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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Written by Margaret Etherton. Illustrated by Terry Allen. Published by Ready-Ed Publications (2007) © Ready-Ed Publications - 2007. P.O. Box 276 Greenwood Perth W.A. 6024 Email: info@readyed.com.au Website: www.readyed.com.au COPYRIGHT NOTICE Permission is granted for the purchaser to photocopy sufficient copies for non-commercial educational purposes. However, this permission is not transferable and applies only to the purchasing individual or institution.

ISBN 1 86397 710 4


                          

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Rationale

“Famous Faces from History” is a text-based learning resource for students aged 10 and over. It contains ten biographies of famous people whose lives are inspiring to students. They include people who have overcome difficulties to achieve in their particular field or who have survived great adventures. Their lives can be enlightening, entertaining and exciting.

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The subjects include writers, explorers, artists, nurses, royalty and mathematicians. As well as providing background information on each person, this book endeavours to relate childhood anecdotes and the historical significance of individual triumphs. It is possible to gain a deeper understanding of a mathematical or scientific concept through an appreciation of its development. For example, the importance of place value in the Hindu-Arabic number system can be understood from the way it was introduced into Western culture by the famous mathematician, Leonardo Fibonacci.

Each biography is followed by vocabulary, comprehension and writing activities. Further in-depth questions require analysis, synthesis and critical thinking skills. Fun activities include drawing, design tasks and posters. There are also research tasks to pursue investigations on related subjects, e.g. Maths, Music, Art, Computers, etc. Students are directed to specific reliable websites or given instructions on how to navigate the web using encyclopedias, search engines or appropriate key words.

This book has been designed for use in the upper primary school classroom but it could equally be used by homeschoolers. A bibliography is included on Page 60 which contains details of reference materials and relevant websites.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Objectives to foster greater understanding of human endeavours, exploration, and achievements;

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to develop skills in comprehension and critical thinking; to develop and refine research skills;

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to provide a range of written text types;

to develop students’ enjoyment and appreciation of mathematics, art, literature and lifelong learning;

o c . che e r o t Website References r s super to improve drawing and painting skills.

All websites listed in the Reading With Purpose series are linked from the Ready-Ed website listed below. This saves the teacher and/or student from typing in the addresses each time. External websites referred to in this book will be updated through the Ready-Ed site below should they disappear or modify their address after publication. Bookmark this site for ease of use:

www.readyed.com.au/urls/readers

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Contents

Rationale ...................................................................................................................................2 Curriculum Links ......................................................................................................................4 1. The Dreamer – Leonardo Fibonacci Reader ............................................................................................................................... 6 Word Study ....................................................................................................................... 8 Comprehension ................................................................................................................ 9 Extension Tasks ................................................................................................................. 10

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2. The Art of Artemisia – Artemisia Gentileschi

3. The Talented Convict – Francis Greenway

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Reader ............................................................................................................................... 12 Word Study ....................................................................................................................... 14 Comprehension ................................................................................................................ 15 Extension Tasks ................................................................................................................. 16 Reader ............................................................................................................................... 17 Word Study ....................................................................................................................... 19 Comprehension ................................................................................................................ 20 Extension Tasks ................................................................................................................. 21

4. Ernest’s Great Adventure – Ernest Shackleton

Reader ............................................................................................................................... 22 Word Study ....................................................................................................................... 24 Comprehension ................................................................................................................ 25 Extension Tasks ................................................................................................................. 26

5. Battle and Victory – Elizabeth Kenny

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Reader ............................................................................................................................... 27 Word Study ....................................................................................................................... 29 Comprehension ................................................................................................................ 30 Extension Tasks ................................................................................................................. 31

6. Escher Unzipped – Maurits Escher

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7. The Careful Cartographer – Matthew Flinders

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Reader ............................................................................................................................... 32 Word Study ....................................................................................................................... 34 Comprehension ................................................................................................................ 35 Extension Tasks ................................................................................................................. 36 Reader ............................................................................................................................... 38 Word Study ....................................................................................................................... 40 Comprehension ................................................................................................................ 41 Extension Tasks ................................................................................................................. 42

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8. Catherine was Great – Catherine II of Russia

Reader ............................................................................................................................... 43 Word Study ....................................................................................................................... 45 Comprehension ................................................................................................................ 46 Extension Tasks ................................................................................................................. 47

9. Captive Dove – Anne Bronte

Reader ............................................................................................................................... 48 Word Study ....................................................................................................................... 50 Comprehension ................................................................................................................ 51 Extension Tasks ................................................................................................................. 52

10. The Countess of Lovelace – Ada Byron King

Reader ............................................................................................................................... 53 Word Study ....................................................................................................................... 55 Comprehension ................................................................................................................ 56 Extension Tasks ................................................................................................................. 57

Answers ....................................................................................................................................58 References and Bibliography ....................................................................................................64 3


                          

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Curriculum Links

Subject Areas / Related Strands

Science (Science and Technology) Values and Attitudes • Appreciates contributions made by individuals, groups, cultures and communities to scientific and technological understandings.

Relevant State Outcomes Vic: Biological Science 3.1; Earth and Space Sciences Level 3

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WA: Earth and Beyond Level 3; Life and Living Level 3; Investigating Scientifically Level 3

Living Things • Identifies, describes and evaluates the interactions between living things and their effects on the environment.

NSW: Values and Attitudes VA 7; Information and Communication IC S3.2; Living Things LT S3.3; Earth and its Surroundings ES S1.6; Understanding Technology UT S3.9; Investigations IS3.7

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National: Earth and Beyond 3.1; Life and Living 3.7; Working Scientifically 3.17, 3.18

Earth and Beyond • Identifies and describes ways in which people and other living things depend upon the earth and its environment.

Using Technology • Develops and refines search skills using the Internet. Uses word processing software to write documents. Investigating • Conducts investigations, plans, predicts and draws conclusions.

Society & Environment (SOSE / HSIE)

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Information and Communication • Creates and evaluates information about the interactions between living things and their effects on the environment.

QLD: Science and Society 2.2, 2.3, D2.4, 3.1; Life and Living 3.1, 3.3;

SA SA: Earth and Space 1.1, 2.1, 3.1; Life Systems 3.5

Vic: Place and Space Level 2-3 outcomes; Time, Continuity and Change Level 2-3 outcomes; Natural and Social Systems Level 2-3 outcomes

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• Demonstrates an understanding of the interconnectedness between Australia and global environments and how individuals and groups can act in an ecologically responsible manner. Natural and Social Systems (Systems, Resources and Power) • Describes how Australian people, systems and communities are globally connected and recognises global responsibilities (e.g. protecting endangered species). Culture • Identifies the contributions of diverse groups, including migrants, to the development of the local community. Time, Continuity and Change • Explains changes in the local community and global environments and their effect on individuals, groups and living things. • Cooperatively evaluates how people have contributed to changes in the local environment. • Organises information about the causes and effects of specific historical events. Investigation, Communication and Participation • Presents information to explore a key idea.

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Writing • Produces a wide range of well-structured and wellpresented literary and factual texts for a wide variety of purposes and audiences, using increasingly challenging topics, ideas, issues and written language features. • Uses knowledge of sentence structure, grammar, and punctuation to edit own writing. • Produces texts in a fluent and legible style and uses computer technology to present these effectively in a variety of ways.

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National: Time, Continuity and Change 2.1, 2.3, 3.1b; Place and Space 3.5, 3.6; Natural and Social Systems 3.14; Investigation, Communication and Participation 2.17, 3.17 NSW: Environments EN S3.5; Social Systems and Structures SS S3.7; Change and Continuity CC S2.2.

QLD: Place and Space PS 3.1; Culture and Identity CI 3.1; Systems Resources and Power SRP 4.1; Time, Continuity and Change TCC 3.4

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• Frames questions and identifies sources of information.

English

WA WA: Investigation, Communication and Participation ICP3.1, ICP3.2, ICP3.4; Place and Space PS2.3, PS3.2; Culture C2.1, C2.3; Time, Continuity and Change TCC3.2, TCC3.3; Natural and Social Systems NSS3.2

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Place and Space (Place and Environment)

SA: Time, Continuity and Change 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3; Place, Space & Environment 2.4, 2.6; Societies & Cultures 1.9, 2.7, 2.9, 3.7

Vic: Reading: Texts 3.5(a), 3.5(b); Contextual Understanding 3.6(a) 3.6(b); Linguistic Structures and Features 3.7(a), 3.7(b); Strategies 3.8(a), 3.8(b); Writing: Texts 3.9, Contextual Understanding 3.10; Linguistic Structures and Features 3.11; Strategies 3.12

WA: Reading: Use of Texts R3.1; Contextual Understanding R3.2; Conventions R3.3; Processes and Strategies R3.4 Viewing: Use of Texts V3.1; Contextual Understanding V3.2; Conventions V3.3; Processes and Strategies V3.4 Writing: Use of Texts W3.1; Contextual Understanding W3.2; Conventions W3.3; Processes and Strategies W3.4


                          

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Curriculum Links

Subject Areas / Related Strands

English cont.

National: 3.1,3.2,3.3,3.4,3.8a&b, 3.9 Reading and Viewing: Texts 3.5; Contextual Understanding 3.6; Linguistic Structures and Features 3.7; Strategies 3.8(a), 3.8(b) Writing: Texts 3.9; Contextual Understanding 3.10; Linguistic Structures and Features 3.11; Strategies 3.12(a), 3.12(b)

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Mathematics

Working Mathematically: • Links mathematical ideas and makes connections with, and generalisations about existing knowledge and understanding. Number (Patterns and Algebra): • Records, analyses and describes geometric and number patterns. Space and Geometry: • Manipulates, classifies and draws two-dimensional shapes. • Uses a variety of mapping skills. Data (Chance and Data): • Displays and interprets data in graphs.

NSW: Writing WS3.9, WS3.12, WS3.10, WS3.13; Reading RS3.5, RS3.6,RS3.7, RS3.8 QLD: Reading and Viewing Cu3.2, Op3.2, Cr3.2; Writing and Shaping Cu3.3, Op3.3, Cr3.3

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Reading / Viewing • Reads independently an extensive range of texts with increasing content demands and responds to themes and issues. • Uses a comprehensive range of skills and strategies appropriate to the type of text being read. • Critically analyses techniques used by writers to create certain effects, to use language creatively, to position the reader in various ways and to consruct different interpretations of experience. • Identifies the text structure of a wider range of more complex text types and discusses how the characteristic grammatical features work to influence readers’ and viewers’ understanding of texts.

Relevant State Outcomes

SA SA: Texts & Contexts 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4; Language 2.7, 2.8, 3.7, 3.8; Strategies 2.11, 2.12, 3.10, 3.11, 3.12

Vic: Shape and Space 3.1, 3.2, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7; Location 3.2; Number 3.1(Mental Computation and estimation) 3.1, 3.2; Chance and Data (Presenting Data) 3.1, 3.2; Reasoning and Strategies 3.1, 3.2

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• National: Working Mathematically 3.1, 3.5, 3.6; Space 3.7a, 3.8, 3.10; Number 3.11, 3.12; Chance and Data 3.27

NSW: Working Mathematically 3.5; Patterns and Algebra 3.1; Space and Geometry 3.2a; Data 3.1

QLD: Number N 3.1; Patterns and Algebra 3.1; Chance and Data 2.2; Space3.1

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WA: Number 3.1, 3.4; Space 3.1, 3.2, 3.3; Working Mathematically 3.1, 3.2

SA SA: Exploring, Analysing and Modelling Data, 3.1, 3.3; Number 3.6; Pattern and Algebraic Reasoning 3.10; Spatial Sense and Geometric Reasoning 3.12, 3.13

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The Arts (Creative Arts)

Visual Arts • Investigates subject matter in an attempt to represent likeness of things in the work. • Makes art works for different audiences and assembles materials in a variety of ways. • Acknowledges that audiences respond in different ways to artworks and that there can be different opinions. • Communicates about the ways in which subject matter is represented in artworks.

Vic: Visual Arts: Arts Practice 3.1, Responding to the Arts 3.2; WA: Communicating Arts Ideas CAI 3; Using Arts Skills, Techniques, Technologies and Processes STP 3; Responding, Reflecting on and Evaluating the Arts RRE 3; Understanding the Role of Arts in Society AIS 3

National:

Visual Arts: Creating, Making and Presenting Band B; Arts Criticism and Aesthetics Band B; Past and Present Contexts Band B NSW: Visual Arts 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4 QLD: Visual Arts 3.1, 3.2, 3.3

SA SA: Arts Practice 3.1, 3.2; Arts Analysis and Response 3.4; Arts in Contexts 3.6

5


The Dreamer –

Leonardo Fibonacci Famous F aces from History Faces

1170-1250

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Sitting crossed-legged on the floor at school, Leonardo learned Latin, Music, Astronomy and public speaking. But his favorite lessons were Geometry and Numbers – Leonardo loved to dream about numbers. All the sums in school had to be calculated using Roman Numerals, which looked like this: MCCXXVII. Students needed a wooden frame with beads sliding on wires, called an abacus, to work out their sums. Adding and subtracting were not too hard, but imagine multiplying IX by VIII !

coast. Something very different was happening in the market place where olives, carpets and special candles were sold. The merchants did not use Roman numerals, instead they used only nine Indian symbols – 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 – and a dot called sifr. Straight away Leonardo spotted that these “digits” were much easier to use than the old Roman numerals because the new numbers could be added or subtracted in columns. Leonardo named them the Hindu numbers. Based on the tens, like the number of fingers we have, this is the Hindu-Arabic system we use today, with a zero instead of a dot.

