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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Written by Kevin Rigg. Illustrated by Terry Allen. Design & Typesetting by Shay Howard. Published by Ready-Ed Publications (2007) © Ready-Ed Publications - 2007. P.O. Box 276 Greenwood Perth W.A. 6024 Email: info@readyed.com.au Website: www.readyed.com.au COPYRIGHT NOTICE Permission is granted for the purchaser to photocopy sufficient copies for non-commercial educational purposes. However, this permission is not transferable and applies only to the purchasing individual or institution.

ISBN 1 86397 675 2


Contents

Contents

Teachers’ Notes Presentation Ideas Curriculum Links

Earth and Beyond

.......... page 4 .......... page 5 .......... page 6

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Lesson 2: The Moon Teachers’ Notes Activity

........ page 10 ........ page 11

Lesson 3: Eclipses Teachers’ Notes Activity

........ page 12 ........ page 13

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.......... page 8 .......... page 9

Lesson 4: Weather Instruments Teachers’ Notes Activity Activity Arrow Template

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Lesson 1: Our Sun Teachers’ Notes Activity

page 14 © ReadyEdPubl i ca........ t i o ns ........ page 15 ........ page 16 •f orr evi ew pur poses onl y• ........ page 17

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........ page 18 ........ page 19 ........ page 20

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Lesson 5: Collecting Weather Data Teachers’ Notes Activity Activity (Weather Log) Lesson 6: Looking into Weather Teachers’ Notes Activity

........ page 21 ........ page 22

Lesson 7: The Sun’s Path (1) Teachers’ Notes Activity

........ page 23 ........ page 24

Lesson 8: The Sun’s Path (2) Teachers’ Notes Activity

........ page 25 ........ page 26

Answers

........ page 27

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Teachers’ Notes This book contains a package of photocopiable worksheets designed to be used to cover the Science learning area of “Earth and Beyond” with 8-10 year old students.

Earth and Beyond

Lesson Sheets Layout

At this level the students’ focus is on the wider world and how physical processes impact upon their local environment. Skills developed in this book include the drawing of diagrams and collecting and presenting data.

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Specific activities include examining how the sun, moon and the earth interact, collecting and analysing weather phenomena, constructing weather recording devices, and understanding the sun’s path.

Each lesson has the potential to: • extend into more than one lesson by having separate parts to the lesson sheet. Some sections of a lesson may need planning on other paper before final copies are transferred to the lesson sheet. Some lessons may be too long for one lesson and could be completed at another time. • expand into other curriculum areas using a similar theme. There are ideas for crosscurricular integration with other learning areas. Sometimes a whole day’s work could be planned around one lesson sheet.

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STUDENT LESSON SHEET Lesson title Student learning activities

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Science Materials and Equipment

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The equipment needed has been kept to a minimum to facilitate ease of planning. It is readily available in schools or is easily acquired.

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All lesson sheets are outcome linked to the various curriculum documents (see page 6). Answers are provided where necessary (see page 27). Other books in the Practical Science series:

• • • •

4

Energy and Change Life and Living Natural and Processed Materials Working Scientifically

TEACHERS’ NOTES INCLUDE: (FOR EACH LESSON) Outcome links;

Required materials; Lesson plan ideas including extension ideas and teaching tips; Cross-curricular/integration ideas.


Presentation Ideas

Earth and Beyond

• Create a display using items used in the lesson and worksheets. Children could make labels for the items. • Make a frieze of drawings, magazine cut-outs and worksheets used in the lesson. Students can label the pictures.

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• Take digital photos of the activity and download/print them for a language activity. Children can create labels to put under the photos.

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• Children could produce labels or text for the photos which can be used to create a class book or display in the library. • Display record pages alongside the data collection pages in a class display.

• Collect photos from the children of activities, pets, homes, etc.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• • Use art pieces as a backdrop to a display of the children’s • Cut the worksheets up into parts and display, together with the children’s drawings. worksheets.

. te Internet Use

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• Children could prepare and present talks to another class using the worksheets as a guide.

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All websites listed in the Practical Science books are linked from the Ready-Ed website listed below. This saves the teacher and/or student from typing in the addresses each time. External websites referred to in this book will be updated through the Ready-Ed site below should they disappear or modify their address after publication. Bookmark this site for ease of use:

www.readyed.com.au/urls/science 5


Curriculum Links

Earth and Beyond

The activities in Practical Science: Earth and Beyond can be linked to the following Science strands and learning outcomes for each state/territory.

