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Upper Primary

R.I.C. Publications RIC-0123 3.9/215

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COMPREHENSION FOREWORD Upper

The comprehension series of blackline masters has been written to provide teachers and students with comprehension activities that cater for a variety of questioning techniques and use a range of text that is not always found in reading programs. The text in these activities varies from newspaper extracts to advertisements to recipes. All of the text is the type of reading that children will have to comprehend as they become more independent and take on greater responsibilities.

Contents Page

Title

2-3 4-5 6-7 8-9 10-11 12-13 14-15 16-17 18-19 20-21 22-23 24-25 26-27 28-29 30-31 32-33 34-35 36-37 38

Teacher Information Light Energy Problems A Compass The Dugong Pollution Early Magnets Work Telescopes Our Place in the Environment Classified Index Rivers Oceans Peru - Fact Sheet Fish Fossils Children 'eating far too much fat' Deserts Answers and Question Guide

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Teacher Information Introduction The comprehension series of blackline masters has been written to provide teachers and students with comprehension activities that cater for a variety of questioning techniques and use a range of text that is not always found in reading programs. The text in these activities varies from newspaper extracts to advertisements to recipes. All of the text is the type of reading that children will have to comprehend as they become more independent and take on greater responsibilities. Some activities are spread over two pages to enable students to answer questions adequately and to provide room for more creative comprehension activities. It is recommended that teachers photocopy these activities 'back-to-back'. Questions asked require the student to use skills that cover both the literal and inferential aspects of comprehension. The chart below describes the different types of questioning techniques that have been used and the question guide at the back of this book gives further information regarding the specific questions in each comprehension activity. Answers are provided at the back of this book.

Levels of Comprehension

Question Types

Modern approaches to teaching comprehension recognize the need for children to be able to comprehend more than in a literal form and now look to develop the child's ability to make inferences from the text and also form opinions from their reading. The main levels of comprehension are explained below.

Within each level of comprehension there is opportunity to ask different types of questions. The ability to recognize these question types will help both the teacher and student to focus on what is being asked.

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Literal L: questions require a specific literal answer where all information is provided in the text. Inferential I: questions require to infer the answer from the partial information provided in the text. Evaluative Eval: questions require the student to make a judgement based on information in the text and their own opinion/s. Appreciative App: questions asked require the student to show an understanding and appreciation of the author's intent and any messages that are contained.

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Students are required to retrieve specific information from the text. e.g. How many boys went to the park? Main Idea Students are asked to study the text and state the main idea intended by the author in a specified paragraph/section. e.g. The main idea of paragraph 2? Cause and effect Students need to show how actions lead to reactions throughout the text. e.g. What did the bears do when they found Goldilocks asleep in the bed? Sequencing Students need to order the text so the plot or information is in correct sequence and makes sense to the reader. e.g. Write the events in the correct time order

Comprehension - Upper

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Teacher Information example lesson development The following is a lesson development using one of the pages in this book. It is an example of how the activity could be introduced, developed and extended. Activity

Light: pages 6 and 7

Introductory Work As with most reading activities, children will actively participate if they are motivated by the topic they are reading. As a result of this the topics in this book have been selected for their interest levels. In addition the teacher can motivate by introducing and talking about the topic of sound, supporting this discussion with pictures. In addition the teacher needs to provide children with strategies to handle the tasks involved. These include reading the passage several times, interspersed with reading the questions, so that when the child sets about answering the questions he/she has a good understanding of the text and the questions. Children should also be encouraged to be able support their answers if required. Completing the Worksheets

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The following is a suggestion for the development and extension of this activity. Light

Name:

What is light? There are two types of light— natural light and artificial light.

1. What is the study of light known as?

Natural light

Most of our natural light comes from the sun, stars and lightning. The sun’s light is created by constant explosions on its surface, which throw out large amounts of light and heat. The stars—which are actually other suns a long distance away—also produce some light. Nature has given some of our animals the ability to produce light. For example, the firefly is able to produce a small amount of light through a complex chemical reaction.

1. Children read through the passage, individually, in pairs or as a class group.

2. What is the main idea of paragraph 3?

4. Children answer questions and write the answers in spaces provided. Ensure that children provide as much detail as they can to explain and justify their answers. 5. Answer the questions as a group or individually. Discuss reasons for correct and incorrect answers.

Artificial light The electric light bulb, invented in 1879 by Thomas Edison, is the most common source of artificial light. This simple yet enormously important invention consists of a glass globe filled with gas and a wire which heats up and gives off light when electricity passes through it. The gas slows down the rate at which the wire burns, but eventually it does break. There are other types of artificial light, including gas and oil lamps, candles, fibre optic cable, lasers and electric radiators.

2. Read the questions, so that children understand what is required.

Light 3. Compare natural light to artificial light.

