inform people of the importance of preserving these local areas. 67

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Environmental Organisations Lesson Focus:

You will learn about some organisations which are devoted to caring for our environment.

Keywords:

organisation, dedicate, protect, natural resources, inform

There are many organisations in Australia that dedicate their efforts to protecting the environment. We will look at four of these organisations and what they hope to achieve. Australian Conservation Foundation

This is the biggest effort to rescue our environment ever. The Australian government provides $1.5 billion to help the Australian environment. Individuals, communities and governments all work together to solve environmental problems.

This organisation has been involved with caring for our environment for the past 30 years. It tries to stop things like mining in national parks and the damming of rivers.

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The Natural Heritage Trust mainly focuses on the land, vegetation, rivers, coasts and marine environments and animal life.

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The Natural Heritage Trust

It tries to inform people about the dangers of greenhouse gases, caring for and the wise use of our water, saving native trees from land clearing, protecting beautiful places and saving our native plants and animals.

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The organisation provides money to manage natural resources more carefully and to protect Australia’s unique plant and animal life. Greening Australia

The National Landcare Program

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Greening Australia helps Australians to: • protect plant and animal life • repair and prevent damage to the land • improve the quality of our water • provide suitable habitats for native animals It hopes to encourage Australians to create a healthy community which allows all plants and animals to thrive in a suitable environment. It also aims to educate all Australians about the importance of looking after our resources.

Landcare has more than 4 500 community groups across Australia that work together to fix environmental problems. It also works hard to protect the future of Australia’s natural resources.

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Answer these questions. 1. These organisations work best when everybody works together. Can you explain why?

3.

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2. How does your community work together to help the environment?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Answer true or false. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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(a) The Australian Conservation Foundation supports mining.

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(b) The Natural Heritage Trust provides money to organisations.

. thas more than 45 000 community groups. o Landcaree c . che e r o t The damming of rivers isr helpful to the environment. s super

(c) Greening Australia builds habitats for native animals. (d) (e)

4. Which organisation do you think is the most important? Why?

Topics for Discussion

Additional Activities

Read ‘The Lorax’ by Dr Seuss and talk about how the environment was being treated and how things were changed to then care for the environment. Why was it so important to change what was happening? Australian Environments

1. Find out about local organisations in your area which work to protect the environment. Present a brief report about what they do. 2. Read Dreaming stories to learn how the Aboriginal Australian people cared for the environment. 69

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Natural Changes Lesson Focus:

You will learn that natural events affect and change the environment.

Keywords:

weather patterns, extreme, damage, occur, vegetation, unreliable

Sometimes, the natural weather patterns are more extreme than usual. These affect the environment and the people who live in the area. They may cause a great deal of damage and sometimes even the death of people and animals. Drought

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A drought is often not as spectacular as a flood. You generally won’t see it on the six o’clock news. Human life is usually safe during a drought.

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A drought is when the rainfall is less than normal over a long period. Arid parts of Queensland, New South Wales, South Australia, the Northern Territory and Western Australia have unreliable rainfall. It is never really certain what level of rainfall they can expect to get.

Drought can cause a great deal of damage for farmers, who rely on the rain for their crops and animals. During long periods of drought, farmers have lost crops, animals and income. Bushfire Severe droughts are a common problem in Australia. Some of Some bushfires are started by our worst droughts were: people (sometimes on purpose and sometimes by • 1895 – 1903 • 1911 – 1916 • 1938 – 1945 accident). Bushfires can also • 1964 – 1966 • 1978 – 1983 • 1991 – 1994 be caused by a lightning • 1997 – 1998 strike to the ground in a very dry area.

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Once the fire is started, the wind, dry vegetation and gum from the Eucalypt trees spread it speedily.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Bushfires kill wildlife, damage the vegetation, burn pastures, homes and sometimes kill people. Controlled fires Flood organised by the government When a river rises and overflows it causes a flood. Floods help to reduce the risk of usually happen after a lot of heavy rain. The river is not able to bushfire, but it is still a carry all the rainwater away quickly enough, so it overflows. serious problem. Floods usually occur along the east coast and northern parts of It takes a long time for the Australia, where heavy rains fall only occasionally. Some floods environment to recover from a cause a lot of damage. Houses have been washed away, people bushfire. and farm animals have drowned, towns have been underwater for weeks. The land is also damaged, causing trees to fall down, soil to be washed away and other plants to drown. R.I.C. Publications

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Answer these questions. 1. In your opinion, which disaster is the most dangerous to … (a) people? Why? (b) the environment? Why?

r o e t s Bo r e p… ok On this map of Australia u S (a) colour blue where people would

2. For how many years, in total, has Australia suffered drought since 1895?

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3.

most likely experience flooding.

