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World Explorers r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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By Sandy Tasker

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Library Activity Package: World Explorers Upper Primary Resource Book

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© 2004 Ready-Ed Publications, Revised © 2009 Printed in Australia ISBN: 9781863975865

Acknowledgements:: i. Clip art has been obtained from Microsoft Design Gallery Live and is used under the terms of the End User License Agreement for Microsoft Word 2000. Please refer to www.microsoft.com/permission. ii. Wikimedia Commons. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License” iii. IMSI’s Masterclips/MasterPhotos collection, 1895 Francisco Blvd, East San Rafael, CA 94901-5506 USA, website: www.imsisoft.com iv. Corel Corporation, 1600 Carling Ave, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1Z 8R7. Photos from individuals and other sources are credited where applicable.

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Author: Sandy Tasker Design & Typesetting: Shay Howard

Published by: Ready-Ed Publications PO Box 276 Greenwood WA 6023 www.readyed.com.au info@readyed.com.au

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Reproduction and Communication for educational purposes

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The Australian Copyright Act 1968 (the Act) allows a maximum of one chapter or 10% of the pages of this work, whichever is the greater, to be reproduced and/or communicated by any educational institution for its educational purposes provided that the educational institution (or the body that administers it) has given a remuneration notice to Copyright Agency Limited (CAL) under the Act.

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For details of the CAL licence for educational institutions contact: Copyright Agency Limited Level 15, 233 Castlereagh Street Sydney NSW 2000 Telephone: (02) 9394 7600 Facsimile: (02) 9394 7601 E-mail: info@copyright.com.au

Reproduction and Communication for other purposes

Except as permitted under the Act (for example a fair dealing for the purposes of study, research, criticism or review) no part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, communicated or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written permission. All inquiries should be made to the publisher at the address above.


Library Activity Package: World Explorers

Contents How the World Was Discovered................................................................. 4 Paths of Exploration...................................................................................... 5 The Vikings 793 - 1050................................................................................... 6

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Viking Navigation......................................................................................... 7 The Mongols: Early to Mid–1200s........................................................... 8 – 9

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Great Sea Explorer Words......................................................................... 10

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Marco Polo 1254 – 1324............................................................................. 11 Truth or Tales?.............................................................................................. 12

Christopher Columbus 1451 - 1485........................................................... 13 Food, Glorious Food................................................................................... 14

Magellan 1480 - 1521................................................................................. 15

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Magellan and Lapu Lapu......................................................................... 16

Francis Drake 1540 - 1596.......................................................................... 17

James Cook 1728 - 1780............................................................................ 18

Cook’s Awards............................................................................................ 19

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Sea Sick?..................................................................................................... 20

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Law & Order On-Board.............................................................................. 21 Perilous Pirates............................................................................................. 22

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What A Record - 1...................................................................................... 23 What A Record - 2...................................................................................... 24

Modern Explorers ... A New Wave!........................................................... 25 Modern Explorers ... A New Wave!........................................................... 26 Up, Up and Away 1980s - Today.............................................................. 27 Balloon Fun.................................................................................................. 28 References.................................................................................................. 29 Index.................................................................................................... 30 – 31

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Library Activity Package: World Explorers

How the World Was Discovered The world was not always filled with people living in every corner of the globe.

Once, the much smaller population of humans lived in only a limited number of areas. As time went by and means of transport and technology allowed people to look beyond their horizon, people found the world was bigger than they had realised, and exploration began across the globe.

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Here’s a timeline showing some of the major stages in world exploration:

EVENT

2750 BC

First recorded exploration from Egypt.

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YEAR/DECADE/CENTURY

Polynesians begin their migration throughout the South Pacific region and eventually find the Hawaiian Islands.

600s BC

Merchant sailors from the middle east region (Phoenicians) explore the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic coastline south to Africa and north to Europe.

500 BC

Phonecian exploration in Africa and England continues with famous explorers Hanno and Himlico.

300’s BC

Ancient Greeks add England and India to their maps.

860 AD

Iceland discovered by the Vikings from Scandinavia (Norway, Denmark and Sweden).

982 AD

Greenland discovered by Eric the Red (a Viking).

1000 - 02 AD

Leif Ericsson (Eric the Red’s son) “discovers” North America (already inhabited by Native Americans).

1066 AD

Normans (Vikings) conquer England.

1200s AD

Mongols capture large regions of Europe and Asia including China, Russia, Poland, Hungary and the Middle East. After their pinnacle of successful domination, the Mongol Empire eventually crumbles.

1260-1295 AD

Marco Polo from Italy journeys to China, establishing the overland trade route.

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2500 - 600 BC

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1470-84 AD 1492 1519

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Portuguese explorers discover Africa’s Gold Coast and the Congo River.

Christopher Columbus sets sail to reach Asia and ends up on the coast of South America. Magellan begins his journey to circumnavigate the world with five ships and 270 men.

1577

Sir Francis Drake sets sail from England. He circumnavigates the globe and returns with many treasures

1609

Henry Hudson explores present-day New York and Hudson River.

1768

James Cook begins the first of his Pacific explorations.

1770

Cook documents location of Australia and travels as far south as Antarctica.

1778

Cook explores Hawaiian Islands.


Library Activity Package: World Explorers

Paths of Exploration Greenland

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Ericsson’s Route 1000 AD

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Newfoundland

Marco Polo’s Route 1271 - 1295

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Columbus’ Route 1492

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Magellan’s Route 1519 - 1522

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Drake’s Route 1577 - 1580

Cook’s Routes 1770 - 1771

First Voyage including Australia 5


Library Activity Package: World Explorers

The Vikings 793 - 1050

“Viking” was the name given to a person who lived in Norway, Denmark and Sweden during the medieval ages. Vikings earned themselves a bad reputation due to their raiding and plundering of settlements throughout Europe, however they were also successful explorers of many new horizons. They colonised Iceland in 860 and Greenland about 100 years later. They reached North America about 500 years before the famous Christopher Columbus!

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The Vikings believed in a number of gods and passed down many myths through storytelling. However their encounters with different cultures and religions during their travels strongly influenced the shaping of their society, including the introduction of Christianity.

practice of the Vikings, leading to their criminal reputation. They made their way through the rivers of Eastern Europe and the Middle East. They opened up trade in areas such as Constantinople (now Instanbul in Turkey), Russia, Ireland, England and Scandinavia.

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The Vikings were skilled crafts people. Their ships, which resembled large open canoes, were good at handling shallow rivers as well as wide, open seas.

Erik the Red, a well-known Viking who discovered Greenland in 986, had a son, Leif Ericsson. Leif had joined his father on earlier journeys and had heard stories of a “new found land”. He set out to find this land in 1000 AD and soon came across a place filled with lush vegetation and all the things needed for a good permanent settlement. He called it Vinland, after the vineyards that supposedly grew there. Vinland was what is now known as the island of Newfoundland in Canada. However, after a few years, the settlement was abandoned due to unfriendly encounters with the Native Americans and the lure of more profitable trade with Northern Europe.