The study of light is known as optics. Scientists have studied optics for hundreds of years. Color is one interesting part of optics. White light can be split into seven colors by using a prism. These seven colors are known as the spectrum. They are red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet. A rainbow is an excellent example of the spectrum. 6

Comprehension

Name:

4. What is the cause of a firefly's ability to produce light?

5. What do you think was the first form of natural light on the earth? Explain.

6. Can you predict which types of artificial lighting may be the most popular in years to come?

6. Discuss with the whole class any problem questions and also how there can be more than one correct answer to some questions.

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3. Children read the passage again with the questions in mind.

Note: back-to-back photocopying will reduce the amount of paper used.

Extension

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World Teachers Press

Comprehension

7

The extension of this activity can occur in two main directions. 1. Follow the topic of light into other subject areas and allow it to develop into an across the curriculum theme. 2. Continue the activities in this book to further develop comprehension skills. Comprehension - Upper

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Light What is light? There are two types of light— natural light and artificial light. 1. What is the study of light known as? Natural light Most of our natural light comes from the sun, stars and lightning. The sun’s light is created by constant explosions on its surface, which throw out large amounts of light and heat. The stars—which are actually other suns a long distance away—also produce some light. Nature has given some of our animals the ability to produce light. For example, the firefly is able to produce a small amount of light through a complex chemical reaction.

2. What is the main idea of paragraph 3?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons • f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Artificial light The electric light bulb, invented in 1879 by Thomas Edison, is the most common source of artificial light. This simple yet enormously important invention consists of a glass globe filled with gas and a wire which heats up and gives off light when electricity passes through it. The gas slows down the rate at which the wire burns, but eventually it does break. There are other types of artificial light, including gas and oil lamps, candles, fibre optic cable, lasers and electric radiators.

3. Compare natural light to artificial light.

The study of light is known as optics. Scientists have studied optics for hundreds of years. Colour is one interesting part of optics. White light can be split into seven colours by using a prism. These seven colours are known as the spectrum. They are red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet. A rainbow is an excellent example of the spectrum. R.I.C. Publications

Comprehension - Upper

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Light 4. What is the cause of a firefly's ability to produce light?

6. Can you predict which types of artificial lighting may be the most 5. What do you think was the first form popular in years to come? of natural light on the earth? Explain.

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Energy Problems In years gone by people have relied on energy obtained from fossil fuels. However, these fossil fuels are being used up at an ever-increasing rate. Scientists and industrialists have had to begin the development of many new forms of energy so as to conserve our supplies of fossil fuels for as long as possible. Some of the new sources of energy being examined include solar, wind, wave, thermal, nuclear, water, garbage, tidal and natural gas. The earth’s population has grown at an alarming rate over the last 100 years and so our reserves of fossil fuels have been badly depleted. Coal and oil are the most important of these and many people are concerned that we shall run out of these vital sources of energy. Other problems lie in the fact that we often have to destroy large parts of our environment to extract these sources of energy, and we cause pollution when we use them, e.g. burning wood, coal or oil. Burning fossil fuels can produce harmful gases which may—over a period of years—change the atmosphere. The storage of waste from nuclear reactors is another major problem. Fortunately, as people have searched for new sources of energy, a greater importance seems to have been placed on the environment as a valuable and irreplaceable resource.

1. Write down any three types of fossil fuels mentioned in the article.

2. The article gives one reason why fossil fuels have been badly depleted. What is it?

3. Name one problem caused by burning fossil fuels.

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4. List four sources of energy which may be alternatives to fossil fuels.

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Energy Problems 5. What is the main idea of paragraph four?

7. Why are people becoming more concerned about the environment as they search for new forms of energy?

6. What is the main problem with the storage of nuclear waste?

8. What is the main idea of paragraph two?

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Comprehension - Upper

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A Compass Without the magnetic compass, our society today would be completely different from the way we know it. The magnetic compass has been used extensively as a navigational aid for many centuries. A magnetic compass relies on the fact that a freely suspended magnet will always point north-south.

Using a compass near some metals (such as iron and steel) can produce an incorrect reading, since the magnet needle may be attracted to the metal. Try making your own compass by suspending a bar magnet from a piece of string.

The compass is used today in many places, including boats, aircraft and cars. Bushwalkers find the compass a real necessity as navigation by other means — such as by using the sun and the stars — can at times be impossible. Using a magnetic compass requires some care, as dropping it can not only break the housing but can also damage the magnetic needle.

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1. What has the magnetic compass been used for over the last few centuries?

2. How does a compass work?

3. Where are magnetic compasses used?

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A Compass 4. What effect can certain metals have on the needle of a compass?

5. What other means can people use to help them navigate?

6. Research to find out about other methods of navigation that are not mentioned in this article.

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The Dugong The dugong, a marine mammal, is found in the warm and shallow waters off the northern Australian coastline. This unusual looking animal was sometimes thought to be a mermaid by early sailors exploring the waters around Australia. The dugong eats sea grasses which grow on the shallow ocean banks. It is therefore easy prey for sharks and humans. This rare animal is protected by law; however, some tribal Aborigines are allowed to hunt it. Dugongs have a life span of up to 70 years. The female can raise a new calf only every four years, making the dugong a rather slow breeder. As a result of this slow breeding and modern technology, dugong numbers around Australia have been reduced greatly, and thus the dugong has become an endangered species.

