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Society and Environment – B Published by R.I.C. Publications PO Box 332, Greenwood Western Australia 6924

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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© R.I.C. Publications 2000 ISBN 1 86311 660 5 Copyright Notice No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying or recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system without written permission from the publisher. R.I.C. Publications

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Society and Environment


Foreword Society and Environment will help to increase your knowledge and understanding about your local community and environment and compare them to others. The seven books in the series look mainly at Australia—its people, its heritage, its political and legal systems, and its place in the world. The aim of the book is to assist you to better understand the community you live in and to make sound decisions about local, National and worldwide issues.

Contents

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Who Are We? .................................... 45–68

Studying roles and responsibilities of the people students interact with in the community.

Studying groups within the community—their benefits, beliefs and practices.

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People in the Community ...................... 1–24

What Do We Need Each Day? Desert Island Holiday What Can You Do? Roles and Responsibilities Responsibilities in a Home How Families Help Each Other Class Members’ Responsibilities What Else Can I Do? People Who Help Us at School Imogen and Amrita Interview – Who Helps You at School? How Do People Help Me at School? Thank You for Helping Me Rockwood Community Workers in the Community Occupation Match My Community Interview – A Community Role

Types of Community Groups Groups We Can Belong to Religious Groups What Groups Do You Belong to? Groups People Belong to – Interview Groups People Belong to – Retrieval Chart Graphing Class Groups Clothing Benefits How Does the Weather Affect Groups? Mountview Map Group Activities – Finland Group Rules Group Rules – Horseshoe Pony Club Rules and Me Leaders of Groups Past, Present and Future

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Old Families, New Families .................. 69–92

Shelters .......................................... 25–44

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Studying change and continuity in family units from a range of cultures.

Studying the need of living things for shelter in the natural and built environment.

o c . che e r o t r s super Oral Histories Family History Recount Different Memories My Family’s Memories Interview – Childhood Memories Past and Present Lifestyles Past, Present and Future Learning About the Past Aboriginal Australian Artefacts Artefacts from Family History Artefact Interview A Family Artefact Learning About Artefacts Family Stories My Family Story

Adapting to the Environment – 1 Adapting to the Environment – 2 Aboriginal Australians Shelter and Survival Making Our Homes Comfortable What Do We Get from Our Environment? Problems with Changing the Environment Problems for Australian Animals The Rabbit and the Bilby

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Society and Environment


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People in the Community or e t

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People in the Community

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What Do We Need Each Day? Lesson Focus:

You will learn about your needs and wants and who helps you to get them.

Keywords:

need, food, clothing, shelter, role, responsibility

There are certain things we all need each day. Some of these we can not do without because they keep us alive and healthy. For example food, clothing and shelter.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u Morning Afternoon S

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1. Write or draw pictures of some of the things you need at these times of a school day.

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2. Talk about why you need these things. 3. Compare your lists with other class members. R.I.C. Publications

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People in the Community


Desert Island Holiday Imagine you are going to live on this desert island for one week. What will you take with you?

water

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bathers skateboard first aid kit shoes

blanket

warm clothes

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Choose three things from the list you think you would need and• three things • f o r r e v i e w p u r p o s e s o n l y you might want to take with you.

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2.

TV

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fruit

o c . c e hthings r Write your own list of you would like to o take. Sort them into needs e t r s super and wants. Needs

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Wants

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What Can You Do? When you were a baby all of your needs and wants had to be met for you. Now you are older you can do many things for yourself. However, you still need help to do some tasks. 1. Complete the table with keywords and pictures.

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O T H E R

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S C H O O L

What you need help with

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H O M E

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What you can do

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People in the Community


Adults can do a lot of things on their own. However, they also need help to do some things. 2. Think of an adult you know. Draw and label something they can do and something they might need help to do. Can do

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Needs help

Whether you are a child or an adult, everyone needs help from other people. Look how Sam, his teacher and his mum all help each other.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Sam’s teacher helps Sam helps his teacher by cleaning the blackboard.

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him to write.

Sam’s mum helps Sam’s teacher . t eMum by o in the classroom helps c . with reading. talking to her ch e r o about Sam’s e t r s s r u e p progress. Sam helps his mum with the dishes.

Sam’s mum helps Sam with his homework.

3. Discuss other people who help you and what you can do to help them. People in the Community

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Roles and Responsibilities Everyone has different roles and responsibilities in their home and community. A person’s role is like a part in a play. It describes who you are. For example – a teacher, parent or doctor. Within each role you have certain responsibilities or things you are in charge of. Some people may have many different roles and responsibilities.

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• Father

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1. Look at this person and his roles and responsibilities. Write another responsibility for each role.

taking out the rubbish

plan the flight © R. I . C.P bl i ca t i on s inspect theu aeroplane before take-off •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• • Pilot

friend

Role

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2. What roles and responsibilities do you have? Choose two roles from the word bank or write your own. Add your own responsibilities for each one. daughter

student

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Additional Activities Make mobiles or display charts about students’ needs and wants. R.I.C. Publications

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Responsibilities in a Home Lesson Focus:

You will learn how family members help to meet each other’s needs.

Keywords:

help, care, tasks

bathroom

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1. This is a floor plan of rooms in a home. Talk about what people usually do in each room? Draw some furniture or equipment that might be used in each room.

laundry

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family/living room

patio

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2. All members in a family have responsibilities in each room. Write about the responsibilities people may have in each room. Add other rooms in your house if necessary.

Room

Responsibility

Your Bedroom

Family Room

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Kitchen

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Laundry

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Bathroom

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How Families Help Each Other People in a family often help to meet each other’s needs. Read about these two families and how family members help each other. The Family Barbecue ‘I hope you like it.’ Aunty Clare looked worried as Dad opened his present. He showed a bright smile. ‘It’s fantastic!’ he said, holding up a brand new drill. ‘I can’t wait to use it!’

r o e t s Bo r e p o u kthis heaps of times My cousins and I were already heading for the cupboard. We’d done S before. We started to set the small table where we kids would sit and eat. David and Mark’s

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‘OK everyone,’ Mum called from the kitchen. ‘Let’s get started. I’m sure you’re all hungry! Tom, David and Mark, could you please get out the red picnic set?’

little sister, Jody, who’s four, ran after us. We knew that Uncle Craig and Aunty Clare were busy, so we let her help, too. After we’d set the table, we put Aunty Clare’s salads carefully on the big table where the adults always sat. Aunty Clare was already there, putting chairs around the table. ‘Tom, could you please take this to your Uncle Craig?’ she asked me, handing me a pair of tongs. I raced over to the barbecue where Dad and Uncle Craig were cooking the meat.

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Finally Mum called out, ‘Come and get it!’ and we all tucked into lunch. It was delicious! Just before we finished eating, Mum brought out a huge birthday cake that Grandma had made. It was Dad’s favourite—chocolate! After we sang ‘Happy Birthday’, we all helped—by eating as much cake as we could! A Family Holiday

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Beep! Beep! My alarm went off at 6.30 a.m. Today, Dad was taking my sister and me to the country for five whole days! I could hardly wait to get started. There was still lots left to do.

. te o c ‘Morning, Cassie. Could you girls put your bags by the front door? Then maybe you could . c e help Georgia get dressed.’ h r e o t r s su r pe ‘Sure Dad!‘ I yelled. I ran into my little sister’s room and woke her up. Then I dragged our When I wandered into the kitchen Dad was packing some food into a big cardboard box. ‘Morning Dad. What can I do to help?’

bags to the front door. Boy, they were heavy!