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o you like to daydream? In the twelfth century, a boy was born in Pisa, Italy, who liked to dream at school. His name was Leonardo Fibonacci. Even when he grew up he stayed a dreamer. He was nicknamed “bigollo” which means “someone who studies something useless” or “traveller”. What did he dream about? And what was the useless thing he studied?

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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At the river port of Pisa, as Leonardo watched the sailing ships, the galleys and the river flatboats, he daydreamed. Men on the shore unloaded precious cargo, like sacks of salt from Sardinia and bales of squirrel skins from Sicily. The merchants used the abacus to count their bales, just like Leonardo did at school. He dreamed of sailing to faraway places. When Leonardo was 18, he moved with his father to Bougia, a port on the African 6

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When he grew up Leonardo decided he did not want to be a merchant like his father. He dreamed of being a mathematician. So he toured the famous libraries of the Mediterranean – to Turkey, Egypt, Syria, Greece, Sicily and Provence in France, where he read many ancient books. These helped him to work out his own way of bookkeeping, using geometry and solving problems.

After returning to Pisa at the age of 25, Leonardo showed the people the new number system, but they laughed at him and just called him “bigollo”. Leonardo wrote down the many things he had learned in his travels and called his book Liber Abaci – meaning Book of the Abacus. It was not about the abacus at all!


Theme 1

The Dreamer –

Leonardo Fibonacci Famous F aces from History Faces

1170-1250

continued

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At first the new numbers were banned by the city of Pisa, partly because people thought it was too easy to change a 0 into a 6 or a 9. But when he was an old man, the city elders paid Leonardo to teach the secrets of the numbers 0 to 9 to the merchants of the city.

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one (one finger)

V

five (one hand)

X

ten (two Vs)

L

fifty (half a C)

C

one hundred (centum)

D

five hundred (half M)

M

one thousand (M)

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Besides describing how to write the new numbers used in Arab lands and India, Fobonacci demonstrated clever solutions to many of the ancient problems.

When a symbol is placed after another of equal or greater value it adds its value, e.g. III = 3 and CX = 110. When a symbol is placed before one of greater value it subtracts its value, e.g. IV = 4, IX = 9.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

As he grew into old age, Leonardo signed his name at the end of his solved problems: Leonardo Bigollo. So he did not mind his funny name. The “useless things” he studied proved to be useful after all. Maybe he was saying look at how clever this dreamer can be.

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Hindu-Arabic Numerals The set of symbols – 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 0 – represent the numbers in the decimal number system from which all numbers can be created. This number system has place value which means the value of the symbol depends on its position. For example, the value of six in 60 represents six tens and the value of six in 600 represents six hundreds. So the place value chart looks like this:

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Hindu-Arabic numbers are used in classrooms all over the world. So when you are learning your times tables, you can blame Leonardo Fibonacci. If you visit Italy, you can view a statue of Leonardo built in his honour, close to the famous Leaning Tower of Pisa.

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Roman Numerals

hundred thousands

Roman numerals are based on fives and have letters to represent different numbers. They do not have place value and this makes calculations difficult. See the table for the letters used.

ten thousands

6 000 000 600 000 60 000

thousands

6000

hundreds

600

tens

60

units

6 7


 Spelling  Use your eyes to pick which is the correct spelling on each line: 

astronomy mathematishon useles twelfth soluteions symbols

1170-1250

astromony mathematicion useless twelvth solushons symbles

astronomey mathematician usless twelth solutions cymbols

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Study Word Meanings

© Re adyEdPubl i cat i ons Base Words – •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

ONHGUT

__________

OHITNNG __________ CILHZ __________ INL __________ PZI __________

The Romans spoke Latin. This language is no longer spoken though it is used in many medical terms and also for species classification. It is called a “dead language”. Nevertheless many English words come from Latin bases – for example: mathematicus means “to do with science” or “something learned”. Write down some everyday English words that come from these Latin words:

creatus

(to bring into being) _____________________________________

diabolus

(satan) ________________________________________________

materia

(stuff) _________________________________________________

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Sifr means zero. Unjumble these letters to find out other words meaning zero:

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Down 2. Pet name given to a child. 4. A type of boat. 6. Instrument used for adding and subtracting.

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Across 1. Very old. 3. A person who sells and buys goods. 5. To dream instead of working. 7. The study of the stars. 8. To minus or take away.

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Leonardo Fibonacci

Crossword

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studium

(zeal, application) _______________________________________

congratulatus

(to salute) _____________________________________________

Some words are joined together with a hyphen to create new words. You need to check your dictionary to see whether a word has a hyphen or is joined together like “nickname”. For example Hindu-Arabic numbers and a more modern example is web-based technology. Make the correct hyphenated words using these words:

•winning

•eating

•checker

•loving

•age

•sensitive

fun ___________________________

award _________________________

man __________________________

new ___________________________

case __________________________

spell ___________________________


Famous F aces Faces

  

Understanding the Text

1. What subjects did Leonardo study at school?

Leonardo Fibonacci

1170-1250

Comprehension

__________________________________________________ 2. What things did Leonardo dream about throughout his life? __________________________________________________ 3. How are Roman Numerals different from Hindu-Arabic numbers? Which are easier to use? Why?

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_____________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Why did the people in Pisa not like the new numbers when Leonardo first showed them? Why do you think that they eventually accepted them?

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_____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________

5. What does “bigollo” mean? Why did Leonardo sign his name “Bigollo” in later life?

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6. Why is Leonardo Fibonacci famous today?

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Writing Task: This is what Leonardo wrote about his discovery of Hindu-

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Arabic numbers in his book Liber Abacci:

“When I had been introduced to the art of the Indians’ nine symbols through remarkable teaching, knowledge of the art very soon pleased me above all else and I came to understand it.” Imagine you are Leonardo and write a letter to a friend back in Pisa telling him of your travels through the libraries of the world. Use another sheet of paper.

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Dear Giuseppe,

Well, I have arrived at my destination in Constantinople where I hope to learn more about the elegant Hindu numbers. Let me tell you all about them ….

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 Mapping Task   Use an atlas to show on this map all the places Leonardo visited in his travels. North Atlantic Ocean

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FRANCE

SPAIN

ITA LY

ROMANIA

CROATIA

Black Sea

TURKEY

It might be easier if you number the places and then write them below.

1. ____________ 2. ____________ 3. ____________ 4. ____________

MOROCCO

ALGERIA

5. ____________

Mediterranean Sea

6. ____________ 7. ____________

LIBYA

EGYPT

8. ____________

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Famous F aces Faces from History

Leonardo

1170-1250

Leonardo Fibonacci

Extension Tasks

 Schools and Schools  In what ways was school the same for Leonardo as it is for  you at your school? How was it different? On another sheet  of paper, rule up a table like the one below and write as  many points that you can think of.  DIFFERENT SAME  •We both do geometry •My school does not sit on  the floor for every lesson 

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Complete on a separate piece of paper.

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The invention of a useful number system developed over time, taking many steps. First of all there came the idea that one object matched another, the second idea was that you could give a name to each number – one, two three, etc. Finally came the idea that a number could be represented by a symbol. Think about early number systems. Imagine you are a shepherd living at a time before counting symbols had been developed. How would you keep track of your sheep? How would you know how many to take to market to sell? Devise your own method of counting your sheep. Now go one step further and design a set of symbols for your method. You don’t have to use a tens base system, which is around the hands, you could use two or five or six.

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 Number Systems Throughout Time  Who were the first people to use numbers? How did numbers develop? Research some other  number systems. Find out about the development of one of the following number systems: Greek,  Roman Numerals, Egyptian, Mayan, Chinese or Babylonian.

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The Magic Numbers

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0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21 ...

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Leonardo is more often remembered for a sequence of numbers, the Fibonacci Sequence, in which each number is the sum of the two previous numbers. This sequence is:

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Did you notice the pattern: 1+1=2, 1+2=3, 3+5=8, 5+8=13 and so on? These numbers have implications for things like architecture, art, astronomy and computers. They are also sometimes called the “magic numbers” because they appear over and over in nature. Write down the first 20 Fibonacci numbers. Count the number of parts in the following examples:

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Number of petals in different flowers

Number of spirals in a pine cone or pineapple Number of legs on an octopus and a spider

Number of eyes, ears of animals like a cat and a dog Number of fingers on a human and a monkey

What do you notice about all these numbers?

The Abacus Draw a design for an abacus. What materials would you need to make it? How big would it be? How would you use it?


Famous F aces Faces from History

Leonardo

1170-1250

Leonardo Fibonacci

Extension Tasks

You have probably noticed that some Roman numerals are still used today. For example, in movies – Rocky I, II and III, English royalty – Richard III and Henry XIV – and the date movies are made – Pirates of the Caribbean MMVI. Roman Numeral symbols are I, V, X, L, C, D and M standing for 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500 and 1,000 in the Hindu-Arabic numeral system.

Write the meanings for these Roman Numerals in Hindu-Arabic numbers: XXXV ____ CVIII ____ XIV ____ MMMX ____ XLIII ____ Write the meanings for these Hindu-Arabic numbers in Roman Numerals: 89 ____ 25 ____ 58 ____ 32 ____ 160 ____

Times Tables

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Mathematical Tasks

Do you like learning your times tables? Look at the numbers on either side of the diagonal line. What do you notice? What is special about the numbers along the diagonal line? First ask a friend to test you and colour in all the answers you know already. Think of some easy ways to remember your times tables that suits you, e.g. chanting, writing, drawing them in the air, using your fingers, etc. X

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Roman Numerals

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Complete on a separate piece of paper.

                

            

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90

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Use a calculator to solve the following problem similar to one which Leonardo did at school from an ancient book, already 300 years old, called “Problems to Sharpen the Wits of the Young”. Seven old women are travelling to Rome. Each has seven mules. On each mule are seven sacks. In each sack are seven loaves of bread. In each loaf are seven knives. What is the total of all of these items? This problem has been passed down through the ages in the nursery rhyme, “As I was going to St Ives I met a man with seven wives …” (Think yourself lucky you have a calculator: Leonardo had to solve this using Roman Numerals and an abacus!) 11


The Art of Artemisia – Artemisia Gentileschi Famous F aces from History Faces

1593 - 1653

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how to draw with perspective. An artist uses perspective to show distance on a flat canvas. Objects further away are smaller than objects close up. Agostino drew mostly boats and landscapes. It became obvious that Artemisia was a far better artist than he was.

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n the days when people rode horses and women wore long dresses, there lived a girl who loved to draw and paint. She wanted to draw so much that she used a mirror to sketch the muscles, flesh and bones of her own back. She wanted to be an artist like her father, Ozario Gentileschi, but everyone said that only men could be painters. Artemisia stuck to her great love and succeeded in overcoming the prejudice against women artists. She grew up to become more famous than her teachers, more famous than her own father and one of the greatest female artists of all time.

Artemisia’s first painting, Judith Slaying Holofernes, shows Judith, from the bible, cutting off the head of Holofernes with his own sword. This is a story in which the heroine, Judith, saves her country by killing an evil tyrant while he is asleep. Artemisia painted the image with a dark black background and a single source of light coming in from one side. It showed strong style and realistic expressions on the faces. She showed skill in anatomy, colour, brushwork and how to structure a picture – knowing what to place where on the canvas. This painting was typical of the heroines Artemisia liked and she painted Judith more than once. Artemisia liked to paint scenes from the bible or history and she liked to paint heroines. Her religious paintings were very dramatic. She was developing into an extraordinary artist.

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Artemisia Gentileschi was born in Rome, Italy in 1593, at a time when women were not supposed to paint unless they had an older brother or a father who painted. Artemisia was lucky that her father recognised her talent and put her to work as an apprentice in his studio. An apprentice had the job of painting the boring bits in the background for another artist, but Artemisia did not mind – she was happy to be painting.

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When she finished school, Artemisia applied to go to an art academy but because she was female the academy refused to let her in. So her father employed an artist friend of his, Agostino Tassi, to teach her. Agostino showed her

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Artemisia was very beautiful, with full cheeks, a classical nose with a small dip at the end and a mouth like a bow. We know this because she often painted herself! It was difficult to get women to pose as it was


The Art of Artemisia – Artemisia Gentileschi Famous F aces from History Faces

1593 - 1653

continued

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When she was 20 Artemisia married and moved to Florence to make her living painting portraits. The Medici family were her patrons. That means that they paid her money that allowed her to paint what she wanted. Without patronage many artists could not afford to live. When her patron died she moved around Italy to Rome, Genoa, Venice and Naples, drawing inspiration from the countryside, the people around her and other artists.

and spent the rest of her life there quite comfortably.

We don’t know a great deal about Artemisia Gentileschi because she lived so long ago. However, she was a strong and capable female to paint the way she did and to succeed in a job people thought was suitable only for men. Even though she was clever some people considered Artemisia a monster because they thought only men were supposed to have talent. She must have had great determination to compete with men in a time of so much prejudice against women artists.

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not proper for them to take their clothes off. Her paintings show strong women, women in charge, in bright contrast to the dark backgrounds with heavy fabrics, and shadowy interiors of the old homes and castles of her times.

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Three years later Artemisia’s artwork was considered so good that she was accepted as a member of the Academy of Design in Naples. This was the first time that a woman had been admitted. It proves that Artemisia had impressed her patrons and that the art world recognised her talent.

