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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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About Ready-Ed Publications Ready-Ed Publications was established in 1984 with the purpose of creating practical classroom blackline master activities. At the time, the role of the teacher was becoming ever more diverse with an increasing range of duties and responsibilities within the school and school community. Since then, the role of the teacher has continued to evolve with an escalating range of tasks and obligations, ensuring a reduction in time available to prepare work for the daily instructional program.

Ready-Ed

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Throughout these past 24 years, Ready-Ed Publications has built a reputation as publishers of Australian made, high quality, innovative, timesaving materials for teachers of primary and lower secondary levels. In addition, all materials are based on state or national curriculum guidelines or specific age-related interest areas and subjects. Ready-Ed Publications aims to assist busy professionals by making available contemporary classroom materials that contain relevant and stimulating work to support the requirements of the curriculum.

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Publications

That’s Disgusting! © 2009 Ready-Ed Publications Printed in Australia Author: Fiona Rayns Typesetting and Design: Shay Howard Illustrators: Terry Allen, Melinda Brezmen, Rod Jefferson, Heather Leane.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Acknowledgements i.

I-stock Photos.

ii. Clip art images have been obtained from Microsoft Design Gallery Live and are used under the terms of the End User License Agreement for Microsoft Word 2000. Please refer to www.microsoft.com/permission.

iii. Corel Corporation collection, 1600 Carling Ave., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1Z 8R7.

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iv. Wikimedia Commons Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License”.

o c . che e r o t r s super Published by:

Ready-Ed Publications PO Box 276 Greenwood WA 6024 www.readyed.com.au info@readyed.com.au

ISBN: 978 1 86397 773 9

COPYRIGHT NOTICE Permission is granted for the purchaser to photocopy sufficient copies for noncommercial educational purposes. However, this permission is not transferable and applies only to the purchasing individual or institution.


Contents

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Hairball Horror Hairball Acrostic Puzzle

4-5 5

Spit More Spit

32 33

6 7

Shrunken Heads Make Your Own Shrunken Head

34 35

8 9

Bacteria More Bacteria

36 37

Halitosis Heaven Halitosis Homework

10 11

Decomposition Decomposition Results

Creature Feature Strange Animal Activity

12 13

Tongue Twister Super Taster

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Teachers' Notes Curriculum Links Worm Watching Investigating Earthworms

© ReadyE14dP ubl i cat i ons Putrid Plants by Stinkyflora Stinkyflora Design •f orr evi ew15pur posesonl y•

Toilet Paper Investigating Alternatives to Toilet Paper

38 39 40 41 42 43

Aaaaaaaaccchhhoo 1 Aaaaaaaaccchhhoo 2

44 45

It’s a Gas Secret Gas

18 19

Things That Live On You Profile of a Parasite

46 47

S’not Funny Making Snot

20 21

Warts and All Wart Survey

48 49

22 23

Deadly and Dangerous Deadly and Dangerous Research

50 51

24 25

Scatology for Beginners 1 Scatology for Beginners 2

52 53

What Am I? What Am I? Acrostic Puzzle

26 27

What’s for Dinner Tonight? 1 What’s for Dinner Tonight? 2

54 55

To Wee Or Not To Wee More About Wee

28 29

Teacher Only Jokes

56

No Sweat! More Sweat

30 31

Spots On the Spot

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Earwax More Earwax

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16 17

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Vomit Making Vomit

o c . che e r o t r s super Answers

57-59

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Teachers' Notes This book is designed to teach primary and lower secondary school students biology, in a memorable and entertaining way. It is packed with gruesome but educational information and practical activities which encourage children to engage with, and readily process each topic. Here is some further information on some of the topics in the book to deliver to your students and some suggestions on how to start lessons and how best to organise activities.

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Hairball Horror, page 8 Additional information: The world record for the longest hair was broken in May 8, 2004 by a Chinese woman (Xie Qiuping). She started growing her hair in 1973 when she was 13 and when the record was broken it measured 5.627 m. Idea: Have your students measure this distance.

longest ear hair was broken in 2003 by a man from India (Radhakant Bajpai) The hair measured 13.2 cm. Idea: Have your class measure this distance. Guiness book of records website: www. guinnessworldrecords.com/records/human_ body/extreme_bodies/longest_ear_hair.aspx For a revolting start to the lesson: produce a cotton bud dipped in peanut butter and say that you love the taste of earwax.

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Worm Watching, page 6 Additional information: Worms are very important to the environment. They play an important role in recycling decaying material. When they mix layers of soil and burrow, water drainage and aeration are improved. Without earthworms, it can take between 500 to 1000 years to produce 2.5 cm of rich organic top soil. With worms, this can be done in just 5 years. Idea: Get your students to build a worm farm. Related topic: Decomposition (page 38).

What Am I? page 26 Useless information: There are more red blood cells in your body than all the people who have ever lived on the Earth. Specially bred leeches are sometimes used after surgery to keep the blood flowing to an injury by preventing clotting. This can lower the risk of infection and aid with healing. A genetically engineered drug, based on the saliva of vampire bats has been used on stroke victims. In Victorian England people afraid of catching TB would drink glassfuls of fresh animal blood that they bought from the abattoir.

Halitosis Heaven, page 10

Disclosing tablets and liquid can be purchased relatively cheaply from the chemist.

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Toilet Paper, page 14 Useless information: Apparently the US military camouflaged their tanks with toilet paper during the Desert Storm War in Saudi Arabia. I was unable to discover more – perhaps it’s Top Secret!

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To Wee or Not to Wee? page 28 For a revolting start to the lesson: drink a glass of diluted apple juice but tell them it’s urine. Idea: Pour some dirty water through filter paper, a coffee filter or a paper towel to show how the kidneys filter out the dirt from the water.

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Vomit, page 16 Additional information: Food spends on average 1 minute in the mouth, 4-8 seconds in the oesophagus, 2-4 hours in the stomach, and 3-5 hours in the small intestine. Depending on what it is, it can take between 10 hours and several days to pass through the large intestine! Some students may have seen an experiment on TV where people had to monitor how quickly sweet corn kernels passed through them. Cows bring up food from their stomachs to re-chew. Earwax, page 24 Additional information: The world record for the 4

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Decomposition, page 38 VIP: stress that bags must be well sealed and must not be opened during the experiment. Carefully dispose of all material at the end of the experiment. Fungi and bacteria are important decomposers. Warm and dark conditions help them to multiply. Extension: Look at the effect surface area has on decomposition. Discuss ideal conditions for compost heaps versus ideal conditions for mummification. Related topic: Worm Watching (page 6).


Tongue Twister, page 40 Useless information: Chameleons can extend their tongues more than twice their body length. Giraffes have long (~ 46 cm) blue flexible tongues. The colour stops them getting sunburnt when stripping leaves from tall trees. The parasite Cymothoa exigua swim into the mouth of certain fish, chew their tongues to a stub and then attach themselves to form a “replacement tongue”.

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Deadly and Dangerous, page 50 Some of the more bizarre diseases are: Vampire Disease: victims suffer pain from the sun Blaschko’s Lines: strange stripes all over the body Elephantiasis: grossly enlarged limbs Walking Corpse Syndrome: people who believe they have died Jumping Frenchman Disorder: strange reflexes Pica: sufferers are urged to eat non-food substances Alice in Wonderland Syndrome: time, space and body image distortion Blue Skin Disorder: people appear blue Werewolf Syndrome: excessive hair

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Things That Live On You, page 46 Additional information: There are over 240 parasitic diseases that you can pick up from other animals, including pets. Just by stroking or holding your pet, parasites can be passed on. Never allow animals to lick you in the face or mouth – you know what parts of their body they have used their tongues to clean! Small children are particularly at risk because they often put their hands in their mouths. Parasites can also be picked up, by walking barefoot in areas where animals have defecated. Cooking destroys many parasites. Eating raw meat (including fish found in some sushi), or under-cooked meat and not washing raw fruit and vegetables properly, increases your risk of picking up something nasty. Eating in areas where your food may have been exposed to vermin that carry

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many parasites will do the same. Public toilets contain masses of germs. Don’t put your hands in your mouth or touch your face when you are in public places and wash you hands before you eat. Parasites are often transferred by sharing items with or being in direct contact with people who are already infected. Remember to use insect repellent because there are many parasites that can be passed on through insect bites. Untreated water may be contaminated water and contain parasites and untreated sewage. Don’t drink, swim or wash your food in it.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Curriculum Links

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NSW Stage 3 Living Things - LT S3.3 Stage 4 Domain: Knowledge and Understanding - 4.8 Domain: Skills - 4.13, 4.14, 4.15, 4.16, 4.18, 4.19, 4.22

Domain: Values and Attitudes - 4/5.23, 4/5.25, 4/5.26 VIC Levels 4&5 (Building Breath and Depth) - Science Knowledge and Understanding - Science at Work

ACT Science - ELA19 Interdisciplinary - ELA1, ELA2, ELA3, ELA4, ELA5, ELA6

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TAS Scientific Inquiry - Stages 8, 9, 10, 11 & 12 (Standards 3&4) Scientific Communication - Stages 8, 9, 10, 11 & 12 (Standards 3&4) Science as a Body of Knowledge - Matter - Stages 8, 9, 10, 11 & 12 (Standards 3&4) Science as a Body of Knowledge - Living Things - Stages 8, 9, 10, 11 & 12 (Standards 3&4)

NT Planning - WS3.1, WS4.1 Investigating - WS3.2, WS4.2 Evaluating - WS3.3, WS4.3 Life and Living - CC3.2, CC4.2 Natural and Processed Materials - CC3.1, CC4.1

o c . che e r o t r s super WA Working Scientifically (1) Investigating (2) Communicating Scientifically (3) Science in Daily Life Understanding Concepts (6) Earth and Beyond (8) Life and Living

Q/LAND Natural and Processed Materials - levels 3&4 Life and Living - levels 3&4 SA Life Systems - KC6 (Standard 3) Matter - KC3 (Standard 3)

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You share the Earth with 20 thousand different types of worms. They are found everywhere, on land, in the water and even living as parasites inside other animals. (You may even have some wriggling silently in your intestine right now.)

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Earthworms are made up of segments. Each segment is called an annuli and earthworms belong to the annelid family. The older the worm, the more segments it has.

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Worm r o e Watching t s Bo r e

Since nobody likes admitting to having parasitic worms, let alone producing them for a classroom practical, and because it’s hard to keep marine worms alive in the classroom, we’re going to concentrate on discussing and investigating the lowly earthworm.

These soft-bodied invertebrates are harmless herbivores. They have no sharp teeth and are relatively slow moving and without them, life on Earth would be quite different.

Forget Dr Who, earthworms have five hearts to circulate blood around their body. They have a fluid filled hydrostatic skeleton, so there are no crunchy bits to worry about if you’re planning to break any worm eating records. Earthworms are hermaphrodites because each worm has both male and female reproductive organs. You still need two worms though, to make a baby worm.