Georgia was starting to get dressed by the time I got back. I helped her to tie her shoelaces. After that, Dad got us all breakfast. Then I ran next door to let Mr Abbot know we were going away. By that time we were almost ready to go! Dad carried our bags to the car and Georgia and I made sure that all the lights in the house were switched off. At last, we were on our way! Hooray! Now all we had to worry about was having a good time! People in the Community

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1. How did the people in each family help each other? Write one example for each of these family members.

Family 1

Tom Grandma Aunty Clare

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Family 2

Dad

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Georgia

2. Describe a job you have done to help your family. Draw a picture.

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3. (a) Why is it important for everyone in a family to help each other?

(b) Do you think you should help out just on special occasions? Why/Why not?

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People in the Community


Class Members’ Responsibilities What responsibilities do students in your class have at home? Tally the number of students who do the tasks below. Graph the five most common tasks.

Feed a pet

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Wash the dishes

Make own bed

Tidy own room

Help with the shopping

Help in the garden

Help wash the car

Sweep the floor

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Take out the rubbish

Set the table

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Number of Students

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Type of Job People in the Community

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What Else Can I Do? Ask someone in your family about how you might be able to take more responsibility at home.

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1. Draw three jobs they suggested.

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2. Complete this contract with your new responsibilities.

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Additional Activities Students can keep a diary to record when their new responsibility has been carried out. R.I.C. Publications

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People in the Community


People Who Help Us at School Lesson Focus:

You will learn about the roles and responsibilities of people who help you in your school community.

Keywords:

buddy, helper

My name is Jessie. I would like to introduce you to some of the people who help at my school. I have written about one of their responsibilities. Can you write another?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok Responsibilities: u Sto students. • To give out awards •

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Role: Principal

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Name: Mr Morris

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Name: Deb Pickering Role: Gardener •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Responsibilities: •

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Name: Mr Salerno

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• To pull out weeds from garden beds.

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Responsibilities: • Helps listen to reading in his daughter’s classroom. • • • People in the Community

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Imogen and Amrita 1. Read about how Imogen was helped by someone on her first day at her new school.

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Imogen sat at her desk in her new classroom. She felt like she was sitting in the middle of a sea of strange faces. Her first day was not going too well. She felt so shy. Her thoughts were interrupted by a knock at the door. ‘Oh, here are our buddies,’ her teacher said. ‘Come in, Year 6’. A big group of older kids came in the door and each one paired up with someone from her class. Imogen could feel tears starting in her eyes. She was all alone. Suddenly, one of the Year 6s appeared next to her. ‘Hello, Imogen, my name’s Amrita. Did you have buddies at your last school?’ ‘No,’ said Imogen. ‘What do you do?’ ‘Look around,’ said Amrita. Imogen looked and saw some Year 6s helping children from her class to put their art shirts on or mix paint. All the pairs were chatting quietly to each other. ‘That’s what we do—we help you!’ said Amrita. ‘You can ask for my help with anything!’ Imogen began to smile. This girl was very friendly. ‘It’s hard being new, isn’t it?’ Amrita said. ‘I bet you feel a bit alone.’ ‘Yes,’ said Imogen softly. ’I don’t know anyone.’ Amrita stood up straight and smiled. She waved across the room to a freckle-faced girl from Imogen’s class. The girl ran over. ‘Laura,’ said Amrita, ‘Would you please show Imogen around at lunch-time and introduce her to your friends?’ ‘Sure,’ said Laura. She grabbed Imogen’s hand. ‘Come and see what we’re doing with our buddies today, Imogen!’ Imogen grabbed Amrita’s hand with her free hand and followed her new friend. Two faces, at least, didn’t seem so strange anymore.

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Interview—Who Helps You at School? Choose someone who helps you at school. Ask him/her the following questions.

Name:

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Role:

Photo or drawing

How do you help students at school?

What is your favourite part of your job?

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What is the worst part of your job?

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How can the students make your job easier?

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How Do People Help Me at School? Look at the headings below. These are some ways that people help you at school. Using the information that your class has gathered from their interviews, write the helpers’ names under each heading. Names may be written more than once.

These people help to keep us safe.

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These people help us to learn.

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• These people help to give us things we need.

These people help to make us feel happy.

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Thank You for Helping Me 1. Complete this thank you message for your favourite school helper. Include a picture of this person helping you.

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G o A o d Jo o D u r o e t b s B o r e ! o Y up ok

✪ Dear

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I think you do a good job because

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µ¶µ¶µµ¶µ¶µ¶µ¶µ¶µ¶µ¶µ¶µ¶µ¶µ 2. Show your helper this page when you have finished. Find out what they think. Additional Activities Brainstorm things students can do to make school helpers’ jobs easier. People in the Community

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Rockwood Community Lesson Focus:

You will learn about the roles and responsibilities of people in a community.

Keywords:

community, workers, occupation, equipment, service

A community is a group of people who live near each other and provide for each other’s needs. It could be a suburb in a city or a small or large town in the country.

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This is a map of the community of Rockwood. Movie Theatre

Library

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School

Pool

Rec. Centre

Playground

Takeaway

Service Station

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Medical Centre •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Police Station

. te o c Many of the people in this community work in or use these places. What need . c e r does each place help with? h er o t s super Video Store

Bakery

Supermarket

Dentist

1. Colour yellow those which give us food.

2. Colour green those that give us health and safety. 3. Tick those that give us education. 4. Cross those that give us entertainment. 5. Colour blue those that provide another service. 6. In the blank boxes, label two more places a community might have. 7. Talk about the people who might use or work at each place on the map. R.I.C. Publications

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People in the Community


Workers in the Community People have special roles in a community. Some of them are for paid work such as an office worker. Others are unpaid such as a charity worker. 1. Read about each of these people on pages 19 and 20 and their roles and responsibilities in the community.

Shop Assistant

Parent

r o e t s B r I work ino a e p ok shoe shop. In u the mornings, I S open the shop,

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I am the mother of two young children. Adam is six and in his second year at school. Rachel is one and is just learning to walk. She sits in her pram while I walk Adam to and from school. During the day I am busy looking after Rachel, cleaning the house and shopping for food and other things we need. Sometimes I help in Adam’s classroom with reading.

tidy it and make sure I know a lot about everything I sell. Then I can help customers to find the perfect pair of shoes. If they decide to buy some shoes, I take their money, and give them a receipt.

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Police Officer

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Emergency Service Volunteer

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As a police officer my job is to keep people and their property safe in my community. If someone is driving too fast I will stop them and give out a fine. If someone has had something stolen I will interview them and try to find the burglar and the stolen goods. I also look after people who ring for help or advice or who have been in a car accident. People in the Community

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I help people from my community in emergencies like floods and storms. I also help to rescue people. I train with the volunteers once a week and on some weekends. We do this to keep our skills fresh in our minds. I can be called out at any time to help people in need.

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Mechanic

Ambulance Officer

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r o e t s Bo r e p ok My partner and I drive to accident u scenes or to people who have S suddenly become ill. The ambulance I work as a motor vehicle mechanic has lots of medical equipment on board that we use to help people. It has a radio on board too so we can keep in contact with our base. If we need to, we take people to the nearest hospital.

Cleaner

at a service station. My job is to look after and fix our customers’ cars. I check car engines, brakes, tyres and other parts. If something is not working properly I will repair it or put in a brand new part if necessary.