State/Territory

Outcomes

Earth and Beyond r o e t s r Earth,B Sky and People e oo The Changing Earth p u Our Place in Space k S Science

· · ·

2.1 2.2 2.3

New South Wales

Science and Technology

· Built Environments · Earth and its Surroundings

BE S2.1 ES S2.6

Victoria (VELS)

Science

· Science, Knowledge

CSF 2.1

and Understanding · Science at Work Earth and Space Sciences: Our Place in Space The Changing Earth

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South Australia

. Western Australiat e

Science

· Earth and Beyond

Science

· Earth and Space

2.1, 2.2, 2.3

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Queensland

6

Strands

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NT, ACT and Tas. (National Curriculum)

Subject Area

2.1, 2.2

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· Earth and Beyond


Earth and Beyond •Our Sun •The Moon •Eclipses •Weather Instruments •Collecting Weather Data •Looking Into Weather •The Sun’s Path (1) •The Sun’s Path (2)

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Lesson plans and activities for:

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Lesson 1

Lesson 1

Teachers' Notes

Earth and Beyond

Our Sun Learning Outcome: • Illustrates patterns of change observable on Earth caused by the relationship between the sun, Earth and the moon.

Materials:

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• research materials (e.g. library books, Internet) • model or poster of the sun (optional) • large art paper • magazines for cut-outs and drawing resources

Lesson Ideas: • Discuss the sun and how it affects our life.

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• Children research the answers to the questions on the worksheet using the library and/or Internet resources. Some online starting points could be:

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons seds.lpl.arizona.edu/nineplanets/nineplanets/sol.html •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• www.nineplanets.org/sol.html www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/planets/sun.htm

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• Children can prepare a project on the sun using information from the worksheet and any other information they wish to use. Internet print-outs, magazine cut-outs and drawn pictures with labels can be used to illustrate their work.

o c English (Writing): Make a list of “sun” words for word study activities. . che e r o English (Speaking and Listening): Students present talks on the sun t r s s r u e p using the projects and notes as a guide. Integration Ideas:

Health: Have a “Sun Safe” lesson. The Arts: Craft – Make models of the sun using papier-mâché.

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A

Lesson 1

Our Sun

Earth and Beyond

Use your research skills to answer these: _________ km

What is the diameter of our sun?

_________ km

About what is the surface temperature of our sun?

_________ ºC

Approximately what is the inner core temperature of our sun?

_________ ºC

About how much hydrogen does the sun burn every second?

_________ tonnes

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About how far from Earth is our sun?

Draw a labelled diagram of the sun showing its main features.

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Find the meaning of these “sun” words:

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photosphere:

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o c . che e r o t r s life on Earth. Friendly Sun: List two s ways thee sun helps r up

• ____________________________________________________________ • ____________________________________________________________

Dangerous Sun: List two ways the sun can hurt life on Earth. • ____________________________________________________________ • ____________________________________________________________ 9


Teachers' Notes

Lesson 2

Earth and Beyond

The Moon Learning Outcome: • Illustrates patterns of change observable on Earth caused by the relationship between the sun, Earth and the moon.

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• poster/model of the moon • Internet access for research • library books about the moon

• Discuss moon stories and show the model/poster of the moon. • Read through the worksheet and discuss how students might find the information. Children can take notes on other paper, editing the information and then committing it to the worksheet when they are happy with their answers. • If possible view these moon websites: www.moonpeople.com/html/kids/kids.html www.kidsastronomy.com/earth/moons.htm starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/StarChild/solar_system_level1/moon.html kids.nineplanets.org/moon.htm www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/astronomy/moon/Phases.shtml • Children can present extra information (e.g. moon landings) if they have time. • Each group could make/draw a different moon phase and hang them in order across the room.

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. te ousing English (Writing): Children write stories about visiting the. moon c chave e the information they learned. Another option is to write “diary h r er o entries” of their trip. t s s r u e p English (Language): Create a word list of moon words with associated Integration Ideas:

word study activities. English (Speaking and Listening): Children prepare and present talks using the worksheet as a guide. The Arts: Make a model of the moon using papier-mâché.