(b) colour red where people would most likely experience drought.

4. Name three ways bushfires can be started. (a) (b)

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Flood

Can be prevented

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animals

Causes loss of income

Damages towns

Damages vegetation

Washes away soil

Damages farms

Kills native animals

Damages homes

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(c)

Drought Bushfire Topics for Discussion

Additional Activities

Talk about the effects of these natural events. Some people say they are becoming more common. What do you think? Can they be prevented? Australian Environments

1. Find out about natural disasters that may have affected your local community. Present a news report. 2. Invite a firefighter to the school to talk about fire safety when in the bush. Design and make a poster telling others about fire safety. 71

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Water and the Environment Lesson Focus:

You will learn about the use of water and why it is important to conserve it.

Keywords:

run-off, silt, water resources, survival, pressure, supply, leach, pollution

You have already learnt that Australia is one of the driest continents on the planet. This means we need to use our water resources wisely. We rely on water for our day-to-day survival and so do plants and animals. As we move into new areas, land is cleared for roads and to build housing. As more people move into that area, more pressure is placed on the water supply. Our everyday actions cause damage to the local waterways.

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into our rivers. Detergent from washing our cars on the lawn also finds its way into the rivers. These cause the very rapid growth of algae, which uses all the oxygen in the water, so that other river life dies.

• Clearing the land means that plants and animals from that area disappear. This means the chain of life is broken. The plants which used to drink the water from the area are no longer there, so the water table rises, forcing salt to the surface.

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r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S leach into the soil and finally • Sprays used in the garden

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• Housing causes more run-off into the rivers. Rivers can’t cope with this and flooding occurs. Roads also cause more run-off into the rivers. This run-off is usually polluted by oil and rubber from car tyres.

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• Cleared land means that the water runs off more quickly. This leads to erosion and causes the rivers to carry a lot more silt. More silt means the river slows down. If the river slows down, the water becomes stagnant.

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o c . che e r o t r s sup r e People, plants and animals rely on the waterways for survival—water is a life source. Some animals also rely on the waterways for their diet of fish and shellfish. Many species of birds and animals need wet environments to survive. Without these wet areas, large numbers of birds and animals would become endangered, threatened, rare or even extinct. People rely on water for many things: cooking, drinking, washing, gardens, farms, leisure activities, fishing etc. Water is the most commonly used resource in the world and the most precious. The most important thing we have to remember is that water is a valuable resource. We have to take care of it. Without water that is not polluted, the earth and everything on it will die. Of all living things on earth, it is people who have caused the most damage to the waterways. R.I.C. Publications

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Answer these questions. 1. Brainstorm how people, animals and plants use water.

by plants by animals

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How water is used

by humans

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3. Draw a picture showing how humans use water for …

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2. Name six occupations which involve working in a wet environment.

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4. Complete this table by listing five ways you use water … wisely

r o e t s Bo r e p o u k For each unwise use of water, write how you can use water more wisely. S

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5.

unwisely

(a) (b) (c)

(d) (e)

6. (a)

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to look after the waterways?

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o c . che e r o t r s super Write three ways to reduce water pollution. (a) (b) (c)

Topics for Discussion

Additional Activities

Read ‘Lester and Clyde’ by James Reece. Talk about how people treat the environment. Is it fair that humans treat the environment in this way? What about the plants and animals? How would you like it if someone treated your home like this? R.I.C. Publications

1. How does your local community look after its water resources? Invite someone from the water authority to answer class questions. 2. Design and present a poster, or television or radio commercial to encourage people to use water wisely. 74

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Celebrations

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What is a Celebration? Lesson Focus:

You will learn what a celebration is, and how people celebrate.

Keywords:

honouring, religious, cultural, community, festivals, carnivals, ceremonies

A celebration is a way of remembering or honouring a special event in our lives. It can last for just a day, or for many days. It may occur at the same time every year, or be on a different day each time. Celebrations can be religious, cultural, community or family occasions, or even a mixture of these. Some celebrations involve whole countries, while some may be special just to you and your family. Many celebrations mean a holiday.

r o e t s Bareothe most common. r e People around the world celebrate in different ways, but these p ok u S Teac he r

Praying For people who celebrate religious occasions, this is often very important. Families may pray together at home, or at a special place such as a church, a mosque or a temple.