After Artemisia died in 1653, even though she had produced a powerful body of work, no one displayed her paintings. Sometimes they were hung with her father’s name or someone else’s name. For a long time people forgot about her. Today she is recognised as the greatest female artist of her time, and possibly of all time. She tackled a difficult profession and 34 of her paintings have survived the ages. She was Artemisia Gentisleschi, one of the greatest classical female artists. J

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For three years from 1638 to 1641 she lived in England where her patron was Charles I of England. Here Artemisia helped her father with a big commission to paint the ceiling of the Queen’s house in Greenwich. When the royal family started fighting she moved back to Naples

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 Definitions  Use a dictionary or the text to write a definition of the following words: 

patron ______________________________________________________________ perspective __________________________________________________________ interior _____________________________________________________________ 1593 - 1653

prejudice ____________________________________________________________

Famous F aces Faces from History

anatomy ____________________________________________________________

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Study   Jumbled  Letters   Unjumble  these words.   RSATTI   _________    ROAITTPR   _________   AORTPN   _________    USAFMO   _________   MNAATYO   _________    AIPTN   _________  

BLUE

YELLOW

GREEN

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Artemisia Gentileschi

 Colours   Artists use many different names for colours to describe shades of red,  blue, yellow and green. Put these colours into the right place:  •vermillion •ochre •scarlet •sapphire •gold •olive •cobalt •ruby  •crimson •indigo •sienna •lime •tawny •jade •emerald •azure 

 Similes   Artemisia had “a mouth like a bow”. The phrase “like a bow” is a simile; it is  comparing one thing to another. Similes make your writing more interesting.  Write some similes in these sentences: 

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

______________________________________________

His fist was like a

______________________________________________

His face was like a

______________________________________________

The dog looked like a

______________________________________________

The tiny girl looked like

______________________________________________

 Adjectives to describe a painting   You can say a painting is nice, but nice is overused and does not convey very  much about anything – it is boring. What are some other adjectives you can use  to describe Artemisia’s paintings? 

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Her nose was like a

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• ____________________________ • ____________________________ • ____________________________ • ____________________________  Contractions Using Apostrophes   Contractions are the shortened form of two words used more in speech than  in written texts. (Contract means to squeeze together.)  For example: were not = weren’t. Write these contractions the long way:

couldn’t ___________

wouldn’t__________

didn’t ______________

I’d _______________

she’ll _____________

we’ll _______________

haven’t ____________

hadn’t ____________

weren’t ____________

I’m _______________

they’re ___________

he’s _______________


Famous F aces Faces from History

1593 - 1653

Artemisia Gentileschi

Comprehension

  

Understanding the Text

1. How did Artemisia first start drawing? __________________________________________________ 2. Why did an artist need a “patron”? __________________________________________________ 3. What did Artemisia look like?

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4. What was so wonderful about Artemisia’s paintings?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

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5. Why do you think Artemisia painted women who were strong characters?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

6. How do we know that Artemisia was accepted by the art world?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

7. What is Artemisia remembered for today?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Start with a clean white piece of art paper. Draw a line across about two thirds of the way up the page. This is your horizon. Put a dot in the middle of the line. Draw a square on the right hand side of the page below the line. Draw three lines from three corners of the square to the dot on the horizon. Now you can draw a horizontal line across the back of the box and drop down vertically to make the left hand edge to the box. You have drawn a neat box!

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Artemisia was shown how to draw using perspective by Agostino Tassi. You canv draw aw picturep using simple • f o r r e i e u r posesonl y• one-point perspective by following this method: Drawing Task

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 Writing Task – Imagine you are Artemisia.   Using another sheet of paper, write a letter to a friend describing your life painting the ceiling in the  queen’s house in England in 1640. What would your life be like? How hard would you be working?  What would you see around you? Talk about things like clothes, food, architecture, etc.          

Research Task Look up the Internet or the library for information about other famous female artists before or since Artemisia. For example: Mary Cassat, Frida Kahlo, Margaret Preston, Judith Leyster and Grace Cossington Smith. Write about their art and their lives.

Some starting points: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women_in_art Women artists www.wendy.com/women/artists.html Women Artists in History

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Famous F aces Faces from History

1593 - 1653

Artemisia Gentileschi

 

Reflection on Greatness Would you like to be famous? Why? Or why not? What

 would you like to be famous for? What talents do you have?  

Jobs for the Boys

 Attitudes have changed since the time when Artemisia lived

Extension Tasks

in Italy. Write down four jobs which women have now that

 they would not have been able to do in the sixteenth  century. Why have men and women in the past usually only

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Complete on a separate piece of paper.

 carried out certain types of work? Do you think that women can do any job they want to?

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Look up the Internet, or books in the library, to see famous paintings displayed in art galleries around the world.

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•Which painting do you like the best? Why? Write down your opinion about the painting you like.

•Compare the paintings of Artemisia with another classical artist: Rembrandt, Michelangelo, etc. •How are they the same? Do they use the same topics for painting? •What colours do they mainly use?

•What medium do they use? (oils, charcoal, pencil, pastels, watercolour or acrylic)

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons  Biographical Timeline •f or r evi ew pur posesonl y•  Complete a timeline of Artemisia’s life. Show her age and date at each important event in her life. 

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Classical Art

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 Autobiography Writing Task  Write an autobiography of Artemisia’s life using the text and the timeline.  What title would you give your autobiography? Give reasons for your choice.  I knew I wanted to draw when I peeked around the curtain into my father’s studio. My stepmother told me to stay away, but the smell of the oils and the vivid palettes of vermillion,  emerald green and crimson were too attractive. I knew I had to be an artist … 

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Some starting points: Artemisia was a classical artist from the Baroque period. library.thinkquest.org/J001159/famart.htm About famous artists

Find out more about these styles of art: modern, pop art, expressionism, abstract, www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/ Famous artworks exhibition impressionism, Baroque, Renaissance. www.famouspainter.com/

Write a short paragraph about the styles that Famous painters interest you.


The Talented Convict – Francis Howard Greenway Famous F aces from History Faces

1777 - 1837

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After his wonderful lighthouse Macquarie asked Francis to build a new Government House. He gave Francis the grand title of Civil Architect and Assistant Engineer on the salary of three shillings a day as well as a free house to live in. For his first job Francis designed a stable, but it looked more like a castle. The stable was so grand that people thought that it was the house itself. Today the Conservatorium of Music in Macquarie Street, Sydney, uses the stable building for teaching. It has been restored to its original design only recently.

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n the early days of settlement by Europeans, convicts came in battered sailing ships to Australia. At the time Australia was known as “New Holland”. The convicts had done nothing more than steal a loaf of bread, a piece of steel, a pair of boots or a gentleman’s watch. They were not all criminals and may have only been desperate people living in difficult times when famine and drought made food too expensive for them to feed themselves and their children.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons was still hard foro Francis after• he gained •f orr evi ew puLife r p o s e s n l y his freedom – the workmen were not all

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skilled tradesmen, as they would have been in England, but poor underfed convicts. The work he showed them to do sometimes involved totally new ideas so he had to train them in many new skills. And he was often treated badly because he was an ex-convict. Greenway had constant battles with other architects who did not agree with his ideas.

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One such convict, Francis Greenway, was transported across the world and arrived in Australia in 1813 with no money, no friends and a chain between both ankles. But he did have one thing and that was talent. Francis was a draftsman. He was sentenced to death by hanging for forging a financial document. Fortunately for Francis, his sentence was reduced to 14 years in Australia.

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Francis Howard Greenway was born in Bristol in 1777. Like his family he was a builder but he found himself in trouble with the law at the age of 36. Luckily in Australia, he impressed Governor Lachlan Macquarie who gave him a full pardon after only four years of his sentence. This was because he designed and helped to build Macquarie Lighthouse. Lighthouses were very important to the new colony so that ships could find their way in the night along the dangerous coastline.

In the 1820s, he designed the Darlinghurst Jail, high on the hill above old Sydney Town. Unfortunately for Francis they only followed his plan for the walls. He was taken off the job because he was an ex-convict. Did they think he would design a tunnel for all the prisoners to escape through? The sandstone came from nearby. You can still today see the convict’s marks on the stonework to show how much work they did. The jail is 17


The Talented Convict – Francis Howard Greenway Famous F aces from History Faces

1777 - 1837

continued

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Another new project was not easy for poor Francis. In 1810 he was commissioned to build a hospital to replace the few miserable tents the colony had in the Rocks district. The hospital was to have a large central building and two smaller wings for the surgeons. Today the southern section is the Mint Museum on Macquarie Street near Hyde Park, and the northern section is the façade or front of the enlarged Parliament House. The central building was replaced by the Sydney Hospital in 1894. Francis had problems with the builders. He found that the building was poorly built with rotting timbers. This was due to the fact that the builders had tried to save money.

When Governor Macquarie retired to England in 1822 his successor, Commissioner Bigge, complained that Greenway’s work was too fancy and so Francis lost his job as civil architect. But Greenway still caused a bit of a stir. He refused to leave his free house claiming that Macquarie said that he could live in it for the rest of his life. He even produced documents to prove it. But were they forged? Do you remember that he was sent to Australia for forgery? No one knows for sure.

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now a college in Darlinghurst and this has been restored … as an arts college not a jail!

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Francis retired to live in the Hunter Valley •f orr evi ew pu r p o s e s o n l y • and died in 1837 at the age of 60. Today

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Francis went on to design many wonderful buildings – the Female Factory in Parramatta, the District Courts, St James Church in Queen’s Square, St Luke’s Church in Liverpool, Goulburn Brewery, the fort on Bennelong Point and the brilliant St Matthew’s Church at Windsor. In total he designed over 40 buildings of which only 11 are still standing to this day.

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many architects praise Francis’ work. They say he loved his materials – stone, bricks and timber. His roofs were unusual for their time. He had learnt how to design them from working with the architect Thomas Hardwick on the Church of St Paul at Covent Garden in England. The new type of truss he used gave strength to the roof and was less expensive. Francis Greenway is only one of the many talented people who arrived in Australia in an unusual way – on the end of a chain. But he went on to be a creative person making a contribution to the young colony. He built many uniquely Australian buildings from the material around him. What would Australia be like without such a talented convict? J


 Word Search   Find these words in the puzzle:  •build •construct •create •decorate •design •draft •plan •sketch •draw  C

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1777 - 1837

Study

 Suffixes   Conviction ends  in –tion. The  suffixes –tion,  –ation and –ion  are common  suffixes or  endings of words  and they come  from the Latin  meaning being  or the result of.   Add the correct  ending to these  words:    elect ________   correct ______   contribute ____   confuse ______   reject ________   select ________  transport _____   inject ________ 

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Famous F aces Faces from History

 Word Meanings  Place the correct word in the sentence:   •gained •impressed •transported •designed •refused 

He ____________________ to pay the builder.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• She ____________________ entry to the house through the window. He was ____________________ by the new lighthouse She ____________________ a magnificent house.

He was ____________________ to Australia for theft.

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 Alphabetical Order   Place these words in alphabetical order:  •financial •document •convict •criminal •forgery •architect  •draftsman •transportation •tradesmen •designed •coastline  •conservatorium •facade •miserable •lighthouse. 

o c . che e r o t r s super Misspelling

   Choose the correct spelling by ticking the box:

financial

finanshul

finanseal

castel

carsel

castle

desparate

desperet

desperate

settlement

setlement

setelment

arkitect

architect

architet

docuement

dokument

document 19


Famous F aces Faces from History

1777 - 1837

 Francis

Greenway

Comprehension

  

Understanding the Text

1. What sort of crimes did people commit in the 1800s that saw them sent to Australia? _________________________________________________ 2. Why was Greenway transported to Australia? What was his crime?

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3. Why do you think Governor Macquarie gave Greenway a full pardon after only four years of his sentence? _____________________________________________________________________________________

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4. What type of buildings did Greenway build in the new colony?

5. What difficulties did Greenway face as an architect?

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6. What prejudice did Greenway face because of his convict past?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

7. Why is Greenway considered an important contributor to Australia’s heritage?

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Architectural Drawing Task •f orr evi ew pur po esofo nPark l yBarracks • in This is a s drawing Hyde

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Macquarie St, Sydney as designed by Francis Greenway. Draw the façade or front of your school or an old building nearby. Notice the edgings, the roof line and the supports. Try to include as much detail as possible.

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Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:HydeParkBarracksDrawingHardyWilson1914.jpg (Public Domain)

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 Writing Task   Choose one of the following famous  convicts to research:  •Mary Reiby (picture on the twenty dollar bill)  •William Buelow Gould (famous artist)  •Esther Abrahams (wife of the Governor)  •Simeon Lord (merchant and pioneer) •Margaret Catchpole (pioneer)    Write the biography of the person you  have researched by answering these  questions:  •Where did they come from?  •What crime did they commit?  •How many years did they have to serve?  •What happened after they were released?  •What did they achieve during their lifetime?   Present your information as a visual  display, a graphical presentation  (PowerPoint) or a written report.   Some starting points:   www.adb.online.anu.edu.au Australian Dictionary of Biography  www.famouspeople.co.uk/  


Famous F aces Faces from History

1777 - 1837

 Francis Greenway Greenway

Extension Tasks

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• Write a diary from the point of view of a convict, a marine, a settler or a sailor about the journey coming from England and your first impressions of Old Sydney Town. Include the details which are important to you such as food, bedding, the lash, clothing, work, hopes, etc.