Foul facts and © ReadyEdPu bl i c at i ons gruesome gossip •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Earthwor

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 The Giant Gippsland Earthworm Megascolides australis is the longest earthworm in Australia. It can grow more than 3 metres in length and weighs about 200g.

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When you look at an earthworm you won’t see any tiny eyes peering back at you (you don’t need eyes when you mostly live in the dark). You won’t see a nose or ears either. Earthworms can’t see, hear or smell but they can sense vibrations and can detect light and temperature through special organs in their skin. When their nervous systems detect light or movement, the worms will instinctively move away.

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 The world record for eating worms was broken in 2003 by a man in India. He ate 200 worms in 20 seconds.

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 Earthworms can be eaten as a nutritious snack. Worm bodies are 82% protein and are usually eaten boiled or baked.

Some people believe that seagulls tap their feet on the ground to fool earthworms into thinking that it’s raining. When the worms come to the surface to avoid drowning, the birds eat them up.


Investigating Earthworms r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S If you can, try to get hold of a magnifying glass so that you can inspect your worm in great detail.

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For this investigation, you will need to gently remove a worm from the school grounds and bring it into the classroom. Remember to be gentle when you handle any living creature – earthworms do have a nervous system and they can feel pain. Try to keep your worm in a cool spot and out of direct sunlight. Direct sunlight dries out their skin and makes their small breathing holes close up.

Using a pencil, carefully draw your earthworm in the space below.

1. Measure your worm and add a scale to your drawing.

2. Label the anterior (front) and posterior (end).

3. Try to count the number of annuli (segments) that your worm has and compare this with other worms being studied. Do you think your worm is old or young?_ __________________

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

4. What colour/s is it? Is it the same colour all over? (Look at its front, back, top and bottom.) _______________________________________

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5. Gently hold the worm – describe how it feels. _______________________________________

Worm Olympics . te o c . che e r o t r s super Gently place your worm on a piece of paper and watch it move. (If you haven’t labelled its anterior, you should be able to do so now.)

An earthworm has tiny hairs called ‘setae’ attached to its annuli to help it move. The hairs are attached to long muscles that run the length of the worm’s body. When the muscles contract and relax, the hairs dig into the ground and help the worm

to move. If you listen very carefully, you should be able to hear the little hairs scratching on the paper.  Put a small obstacle (e.g. an eraser or pencil) in your worm’s way. What happens?_ ___________________  See if you can make one end of the paper shadier than the other. Where does the worm go?_ ____________ When you’ve finished, carefully put your worm back in the place where you got it from – it must be hungry and exhausted from all the exercise.

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Some people adore cats and some people don’t like them at all. Whatever you personally think, most people can’t deny that cats are fastidiously clean creatures – spending large parts of the day grooming. If you are on good terms with a cat, you will see that it has two types of fur – a short dense undercoat and an outer or overcoat, made of much longer hairs. Cats use their raspy tongues and masses of saliva to keep their fur in order and in the process manage to swallow lots of hair. Obviously, the fluffier the cat, the more hair it has and the more hair it consumes. Even short, sleek cats can lose extra hair when they moult, e.g. in spring cats lose their warm winter coat. Hair is made of a tough protein called keratin. Keratin isn’t easily digested by a cat’s stomach. Most of the time, hair passes through a cat's digestive system and ends up mixed in with its faeces, but when a cat swallows too much hair, rather than walking around full of feline fur, the cat simply vomits it back up as a hairball. Lovely! Regular brushing of cats and special hairball reducing foods can help with this problem. Another way to make sure your pet never suffers from this condition is to buy a hairless cat.

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Humans can get hairballs too!

On the 26/11/2007, The Australian newspaper reported that surgeons in America found what looked like a large hairy rat inside the stomach of a patient. The “rodent” turned out to be a giant hairball that measured 38 cm X 17 cm X 17cm and weighed 4.5kg. It was so large that it had blocked the patient’s stomach. The patient had a habit of chewing her hair. The scientific name for this habit is trichophagia and a human hairball is called a trichobezoar.

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Hairball or e t s Bo r Horror e p o

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Stomach mucus (which lines and Method protects the stomach from strong 1. Stir the gelatine into ½ cup of acid) will be replaced by a mixture very hot water. of gelatine and golden syrup. 2. Add 3 tablespoons of golden Happy cooking! syrup. 3. Add 1 teaspoon of vinegar. Equipment: 4. Mix until it forms long sticky • 2 envelopes of unflavoured strands. gelatine 5. Sprinkle some of the hair in a • hot water pile on the foil or wrap. You don’t have to waste time • golden syrup 6. Gently pour the gooey mixture chewing your hair to make • vinegar on top of it. your own revolting hairball • tin foil or plastic wrap 7. Roll your creation into a little simply follow the recipe below. • hair, e.g. cat, possum, fake, sausage shape. Unfortunately, supplies of some human (you lose up to 100 a day 8. Coat with the remaining hair. ingredients are running low. – so you should be able to spare Today, stomach acid (which has a pH between 1 and 2 and is used to a few.) While you’re waiting for your hairball to dry, break down food and kill germs) will be replaced by vinegar. complete the acrostic puzzle on page 9.

Hairballs

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Hairball Acrostic Puzzle r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Clues

1. Part of the digestive system that’s full of strong acid.

2. Small quantities of a cat's hair ends up in these. 3. If you chew your hair you could end up with one of these inside you.

1. 2. 3. 4.

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Read the clues to help you to complete the puzzle, then circle a letter in each answer to vertically spell HAIRBALL HORROR

You can lose up to this many ©4. R e ad EdPubl i cat i ons hairs each day.y 5. If you are _ _ _ _ you will •f o r r e vi ew pur posesonl y• never suffer from hairballs. 5.

6. A mild acid used today.

7.

7. One ingredient used to replicate mucus.

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8. Spit or dribble.

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9. Protects 1 across from acid.

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10. A fur covering.

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11. Rats and mice belong to this group.

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12. The way a cat’s tongue feels.

12.

13. The fastest way to get rid of a hairball.

13.

14. A tough, indigestible protein.

14.

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It’s not nice to have a conversation with someone who has “dog’s breath” and heaven forbid that anyone should think that your exhalations should pong like the rubbish bin the morning before it’s

collected. Bad breath is one of those things that most people won’t tell you about – you may just notice those around you leaning away or avoiding up close and personal conversations. Unfortunately, many things can cause halitosis (bad breath) and most people suffer from it at some time during their lives. Most people know that eating certain things can affect how your breath smells.

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Halitosis r o e t s Bo r Heaven e p o

Complete the following table with foods that you know cause: Sweet breath

Dog’s breath

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Billions of bacteria live inside your mouth – they cover your teeth and live in the fuzzy white coating that you can see at the back of your tongue. If you don’t clean your mouth properly, these bacteria can cause bad breath.

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Some people take mouth hygiene very seriously and use tongue cleaners to gently scrape off the furry bacteria.

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Disclosing tablets or solution can show if you haven’t been brushing your teeth properly. They turn the gunk still stuck to your teeth bright pink. Your teacher may have some for you to try. Use the diagram of teeth to show where you need to improve your brushing.

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Fortunately, bad breath caused by food is just temporary – stop eating the food and the smell disappears relatively quickly.


Halitosis Homework

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Test 1: Lick your wrist, wait about five seconds and then give it a sniff. This test is fast and easy but it will only tell you how the front of your tongue smells.

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Test 2:

Turn a teaspoon upside down and gently scrape the very back of your tongue. (Scrape carefully because you may gag). Now, smell the thick white material that the spoon has collected. That’s how your breath really smells!!!

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So, how does your breath smell now? Unless you have a teacher who loves to embarrass you – the first part of this activity is best done in the privacy of your own home. You don’ t need to write down the answers – just keep the information in your head.

Calculate the approximate number of breaths (sweet or otherwise) that you have taken in your lifetime. Equipment: • Watch with a second hand, • a calculator (optional) 1. How many breaths do you take in a one minute: (You may need someone to help you work this out) ______

Part 2

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Using a calculator: 2. Calculate how many breaths you take, in one hour: ______ x ______ = ______ 3. Calculate how many breaths you take, in one day: ______ x ______ = ______ 4. Calculate how many breaths you take, in a year: ______ x ______ = ______ 5. Calculate how many breaths you have taken during your lifetime: ______ x ______ = ______

Find out your average life expectancy. How many breaths have you got left to take? ____________

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There are many strange animals in the world (maybe you’re sitting next to one of them). Some look strange, some sound strange, and some have strange habits.

Match up the animal with its foul trait.

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However, not all chickens are created equally. Read on!

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Fussy eaters - eat their own soft droppings but not their  hard ones. Cannibal carers - wiggle their toes to attract a  mating partner and then gobble up their own babies. Femme fatales - females dine on their partners during or after mating.

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Most people think that chickens are fairly ordinary creatures and not particularly strange.

Preying mantis Cane toads Hagfish Rabbits  Hippos

© ReadyEd Publ i cat i ons Mucus makers – escape from predators by making  The story of Mike the bucketfuls of slime. • f o r r e v i e w p u r p o s e s o nl y• Headless Chicken

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Scented stinkers – attract a mate by flicking urine and  faeces around with their tails.

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On the 10th September 1945, a farmer in America decided to have chicken for tea. He took his axe and went outside to kill a young rooster called Mike. Unfortunately for the farmer and even more © Wikimedia commons unfortunately for Mike, the farmer made a mess of things. Although he managed to chop off most of Mike’s head, his axe missed some important bits and so nearly headless Mike remained alive. Mike could still walk and balance on a perch - but obviously from that time on, preening, crowing and feeding were a problem. The farmer, perhaps feeling rather guilty, used an eyedropper to feed his headless chook. Amazingly Mike continued to grow and as his story spread the bird became a celebrity.

His photograph appeared in newspapers and magazines across America. The farmer took Mike on tour, charging people to see him. Mike eventually died 18 months after the accident. A postmortem showed that although he’d lost much of his head, his ear and most of his brain stem had remained. Many basic functions, e.g. breathing and a heartbeat are controlled by the brainstem, this allowed Mike to survive for so long.

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To find more information about this famous bird visit: www.miketheheadlesschicken.org/


Strange Animal Activity Now it’s your turn to find out about a strange animal or an animal with strange behaviour that interests you. You can choose your own animal or pick an animal mentioned on page 12 (just check with your teacher first). Present a talk on the animal to your class. Use this sheet to help you plan your talk.