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Meals and Parties Many people like to eat a meal or hold a party with family and friends to celebrate. Special foods that are made for the occasion are often eaten. People sometimes fast, or avoid food for a period of time, before some religious celebrations, so these meals or parties are particularly enjoyed.

achievements of its people, who march in the streets while they are cheered on by crowds. People in parades usually wear special costumes or uniforms.

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Festivals and Carnivals Celebrations that involve lots of people are often like huge street parties, with costumes and dancing. Festivals and carnivals can also involve plays, musical performances and other special events. R.I.C. Publications

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Gifts and Cards People like to send their best wishes to others during a celebration. Special greetings are often written in cards. Some celebrations mean receiving particular gifts such as clothes, money or sweets.

o c . che e r o t r s super Ceremonies Ceremonies are important public occasions. They are usually formal, and use certain language, clothes and music. Ceremonies can involve raising a flag, taking a vow, unveiling a special object or cutting a ribbon. 76

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Use the text to answer these questions. 1. Why do people celebrate?

2. Write three keywords for each heading. Meals and Parties:

r o e t s Bo r Praying: e p ok u S Gifts and Cards:

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Festivals and Carnivals:

Parades:

Ceremonies:

3. Which way or ways of celebrating do you think would be best for:

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr vi w pur posesonl y• Remembering ae hero ore heroine?

(a) A birthday? (b)

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(c) A wedding?

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(d) A new baby in your family? (e) New Year?

. te o c Describe an occasion you have celebrated that was special to just you and your family. . che e r o t r s super

(f) Welcoming someone home? 4.

5. Describe an occasion you have celebrated with lots of other people.

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6. Brainstorm all the occasions people in your class celebrate in the space below. Next to each, write the number of people in your class who celebrate it.

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Celebrations

7. Write the five most common celebrations from the chart in the table below. Write what type of celebration each one is.

Name of Celebration

Type of Celebration

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8. Draw a picture of your favourite celebration. Choose from the bold headings in the text on page 76 to describe how it is celebrated. Add any other ways it is celebrated if you need to.

Topics for Discussion

Additional Activities

1. ‘Receiving gifts is the most important part of a celebration.’ Do you agree? 2. Are some celebrations more important than others?

1. Make a class mural of occasions students celebrate. 2. Plan a class party, with groups of students responsible for different aspects of the planning.

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What Makes a Celebration? Lesson Focus:

You will learn what makes celebrations different from each other.

Keywords:

food, symbols, clothing, customs

Many people look forward to celebrations because of the familiar food, symbols, clothing and customs that make it special.

Food

Food often reminds people of why they are celebrating. Some foods are eaten only at certain celebrations.

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Thanksgiving (fourth Thursday in November) North Americans celebrate Thanksgiving to remember early American settlers’ thankfulness for their first harvest. People eat foods that the settlers would have eaten such as turkey and pumpkin pies.

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Shrove Tuesday (February) In many European countries, people eat pancakes on the day before Lent, the 40-day fast period before Easter. Long ago, people were not allowed to eat foods made from animals during Lent, so on Shrove Tuesday foods like butter and eggs were used up to make treats like pancakes, and eaten.

Trung Thu (September – October) This festival during autumn in Vietnam celebrates the beauty of the moon. People eat fish and flower-shaped moon cakes, with sweet fillings which are sometimes unusual, such as sugar with meat.

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are small spicy buns with a cross on the top. The cross represents the cross that Jesus Christ died on.

Answer these questions.

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Easter (March – April) A special food eaten during •f orr evi e w p u r p osesonl y• Easter is hot cross buns, which

1. What other food could people have made to eat on Shrove Tuesday?

2.

o c . c Why is ‘Thanksgiving’ ah good name for that celebration? e r er o t s super

3. Name another food people eat at Easter. Write something you know about it.

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Symbols A symbol is something that we can easily recognise as standing for or reminding us of something else. Most celebration symbols are so old, many people can no longer remember why they are part of the celebration. Halloween

Christmas Day

(31 October)

(25 December)

The Christmas tree has long been a symbol of Christmas because it stays green in winter. It symbolises everlasting life. The star is also a Christmas symbol because of the star that led the Wise Men to Jesus.