Š R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons 2. Where the dugong found? •isf or r ev i ew pur posesonl y• 1. What type of animal is the dugong?

3. Why is the dugong easy prey for sharks?

4. About how many calves could a female dugong have in a normal life-span?

5. What kind of modern technologies could help the Aborigines to hunt the dugong?

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The Dugong 6. What do you think 'endangered species' means?

7. Why do you think some Aborigines are still allowed to hunt the dugong?

8. Make a list of other animals that you think are 'endangered'.

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Comprehension - Upper

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Pollution The dictionary tells us that to pollute something is to make it foul, unclean and dirty. This is a simple yet accurate meaning of a word that has become very important to modern human communities in recent years. An interesting point is that pollution was not such a big problem until the twentieth century. This is because humans have greatly changed their living habits in the last hundred years to a stage where we now rely greatly on machinery and technology to provide the standard of living that many of us enjoy. The needs and wants of humans are directly related to the amount of pollution that can be found in the environment, because most of the pollution is created by the machinery and technology involved in fulfilling these needs and wants. This pollution is divided into separate areas, according to the part of the environment that the pollution affects the most. The three main areas of pollution are:

Air Pollution This is the pollution of the earth's atmosphere. It is caused mainly by emissions from machinery and factories in the form of smoke. The smoke varies greatly in the damage that it can cause to the atmosphere. The release of chlorofluorocarbons from aerosol sprays, refrigerators and air-conditioners is another form of air pollution that is creating great damage to the atmosphere. The best example of air pollution can be seen in large cities where motor vehicle exhaust fumes can be seen in the air. This is often called 'smog'.

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1. 2. 3.

air pollution; water pollution; and soil pollution.

1. What is the meaning of the word 'pollute'?

2. Why has the level of pollution increased in the last century?

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Pollution Water Pollution This is the pollution of the earth's oceans, seas and waterways. It is caused in the same way as air pollution; when humans release waste materials from factories or ships these become mixed with the water and cause great damage to the animals and plants living there. This can also make the water unfit for drinking.

4. What forms of air pollution exist in your local environment?

Soil Pollution This is the pollution where waste products are stored or released on land and either quickly or over a period of time mix with the soil, reducing its fertility and creating a buildup of dangerous products. Materials released into the soil can also find their way into the underground water supplies and pollute them.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 5. What type of pollution could be caused by a rubbish tip?

6. How do you think this form of pollution could be prevented or reduced? 3. What are the three main types of pollution?

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Early Magnets Magnets are an essential part of life in today’s society. They can be found most anywhere we look. In your house there would be dozens—for example, in your refrigerator, your television, your hi-fi speakers and telephone. A commercial jet has at least 100 of them. Magnets were ‘discovered’ more than 2000 years ago by the Greeks. Legends tell us that a shepherd boy from the town of Magnesia found the metal end of his staff sticking to a strange dark rock. The boy named this rock after his home town. It was not until much later in human history that a useful purpose was found for the strange rock. The magnet was given the name lodestone (or leading stone) because, when freely suspended, it always pointed north—south. Early land and sea explorers used this property of magnets to help with navigation.

1. Where in the house can you find magnets?

2. After which town was the magnet named?

3. What is a legend?

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Early Magnets 4. Why was the magnet called a 'lodestone'?

5. Which race of people 'discovered ' the magnet?

6. What is a shepherd?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 7. Make up your own legend about the discovery of the magnet.

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Work BRICKLAYER

Specializes in small jobs. Free quotes. Phone 326 4113

BRICKLAYING

A team of 6 available for immediate work. Phone 436 2976

BRICK PAVING

All labour and materials supplied. Reasonable rates. Phone 634 8526

BRICK PAVING/LAYING No job too small or too large. Quality work. Free quotes. Phone 874 9812 CARPENTER

No job too small—any area. Phone Phil 877 8444

CARPET

Cleaning any area. Free quotes given over phone. Phone 147 2388

CARPETS AND VINYLS

Professionally cleaned and repaired. Phone John 489 4001

CEILINGS

Repair cracks and water damage. All areas. Phone 347 8426

CEILINGS

Cheapest and best. No job too small. Phone Bob 876 6666

CEILINGS

Small jobs only. Phone 946 3742

CLEANING

Commercial—competitive rates. Phone 346 8843

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons CEILINGS Renov., repair and replace. Also insurance work. Phone 888 •f orr evi ew pur po se s9437 onl y•

CLEANING/HOUSEWORK Honest and reliable. Phone Sue 846 9377 CLEANING/IRONING

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Reasonable rates. Phone 843 6176

Comprehension - Upper

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Work 1. Are these advertisements for people seeking work or requiring work to be done?