Common name:

Scientific name:

Where can you find a picture/diagram: Why you chose it:

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Completion date:

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Strange habits:

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Bibliography:

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You’re desperate to go to the toilet! – and I mean you seriously need to go – you will physically explode if you can’t go soon. It must be the extra large bowl of vegetarian curry that you were made to eat at your Gran’s house last night – 99% roughage - one serving guaranteed to keep you regular for at least the remainder of the year. You rattle the door handle of the toilet – “heeeeeelp” you moan as your intestines continue to twist and tighten. Meanwhile of course, the person currently occupying the toilet couldn’t care less about your impending laundry problem – they’ll finish when they finish and not a moment sooner. Eventually they do emerge. You rush past them, flick the lock shut and within a very short time, your life and sense of wellbeing have returned to normal. Bliss. With a satisfied smile, you turn and reach for the toilet paper to find, instead of a plump roll of extra soft four ply, a little brown cardboard tube. “@#$%&*!” If this experience hasn’t happened to you yet, don’t worry, it’s just a matter of time. For 70 % of people though, the absent roll isn’t a drama …

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Toilet paper was first made in about 1880, that’s about 380 years after the first flush toilet.

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Toilet or eBo Paper er st p o

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pu r posesonl y• Only 30% of people in the

a eee a W Oooot’s deeee tha tiiing! sgus

world use toilet paper.

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You might get an idea of what the remaining 70% use by looking at what people used before the invention of the toilet roll. Leaves, moss and shells were regularly used because they were cheap and readily available. Ancient Romans, using communal toilets, shared a sponge on a stick. They rinsed it in vinegar before passing it to the next person. Early sailors often used the frayed ends of an old rope. Some of your elderly relatives may remember cutting newspapers and magazines into smaller squares to hang in the dunny.

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Investigating Alternatives to Toilet Paper r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Work in small groups and discover if other materials might meet your needs. You will need: Samples of different types of paper: paper towels, newspapers, magazines and tissues. Waterproof containers (beakers, buckets, ice cream containers). Water.

Test 1:Softness

Close your eyes. Get someone in the group to gently rub the materials against your face or on the inside of your arm. Which is the softest?

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Today toilet paper manufacturers spend a lot of time and money trying to design the perfect product. Characteristics that people look for in the perfect toilet paper are softness, biodegradibility, strength and absorption.

Test 3

Can yo : Strengt throug u poke a fin h g h produ it easily? W er ct is th e stron hich gest?

n rptio f o s b st 4: A pool o

ll Te Test smas ay Biod 2u ean © ReadyE l i c a t : b aco degrP li nch. L P e b a ada Leave on top water aterials on h the m bility t o soa ateria uc m Carry out • these simple tests the n k ou f o r r e v i e w p o e s o l y • ls s how m vernr wate p e e s up. d ight i r. Ho and complete the table below an y soak

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Paper Towels

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by ranking the materials from 1-5 (1 being the worst).

Magazines

Tissues

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TOTAL

If you were left with the little brown cardboard tube instead of toilet paper, which material (that you’ve tested) would you choose to use?

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Italian scientist, Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729-1799) made himself sick, then ate it, and then made himself sick again, just to see how the food changed! Today, you don’t need to be quite so dedicated to discover a little more about vomit. It may sound a bit strange, but most vomiting is designed to keep you safe and healthy.

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If you’ve eaten something that has gone off, contains germs or is poisonous, your body will try to get rid of it the fastest way possible. Instead of being a one-way system, the tube can empty rapidly from both ends. If you eat something which your body wishes to reject, you may vomit and/or you may get diarrhoea. By responding quickly, your body tries to remove the problem.

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As you can see from the diagram below, your digestive system is basically a tube running through your body – the things that you eat go in one end and waste products come out the other.

 Label the following: mouth, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus.

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Vomitr or eB st

they contract and squash your stomach. You can feel how strong they are by putting your hand on your abdomen and sucking the muscles in tightly.

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A small circular valve at the end of your oesophagus opens to let food into your stomach and then closes to stop it leaving.

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When you’re sick the pressure on your stomach forces the valve open and food from your stomach is squeezed back up your oesophagus, into your mouth and out. At about the same time, your brain sends a message to your mouth. It tells it to start producing lots of saliva. The saliva helps to protect your teeth from the expected gush of strong stomach acid. Stomach acid and bile are substances which break down your food and they give your vomit its characteristic taste and colour. Too much information!!!

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Vomiting is an automatic response. You •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• can’t control your abdominal muscles as

Write down some things that have made you feel like vomiting?


Making Vomit r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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You need an excuse to get out of: (tick the boxes that apply)  Cleaning your room  Babysitting your little sister  Walking the dog  Going to music practice  Finishing your homework  Taking out the rubbish  Doing the washing up  Other: ____________________

You don’t have to wait until you are really sick. Reusable fake vomit Try these two 1. Rip up a washing up sponge (yellow or orange ones are the best). recipes © to create a few drops oft food colouring. ReadyEd2. PAdd ub l i ca i o ns fake vomit. 3. Mix in some PVA glue and stir.

4. r Pour it ons toe waxs paper •f orr evi ew pu po oandncarefully l y• arrange the bits using a toothpick or

1. Mix up some instant porridge according to the packet’s instructions. 2. Add a little more water. 3. Add some green and yellow food colouring (keep the colours separate or stir them to make a lovely brown colour). 4. Optional revolting step if you want your mixture a little chunkier: add some puffed corn breakfast cereal, cooked peas, corn and/or diced carrots. 5. Keep refrigerated until needed.

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Edible fake vomit

pencil. 5. Let it dry for a few days. 6. Peel off the paper and trim the edges to make it look realistic.

o c . che e r o t edible fake r s The super vomit can be

used to give an oscar winning impersonation of Lazzaro Spallanzani. (See page 16) 17


Read the statements below and tick the boxes to indicate whether you think that they are true or false. Air travel can make you fart.

 True  False

The more you burp the less you fart.

 True  False

The loudest burp ever recorded was almost as loud as a pneumatic drill.

 True  False

Yanomami people from Venzuela use farting as a greeting.

 True  False

You fart more as you get older (who’s the oldest in your class?)

 True  False

It’s aer or eBo st ok Gas up S

whoops

excuse me

Adults fart about 16 times a day. (That equates to 600 millilitres of gas, enough to fill up a small balloon!)

 True  False

Mr Methane makes his living by farting.

 True  False

“Eructation” is another name for farting.

 True  False

Astronauts are banned from eating beans and other foods which produce gas, before going into space.

 True  False

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That’s Disgusting

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons pardon cows may beo contributing •f orr evi eFarting wp u r p sestoonl y• global warming. me

 True  False

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Each day the millions of bacteria living in your digestive system, produce gas. Sometimes that gas comes back up your oesophagus and is released as a burp, and sometimes it travels through your intestines to come out the other end through your rectum as a "blow off" or fart or flatus. This release of gas is quite normal and everyone does it, but of course, it is a good idea to say, “Excuse me” after doing so! In some cultures, burping is considered a complement to the cook but you need to make sure that you find out which cultures this applies to before doing it. Some kinds of food cause your body to produce more gas than others.

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My score = ___True ___False List some gas producing foods that you know in the gas bubbles below.

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pardon me

Secret Gas

Secret survey or eB st r

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Discuss in class what you want to survey. For example, • How many times you fart/ burp each day • If you do it more often after a meal or before a meal • Whether boys do it more times than girls Work out exactly what you will record and compare results. Think about how you will display your results. Data collection will be a private matter of course. Record your personal results on a small piece of paper, make sure that you don’t put your name on it, and place it in the collection box for your teacher to collate.

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Class results: What did your survey suggest?____________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

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Warning

Always keep the opening of the balloon pointing away from your face.

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons What will your class, survey?_ _____________________ _____________________________________________ •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Balloon Burp

o c . che e r o t r s super Equipment: • balloon, • ¼ cup of vinegar, • 2 teaspoons of baking soda, • funnel.

Method: 1. Go outside. 2. Use the funnel to pour the baking soda into the balloon. 3. Add the vinegar. 4. Quickly, clamp the end of the balloon tightly shut. 5. As the vinegar reacts with the baking soda, open the mouth of the balloon slowly to let the gas escape bit by bit. 19


That’s Disgusting

Blowing your nose on your fingers and picking your nose in public was okay in the Middle Ages but get caught doing it today and you’ll find that you'll start to lose friends fast. Surprisingly, about 70% of people pick their noses – most people do it when they know that no one is looking.

S’not r o e t s Bo r Funny e p o

nasal cavity

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Percentage who pick = ______

Good News for Pickers

For the people in your class who do indulge, there may be some good news. Professor Friedrich, an Austrian lung specialist thinks that it’s healthy, not only to pick your nose, but to also eat it. He thinks: • Picking helps keep your nose cleaner because your sensitive fingers can reach into places that a tissue can’t. • Eating what you collect helps to strengthen your immunity because you get to eat bacteria that your nose has filtered out.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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throat

oesophagus

Gross.Fact

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snot

mouth

You may have noticed that snot can come in a range of colours.

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Your nose produces snot (or mucus) all the time. It is made by membranes that line the inside of your nasal cavity. Each day about a cupful (0.5 L) of snot slides its way down the back of your throat and into your stomach. Some stays in your nose and dries out when you breathe.

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Find out how common nose picking is in your class. To conduct the survey, each person marks a piece of paper with either a tick (to indicate that they’re a “picker”) or a cross (to indicate that they’re a “nonpicker”). You don’t need to write your name on the paper. Let your teacher collect the papers, do the maths and get back to you with the results.

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Secret Survey

Match up the colour of snot with its most likely cause.

Colour of snot

Cause

Normal colour

Yellow Red

Infection

Green

Infection Dusty environment

Black

Smoky environment

Bleeding

Clear


Making Snot Fake snot r o e t s Bo recipe r e p ok u (Advanced) S

You don’t need to wait for a bad cold to produce heaps of sticky snot.

Simply follow the recipes below. N.B. Neither are edible!

Equipment:

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The air that you breathe is full of dust mites, old skin cells, pollen, ash and if you have a pet dog or cat; fur, bacteria and many other tiny particles. As you breathe, these tiny airborne particles become stuck in your sticky snot and are prevented from being sucked into your delicate lungs where they might cause damage. Your nostril hairs do something similar by stopping bigger things such as insects from working their way up your nose.

PVA glue, green or yellow food colouring, water, borax, 2 plastic cups or similar containers, a sealable plastic bag, at least two plastic teaspoons.

Part A 1. Measure 3 teaspoons of PVA glue into one cup. 2. Add a couple of drops of the food colouring. 3. Add 3 teaspoons of water to it and stir.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Equipment: Cornflour, cold water and green or yellow food colouring. Method 1. Put cornflour into a container. 2. Add a few drops of food colouring. 3. Pour in enough water to make a paste and stir.

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Fake snot recipe (Basic)

Part B 1. Fill the other cup with water. 2. Add 1 heaped teaspoon of borax powder and stir to make a borax solution.

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Part C 1. Carefully add 1 teaspoon of borax solution to your jar of paste and stir until the “snot” starts to form. You can add a little more borax solution, but if you add too much, your “snot” will turn hard. If your “snot” is very wet but not sticky, try kneading it in your hands for a few minutes. Part D 1. Keep your “snot” in a sealable plastic bag. 2. Always wash your hands after playing with it.