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The Moon

Lesson 2

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A

Earth and Beyond

Moon Facts

The moon rotates every 27 days, and revolves every 27 days. What does this mean to us on Earth when we look at the moon? ____________________________________________________________

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The moon's average night temperature is –150 ºC and its average day temperature is 107 ºC. What does this tell us about the moon’s atmosphere?

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____________________________________________________________

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The moon affects the tides of the earth’s oceans.

Draw a labelled diagram below and explain how this happens.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr e i e w pur posesonl y• Phases ofv the Moon C The

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From Earth we can only see a partial moon sometimes. Explain why.

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_______________________________________________________________ Colour in the circles below to show the phases the moon goes through over its cycle.

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o c . che e r o t r s super How long is the moon’s cycle? ____________________________________

new moon

waxing crescent

first quarter

waxing gibbous

full moon

waning gibbous

last quarter

waning crescent

Write three interesting facts about our moon. • ______________________________________________________________ • ______________________________________________________________ • ______________________________________________________________ 11


Teachers' Notes

Lesson 3

Earth and Beyond

Eclipses Learning Outcome: • Illustrates patterns of change observable on Earth caused by the relationship between the sun, Earth and the moon.

Materials:

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For demonstration:

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• Internet access

Lesson Ideas:

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• large ball to represent the earth (e.g. basketball) • small ball to represent the moon (e.g. ping pong ball) • torch or projector to show the sun’s light

• Children will need to view a demonstration of how eclipses occur. This could be done using one or more of the Internet sites listed below as well as using balls (to represent the earth and the moon) and a light source, e.g. torch (to represent the sun).

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Check out these websites:

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starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/StarChild/questions/question6.html www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/moon/eclipse.html&edu=elem www.space.com/scienceastronomy/solarsystem/eclipses-ez.html Solar Eclipse: micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/scienceopticsu/solar/ Lunar eclipse: micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/scienceopticsu/lunar/ • Children conduct some research of their own (using library resources or Internet) and complete drawings and explanations on their worksheet. • Discuss the dangers of watching a solar eclipse. Children can brainstorm their own ideas on how to watch an eclipse safely. View the website below. wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_eclipse

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Integration Ideas:

English (Word Study): Make a list of solar eclipse words for a spelling activity sheet. Health: Demonstrate how to care for our eyes and relate to viewing solar eclipses. Society and Environment / HSIE / SOSE: Children research the advantages for science of watching and learning about solar eclipses. The Arts: Craft – In groups, students make models of the earth, moon and sun using balloons and papier-mâché. Ask the students to work out a way of showing an eclipse by hanging/suspending the balls and using a torch. English (Spelling): Make a list of ‘environment’ words for word study activities.

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Eclipses

Lesson 3

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A

Earth and Beyond

An eclipse of the moon (lunar eclipse) occurs when: _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

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Draw and label a diagram to help explain what happens during a lunar eclipse.

The eclipse of the sun (solar eclipse) occurs when: _________________________________________________________

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Draw and label a diagram to help explain what happens during a solar eclipse.

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Describe two ways to safely watch a solar eclipse. • _____________________________________________ • ______________________________________________________________

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Teachers' Notes

Lesson 4

Earth and Beyond

Weather Instruments Learning Outcome: • Records ways we monitor and use information about changes to the earth.

Materials:

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Each group will need: • thermometer

• arrow template sheet on page 17

• large plastic soft drink bottle (no lid) • small ruler (or half of a plastic ruler) • small stones or marbles

To make the wind vane:

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To make the rain gauge:

• large plastic soft drink bottle • plastic pen lid (e.g. biro lid) • 4 sharpened toothpicks • 2 pieces of light card – students use arrow template to cut out two arrows • knitting needle • cork that fits the bottle top • sand

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Lesson Ideas:

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• Each group follows the instructions on the worksheets (Weather Instruments 1-3) to make the instruments. • Discuss the reasons for the positioning of the instruments to collect data. • Students use the instruments to complete the Collecting Weather Data worksheet on page 19. • Instruments should be tested over several days to ensure that they are working correctly. Record the weather over a month.