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I work as a cleaner in a primary school. When school is finished for the day, I arrive to help clean the school ready for the next day. My job includes emptying rubbish bins, vacuuming the classrooms, washing floors, cleaning toilets and hand basins, and dusting benches and ledges. The students help by picking up things that have dropped onto the classroom floor and putting chairs on desks.

o c . che I work as a flying e r doctor. I travel in o t r s sup r ane aeroplane with a nurse to remote places where people can’t get to hospital. The aeroplane is like a flying ambulance! People can come to see me in their local clinic if they are sick or injured. We also fly out to help people in emergencies. If they need to go to hospital, we fly them to the nearest one. 20

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Role

Where do they work?

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What are their responsibilities? What do they need to do this? (skills/equipment)

2. Choose four workers in the community or your own choices to complete the chart.

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Occupation Match An ‘occupation’ is another word for a person’s job or role in the community. Different occupations need different equipment and skills to make the work easier. Match the occupation to the equipment needed. Write a sentence to describe a responsibility for each. Occupation

Vet

Hairdresser

Responsibility

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Equipment

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Dentist

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Miner

Chemist R.I.C. Publications

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My Community Find or draw pictures of a place in your community to put in each box. Label each place. Write a heading of your own in the blank box. Provides health/safety

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Provides food

Provides entertainment

Provides travel

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Interview—A Community Role Invite a parent or an adult to speak to your class about his/her job in the community. 1. Record the following information.

Name

r o e t s Bo r Does he/she wear a uniform? e p ok u S Role

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Where does he/she work?

What is his/her responsibility?

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How do other people help him/her in this role?

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What equipment/skills is needed in this role?

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2. Would you like to have this role?

Why/Why not?

Additional Activities Role play or mime community workers in their job. Other students guess the occupation. R.I.C. Publications

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People in the Community


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Shelters

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Adapting to the Environment—1 Lesson Focus:

You will learn how animals and plants use the environment for shelter and how they adapt to different environments.

Keywords:

adapt, environment, mountain, desert, rainforest

Australia has many different types of environments. We have hot, dry deserts, cold areas where it snows, cool, wet places and even tropical rainforests. Read about how these Australian animals and plants find shelter and have adapted to the environment in which they live. Answer the questions at the end of each section.

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in snow for much of the year. There are also strong, cold winds and rain. Mountain Pygmy Possum This possum makes a nest in a sheltered place like a hollow in the ground. Before the winter snows, it stores seeds and fruits in its nest or under pieces of bark. When it becomes really cold the possum stops moving around for a few days and sleeps in its nest.

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r o e t s Bo r e p ok High Mountain Areasu S These areas have low temperatures and are covered

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Alpine Marsh Marigold The alpine marsh marigold grows low to the ground. That way it protects itself from the strong cold winds and stays close to the warmth of the soil. The marigold also begins to flower under the snow so when the warmer weather arrives the flowers and seeds are nearly ready.

o c . c e her r Answer the questions. o t sto the cold mountain area. sup r 1. Write one way each animal and plant hase adapted Alpine Marsh Marigold

Mountain Pygmy Possum

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Shelters


Dry Desert Areas Dry desert areas are places which get very little rain. During the day it is very hot, and it can get very cold at night. It is very important that desert plants and animals can find water and live in the harsh weather. Thorny Devil

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This lizard has folds in its skin which can trap any drops of rain or overnight dew. This water then runs down the folds into the devil’s mouth so it can take a drink. A small amount of water may be all it drinks for months or years. The thorny devil also has ways of sheltering from the harsh desert weather. During the day, it often digs and rests in a burrow under a shady shrub. At nighttime, it digs itself into the sand to keep warm. The Sturt’s desert pea grows in places where water collects, like rocky hillsides, or dips in the ground. After a heavy desert rain, it uses the moisture to grow its beautiful flowers and make seeds which fall on the ground, ready to grow a new plant when it rains again. The plant only lives for a short time, so this is important.

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Answer the questions. 1. Why do you think the thorny devil digs a burrow during the day?

2.

. te oto grow. c (a) Tick the place a Sturt’s desert pea would be more . likely che e r o r st super

(b) Why does it grow in this place?

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Rainforest Areas

Bird’s Nest Fern The bird’s nest fern grows on the forest floor or attaches to a tree. Its shape means it can easily catch falling leaves and other plant litter. When the litter rots, it feeds the plant, as well as any insects that may live in it. If the bird’s nest fern lives on a tree, it absorbs water as it runs down the tree’s trunk. The bird’s nest is sheltered by trees and it grows well in weak sunlight. It can sometimes look wilted and brown, but recovers quickly when it rains.

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Spectacled Flying-fox Spectacled flying-foxes can only live in places like a rainforest where the blossoms and fruit they eat can be found all year round. They see very well at night, so this is when they find food. They can drink while skimming over the surface of water. Spectacled flying-foxes shelter high up in the trees in large groups. They hang comfortably from branches by their feet.

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Rainforests grow in areas with a high rainfall. They are damp places with no drying winds. Many fascinating plants and animals grow and live in rainforests.

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1. The bird’s nest fern grows close to the forest floor. Why does it grow well in this position?

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2. Why do you think the spectacled flying-fox shelters high up in the trees?

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A Busy Builder All living things need a home—plants, animals and people. There are different ways living things use their environment to shelter and survive. We don’t think of animals being able to make shelters or homes in the same way we can. However, some animals are amazing for the homes they build. Read about this busy little builder who lives in North America.

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Have you ever heard of an animal called a beaver? It makes a home, called a ‘lodge’, in the middle of a stream. First of all, it must make a dam across the stream. Sometimes beavers build a dam on their own. Usually, a whole beaver family or beavers from other families will join in the building.

The dam is made from logs, branches, rocks, sand and mud from the bottom of the stream. A beaver uses its very strong front teeth to cut down trees and break them into logs and branches. The beavers pile the logs and branches in the stream until the dam is above the water. Rocks, stones and mud are used to plaster it together.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •can f o r r ev i e wdampusing ur p se son l y • Now the lodge be made above the theo same method. Here, the beavers can

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stay warm and dry in the cold, snowy winter or dry off after bringing in food. Beavers are always repairing their lodge. They only leave when food runs out in the area or too many enemies move nearby.

Answer the questions.

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1. Complete the information about a beaver’s home and your home.

Where is it built?

o c . che e r o t r s super Beaver

Your Home

What is it made from? What is used to hold it together? 2. Discuss the reasons why you and a beaver need a home. Additional Activities 1. Compare other animal’s shelters with human shelters. Shelters

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Adapting to the Environment—2 Lesson Focus:

You will learn how people adapt to different environments and find shelter.

Keywords:

landscape, protect, survive, comfortable

People can adapt to different environments by changing the shelter they live in and the clothes they wear. These environments could be a hot desert, an icy cold place or even a tropical rainforest! Read about how people live in each of the environments above.

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Antarctica Antarctica is an extremely cold, windy place. The winds, called blizzards, can blow you off your feet! It is covered in ice all year round.

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Sahara Desert The Sahara Desert is very hot during the day but becomes cool at night. It is covered with sand and gravel. Here and there a well or spring is found. This is called an ‘oasis’. People live in villages here and grow crops. They make their homes or shelters from stone, baked mud, clay or grasses. Special clothing is worn to protect them from the heat and sand blown about by the wind. People wear long loose robes covering their whole body—even their head. If travelling across the desert, people shelter in a tent and cover the desert floor with rugs.