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That’s

Your skin is your largest organ. If it were removed and then ironed flat, it would cover nearly two square metres. Your skin is very important. It helps protect your insides from germs and the sun and stops your body from drying out. It is also involved in keeping your body at the right temperature and allows you to feel sensations. Most of the time your skin functions perfectly but like all other organs, sometimes things can go wrong.

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Disgusting

Gross Fact

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The ancient Egyptians treated their spots with a cream made from bullocks’ bile, ostrich eggs, olive oil, salt and plant resin, flour and a splash of milk. Luckily we have a range of ointments, washes and scrubs available to us today and most spots will eventually disappear by themselves. Great hygiene, a good diet and remembering not to pick them, are important.

Make a list of skin diseases or skin problems that you’ve heard about. (Don’t worry if you can’t spell them.)

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Spots r r o e t s Bo e

You’ve probably included spots on your list because most people have them at sometime in their lives. Sebaceous glands in your skin make a special type of grease called sebum. The sebum travels through tiny pores in your skin and helps keep your skin soft and supple. Spots happen when your body produces extra sebum that combines with dead skin cells and blocks your pores . White heads occur when the blockage happens deep in the pore. Blackheads appear when the blockage happens near the top of the pore. (The black bit is caused by pigment in the dead skin cells, not by dirt.) Bacteria normally living on the surface of the skin move into the blocked pore and can cause pus. There are more than 2 million bacteria per square centimetre living on your nose, cheek and chin and more than 4 million per square centimetre living on your forehead.

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How Spots Develop skin pore

Grease

1. Sebaceous glands pour grease (sebum) into the skin pore. The grease flows onto the skin surface.

o c . che e r o t r s super Sebaceous Glands

Blocked pore (grease) at opening of skin

swollen pore

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Hair (most skin pores contain a small hair)

2. The opening of the pore becomes blocked. The pore starts to swell with grease. 3. The pore becomes large and swollen, raising the skin to form a visible spot. Bacteria starts to multiply within it. The spot becomes inflamed and looks red.


On the Spot

Carry out your own research into the causes, prevention and treatment of a skin disease/problem. You may want to study acne and pimples in more detail or look at skin cancer, psoriasis, dermatitis or eczema. If you have another skin problem in mind, check with your teacher before starting your research. Use the space below to help you to plan your work.

This assignment is due on_______________

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r o e t s Bo r e p _______________________________ ok Name of skin condition_ u S Signs & symptoms_ __________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________

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Cause(s) __________________ © ReadyEdPubl i c at i ons __________________ __________________ •f orr evi ew pur pos esonl y• __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________

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Prevention ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________

Treatment ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ Resources ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ 23


That’s Disgusting

Has anyone ever said to you, “What’s going on inside your head?” Read on, and you’ll be able to give them an answer. Right now there are 2000 tiny glands inside your ear busily producing wax (or cerumen). Everyone has earwax. Tick the box that best describes your earwax.  wet = oily, sticky and brown.  dry = sticky, brittle and grey.

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You may have heard the expression, “Never stick anything in your ears smaller than your elbow.”

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Your genetic background determines the type of wax that you have. People from European or African backgrounds tend to have wet wax, while Asian and Native Americans have dry wax. Researchers have used earwax types to track human migration patterns over the world.

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Earwax r o e t s Bo r e

Family history aside, earwax has an important function. It protects you against bacteria, small insects and fungi that may get into your ear canal and cause damage. These things become stuck in the sticky wax. The wax naturally dries up and drops out - on your clothes, on your pillow at night or on the desk of the person sitting next to you.

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Sometimes your ears produce extra wax and this can make it difficult to hear. If this happens, don’t try to clean out the wax with a cotton bud or anything else because you may end up pushing the blockage further down the ear canal and up against the eardrum. This can make the situation even worse.

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Other mammals have earwax too.

Earwax can be used to tell the age of some species of whales. Whales have ears but the ear canal is closed to the outside. Every year wax builds up inside whales' ears and forms a layer. Just like counting the rings inside the trunk of a tree, the number of waxy layers can be used to tell how old whales are. The biggest snag with this method is that the whales have to be dead to count them!

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Ear mites sometimes trouble cats and dogs. The larvae of these lovely creatures happily feast on earwax and can cause irritating ear infections. Fortunately, the mites rarely spread to humans.


More Earwax Read the information below to find the area on the diagram where your earwax lies. Colour this area then label parts of the outer, middle and inner ear.

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Bo ok

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Cross-section of thes Ear or e t

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Middle ear Inner ear Outer ear (Contains 3 tiny bones that

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start to move when the eardrum vibrates.) Hammer - Passes vibrations from the eardrum to the anvil. Anvil - Passes vibrations from the hammer to the stirrup. Stirrup - U-shaped and the smallest bone in your body. (It is 0.25 to 0.33 cm long.) It passes vibrations from the stirrup to the cochlea. Eustachian tube - A small tube that joins your middle ear with the back of your nose. It keeps the pressure in the middle ear and the outside air the same and is responsible for the popping sound that you sometimes get when you quickly change altitude.

Semicircular canals – Help you balance. They look like three loops and are attached to the cochlea. Cochlea – A snail shaped structure. Tiny hairs (cilia) inside the tube move when vibrated and send messages to the nerves. Nerves - These carry messages to the brain.

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Pinna –Easily seen. Although it can be decorated with jewellery, its main function is to collect sound and funnel it into your outer ear canal. Outer ear canal – Lined with sticky wax. Sound passes along this tube to reach your eardrum. Eardrum – This thin membrane vibrates when hit by sound waves travelling along the outer ear canal reach. It separates the outer and middle ear.

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What am I?

I am a liquid, I come in a variety of colours, including red (in humans), white (in cockroaches) and blue (in lobsters). I have been eaten, I’ve been drunk, I’ve even been made into a sculpture by Mark Quinn in 1991 and right now you have about 13 drink cans worth of me pumping through your body.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

As I travel around the circulatory system, I help transport oxygen, carbon dioxide, absorbed food, waste products and hormones. I keep your body temperature relatively constant and help you to fight against infection.

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Feel me move by placing two fingers on the side of your neck, just under your jaw, below your ear.

or bake me into a black pudding (a traditional dish from England).

In humans, I come in 4 main types: A, B, O and AB.

I can be donated, stored and after careful © R e a d y E d P uband l i c at i o s matching screening for n I’m a mixture, containing different types of diseases, I can be transfused in an cells, platelets and plasma. emergency from one individual • f o r r e v i e w p u r p o s e s onl y• When you’re feeling ill, I might get to another.

I make a good source of protein for some creatures. Vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus), really do drink me after using their heat sensors and their sharp front teeth to find and nip the veins of sleeping cows. A chemical in bats’ saliva numbs the wound and stops me clotting. As I ooze out, bats lick me up.

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Although essential for life in many, (but not in all animals), I can carry killer diseases such as AIDs, malaria and the plague. Surface too quickly from an undersea dive and little bubbles of gas will appear in me causing “the bends.”

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Leeches, mosquitoes, sandflies, bed bugs and ticks also find me tasty. If you like cooking, try mixing me with milk like the Massai in Africa

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Forensic scientists can use me to solve crimes.

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checked. Too many white cells might mean that you have an infection, too few red cells, could mean that you have anaemia.

I am __ __ __ __ __


What Am I? Acrostic Puzzle Read the clues to help you to complete the acrostic puzzle. Then circle a letter in each answer to vertically spell THICKER THAN WATER.

2. A small aquatic sucker.

2)

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1)

3. Your heart and blood vessels form this system.

3)

4. Prevented from happening by chemicals in vampire bats' saliva.

4)

5. Real vampire bats don’t suck blood - they _ _ _ _ it.

5)

6. May be detected by too many white blood cells.

6)

7. The number of human blood groups.

7)

8. Forget royalty. This creature really does have blue blood.

8)

9. The volume of your blood converted to drink cans.

9)

10. A killer disease spread by mosquitoes.

10)

11. An important gas needed to keep you alive.

11)

12. The colour of cockroach blood.

12)

13. This African tribe finds blood a good source of protein.

13)

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1. Created by Mark Quinn.

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14. The giving of blood from one person to another in an emergency.

14)

15. Kept relatively constant by the movement of blood.

15)

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . c e hereal r Don’t like the stuff – try this instead. o t r s super

16. Forensic scientists aim to solve this.

Equipment: 75g cornflour, 75mL water, 75mL golden syrup, 3 teaspoons red food colouring, 1 teaspoon green food colouring, a container for mixing, mixing implement (spoon, stick, etc.)

16)

Method 1. Mix corn flour and water together in a bowl or jug. 2. Add the golden syrup. 3. Add the food colouring. 4. Stir and enjoy.

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That’s

Everybody needs to wee or urinate. The proper term is micturition. If you couldn’t go, your body would be in serious trouble. How much do you know about urine, something that you and millions of others produce each day?

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Disgusting

Read the ten statements below and mark whether you think they are true or false.

Teac he r How did you Score?

1. Flamingos wee down their legs to keep cool 2. Your wee is a lighter colour in the morning 3. Wee is used by some people as a mouthwash 4. You wee less in the winter than in the summer 5. Wee can be used to run your car instead of petrol 6. Eating asparagus can make your wee smell very strange 7. Wee can be used to test people for illegal drugs 8. Wee is drunk by people all over the world 9. During your lifetime the amount of wee that you produce would nearly fill 150 bathtubs! 10. You sometimes shiver when you wee because your body loses heat

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r o e t To Wee s B r e oo Or Not up To WeeS True or Falsek

True False True False

0Wee-to go!4 True False 5-9 Great pee-formance! True False 10 © Re adyEdPubl i cat i ons Pee-fect!

•f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Fact 1

True False True False True False

o True False c . che e r o t r s s r u e p Some Wee Facts Fact 2

When urine leaves your body, it’s Urine is usually a pale yellow colour, but some diseases, drugs virtually sterile, (germ free) and and food can turn it orange, pink, hardly smells but when bacteria start breaking it down it soon or even fluorescent green. begins to pong.

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True False

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True False

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Fact 3

Urine is 96% water, plus salts, pigments and other wastes filtered from your blood.


More About Wee Match up the name with its description and then use the names to label the diagram below.

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Your kidneys work round the clock filtering wastes from your blood and keeping it clean. Think about dirty water being poured through a piece of filter paper. The clean water passing through the filter goes back into your blood system. Extra water that your body doesn’t need, together with waste products, are collected by the filter and leave each kidney through the ureter and are stored in your bladder.

Urethra

Ureter

Bladder

Kidney

1. Stores the urine, produced by your kidneys. 2. A “bean-shaped” organ that filters your blood and creates urine. 3. The tube connecting each of your kidneys to your bladder.