The word “Viking” is derived from “vick” or inlet, where the Vikings harboured their longships.

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The true Viking age started in June 793, when an English monastery was attacked and raided by a Viking ship. Following this, a series of raids on monasteries and communities stormed the English coastline. Stealing riches was a common

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http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cammin-schrein.gif. Stefan Bollmann

Many “artefacts” that have been found on the North American Coast have in fact been hoaxes. Examples of blunders made include “Viking Maps” drawn with ink containing chemicals from the 20th Century, and stones inscribed with incorrect spelling and grammar.

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Library Activity Package: World Explorers

Viking Navigation

How did Vikings find their way from coast to coast without the sophisticated global positioning systems and radars that we have today?   In daylight hours, the Vikings tried to keep land in sight so that they could use landmarks to guide them on their course.

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 When setting out to find new land, they would sail directly east or west from the landmarks so that they remained on a fixed course and were able to map any new land masses they found.

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 The types of seaweed and sea animals often showed them where they were. Learning to recognise variations in the ocean life helped them know when they were close to somewhere they had been before, or in a totally new area with unfamiliar creatures.  They would capture seabirds and then follow them on release as the birds flew towards land.

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 They used their knowledge of weather and winds to take them where they wanted to go, as wind patterns had regular travel paths across the sea.

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 According to legend, a special kind of stone that changed colour when turned in the light (crystal “sunstones”) was used to determine the sun’s position on cloudy or foggy days.

A sundial, like

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 At night-time, the position of the stars helped to guide them across greater stretches of ocean.

this one, was used

Using only the methods mentioned above to navigate across the seas, they did pretty well, don’t you think?

more accurately by

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 Late in the Viking age, the Chinese invention of the magnetic compass was used by Europeans, but by this stage, the Vikings had already succeeded on many of their exploratory adventures.

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in sunlight to

show the north -south direction

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shadow.

 Do some research to help you answer these questions and find out more about the fascinating life of the Vikings:

• What were Viking brooches used for aside from being a piece of jewellery?

• How were the lives of Viking children different from the lives of children today?

• How old were Vikings when they got married?

• Did the Vikings have games, toys and music?

• Did the Vikings know how to write? 7


Library Activity Package: World Explorers

The Mongols: Early to Mid-1200s Following the demise of the Viking Era, another bunch of travellers who were known for being a bit “rough around the edges” were the Mongols. They were a group of nomads from North-East Asia who banded together to take over a massive area across China and Europe in the 13th Century.

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The most famous Mongol known to the Western World was Genghis Khan. Many great stories about this successful ruler have been told. Here is a brief summary of the chapters of his life:

 Born to Rule: Somewhere between 1162 and 1167, Genghis is born and given the name Temujin (meaning “blacksmith”). He holds a blood clot in his fist when he is born, an omen predicting that Temujin will be a powerful leader.

 A Young Bride: At 13, Temujin’s father, a tribal chief, decides that it is time Temujin finds a wife, (they got married young back then!). Shortly after, his father finds him a suitable bride, the 14-year-old daughter of another tribal chief.

 A New Name: Temujin is given the name Genghis Khan. “Khan” is the name for leader or king.

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Wikimedia Commons

 A “Merciful” Warrior: One enemy leader, Jamuga, is actually a childhood friend of Genghis. Jamuga pleads to be put to death with no blood shed, so Genghis orders that Januga is suffocated and respects his wishes.

 King of Kings: By 1206, Ghengis is named “Khan of Khans”. He and his armies continue their path of destruction, taking over most of Northern China by 1215.

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 The Hero Emerges: Feeling let down by his own tribe, Temujin displays acts of bravery to restore order in his tribe and escapes from enemy capture. He begins to build himself a reputation, a strong-willed survivor.

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 Russian In: Next in Khan’s sights is Russia and Eastern Europe. He holds power there from 1223 until his death in 1227.

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 The Great Army: Temujin decides to build power by bringing the many Mongol tribes together as one. He organises them into a massive army of tens of thousands and produces a set of written laws to guide them.

 Baghdad Blues: Genghis’ army of 120 000 is no match in size for the 400 000 men that they try to overthrow in the Middle East. However, somehow the Mongol army manage to defeat the Karwezm Empire in Baghdad.

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 A Family Tragedy: Shortly afterwards, Temujin’s father is murdered by enemies. Temujin vows revenge. He gets angry when his father’s tribe refuse to accept him as the new leader (he is only 13!).

An Untimely End: How do you think Genghis Khan dies in 1227? Is he mortally wounded in a great battle or poisoned by an arch-enemy? His death is actually shrouded in mystery, although some sources propose that he simply fell off his horse, a rather undignified death for such a great leader of his time.

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Library Activity Package: World Explorers

The Mongols: Early to Mid-1200s Check out these interesting facts on Mongols.

Would YOU like to live their lifestyle?

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 Mongol armies were very resourceful when it came to food. They drank milk and horses blood to survive in times of low supply. Other delicacies included meat, fish, roots and rodents. They made the most of their meals by sucking the marrow out of bones and consuming everything even vaguely edible (and probably not very tasty by today’s standards).

The Mongols’ success was founded on their incredible survival skills, strength and military excellence. Some of the military advances that the Mongols developed were:  “Articulation”, a method of communicating and organising their attacks through horn or flag signals, or using lanterns at night-time.

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 Married life was not as it is today. It was common for a Mongol man to have more than one wife. One interesting Mongol tradition was a “marriage” ceremony held between a young man and a young woman who had both already died. It was believed that a celebration in this lifetime would “tie the knot” of the young couple in their afterlife.

 Using “light cavalry” - archers on horseback that could move quickly and shoot at long range.  Using silk fabric as armour rather than heavy metal amour as used by the Europeans. Silk provided resistance to weapons but a greater range of movement. When an arrow hit the silk, it would still go into the flesh but the silk was not pierced, so it wrapped around the arrow inside the wound. This meant that the injury was a lot cleaner and the arrow easier to remove. Silk helped the Mongols be better battlers!

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A desirable feature amongst Mongol women was a small nose...many women cut off parts of their noses to appear more attractive! Or maybe it was all those smelly clothes...

The Mongols usually began their invasion with an opportunity for the enemy to surrender. If the enemy chose not to, the Mongols would attack with fierce aggression. They would let some of the survivors escape to spread the word of their attacks, thus quickly gaining a reputation for being an unstoppable force.

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 The Mongol people did not wash their clothes. They believed this would make the gods angry and it would start to thunder if they hung their clothes out to dry. They were afraid of lightning but worshipped fire.

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Want to know more about the Mongols? www.coldsiberia.org is a good starting point.

• Discover the secrets behind their wacky hairdos and why women wore headdresses. • Learn about the harsh penalties for going to the toilet inside a tent or spitting out food. • Find out how branches tied behind their horses stirred up dust and confused enemies in battle. 9


Library Activity Package: World Explorers

Great Sea Explorer Words Here are some words that explorers used when they sailed the world …

r o e t s B r Chip, Log & Reel e o t s a l l a p ok B u S

A device for measuring the speed of a ship. Made of a triangular piece of wood, weighted on one side and attached to a line with knots along its length. When thrown from a ship, the line was allowed to run out for a specified time. The number of knots that came off the reel determined the vessel’s speed. This instrument is no longer used, but a ship’s speed is still referred to in knots.