What’s for Dinner? – Imagine you were an early settler to Australia

There is definitely no McDonalds! The seasons are back to front so December is summer instead of winter when you are used to celebrating Christmas. The food arriving by boat from England, such as biscuits, flour or dried beef, has weevils or is stale. You see the Aboriginal people living off the land and the sea, eating oysters, bugs and kangaroos. What would be your diet? Plan a meal for a settler family.

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Buildings with Sandstone

Convict Tales

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Try to visit or view on the Internet some of Francis Greenway’s buildings. Which do you like best? Do you think it is important to maintain old buildings or should they be pulled down? What are the advantages and disadvantages of building with stone? Collect a variety of pictures of buildings which reflect different periods of time and culture around the world and in your town. Cut them out of a magazine or download them from the Internet. Write a brief explanation of each picture underneath. Paste them onto cardboard to display in the classroom.

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For many people in England, Australia was a mysterious land. Some thought it was a land of terror and devils; others thought it a land of plenty and sunshine. Over 150,000 convicts were transported to Australia, including men, women, children and elderly. Children were punished the same as adults. The punishment for over 200 different crimes was the death penalty; for stealing a pair of boots it could be seven years.

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Diary of a Journey

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Complete on a separate piece of paper.

    

           

Look up a convict in a convict register and write out their “convict tale” about their crime, their punishment and what happened to them.

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cedir.uow.edu.au/programs/FirstFleet Database of the First Fleet

members.iinet.net.au/~perthdps/convicts/stories.html Tales of convicts who came to Australia listed under the ship in which they arrived. www.convictcreations.com The hidden story about Australia’s past.

My Dream Home Design a floor plan for your dream home. You can use your imagination to create as many rooms as you like, as large as you like and as practical as you want it to be. Don’t forget to use a pencil so you can rub out and include a scale. Include some “green living” aspects like windows and skylights to catch light and heat, solar heating, waste water recycling units, etc.

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Ernest’s Great Adventure

Ernest Shackleton Famous F aces from History Faces

1874 - 1922

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an expedition to walk across the Antarctic continent from one side to the other. He advertised for men brave enough for the trip and 5000 applied. He chose the best sailors and scientists, such as biologists and glaciologists. He also needed seismologists to take magnetic observations, and meteorologists to record the weather in the sub-freezing landscape.

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ow would you like to sail the seven seas? When Ernest Shackleton was a boy living in England in the late 1800s he dreamed of sailing on one of the big ships he saw in the port of Liverpool. He never imagined that he would become a great adventurer and one of his journeys would make him a hero. As captain of an expedition he once saved the lives of 27 men in incredibly difficult circumstances. People remember this amazing adventure to this day.

In 1914, he set out with 56 men in his tiny ship, the Endurance. The ship had coaldriven engines, massive square-rigged sails on three tall masts and a hull at the bow that was over one metre thick (three feet) to plough through the ice.

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Ernest became a ship’s captain at the age of 24, which is very young. In 1907, he was made the leader of his own British Antarctic Expedition on a ship called the Nimrod. Some members of his expedition climbed Mount Erebus and reached the South Magnetic Pole. Ernest didn’t quite make it but he came close. He returned to a hero’s welcome and was knighted, becoming Sir Ernest Shackleton. By the time he turned 40, Ernest planned his greatest adventure. He wanted to lead 22

For some reason the Weddell Sea in Antarctica had more ice than usual and the ship became stuck in ice. Ernest ordered the crew to abandon ship and they had to live on the ice floe in shelters made from bits of wood. During the months that followed Ernest organised games of football on the ice and dog sled races to keep everyone’s spirits up. They were still far from land when the packed ice started to crack. Their precious ship groaned as if it was being killed. Finally, the Endurance was crushed into splinters and sank.

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At the age of 16, Ernest set out on his first voyage. He joined a rigger that sailed around Cape Horn through a blizzard for two months. Though it was cold and the sea was rough, Ernest loved it. A few years later, Ernest dreamed he was standing on the bridge in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean looking towards the North Pole. This dream inspired Ernest to explore the snowy, icy ends of the earth … the poles.

Ernest and his crew desperately needed to be rescued but they were too far from anyone to radio for help. Remember that this was before communication satellites and before mobile phones.


Ernest’s Great Adventure

Ernest Shackleton Famous F aces from History Faces

1874 - 1922

continued

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On the other side of the world in England, people thought that they must be dead.

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Ernest had to decide what to do. He sorted through the supplies the men had salvaged from the ship. Should they take the flares and the rifles? Should they leave the packs of cards and their journals? They loaded up the lifeboats and dragged them across the melting ice, with the temperature below zero, to reach the sea. After piling into their lifeboats, they sailed across to Elephant Island but they were still not saved. The nearest civilisation was a whaling station on St. Georgia Island another 1300 kilometres away.

walked over an impossibly icy landscape of crevasses, slopes and barren rocks to the other side. They arrived in tattered clothes with long beards and matted hair, as if they hadn’t washed in a year (which they hadn’t!).

Ernest desperately wanted to rescue his other crew members so he made three attempts to sail to their island. The last one was successful and he found his crew safe and alive. They had lived on nothing but seal, penguin and shellfish, with seal liver and “tasty” seaweed as a treat.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew puPeople r po es onl y •He calls Ernest Shackleton a hero.

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Leaving most of the men behind, Ernest set out with a crew of five to navigate between the icebergs in a tiny boat. Three men stayed on deck to sail while the other three tried to sleep below. Every few minutes, water swamped the deck. Ice collected on the boat as the sea-spray froze. This weighed the boat down, threatening to sink her. Breakfast, lunch and dinner were the same – a pan of hot “hoosh” made from Bovril, two biscuits and lumps of sugar. Ernest stayed positive, cheering the others to keep going even through wind like a hurricane.

saved the lives of his men by rowing over one thousand kilometres, surviving a hurricane and walking non-stop across an icy, windswept island to get help. He had not crossed Antarctica but he had had a great adventure! J

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After 19 exhausting days they reached St Georgia, however, their boat was breaking apart. Ernest’s adventure was not over yet, as they had landed on the wrong side of the island. Taking two of his men he 23


 Word Search   Match the word with its meaning  •rescue •hero •massive •meteorologist •splinters •blizzard 

1874 - 1922

Famous F aces Faces from History

A terrible snow storm

__________________________________

Person who studies the weather

__________________________________

Male form of heroine

__________________________________

Small, tiny pieces of wood

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To save someone

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Very large

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Study  Jumbled   Letters  Unjumble  these words  which are all  types of ships:   GERIRG   _________   OSHRONCE  _________   CEAON  _________   HDLRYOOIF  _________   TCHYA  _________  TUTREC   _________  AREGB  _________   RREFY  _________   GHINDY  _________ 

      

Most adjectives of one syllable have a comparative ending in –er (comparing two things) and a superlative ending in –est (comparing more than two things). Complete the table below. Don’t forget to change the y to an i before adding the endings!

-er

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-est

cold

_______________________ colder

______________________ coldest

deep

_______________________

______________________

brave

_______________________

______________________

safe

_______________________

______________________

rude

_______________________

______________________

dark

_______________________

______________________

icy

_______________________

______________________

crazy

_______________________

______________________

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 Similes   “The ship groaned as if it was being killed.” “The ship was stuck like an almond in  toffee.” When we compare one thing with something else, this is called a simile.  Try to make similes beginning with these sentences: 

The men __________________ as if _______________________________________

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The storm _________________ as if _______________________________________ The tractor ________________ as if _______________________________________ The snow _________________ as if _______________________________________ The house _________________ as if _______________________________________

  Suffixes   Some jobs are written with –ist for the ending. The suffix “ist” means “one  who” in Latin. Using a dictionary, try to find the type of work done in these jobs: 

geologist ________________________

microbiologist ______________________

seismologist ______________________

dentist ____________________________

biologist_________________________

botanist ___________________________

glaciologist ______________________

physicist ___________________________


Famous F aces Faces from History

 Ernest 1874 - 1922

Shackleton

Comprehension

  

Understanding the Text

1. When did Ernest decide to become an explorer? __________________________________________________ 2. What was the aim of the Antarctic expedition? Did they succeed in what they planned to undertake? __________________________________________________

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3. How thick was the hull of the Endurance? Why did it have to be so thick? __________________________________________________

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4. What happened to the Endurance?

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5. What did the crew eat while they were stranded on Elephant Island?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

6. What heroic actions did Ernest take to save his men?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

7. Why is Ernest Shackleton remembered today?

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8. Which is most important to you – being organised, being popular or accomplishing things? Which is least important to you – money, fame or power – and why?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

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 Drawing Task   A biologist makes drawings of new and unusual species of animals, insects, birds and plants.  • Find a plant or animal from your garden or playground to draw, using a sheet of art paper.  Make sure that you show the detail of the plant, draw it from different angles and write a  neat description like a true biologist. 

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 Writing Task  In his dream Shackleton was looking out to sea at the bow of a ship.   Have you ever had a dream like this? What did you dream?  • Write down your dream and what you think it means.             

You can read Ernest Shackleton’s book South: the story of Shackleton’s last expedition 1914–1917, online, telling how the expedition failed. etext.library.adelaide.edu.au/s/shackleton/ernest/s52s/ or ernest-shackleton.search.ipupdater.com/ and follow the links.

CHAPTER I: Into the Weddell Sea I decided to leave South Georgia about December 5, and in the intervals of final preparation scanned again the plans for the voyage to winter quarters. What welcome was the Weddell Sea preparing for us? ...

• Design a book cover for this book. 25


Famous F aces Faces from History

 Ernest 1874 - 1922

Shackleton

Extension Tasks

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Frank Hurley was an Australian who was the official photographer for the trip. His photographs have become very famous. • Look up his photos in the library or on the Internet using Google Images and the key word: Frank Hurley. • Using charcoal or pencil, copy your favourite photograph on white paper.

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Imagine you are Ernest Shackleton and your ship has been frozen in the ice for nine months. You decide to leave because the ship has sunk. What are you going to take with you?

• Look at the list of items you can take from the ship below. You have 27 men to keep alive and must choose every item carefully. Divide the list into essential and non-essential and write down why you have decided this: •chocolate •rum •ship’s cat •rifles, •fishing hooks •books •camera •film •canned meat •compass •cooking pots •cotton shirts •fresh water •journals and pencils •knives •matches •medical supplies •playing cards •radio •reindeer skin •sleeping bags •canvas •rope •sextant •ship’s bell •anchor •soccer ball •dogs •stove •tents •soap •long woollen underwear

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ESSENTIAL

Interview Task

WHY?

NON-ESSENTIAL

WHY?

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Famous Photos

Big Decisions

In pairs pretend to be an interviewer (e.g. a media personality such as Andrew Denton) and an interviewee (e.g. an explorer such as Shackleton). Write down some questions you want to find out about the explorer, and his answers. Act out your roles in front of the class or group. Questions could include: What do you think courage means? Who would you like to thank? How did you feel during the blizzard?

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Complete on a separate piece of paper.

          

 Headlines  • Write the headlines for a newspaper announcing the  survival of Shackleton and his men after they had been  missing for nearly two years.

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Did you know that Antarctica is the coldest and the driest continent in the world? Research Antarctica as it is today on this website, which has diaries of the people living there and frequently asked questions about life in Antarctica: www.aad.gov.au Scroll down the page to Antarctic webcams of Mawson, Davis, Casey and Macquarie Island. • Write down 10 new facts you discovered about the continent of Antarctica.

 Diary Writing – Imagine you were an explorer  Choose where you would like to explore – *a newly found place in a forest, *a deep sea kingdom or *a planet in outer space? Why?   Write a diary about your adventures.  Write down about your daily activities and your companions.  Describe your environment using the five senses. 26


Battle and Victory

Elizabeth Kenny Famous F aces from History Faces

1880 - 1952

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the hospital, she had to use her common sense treating farm injuries, broken bones and delivering babies. If she came across a difficult case all she could do was to telegraph the doctor in town. One day she had a patient, a two-year-old girl, and she had no idea what was wrong with her. The child seemed to be paralysed so she telegraphed the local doctor describing all the symptoms. He wrote back:

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girl was born in a country homestead, the daughter of a country vet. When she grew up she became a bush nurse but she did not go to college and she did not get a certificate in nursing. When a horrible disease spread around the world, she invented her own treatment. But doctors questioned her methods. To gain acceptance for her work she had to fight many battles but she was victorious, even though it took most of her life. Who was she?

“It sounds like infantile paralysis (poliomyelitis or polio). There’s no known treatment, so do the best you can.”

© ReadyEdP ub l i c at i owas ns Now in those days there no cure for polio and no such thing as vaccinations. •f orr evi ew puChildren r pobecame ses o nquickly, l y• sick very usually

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in the summer months. First they had a fever, headache, upset stomach, and in some cases, a stiff neck and sore muscles. Very quickly they could not walk or use their limbs. Their muscles would not work, they became weaker and weaker. Sometimes parts of their lung collapsed and gave up working. Some children became so sick they had to live inside an “iron lung” – a metal contraption like a coffin which helped them to breathe. Parents were terrified that their children would catch this disease if they went to places like swimming pools. The usual medical solution was to bind the children to the bed and put splints on their arms and legs to stop them from moving the muscles that were affected.