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Urine is made in your kidneys. If you put your hands on your hips with your thumbs on your back, you can locate your kidneys. They lie just beneath the ribs under your thumbs. Kidneys are “bean-shaped” and about the size of your fist. Most people are born with two kidneys, but sometimes people are born with just one or one stops functioning because of disease. People can survive with only one kidney but if that one stops working properly, they need to have their blood filtered by a machine (dialysis) and hope that they can receive a kidney transplant from another person.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons tube connects •f orr evi ew p4. uThe r p othat se sonl y• your bladder to the

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Your bladder can hold about 2 cups of liquid. As it reaches its limit, special stretch receptors in its wall make you feel that you need to wee. (Toddlers learn to recognise this feeling during toilet training.) The urine leaves the bladder by a tube called the urethra.

outside of your body.

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You produce between 4-8 cups of urine each day – the actual amount though depends on: the environmental temperature (you produce less in the summer because more water is lost via perspiration), what you’ve eaten (you wee less after eating salty foods) and how much liquid you’ve drunk.

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Sweaty Survey That’s

Ever been trapped in a lift with a person with bad B.O?

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yes no

Disgusting

Ever been overcome by the smell of someone’s feet when they’ve secretly slipped off their shoes?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S No

Ever forgot to take your P.E. gear home for a wash and had to a wear a stinky T-shirt - desperately hoping no one will notice?

Sweat!

yes no

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yes no

You are not alone!

Everyone sweats. Sweating helps keep your body at the right temperature. Your body works best when your insides are kept at 370C. If you start getting too hot, e.g. after exercising or on a hot day, your sweat making equipment springs into action.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

The sweat travels up the little tubes, out through the pores and on to the surface of your skin.

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sweat travels up

sweat gland

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Here’s the clever bit. The heat of your body makes the sweat evaporate and as it changes from a liquid to a gas, it removes heat and cools you down.

Test It!

You can also see how evaporation causes cooling by putting some methylated spirits on the back of your hand. 30

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Sweat is produced from little glands in your skin. You have thousands of them especially on the palms of your hands and soles of your feet.

surface of skin

What happened to the meths? _________________ What did your skin feel like? _________________


More Sweat r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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While everyone sweats or perspires – not everyone pongs. Fresh or recently produced sweat doesn’t smell unpleasant and feet don’t reek when you wander around without shoes or socks on.

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You can lose up to a litre of sweat each day and even more if it’s a hot day or if you’ve been very active. Sweat is mostly water with small amounts of salts, sugar and other chemicals mixed in. If you want your “personal evaporative air conditioner“ to keep on working, you need to replace the lost liquid – so drink lots of water. Unlike humans, kangaroos and dogs don’t sweat – but they can use evaporative cooling to lower their temperature. What do they do? _ ______ __________________________________ __________________________________

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Look at the and write down •f orr evi ew pu r p odiagram sesbelow on l y • some practical methods of reducing the

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Odour is caused when bacteria start to feed on old sweat. As they eat, they produce unpleasant smelling waste, which your nose detects. By reducing the amount of sweat produced, removing the sweat before it gets old or reducing the number of sweat snacking bacteria, you can reduce the risk of causing offence to others.

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risk of having bad body odour.

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Foul Facts andSpit Bits

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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Spit

Birds nest soup is the most expensive soup in the world and is made from the nest of swifts. These birds collect twigs, feathers, hair and moss, then glue them all together with extra sticky saliva. Your saliva spit or dribble isn’t as sticky as swifts’ saliva. It consists of mostly water with some mucus, germ killing chemicals and various enzymes thrown in. Saliva can be used to study your health. It can be used to detect and monitor diseases such as hepatitis, HIV and osteoporosis (bone thinning). It can also be used to test for illegal drugs and environmental poisons. Each day your salivary glands produce about 700mL to 1 litre of saliva. Your salivary glands line your cheeks, are under your tongue and are found beneath your lower jaw.

During the Renaissance, cow saliva was tried as a cure for male baldness! Its use was not very successful!

Saliva © Read y E d ubl i cat i ons is known to be P very important •f orr ev wp r posesonl y• ini ae number ofu

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• It softens food making it easier to swallow. • It helps to heal wounds in some animals. • It can be used to show that an animal is cross - camels and llamas spit when annoyed. They aim for the eyes! • Some venomous snakes use it to kill. • It can kill bacteria in the mouth that can cause tooth cavities. • It protects your teeth from stomach acid when you vomit. (You often start to dribble before being sick.) • It helps you to speak. • It helps you to taste things. • It starts the digestive process because it contains an enzyme called amylase that breaks down starch.

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parotid gland

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other ways:

o c . che e r o t r s super submandibular gland

sublingual gland


More Spit r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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or on your clothes.

Use the information from your experimental results to tick the correct words.

1. Iodine in the bottle is dark blue.  brown.

2. When tested, the iodine on the unchewed bread turned dark blue. brown. 3. When tested, the iodine on the chewed bread turned dark blue. brown.

4. Unchewed bread contains starch. does not contain starch.

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Today, you will be carrying out a chemical reaction in your mouth. You will be using a chemical called iodine. Iodine is an indicator for starch. It turns one colour when Iodine can starch is present and stain, so try a different colour not to get it when it is not on yourself present.

5. Chewed bread contains starch. does not contain starch. 6. When starch is present, iodine turns dark blue. brown.

Experiment © Rsomething eady EdPubl i cat i ons Aim: To show that in your saliva turns starch, found in bread, into sugar.•f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Two small squares of white bread, greaseproof paper and iodine.

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Method:

1. Put one square of bread into your mouth.

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Equipment:

What happened?

Your saliva contains an enzyme called amylase. Amylase is a chemical that breaks down starch into small sugar molecules. As you chewed the bread, a chemical reaction happened in your mouth. The amylase in your saliva changed the starch into sugar. If you chew the bread for long enough, many of the starch molecules will change into sugar molecules and the bread may begin to taste sweet. The small sugar molecules would normally continue through your digestive system and be absorbed by your body.

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2. Chew it about 30 times (try to mix as much saliva as possible with the bread).

3. Carefully spit the chewed bread onto a piece of greaseproof paper. 4. Put the unchewed piece of bread onto another piece of greaseproof paper. 5. Add four drops of iodine to each bread sample.

33


That’s

Ever heard the saying, “two heads are better than one”? It may have been thought up by the Jivaro Indians who once lived deep in the jungle between Ecuador and Peru.

!

Disgusting

After raiding their neighbouring tribes and removing the heads of those who they caught, the Jivaro Indians used the following recipe to shrink the heads so that they could be worn as necklaces by them. (I don’t think they bothered with matching earrings.)

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Shrunken r o e t s Bo r Heads e p o

How to make a shrunken head Equipment:

One head (severed), a small knife, a cooking pot,plant fibres, pebbles and sand, a fire, plant dye,feathers and shells.

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Make a slit from the back of the head to the top of the head. Separate the flesh from the skull. (Skull may be thrown in river to placate Anaconda God.) Turn the face inside out and remove any fat from the inside. Place the head in a pot of water and gently simmer until head shrinks to about twothirds of its natural size. Be careful not to let the water boil, as this will make the hair fall out.

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sew up the back of the neck, eyes and mouth. Place warm pebbles and sand inside the head and leave it to hang over a smoky fire overnight. Colour the head with plant dyes and decorate with feathers and shells. Wear around your neck.

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Method: Capture your enemy • f o r r evi ew p r p os sonl y• Useu plant fibre toe neatly and chop off their head.

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Original recipe


Make Your Own Shrunken Head Vegetarian alternative

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Method: Equipment:

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Today you’re going to make your own shrunken head by following an ancient vegetarian recipe.

An apple, a small knife or potato peeler, 1 cup of lemon juice, 2 teaspoons of salt, potato peeler, whole cloves, a few grains of rice, paint, feathers and shells (optional). 1. Capture your apple. 2. Separate the skin from the flesh by peeling it (peel may be eaten or thrown in river to placate Anaconda God.) 3. Dip the “flesh” in a mixture of lemon juice and salt (this stops it turning brown). 4. Carefully carve out eye sockets, a nose, mouth and ears using the peeler or knife. 5. Push cloves and rice into the “flesh” to highlight nostrils and eyes. 6. Leave to dry. 7. Colour the head with plant dyes or paint and decorate with feathers and shells. 8. Wear around your neck.

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Draw a picture or take a photo of your “shrunken head” and put it in the frame.

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Some bacteria are good, (Lactobacillus acidophilus turns milk into yoghurt), some are bad (Streptococcus will give you a sore throat) and some are really nasty (Bacillus anthracis causes anthrax which will kill you).

r o e t s Bo r e Bacteria p ok u That’s S ! Disgusting

Bacteria are found everywhere! From the bottom of the sea to more than thirty kilometres above the Earth, bacteria can live in boiling hot thermal springs and in frozen ice sheets.

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Bacteria come in 3 basic shapes! Coccus (round), bacillus (rod shaped) and spirals (spiral shaped). Scientists used these shapes and the way that the bacteria groups together to name them.

Bacteria live on you! There are about 10 million bacteria living on approximately each centimetre of your skin. There are lots in your mouth and masses in your digestive system, helping to break down your food.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Binary Fission • f o r r e v i e w p ur posesonl y• Bacteria can reproduce 0

1

Imagine that you are a single bacterium about to reproduce by splitting in half. You can do this every 20 minutes and so can each one of the new bacteria that you create.

Division 1

20

2

Division 2

40

4

Division 3

60

Division 4

80

Division 5

100

Complete the table to show how many bacteria would exist after 12 divisions. The first two divisions have been done for you. Continue to double the number as you move to the next box.

Division 6

120

Division 7

140

Division 8

160

Division 9

180

Division 10

200

Division 11

220

Division 12

240

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What a big family of bacteria you would soon have!

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You may want to use a calculator! 36

Time Number of (minutes) bacteria

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very quickly. Most use a method called binary fission – which means that they just divide into two.

would be thousands of bacteria.


More Bacteria Experiment 2: r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Discover how picking up bacteria is as simple as picking up hundreds and thousands or glitter and discover how easy it is to remove bacteria. Equipment: newspaper, vaseline, some hundreds and thousands or glitter, a cloth, cold water, warm water, soap.

Experiment 1:

Investigate how acid made by the bacteria in your mouth attacks the enamel covering your teeth by experimenting with an egg (enamel on teeth) and vinegar (acid made by bacteria).

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Try these two simple experiments.

Method: Part 1: Getting the germs

1. Lay newspaper out on a bench.

2. Sprinkle hundreds and thousands or glitter on to it.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f r r ev i ew pur posesonl y• Equipment: 1o egg, vinegar, 1 small

3. Rub a small amount of vaseline into the palms of your hands. 4. Press your hands onto the paper.

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Questions

Part 2: Removing the germs

5. Shake your hands to see how many fall off. 6. Rub your hands together - can you get rid of many that way?

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plastic container with a lid. Method: 1. Place the egg into the container. 2. Pour in enough vinegar to cover it. 3. Put the lid on the container. 4. Leave the egg in the vinegar for three days.

7. Wipe them with a cloth - do they all come off? 8. Run your hands under cold water - does that help?

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9. Lastly, wash your hand with warm soapy water.

Describe what happened to the egg. ________________________________

Questions

________________________________

Which method was the least effective?