When explorers first set out to cross Antarctica they wore many layers of clothes to keep warm. They used wood to make ‘home’ or ‘base’ huts to shelter. On their journeys across the ice they sheltered from the blizzards in tents or made snow tunnels.

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Today, scientists live in Antarctica. Their homes are heated and are very warm inside. The scientists still need protective clothing outside and use polar tents to shelter from a sudden blizzard when going on an expedition.

o c . ch e Tropical rainforest areas are hot, wet places where r o t r the rainfall is very high. Peoplee make their homes s super or shelters to protect themselves from the heat

and rain. In south-east Asia, some homes are built on stilts by river banks. The water under the house keeps it cool. In rainforest areas, the houses have sloping roofs so heavy rain runs off easily. Houses are often raised from the ground to keep rainwater out. This also allows cool air to flow under to keep the house cool. In Australia, many houses have a veranda to shade the home from the sun. People wear loose cotton clothing to keep cool. Wide brimmed hats give protection from the sun. R.I.C. Publications

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Shelter

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Antarctica

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Sahara Desert

Weather/Landscape

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Clothing

Use keywords and phrases to complete the table about the weather, landscape, shelter and clothing for each environment.

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Aboriginal Australians

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Traditional Aboriginal Australians learnt tou live ino different •f or r evi e wp r p sesenvironments. onl y•Some

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groups moved from place to place searching for food and water. They would make a campsite near a water source and look for food around that area. Aboriginal people would only take what they needed. When the food supply was running low, they would shift to another area.

. te o c All Aboriginal groups made shelters from materials around them. Bark was the . c e he r most common material. It was strong, weatherproof t and easy to shape. The o r s s r e In cold areas, a fire would pwind. shelters protected them from heat, rainu and Other groups that lived near an area where there was always a lot of food and water stayed in the one place.

help to give warmth. Caves and rock shelters were also used. The clothing worn depended on the weather. Fur cloaks and blankets were made from animal skins. Little clothing was worn in hotter areas. Mud was used to cover the body for protection against biting insects. Fire was used for cooking, providing warmth and for protection from animals such as snakes. The Aboriginal way of life is a very good example of how humans can adapt to life in different environments. R.I.C. Publications

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Answer the questions. 1. Why did Aboriginal people camp near a water source?

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3. How did they keep warm in cool weather?

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2. Why did they move to another place?

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4. Draw a built shelter and a natural shelter Aboriginal people used.

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5.

o c . Colour yes or no. c e herAustralian st r o (a) All traditional Aboriginal super people moved from place to place. (b) Mud was used to protect the skin. (c) Bark was hard to find. (d) Fire was important.

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Shelter and Survival Shelter can help us to survive! When disasters like bushfires happen, shelter becomes very important. The people of Koala Heights live in a high-risk area for bushfires. Their local fire brigade put together this information for them to read.

HOW TO PROTECT YOURSELF AND YOUR r o e t s Bo r HOMEpFROM BUSHFIRES e o

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• • • •

Keep trees and shrubs clear of your home. Keep your lawn short and green. Make sure hoses can reach all areas of your house and garden. Store wood and paint away from your house.

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Make your home bushfire safe before the bushfire season.

If a bushfire comes and you have not been able to leave early, FIND SHELTER. The best place is in your house, but you can shelter in your car, or even outside. Here is how to stay safe.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f o rr evi ew pur posesonl y• • Phone the bushfire brigade. Turn off your gas and power. Close all windows and doors. Block any gaps with wet towels. Move your furniture and curtains away from your windows. Keep away from the windows until the fire-front passes. Watch for any small fires and put them out quickly. If your house catches fire, wait for help nearby on burnt ground.

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IN YOUR HOUSE

o c . ch • Don’t drive through fire or thick smoke. e r o • Stop at a place with little plant life.e Turn off the engine, and s turnt on your headlights. r sup er • Lie inside under a woollen rug until the fire-front passes. IN YOUR CAR

OUTSIDE • • • •

If you can, cover yourself with a woollen rug. Wet a corner to use as a smoke mask. Cover any bare skin. Find ground that has already been burnt. Don’t try to outrun a fire. If you can’t avoid the fire, lie face down under a bank, or in a hollow. If you can, get into a stream or river, but NEVER a water tank. • If you have water, drink as often as you can.

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Answer the questions. 1. The information gives a lot of advice about bushfire safety. Describe why each of these things are important. Wait on burnt ground.

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Turn on your headlights.

Cover any bare skin.

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Hoses should reach all areas of your house and garden.

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2. Look at the picture below. What bushfire safety rule is being broken?

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Making Our Homes Comfortable There are many things we can change, buy or use to make our houses suit different environments and weather conditions. Some examples are: • airconditioners

• verandas

• swimming pool

• heaters

• pergolas

• floor coverings

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1. Draw or find pictures in magazines to glue on these pages. Label and discuss how each is used to make a home comfortable.

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2. Look at the photographs of the two rooms below. Each comes from a different home. Decide which room would be more comfortable in hot weather and which room would be more comfortable in cool weather. Give reasons why.

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weather

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Additional Activities Read stories about people surviving in different situations and the shelters they constructed. R.I.C. Publications

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What Do We Get from Our Environment? Lesson Focus:

You will learn how people change the environment to meet their needs for shelter and how these changes affect other living things.

Keywords:

habitat, extinct, endangered, introduced, native

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People change the environment to help provide for their needs and wants—one of which is shelter. Look at the photographs below and describe what needs each one provides us with. Draw and describe something else we get from our environment.

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What do we get from our environment?

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Problems with Changing the Environment Humans need space and materials to build shelters. Finding them can cause problems for plants and animals because we may destroy their natural habitats. Forests and wetlands are often cleared to make space for people to live and for their farms. This means chopping down trees, which causes many animals to lose their homes. Some species of animals can only live in one type of habitat. When their home is destroyed, they often become extinct.

Queenstown, Tasmania

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r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Trees are also chopped down for their wood. It is then used for building shelters, as well as for fuel and paper.

With the trees gone, soil can be easily washed or blown away. This is a problem, because soil helps to grow food and plants. People also use soils such as clay to supply building materials. These problems happen throughout the world as well as in Australia.

© R. I . C. Pu bl i cat i ons DID YOU KNOW? • In Australia,• there is only half asw much cover as s there was in 1788 f or r ev i e pforest ur p ose on l y •

because the trees have been cleared for farmland, wood and paper. This has affected many Australian animals.

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• The mining town of Queenstown in Tasmania has bare, treeless hills, because of the clearing of trees. These trees were chopped down for fuel and timber. • There are some Australian animals that scientists think are endangered because of humans. Many of these are rainforest animals whose habitats have been cleared of plants. Here are two of them.

o c . che e r •o The Richmond Birdwing t r s Butterfly super lives in subtropical

rainforest in Queensland. It needs to eat from the birdwing vine when it is a caterpillar. It is hopeful that this species will not become extinct, as people are planting more birdwing vines to make up for the ones that have been lost.

• The Double-eyed Fig Parrot is a small colourful bird that eats figs from rainforest trees. It is one of Australia’s most endangered birds. R.I.C. Publications

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Answer the questions. 1. Why are trees chopped down?

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2. Why is soil important?

3. Choose one of our endangered rainforest animals. Draw a picture and write key facts about the animal.

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4. Do you think it is important that animals don’t become extinct? Why/Why not?