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Ghosts, witches and other scary creatures are all symbols of Halloween because people used to believe that evil spirits like these roamed the earth on 31 October. Lighted pumpkins and costumes are also associated with Halloween because they were used to frighten the spirits away. Remembrance Day

Valentine’s Day

(11 November)

(14 February)

Many people buy and wear red poppies to honour the memory of men and women who have been killed in wars. In areas of France during World War I, the poppy was the only living thing which survived the destruction of the fighting. Poppies brought hope to the soldiers.

People often give cards decorated with hearts, which symbolise love and affection. Doves are another symbol because of an old belief that doves choose their life-long mates on Valentine’s Day.

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Answer these questions. 1. Match each celebration to its symbol.

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• Christmas Day

• Halloween

• Remembrance Day

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• Valentine’s Day

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2. Which symbols were once used to frighten away evil spirits?

3. Why do you think red poppies brought hope to soldiers? R.I.C. Publications

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Clothing Many people wear new clothes or their best clothes to celebrations. Some celebrations, like the ones below, mean wearing special clothes or costumes. St Patrick’s Day (17 March)

People wear something green to honour St Patrick, who died long ago on 17 March in Ireland. Many people also wear a shamrock, or three-leaf clover, which is Ireland’s national emblem.

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May Day

Holi

(1 May)

In Europe, people like to celebrate the arrival of spring. People dance around a maypole, wearing bright costumes and garlands of flowers in their hair. Some dancers wear colourful braces, as well as bells on their ankles.

(March)

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Weddings Many brides wear veils. This is a very old tradition. A woman’s face covered by a veil meant that she was ‘spoken for’. A veil was also sometimes used to disguise a bride so she would not be recognised by evil spirits wishing to harm the bridal couple.

During this Hindu festival, people remember the god Krishna, who loved to play tricks. One of his favourites was to drench his friends with coloured water. On the morning of Holi, people wear old clothes and squirt coloured water at each other with water pistols, pumps or bottles. People get drenched—and very colourful!

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Answer these questions. 1. What other special clothing is worn at a wedding?

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2. Why do you think garlands of flowers are worn on May Day?

3. Name an occasion where you have worn new clothes or your best clothes, or a special piece of clothing. Describe what you wore, and why you think it was important.

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Customs A custom is something special that you do in the same way each time for a certain celebration. Many customs have been passed down through families, and may differ from country to country. Anzac Day

The Day of the Dead

(25 April)

(1 – 2 November)

In Mexico, these are days for remembering relatives who have died. People build altars in their homes and visit cemeteries to decorate them with foods, candles and colourful flowers.

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In Australia, people remember fallen Australian soldiers by attending a Dawn Service. There are also Anzac Day marches. People who march include men and women who have served Australia in wartime, current servicemen and women, and representatives of people who can no longer march. Shichi-Go-San (15 November)

This Japanese festival celebrates children who are three, five or seven years of age, who are thought to be lucky. Every child is given a long, narrow, decorated paper bag. After the family goes to pray at a shrine, the parents buy candy and toys to fill the bags.

Wedding Anniversaries

© R. I . C.couples Pub l i cafrom t i o ns gifts made certain materials depending on the number of years a couple has been married. •f orr evi ewForp ur pao se son l y •from example, first anniversary gift is made In many countries, it is the custom to give married

Answer these questions.

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1. Use the information to complete the table below. Where it is Celebration Celebrated

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paper and for a fiftieth anniversary, gifts are made from gold.

Custom(s)

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2. Choose an occasion that your family celebrates. Draw and write the information needed below.

Celebration Symbols

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Food

Customs

Clothing

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3. What is your favourite part of this celebration?

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o c . c e he r What is your least favourite part of this celebration? o t r s super

5. Compare and discuss this page with other people in your class. Additional Activities

Topics for Discussion

1. Talk to older people about how customs at celebrations have changed since they were at school.

How important is it for a culture to keep traditional food, symbols, clothing and customs at their celebrations?

2. Listen to traditional music played at celebrations. How important is it? Celebrations

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What Do People Celebrate? Lesson Focus:

You will learn about some religious and cultural celebrations from around the world.

Keywords:

shrine, temple, saint, traditional, procession

Religious Celebrations

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S My name is Annika, and I am from Sweden. On 13 December, we celebrate a Christian festival called St Lucia Day. St Lucia is the patron saint of light.

My name is Manoj, and I am from India. My religion is Hindu. In October or November every year, we celebrate Diwali, the festival of lights, which is dedicated to the goddess Lakshmi.