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English (Writing): Students write a recount on the process of making the weather instruments. Society and Environment / HSIE / SOSE: Examine weather studies from around the world. Use the websites below as a starting point. World weather: www.worldweather.org World weather data: www.worldclimate.com

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Lesson 4

Weather Instruments (1)

Earth and Beyond

Follow the instructions carefully and learn how you can record the weather. Your teacher will give your group the materials for these activities. 12345678901 12345678901 12345678901 12345678901 12345678901 12345678901 12345678901 12345678901 12345678901 12345678901 12345678901

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Thermometer Placement

The thermometer should be placed in the open, in the shade and away from the wind. Make sure it remains in the same place all the time.

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Why should the thermometer be placed away from the wind? ___________________________________________________________

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___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

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Making a Rain Gauge

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Instructions: • Cut the top off the plastic bottle about two thirds of the way up.

plastic bottle

ruler

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• Place some small stones or marbles in the base as ballast.

water marbles

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• Glue the plastic ruler inside the bottom so that the measurements read from the bottom up.

. te Rain Gauge o • Add some water up to the start of the c . che ruler marks. e r o t r saway • Place your rain gauge in ans elevated position r u e p from trees and buildings. • Invert the top of the bottle and insert it into the bottom half as a funnel.

Why should the rain gauge be placed away from buildings and trees? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 15


Lesson 4

Weather Instruments (2)

Earth and Beyond

Follow the instructions carefully and learn how you can record the weather. Your teacher will give your group the materials for these activities. 12345678901 12345678901 12345678901 12345678901 12345678901 12345678901 12345678901 12345678901 12345678901 12345678901 12345678901

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Making a Wind Vane

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biro top

knitting needle

plastic bottle

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cork

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• Fill the plastic bottle with sand. • Insert the knitting needle through the cork so that it sticks out about 10 cm.

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• Use the card and the arrow template (on page 17) to make two identical arrows. Glue the arrows together, either side of the biro top.

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• Insert the sharpened toothpicks into the cork to make direction pins.

o c . c e r • Fit the cork into theh bottle and place the biro top onto the knitting e o t r s super needle point.

• Write “North”, “South”, “East” and “West” on pieces of card and fix to the direction pins.

Why should the wind vane be placed in an open area? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

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Lesson 4

Weather Instruments (3)

Earth and Beyond

Arrow Template

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Use this arrow as a template to make the two arrows for your wind vane. Cut out the arrow below and trace around it using stiff card.

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Lesson 5

Teachers' Notes

Earth and Beyond

Collecting Weather Data Learning Outcomes: • Records ways we monitor and use information about changes to the earth. • Describes changes that occur in the local environment.

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• weather instruments from Lesson 4

For this lesson, students use their wind vanes and rain gauges, however, you could also demonstrate with real examples from the science resource room. • Choose a week where rain is forecast so that the rain gauges can be used. • Explain the Beaufort Scale to students. Background information on this scale can be found at a number of websites: www.met-office.gov.uk/education/secondary/students/beaufort.html www.bom.gov.au/lam/glossary/beaufort.shtml www.islandnet.com/~see/weather/history/beaufort.htm • Ensure the children know their directions (North, South, East and West). • Children collect the information in groups and take turns to go and gather the data. Weather checking should be done at the same time each day. • Students record the data into the Weather Log (see page 20) for each day. • Children could predict the results for each day before data is collected. • Make a class list of the descriptors used by the children each day. • Children can collate the data using the Lesson 6 worksheet “Looking Into Weather”. • Data collection could then be repeated during a different season of the year, for a comparison. • If possible, take a photo each day of the weather and use with a display of the instruments and results.

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English (Writing): Students do daily writing about the current weather or on a weather-related topic. E.g. Story titles may be “Lost in a Storm”, “The Day the Water Froze”, etc.). The Arts: Using magazines, students cut out images depicting different types of weather and create a class montage.

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Lesson 5

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A

Collecting Weather Data

Earth and Beyond

Using your weather instruments, collect the weather information and fill in the data on the Weather Log.

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Rate the wind strength according to the “Beaufort Scale”.

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Write a brief description of the weather each day into your Weather Log. Your description only needs to be two or three words. For example, rainy, windy and cold.

wind direction on the Weather Log because it could come from a direction between the four main directions (e.g. North West).