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Elizabeth Kenny was born in Australia in 1880. As a country girl she loved nothing better than being outdoors, riding bareback on her horse around the farm. One day when she was a teenager she fell and broke her wrist. The doctor, who treated her, Dr McDonnell, lent her textbooks on muscles and how they worked. She was so fascinated that she even made her own “skeleton” with pulleys showing how the muscles worked.

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Her brother, Bill, was small and weak as a child. When Elizabeth was still quite young she set up an exercise program for him and the exercises made him stronger. This program probably inspired some of the techniques she developed when she grew up.

At about the age of 31, Elizabeth was working as a bush nurse in the outback of Queensland. Everything she learnt was “on the job” because she did not have any proper training. In the outback, so far from

Elizabeth Kenny, working so far away from hospitals, did not know this treatment. The little girl could not sleep with the pain 27


Battle and Victory

Elizabeth Kenny Famous F aces from History Faces

1880 - 1952

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In 1916 when World War I started, Elizabeth aged 36, served as an Australian army nurse, which was a very brave thing to do. She was given the title “Sister” because of her hard work. While she was working on the battlefields she invented the stretcher to make it easier for the aids to carry the wounded back to the hospitals set up in tents near the battlefields. Later on she patented this stretcher and gave the money to the Country Women’s Association in Queensland.

Royal Commission started up by the same doctors said her methods were “costly”, “cruel”, and “dangerous”. So at the age of 59 Elizabeth set off for the United States, where there was an epidemic of polio cases. There she taught others about her procedure. With some studies proving that her technique was superior to the old ways, many American clinics followed her ideas. Still some in the medical profession ridiculed her. Eventually in Minnesota a clinic was set up to treat thousands of young children paralysed with polio. In 1941 the United States Medical Association finally declared support for her methods. This was one victory in the battle.

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in her legs. Elizabeth thought that her pain could be eased by using heat. So she wrapped her legs in hot damp rags, called a compress. She was able to relax and soon fell asleep. Using her knowledge of wasted muscles and spasms, Elizabeth massaged the legs and created an exercise program. The little girl recovered and so did six more children in the district treated by her.

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Time and time again she had to fight to prove her methods worked. Local people liked her work but doctors stuck to the old ways of splints and criticised her work. A 28

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When Elizabeth returned to Australia to continue as a bush nurse she opened a clinic in the backyard of a hotel in Townsville and called it the Experimental Muscle Reduction Clinic. Here she treated children with polio and showed parents how to carry out the treatment of their children at home. Eventually other clinics opened around Australia, and one in England.

By 1947 Elizabeth was triumphant. Hospitals had to sell great piles of splints – 10,000 of them – for scrap metal. These were the splints that had been used by doctors to stop poor children from moving. Now they were only good for scrap! Elizabeth Kenny died in 1952 back in Queensland, Australia, at the age of 72. She was a heroine to patients all over the world who learned to walk again after therapy at her clinics. Her methods led to modern physiotherapy treatments for polio, strokes, accidents and backaches. Elizabeth must have seen her life as a victory over the medical profession because she called her biography My Battle and Victory. J


        1880 - 1952

Famous F aces Faces from History

Punctuation –

Punctuation is very useful for the reader to help understand a text. Think of punctuation as the traffic signs of reading. So a full stop is a stop sign and a comma means to slow down. Capital letters start off a new sentence and also indicate important words such as names, places, titles and headings. Add the full stops, capital letters and other punctuation to the following passage:

elizabeth kenny was born in new south wales in 1880 elizabeth made an important contribution to the treatment of polio she developed some exercises which helped patients to strengthen their legs her method of using hot damp cloths reduced the pain elizabeth didn’t know it but she was doing exactly the opposite of what the doctors thought was right the patients elizabeth treated all recovered

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Study

 Jumbled  Letters   Unjumble these  medical words.   NLIICC   _________    LYSPAARIS   _________    SEDAISE   _________    DEEMPIIC   _________    MLECUSS   _________    IJUISREN   _________ 

       

Words can be broken up into sounds called syllables. Place your hand under your chin and say this word slowly: encouraging. Every time you feel your chin drop is another syllable. En-cou-rag-ing. Did you count four? Each one of these parts is a syllable, so the word has four syllables. Say these words slowly with your hand under your chin. Write down the number of syllables (chin drops):

victory ______________

muscles _____________

collapse _____________

contraption __________

experience __________

tent ________________

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triumphant ________ wooden __________

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Plurals •f orr e vi ew pur posesonl y• The general rule when making a plural is to add an –s to the noun, but sometimes method __________

    with words ending in –ch, –sh or –x you have to add –es.  For example crutch – crutches. Form the plurals for the following words: 

horse ____________

limb ____________

fax ______________

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tax ______________

ash _______________

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nurse ___________

hatch _____________

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 Scramble   How many words can you make using this word: INFANTILE? They must be  words of three letters or more; no hyphens and no capital letters. E.g. LINE 

 Word Families   –tch is a common word family found in words like crutch and latch. Make new  words by adding –atch, –itch or –utch to the family using these letters: 

h________

D___________

th ___________

m__________

p________er

cl____________

disp___________

st__________ 29


Famous F aces Faces from History

1880 - 1952

Elizabeth  Kenny

Comprehension

  

Understanding the Text

1. What events inspired Elizabeth to study muscles? __________________________________________________ 2. What jobs did Elizabeth Kenny have during her lifetime? __________________________________________________ 3. How did she learn to become a nurse?

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4. What is another name for poliomyelitis? What is it?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

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5. What was the treatment that Elizabeth used on children who had polio?

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6. What reaction did Elizabeth get from the medical profession for her ideas for treating children with polio? Why do you think they reacted that way?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

7. What was Elizabeth Kenny’s achievement? Why is she remembered today?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

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8. Elizabeth Kenny once said: “It is better to be a lion for a day, than a sheep all your life.” What do you think this means? Do you agree with her or not? Why or why not? _____________________________________________________________________________________

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Internet Resources:

Read about another famous doctor or nurse in the library or on the Internet. Find out the contribution that person has made to medicine. For example: Howard Florey, Marie Curie, Florence Nightingale, Louis Paster, Dr Victor Chang, etc.

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www.time.com/time/ Time Magazine www.adb.online.anu.edu.au Australian Dictionary of Biography www.famouspeople.co.uk

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Draw a picture of a healthy baby and one who is sick in bed. Underneath the pictures write down the things which help a baby to be healthy. Don’t forget to include basic needs such as sunshine, clean water, etc.


Famous F aces Faces from History

Elizabeth

1880 - 1952

 Kenny

Extension Tasks

        

Book Title Why do you think that Elizabeth Kenny chose the title for her book Battle and Victory? What would be another good title for her autobiography? What would you call your autobiography if you were famous? What would you like to be famous for?

Health and Hygiene

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Complete on a separate piece of paper.

People did not know in Elizabeth Kenny’s time that diseases could spread by water droplets from coughing. There have been great developments in treatment and prevention of diseases. Today there is greater awareness of the dangers of disease spreading from person to person because of poor hygiene, not using handkerchiefs and tissues, not washing hands and unclean water.

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Draw a poster reminding people to wash their hands, wear a mask or use tissues to help prevent the spread of diseases.

 Fitness First  Create an exercise program to suit someone who is not very fit. Write the instructions for some exercises you do at school. Explain which muscle groups they are helping to develop. Draw some  diagrams to show exactly how to do the exercises. Include time for each exercise, the number of  repeats, etc.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons  When I Grow Up •Kenny f or ev i e w pu r p sesoThe nl y• wasr a nurse and she also began the fieldo of physiotherapy. people who carry  Elizabeth

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 out physiotherapy are called physiotherapists.  Find out what the people, who work in these jobs in the medical field do: *general practitioner *biologist *pediatrician *obstetrician  *optician *orthodontist *psychologist *podiatrist *coroner  Which of these jobs would you prefer to have when you grow up? Why? Write about the job  you would like to do and why you would like it.  Conduct a survey of the students in the class to find out what job they would like to have when  they grow up. Draw a graph to show the results.        

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Research other medical breakthroughs and who was responsible. Choose one of the following breakthroughs to find out more about medicine: Internet Resources: * Penicillin * Vaccine for smallpox * The discovery of the genes

* The stethoscope

* First heart transplant

* Discovery of X-rays

HINT: use the Internet or the library: www.infoplease.com/people.html www.askforkids.com www.wikipedia.org

Write down what the breakthrough was, who discovered it, what impact it had at the time, what it means today, what discoveries it has led to, etc.

 Broadcast News  Write a news item to read aloud announcing the success of Elizabeth Kenny’s methods in America.  Read your announcement to the class. 31


Escher Unzipped

Maurits Escher Famous F aces from History Faces

1898-1972

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four boys. He was born in Holland, today called the Netherlands, in 1898. When he was little his parents gave him the nickname Mauk. He loved to gaze up at the clouds and saw interesting shapes. Besides drawing, music and carpentry were his favourite subjects. He did not like mathematics because he was not good at numbers but as he grew older he liked the geometry of solids.

shows a still life with his desk in the foreground merging into the streetscape outside his window. Some of his drawings seem to show many different views of space like buildings in the middle, a background of stars in outer space, and animals with human heads wandering through the buildings.

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Maurits Escher is sometimes called the “Poet of the impossible”. His drawings show impossible structures and his imagery is romantic. During his lifetime, he made hundreds of lithographs, woodcuts, linocuts, wood engravings and watercolours. Before computers made printing easy, his engravings and lithographs took hours, even days, to complete. All his life Maurits felt that his drawing skill was never good enough and that’s why he continued to work harder at improving.

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t school Maurits Escher was not the brightest boy in his class. In fact, he did not finish high school because he kept failing. His best subject was drawing. Luckily, one of his teachers recognised his talent and encouraged him to keep working at it. He grew up to create the most amazing prints and drawings imaginable. They are unique and demonstrate his fantastic imagination. Usually people in art galleries are deadly quiet. But when they check out the work of Maurits Escher they gasp in astonishment and delight.

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After high school, Maurits tried to get a certificate in architecture but he failed the exams. This did not stop Maurits from continuing to do what he felt passionate about – drawing and printing. He changed over his subjects to graphic arts and from then on he was happy.

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Our eyes usually focus on one object and the rest becomes background. But with many of Maurits’ woodcuts, birds spring out at you or fall into the background as others stand out. Sometimes the foreground and background switch places. This effect is like a 3-D puzzle; when the focus of your eyes changes, you see depth in the picture.


Escher Unzipped

Maurits Escher Famous F aces from History Faces

1898-1972

continued

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Maurits’ drawings gave the impression of infinity – that lines and space can go on and on forever. To do this he gradually reduced the size of the objects in his drawings. At first he did this by shrinking his images towards the centre of the page. After 1958 he reversed this idea and drew smaller and smaller images towards the outer edges.

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On his travels in Spain, Maurits saw some Islamic decorative tiles in a fourteenth century palace. The tiling pattern was made of repeated geometric designs. He liked this idea of a repetitive pattern but it had only been done with flat regular shapes like squares and triangles and never with animals. So he started drawing interlocking animals such as lizards, birds and fish. These special designs are called tessellations – repetitive patterns with no gaps and no spaces. The amazing thing is that these patterns can be repeated to infinity. They are often found in tiling patterns in bathrooms and pathways, or on wallpaper.

All his life Maurits repeated many of the symbols or motifs that he found attractive – birds, lions, reptiles, fish, insects, butterflies, people and even weightlifters!

© ReadyEdP ubl i cat i ons His last work, called “Snakes”, took six to complete. Even in his last print he •f orr evi ew pumonths r p o sesonl y• was trying to express infinity – this time at

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both the centre and all four edges. Maurits died three years afterwards in 1972. He was 73 years of age.

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Next, Maurits put two different animals in the same space, such as fish and geese. The fish swam in one direction and the geese flew the other way but the change was so gradual in the middle you could not tell when the fish became a goose. This process is called metamorphosis, after the way a caterpillar changes into a butterfly. He used this theme in his work for many years.

Maurits Escher’s ideas and his constructions are fascinating works of art that were remarkably striking. His prints are practical examples of something that theoretical mathematicians can only imagine. It’s as if he is forcing you to think about space. His work has inspired many artists, writers and moviemakers. Matt Groening has used his ideas in one of his cartoons, in which rabbits fall down stairs at impossible angles. Was Maurits Escher a poet, an artist or a mathematician? Have a look and see what you think. J

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Maurits was interested in mazes and ridiculous structures. He started drawing bizarre buildings that did not look quite right. They would be impossible to build. He really liked imaginary staircases. These were optical illusions where you could never tell which is the top of the staircase or which is the bottom.

A lithograph is a print made by putting writing or designs on stone with a greasy material, and producing printed impressions from this process.

33


 Apostrophes   An apostrophe is used in a word to indicate ownership, e.g. The woodcut belonging  to Escher is Escher’s woodcut; The family belonging to Escher is Escher’s family   and so on. Write the ownership using an apostrophe here:

1898-1972

Famous F aces Faces from History

The painting belonging to Kai =

___________________________

The drawing belonging to Jackie =

___________________________

The cartoon belonging to Harry =

___________________________

Study

___________________________

The etching belonging to Mark =

___________________________

   A noun is a person, place or object, e.g. snake, Escher, the Netherlands. A verb  is an action or a thought, e.g. hop, skip and jump.  Circle the nouns and underline the verbs in the following passage: 

Maurits Escher wanted to get a certificate in architecture. He failed his exams at school. He continued to draw and to paint, and made hundreds of woodcuts and lithographs. His drawings depict impossible buildings or objects, people or animals. One of his early lithographs shows a picture of his desk.