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Problems for Australian Animals Australia has a great variety of animals, many of which are found only in Australia. These include the koala, platypus, emu, wallaby, kangaroo and echidna.

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The original Aboriginal Australians only killed these animals for food. When people from other countries came to live in Australia many of the animals began to die out, as larger numbers were killed for food. The new settlers also brought many animals with them, such as cats, foxes, rabbits, goats, rats and pigs. Some of these animals killed our native animals. They also took over our native animals’ shelters for their homes. Answer the questions.

1. When did some native Australian animals begin to die out?

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2. Colour yes or no. (a) Aboriginal people only killed animals for food.

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. tebrought the kangaroo to Australia. o (b) New settlers c . che e r o t r (c) Animals such as rabbits took overp native Australian s su er animals’ shelters.

3. Fill in the missing letters to name some of the animals the new settlers brought with them. (a)

c

(d)

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b

(b) (e)

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t (f)

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(c)

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The Rabbit and the Bilby Read the information below about an introduced animal—the rabbit—and how it has caused problems for the bilby—a native Australian animal.

Rabbits Rabbits make cute pets but have caused a lot of damage to the environment and problems for some of our native animals.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S After her young are born she digs another breeding burrow.

The young rabbits feed on roots, seedlings and grass. They also strip leaves off the trees and kill the tree by eating its bark.

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A female rabbit digs a burrow for breeding. Sometimes she uses a bilby’s or another type of bandicoot’s burrow.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons The soil crumbles because of the tunnels. Plants find it hard to grow again. The •f rr eplace vi ewhere wp usame r po se soall nl y• rabbits move too another the will happen over again.

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The Bilby

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The bilby is an Australian mammal about the size of a small cat. It is nocturnal, which means it feeds and moves about at night. It lives in burrows deep in the ground. The bilby is an endangered animal. It used to be common in southern areas of Australia. But now, introduced animals are causing problems for the bilby. Cattle destroy their shelter by walking over bilby burrows and making them collapse. Foxes attack and eat them. But the worst problem for the bilby is rabbits. Not only do rabbits take over their burrows, they also eat their food. Now, bilbies only live in some desert areas of Australia where they don’t have to worry about rabbits and foxes. There may be only a few hundred bilbies left in Australia.

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Answer the questions. 1. Fill in the missing words. cause the soil to

Rabbits’ plants find it hard to

and

again.

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2. Use your own words to explain how rabbits are causing damage to the environment.

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(a) Bilbies live

. t (c) The bilby ise

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3. Match the facts about the bilby. •

• an endangered animal.

(b) Today bilbies only live •

4.

• can collapse if cattle walk over it.

o c . e (d) A bilby’s burrow c • • in some desert areas of Australia. her r o t s s r u e p What could we do to help the bilby? •

• under the ground in burrows.

Additional Activities 1. Make a class flow chart of the building of a house. Consider the changes to the environment that might occur. 2. Find ways we can build and use shelters in a more environmentally-friendly way. 3. Find out about other endangered Australian animals. R.I.C. Publications

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Who Are We?

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Types of Community Groups Lesson Focus:

You will learn about the groups people belong to in your community and the reasons why.

Keywords:

sporting, artistic, religious, cultural, celebrate

There are many different types of groups people can belong to in a community. It can be a sporting or leisure group, an artistic group or a religious or cultural group.

r o e t s Bo r e p Christian group oballet swimming u k S Irish dancing Muslim group painting

1. Look at the photographs of the items below. Label the type of group each item or set of items belongs to. T-ball

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Cub Scout

violin

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2. (a) Now sort out the groups by writing the name of the group under one of the labels.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Artistic

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Sport/Leisure

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Religious/Cultural

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(b) Add more groups you can think of yourself for each label. (c) Ask other children in the class and add theirs. 3. Tick the groups you belong to. 4. Find out if other family members might belong to these groups. Who Are We?

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Groups We Can Belong to Hello, my name is Hayley. Every Tuesday after school, I love to go to my drama class. We learn in a hall with a real stage at one end.

Hi, my name is Adam. I started judo classes last year. Some of the people in my class are seven, like me, and some of them are a few years older. In judo, we learn how to fall safely, how to strengthen our muscles and how to throw a partner to the floor— without hurting ourselves too much! My favourite part is when we work with partners.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S My class and my teacher make judo a

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In drama, we learn how to use our voice and our body to play different characters. My favourite part of the class is when we get to act in short plays—sometimes we get to make them up ourselves!

lot of fun. We help each other to do our best, and no-one minds if you make a mistake.

When I first started drama two years ago, I felt shy, but the people in my class are very friendly. My teacher encourages us to listen to other people and not to laugh if they make a mistake. I don’t feel so shy anymore— now I love performing for the class.

Next year, I would like to enter judo contests. Who knows, maybe one day I might compete in the Olympic Games!

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• At the end of the year, we are going to

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perform a special play for our parents, with costumes and props. I can hardly wait!

. te o c (b) Choose a group you belong to or would like to belong. to. Write about c e r your favourite part.h er o t s su per Hayley Adam Me

Answer the questions below.

1.(a) Write about Hayley and Adam’s favourite part of being in the group.

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2. Write keywords to describe what Hayley and Adam learn in their group.

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3.

r o e t s Bo r e pforward to doing? ok What are they looking u S

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4. How does the group help them?

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5. Name a group you would like to join and why.

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Religious Groups Members of religious groups like to celebrate together on important occasions. Read about the celebrations of three different religious groups below.

Jews The happiest celebration for Jewish people is called Purim. Purim is celebrated between February and March each year. It remembers the story of Queen Esther who saved the Jews long ago from an evil man called Haman.

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Jewish children dress up in fancy dress, and perform plays of the story. When Haman appears in the play, children love to boo and shake rattles called greggers. Families often go to pray at the synagogue, and afterwards eat Purim bread and pastries. They also give each other gifts. Children sometimes give fruit or lollies in boxes they have made themselves.

Muslims

Muslims celebrate Eid-ul-Fitr, or Eid, which lasts for three days. It comes at the end of Ramadan, which is a month where Muslims do not eat between sunrise and sunset. One of the reasons for fasting is to help remember people who do not have enough food to eat.

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As you can imagine, there are a lot of meals eaten over the three days of Eid! Families often invite poor people to share meals with them or give them food. Over Eid, Muslim people usually wear new clothes, and go to pray at a mosque. They visit their family and give them gifts, money and cards.

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o c Christians . c e htoeremember r Christians celebrate Christmas the birth ofo Jesus t r su per Christ. Most families like to eat a meal together ons Christmas Day or Christmas Eve. Many go to special church services to pray and sing Christmas carols. Children sometimes act out the story of when Jesus was born, in plays called Nativity plays. People give each other presents, to remind them of the gifts that the shepherds and the Wise Men gave to Jesus. Many children around the world also believe that Santa Claus or Baby Jesus brings them presents on Christmas Eve. Presents are often left under a Christmas tree. R.I.C. Publications

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Answer the questions below. 1. Complete the table for each religious group. Group

Celebration

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r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S (a) Tick the group which matches the sentence. It may be more than one group.

Jews

My mum bought me some new clothes. I give people presents at this time.

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Place to Pray

Muslims

Christians

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons My friends and I acted orr evi ew pur posesonl y• in• af play.

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We have a special place where we pray.

(b) Discuss what is the same and different about each group.

. te Occasion:

3. Draw a picture about a time your family celebrates a special occasion.

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What Groups Do You Belong to? Complete the report below about a group you belong to. It could be to do with sport, music, religion, leisure or even your class group at school. Name of Group:

What do you do as part of this group?