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ad, h as le c u s l ateria w in a avy m ced lo e la h p y s n e A ton y. te, or s stabilit e s a e r concre inc ship to

pher a r g o t r ps. Ca es ma

Person

ak

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Circumnavigate

Latitude

To completely encircle or travel completely around, as in a plane or a ship. A continent can Imaginary lines running east to west on the be circumnavigated, as can the whole earth. surface of the earth. The latitude determines location north or An instrument with a magnetized south on the globe. needle that aligns itself with the magnetic fields of the earth. This A means of finding the depth of causes one end of the needle To rebel against water near the coasts. It consists to point north. The Chinese are authority, such as of a rope, with length markings, said to have invented the first sailors on a ship attached to a lead weight of compass over 2000 years ago. refusing to obey about seven pounds. The depth the directions of the of the water is equal to the ship’s captain, often length of line. “Deductive Reckoning” leading to a major estimating location and speed on-board conflict. using a variety of different methods including wind, waves, bird sightings, and currents. Sailors throughout history have Imaginary lines that run north to south on often had to rely on this. the surface of the earth. Each 15 degrees of longitude equals one hour of time.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Compass •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Hand Lead & Line

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Dead Reckoning

Mutiny

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Scurvy

A deficiency of Vitamin C. Symptoms include nausea, weakness, loss of hair and teeth, and eventual death. It is caused by a lack of fruits and vegetables in the diet. More sailors died of this than any other cause.

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Sundial

A device that projects the sun’s shadow on a marked surface, thus indicating the time of day.


Library Activity Package: World Explorers

Marco Polo 1254 - 1324 Young Marco

Marco Polo was born in Venice, Italy in the year 1254. He was well-educated in accounting, foreign languages, and Christianity. He had strong interests in business and culture and had a love for nature and of observing the ways of people.

The Emperor met with great regret the news that the wellliked Polos wished to return to their native land. When the trio left to return home to Venice in 1292, they were only allowed to do so if they escorted a princess who was to marry a Persian king. So the Polos and the princess left, with 14 boats and 600 passengers, and sailed through Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India and to the Persian Gulf. It is told that only 18 of the 600 people survived the journey, including the princess who’s groom - to - be had also died... so she married his son. On returning to Venice, Marco joined the army to fight against the city-state of Genoa. He was captured and imprisoned for two years, but he made good use of his time behind bars and recounted his travelling tales to a fellow prisoner, eventually having his stories published in The Travels of Marco Polo.

In China, the young Marco met the Great Kublai Khan, the ruling Mongol Emperor, who liked Marco enough to give him many great responsibilities in high-ranking government jobs. Marco lived in China for 16 years, venturing out on “fact finding” jaunts across the continent, discovering the many wonders of China, which at the time was much more advanced than Europe in many areas of product and trade. What a life – being asked to travel to strange and wonderful new places as a full-time job – a bit like our travel show reporters of today! According to some sources, Marco eventually served as Governor of Yangzhou - pretty good for someone that wasn’t even Chinese!

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Marco’s father, Nicolo, missed most of his growing up as he and Marco’s uncle spent most of Marco’s childhood on overseas adventures. However, on return from a voyage to China, Nicolo Polo learned that his wife had died, and thus young Marco Polo caught the “travel bug” from his father and uncle, who took the teenage boy to China with them on their next journey.

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Back home

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. te o TROUBLE AT SEA c . che e r o t r s super What could have killed the 600 passengers on their journey from China to Venice?

• Scurvy and other disease

• Starvation or thirst

• Storms

• Rotten food and water

• Attacks from natives

• Extreme heat Wikimedia Commons

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Library Activity Package: World Explorers

Truth or Tales?

The stories told by Marco Polo were not believed by people who had not been exposed to many everyday objects of the East, such as coconuts (nuts as big as a human head) and crocodiles.

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Although Marco’s tales were thought to be highly exaggerated and often containing secondhand accounts from other travellers, he gave Other accounts of Marco’s detailed descriptions journeys seem incredible even of the politics, Page from the book “The Travels of Marco Polo”. Wikimedia Commons today. He talks about a Chinese attack religion, cultural on Japan in which Kublai Khan’s soldiers aspects and agricultural practices of were unable to hurt certain Japanese each region that he visited. Despite many critics, his book was very popular, warriors, because these clever soldiers had being translated into many languages. embedded gold and precious stones under Thousands of copies were produced. their skin, so that attacking weapons could

not pierce them. Now that’s expensive armour!

ReadyEdP u b l i c a t i o n s Clever © Chinese Marco’s stories proved to be a strong influence on other adventurers, including Christopher Check out• some of r ther advances f o evi ew pu r p o s e s o n l y • Columbus, who was inspired by the tales

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• Books on religion, philosophY and encyclopaedias were hand printed on paper.

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when making his own explorations.

When Marco was near death, a priest asked him if he wanted to admit that his stories were made up. Marco Polo replied, “I do not tell half of what I saw because noone would have believed me.”

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discovered by Marco Polo in China before they became commonly known in the West:

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• Paper money was used in many areas. • Coal was used as a fuel.

• Gunpowder was used in battle.

• Silk was a fine material used in trade.

What do you think?

Check out these web sites which outline Marco’s amazing stories. Then make your own mind up – what was truth, and what was fiction?

www.mrdowling.com/613-marcopolo.html

www.usnews.com/usnews/doubleissue/mysteries/marco.htm

www.iexplore.com/res/explorer_polo.jhtml

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Library Activity Package: World Explorers

Christopher Columbus 1451 - 1485 Personal Profile:

- Born in Genoa, Italy, in 1451 - Star sign: Believed to be a Virgo or a Libran

(Born between late August and late October)

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- Oldest of five children

- Married in Portugal and had a son, Diego. Columbus’ wife died in 1485.

Columbus’ Great Journey

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Wikimedia Commons

The three ships that set sail on Columbus’ first journey were the Santa Maria, the Pinta and the Nina, with a total crew of 90 men. Columbus set sail from Spain on August 2, 1492, and made a planned stop on September 6, at Gomera (the Canary Islands) for supplies and repairs.

Instead of finding Asia, on October 12, 1492, Columbus arrived in the Bahamas.

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In doing this, he “discovered” America, sailing along the reef of the Bahamas, still thinking that he had reached Asia.

He explored Cuba and Haiti and left 39 crewmen to reside on the shores of Haiti while he returned to Spain for his hero’s welcome.

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Columbus went back for his crewmen in Haiti and found that the seemingly friendly natives had killed all members of the original crew left there. It was believed the natives retaliated when mistreated by the crew. Columbus made two more journeys to the West Indies, but these journeys, unlike the first, were wreaked with dishonest suppliers, spoiling food supplies and disease. People slowly began to lose faith in the man they once hailed as a hero.