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There are many religious celebrations around the world. Some celebrate joyous occasions, and others more solemn occasions. Some religious festivals take place at different times of the year because they are based on the appearance of the moon or old religious calendars.

My name is Michaela, and I am Jewish. I live in America. Around December every year, we celebrate Hanukkah, the festival of lights. We remember when, long ago, Jewish people won back their temple in Jerusalem. When they went to light the lamps in the temple, they only had enough oil to last one day. But the oil actually burned for eight days.

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During the two days of Diwali, we wear new or clean clothes. Friends visit, and we give each other sweets and cards. The most important part of Diwali is praying and offering sweets to Lakshmi at our family shrine, which is decorated with flowers. After prayers, we can eat the sweets! We also light our houses with tiny lights in clay lamps called diye to help Lakshmi find her way to our home.

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My favourite part of Diwali is when we set off fireworks on the second night to ward off evil. R.I.C. Publications

Lucia procession, and this year I am going to lead it. I have to dress like St Lucia in a long white dress with a red sash. I will also wear a crown of candles. It has five candles on the top, which will be burning as I walk. It looks like a halo. Behind me, a group of girls from my class will walk as my maidens. Afterwards, the whole school will sing a carol about St Lucia.

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr e v i e wp r p esonl y• At my school, weu have ao St s

My favourite part of St Lucia Day is making and eating lussekatt buns with raisins in them. We also eat gingerbread biscuits made into different shapes like animals and stars. 84

Hanukkah lasts for eight days, and we light a candle each day on a candlestick called a menorah. We pray before our meals each night after the candle is lit. I am also given a small present each night of Hanukkah. My favourite parts of Hanukkah are seeing all my family and eating latkes, which are potato cakes fried in oil. Celebrations


Answer these questions. 1. Write these words under the best category. Lakshmi

Jerusalem

diye

lussekatt

carol

Hindu

Christian

shrine

fireworks

oil

latkes

halo

Diwali

Hanukkah

St Lucia Day

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r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S During which celebration would you:

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2.

Jewish

(a) take part in a procession?

(b) wear new clothes?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons give someone sweets? •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

(c) eat a gingerbread cat? (d)

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(f) celebrate for eight days?

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(e) receive a gift?

3. Each of these celebrations has something to do with light. How does each person use light to celebrate his/her special occasion?

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Celebrations from Other Countries Some special days are celebrated only in one or a few countries, because they have special meaning for the people in that area or country. Look at these travel diaries from people’s holidays overseas. Çocuk Bayrami (Children’s Day) in Turkey

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23 April Today was very noisy! This is a day to honour children and the Turkish leader Attatürk, the holiday’s founder. All the Turkish children dress up in national costumes or fancy dress. We went to the local football stadium and watched displays of children performing songs, dances and poems. Afterwards, we bought kofte (meatballs) and burma (Turkish sweets) from one of the many street stalls. Hina Matsuri (Doll Festival) in Japan

3 March Today was a special day for Sayo, as the only girl in her house. She and other Japanese girls own a special set of beautiful dolls in traditional costumes. Sayo’s were her grandmother’s. They were put on a tiered platform with red felt in the best room in the house. Later in the day, they had visitors. Sayo and her mum gave us some pink rice cakes called ‘mochi’, which were very nice.

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5 November Aunty Rose told me Guy Fawkes Day began nearly 400 years ago, when a man called Guy Fawkes and his friends were caught trying to blow up a building where the king and his leaders were to meet. From then on, people have celebrated the king being saved.

Guy Fawkes Day in the United Kingdom

So, today, my cousin Jamie and I walked the streets with the straw dummy (‘guy’) he’d made. We asked the neighbours for money. Tonight, we are going to burn the guy on top of the bonfire at Jamie’s school. Then we will all set off firecrackers, which we aren’t allowed to do in Australia. I can’t wait! R.I.C. Publications

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Answer these questions. 1. Imagine you and your family celebrated each of these occasions. For each, write a list below of things that you would need to buy, make, collect or do to prepare for the celebration. Çocuk Bayrami

Guy Fawkes Day

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Hina Matsuri

2. Which country would you most like to visit during their celebration? Why?

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• What special things can children do at each celebration?

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4. Find someone in your class or school who has been part of a celebration in a country other than Australia. Write a brief description of what happens at the celebration.