= a light air movement

2

= a light breeze

3

= a gentle breeze

4

= a moderate breeze

5

= a fresh breeze

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Colour in a the “Cloud Cover” © ReadyEdPu bl i c t i ons box according to the amount 0 = calm conditions of o skys covered cloud. •f orr evi ew pur p esowith nl y •

Beaufort Scale

. te o = a strong breeze c . c e her r = a moderate gale o t s supe r Record the temperature. = a fresh gale

= a strong gale

Record the rainfall.

10 = a very strong gale 11 = a storm

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Weather Log

Lesson 5

Earth and Beyond

Date started:________ Season:________ Time recorded each day:__________

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Temperature

Cloud Cover Wind Direction Description Wind Strength

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Rainfall(mm)

Write the days in the balloons below:

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Lesson 6

Teachers' Notes

Earth and Beyond

Looking Into Weather Learning Outcomes: • Records ways we monitor and use information about changes to the earth. • Formulates questions to guide observations and investigations of familiar situations.

Materials:

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Lesson Ideas:

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• student data sheets (Weather Log) from Lesson 5 • calculator

• Children analyse the data collected on the Weather Log worksheet.

• A calculator can be used for working out the range and averages. Demonstrate an example on the board.

• Revise graphing skills needed (e.g. working out a scale, numbering lines not spaces, adding labels, and so on).

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons • Children complete the graph using coloured and lead pencils. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Integration Ideas:

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• In groups, children discuss the activity assessment (B – Conclusion). They can then complete this section on their own.

Society and Environment / HSIE / SOSE: Using the weather information, students can explore how the weather affects local industries (e.g. the types of crops grown) and the types of homes (e.g. heating) that they live in. Compare local industries and homes to those in different climates around the world.

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English (Word Study): Brainstorm a list of weather words for spelling activities and word study. English (Speaking and Listening): Children present talks to other classes on their weather collecting activity using their weather instruments/data as a focus. 21


Looking Into Weather

Lesson 6

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A

Earth and Beyond

Title:

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Complete the following.

Temperature

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Choose one weather feature from your Weather Log and create a graph of the readings made by your group. Clearly label your grid’s axes and give it a title.

What was the temperature range of the temperatures recorded? ___________

(Hint: take the lowest temperature away from the highest temperature) What was the average temperature recorded? ________

Cloud Cover

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i o ns Colour in this Which wind direction was the most common? ________ rectangle to show •thef o rr e vi ew ur poseson y• thel average What was average Beaufort Scalep score? _________

Wind

Rain

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amount (%) of cloud cover.

o c . Describe any problems you had collecting the data. c e her r _____________________________________________________________ o t s super _____________________________________________________________ Conclusion

Did the instruments work well? Explain how they performed. _____________________________________________________________ What surprised you the most about the weather data? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 22


Lesson 7

Teachers' Notes

Earth and Beyond

The Sun’s Path (1) Learning Outcomes: • Investigates the apparent motion of the sun in relation to Earth and how this affects everyday life. • Conducts simple tests and describes observations. • Identifies patterns and groupings in information, to draw conclusions.

Materials:

• metre length stick (or even a broom handle)

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• blackboard protractor • large ruler or tape measure (e.g. blackboard rule) • art paper approximately 50 cm square with the centre of one side marked “North” side • markers/textas

Lesson Ideas:

North

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• The children take turns to record data about the sun every hour for a total of six hours. • Students record the length of the shadow, rule its shadow on the paper and, if able, measure the angle of the shadow using a large protractor. Note: Measuring the angle may need some practice and guidance. Conduct a lesson on angles and protractors first. • Each hour, as one child holds the metre stick upright in the centre of the North side, the sun’s shadow is drawn on the art paper and the shadow is measured for length and angle. Children must place the stick in the exact same spot on their page each time they measure the shadow. • Analysis of this data is done during Lesson 8: The Sun’s Path (2) • This activity could be repeated in six months for a data comparison. Students should notice that the shadows will vary when observed at the same time of day during the different seasons.

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o c . Integration Ideas: che e r o t r sThey can also write about s English: Students write a recount on this activity. r u e p how the sun effects and influences our daily life and routines. Maths: Relate this activity to a clock reading activity. Society and Environment / HSIE / SOSE: Children can research the history of sundials. Check out:  www.sundials.co.uk/projects.htm – Sundial projects for the class  www.eyeonthesky.org/lessonplans/14sun_sundials.html – Lesson Plans

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A

The Sun’s Path (1)

Lesson 7

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Questions

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metre stick

Predictions:

Predict how you think the sun's shadows will look when drawn on the art paper. Use a ruler and pencil. There are six shadows to draw – one each hour. Mark the hours on the shadows as you draw them.