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o c . che e r A lavish man o An Impressive Plan t r s super of grand Columbus wanted to reach Asia by sailing West (instead of East) as a way of finding new and possibly shorter trade routes with the Spice Islands (eastern Indonesia).

Columbus spent a lot of time planning and trying to get his project approved. He was eventually supported by the Spanish King and Queen.

demands

Columbus demanded rewards for the Wikimedia Commons success of his missions. Rewards included; keeping 10% of all wealth that he discovered, being knighted, and being awarded his own coat of arms. 13


Library Activity Package: World Explorers

Food, Glorious Food

What did Christopher Columbus and his crew eat? Take a sample from this menu of culinary delights: Entrée:

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e Canary Island

eese from th Gomera goat ch

Seafood

the day ) Fresh catch of ough for fishing en lm ca is a se e th n s (Only whe es and anchovie Preser ved sardin check that the meat e sure to Pickled meats (b fore it was preser ved) be h es was fr

 Meat salting methods were so good that properly preserved meat could last for 40 years!!

Dishes , beans, olives Vegetarianickp eas, lentils

rlic, onions, ch r eating these) Raisins, rice, ga th afte ck (che your brea

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 Food was cooked in an open firebox called a “Fogon”, but this was unreliable and went out easily in storms.

s Other Treaat year - make sure

ade to last weevils) Sea biscuits (m y or infested with gg so t no e ar ey th

Beverages

 Meals were eaten in bowls with fingers (no knives and forks).

Water vinegar.) fermented into es im et Wine (som

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Crazy •Sailors f orr evi ew pur p osesonNews l y• Navigation

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In Columbus’ day, the speed of a boat was measured by dropping a piece of flotsam (What’s that? Look it up!) over the side of the boat and chanting a little ditty as the flotsam passed between two marks on the boat. The more of the chant that the sailors got to say, the slower the ship was going.

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The weather during Columbus’ first journey was pleasant with no major storms. However, after 34 days at sea, the sailors became hysterical and were ready to mutiny (take control of the ship), as many of them believed that since the world was flat, they would sail off the edge at any moment. Columbus convinced the sailors to wait just a little longer. The very next day they saw tree branches in the water and realized that land was close by. What a relief that must have been!

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Read more about Columbus at:

www.mariner.org/ and search Columbus.

Was he a hero? Many people question that Columbus was a hero due to the fact that he was not REALLY the first to “discover” America. Native Americans had been living there for thousands of years and other explorers, such as the Vikings, had completed successful explorations to America several hundred years before. The difference was that Columbus documented his travels and set up a route for settlement and trade between the two worlds.Was he a hero? You decide! 14


Library Activity Package: World Explorers

Magellan 1480 - 1521 Funded by a young Spanish king, Magellan set out with five ships and 270 men. Then came the problems:

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The first was out of his hands - a blow by Mother Nature...  Bad weather, causing a lengthy winter stay in South America. Then, of course came the on-board conflict...

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Ferdinand Magellan led the first circumnavigation around the globe. Born in 1480, he believed that he could reach the Spice Islands by sailing West. Like other explorers of his time, he thought that the earth was much smaller than it actually is, and this led to troubles late into the journey.

 S everal mutiny attempts were made, mostly by Captain Cartenga. (Cartenga was eventually marooned in what is now Argentina and other mutineers were either imprisoned or executed.) More bad weather - one ship loses out and another chickens out...

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 O ne ship, the Santiago, was wrecked in rough seas. Another, the San Antonio’s crew, decided to head back to Spain, taking many important supplies with them.

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A story with two sides

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Oops! Just a slight navigational error...  Due to the miscalculation of the size of the Pacific Ocean, a trip that was meant to take a few days ended up taking about four months.

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The battle between Magellan and the Filipino natives took place knee-deep in water on the shores of the island of Mactan. Today a monument stands on the barren shore, a tall white obelisk, that has the two sides of the story recorded on it.

On the east side, facing the route from Spain, it reads, “Here on 27th April 1521 the great Portuguese navigator Hernando de Magallanes, in the service of the King of Spain, was slain by native Filipinos....” On the other side, his death is seen as an Asian triumph, reading, “Here on this spot the great chieftain Lapu Lapu repelled an attack by Ferdinand Magellan, killing him and sending his forces away....”

The menu goes downhill...

 As their food supplies depleted and flour was yellowed with rat urine, starving crew survived on sawdust, leather and rats. They developed scurvy from lack of Vitamin C, their teeth became loose and boils erupted on their skin. Magellan pushes his luck too far...  In the Philippines, Magellan got involved in a battle with natives and was killed on April 27, 1521. Read page 16 for more … 15


Library Activity Package: World Explorers

Lapu Lapu and Beyond An Island Hero

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r o e t s Boof Mactan, r e Each April, on the beach pthere is a full-scale re-enactment ok of u battle, with someone, such as a S the handsome Asian film star, playing the

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The Filipino people like to celebrate the fall of intrusive explorer Magellan in their own way...

part of the Filipino hero, Lapu Lapu.

The actors play out a dramatic recount of the event, and when “Magellan” falls, the crowd cheers the victory.

Left: A commemorative statue of the famous Lapu Lapu.

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The survivors battle on...

East or West - which is best?

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 The remaining three ships of Magellan’s fleet became two when the navigator Sebastian del Cano took over and decided to burn one ship so that they had enough men to crew two. They made it to the Spice Islands in November and stocked up.

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 After all these troubles, something needed to be done to ensure that at least ONE ship made it back to Spain, so the Trinidad went east and the Victoria sailed west.

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Portugese “men of war”.

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 The Trinidad was intercepted by the Portugese and most of the crew were killed. Three years later - one out of five ain’t bad!

 The Victoria succeeded in passing through enemy trade routes and on September 6, 1522, it arrived safely on the shores of Spain, having circled the globe - mostly due to the efforts of Magellan, who never got to celebrate his fame as the man who opened up trade routes between East and West, and prove once and for all that the earth was indeed round. Who got the credit?  The surviving navigator, Sebastian del Cano, was rewarded with an annual pension and a coat of arms bearing a castle and various spices like the ones he managed to bring back to Spain. Also on the coat of arms is a globe wrapped in a ribbon, with the motto “Primus Circumdedisti me” meaning “Thou first circumnavigated me”

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Library Activity Package: World Explorers

Francis Drake 1540 - 1596 The Journey Drake set sail from England in 1577, in search of treasure and spices with a crew of 165 and five ships. The most famous of his ships was the Pelican, later renamed the Golden Hind.

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Along the way, Drake intercepted Spanish vessels and took a large amount of treasure on-board his ship.

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He then turned and sailed across the Pacific Ocean and back to England. He arrived September 26, 1580 where he was soon knighted for his successful journey.

A Perfect Pirate Sir Francis Drake, born in 1540, was a pirate! Well, he was in the sense that he attacked Spanish ships and stole their riches - not quite the scoundrel with a peg leg and a parrot on his shoulder that you may imagine.

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He landed off the coast of, what is today, California and sailed up to where the Canadian border now lies.