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Why did you join this group?

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What do you enjoy most about it?

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Groups People Belong to—Interview Invite community members from different types of groups to talk about their particular group. Have each person talk to a small number of students. Ask him/ her the following questions and record the answers.

Name of Visitor:

Name of Visitor’s Group:

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Do you wear special clothing or have special symbols?

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What does your group do?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons What equipment do you need? •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Are there rules and responsibilities you must follow?

. t e o Where and when does your group meet? How does the group c help or benefit you? . che e r o r st super

Share your group’s interview with the other groups in your class. Who Are We?

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Groups People Belong to— Retrieval Chart Complete the chart using keywords or phrases about different groups in the community. You can choose a group you belong to, a family member belongs to or a group from the class interview activity. An example has been done for you.

Name of Group and Symbol

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Clothing r o e t s Bo r e p o u k Tennis club Learn how to Blue and white S courts. play tennis. shirts, shorts

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Seacrest Tennis Club

Environment (Where does it meet?)

What does the group do?

and skirts. Play in competitions.

Tennis shoes.

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Benefits r o e t s Bo r e p ok u Keeping fit and Tennis racquet. S Listen to coach. healthy. Tennis balls. Net

Rules and responsibilities

Practise skills. Keep equipment tidy.

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Equipment

Learning coordination skills.

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Graphing Class Groups Brainstorm the types of groups the students in your class belong to. Tally the amount for each group. Use the information to graph the ‘top five’. Number of Students

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28

26

24

22

20

18

16

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

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Name of Group

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Clothing Certain clothing is worn and used by groups for different reasons. It could be for: • identification – special badges and symbols tell you what group someone belongs to. • cleanliness – aprons, overshirts etc. keep clothes clean. • safety and protection – helmets, shoes etc. protect our body.

r o e t s Bo r e 2. Now label and writep about the clothing for the other oactivities. u k S Cooking Class

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1. Look at the example of the student in the cooking class. Read about the items of clothing.

Oven mitts to stop hands from getting burnt.

Hat to keep hair out of food. Hair to be tied back.

Apron to keep clothes clean. © R. I . C.Publ i c at i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Benefits People have many reasons for joining a group or club. Some of these could be: • to keep healthy • to relax

• to make new friends • to learn a new skill

• they enjoy the activity

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Sporting groups

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In the balloons below, write two reasons why you think people may join each group. (The ‘Benefits’ section in the chart on page 55 may also help you.)

Why do people join groups?

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Additional Activities Bring photographs, equipment, clothing, badges etc. from groups students and their families belong to for a class display. R.I.C. Publications

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How Does the Weather Affect Groups? Lesson Focus:

You will learn how the environment affects the groups to which people belong.

Keywords:

weather, environment, natural, built, recreation

Some group activities are only available at certain times of the year. This is usually because of the weather, especially if the activity is held outdoors. 1. Look at the sports activities below. Decide if each activity is for summer, winter or all-year-round. Write it in the correct place in the Venn diagram. rugby

Teac he r

golf

Winter

Summer

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r o e t s B r e oo snowboarding waterskiing cycling surfing p u gymnastics bushwalking swimmingk cricket S

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o c . che e r o t r s activity. s up er Draw another summer, winter and all-year-round Summer

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Winter

All-year-round

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Mountview Map

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This map shows part of the town of Mountview. Study the map and answer the questions on the next page.

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Use the map to answer the questions. 1. Find and label these places on the map. netball courts

park

lake

recreation centre

beach

oval

mountains

2. Some of the places where the activities are held have been built. Others are natural. Label ‘n’ for natural and ‘b’ for built next to each place on the map.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok Place u S

3. The people of Mountview like to do these activities. Write the best place or places for each activity. Add two of your own.

Painting

recreation centre, lake, park

Swimming Drama

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Activity

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Volleyball

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. t Netball e

Hiking

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4. What activities can you do in your community?

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Group Activities—Finland The type of environment in which you live affects the type of activities you can do. People all over the world find different activities and groups to join depending on the environment in which they live.

r o e t s Bo r e pon the ok To find the country of Finland u map of the world, youS will have to look near the North Pole! Winter in Finland is very long and very cold. There is a lot of ice and snow. In summer, however, it does become warm to hot.

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Read about the sporting activities the people in Finland like to do.

Finnish people love the outdoors—even in winter. Sports are very popular. There is probably a group or club for every kind of sport in Finland.

© R. I . C.PuSome bl i c t i ons ofa the winter sports are crosscountry skiing, ski-jumping, skating •f orr evi ew pu r p ohockey. sesSkating onl y and ice and• ice

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hockey are also played indoors, in rinks, during summer. Groups of Finnish people enjoy bushwalking through the many forests. Water sports are very popular as Finland has many lakes, rivers and the ocean to use. Some water sports are fishing, sailing, whitewater rafting and swimming.

o c . che e r o t r s super Swimming is practised in winter in

indoor heated pools. Other groups enjoy long distance running, jogging, cycling and pesapallo, a sort of baseball. Answer the questions. 1. Colour Finland on this map. R.I.C. Publications

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2. Why do you think there are a lot of winter sports in Finland?

3. In each box, write sports the Finnish people play. Summer

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S All-year-round

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Winter

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4. Write any of the sports the Finnish people play that you have tried.

5. Imagine you are talking to a Finnish person about the sports Australians play in summer and winter. Write what you would say.

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Additional Activities Contact students from other Australian States or other countries by e-mail or letters. Find out what group activities they participate in. Who Are We?

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Group Rules Lesson Focus:

You will learn how to be a good group member now and in the future.

Keywords:

rules, safety, health, courtesy, protection, time, leader, member

When you are a member of a group or club there are special rules you must follow. Rules are made so the people in the group can enjoy the activities and be safe doing the activity.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok • Listen carefully. u • Put your hand S up to speak.

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1. Read some rules you should follow in your classroom or school. Write another rule.

• Keep schoolbags tidy. •

2. Classroom and school rules are made for different reasons. Write a classroom or school rule for each heading.

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Protection

Courtesy

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Time

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Group Rules—Horseshoe Pony Club Home

Newsletter

Locations

Training

Help

Welcome to the Horseshoe Pony Club website. Here is some information about trail rides.

Information about Trail Rides • Our rides leave at 9.00 a.m. sharp every Saturday. Please arrive by 8.30 a.m.

r o e t s Bo r e p othe reins are safe. We can give youu help saddling your horse and checkingk Please ask ifS you need help.

• Wear long pants. If you do not own a hard hat or riding boots, these will be provided for you.

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• When saddling your horse, remember that horses like to know where you are. Stay at the front of the horse so you don’t frighten it. • Finally, let our instructors know how fast you like to go before the ride starts.

The Horseshoe Pony Club has decided to write five rules from this information. List the five rules you think they should have.

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Rules and Me Choose a group or club you belong to. 1. Group Name: 2. Now think of an important rule you must follow in this group. Rule:

4. Draw a picture of yourself obeying this rule.

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3.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u Why is importantS to follow this rule?

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Leaders of Groups Groups you may belong to have a leader or person in charge. They may have a special name.

Cub Scouts

• conductor

church

• Brown Owl

synagogue • r o e t s rclass of studentsB•o e p ok u sports team • S Brownies

orchestra

• Akela • priest/pastor • teacher

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1. Match each group to its leader.