2. How many advertisements include information about quotes? 3. If your ceiling needed repair work done on it, who would you phone?

Why? 4. After the cleaning advertisements, what do you think might be the next category?

5. The last advertisement contains the words 'honest and reliable'. Why do you think these have been included?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons • f orr evi e wyoupring ur p oses on l y •brick 6. What telephone number would for someone to build you a small wall?

7. What is the name of the carpenter? 8. Write your own advertisement for the following occupations: Painter

Plumber

Electrician

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Telescopes Telescopes are instruments that magnify faraway objects. They are used mainly to study stars and planets and other ‘heavenly bodies’. Early telescopes date back to Galileo Galilei, an Italian astronomer who, in 1608, used one to look at the ‘rings’ of Saturn and many other space objects—until then unseen. There are two main types of light-sensitive telescopes, known as reflecting and refracting. A reflecting telescope uses a large concave mirror to focus the light, through a number of small reflecting mirrors, onto a screen or directly to an eyepiece so that we can see the object. A refracting telescope uses lenses at the front of the telescope and in the eyepiece to magnify the image. Another type is the radio-telescope. This collects radio waves emitted by objects far away in other galaxies and tries to make some pattern out of them. Large radiotelescopes are situated in many places around the world. They collect valuable data for people and organizations all over the world. Places where the skies are clear for much of the year and generally not disturbed by a lot of electrical interference are good locations for telescopes.

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1. What is the main idea of paragraph l?

2. What are the main types of light-sensitive telescopes?

3. What causes the light to be collected in a reflecting telescope?

4. Radio-telescopes collect what type of data?

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Telescopes 5. Why do you think that parts of Europe and North America would be difficult places for astronomers to work? Are there any ways this could be improved?

6. What are 'heavenly bodies'?

7. Find the different meanings of the word 'emitted'. Which meaning applies to this passage?

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Our Place in the Environment

?

Where do you fit into the environment? Humans have not always been a part of the environment.

Humans first appeared on the earth over one million years ago. Scientists get this information by investigating fossils and other evidence. Before this time, many other animals and plants were found to have existed. Compared with many of the plants and animals found on the earth today, humans are newcomers to the environment. As humans spent more time on the earth they developed from small groups of family members to larger family groups that joined together for protection and to help with the collection of food. These groups of people soon learned that living together was a lot better than living in small groups.

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As the groups grew bigger, they formed the beginnings of civilizations. There were large numbers of people living in one area who shared the many responsibilities and duties, such as food collection, protection, shelter and cooking. Civilizations have since gone through many changes to be the highly developed groups that exist today. You are a part of one of these civilizations.

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The growth of large community groups has been of great benefit to humans and the way we live. Unfortunately, this development has had some bad effects on other parts of the environment. The development of the human race has occurred with little thought to the other parts of the environment - of which we are all a part. Some areas of the environment that have been greatly affected are the air, the soil, the plants and the animals. All of these parts of the environment are just as important as our own survival and play a vital part in human life. Unless humans begin to show a greater awareness and understanding of others in the environment, our problems will become even greater than they are now.

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Our Place in the Environment 1. When did humans first appear on the earth?

2. Why did early humans find living together in groups better than living alone?

3. How does the civilization we live in share the duties that the community requires?

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4. The growth of human civilization has seen some bad effects on other parts the environment. Name two of these and explain what has occurred. (a)

(b)

5. What do you think is the most important part of the environment? Explain your answer.

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Classified Index

1.

REAL ESTATE BUSINESSES & LETTING

City ----------------------------------------80 Country Town, Props --------------------80 Real Estate Wanted ----------------------80 Business Partnerships -------------------80 To Let -------------------------------------81 To Let Comm & Indust Props -----------82 Wanted to Rent ------------------------- 82 Rooms & Flats --------------------------- 82 Board & Residence -----------------------82

2.

4.

OPPORTUNITIES

Employment ---------------------------- 89 Employment Courses -------------------91 Hospital Appoints -----------------------91 Educational ----------------------------- 91 Employment Wanted --------------------91

5.

MISCELLANEOUS

Amusements ---------------------------- 92 Anniversaries ---------------------------- 42 Bereavements --------------------------- 76 Birthdays -------------------------------- 42 Births -------------------------------------76 Congratulations ------------------------- 42 Dancing ----------------------------------92 Deaths ------------------------------------76 Engagements ---------------------------- 42 Fetes and Jumble Sales ------------------92 Floral Tributes -------------------------- 79 For Hire -----------------------------------82 Funeral Directors ----------------------- 79 Funeral Notices ------------------------- 79 Furniture Removed, Transport -------- 83 Holiday Resorts ------------------------- 83 In Memoriam --------------------------- 76 Licensing -------------------------------- 83 Lost and Found ------------------------- 82 Machinery ------------------------------- 83 Memorial Gifts -------------------------- 79 Money Mortgages -----------------------83 Mortgage Finance -----------------------64 Personal ----------------------------------83 Public Notices --------------------------- 79 Seamen's Numbers ----------------------74 Special Advertisements -----------------13 Sporting Notices ------------------------ 97 Switches on Classifieds ------------------72 Tenders -----------------------------------85

© R . I . C . P u b l i c a t i o n s PLACE • f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• For Sale -----------------------------------83 BUYERS MARKET

Antiques/Fine Arts-------------------83 Computers -------------------------- 83 Garage Sales ------------------------- 83 Musical ------------------------------ 84 Pets and Livestock -----------------------84 Wanted to Buy -------------------------- 84 Caravans & Camping --------------------84 Boating -----------------------------------84 Auctions ----------------------------------84

3.