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Drake devoted his life to making trouble with the Spanish and after his circumnavigation of the world, he led the successful attack against the Spanish Armada. On his final mission in 1596 near Panama, he died of dysentery.

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In reward for his travels, Drake received 10,000 crowns from the Queen, with which he purchased a large estate called Buckland Abbey (now a museum containing many of Drake’s possessions).

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Drake’s seafaring skills were recognised by Queen Elizabeth I of England, who wanted to use his abilities to counter the empire that Spain was building in the west due to explorers such as Columbus and Magellan. Spain and England were not the best of friends at this time.

In 1582, the Queen gave Drake a New Year’s Eve gift of a silver goblet made with a coconut that Drake had brought the Queen back from his travels.

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The Spanish feared Drake so much they called him

“The Dragon”.

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Library Activity Package: World Explorers

James Cook

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Imagine a scene in a sitting room in the late 1700s: a man sits quietly relaxing, and is suddenly tapped on the shoulder. A camera crew (transported from the 21st century) surround him. The man says … Captain James Cook, “This is Your Life”. The show might pan out something like this:

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In 1755 you join the Navy. The Seven Years’ War from ’56 to ’63 sees you develop your mapping skills in North American waters. You make your first big break by getting a map published in London of the bay and port of Gaspe. After that, there seems to be no stopping you and you are not afraid to take on big projects, such as the map of the Newfoundland coasts, which takes you five years. Your efforts pay off more than you imagine - this map went on to be used for almost a hundred years!

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The next few years are spent exploring the south, touching base again in places such as New Zealand and South East Asia. Your diligent records, with their many mentions of whales and seals, encourage whaling fleets to the chilly Antarctic Waters. You circumnavigate the world, not once, but twice. In 1776 you decide to embark on another journey and you discover the Sandwich (Hawaiian) Islands. You reach Vancouver in 1778. You follow the American coastline up and then you decide to spend winter in Hawaii. When the islanders greet you, they are cheering. But days before, you discovered that one of your boats has been stolen by an islander. What do you do? Talk is that you take the king as a hostage. Tomorrow is February 14, 1779 and we, from the future know what awaits you. But we cannot tell you what will happen, for we are not to change the path of the future. All we can say is that your achievements will remain as some of the greatest journeys of sea exploration in history.

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In time, you are given command of a ship named the Endeavour and in 1768 you depart England, reaching Tahiti in 1769. Next comes your discovery of New Zealand, and then you go westward to the great land called New Holland by the Dutch, where you claim the land as a British possession. This is later to be known as “Australia”.

In 1772 you set out on a three-year expedition to find more land in the southern hemisphere. You sail down the coast of Africa and across the sea, eventually coming

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across an iceberg. The next day, you meet with a large mass of ice, which was most probably what we know today as Antarctica.

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James, you were born in England in 1728. Your father was a farm labourer from Scotland. Your love of the sea starts modestly when you move to Whitby and work there for ten years for a ship owner – you must have learned a lot about the sea during those times.

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Library Activity Package: World Explorers

Cook’s Awards On behalf of your fellow crew, I would like to present James Cook with the following awards:

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Award Naming Health Award

As the first European to discover many places, you have enjoyed the privilege of naming some of these lands. We particularly like the name you gave to the “Sandwich Islands” after your friend, the 4th Earl of Sandwich. Of course we now know these islands as Hawaii, which sounds perhaps more exotic but less delicious!

At the start of your journey to Tahiti, you were asked only to take scientific observations of a solar eclipse by Venus. You were given a sealed envelope containing details of the secret part of your quest. You did not open the envelope until the given time, where you were instructed on the second part of your mission, to go in search of a great southern continent.

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By ensuring that your men ate fresh fruit and vegetables, bathed each day and aired out their clothes and bedding, you prevented many sea-traveller’s diseases, such as scurvy.

Secret Keepers Award

A Great Endeavour © Re adyEdPubl i cat i ons

Some facts about the famous ship in which Cook visited Australia:

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 She was three and a half years old when she was purchased for the purpose of Cook’s journey to make observations of Venus.  She housed a total of 95 people on board on Cook’s journey

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 Her design and shape helped to prevent major damage to the vessel when she ran aground on the Great Barrier Reef.  On board the ship were astronomers, scientists and artists who were all very excited about the discovery of new flora and fauna. They also documented the ways and languages of the indigenous peoples who they met along the way.  After her world famous journeys, the Endeavour was used as a store ship and in the coal trade. She was run aground in 1793 and broken up.  Some of her timbers and a well-preserved cannon from the ship can be found in a small museum at Botany Bay, NSW, where Cook first landed.  The research and construction of the Endeavour replica took twice as long as Cook’s journey on the original! Painstaking research about every detail on the ship eventuated in an exact replica being built and launched in December, 1993.  The replica takes groups of people on sailing adventure voyages and also takes part in voyages to commemorate anniversaries of original journeys. The Endeavour replica has visited many ports around the world and remains an important historical and educational icon.

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Library Activity Package: World Explorers

Sea Sick?

Bad weather and the threat of attacks from rival ships, island natives and seafaring pirates were just some of the problems that the sailors of days gone by had to face. Check out this inventory of spine-chilling diseases that the sailors had to endure:

r o e t s BTyphus r e oo p Scurvy u k S

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Cause: Lack of Vitamin C. The sailors did not have much access to fresh fruit and vegetables over long periods of time. Treatment: A naval surgeon, James Lind, actually wrote a book on the treatment of scurvy, but his recommended practice of giving serves of Vitamin C such as lemons, oranges and limes, was not done regularly until 40 years later!

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Symptoms: General weakness, gum disease (loosening of the teeth in gums - sometimes teeth will fall out!), skin haemorrhages (black and blue patches on the skin).

Symptoms: A fever, headache, chills and a rash that spreads to the whole body except the face, palms and soles of the feet. Cause: Spread by mites, lice and fleas from rats that live on the boat.

Treatment: Today, treatment can be in the form of antibiotics. In the past, ships often had a cat to get rid of rats and placed clean clothes and bedding on board for sailors, as well as giving them access to bathing facilities.

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Malaria

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Other Facts: The practice of giving lime juice to sailors led to their nickname “limeys”.

Other Facts: This disease was also called “gaol fever” as many crew who had come directly from gaol often had the filthiest clothes.

Symptoms: Fever, vomiting, diarrhoea, nausea and chills. Symptoms come in bursts of about 8 hours.

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Symptoms: Severe stomach pains and diarrhoea, vomiting and fever. The person can become weak from dehydration. Cause: Inflammation of the lining of the intestine, caused by contaminated water or food. Treatment: The regular use of fresh water was always useful in prevent dysentery, as was personal hygiene.

Cause: Carried and transmitted by mosquitoes, although originally it was thought to be the bad air around swamps that caused it. A parasite lives in the mosquito and is then transmitted to the person when they are bitten. Treatment: Historically, herbal and plant treatments, such as a plant extract called quinine were used. A hot bath was also used with the intention of raising body temperature in order to bring on a white blood cell attack in the parasite.