________________________________ ________________________________ What should you do to reduce plaque caused by bacteria? ________________________________

__________________________________________ Which method was the most effective at removing the germs? __________________________________________

37


Decomposition That’s

!

tuna sandwiches or my bruised banana?” “Will I get better results if I carry out this experiment in the warm summer months?” “How long before the smell is detectable by everyone else?” As we all appreciate, these enquirers often get distracted and only remember their efforts to push back the frontiers of knowledge when their parents are heard going ballistic or the school caretaker forces open their locker because of the pong.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Experiment

Today, is your chance to replicate a decomposition experiment but without the shouting, the angst and the serious disinfecting. You will be working in small groups to

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Disgusting

You can guarantee that someone in your class is conducting their own decomposition experiment right now. You may not know it, they may not know it, but somewhere, in someone’s locker, in someone’s school bag or under someone’s bed, something is rotting. Like many great scientists, the individual may have begun by asking questions: "What will break down faster, my

study decomposition in a controlled manner. You will be observing and recording what happens at each stage of your experiment. Your experiment will run over two weeks.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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important that you do not open the bags once they have been sealed. 5. Place each bag in the following areas: Bag 1: dark and warm Bag 2: dark and cool Bag 3: light and warm Bag 4: light and cool 6. Observe the bags over the next few weeks. Draw what you see on the table provided. 7. Label a bag ‘fungi’ if it looks fuzzy or ‘bacteria’ if it looks slimy. 8. Always wash your hands after handling the bags. 9. Record your observations in the table provided on page 39.

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Aim: Observe decomposition in different environments. Equipment: One slice of bread cut into 4, 1 piece of fruit cut into 4, 4 snap lock bags, permanent marker for labelling. (Masking tape is optional.) 2 photocopies of page 39. Method: 1. Number the bags 1-4 and write DO NOT OPEN on each one. 2. Label the bags with today’s date and the name of your group. 3. Place a piece of bread and a piece of fruit into each bag. 4. Seal the bags shut – seal with tape if necessary. It is very

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Decomposition Results

Decomposition Results for:

after Week 1

Bag 1: dark and warm

Bag 2: dark and cool

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Bag 4: light and cool

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Bag 3: light and warm

after Week 2

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Bag 3: light and warm

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© ReadyEdPubl i c at i ons Bag 1: dark and warm Bag 2: dark and cool •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Bag 4: light and cool

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Questions

Which broke down faster? The bread or the fruit? __________________________________________ Circle the most accurate word:

The warmer the temperature the faster/slower things broke down.

The lower the light level, the faster/slower things broke down. 39


Tongue Twister Try saying the following tongue twisters quickly. How fast can you go?

About the tongue Your tongue is a large flexible muscle that works hard when you speak. It forms your food into balls and moves them to the back of your mouth when you swallow.

• The crow flew over the river with a lump of raw liver Now stick out your tongue and hold the tip of it lightly with your fingers – try to say (or sing) the alphabet! Can you feel it wiggle as you make your way through the letters?

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r o e t s B r e oo • She sells seashells p by the seashore u k Sbiscuits • Mixed

Rolling Your Tongue Some people can also roll their tongue. Can you? The ability to roll your tongue is inherited.

lingual frenulum Your tongue is attached to the bottom of your mouth by a little piece of skin called the lingual frenulum. This stops you swallowing your tongue. Some people are born with a short attachment, which makes it hard for them to move their tongue. To stop them being tongue-tied and to prevent them from having difficulty speaking, doctors can cut the membrane.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Tasty Facts

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buds (the number gets less as you age). When you eat, food dissolves in your saliva and runs down into the taste buds. Your tongue can recognise 5 tastes – sweet, sour, bitter, salty and umami (savoury tastes). Most foods are a mixture of these tastes.

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If you look carefully at the surface of your tongue you will notice that it’s covered in little bumps or papillae which sometimes get mistaken for taste buds. Your taste buds are actually found underneath these bumps. Your mouth contains about 10,000 taste

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Papilla on tongue

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tastebud

Papilla on tongue with tastebuds on lateral borders


Super Taster Just as some people have a better sense of smell, sight or hearing than others, some people have a better sense of taste. Try the following experiment to see if you are a super taster.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok Experiment u S

Equipment: Blue food colouring, a cotton bud, reinforcement rings for hole punched paper, a magnifying glass, mirror (optional). Method: 1. Dip the tip of the cotton bud into the food colouring. 2. Gently wipe the cotton bud on the tip of your tongue. 3. Put the reinforcement ring over the coloured area. 4. Use the mirror or get a partner and a magnifying glass to count the number of pink dots inside the ring.

reinforcement ring

tip of tongue

reinforcement ring

tip of tongue

Poor taster

tip of tongue

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reinforcement ring

Average taster

Super taster

Rate your taste Sense of taste

Number of dots/papillae inside the ring

Poor taster

less than 15

Average taster

15 to 35

© ReadyEdPSuper ubtaster l i cat i ons over 35 Record the number of students each• taste group. •f orr evi ew p ur po se s oninl y

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Sense of taste Poor taster Average tasters Super tasters

Number of students

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The little pink dots that you can see are the papillae. They haven’t absorbed the food colouring. Remember that your taste buds are found at the bottom of these bumps. The more bumps you have, the more taste buds you have. The more taste buds you have, the more sensitive to taste you will be. Girls are more likely to be super tasters than boys.

Class Results

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Graph your class results on the histogram below. (title, x axis = no. of tastebuds, y = frequency)

Questions: How many pink dots did you count inside the ring? ______ What is your sense of taste? ____________________________

41


Putrid Plants by Stinkyflora

Valentine’s Day is on the 14th February and provides you with the ideal way to show your “beloved” what you really feel about them. Read about the putrid plants below and choose a flower to send to your loved one.

Rock snot r o e t s B r e oo p u k S

This algae looks like yellowy brown slime but is surprisingly soft to touch. Spread by just a single droplet of water on a boat, fishing equipment or a vehicle, it quickly invades and causes serious damage to shallow waters of lakes, rivers and streams. It soon forms large mats which block waterways, change stream habitats and affect food sources for animals in these areas.

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Rock snot (Didymosphenia geminata) is another one of our very special plants.

Delivered to your ValEntine’s door in a bowl!

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Corpse Flower

These are a group of parasitic plants that grow in Southeast Asia, on the Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, Kalimantan, West Malasia and the Philippines.

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These strange plants have no stems, leaves or roots. They live inside a type of forest vine. In fact the only part of the Rafflesia that can be seen is its flower. In some species, the flowers can grow to over 100 cm in diameter and weigh up to 10 kg! Instead of using honeybees to transport pollen from one flower to another, these stunning plants use carrion flies. Carrion flies normally feed on dead animals, so the flowers have evolved to look and smell like rotting meat.

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Who can resist the Corpse flower? (Rafflesia)

Ringworm

Ringworm (Tinea) is one of our most popular plants.

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Just one bloom will make a statement!

This plant is a fungus that can grow in many different areas. Common habitats include the scalp, the feet (athlete’s foot) and around the nails. It’s itchy and contagious and is spread by touching someone after scratching an infected area and also by sharing hairbrushes. First appearing as a small red patch, it soon spreads rapidly outwards. Eventually the centre of the patch will heal leaving a red ring. Ringworm on the scalp causes bald patches. When your loved one tires of it, remove it with medication taken either by mouth or as a cream. A special plant to share!

42


Stinkyflora Design Based on one of the putrid plants on page 42, design a Valentine’s card to send to your beloved in the space below. Don’t forget to write a poem in your card about your putrid plant.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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Rafflesia smell dead Rock snot is slime Love is itchy like tinea End of the rhyme!

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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1

Aaaaaaaaccchhhooooooooooo

oooooooooo

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u Make a list of S three things Everyone sneezes, it is an involuntary action - you can’t control it.

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How would you describe your sneezing?

that make you sneeze.

Rate Your Sneeze

Type

C

D

2. ______________________________ 3. ______________________________

© ReadyEd ub i ca t i on s YourP teacher willl collate your class results. Use the graph below to show the results. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Very Sneezy!

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A researcher called Patti Wood believes that the way that you sneeze reveals something about your personality. Your teacher will read out what your sneeze might be saying about you and you can decide if you think Patti Wood’s ideas might be true.

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Title: Common Causes of Sneezing

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B

1. ______________________________

Number of students

A

Sneeze Description I usually give a single sneeze and turn just as I do it. I give a single big loud extra fast sneeze. I usually keep tissues handy and cover my mouth when I feel a sneeze coming on. I sneeze so loudly and so often that everyone turns around to look at me in amazement.

o c . che e r o t r s s r u e p Not So Causes of Sneezing

Sneezy!

The world record for the longest sneezing episode was broken in 1983 by Donna Griffiths from England. She kept going for 978 days in a row.

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Look at the results. What causes most people in your class to sneeze? ____________________________________________


2 Aaaaaaaaccchhhooooooooooo

oooooooooo

A sneeze is a blast of air that comes from your lungs and it is one way that your body protects itself from germs and other things that might irate or harm it. You use many muscles when you sneeze. Your stomach muscles, chest muscles, the muscles in your throat and vocal cords, face muscles and eye muscles all work. See if you can sneeze with your eyes open – it’s virtually impossible.

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r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Experiment –

What is Sneezing?

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Unfortunately your school’s ”sneeze speed detector” is being repaired so you aren’t going to be able to take your own measurements today - but you can see how far germs in a sneeze can spread with the Sneeze Simulator.

Sneeze Simulator

Equipment: A large sheet of paper, some tape, a bicycle pump, 1 container of water. Method: 1. Use the tape to attach the paper to an outside wall. 2. Stand about a metre away from the wall. 3. Suck up a few drops of water into the end of the bicycle pump hose. 4. Direct the hose at the paper then push down hard on the pump handle and the water “sneeze” will fly out and spread over the paper. (You may need to have several attempts or get closer to the paper.)

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Some people in your class may sneeze when they look at the sun or go from the dark into a bright area. “Sun-sneezing “or ”photic-sneezing” happens to about one in four people. No one really knows why this happens but this trait tends to run in families. If your parents do it, then you probably do it too.

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Sun-sneezing •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e ah ah ah tishooo! r o t r Sneezes s s r u e p travel at about

150km/hr. The fastest one has been recorded at 165km/hr.

A real sneeze can spread 2-3 metres from its source, so if the sneeze is the result of a cold or the flu, the germs can easily spread to people standing within 2-3 metres of the sneeze source. By catching your sneeze in a tissue, throwing the tissue away, then washing your hands you can reduce the spreading of a cold or flu. Hand washing also reduces your chances of picking up a cold because cold germs which land on objects like door handles and computer keyboards can survive for over 20 minutes! 45


That’s

!

Love plants or animals or perhaps you’re looking for a new pet? A parasite might be just the thing for you. Parasites are animals and plants that are cleverly designed to live on and feed off other living things. The things that they live on or in, are called hosts. Parasites are very common – in fact you may already be a host to one or two. Fill in the table below to discover if this might be the case. Try to be truthful with your responses. (Tick yes or no.)