MOTORING

Car Market ------------------------------ 85 Trucks & Commercials ------------------89 Motor Cycles ---------------------------- 89 Motor Accessories -----------------------89

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Classified Index 1. What are the five major sections of this index?

2. How many minor headings appear in the index? 3. On what page will you find: (a)Rooms and Flats?

(b) Boating?

(c) Motor cycles?

(d) Hospital Appoints?

(e) Public Notices?

(f) Tenders?

4. Why is the Miscella neous section of this index in alphabetical order?

5. Where in the index would you put these headings:

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• (c) • Blocks? (a)

Employment Agencies?

(b)

Motels?

6. Fit these classified ads into a heading in the index. (a)

Elementary school teacher required to teach ten-year-olds.

(b)

'Come and stay at our new holiday village!'

(c)

Partner wanted to establish new business.

7. Write a classified ad to sell your bicycle.

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Rivers Rivers are one of the most common forms of waterway. Rivers can be found throughout the world in many different sizes and forms. Some rivers flow all year round, while others dry up in the summer months. Some rivers are frozen for a long time. Some rivers are very long while others are very short. Whatever their differences, all rivers have certain things in common. All rivers have a source. The source of a river is its birthplace or beginning. The water at the river’s source can come from glaciers, snow, springs, lakes or rainfall. The source of most rivers can be found in mountain ranges or on higher areas of land inland from the coast. A river’s catchment area is the area of land where rain falls and then feeds into the river. This can be at its source and also at various stages on its path to the ocean. At the river’s source, rain first collects in small channels called rills. These rills then flow together into brooks, which flow into streams, which in turn flow into the main body of the river. The rill or stream that flows into a river, whether it be a small rill or a large stream, is called a tributary.

The main body of the river is made up of several parts. The bottom of the river is called the bed, while the banks are the two edges. Rivers are generally found to flow fastest in the early stages, and then slow down as they reach level ground. In its early stages, waterfalls and rapids may be common as the river is fed from a variety of tributaries. As the river bed becomes level the water flow slows down, the river becomes deeper and the path of the river starts to meander towards the sea. Where the river meets the sea is called the river mouth. It is here that the river slows greatly. This is largely due to the large load of soil and silt that has been carried from higher up the river. It is at this stage that estuaries and deltas can be formed.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons 1. What forms of water can contribute •f orr evi ew pur p s eson l y • too the beginning of a river?

2. List the types of waterways that are involved in a river system in order of their size.

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Rivers 3. Describe the speed of the water in a river and explain why it is different at various stages of the river.

4. What is a river mouth?

5. What is the river bed?

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6. What are river banks?

7. What do you think the word 'delta' means?

8. What do you think the word 'estuary' means?

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Oceans Less than 30% of the earth’s surface is taken up by land masses. The rest of the surface is water. Over 95% of this water is made up of the world ocean. This huge mass of water is divided into oceans and these oceans are divided further into seas, gulfs and bays. All are part of the world ocean.

surface of the ocean, although it is not recognized as such because we measure the height of mountains from sea level. The oceans vary greatly in depth. Areas surrounding land are often very shallow while areas in the middle of the oceans can be as deep as 11 000 meters.

The three main oceans of the world are: The Pacific Ocean; The Indian Ocean; and The Atlantic Ocean. Scientists and geographers often disagree on the label given to two other masses of water; the Arctic and Southern Oceans. Some suggest that these two areas of water should be considered as parts of the three major oceans and others suggest they should be oceans in their own right. You might best decide by looking at how they are labelled in your school atlas.

The ocean holds many mysteries for scientists. As new technologies are developed, humans are learning more about this hidden resource and are beginning to realize that the future survival of the human race may depend on the resources that the ocean holds.

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Despite this disagreement, the fact remains that the oceans take up the majority of the earth’s surface and are therefore a very important part of the environment. The oceans have a great effect on climate, temperature and rainfall, and also provide large amounts of food for the animals that inhabit the earth. Humans rely on the ocean for food, transport, leisure and many other activities and influences. The bottom of the ocean is very similar to the land above its surface. There are areas of flat and areas of mountains, just like on land. In fact, the world’s largest mountain is below the

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Oceans 1. Name the three main oceans of the world.