What can you find out about these diseases? Yellow Fever, Smallpox, Tuberculosis

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Library Activity Package: World Explorers

Law & Order On-Board Mastheading

Sailors on some voyages were instructed to line up along seams between planks on deck as an orderly way of meeting.

What r o e t s Bo r happened when e p sailors did something ok u S wrong on board?

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Some criminals on-board were made to sit up on a mast for hours on end, isolated and missing meals as they lurched above the ocean in the cold wind.

Toe The Line

Often the sailors were needed too much to be locked away, so public displays of punishment like the ones Cleaning the toilet If a small crime listed here, were popular in areas of the ship was a was committed, the less severe punishment the history of sea individual was made for minor crimes. At other exploration. to stand perfectly still

Minor Punishments

times, the punishment was designed to fit the crime. If sailor’s clothes were found to be dirty, they were made to carry their own clothing tied to an oar.

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The cat-o-nine tails was a whip made of nine thin cords with knots on the ends. Twelve or sometimes more lashes were given to a sailor as he stood tied to the ship. For serious crimes, a sailor may have even been rowed to each ship in the fleet, so that he experienced the public punishment several times.

Developed by the Dutch, the offender is tied around their middle and hoisted up in the air before being dragged under the keel of the ship and scraped against the bottom of the ship in the process. A weight was often attached to the offender’s legs to sink the sailor. A gun or canon was fired during this punishment to frighten the sailor and to invite the crew to come and watch.

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Another version of this punishment involved placing the criminal in a box, like a coffin, and dragging it along behind the ship. The box had holes in it so that it would fill up with water and almost drown the offender. It was believed this method was used in convict s h i p s on their way to Australia.

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Keel Hauling

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Cat-O-Nine Tails

with his toes just touching the line between two planks for a long period of time. This is where the saying “toe the line” comes from.

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Library Activity Package: World Explorers

sign the “articles” or agree to the ship’s rules. An example of some rules were: No gambling (to prevent fights) and no smoking (to prevent fires on-board). If pirates broke the rules of the ship, they often faced harsh punishment, such as being marooned on a small, desolate island with a flagon of water and a pistol.

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two nations were played out in the oceans, particularly the battles between England and Spain. Piracy increased during the race to obtain land in coastal America around the Caribbean area. Pirates who attacked other ships under the request of the government were called “Privateers”.

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backgrounds. Their nationality became “Pirate” as they rejected the societies that they left behind. They had to cope with a variety of languages, accents and beliefs - a very multicultural bunch they were!

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Pirates have existed in one form or another practically since the dawn of sea exploration. Any ship which has the main aim of attacking another ship and stealing its goods could be known as a pirate ship.  There were times when conflicts between

 Pirate crews were a mix of cultures and

 Pirates

often had interesting outfits, an array of clothes stolen from the ships that they plundered. Due to the value of some of the treasures they stole, pirates often wore clothes that were the height of fashion. Pity about their body odour and lice-ridden dreadlocks!

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Spanish as the major powers on the seas, the need to attack the competition was reduced, and trade began to boom in the open seas. This saw the rise of rogue pirates whose main aim was to rob the merchant trading ships of all their precious cargo.

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 Once the English and French overtook the

Some pirates were thought to have their own injury compensation system, receiving different amounts of “pieces of eight” for different body parts lost in battle, for example, 100 pieces of eight for a lost eye!

The Skull and Crossbones flag, that most people identify with

pirates, was designed to strike

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 1680 - 1730 was known as “ The Golden

Age of Piracy”. Many pirate ships lurked amongst the many islands of the Caribbean, hiding in the uncharted waters and secret coves. The great myth of the pirate in this Golden Age is regularly seen in stories and movies such as “Treasure Island”, “Peter Pan” and “Pirates of the Caribbean”.

 The crew of pirate ships often created their own laws, and could decide on a new captain simply by majority votes. When pirates joined a ship’s crew, they had to

fear into approaching ships and encourage a hasty surrender.

As the pirate problems increased, English Navy forces were granted permission to execute pirates without having to bring them back to England for a proper trial. The development of steam-powered boats in the 1850s meant that pirate ships could be easily pursued and caught, leading to the dwindling power of the pirate.

Read more about pirates by visiting this site and following the links. www.piratesinfo.com 22


Library Activity Package: World Explorers

What A Record -1 “Ain’t no mountain high enough”

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By: Sir Edmund Hillary (1919 - 2006) Nationality: New Zealander

Achievement: Along with Nepalese Sherpa Tenzing Norgay he was the first to climb Mount Everest, the tallest peak in the world, on May 29, 1953. Early Interests: Became interested in mountaineering at a high school trip to Mt Ruapehu, New Zealand. Career Highs: Definite “high point” was the 29 028 feet he ascended to reach the peak of Everest, leading to instant fame. Other Hits: “I’m on the top of the world” (made many other trips to conquer mountains.) “I come from the land down under” (led expeditions to the South Pole).

Hobbies: Was a bee-keeper before his rise to fame. Later worked on humanitarian issues for the Nepalese people and promoted environmental causes.

“TOP six” EXPLORERS

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The fantastic explorers below have not made records, but they have set or broken them! Check out these charttopping profiles:

1 “Sail like an Egyptian” Hannu (ancient Egypt); 2750 B.C 2 “Winter Wonderlands” Eric the Red (around 950 – 1003)

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3 “This is Australia” William Dampier (1651/52 – 1715)

4 “Right Back Where We Started” Matthew Flinders (1774 – 1814)

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Quote: “We didn’t know if it was humanly possible to reach the top of Mt. Everest. And even using oxygen as we were, if we did get to the top, we weren’t at all sure whether we wouldn’t drop dead or something of that nature.”

5 “Under The Sea” Jacques Cousteau (1910 – 1997)

o c . che e r o t r s super Image:Hillary in 2006 Photo: Graeme Mulholland Wikimedia Commons

6 “Man on the Moon” Neil Alden Armstrong (1930 – present)

Visit www.enchantedlearning. com (explorers A - Z) to find out more about these stars.

Image:Everest Photo: Pavel Novak Wikimedia Commons

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Library Activity Package: World Explorers

What A Record - 2 Chart Rivals: The Race to the South Pole Have you ever heard musicians grumble that another artist “stole their ideas?” Well, the story of the first expedition to the South Pole was a bit the same!

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The tragedy took an even graver turn when Scott and his five team members all died on their return trip due to injuries, weakness and blizzard conditions. The bodies of Scott and two assistants were found only 11 kilometres from food and supplies. Although Amundsen was lucky enough to enjoy the praise of his success, he too met a sad but heroic end to his life when he disappeared whilst trying to rescue a lost friend in 1928.