• rabbi

• coach/captain

A good group leader helps group members to follow the rules and enjoy being in the group.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons (b) Write the numbers 1e tow 8 inp the boxes tos show order most to •f or r evi ur po esthe on l yof•

2. (a) Read about some of the things that make a good leader or a good group member. Write one more of your own.

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Listening to others.

Helping new members.

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least important.

o c . che e r o Being friendly to group members. t r s super Follow all rules correctly.

Being polite to group members.

Taking turns.

Carrying out responsibilities.

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Past, Present and Future

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List any groups you have belonged to in the past, groups you belong to now and groups you would like to belong to in the future. Include sporting, religious, artistic, cultural and your school groups. Draw a picture for each. Past

Present

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Additional Activities Invite adults to talk about groups they belong to or have belonged to in the past. Compare to groups students in the class belong to. R.I.C. Publications

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Bo ok

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Old Families, Newsto Families r e

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Oral Histories Lesson Focus:

You will learn what an oral history is and how it can tell you about your family’s past.

Keywords:

oral, history, events, relatives, memories

Events that happened to us in our past are called our history. All of us have a family history, or things that have happened to our family in the past, like holidays, moving house, or a new baby arriving.

Teac he r

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What you remember about your family history is only a small part of it. You can learn more about things that happened before you were born from your parents, grandparents and other relatives. What they tell you can be called an ‘oral’ history because it is spoken.

1. In the box below, draw and label an event from your family history you can remember. Cut out or write words to describe how you felt.

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2. Do the same for two other events that two of your relatives can remember. They might be a parent, grandparent, aunty or cousin.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S His/Her FEELINGS

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Name of Relative

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Name of Relative

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Family History Recount Write a recount about an event you remember in your family’s history. It can be about the one you drew on page 70 or another event of your choice. Complete the framework below. Read your recount to your class.

Title

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Opening Paragraph(who, what, when, where and why?)

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What happened? (in time order)

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Different Memories Sometimes family members will have different memories of a family event. What they say about it can be different. The Ellis family went on a camping trip last school holidays. Here’s what six-year-old Sarah Ellis and her mum had to say.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S During the holiday I liked going fishing, swimming and canoeing on the lake. I Sarah

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Our family camping trip last holidays was fantastic! It took three hours to drive to the campsite, so I listened to my favourite songs on my personal cassette player. also enjoyed the bushwalking except my little brother Daniel slowed us down. Mum and Dad usually joined in with us but sometimes wanted to sit and read, which was really boring. My favourite part was toasting marshmallows on the campfire at night.

Mrs Ellis

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Our family camping trip last holidays was really enjoyable, but had some moments that weren’t so enjoyable. The drive to the campsite was very long and Daniel complained all the time.

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Daniel also found it hard to keep up bushwalking, and wanted to be carried. His dad and I had to keep a good eye on him swimming, fishing and canoeing in the river. Sometimes I just read books in the afternoon, which was really relaxing. My favourite part was watching the children toast marshmallows. Complete the table below. How did Sarah and her mum remember each of these events? Sarah Driving to the campsite

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Activities during the day Campfire at night Old Families, New Families

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My Family’s Memories Choose a family event that two people in your family have experienced. It could be a family holiday, a wedding or a party. You will need to ask each person to tell you their story. They will need to tell you: • Where it happened.

r o e t s Bo r e • Who was there. p ok u • What happened (in Stime order). • How they felt about what happened. Add a picture showing how you think the person felt. EVENT:

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• When it happened.

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons ’s story •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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’s story

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1. What is the same and different about the two stories?

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2. Share your stories with a partner. Old Families, New Families

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r o e t s Bo r e p Events ok u S

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3. Brainstorm all the different kinds of events you and your classmates have written about; for example, birthdays, holidays.

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4. Decide how each type of event makes most people feel, and write the event in the table below.

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Sad

Excited

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Happy

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Additional Activities Compile a class book or books about each student’s similar family events. For example – Our Family Holiday. R.I.C. Publications

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Interview—Childhood Memories Lesson Focus:

You will learn how lifestyles have changed and may change in the future.

Keywords:

memories, lifestyles, past, present, future

Invite grandparents or older people to talk about their childhood. Have each older person talk to a small group. Tape the interviews to share with the class. Make notes under the following headings.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Family Outings

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Home and Family

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Past and Present Lifestyles How have lifestyles changed from the times you heard about in the past to your own life now? Write keywords and phrases for each heading. Present

Past

Family Outings

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Food

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School

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Home and Family

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Hobbies or Sports

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Past, Present and Future There are many things we use that have changed from the past. For each olden day object below, draw and label what we use today, and what you think we might be using in the future. PRESENT

PAST

MUSIC

MUSIC

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record

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MUSIC

FUTURE

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SCHOOL BAG

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WRITING

WRITING

WRITING

TRANSPORT

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quill pen

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S TRANSPORT

TRANSPORT

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horse and cart KEEPING FOOD COLD

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KEEPING FOOD COLD

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icebox Additional Activities Listen to the taped interviews of oral histories and use these as a springboard to make up short plays of the ‘olden’ days. R.I.C. Publications

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Learning About the Past Lesson Focus:

You will learn what an artefact is and how it tells us about the past.

Keywords:

artefact, archaeologist, museum

An artefact is something that was made and used by people in the past. It often tells us about the way people in the past lived. Artefacts can tell us about times hundreds or even thousands of years ago.

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Artefacts are often found under the ground by scientists called archaeologists. Examples of these artefacts are tools such as knives and hand axes, weapons such as spears and arrowheads, and other objects such as clay pots and jewellery. Some artefacts from the past such as books, paintings or furniture, are kept in people’s families and passed on to family members. 1. Match the artefact to its label. 2. Tick the artefacts an archaeologist may dig up.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons knife painting spear jewellery •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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3. Circle the artefacts that a family might pass on.

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clay pot

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Aboriginal Australian Artefacts We have learnt a lot about the lives of traditional Aboriginal Australians from the artefacts that have been found. Aboriginal artefacts have been dug up from old campsites in many places in Australia. Read about some of these interesting Aboriginal artefacts.

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Artefacts used for carrying water:

Aboriginal Australians sometimes used an animal skin bag or a large shell for carrying water.

Another way was in a wooden vessel called a ‘coolamon’ or ‘pitchi’.

Artefacts used for catching food:

boomerang used for © R. I . C.Publ i cat i onAs hunting was larger This fishhook was and not curved as •f omade rr e vi ew pur poseso nl yas• from shell. other boomerangs.

A snare was used to catch small animals.

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Sharp, pointed bone awls made holes in skins and furs so threads could be poked through and sewn. R.I.C. Publications

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A spear thrower, or ‘woomera’, helped hunters to throw a spear harder and to be more accurate.

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A wooden digging stick was used by Aboriginal women to find yams. 82

Grinding stones crushed fruits and grass seeds into a paste.

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Answer the questions. 1. Choose a traditional Aboriginal method and a way you would do each task. Traditional Aboriginal Australian

Task

You

Carrying water

Digging in the ground

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Catching fish

2. Fill in the missing words from the text. (a) A spear thrower or

helped

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hunters to

and to be more

stone crushed

and grass seeds into a

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(b) A

.

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3. Answer true or false.

(b) A snare could catch a dingo. (c) Digging sticks were made of wood. (d) Bone awls were used for hunting. (e) Aboriginal artefacts were found at old campsites. Old Families, New Families

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Artefacts from Family History Artefacts from family history are very important to lots of people. People often know interesting stories about family artefacts that are handed down from one person to another.