2. How much of the Earth's surface is made up of water? 3. How much of the Earth's water can be found in the oceans? 4. How deep can oceans be? 5. How is the bottom of the ocean similar to the land that we live on?

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6. How do humans rely on oceans?

7. Why do you think that humans still have a lot to learn about the oceans of the world?

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Peru - Fact Sheet Name of Country

Peru (puh ROO)

Capital City

Lima (LEE mah)

Location

Peru lies in western South America along the South Pacific Ocean. It borders Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia and Chile.

Population

22 857 000 (1991 estimate)

Area/Size

1 285 216 km2 in area. It is the third largest country in the continent of South America and stretches 1 971 km north-south and 1 408 km east-west, with a coastline of 1 448 km.

Climate

Peru lies completely within the tropics. The ocean current passing the coastline is very cold and makes the coastal region cooler than normal in tropical regions. The highland regions also have cool temperatures.

Official Language(s)

Spanish and Quechua After the Spanish conquest of Peru, Spanish became the only and official language. However, in 1975 Quechua, the language spoken by the Incas, became the other official language.

Currency

Inti

Religion

Roman Catholic About 95% of the population follow this religion. However, relatively few people attend church on a regular basis. Many of the people still worship Inca gods.

Industries

Manufacture of fish meal, metals, sugar and textiles.

Agriculture

Bananas, coffee, cotton, potatoes and sugar cane.

Fishing

Anchovetas and sardines.

Mining

Copper, iron ore, lead, petroleum, silver and zinc.

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Peru - Fact Sheet 1. What is the capital city of Peru? 2. Where is Peru located?

3. What is the population of Peru? 4. What countries border Peru?

5. Describe the climate of Peru.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons • f o r ev i ewofp ur posesonl y• 6. What are ther official languages Peru? 7. What is the currency of Peru? 8. Who do you think the 'Incas' were?

9. Why do you think Peru has a large fishing industry?

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Fish Fish are cold-blooded vertebrates (backbone animals) that live in water. Fish differ so greatly in size, shape, colour and habits that at times it is difficult to believe they actually belong to the same animal species.

Scientists have found over 21 000 different species of fish. They continue to find more species each year. The scientist who study fish are called ichthyologists. Fish are truly amazing animals to study and observe.

Fish may look like a worm, while others may resemble a rock. All the colours of the rainbow can be found in fish. Some fish are 1. What are vertebrates? very brightly coloured while others can be dull. Fish vary in size from the pygmy goby which is 10 mm in length to the enormous whale shark which can reach a length of 12 meters and weigh as much as 14 tonnes. Fish such as the stonefish have a deadly poison in their spines which can be 2. What is the length of the smallest fish? fatal within minutes. Fish can live almost anywhere as long as there is water. They can live in the freezing waters of Antarctica, hot jungle streams, lakes and fast flowing mountain rivers.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Nearly all fish get their oxygen from water. Although we cannot see it, water does contain small amounts of dissolved oxygen. To get this dissolved oxygen the fish swallows water through its gills. The gills absorb the dissolved oxygen and replace 3. What is the length and weight of a fully grown whale shark? it with carbon dioxide. The water is then passed out through the gills.

4. Which fish has poisonous spines that can prove fatal if trodden on?

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Fish 5. Why might a fish want to look like a rock?

6. Describe how fish breathe.

7. How many fish species have been recorded by scientists?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons 9. What ofr activities you scientists carry •type f o r evdo i e wthinkpthese ur p ose sout? onl y• 8. The scientists who study fish are called

10. In the box draw a fish that likes to hide in green and yellow seaweed.

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Fossils What are fossils? Fossils are the remains or imprints left behind from something that is dead. The plant or animal could have been dead for a thousand years or millions of years. Perhaps the most famous type of fossils are the bones of dinosaurs. Other types of fossils include shells, skeletons of animals, leaves or even tracks or markings left by a moving animal. You are most likely to find fossils in sedimentary rocks. These fossils were formed when they were quickly covered by sediments such as mud or sand that collect at the bottom of rivers, lakes or oceans. After many thousands of years, through compression from the upper layers of sediment, the lower layers of sediment turned into layers of rock. This rock is called sedimentary rock. An occasional fossil can also be found in ice, plant sap or tar. Fossils have provided scientists with a large amount of information regarding the history of life and its evolution on Earth. Certain fossils have shown how a plant or an animal has changed or evolved into another. Fossils can also show how the Earth's climate and landscapes have changed.

1. What are fossils?

Š R. I . C.Pub i cold at i o ns 2. l How can fossils be? •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 3. In what type of rock are you most likely to find fossils?

Fossils can be found in any exposed sedimentary rock. These can be found in river valleys and other places where water erosion has washed away the topsoil. So if you want to find your own fossils, you know where to look!

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Fossils 4. List some of the things that can become fossils.