Things or Thate Live eBo st r ok OnpYou u

S

HAVE YOU EVER…?

1 2 3

There are masses of human parasites to catch. Some are relatively harmless like the tiny Demodex mite that lives in the hair follicles of everyone’s eyelashes and eyebrows. Some, like ringworm, can be irritating but are easy to get rid of. While others such as the parasite Plasmodium falciparum that causes malaria, kills millions of people each year.

4 5

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Had a pet or played with one during your life? Walked barefoot on warm or sandy soil? Eaten sushi, uncooked meat or undercooked meat? Eaten raw eggs or oysters? Eaten salads or fruit which hasn’t been washed properly? Eaten somewhere where flies may have landed on your food? Eaten in places where mice, rats or cockroaches live? Eaten in places where rubbish is not covered? Shared drinks or food, shaken hands or kissed someone who may have touched something that has had parasites on it? Been bitten by an insect or another animal? Travelled or lived in less developed countries? Washed your hands in or drunk untreated water from a river, stream or lake? Swum in areas where the water may be contaminated? Used a public toilet? Come into contact with children? Had someone in your family who has had parasites?

Yes No

Yes No

Yes No

Yes No Yes No

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons 6 Yes No •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 8 9

Yes No

Yes No

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Yes No

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Ectoparasites live on the outside of your body. These include: head lice, fleas, athlete’s foot and scabies. Endoparasites prefer to live inside of you, e.g. tapeworms, pinworms, roundworms and giardia.

10

11

12

13 14 15 16

Yes No Yes No Yes No

Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No

Your teacher will go through the list and let you know how you scored. 46


This

Profile of a Parasite

assignment is due on_______________

Choose a parasite then complete the table below.

Name of parasite_____________________________________

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Scientific name______________________________________

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Reason for choice

Please tick

  Ectoparasite

 you’re worried you might get them

  Endoparasite

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 you’re worried you’ve got them

 other:

Lifecycle of Parasite

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Symptoms caused by the parasite to its host

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Draw parasite 

. te becoming a How to get rid of parasite How to prevent o c . host che ________________________ e r o t r ________________________ s sup________________________ er __________________________________________________

________________________ ________________________ ________________________

________________________ ________________________

References

47


Warts And All Many people get warts – the famous and the not so famous, the beautiful and the ugly, the old and the young. They can appear on most parts of your body usually popping up as small bumps of thick hard skin on your fingers, hands, elbows and feet. Sometimes the warts on the bottoms of your feet can grow inwards, making it painful to walk.

That’s

verruca vulgaris

!

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Warts are contagious – that means that you can catch them from another person and that you can spread them around your body by picking at them. However, you can’t catch Warts from toads.

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The scientific name for a wart is Verruca vulgaris. Warts are caused by a wart virus that gets inside your skin cells and changes the way that the cells grow. Although you can get rid of individual warts, once you have the virus in your system, warts can reappear at any time.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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If you need to get rid of a wart in a hurry you might want to visit a doctor. Doctors can remove warts by freezing them with liquid nitrogen. The nitrogen is so cold (minus 1960C) that when it’s placed on the wart it draws all the heat from the wart, effectively freezing it. Eventually the dead wart dries up and drops off.

48

Luckily however, just as warts can suddenly arrive, they can suddenly disappear all by themselves – but you might have to wait, as this vanishing act can take up to two years.

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My warts go with you

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Over the years, people have tried all kinds of ways to get rid of their warts. They have rubbed their warts with raw potatoes then buried the potatoes, or worn a live toad around their necks until the toad died. They have convinced others to buy their warts from them and even licked their forefingers and pointed them at passing funerals saying, “My warts go with you.”


Wart Survey r o e t s Bo r Fake Warts e p ok u S

Use your results to complete the table below. Name

Warts

Place of wart?

How was it treated?

Yes No

Feeling left out because you don’t have a wart of your own or need more to join the one that you’ve got. The following recipe will provide you with a multitude of fake warts - and they’re not contagious.

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There aren’t many people who get to carry out a survey on warts – but today is your lucky day. Find out how many of your family, friends and acquaintances have had a wart. Because children are more likely to suffer from warts, you may have to get your parents and grandparents to think back to when they were young. Ask them to tell you if they know about or have tried certain methods to cure warts.

Equipment:

Oatmeal, flour, water, cocoa powder, teaspoon, 1 container for mixing, toothpick and vaseline (optional).

Yes No

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesMethod: onl y• Yes No Yes No

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Your teacher will help collate class results so that you can answer the questions below.

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Questions

1. Percentage of people who have had a wart

1. Place 2 spoonfuls of oatmeal in the bowl. 2. Add 1 spoonful of flour. 3. Add 2 spoonfuls of water. 4. Stir well. 5. Use the spoon to grind in the oatmeal until you get a sticky paste. (Add extra water if necessary.) 6. Lastly, add small amounts of cocoa until the paste matches your skin colour. 7. Pinch out a small amount of the mixture and place it on your skin. Use the toothpick to model the lump into a bumpy warty shape. 8. Put a smear of vaseline or oil on the top for effect. Perfect!

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Yes No

___________________ 2. Percentage of people who have never had a wart ___________________

3. Most common place ___________________

4. Most common treatment

___________________ ___________________ 5. The most bizarre method of getting rid of warts ___________________ ___________________

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Deadly and Dangerous

Antibiotics can be used to treat many diseases caused by bacteria. Vaccinations can be used to stop you from catching some diseases caused by viruses. Write down some of the diseases that you have been vaccinated against. _________________________________ _________________________________

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

_________________________________ Despite improvements, there are still many nasty diseases around and new ones are emerging all the time.

It is an unfortunate fact that if you would have been born years ago, you may not have made it to the age that you are today. You would probably have died before your 1st birthday from disease. Here are some of the culprits:

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_________________________________

Imagine that you’re a doctor.

Carry out some research on a disease that interests you. It may be one listed on this page, one that you’ve heard about or one that someone who you know has contracted. Below are some more infectious diseases. Some of them were killers in the past and some cause problems and deaths now. There are also many interesting genetic diseases to look at. •Leprosy •Plague •Rabies •Ebola •Malaria •Influenza •AIDS •SARs •Bird flu •TB Check with your teacher after you have chosen a disease to research. Begin your research by filling in the Deadly and Dangerous Research template on page 51.

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 Measles  Chickenpox  Rubella (German measles)  Polio  Whooping cough  Cholera  Smallpox  Tetanus

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Most of your class would have had very few, if any, of the diseases listed above and even if they did contract them today, it’s very unlikely that they would die from them. Today, we know more about the causes of disease and how they are spread. We have better standards of hygiene and sanitation (clean drinking water and removal of waste products). Medicine has greatly improved.

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Tick the ones that you have had. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•  Mumps


Deadly and Dangerous Research By Doctor:

Date:

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u __________________________________________________ S Name of disease:_____________________________________

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Specific cause (e.g. virus, bacterium or parasite):

How the patient probably caught the disease:

Signs & symptoms:

____________________________________

______________

____________________________________

______________

© Ready EdPubl i cat i ons How to prevent further spread of the disease: ______________ •f orr evi e w pur posesonl y• ____________________________________ ______________

______________

____________________________________

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About Patient . t

e

o c . che Prognosis (what’s likely e r to happen to the o t r s su patient): per

Name__________________________  Male  Female

How to treat patient:

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______________

_______________________________ _______________________________

Next of Kin_ ___________________ Age ______

Likes_ ____________________________

_______________________________

Dislikes_ __________________________

_______________________________

Other_____________________________ _________________________________

References:

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Scatology for Beginners Fake Faeces

What is scatology?

The skill behind this recipe involves adding the right amount of water. Add too little and you will produce something hard and small (constipation), add too much and you will make diarrhoea (which comes from the Greek word “diarrhein” meaning to flow through). Equipment: 1 cup of flour, water, red and green food colouring, 1 container and spoon or stirring rod for mixing. Method: 1. Put the flour into the container. 2. Add a few drops of food colouring. 3. Carefully add the water and mix until you have the desired consistency. 4. Roll into appropriate shapes.

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Scatology is the scientific name for the study of poo. What is faeces?

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Faeces are a mixture of water, undigested food, salts, bile, and millions of bacteria that have been living in your digestive system. These bacteria help break your food down and at the same time produce smelly chemicals (indole, skatole and hydrogen sulfide gas) that make your faeces smell.

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How often you produce faeces and how much you produce varies between individuals and depends on what you have eaten. Some people might go a couple of times a day – others less often. A change in what is normal for you may indicate there is a problem.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Match the animals •f orr evi ew p ur pup os es onl ywith •

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Poo-eeeee!

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All animals poo or produce faeces - obviously some produce more than others! Large herbivorous animals probably produce the most.

 Wombats

 Dung beetles

 Rabbits

 Elephants  Whales

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The colour of your faeces can vary depending on the food that you’ve eaten – but the general brown colour is caused by bacteria breaking down yellowy green bile which has come from your liver.

Poo is made as your food travels through your long and winding digestive tube. Food goes in one end and poo comes out the other. 52

their own foul faeces fact

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The best way to keep healthy is by drinking lots of water and eating fruit and vegetables.

Eat their own soft poo Use poo to provide a but leave the hard pellets. home for their young. Produce more than 20 kilos of poo each day.

Make square poo.

Their faeces floats on water and can be collected to provide a non-lethal method of research.


2

Scatology for Beginners

Match up the part of the digestive system with its function and label the diagram below to find out where your poo is made.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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2. Food is squeezed by peristalsis through this part of your body, connecting your mouth and stomach. (Your epiglottis stops food entering your trachea and travelling to your lungs.)

________________________________

 Large intestine

 Small intestine

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1. Food enters the tube here. Your teeth and saliva begin digestion.

 Oesophagus  Rectum

 Stomach  Anus

 Mouth

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons That’s Disgusting •f orr evi ew pur pose!sonl y•

3. This strong muscular bag contains strong acid that kills bacteria and helps break down your food. Food is left to churn here for about 3 hours before moving to the small intestine. ________________________________

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4. Most digestion happens in this long wiggly section. More chemicals break food down further into tiny particles that are small enough to be absorbed back into the blood system.

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5. Water is removed from food that hasn’t been absorbed, creating poo. This section is thicker in diameter than the small intestine and also makes mucus to lubricate the faeces.

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6. Faeces are stored in this area at the end of the large intestine.

________________________________

7. Stored faeces leave the rectum through this hole at the end of the tube.

________________________________

53


What’s for Dinner Tonight?

1

Ken Glossop in England would have to include cockroaches on his list. In 2001, he ate thirty-six of them in one minute. Afterwards he said, "It's like having an anesthetic at the back of the throat." The numbing effect he felt was due to a scent that cockroaches release to stop predators from making a meal of them. In his case, it obviously didn’t work! For most people sitting down to a cockroach snack would not be appealing.