‘This is my mother’s ring. It was given to her on her eighteenth birthday by my grandparents. It has a greyhound engraved in the stone, which is part of our family crest. My mother told me she lost her ring when she was twenty. She was very upset because she loved it so much. The family hunted everywhere for it for months. It was finally found in a kitchen cupboard—my mother had taken it off to wash the dishes!’

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‘This is my uncle’s diary, which he was given when he was eight. He wrote in it almost every day. It is interesting to read because he wrote about what he did at school—and it is very different from what we learn at school today. The front cover of my uncle’s diary is very worn, but you can still read what he wrote on the front—Doug’s Diary – Keep Out!’

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Read these stories of these artefacts from people’s family history.

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‘This is my great-grandfather’s piano, which he learnt to play when he was eight years old. It is so old it used to have candlestick holders which were used to light the music. When my greatgrandfather was still alive, he told my father that he hated to practise his scales. He got so cross one day he pushed the stool over onto the hard wooden floor. You can still see the scratch on the stool. He turned out to be a very good pianist and he played in many concerts.’

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‘This is my grandmother’s doll’s pram. It was her Christmas present when she was five. It was her favourite toy when she was a little girl. She used to take her dolls for walks in it around the park near her house. My grandmother made lots of blankets and quilts to go in the pram, and she still has some of them. She looked after the pram so well, it hardly has any marks on it.’ R.I.C. Publications

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Artefact Interview Choose two artefacts that you have read about. Imagine you are the person the artefact was given to. Complete the interview questions below.

Name of person

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What is your artefact?

How old were you when you first owned it?

What did you do with it?

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Describe it

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What is your artefact? Describe it

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How old were you when you first owned it? What did you do with it?

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A Family Artefact Bring a photograph or draw an artefact from your family’s history. It could be an ornament, a book, a piece of furniture or even some jewellery. Find out its story and write a report about it.

How old is it? r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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Name of Artefact:

Who did it belong to?

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Why is it special?

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Learning About Artefacts Choose four artefacts you have learnt about from visiting a museum or from listening to class discussions. Draw a picture and complete the information for each.

Name:

Age:

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Name:

Age:

Where was it found?

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Age:

Where was it found?

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Name:

Age:

Where was it found? Who did it belong to?

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Choose four objects we use today that you think would make interesting artefacts in the future. Write some place-cards for a museum display.

Name:

Age:

Where was it found?

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Name:

Age:

Where was it found? What was it used for?

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What was it used for?

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Name:

Age:

Where was it found? What was it used for?

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Name:

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Where was it found? What was it used for? Additional Activities 1. Have students bring family artefacts from home to present at ‘show and tell’ times. 2. Organise an excursion to a museum or historical place. R.I.C. Publications

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Family Stories Lesson Focus:

You will learn about stories that are told in families and the reasons why.

Keywords:

culture, Dreaming, legend, traditional, folktale

Read these stories from different families and cultures. How did people learn or find out information about their family or culture before books, newspapers, radio, television or the Internet? One way was to tell stories. Stories were a way to bring news from one place to another. Children were taught lessons by listening to stories told by their parents, relatives or other adults. Some stories were told just for enjoyment.

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r o e t s Bo r e p ok u Stories are still told in families today. They can teach us about life in the past, S about how to behave or teach us about a culture or way of life.

This is a traditional Aboriginal Australian legend. Storytelling is a very important part of life for Aboriginal Australians. Stories of the Dreaming have been handed down for thousands of years to tell children about their history and culture. The Legs of the Kangaroo

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Kangaroos did not always hop on two legs. Before the first people arrived to hunt it with their spears, it walked on four legs, like a dingo.

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Kangaroo was resting in the shade one day when he saw a man come towards him with a spear. He leapt to his feet and began to run away. He thought he would be able to run faster than a man. But he was wrong. The man’s two legs were faster than Kangaroo’s, and Kangaroo could not get away. For many hours, the man chased Kangaroo.

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o c . che e r o t r s su r At last it was night-time, and Kangaroo could hide in pe

the darkness. He could see that the man had built himself a fire to keep warm not too far away. He had to get away from the man without making any sound, so he got on his back legs and tiptoed away. Soon he realised he was only using two legs instead of four, just like the man. Kangaroo could move a lot faster than the man by hopping and using his tail for balance. He was so pleased about this, he has been doing it ever since. Kangaroo’s front legs are now very small because they are not used, and his back legs have grown stronger and stronger. Old Families, New Families

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This folktale from Africa teaches us that biggest isn’t always the best. The Flying Contest Long ago, all the birds had an argument about who could fly the highest. All the larger birds thought they could win. The smaller birds did not think they had a chance, because their wings were so small. All except the wren. She decided to win through trickery.

‘I am,’ said the wren.

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On the day of the contest, all of the birds flew into the sky. The eagle was the strongest and fastest bird and flew up very high. The wren saw this, and stayed as close to the eagle as she could. When the birds soared into a cloud, the wren landed on the eagle’s back. She was so small and light, the eagle didn’t notice. As the eagle kept flying higher than the other birds, he called out proudly, ‘Who is flying the highest?’ The eagle was surprised, and he flew even higher. He asked the question three more times, and every time he heard the wren answer from above him. At last he was too tired to fly anymore, and he began to glide towards the ground. The wren let go and flew even higher. The eagle had to admit the wren had flown the highest and was the winner.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Many Australian families have stories about how their families came to live in f o rr evi ew pur posesonl y• Australia and • what they achieved. My Convict Relative

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This is the story of my great-great-great-grandfather, Thomas Grayson. He was born in London, England, over 200 years ago. He was a musician and he played the violin. At the age of eighteen, he was arrested for pickpocketing a gold watch. No-one could prove that he did it, but he was sentenced to seven years in prison and sent to Australia as a convict.

. teyears, Thomas was granted a ticket-of-leave, which At the end of his seven meant he o c was free. Thomas changed his name to Thomas Charles when he got. his ticket-of-leave. c e h r We think it was because he was ashamed of having been a o convict. er t s sSmithpand er A few months later, he married Elizabeth u found work with a watchmaker in

town. I am always amazed that Thomas wanted to work with watches after all the trouble a watch had caused him back in England! He must have liked it, because after a few years, he bought his own shop. He was an excellent jeweller. Everyone had their jewellery made and fixed at Thomas’ shop. His shop is still standing, but it is now a cafe. Thomas’ sons also became jewellers after he died, and bought their own shops. My father is also a jeweller today. He has a photograph of Thomas above his work table to remind him of his amazing story. I am very proud of Thomas and everything he achieved. R.I.C. Publications

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Answer the questions. 1. How did people find out about their families hundreds or thousands of years ago?

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2. List three reasons why stories are still told today.

3. Complete the table below.

The Legs of the The Flying Contest ©R . I . C.Publ i c at i ons My Convict Relative Kangaroo •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Where did it happen?

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Who is the story about?

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What happens at the beginning?

What happens at the end?

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My Family Story Write about a story that is special in your family. It could be about one of your relatives or a story that comes from your history or culture. You may need to talk to an older relative first.

Title

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Who/What is it about?

What happens to the character(s)?

Beginning

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Middle

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End

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Share your story with the class. Additional Activities Read different versions of traditional stories from various cultures. Explore how they change over time. R.I.C. Publications

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Society and Environment - Student Workbook: Book B - Ages 6-7