Topics for Discussion

Additional Activities

1. Should every country have a Children’s Day celebration?

1. List all the religious occasions students celebrate, and why.

2. Discuss why Guy Fawkes Day used to be celebrated in Australia, but is not now.

2. Invite representatives from different cultural groups to speak about their celebrations.

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Australian Celebrations Lesson Focus:

You will learn about some celebrations that are special to Australia.

Keywords:

pride, identity, spiritual, ceremonies, rituals

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People celebrate Australia Day with many outdoor activities, such as barbecues, picnics and outdoor concerts. Communities often organise flag raising, fireworks, air shows and citizenship ceremonies.

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Australia Day Australia Day is celebrated on 26 January. The National Australia Day Council organises celebrations across the country. Its aim is to develop national pride and identity and to recognise achievement. It also gives out many awards to Australians, including Australian of the Year and Young Australian of the Year. These are awarded to people who have achieved in areas like sport, the arts, and helping the community. Past winners of these awards include Cathy Freeman, Dick Smith and Ian Kiernan. Each State also gives out Citizen of the Year awards to achievers in their local community.

Australia Day used to be widely regarded as Australia’s birthday. However, because 26 January marks the beginning of European settlement in Australia, many people, including Aboriginal Australians, think of it as the anniversary of the invasion of Australia by white people. Some groups feel that we should name a different day to celebrate our national pride.

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1. Why does the National Australia Day Council give out awards?

. teof the Year’ is an important award? Why/Why not?o Do you think ‘Citizen c . che e r o t r s super

3. What special events happened in your community last Australia Day?

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4. Do you think we should choose a different day to celebrate Australia Day? Why/Why not?

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Australia Day Celebrations

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5. Imagine you are on the National Australia Day Council to plan celebrations for next year’s Australia Day in your community. Write a program of events for the day of activities you think most people would enjoy. Include times, locations, and the day on which you think it should be held.

National Australia Day Council

Time: © R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Location: •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Date:

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Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Celebrations Ceremonies and Rituals Aboriginal Australian and Torres Strait Islander groups celebrate special events that have spiritual significance to them, such as birth, initiation, death and seasonal events with ceremonies and rituals. These always involve songs, dances, body decoration and sometimes stories of the Dreaming. Many people travel great distances to attend such events.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok Many ceremonies are secret u and only certain people can watch. For S that only men go to and some that only example, there are ceremonies

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Ceremonies and rituals are often held at camps and sacred places. The time of year they are held depends on things like the type of ceremony, the weather, and what food is available.

women can go to. Some events include both men and women, but the men might do all the singing, and the women all the dancing. Other events are open to the public.

Singing provides the main music at an Aboriginal ceremony, with instruments like the didgeridoo backing the singers. Dances often tell stories, and the bodies of the dancers are decorated with things like ochre, charcoal and feathers.

Š R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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. te o c Men and women always attend the same ceremonies. . che e r o t r People only attend events if they are p neare tor where sthey live. su

(b) A ceremony or ritual might celebrate a birth. (c) (d)

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1. What are ceremonies and rituals? (Use a dictionary to help you.)

3. Name any ritual or ceremony you or someone you know has attended. Tick the things it involved. Add any extras.

Name of Ceremony or Ritual: Songs

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Other Special Events Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander culture is also celebrated with festivals and special days. Read about two of these below.

r o e t s Bo r e p o u kand Torres Strait Week stands for the National Aboriginal SNAIDOC Islander Day of Celebration, and is held during June and July. It is

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The Barunga Festival in the Northern Territory is celebrated by the Jawoyn people over four days. It is an opportunity for Aboriginal people from all over Australia to share their culture with each other. Non-Aboriginal people also attend to learn more about Aboriginal culture. Competitions in traditional Aboriginal skills, such as spear and boomerang throwing, are held, as well as sporting competitions and performances by dance groups and musicians. In the evening, children listen to stories from their own Dreamtime or history.

often celebrated at schools, where students can learn about Aboriginal dance, music, art and history. The celebrations can include flagraising, processions, music bands and dancers. Local Aboriginal people often share their skills and talents with the wider community.

4. What do these celebrations have in common with ceremonies and rituals?

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5. Do you think it is important for Aboriginal Australians to have their own day of celebration? Why?

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6. Describe any Australian celebration that you have been involved in. Explain where it was, and what was being celebrated.

Topics for Discussion

Additional Activities

1. Do you consider the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games an important Australian celebration?

Research to find out which groups of people currently support the changing of Australia Day’s date.