What are your favourite foods?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Write down a list of foods that you dislike.

Bizarre foods

eaten around the world. Read through the bizarre food list and rank them in order of revoltingness. 1= least revolting, 10=most revolting.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Rank of Bizarre Food List Revolting •f orr evi ewBird’s pu r posesonl y• nest soup Bizarre!

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Gross rating depends on whether you’ve eaten lunch or not.

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

(made with bird saliva) Roasted silk worms Preserved ants’ eggs Hakarl – rotted shark meat (Iceland) Black (blood) pudding Guinea pigs Scorpion kebabs Ducks’ tongues “Crubeen” pigs’ trotters Head cheese (made from the head of a pig or calf ) Tacos sesos (includes cow brains) Dried jellyfish

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Some people in your class probably dislike brussel sprouts. But if you were given the choice of either popping a small green brassica in your mouth or swallowing one of the bizarre foods from this list, you would most likely go for the sprout every time.

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Compare your results with the rest of the class.

Which food did most people find the least revolting?__________________________________ Which food did most people find the most revolting?__________________________________

54

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That’s

Disgusting

Cockroaches!


What’s for Dinner Tonight?

2

Look at the table on page 54. Choose a revolting food or something equally bizarre and:

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• Design a poster or brochure to convince people to buy and try a revolting food. • Plan a menu for a restaurant using a selection of revolting foods.

• Create an advertising jingle to get people to try a revolting food.

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• Collate and present your class' likes / dislikes and food rankings.

• Explain why you ranked the foods in the order you did on page 54

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• Make a video to encourage people to buy or cook one of the foods mentioned on page 54.

Use the table below to record your ideas and references.

Name of revolting food____________________________

© ReadyEd Publ i cat i ons Ideas •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________

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. te o c ____________________________________________________ . che e r o ____________________________________________________ t r s super ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________

References

55


Teacher Only Jokes What side of the cat has the most fur? The OUT-side.

Halitosis

Why are false teeth like the stars? Because they come out at night.

Teac he r

Mummy, mummy can I lick the bowl? No! You have to flush it like everyone else.

Vomit

What’s green, sticky and smells like eucalyptus? Koala vomit.

Gas

What happened to the boy who drank eight cans of coke? He burped seven-up.

Mucus

What’s another name for a snail? A booger with a crash helmet.

Tongue

Two cannibals are eating a clown. One says to the other, “Does this taste funny to you?”

Plants

What’s green and hangs from trees? Monkey snot.

Sneezes

What do you find in a clean nose? Fingerprints.

What do you call head lice on a Things that live bald person? on you Homeless. Warts

Doctor, doctor, will this ointment clear up my spots? I never make rash promises.

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What’s the difference between Mozart and a dead body? Decomposition One composes, the other decomposes.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Earwax

Which monster has the best hearing? The eeriest.

Blood

What’s better than a drip dry vampire? A wash and wear wolf.

Wee

Doctor, doctor, my aunt has a sore throat. Give her this bottle of auntie-septic.

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What’s cute and cuddly and bright purple? A koala holding its breath.

Toilet paper

Spots

Bacteria

What goes ha ha ha plop? A man laughing his head off.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Hairballs

Creature feature

Shrunken heads

What is a witch’s favourite drink? Wart –er

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Worms

How can you tell which end of a worm is which? Tickle it in the middle and see which end laughs!

Revolting diseases

Doctor: I have some bad news and some very bad news. Patient: Well, give me the bad news first. Doctor: The lab called with your test results. They said you have 24 hours to live. Patient: 24 HOURS! That’s terrible! WHAT could be WORSE? What's the very bad news? Doctor: I've been trying to reach you since yesterday.

Pooh

What has two grey legs and two brown legs? An elephant with diarrhoea.

Bizarre foods

What’s the difference between a maggot and a cockroach? Cockroaches have more crunch when you eat them.

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Why was the sand wet? Because the sea weed.

Sweat

Doctor, doctor, I feel very flushed. You must have flu. No, I walked.

Saliva

Why are sausages bad mannered? They spit in the frying pan.


Answers Hairball Acrostic Puzzle, page 9

It’s a Gas, page 18

stomacH fAeces trIchobezoar hundRed Bald vinegaAr geLatine saLiva

Air travel can make you fart. True The more you burp the less you fart. True Loudest burp ever recorded was almost as loud as a pneumatic drill. True Yanomami people from Venezuela use farting as a greeting. True You fart more as you get older (who’s the oldest in your class?) True Adults fart about 16 times a day. True Mr Methane makes his living by farting. True “Eructation” is another name for farting. False (It’s burping) Astronauts are banned from eating beans etc before going into space. False (They’re not encouraged) Farting cows may be contributing to global warming. True

Habit cOat Rodents Raspy vOmit keRatin

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S S’not Funny, page 20

Halitosis Heaven, page 10 Sweet breath examples: mint, parsley, breath fresheners. Dog’s breath examples: garlic, onions, tuna.

Creature Feature, page 12

Cane toads Preying mantis

Cause

Clear

Normal colour

Yellow

Infection

Green

Infection

Brown

Dusty environment

Black

Smoky environment

Red

Bleeding

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew puEarwax, r po sesonl y• page 25 Spots, page 22

Fussy eaters - eat their own soft droppings but not their hard ones.

Skin diseases may include: dermatitis, dandruff, eczema, hives, skin cancer, acne, rosacea, prickly heat and psoriasis.

Cannibal carers - wiggle their toes to attract and then gobble up their own babies.

Femme fatales - females dine on their partners during or after mating.

Mucus makers – escape from predators by making bucketfuls of slime.

Hippos

Scented stinkers – attract mates by using their tails to flick urine and faeces.

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Hagfish

Vomit, page 16

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Causes of vomiting: food poisoning, illness, giddiness or motion sickness, reaction to drugs, seeing something unpleasant, e.g. someone else vomiting.

semicircular canals hammer anvil

pinna ear canal

nerves

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Rabbits

Colour of snot

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Gas producing foods include: many legumes, onions, garlic, fizzy drinks.

cochlea

eardrum

stirrup

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eustachian tube

What Am I? page 26

mouth

I am BLOOD

oesophagus stomach

small intestine large intestine

rectum anus

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What Am I? Acrostic Puzzle, page 27

No Sweat, page 30

T H I C K E R

sculpTure leecH cIrculatory Clotting licK infEction fouR

The warmth from your skin makes the meths evaporate. The skin feels cooler.

T H A N

lobsTer tHirteen mAlaria oxygeN

W A T E R

White MAssai Transfusion tEmperature cRime

More Sweat, page 31 Both kangaroos and dogs use evaporation cooling when they get too hot. Kangaroos’ wrists contain many blood vessels. By licking them, heat from their body evaporates the saliva and reduces their internal temperature. Dogs pant and saliva evaporates from their tongues.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Reducing risk of body odour:

Wash and change your clothes especially your socks! Wear natural fibres rather than synthetic ones, e.g. cotton socks and tops and leather shoes Use deodorant

To Wee Or Not To Wee? page 28 Flamingos wee down their legs to keep cool True Your wee is a lighter colour in the morning - (no, it's darker) False Wee is used by some people as a mouthwash True You wee less in the winter than in the summer - (wee more because you don’t sweat as much) False Wee can be used to run your car instead of petrol False Eating asparagus can make your wee smell very strange True Wee can be used to test people for illegal drugs True Wee is drunk by people all over the world True During your lifetime the amount of wee you produce would nearly fill 150 bathtubs! - (average person wees 41 thousand litres of urine in a lifetime – enough to fill 315 bathtubs!) False You sometimes shiver when you wee because your body loses heat True

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Wash your body regularly

More Spit, page 33 Iodine in the bottle is brown.

When tested, the iodine on the unchewed bread turned dark blue. When tested, the iodine on the chewed bread turned brown. Unchewed bread contains starch.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pBacteria, ur po s esonl y• page 36

Stores the urine produced by your kidneys

Kidney

A “bean-shaped” organ that filters your blood and creates urine

Ureter

The tube connecting each of your kidneys to your bladder

Urethra

The tube that connects your bladder to the outside of your body

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Bladder

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When starch is present, iodine turns dark blue.

Time/min. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 240

No. of bacteria 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 512 1024 2048

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More About Wee, page 29

Chewed bread does not contain starch.

o c . che e r o t r s super Kidneys Ureter Bladder Urethra

Note: These numbers assume the parent bacteria don’t last long and aren’t counted. So there would probably be even more bacteria than these numbers suggest.

More Bacteria, page 37 Experiment 1 After 3 days, the acid in the vinegar (acetic acid) will dissolve the calcium carbonate in the eggshell. Point out that the acids produced by the bacteria in the mouth do the same thing to tooth enamel.


Experiment 2

lungs.)

Which method was the least effective? Shaking of the hands.

Stomach This strong muscular bag contains strong acid that kills bacteria and helps break down your food. Food is left to churn here for about 3 hours before moving to the small intestine.

Which method was the most effective at removing the germs? Washing with warm soapy water followed by careful drying.

Aaaaachooo, page 44 A bit of fun.

Large intestine Water is removed from food that hasn’t been absorbed, creating poo. This section is thicker in diameter than the small intestine and also makes mucus to lubricate the faeces.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Patti Wood’s interpretations of types of sneezes and characteristics of sneezers.

A single sneeze and you turn away just as you do it. “Nice sneezer.” They are warm, helpful, supportive and nurturing of others.

Rectum Faeces are stored in this area at the end of the large intestine. Anus Stored faeces leave the rectum through this the hole at the end of the tube.

A big loud extra fast sneeze. “Get it done sneezers.” They are fast, decisive and to the point. Most make good leaders.

Usually keep tissues handy and cover mouth when feel are about to sneeze. “Be right sneezers" and are typically the careful, accurate, deep-thinking type. Sneezes so loudly and so often they amaze everyone around them. “Enthusiastic sneezers” are people with sneezes you notice. They are charismatic and social and have the ability to motivate others.

mouth oesophagus

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Small intestine Most of digestion happens in this long wiggly section. More chemicals break food down further into tiny particles that are small enough to be absorbed back into the blood system.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Things that make you sneeze include: dust, pollen, furry animals, pepper and the sun.

stomach

small intestine

large intestine

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Rabbits

Eat their own soft poo but leave the hard pellets

Elephants

Produce more than 20 kilos of poo each day

Whales

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rectum

Scatology for Beginners 1, page 52

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Their faeces floats on water and can be collected to provide a non-lethal method of research

Wombats

Make square poo

Dung beetles

Use poo to provide a home for their young.

Scatology for Beginners 2, page 52 Mouth Food enters the tube here. Your teeth and saliva begin digestion. Oesophagus Food is squeezed by peristalsis through this part connecting your mouth and stomach. (Your epiglottis stops food entering your trachea and travelling to your

anus


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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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That's Disgusting  

Sweat, warts, hairballs, halitosis, vomit, earwax and blood. These are just some of the gruesome but important educational topics covered in...

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