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In 1909, Norwegian Roald Amundsen planned to be the first to reach the North Pole...but someone else beat him to it! Determined that he was still going to make history, he turned his attention to reaching the South pole. But his plans were secretive, as Englishman, Captain Robert F Scott, was working on the same goal at the same time. In an incredible journey through the harsh, unforgiving landscape of Antarctica, Amundsen managed to beat Scott to the bottom end of the earth by a little over a month, in December, 1911. Imagine the disappointment that Scott must have felt in January 1912 when he discovered that he had been “Pipped at the Pole”. It would be like spending months writing a hit song only to find that a similar one had already topped the charts.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur poseAchievements sonl y•of Burke and Wills

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Early Interests: Both were inexperienced explorers, Burke was a police investigator and Wills was a surveyor and meteorologist.

Path to Fame: Chosen to lead the expedition so that the state of Victoria could win a reward posted by the government of Australia for finding a 24

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– The first Europeans to cross Australia from south to north.

north-south route. The government wanted to build a telegraph line from Adelaide to the northern coast of Australia. Rest in Peace: Both men unfortunately died on their return south, from weakness and starvation. The only survivor from the team was John King, who was rescued by a party of searchers on September 18, 1861.


Library Activity Package: World Explorers

Modern Explorers ... A New Wave! Think of a 17 year old Aussie teenager...someone a bit like your older brother or cousin. Can you picture their face?

Young Aussie Jesse Martin was born in 1981 in Munich, Germany. His parents were travelling around Europe in a kombi van at the time. When he was growing up, he experienced amazing travel and sailing journeys which sowed the seeds of his adventurous spirit.

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Now imagine that young person in a small yacht, sailing across the widest ocean, day and night, often with no land in sight. This person is following their dream, to sail completely around the globe, starting and finishing on the shores of Australia. But the most amazing part is when most teenagers can’t seem to live a day without seeing their friends, this young adventurer is planning to achieve this task all by himself.

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His dreams grew over time, and at fourteen, Jesse wanted to be the youngest person ever to sail a yacht non-stop around the world, alone and unassisted. Another young Australian, David Dicks, inspired Jesse further. At the ages of 17, both young men embarked on an adventure to be the first to claim the record for the youngest circumnavigator of the world.

Careful planning went into Jesse’s dream... he trained in sailing, navigating and survival skills. He would walk the 5 kilometre distance home as part of his morning training. Jesse also had to look for sponsors to raise money for his quest.

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He set out on his venture in December 1988. Many people wondered if someone so young could do this task but Jesse was not perturbed and sailed off across the ocean. The trip took him almost a year.

“ Quotes”

Have you ever seen posters with inspiring quotations?

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Whatever the mind can conceive and believe, it can achieve.

- Unknown.

People become really quite remarkable when they start thinking that they can do things. When they believe in themselves, they have the first secret of success.

- Norman Vincent Peale

If Columbus had turned back, no-one would have blamed him. Of course, no-one would have remembered him either.

- Unknown.

Failures are finger posts on the road to achievement.

- Charles F. Kettering.

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Library Activity Package: World Explorers

Modern Explorers ... A New Wave! On “Lionheart” - Jesse’s Yacht

Jesse had to endure some challenges along the way:

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• Dried or canned food to last nine months;

• Enough water for about a lite a day; • Solar panels to enable phone calls and emails back home; • Access to school-work to keep him occupied; • Hundreds of emails from school children and journalists;

He had to wake up every two hours or so to make sure that he didn’t collide with a ship or encounter any other dangers.

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Close Calls & Hard Times

He once hit a whale ... fortunately, no major damage was done to the yacht or to the whale.

Near the Cape of Good Hope, Africa, he hit a violent storm that knocked his boat on the side and flooded the cabin.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons • His guitar and CDs, which • f o rr evi ew pur posesonl y• broke the monotony.

Visit www.achievers-odds.com.au/ topachiever/jmartinpen.htm

Jesse sailed back into Port Phillip Bay, 329 days after leaving.

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A Hero’s Welcome Home Compared to the 600 people who waved him goodbye, he was met by 25, 000 people on his return. That would seem like an awful lot of people after spending the last 11 months alone at sea!

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You can share Jesse’s inspirational adventures by watching Lionheart - The Jesse Martin Story on video / DVD or by reading his book Lionheart - A Journey of the Human Spirit. His website: www.jessemartin.net can also be visited.

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Library Activity Package: World Explorers

Up, Up and Away 1980s - Today As there is no continuous strip of land circling the globe, the two ways to completely circumnavigate the world are by sea and by air. This book has focused heavily on sea exploration, but one of the more interesting forms of air travel is by hot air balloon.

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Let’s have a look at the attempts to make it once around the globe in these magnificent gliding structures. 1981

Maxie Anderson and Don Ida manage 4,316 kilometres from Egypt to India.

1988

John Petrehn’s trip form Argentina is foiled by wind damage.

1991-1994

The Earthwinds Hilton team have several unsuccessful attempts to circumnavigate the globe.

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1995 - 1996 The Virgin Challenger was marred by bad weather, delaying lift-offs, and a collision with a jetliner.

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American Adventurer Steve Fossett flew halfway around the world in his balloon Solo Spirit. In all, Fossett has made six attempts at global circumnavigation, setting a few records along the way.

1998

The Breitling Orbiter managed to stay in the air non-stop and un-refuelled for 10 days before having his trip cut short when China refused to permit it to fly over their country.

1999

A Swiss/British team set forth on the Breitling Orbiter 3, fom the Swiss Alps, and 19 days later on March 20, managed to pass the line of longitude that marked them as the first men to circumnavigate the globe on a non-stop, non-refuelled flight. They travelled 42,810 kilometres!

2002

The unstoppable Steve Fossett tries once more and this time is met with success – setting a record as the first to circumnavigate the world solo in a hot air balloon.

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Library Activity Package: World Explorers

Balloon Fun An Amazing Explorer:

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Check out some of Steve Fossett’s other achievements: • In 2002, he set a world record in ballooning speed, reaching 322 kilometres per hour.

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The first passengers on a hot air balloon, launched in 1783 by the French Montgolfier brothers, were a duck, a rooster and a sheep. These farmyard fliers stayed afloat for about eight minutes and became pioneers in the pursuit of air travel.

• In 2003, he held nine of the twelve fastest world record passages in sailing.

• H e h a s c l i m b e d t h e highest mountain in six continents.

It’s a record!

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons • In 1992, he travelled 1,875 kilometres across Alaska •f orr evi ew pur pos e s o n l y • in the Idatarod Dogsled

Many world records have been attempted, and achieved, in hot air balloons, including: • The highest parachute jump from a hot air balloon at over 31,000 metres.

• The highest altitude reached from a manned balloon, at over 34,000 metres.

race.

Flight Facts

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• Hot air balloons usually fly early in the morning because this is the time that stable winds can best be found. • Hot air balloons are made of similar material to parachutes, usually nylon or polyester, and their baskets are made of strong, light and flexible wicker. • Cold air is used first to partially inflate the balloon, and then the air is heated by a burner.

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• Fossett has successfully competed in other competitions and sports, including triathlons, gliding and sports car racing.