2. Should NAIDOC Week be given more publicity? Celebrations

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Common Celebrations around the World Lesson Focus: You will learn about some celebrations that are enjoyed around the world. Keywords:

wishes, origins, parties

Although many celebrations are specific to a particular country, some are common to most countries in the world. These include New Year and birthdays. However, the way they are celebrated in each country is often very different. Read about some of the ways these countries celebrate common celebrations.

r o e t s Bo r New Year’s Day e p ok Rice cake, special soup (ozoni) are u eaten. S Many Japanese go to a temple to New Year

Japan

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make wishes. Children are given money in envelopes from relatives.

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New Year’s Eve Special noodles (soba) are eaten. At midnight, temples ring their bells 108 times.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Korea •f orr evi ew pur pose so nl y• New Year’s Eve

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New Year’s Eve Parties are held in all cities of Brazil, and people watch fireworks. White clothes are worn for good luck and peace in New Year. People eat Lentilha, a lentil soup which symbolises money in the New Year. R.I.C. Publications

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Brazil

Sieves made from straw are hung outside houses to prevent bad luck. Children are told not to sleep, or their eyebrows will turn white!

o c . che e r o t r s super New Year’s Day After midnight, in beach cities, people throw flowers in the sea or light candles in the sand for good luck. 92

New Year’s Day Some people go to the beach to watch the sunrise, and make wishes. People wear traditional clothes, decorated with five colours. Soup made from rice cake is eaten. Younger people bow to older people. Children are given money or gifts. Celebrations


Answer these questions. 1. Write all of the things people do in these countries to help them with wishes or luck.

Japan

Korea

r o e t s Bo r e pmight celebrate New Year in Australia. ok Write three ways people u S (a) Brazil

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2.

(b) (c)

3. What do the things you do to celebrate New Year have in common with the celebrations you have read about?

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4. In which country or countries might you be in if:

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o c . You went to the beach to make a wish? c e her r o t s super You bowed to your elders?

(a) You woke up with white eyebrows? (b) (c)

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(d) You wore special clothing? (e) You watched fireworks? (f) You ate food made from rice? (g) You were given some money? Celebrations

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Birthdays Celebrating a birthday with a party, lighting candles and playing games is very common throughout the world. Here are the origins of these traditions. Birthday parties These began long ago in Europe. People thought that evil spirits were attracted to people on their birthdays. To protect them, friends and family would come to visit and bring good wishes and gifts. At first, it was only kings who celebrated birthdays, but soon children began to celebrate their birthdays. The first children’s birthday parties were celebrated in Germany.

r o e t s Bo r e p o u k Playing games S These symbolise trying to know the unknown; in this case, the unknown is the new year of life that lies ahead for the birthday person. There are also many traditions in different countries around the world.

In Holland, the birthday child’s chair is often decorated with flowers.

DID YOU KNOW?

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Candles Early people believed that smoke from fires would ascend to the gods, and would answer the prayers they had said over the flames.

In Russia, many children receive a birthday pie, instead of a birthday cake, with a greeting carved into the crust.

© R. I . CIn.Argentina, Publ i cat i ons the birthday child receives a •f o r r e v i e wonp u r po sesonl y• pull the earlobe for e

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In Belgium, a family may tiptoe into a child’s room early in the morning and wake the child with the prick of a needle for good luck. R.I.C. Publications

each year they have been alive.

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co, th In Mexi ild is y ch birthda nd breaks r ded a blindfol a, a big papie piñat ith open a filled w , l a m i e an from th mâché g n u h nd s lollies a veryone share E ceiling. goodies. the

In Denmark, a flag is sometimes flown outside a window of the person whose birthday it is.

o c . che e r o t r s super In Is children rael, their ch are lifted in ai ups rais r while growne and lo wer it th number e of years the child is plus on good lu e for ck.

In China, the birthday child gets noodles for lunch. 94

In England and Ireland, children get birthday bumps. The child is lifted up and bumped on the floor for good luck. The number of bumps is the age of the child plus one for good luck.

Celebrations


Answer these questions. 1. In your own words, explain how each of these birthday traditions began. Candles

Games

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Parties

2. List the birthday customs that come from the old belief that noises and bumps scare away evil spirits.

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3. In which country would you like to celebrate your birthday the most? Why?

4. Many individual families have their own traditions on birthdays. Write any unusual or special things your family does to celebrate birthdays.

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Topics for Discussion

Additional Activities

Discuss the reasons why birthdays and New Year are so popular.