 Misspellings  Choose the correct spelling: 

grafic

graphik

decorative

decoritive

decorativ

passionate

pashonate

pashioneight

practickle

practical

praktical

imposible

impossible

impossibel

Prefixes

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In– and im– are both prefixes which go in front of a base word to mean the opposite or not. For example impossible means not possible and indirect means not direct. Add im– or in– to the front of these words to make new words: HINT: Use im– before words starting with m or p.

___mobile

ACROSS 6. Transformation or change 7. One off; unusual 8. Immeasurably large; going on forever 9. Symbols

DOWN 1. Painted with water soluble paint 2. Regular tiling pattern with no gaps or overlaps 3. Strange or unreal 4. Making smaller 5. Over and over again; recurring

o c . che e r o t r s super ___valid

___soluble

___mortal

___adequate

___probable

___decent

___personal

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Crossword

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graphic

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r o e t s Bo r Maurits Partse of Speech  p ok Escher u S Word The sketch belonging to Linda =


Famous F aces Faces from History

Maurits

1898-1972

Maurits Escher

Comprehension

  

Understanding the Text

1. Where was Escher born? __________________________________________________ 2. What subjects did Escher like and not like at school? __________________________________________________

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

3. Which symbols did Escher like to use a lot in his drawings and woodcuts?

4. Where did Escher discover tessellated tiling patterns?

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Teac he r

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

5. What was ridiculous about the buildings he drew? Could they exist?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

6. Why are Escher’s drawings considered so remarkable?

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

_____________________________________________________________________________________ 7. What contribution has Escher made to art and to mathematics?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

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 Drawing Task   Using a sheet of art paper ...   • Choose a number of everyday objects to place on your desk. Look at them from an unusual angle. Draw   a still life using charcoal or pencil trying to show some  of the things in the background or out the window.   • Now do another drawing of the same scene, but  make one part of the drawing abnormally large and  the other objects smaller towards the outside, as if  you are looking through a fish eye lens.   • Finally, do a third drawing with the objects in the  centre very tiny and those at the outer edge very  large, like Escher did.  

Courtesty of Maurits Escher Foundation

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 Writing Task   Write an autobiography from Escher’s point of view using the information given in the text.   I was one of those kids who didn’t do well at school. I hated maths. Only one thing held my interest for  longer than two minutes. Luckily for me one of my teachers noticed something special about me … 

© Maurits Escher, 1948.

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Famous F aces Faces from History

Maurits

1898-1972

Maurits Escher

Extension Tasks

         

Nicknames Do you have a nickname or pet name? The Escher’s gave their son a nickname when he was small. It was Mauk. Why do you think they gave him this name? Have your parents given you a nickname? Write down some nicknames you know. Are they funny or sweet or mean?

Famous Artists

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Great Art

Here are some other famous artists: Vincent Van Gogh, Claude Monet, Michelangelo, Vermeer, Marc Chagall, and Paul Klee. • Look for some of their paintings in the library or on the Internet. Which artist do you like the best? Why?

       

This is what Escher had to say about his art:

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Teac he r

Complete on a separate piece of paper.

“To tell you the truth, I am rather perplexed about the concept of ‘art’. What one person considers to be ‘art’ is often not ‘art’ to another. ‘Beautiful’ and ‘ugly’ are old-fashioned concepts that are seldom applied these days …”

What makes art great? Do you agree that art has to be beautiful? Write a statement about great art. Someone once said that great art can only be decided over time. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Why?

© R e a d y E d P u b l i c a t i o n s  Mathematics for Life  Escher had •af r e i ebut whisp uinclude r po se son l y• loto ofr trouble atv school works many mathematical concepts such as

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angles, infinity, space and shape.

TASK

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•shopping for shoes

TIME

•Saturday morning

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How is this possible? What is mathematics? How is maths related to your everyday life? Discuss this with your classmates. Make a chart like the one below and write down all the times during the week that you use mathematics outside of your maths lessons.

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WHAT MATHS YOU USED

•Money, comparing lengths, addition, subtraction …

o c . che e r o t r Star Patterns s super

You can draw and colour an easy star pattern by following these instructions: 1. On a square piece of paper draw two large dots. 2. Now draw ten smaller dots around the paper. 3. Choose one of the smaller dots and draw a line from it to each of the larger dots. 4. Repeat this with each of the small dots. 5. Now you have a star pattern ready to colour.


Famous F aces Faces from History

Maurits Escher

1898-1972

Extension Tasks

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Complete on a separate piece of paper.

Mathematical Tasks

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Teac he r

Internet Resources:

Tessellations

Tessellations or tiling patters are used to make patterns in bathroom floors, wall murals, pathways, kitchens and so on.

Š ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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2. Change the perimeter of your shape by cutting out a smaller shape and balancing the shape like this:

3. So a tessellated tiling pattern looks like this:

TAKE OUT

  PUT IN

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1. You can make your own unique tessellation by starting with a base shape such as a square.

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 Optical Illusions  Follow the instructions to create an optical illusion to trick  your friends:  1. Draw a line 10 cm long  2. Draw a second line exactly the same length slightly underneath  the first line.  3. At the beginning and the end of the first line create two short arrow heads pointing outwards.  4. At the beginning and the end of the second line create two  short arrow heads pointing inwards.  5. Ask your friends which line is longer and they will say the first  one. Try this and see!      

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On a piece of graph paper make your own special tiling pattern starting with a square, triangle, hexagon or parallelogram.

 More Tessellations  Look up some of Escher’s drawings on the Internet or from a library. Try Google Images or  Wikipedia. You are able to create your own tessellations like Escher on the Internet at sites like this one: www.tessellations.org  37


The Careful Cartographer

Matthew Flinders Famous F aces from History Faces

1774 - 1814

E

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and a chronometer (a ship’s clock) and mark them in a journal called the ship’s log. Matthew used these readings to draw up his maps which took a great deal of hard work.

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arly maps of the world had a huge area at the bottom marked Terra Australis Incognito – Unknown Southern Land - and “Here be dragons” written on the edge. Australian Aboriginal people lived in this place – the largest island in the world – for tens of thousands of years. It wasn’t until the sixteenth century that Dutch, French and British explorers came with their navigators and “modern” navigating equipment to map bits and pieces of the continent now called Australia. It was a very young English mapmaker or cartographer, Matthew Flinders, who made the most accurate charts.

On his second trip, Matthew made friends with the ship’s doctor, George Bass, who was not much older than him. Together they bought a boat that was so small they called it the Tom Thumb. Between 1798 and 1799 they mapped and explored the coastlines of New South Wales and Tasmania. Bass and Flinders circumnavigated the island of Tasmania for the first time. Before this, sailors thought that Tasmania was connected to Australia. The maps they then created made the trip quicker for other ships to sail through the strait on their way to New South Wales.

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Matthew was born in 1774 and decided to be a sailor after reading The Adventures of Robinson Crusoe at school. When he grew up his ambition was to map the great Unknown Southern Land. He did not plan to be shipwrecked on an island like Crusoe, but in one of his adventures as a navigator he was stuck on an island for six and a half years.

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In 1799 Matthew made a new friend. This time his mate was a tiny kitten called Trim, who was to join him in many of his adventures. Trim grew into a large black tomcat with four white socks and a matching white star on his chest. Trim was not an ordinary cat. Matthew wrote in his journal how Trim climbed the ropes and was always first to reach the loft. He was a cat who had no fear of water and learned how to swim. Trim helped with the sails and inspected the navigation instruments like a real sailor. Also, he was an expert at catching rats. Perhaps he thought he was a sailor!

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Matthew’s first job as a mapmaker was when he was only 17. With Captain Bligh at the wheel of a ship called Providence, he charted many of the southern seas and made his first trip to Tasmania. To make a map in those days, you had to take many readings with a sextant (an instrument to measure the angular distance of the stars and the sun from the horizon), a compass 38

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The Careful Cartographer

Matthew Flinders Famous F aces from History Faces

1774 - 1814

continued

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Matthew reached the southern most tip of Western Australia, sailed along the southern coast, through Bass Strait up to Sydney, all the way around the continent and back to Sydney again. This was the first sailing vessel to circumnavigate the great Unknown Southern Land. In a journey taking one whole year he charted coasts, islands, bays and headlands along the way.

with being a spy. He complained rudely so the governor kept him under house arrest for over six years. If Matthew had been a bit more polite he might have been released earlier. To make things worse, poor Trim disappeared.

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Matthew and Trim returned to England. Matthew’s ambition was to sail all the way around Australia but he needed a better boat. The famous botanist, Sir Joseph Banks, helped him out with a ship, crew and money. Even though Matthew was only 28 he became captain of the Investigator. He set off from England in 1802, with 80 men – and Trim – for the west coast of Australia.

Back in England Matthew was too sick to sail again and he died soon after his maps were published in 1814. They were so detailed and reliable that they were used for 170 years after his death up until the 1970s – an amazing achievement for one man. Even when satellite imaging created an accurate map by taking pictures from space, his maps proved to be very close.

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By the time it returned to the port in Sydney, the Investigator was just about falling to pieces. Matthew decided to return to England on board the Cumberland, in order to locate a new boat and recruit a new crew.

Was Matthew Flinders a great explorer or just foolish to attempt such amazing expeditions to chart the great Unknown Southern Land? His maps have stood the test of time because he was so careful. Inspired by Robinson Crusoe, a fictional character, to become an adventurer, Matthew was ambitious and keen to be the first cartographer to map Australia. He was the first person to call the land “Australia”. Sometimes he was foolish when he forgot his manners. But he must have been very brave to sail to parts of the world where the old maps said: “Here be dragons!”J

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Matthew’s journey home in the Cumberland was a disaster. The boat was shipwrecked on a reef in the Indian Ocean. They headed for the island of Mauritius for repairs. Matthew didn’t know at the time that war had started between the French and the English, and since Mauritius was a French port he was arrested and charged

Find out more: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matthew_Flinders 39


        

Punctuation –

Punctuation is very useful for the reader to help understand a text. Capital letters are used to start off a new sentence to make it easier for the eye to tell when a new idea or thought is coming. Capitals show when something is important like a person’s name, a place, or book title. Add the full stops, capital letters and other punctuation to the following passage:

1774 - 1814

Famous F aces Faces from History

matthew was born in 1774 and decided to be a sailor after reading the adventures of robinson crusoe at school when he grew up his ambition was to map the great unknown southern land he became a famous navigator in one adventure he was stuck on an island for six and a half years

r o e t s Bo r e p– ok Jobs u S Word

Study

 Some words for jobs are made by adding –er or –or to the end of   another word. E.g. teacher and doctor.   Add the correct ending to make these into jobs:

cartograph ______

navigate ______

adventure _______

clean __________

visit _________

help ___________

 Word Meanings  Match the words below with their  meaning from the text:   •chronometer •sextant •cartographer •satellite •circumnavigate •tomcat 

      

Similes

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Matthew  Flinders

mapmake _______ collect _________

Tom Thumb was as small as a person’s thumb. “As ______ as ____________” is a simile. Make some similes to complete these sentences:

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Person who draws maps

She was as ____________________________

A ship’s clock

The cat was as _________________________

as ___________________________________ as ___________________________________

An instrument for measuring angular distance from the horizon

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The mighty ship was as __________________ as ___________________________________

Male cat

The boy was as ________________________

Travel all the way around an island

Base Words . te o Compound Words c . che e r o t r s super

Space object orbiting Earth

   Sometimes words can be created by  joining together two smaller words. E.g   mapmaker, shipwreck, etc.  Make new words by joining these words  together:  •tom •land •head •stone •man •work   •light •copy •cat •house •sand •right

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as ___________________________________

            

Many English words come from Latin or Greek words: circumnavigate comes from two Latin words – circum meaning around and navis meaning ship. Make some more English using these base words: •navis=ship •khronos=time •maximus=biggest •meter=measure •graphein=to draw.


Famous F aces Faces from History

1774 - 1814

Matthew Flinders

Comprehension

  

Understanding the Text

1. Why do think that maps had “Here be dragons” written on the edge? __________________________________________________ 2. What does Terra Australis Incognito mean? __________________________________________________ 3. Which countries sent explorers out to map Australia?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

__________________________________________________

4. Where did Matthew’s ambition to become an explorer come from?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

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5. Why were Matthew Flinders’ maps so good?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

6. What instruments did cartographers use to make maps during the eighteenth century?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

7. Why do you think Matthew Flinders and his friend called their boat the Tom Thumb?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

8. Why is Matthew Flinders remembered today? What did he achieve in his lifetime?

_____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________

Letter Writing Task

                

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While he was at sea, Matthew wrote some lovely letters to his wife, who he was forced to leave behind, and to his friend George Bass. He also kept a ship’s log and journals. You can read about his journey online at the State Library of NSW:  www.sl.nsw.gov.au/flinders/archive.html or you can see them at the Maritime Museum at Darling Harbour in Sydney. • On the back of this page write a letter from Matthew Flinders to his wife in England telling her about his troubles under house arrest in Mauritius.

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Matthew Flinders travelled to many places around the world. Where would you like to travel to? What places would you like to see? An island? A great city? A famous building or museum? Or Disneyland? Draw a picture of the place you would like to visit one day.

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Famous F aces Faces from History

Matthew 1774 - 1814

Flinders

Extension Tasks

 Timelines  Write a complete timeline of Matthew Flinders’ life – from  his birth in 1774 until his death in 1814. 