5. Explain how sedimentary rocks are formed.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons 6. What can be told from fossil remains? •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Children 'eating far too much fat' Children in well developed countries are eating far too much fat and are prime candidates for heart disease at the age of 12, a study has revealed. A study of the eating habits of 1 000 12-year-olds shows they are eating double the recommended amount of saturated fats, which come from animal and dairy products. The study was conducted by an international health organization. Associate professor Robert Smith said the results were alarming and suggested many children would get cardiovascular disease at an early age. He said the children in the survey derived 40 per cent of their daily calories from fats, instead of the recommended 30 per cent. Twenty per cent of their calories came from saturated fats. The guidelines were for less than 10 per cent. Most of the children involved in the project previously had their diet and blood pressure levels studied when they were nine years old. Professor Smith said the amount of fat being consumed by children was far above recommended levels and was potentially lethal. 'It is particularly disturbing in light of the extensive media campaigns carried out by health authorities to educate parents about diet, he said. 'The amount of saturated fats in the children's diets is particularly worrying.' Professor Smith said US studies showed young children with poor eating habits often already had signs of heart disease. Autopsies on children killed in car accidents sometimes showed advanced diseases of the arteries. Professor Smith said even if parents checked fat intake, children could still get 'junk food' away from home.

'There is obviously the need for some freedom for children but not to the extent the survey suggests, he said. Dr Dallas English and Dr David Jenner who carried out research in schools, plan to study the same group of children every three years until they are adults.

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1. What are children in developed countries eating far too much of?

2. How many 12-year-old children's eating habits were studied?

3. Animals and dairy products produce what type of fat?

4. Cardiovascular disease is caused by…

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Children 'eating far too much fat' 5. What do you think is meant by 'junk food'?

6. At what ages are the children being tested?

7. Why do you think people eat 'junk food'?

8. List the 'junk food' that you have eaten in the last week or so.

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Deserts The common concept of a desert is a hot and dry region with a very hostile environment to humans. To some degree this is correct, however many of the regions of the world that are classified as deserts are in fact very cold regions. The true definition is not agreed on by scientists. Some define the desert by how much (or little) rainfall falls per year. Others define a desert by the type of vegetation it is capable of supporting. Both schools of thought agree that a desert is an area that is incapable of supporting large amounts of plant life because of a lack of available moisture. In the case of hot deserts this is due to a lack of rainfall and very hot temperatures. In cold deserts this is caused by the moisture becoming frozen in the earth. Deserts cover approximately 20 per cent of the earth's land area and despite their apparent hostile conditions do support a large number of plants and animals. Many of these species are very well adapted to survive in harsh environments. With plants these adaptations include storage of water and special root systems.

Animal life is largely of the insect type, although larger animals such as goats and camels have adapted well to the harsh conditions as long as they have a water supply. Some important world deserts include the Sahara, Gobi, Kalahari, Patagonian, Arabian, Australian and the Great Basin.

Š R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons How much of the world's land space is •f orr evi ew pu1.r p os so nl y• taken bye desert regions? 2. Name three deserts of the world.

3. Why is there differing opinion on the true definition of a desert?

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Deserts 4. How would you define a desert?

5. How do some plants and animals adapt to survive in the desert?

6. Why do you think it would be easier for humans to survive in a desert today than it was one hundred years ago?

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ANSWERS Pages 4 and 5 Light 1. L-D Optics. 2. L-M.I. The spectrum and its colours. 3. I-D Answers will vary. 4. L-C.E. A complex chemical reaction. 5. I-S Answers will vary. 6. Eval. Answers will vary. Pages 6 and 7 Energy Problems 1. L-D Oil, coal, wood and natural gas. 2. L-D The earth's population has grown at an alarming rate. 3. L-C.E. Can produce harmful gases which over a period of years may change the atmosphere. 4. L-D Solar, wind, wave, water, natural gas, thermal, nuclear, garbage and tides. 5. L-M.I People are viewing the environment with much more importance. 6. I-D Answers will vary. 7. Eval./App. Answers will vary. 8. L-M.I. The depletions of the earth's fossil fuels. Pages 8 and 9 A Compass 1. L-D As a navigational aid. 2. L-D Using the property of a freely suspended magnet always pointing north and south. 3. L-D On planes, boats, cars, forest walking etc. 4. L-C.E. Causes an incorrect reading. 5. L-D Sun and stars. Pages 10 and 11 The Dugong 1. L-D A marine mammal. 2. L-D Warm shallow waters off northern Australia. 3. I-C.E. Feeds in the shallows, no cover and easily seen. 4. I-D Approx. 15. 5. I-D Boats with outboard motors, harpoons and guns. 6. I-M.I. On the verge of extinction, not many left etc. 7. I-D Part of their diet, culture etc. 8. Eval. Answers will vary.

2. L-D 3. L-D 4. I-C.E. 5. I-M.I. 6. I-M.I. 7. App.

58. p. 82, p. 84, p. 89, p. 91, p. 79 and p. 85. Answers will vary. Employment, miscellaneous and real estate. Educational, holiday resorts, business partnerships. Answers will vary.