Earth and Beyond

Predict the length of the shortest shadow using centimetres. ________

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons ______________________________________________________________ •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Predict what time the shortest shadow will be made. ________________ Why did you predict this time?

Predict the length of the longest shadow. _________________________ Why did you predict this time?

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Predict what time will the longest shadow will be made? ____________ ______________________________________________________________

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Data Collection (Predict the 2pm measurements using a red pencil.)

11am 12pm 1pm 2pm 24


Lesson 8

Teachers' Notes

Earth and Beyond

The Sun’s Path (2) Learning Outcomes: • Investigates the apparent motion of the sun in relation to the Earth and how this affects everyday life. • Identifies patterns and groupings in information to draw conclusions.

Teac he r

• data collected from Lesson 7: The Sun’s Path (1) • protractor for each child • ruler • lead pencils

Lesson Ideas:

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• Pin up the data sheet from Lesson 7 at the front of the room and also have the data written on the board. Children can check to see if their drawing matches the actual sheet used. • Discuss the measuring of angles and use a protractor to measure. Alternatively, students can estimate where the shadow lines go. • Children should suggest reasons for the pattern of the shadows. These ideas can be listed on the board. When the children write their answers they should understand the reason and be able to explain it in their own words. • Explain why a line graph is used to represent the shadow lengths. Show how the line should look on the graph (Note: it should dip in the middle.) • Children should be able to predict the shadow lengths at 3pm and 4pm. The shadow could be measured at these times and compared with student predictions. • Plot the graph on large grid paper.

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o c . che e r o t r s Integration Ideas: super

Science: Repeat this activity in six months time and compare the results. English (Writing): Children write a recount of the activity. Society and Environment / HSIE / SOSE: Students research the movement of the sun in relation to seasons. Health: Children design and colour health posters on the dangers of the sun. They should also include sun care practices and products.

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A

The Sun’s Path (2)

Lesson 8

Earth and Beyond

Using a protractor, ruler and pencil, show how the shadows were recorded outside. metre stick

•North

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r o e t s B r e oo •West p u k S •South

Explain why the shadows made that pattern.

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10am

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Graph the shadow lengths using a line graph.

TIMES MEASURED

Use the graph to predict the length of the shadow at 3pm. __________ Use the graph to find the length of the shadow at 11:30am. __________ Explain why you think the line turned out that way on the graph. _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 26


Answers Lesson 1 – The Sun A)

Earth and Beyond

B) The tides:

Approximately 150 000 000 km (varies due to elliptical orbit); 1 390 000 km; Approximately 5500 ºC; Approximately 15 000 000 ºC; Approximately 700 000 000 tonnes.

B)

Sunspot

Convective envelope

Core

Corona

(The sun’s outer layer)

Tides are the twice-daily rise and fall of the ocean surface caused by the gravitational pull of the moon and sun. C) We only see a partial moon because the part of it facing away from the sun is in shadow.

Photosphere Chromosphere

28 days.

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Prominences

Solar Flare

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Radiative envelope

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Lesson 3c –a Eclipses © ReadyEdP u b l i t i ons A) The earth’s shadow falls on the moon. The earth comes between the sun and the •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• moon.

C) Sunspots are the darker and slightly cooler regions on the surface of the sun. The photosphere is the visible surface of the sun. The corona is the sun’s outer atmosphere which can be seen during total eclipses. D) & – Gives us life; heats the land; gives us food from plants; gives us light, etc. & – Burns us; can cause cancers; can create too much heat; can cause blindness (especially during an eclipse).

o c . c e her r Lesson 2 –The Moon o t s super A)

©

B)

The moon orbits between the earth and the sun. The moon’s shadow falls on the earth.

We only ever see the same side of the moon. We do not see the other side which is sometimes referred to as the “dark side of the moon”. The moon has no atmosphere to protect its surface.

i) & ii) On television; using a pinhole camera.

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Practical Science: Earth & Beyond Series: Book 2 - Ages 8-10