Celebrations

1. Use the Internet to find out the different days people celebrate New Year, and why. 2. Make a list of ‘special’ birthdays, e.g. 1st, 16th, 18th, 21st. Why are they special? 95

R.I.C. Publications


Feelings about Celebrations Lesson Focus:

You will learn how people can feel about celebrations.

Keywords:

feelings, party, serious, sad

People may have different feelings about celebrations. Read the description of Ben’s birthday celebration below. Dear Diary

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Happy Birthday to Me! I was so excited this morning that I woke up at 5 a.m. The first thing I did was check that Mum and Dad had remembered the family custom. Sure enough, the ribbon was tied to the end of my bed. I followed it down the hall, around some furniture and finally into the family room. Attached to the end of the ribbon, I was really happy to see a new bike! I think I must have made quite a lot of noise when I saw it, because Mum and Dad came in a few minutes later, half asleep, and wished me happy birthday.

I had ten friends to my party this afternoon. It started OK, with present opening (my favourite part), food and some games, but after that Tim decided to try out my new bike. I said he could, just down the driveway and back, but I was worried all the same. I shouldn’t have let him. He rode too fast and skidded the tyres, and then he just threw it on the ground when he had finished. I was sad to see that he had scratched the paint. He apologised, but it didn’t make me feel much better. I was very disappointed in my so-called friend.

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Anyway, straight afterwards, we cut my cake, and guess what? As I blew out the candles and made a wish, Dad walked in with a surprise present—a new puppy! I was thrilled! It was just what I wanted. He is sleeping next to me as I write. I think he is the most beautiful puppy in the world.

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Use Ben’s diary to answer the questions.

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o c . c e he r Write the best and worst things that happened to Ben, t and how o r s he felt about them. super Event Feelings

1. Write all the words that describe feelings in the diary entry.

2.

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It was the best birthday ever!

Best:

Worst:

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Celebrations


3. Write the three most important celebrations for you, and the feelings you have about them.

Feelings

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4. Discuss with the class all the feelings everyone listed. (a) What were the most common feelings?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Were you surprised by the results? Why/Why not?

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(b) What were the least common feelings?

(c)

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Event

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5. (a) What are reasons that people might feel happy or excited at a celebration?

(b) What are reasons that people might feel sad or serious at a celebration?

Topics for Discussion

Additional Activities

‘Celebrations should always be happy occasions.’ Do you agree with this statement? Celebrations

Interview family and friends about specific celebrations, and find out how they made them feel. 97

R.I.C. Publications


Local Community Celebrations Lesson Focus:

You will learn about the importance of local community celebrations.

Keywords:

community, events, local

There are likely to be many celebrations that are special to just your community. Imagine you receive these two advertisements for local community celebrations in your letterbox.

Back to School

r o e t s Bo r Palmer Valley Primary School e p ok u Palmer Valley Primary School’s S

To all past students, parents and friends of

100th Birthday

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You are invited to celebrate with us

Special events:

Unveiling of plaque Welcome by principal and school choir Art exhibition of past and current students’ work Tours of school Fair-rides, craft stalls, food and a

FREE

© R. I . C.Publ i ca t i oshowbag ns Photographer available all day. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Answer these questions.

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1. What is each event celebrating?

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2. Which celebration would you be more interested in attending? Why?

3. What talents and interests does the Palmer Valley community appear to have?

How do you know this?

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Celebrations


4. What sorts of occasions are celebrated in your local community?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u Do you think it is important for a community to hold its own local celebrations? S Why/Why not?

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6.

5. Which ones do you consider the most important? Why?

7. Design an invitation to an upcoming event in your local community. Include items that you think people in your local community may be interested in or which show off the talents of people in your community.

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Topics for Discussion

Additional Activities

‘Local community celebrations are part of its life and character.’ Discuss. Celebrations

List some celebrations that are happening in your local community in the next month. What are they celebrating, and why? 99

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Celebrations Calendar You have read about many celebrations in this book, but there are many more. Complete the calendar below of the celebrations from this book, and add any others you can find out about. As many religious festivals take place at different times every year, write the date on which they fall on this year.

Feb.

March

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April

May

June

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Jan. 1 New Year’s Day

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July

Aug.

Oct.

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Sept.

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Celebrations


Society and Environment - Student Workbook: Book C - Ages 7-8  

The most contemporary resource available to Australian schools, this workbook series provides a full-year program broken into four discrete...

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