Pages 24 and 25 Rivers 1. L-D Glaciers, snow, springs, lakes and rainfall. 2. L-D. Rills, brooks, streams and tributaries. 3. I-M.I. Rivers generally flow fastest in the early stages and then slow down as they reach level ground. Answers will vary. 4. L-D Where the river meets the sea. 5. L-D The bottom of the river. 6. L-D The two edges of the river. 7. I-D Answers will vary. 8. I-D. Answers will vary. Pages 26 and 27 Oceans 1. L-D The Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans. 2. I-D 70%. 3. L-D 95%. 4. L-D 11 000 metres. 5. L-M.I. There are flat areas and mountains. 6. L-M.I. They effect the Earth's climate, temperature and rainfall. Humans also obtain a lot of food from oceans. 7. I-M.I. Answer will vary. Pages 28 and 29 Peru - Fact Sheet 1. L-D Lima. 2. L-D In western South America along the Pacific Ocean. 3. L-D 22 857 000. 4. L-D Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia and Chile. 5. L-M.I. The coastal regions are cooler than most coastal tropical areas and the highlands have cool temperatures. 6. L-D Spanish and Quechua. 7. L-D Inti. 8. I-D/Eval. Answers will vary. 9. I.D/Eval. Answers will vary.

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Pages 12 and 13 Pollution 1. L-D To make something foul, unclean and dirty. 2. L-C.E Because humans have changed their living habits and now they have machinery and technology which create pollution. 3. L-D Air pollution, water pollution and soil pollution. 4. I-M.I. Answers will vary. 5. I.-C.E. Answers will vary. 6. Eval-C.E. Answers will vary. Pages 14 and 15 Early Magnets 1. L-D Refrigerators, TV, speakers and telephones. 2. L-D Magnesia. 3. I-D A story handed down through many generations. 4. L-D Leading stone that points north and south. 5. L-D Greeks. 6. I-D A person who travels with animals. 7. App. Answers will vary. Pages 16 and 17 Work 1. I-M.I. Seeking work. 2. L-D Three. 3. I-D Answers will vary. 4. I-D Answers will vary. 5. I-D So Sue can be trusted in other houses. 6. L-D 326 4113. 7. L-D Phil. 8. App. Answers will vary. Pages 18 and 19 Telescopes 1. L-M.I. The history and uses of telescopes. 2. L-D Reflecting and refracting telescopes. 3. L-D A large concave mirror. 4. L-D Radio waves. 5. I-C.E. Because of the poor weather, pollution and electrical interference. 6. I-D Any natural object outside the atmosphere. 7. I-D Answers will vary. Pages 20 and 21 Our Place in the Environment 1. L-D Over a million years ago. 2. L-D For protection and help in food gathering. 3. Eval-M.I. Answers will vary. 4. I-D Answers will vary. 5. App. Answers will vary.

Pages 22 and 23 Classified Index 1. L-D Real estate, business and letters, buyers market place, motoring, opportunities and miscellaneous.

Pages 30 and 31 Fish 1. L-D Animals with backbones. 2. L-D 10 mm. 3. L-D A length of up to 12 m and a weight of up to 14 tonnes. 4. L-D A stonefish. 5. I-M.I./C.E. Answers will vary. 6. L-M.I. It takes water through its mouth and into its gills where the dissolved oxygen is absorbed. 7. L-D 21 000. 8. L-D Ichthyologists. 9. I-M.I. Answers will vary. 10. I-C.E. Answers will vary. Pages 32 and 33 Fossils 1. L-D Fossils are imprints left behind from something which is dead. 2. L-D Thousands or millions of years old. 3. L-D Sedimentary. 4. L-D Shells, animal skeletons, leaves or tracks or marks left by a moving animal. 5. L-M.I. Sedimentary rocks are formed from layers of sediment. The top layers compress the bottom layers making them into layers of rock. 6. L-M.I. Information on the history and evolution of life on Earth. The changes in the Earth's climate and landscape. Pages 34 and 35 Children 'eating far too much fat' 1. L-D Fat. 2. L-D 1 000. 3. L-D Saturated. 4. I-D Eating too much saturated fat. 5. Eval. Takeaway fast foods. 6. I-D 9-, 12-, 15-, 18- and 21-year-olds. 7. Eval. Answers will vary. 8. Eval. Answers will vary. Pages 36 and 37 Deserts 1. L-D Approx. 20% 2. L-D Sahara, Gobi, Kalahari, Arabian, Australian and the Great Basin. 3. I-M.I. Scientists are unable to agree on definition. Both schools of thought are accurate and inaccurate at the same time. Answers will vary. 4. Eval. Answers will vary. 5. I-D Plants develop special root and leaf systems. Animals can survive long periods without water due to storage systems and adapted habits. 6. Eval. Answers will vary.

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Comprehension: Ages 11+