Teac he r

Mark on the map the route Flinders and Bass took on their voyage from England to Australia in 1902-1903 when they navigated around Australia.

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Matthew Flinders said that his cat Trim was

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Terrific Trim

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r o e t s Bo r Mapping the World e p ok u S

Complete on a separate piece of paper.

             

 Maps of the Mini-world  Draw a map of your school or your classroom as accurately  as you can on graph paper. Use a pencil so you can rub  out. Don’t forget to include a scale.

“ ... the best and most illustrious of his race, the most affectionate of friends, faithful of servants and best of creatures.”

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Imagine you were a cat taken on board the ship with your master, Matthew Flinders. You have your jobs to do on board the ship and you serve your master well.

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• Write a diary from Trim’s point of view describing your adventures with Matthew Flinders. Draw Trim perched on the bow of the ship or climbing the ropes. Find out where the statue of Trim is found in Sydney. Find out more about Trim here: www.windbound.com/MatthewFlinders/introduction.htm members.westnet.com.au/web/tcentre/trim.htm

 Quick Quiz  Write ten questions to give to your partner about the life of Matthew Flinders. They can be true or  false, Who? What? Where? When? How? or Why? questions. Swap questions with your partner  and try to answer them. How many questions did you get right? 42


Catherine Was Great

Catherine II of Russia Famous F aces from History Faces

1729 - 1796

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r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

When Catherine arrived in Russia she was polite and friendly. It didn’t matter what station the person came from – whether they were a peasant, soldier, servant, count or countess. She had a smile, a handshake and a kiss for everyone. Catherine was the perfect diplomat and made an effort to learn the Russian language as soon as she could.

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nce there lived an empress called Catherine. Catherine had a huge jewellery collection – containing thousands of precious things such as engraved diamonds, jewellery made of sapphires, rubies and pearls, and gold and silver ornaments. Her imperial crown, weighing nearly two kilograms, was made of silver and gold imbedded with 5,000 pink and white diamonds, and many large pearls. She was Catherine II of Russia, and they called her Catherine the Great.

It is not surprising that some people called Catherine and Peter “the odd couple”. They had nothing in common. It was quite a shock to Catherine to find her young husband was only interested in dressing up and playing soldiers. Peter wore a bright red soldier’s uniform and liked playing on his bed with his wooden toy soldiers, toy cannons and fortresses. He refused to take a bath as he thought washing would kill him. Catherine was well educated and interested in art, politics, music and reading, but Peter could barely read and write.

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was not really Catherine. She was born Sophia Augusta Frederica of Anhalt-Zebst, in 1729 in Stettin, Poland. She was the daughter of a minor German prince. Her parents expected great things of her. They gave her the best education that they could afford. Catherine was a bright child who read everything she could. But her mother was worried about her because she was so cheeky so she spanked Catherine to try to stop her boldness.

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Catherine was not born an empress; she f o r ev i e w pur posesonl y• was not• even born inr Russia and her name

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Catherine’s mother wanted to arrange a powerful marriage for her. In Russia, the Empress Elizaveta Petrovna wanted to marry off her nephew, Peter III, who was heir to the throne. Their families made a match between the 14 year old Catherine and 15 year old Peter. They married two years later.

When Catherine was 26 she gave birth to Paul, who became next in line after Peter to become Emperor. When the Empress Elizaveta died in 1762, Peter was declared Emperor Peter III of Russia. His difficult behaviour made him unpopular and he was jealous of Catherine who was so well-liked.

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Catherine Was Great

Catherine II of Russia Famous F aces from History Faces

1729 - 1796

continued

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

In the early years of her reign, Catherine reformed many laws of the country and provinces. Her progressive ideas included saying that a man was innocent until he is proven guilty and that the laws apply equally to all citizens. She was opposed to torture (“the use of torture is contrary to the dictates of nature and reason”) and believed in a fair trial by a jury (“man shall be judged by his peers and his equals”).

with jewels. She bought so many artworks, books, stuffed animal specimens and sculptures she needed many new buildings to store them in. As each gallery filled up she ordered another one to be built. By the time she died the museums and galleries stretched for 10 kilometres!

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Soon afterwards Peter ordered the Imperial Palace Guards to lock Catherine up. But Catherine had made friends with Count Orlof who was in charge of the guards. The guards arrested Peter instead of Catherine and put him into jail. This is called a “coup”. Even though Peter was the rightful leader Catherine was crowned Empress at the age of 33.

Like the emperors before her, Catherine wanted to expand the land belonging to Russia, partly because the country did not have any access to the ocean. In two major wars Russia fought and won the Ukraine, the north shore of the Black Sea and much of Poland.

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Catherine was a clever woman with a difficult job, who led Russia for over thirty years until her death in 1796. She ruled with a firm hand but she put Russia on the map by winning many wars, and by fostering art, music, education and culture. That is why she is remembered as Catherine the Great. J

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Her ideas were considered modern for the times. Girls did not go to school so Catherine started new schools for girls. She wanted health care for everyone and opened a medical college.

Despite her “modern” ideas, Catherine liked to splurge her royal fortune on anything she wanted. She always dressed beautifully in exquisite gowns, dripping

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•


 Punctuation – Punctuation is very useful for the reader to help   understand a text.   Add the full stops, capital letters and other punctuation to the following passage:

1729 - 1796

Famous F aces Faces from History

catherine was born in 1729 in poland she was the daughter of a minor german prince her parents expected great things of her as a child her mother spanked her to try to stop her boldness she was a bright child who read everything she could when she grew up she married peter petrovna the heir to the throne of russia her parents were very pleased

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Word

Study

  Word Meanings  Write sentences using each of the following words: 

spank

____________________________________________________________

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Catherine II  of R ussia Russia

boldness ____________________________________________________________ torture

____________________________________________________________

foster

____________________________________________________________

empress

____________________________________________________________

Word Search © ReadyEdPu b l i c a t i ons Find the following types of jewels in the word search below: •f orr evi ew pur p osesonl y• beleive

beelieve

nefew

nephew

nephewe

noledge

knowledge

knoledge

sculptures

skulptures

skulptures

oshon

ocaen

ocean

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believe

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•PEARL

•DIAMOND

•RUBY

•OPAL

•EMERALD

•AMETHYST

•GOLD

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 Misspellings   Choose the correct spelling from the rows below: 

•SILVER

•ONYX

•AMBER

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J

D

N

G

O

H

Z

I

K

O

T

B

L

Z

A

R

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Y

T

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B

M

E

D

O

P

A

H

M

Z

O

V

A

D

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E

O

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Y

A

N

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G

provinces _______________________________

L

P

A

N

A

J

S

D

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diplomat _______________________________

T

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Y

C

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M

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  Look up the meaning of these words. 

peers peasant

coup

_______________________________

_______________________________

_______________________________

A

V

R

S

H

R

M

B

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L

R

E

E

A

G

progressive ______________________________ 45


Famous F aces Faces from History

1729 - 1796

Catherine II of R ussia Russia

Comprehension

  

Understanding the Text

1. What sort of child was Catherine? __________________________________________________ 2. How were Catherine and Peter so different? Why were they called “the odd couple”? __________________________________________________ 3. Why was Catherine popular at court while Peter was not?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

__________________________________________________

4. How did Catherine come to be the empress of all of Russia?

Teac he r

_____________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Why did Catherine want to expand Russia?

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_____________________________________________________________________________________

6. What progressive ideas did Catherine have in her time?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

7. Why was Catherine called Catherine the Great of Russia? Why is she considered famous?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Drawing Task

8. If you could have been someone famous in history, who would you like to be? Why?

Draw a picture of a crown fit for a queen with emeralds, diamonds and other precious stones. Colour your crown gold and silver, and the colours of the many jewels in it.

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Search for Catherine’s crown using Google Images.

 Writing Task   Catherine built a palace that was just for entertaining visitors. It had a dining room with  tables attached to special lifts so that food could be lowered from another room. This was so   that the servants could not listen to the gossip of the guests and the court.  • On another sheet of paper, write a description of Catherine II and her palace.  Write from the point of view of one of the following people:   * A visitor – a count or countess – invited to dinner at the royal court;  * A serf living outside the royal court;  * A servant working in the kitchen;   * Peter III.   46


Famous F aces Faces from History

1729 - 1796

Catherine II of R ussia Russia

Extension Tasks

Write a diary entry for Catherine aged 16 when she meets her future husband for the first time and finds him wearing a soldier’s uniform and still playing with his toys. On this day I have come to the palace to meet my betrothed. I was shocked when I saw him on the floor playing with his toys like a mere boy …

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Diary Writing

Besides the thousands of pieces of jewellery in her collection, Catherine had gold hairpins with flying birds, a hat ornament like a golden vase filled with flowers and a pendant decorated with a figure surrounded by bats, cranes and deer.

• Research using the Internet to find out about the treasures of the museums in St Petersburg. • Imagine you were Catherine the Great of Russia living in the 1800s. You can afford to buy any famous artwork, piece of jewellery, gown, book, stuffed animal or sculpture you wanted. What would you buy? See Wikipedia using the keywords such as Catherine the Great and The Imperial Crown of Russia or Google Images.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Use advertising brochures, •f o rr e v i ew pur posesonl y• magazines and pictures from the Craft Task

Visit these websites for images of the time:

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:New_hermitage_interior.jpg Hall of the Hermitage Museum www.jellesen.dk/webcrea/places/petersburg/cathe.htm Catherine the Great’s Palace in St Petersburg. eng.tzar.ru/catherine The Catherine Palace - Images

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Internet to create two collages of items – one from modern times and one with antiques or oldfashioned items. You can make your collages on any subject – jewellery, gowns, furniture, artworks or ornaments. Try to include pictures from Catherine’s collection.

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Complete on a separate piece of paper.

        

 Timeline of Events  Create a timeline of events in Catherine’s lifetime.

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Catherine of Russia was the head of an absolute monarchy. This was like a dictatorship because she had absolute control over the population including the power of life and death. Her subjects had very little say in the running of the country. A democracy is a state in which every citizen has a say in the running of the country. A democracy can be either a republic with a president as head of state or a constitutional monarchy where the head of state is a king or queen. Australia and New Zealand are both constitutional monarchies because they have the king or queen of Britain as their head of state. • What are the advantages of a democracy compared with a dictatorship? • The monarch lives in Britain a long way away. What is your opinion about your country becoming a republic? Write a short speech to argue that your country should become a republic or should remain a constitutional monarchy. Hold a class debate. 47


Captive Dove

Anne Bronte Famous F aces from History Faces

1820 - 1849

A

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At that time in England, Anne was lucky to have an education. Her father was a poor clergyman. With no money or property for the girls to inherit the sisters were educated to earn some money in case their father died. The girls learned to read books like the bible, plays by Shakespeare, poems by Byron, and old Greek stories.

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little girl called Anne lived with her family in a tiny twobedroomed house in Yorkshire. She had five older sisters and one brother. On the top floor in a little playroom no bigger than a cupboard, they told stories and played with a box of 12 wooden soldiers. Each child took a soldier and made up a story about him. Anne created an imaginary land called Gondal and wrote miniature books of adventures in faraway lands.

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The girl’s name was Anne Bronte and when she grew up she knew she wanted to be a writer like her big sisters, Charlotte and Emily. But it was impossible to use her own name. Like her sisters she had to choose a pretend name – a pseudonym – to write. It had to be a man’s name. Why would a woman have to pretend to be a man just to have her stories published? In 1820, when Anne was born, people thought that women could not think as well as a man, that they did not need to be educated, and that their place was at home. A woman could send a manuscript to an editor in the post and put a pseudonym on it. So Anne called herself Acton Bell.

When she was 19 years old, Anne moved into the house of a wealthy family to be the governess. Having a governess was much more common for children than going to school. For six years Anne loved the freedom of living independently. But inside the grand homes with beautiful paintings and furniture, things were not always what they seemed. She had to teach the children lessons every morning including French, German, music, singing, dancing, drawing and fancy sewing. She had to eat with the children and was forced to call them “Miss” and “Master” even though they ran wild, and bossed her around. She worked seven days a week with only a few weeks off each year to visit her own loving family. When she finished working there she wrote about her experiences in her first novel and called it “Agnes Grey”. Her book shocked readers because her characters were so real.

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Captive Dove

Anne Bronte Famous F aces from History Faces

1820 - 1849

continued

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At the age of 29, Anne found out that, like many young people of her age, she had TB, or tuberculosis, a disease of the lung that had no cure. In her last letter to her best friend, she explains why she was so unhappy that she did not have much longer to live: “I wish it would please God to spare me not only for Papa’s and Charlotte’s sakes; but because I long to do some good in the world before I leave it.” (5 April 1849)

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Her next book was even more startling. The Tenant of Wildfell Hall is about a young married woman who leaves her husband because he is an alcoholic. This book caused a scandal because a woman was not supposed to leave her husband. The situation for many women at the time was difficult because they had no rights outside of marriage.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew puAnne r pdied os esonl y• later that year but her books are

The Captive Dove

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Poor restless dove, I pity thee;

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still read to this day. Did she achieve her purpose to do some good? Anne was a writer ahead of her time. She wanted to be free to write as she wished but when she told the truth, people were shocked. Perhaps she did do “some good” in the world because she wrote what was in her heart. Anne Bronte did not want to be the captive dove. J

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As a young woman living in England Anne knew she was not free as a poem she wrote at the time shows:

o c . ccaptivity, e I mourn for thy her r o t s uper And in thy woes forget s And when I hear thy plaintive moan.

mine own.