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Library Activity Package: World Explorers

References

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www.mariner.org Age of Exploration Timeline, Curriculum Guide, Magellan www.malapascua.de/index.html Magellan and Lapu www.stemnet.nf.ca Vikings www.barkendeavour.com.au Endeavour Ship www.captaincooksociety.com Captain James Cook www.nzedge.com/heroes/hillary.html Sir Edmund Hillary www.didyouknow.cd/around the world/balloons.htm Balloons www.defence.gov.au Punishment in Navies www.south-pole.com Antarctic Explorers

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Sites used ass references) •Student-friendly f orr evi ew p(also ur p ose onl y•

www.enchantedlearning.com. Explorers

www.members.aol.com/donnandlee A range of ancient history explorers

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www.viking.no/e/ Viking life

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www.kidinfo.com/American_History/Explorers.html Contains many links to a number of sites that can be used. Includes European explorers as well.

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www.mrdowling.com Chinese History: The Mongols www1.minn.net/keithp/ Christopher Columbus www.piratesinfo.com Pirates

www.jessemartin.net and www.kijana.net Jesse Martin http://myhero.com/hero.asp?hero=stevefossett www.fossettchallenge.com/html/records/SFRecords.html Steve Fossett

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INDEX Journeys........................................ 18 Mapping....................................... 18 Seven Years’ War......................... 18 Cousteau, Jacques................................ 23 Dampier, William..................................... 23 Dead Reckoning..................................... 10 Del Cano, Sebastian............................... 16 Dicks, David............................................. 25 Drake, Sir Francis.............................. 4, 5, 17 California....................................... 17 Golden hind................................. 17 Pirate............................................. 17 Queen Elizabeth 1....................... 17 Spanish Armada........................... 17 Dysentery........................................... 17, 20 Egypt ................................................... 4, 27 Endeavour............................................... 19 England................................ 4, 6, 17, 18, 22 Eric the Red...................................... 4, 6, 23 Ericsson, Leif............................................ 4-6 Europe................................................. 4,6, 8 Flinders, Matthew.................................... 23 Flotsam..................................................... 14 Fogon ....................................................... 14 Food/diet..................... 9, 10, 14, 15, 20, 26 Hand, lead and line................................ 10 Hanno................................................... 4, 23 Hawaii............................................. 4, 18, 19 Hillary, Edmund........................................ 23 Hot air ballooning............................. 27, 28 Facts.............................................. 28 Montgolfier Brothers..................... 28 Records................................... 27, 28 Steve Fossett........................... 27, 28 Hudson, Henry........................................... 4 Iceland................................................... 4, 6 Italy ................................................. 11, 13 Keel Hauling............................................. 21 Khan, Ghengis........................................... 8 Childhood....................................... 8 Jamuga........................................... 8 Khan, Kubali....................................... 11, 12 Latitude.................................................... 10

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Achievement quotes.............................. 25 Amundsen, Roald................................... 24 Africa ......................................... 4, 5, 18, 26 America................................ 4-6, 13, 14, 22 American Indians............................ 4, 6, 14 Ancient Greeks.......................................... 4 Antarctica.......................................... 18, 24 Armstrong, Neil........................................ 23 Artifacts...................................................... 6 Atlantic Ocean......................................... 4 Australia.............. 4, 5, 18, 21, 24, 25, 26, 28 Botany Bay.................................... 19 Burke and Wills.............................. 24 Dampier........................................ 23 Flinders........................................... 23 Great Barrier Reef........................ 19 Ballast ....................................................... 10 Burke and Wills..................................... 5, 24 Canada..................................................... 6 Cartographer.......................................... 10 Cat-o-nine tails........................................ 21 China ......................................... 4, 8, 11, 12 Chip, log and reel................................... 10 Circumnavigation........ 4, 10 15, 17, 25, 27 Del Cano....................................... 16 Dicks.............................................. 25 Drake............................................. 17 Fossett............................................ 27 Magellan....................................... 15 Martin...................................... 25, 03 Columbus, Christopher.... 4, 5, 6, 12-14, 17 Canary Islands................................... 13, 14 Childhood..................................... 13 Food.............................................. 14 Haiti................................................ 13 Mutiny............................................ 14 Santa Maria, Nina and Pinta...... 13 Spain.............................................. 13 Spice Islands................................. 13 Compass.............................................. 7, 10 Cook, Captain James.............. 4, 5, 18, 19 Achievements........................ 18, 19 Childhood..................................... 18

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Library Activity Package: World Explorers

Lifestyle.......................................... 22 Privateers....................................... 22 Skull and crossbones.................... 22 Polo, Marco............................... 4, 5, 11, 12 Childhood..................................... 11 China....................................... 11, 12 Europe........................................... 11 Tales......................................... 11, 12 Nicolo Polo.................................... 11 Venice........................................... 11 Portugal, Portuguese........................ 11, 16 Russia ................................................. 4, 6, 8 Scott, Robert F......................................... 24 Scurvy............................... 10, 11, 15, 19, 20 Settlement.................................................. 6 Silk ................................................... 9, 12 South Pole.......................................... 23, 24 Amundsen, Roald........................ 24 Scott, Robert F.............................. 24 Spain, Spanish.......................................... 13 Spice Islands................................ 13, 15, 16 Storms........................................... 11, 15, 26 Tahiti ....................................................... 18 Toe the line.............................................. 21 Typhus....................................................... 20 Vikings........................................... 4, 6, 7, 14 Eric the Red...................... 4, 5, 6, 23 Ericsson, Leif............................ 4, 5, 6 Navigation...................................... 7 Scandinavia................................... 4 Ships................................................. 6 Websites................................................... 29

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Longitude................................................. 10 Magellan, Ferdinand.......... 4, 5, 15, 16, 17 Cartenga...................................... 15 Circumnavigation.................. 15, 16 Mactan......................................... 15 Monument......................................... 15, 16 Mutiny....................................................... 15 Phillippines.......................................... 15, 16 Ships ................................................. 15, 16 Spice Islands...................................... 15, 16 Malaria..................................................... 20 Maps ................................................... 5, 18 Martin, Jesse...................................... 25, 26 Challenges.................................... 26 Childhood..................................... 25 Lionheart....................................... 26 Planning and preparing.............. 25 Mastheading........................................... 21 Middle East........................................ 4, 6, 8 Mongols.............................................. 4, 8, 9 Army ..................................................... 8, 9 Articulation..................................... 9 Clothing........................................... 9 Food................................................ 9 Khan................................................ 8 Lifestyle............................................ 9 Marriage..................................... 8, 9 Mount Everest.......................................... 23 Mutiny....................................................... 10 Native (Indigenous peoples) attacks ...... ............................ 6 11, 13, 15, 16, 18 Navigation................................................. 7 Compass......................................... 7 Sundial....................................... 7, 10 New Zealand..................................... 18, 23 Newfoundland.................................... 6, 18 North America............................. 4, 5, 6, 18 Pacific Ocean..................................... 4, 15 Pirates................................................. 17, 22 Articles........................................... 22 Golden Age of Piracy................. 22

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World Explorers: Resource Book  

Follow the madness and the magic through the history of world exploration. Buy now: http://www.teachersuperstore.com.au/product/geography/w...