Do you think she is expressing her desire for freedom?

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        1820 - 1849

Famous F aces Faces from History

Plurals The general rule to make a plural is to add an –s to the noun, but sometimes with words ending in –y you have to change the y to an –i before adding –es. If the word ends in a vowel plus a –y you can just an –s. For example, fairy = fairies but day = days. Form the plurals for the following words:

diary ______________

injury _______________

play ________________

family ______________

canary ______________

X-ray ______________

story ______________

key _________________

difficulty ____________

r o e t s B r Anne e o  Misprints p ok Bronte u S Word Study

Anne Bronte became a governor. She had to work heaven days a weak, fifty weaks a yearn. Her lessons included musique, singeing, darning and fansy sewing. The children bosted her around. The hosue she worked in was full of granite furniture and beauty paintings. She had to eat with the childrens and do whatever they toiled her to do.

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   Correct the mistakes in the following passage: 

 Word Meanings  Find words from the text which mean: 

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

___________________________________

Disease of the chest =

___________________________________

Embarrassment or disgrace =

___________________________________

Writing document =

___________________________________

Teacher or tutor for young children taught at home =

___________________________________

Syllables

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A pretend name =

Words can be broken up into sounds called syllables. Place your hand under your chin and say the word slowly: manuscript. Every time you feel your chin drop is another syllable: man-u-script. Did you count three? Each one of these parts is a syllable, so the word has three syllables. Say these words slowly with your hand under your chin. Break the following words into syllables by counting the number of chin drops:

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education

________

dove

________

governess ________

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_________

restless

________

pity

_________

woman

________

scandal

_________

impossible

________

 Scramble  How many words can you make from the word GOVERNESS? List them below. They must be words  of three letters or more. No plurals, no capital letters and no hyphens, e.g. rove 

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Famous F aces Faces from History

1820 - 1849

 Anne Bronte

Comprehension

  

Understanding the Text

1. What toys did Anne and her brother and sisters play with? __________________________________________________ 2. Why was it difficult for a woman to become a writer in Anne’s lifetime? __________________________________________________

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3. What books did the Bronte family learn to read? __________________________________________________

4. What was the job of a governess like?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

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5. Why did Anne’s first book shock readers?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

6. How did Anne die? How old was she when she died?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

7. What is Anne Bronte remembered for today?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Writing Task • f o rr evi ew pur posesonl y• Using another sheet of paper or a word processor, write a story about a mythical land with

_____________________________________________________________________________________

          

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    imaginary characters. You can use up to12 soldier characters like Anne did. Use these headings   to help you to plan your story:   •Characters: •Tension or problem to be solved:  •Subject: •Plot:  •Theme: •Climax to the story:   •Landscape/scenery: •Ending or moral to the story: 

. t e o Reading Task c . che e r o t r s super

Read some modern mythical stories such as: Peter Pan, Alice in Wonderland, The Golden Fleece, The Adventures of Ulysses or Gulliver’s Travels at this website: www.gutenberg.org/wiki/Main_Page Research some of the poetry of the Bronte family.

Write out one of the poems you like and decorate it with images around the outside. (Use MS Publisher or MS Word if you like.) Why did you choose this particular poem?

 Drawing Task   Draw a dove. Colour or paint it so that it looks attractive.  Cut around your dove and hang it up in the classroom like a mobile.  51


Famous F aces Faces from History

1820 - 1849

 Anne Bronte

Extension Tasks

        

Learning to Read Children through the ages have learned to read using different stories. • Did you read books like Shakespeare and the Bible when you first learned to read? Why or why not? • What books do you remember from when you were small? • What books do you like to read now?

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Complete on a separate piece of paper.

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Follow this method to write your poem:

•Choose an animal, e.g. tiger. •Picture your animal and think of the sounds, smells, and touch of that animal. •Write down a list of five words to describe your animal, e.g. tiger, stripes, fangs, bite, growl. •Add more information and feeling by adding describing words (adjectives) to each word you thought of: fabulous tiger, furry stripes, ferocious fangs, sharp bite, howling growl •Add more words to create more detail to your word picture. You have made a poem!

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Book Review

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Write a Poem

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 Magical Maps  Draw a map of a magical land with 12 soldiers representing different characters.  Give them interesting names with a different character. (Some can be male and some female.)  Give your land a wonderful name. What is special about your land? 

Write a letter or email to a friend telling them about a book you have read recently.

Tell them what you liked about it, e.g. the setting, the characters, the type of language used, etc. But don’t give away the ending!

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Explain why you would recommend the book to your friend or say why you did not enjoy it.

 Riddles  Write down some riddles to be solved:  I am white. I live in a tree. I am a symbol of peace. What am I?  Test your friends to see whether you can trick them or not.

 Debating  Think about why men and women have usually only done certain types of work. Write a speech  for a debate to argue for or against this statement: “A woman’s place is in the home.”

52


The Countess of Lovelace

Ada Byron King Famous F aces from History Faces

1815 - 1852

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Ada’s mother began tutoring her at the age of five. Ada loved maths, dancing, gymnastics, riding horses and playing the harp. Her mother rewarded Ada with tickets for doing her lessons well. If she did not perform as well as her mother expected, she lost her tickets and was punished.

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ong ago, in a time before computers, a young woman created the very first computer program. She did not go to school but she was taught by her mother at home. As women were not allowed to attend university, she could not go. Yet this brilliant woman is considered by many people to be one of the pioneers of the computer industry. Her ideas predicted the scientific and practical tasks that a modern computer can do, such as creating drawings and composing music. It was even difficult to have her ideas published under her own name. Who was she? How was this possible? How did she achieve so much against such odds?

Ada loved figuring out how mechanical things worked. She wanted to fly, so she designed a flying machine. So that the wings were proportional to the body she researched the anatomy of birds. Then she chose the best materials and constructed wings. She even thought of adding steam to power her flying machine and she was only 12.

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Ada Byron was born in England in 1815 at a time of many exciting discoveries. But it was also a time when not many women could have a decent education. She was the first and only child of Annabella Milbanke and Lord Byron, a very famous romantic poet. Her father was a strange character – people said that he was “mad, bad and dangerous to know.”

As Ada grew older she studied at home and attended public lectures. When she was 17, Ada heard about Charles Babbage and his amazing idea for a calculating engine. Two years later when she met Babbage she was able to talk to him about his fascinating ideas and she was very impressed.

Annabella was so worried that Ada might become a poet like her father that she made sure that her daughter only studied scientific subjects.

Charles Babbage was compulsive about counting and measuring but he was lazy. He wanted to create a machine to do the counting and measuring for him.

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The Countess of Lovelace

Ada Byron King Famous F aces from History Faces

1815 - 1852

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At the age of about 28, her notes “Observations on Mr. Babbage’s Analytical Engine” were published. In it Ada described how the Analytical Engine was capable of following instructions. Included in her comments were her ideas that a machine like this could be used to compose music and to produce pictures.

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After he finished at university he asked the government for money to make a “Difference Engine”, a giant calculating machine made of brass and steel clockwork. Next, he planned a steam powered calculating machine, called an “Analytical Engine”, which was supposed to calculate up to 50 decimal points and could store up to 1,000 numbers. He created plans to store instructions on punched cards like the ones used in weaving machines. Because the technology of the day was not advanced enough his machines did not get built but stayed ideas on paper.

She was right. The modern computer can do many scientific and practical jobs that she suggested, but that others did not foresee. Unfortunately, she could not put her name to the booklet. If people knew a woman had written it, they would have scoffed at her ideas.

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When Ada was 20, she married William King, Lord Lovelace. That is why Ada is also known as the Countess of Lovelace. She continued studying while she had three children and through much sickness in her life.

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Never in very good health, Ada the Countess of Lovelace, fell ill and died when she was only 37 years old. The daughter of a mad poet, she was a brilliant mathematician and a woman far ahead of her time. The world recognised her genius in 1980 when a computer language was named “Ada” in her honour. J

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When she was 25 she wrote out the instructions for the board game, Solitaire. She numbered each peg and described every move. This was the first computer program, even though computers had not been created.

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 Job Names   Many job names end with –cian, such as a mathematician. The suffix or word  ending –cian comes from the Latin word meaning “one who”. Work out the job  names for the people who do these jobs: 

1815 - 1852

Famous F aces Faces from History

A person who works in a clinic

______________________________

A person who does magic

______________________________

A person who does electrical work

______________________________

A person who works in politics or government

______________________________

A person who plays music

______________________________

A person who is a doctor

______________________________

Study

destroy

_____________________

dumb ______________________

disproportional

_____________________

boring _____________________

health

_____________________

Crossword

Across

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Down•f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 4. Person who studies mathematics 6. Place to study when you finish school 8. Game with pegs on a board

        

Compound Words

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Lovelace is a name made from two other English words: love and lace. Do you know any other words made from two words joined together? Make some compound words using these words: •ever •sweet •blue •snow •land •touch •light

Contractions Using Apostrophes Apostrophes are used when one or more letters is missing from a word so they are abbreviated or contracted. (Contract means to squeeze together.) For example: didn’t is short for did not in this sentence: “Ada’s mother didn’t want her to study poetry.” Make the abbreviated or contracted form for these words.

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___________ down

__________ pea

___________ house

__________ green

___________ fields

__________ bell

___________ locked

          

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1. A person who writes poems 2. Machine for calculating 3. Addicted 5. Female equivalent of a count 7. To work something out

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   Find antonyms (words with the opposite meaning) from the text for  these words:

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r o e t s Ada Byron Bo r e  King p ok Antonyms u S Word

could not

_________

had not

is not

_________

have not ___________

I would

_________

he will

___________

can not

___________

they would _________ I have

___________

_________ 55


Famous F aces Faces from History

Ada Byron

1815 - 1852

 King

  

Understanding the Text

1. Why did Ada’s mother teach her mostly mathematics and scientific subjects? __________________________________________________ 2. What pastimes did Ada enjoy? __________________________________________________

Comprehension

3. How did Ada study to become a mathematician?

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__________________________________________________

4. What was the first computer program written by Ada Lovelace?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

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5. Why didn’t Babbage’s inventions get built during his lifetime?

6. What remarkable things did Ada achieve during her short life?

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_____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________

7. How has Ada been remembered?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

  Newspaper Report   Write a newspaper report about Ada Lovelace telling everyone about Ada’s amazing understanding of  Babbage’s computer. Give your article a good headline. 

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f o rr evi ew pur posesonl y• Drawing Task

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   Imagine you have built a wonderful “analytical engine” for solving problems.   1. Draw your invention with arrows pointing to the parts.    3. Create an advertisement for your 2. Describe what your computer can  machine to sell it to customers. do and how it works. It can be as  clever or silly as you want it to be!  THE TURBOBUSTER  DESTINY MACHINE My computer can tell you what your   future is going to be like. It uses the This machine will truly change  cosmic rays from the sun to fire up its your life. Find out how  turbo engines taking into account the wonderful your future will be.  seismic activity on the day you were Only $19.95 for the invention  born.  of a lifetime … 

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Research Task Research some other milestones in the development of computers. For example, the valve, the silicon chip, the mouse, Windows interface, Google, Microsoft, the Pentium 2 processor, etc.


Famous F aces Faces from History

Ada Byron

1815 - 1852

 King

Extension Tasks

A very simple code can be made by representing every letter by a number. The simplest of this would be to make every letter of the alphabet into a number. So a = 1, b = 2, c = 3, d = 4 and so on. This would mean that the word computer can be coded like this: 3, 15, 13,16, 22, 20, 5, 18 • What does this coded sentence mean? 3, 15, 4, 5, 19 1, 18, 5 6, 21, 14 __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ • Try to write your own code using letters, numbers or symbols. Write down a word for a clue and give it to your friends to see if they can crack the code.

Class Survey

Survey the class to find out how often they use computers. Construct your questions first:

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Code Making and Breaking

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Complete on a separate piece of paper.

       

           

• How many hours a week do you use the computer? 0, 1-2, 3-8, more than 8 hours per week. • What do you use the computer for? Games, downloading videos, writing, research, downloading music, email, blogging, etc. Gather together all your answers then present your results in a table. You can also show your information as a graph to display on the wall.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons  Debate •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•  Discuss or write an opinion about what life would be like without computers.

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Silhouettes

A silhouette is a type of portrait done in black. They were fashionable around the year 1800. Make a silhouette of someone by shining a light on their profile and tracing the image thrown onto the back of a black piece of paper. Cut out the profile and paste it over a white piece of paper.

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 Have a debate on the topic:  It would be better if computers had never been invented.

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Biography Writing

Write a report about another famous mathematician in history, such as Hypatia, Archimedes, Pythagoras, or Pascal. What did this person contribute to mathematics? Create and answer more questions using: Who? What? When? Where? Why? How? Present your biography as a PowerPoint presentation, written report or visual display. www.time.com/time/ - Time Magazine www.adb.online.anu.edu.au/adbonline.htm - Australian Dictionary of Biography www.famouspeople.co.uk/ 57


                          

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Answers

Famous Faces from History Leonardo Fibonacci

Famous Faces from History Artemisia Gentileschi

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Base Words •creatus=create, creation, •diaboulus=diabolical, •material=material, •studium=study, studious, •congratulatus=congratulations, congratulate. Hyphenation •fun-loving person, •case-sensitive password, •award-winning novel, •new-age rule, •man-eating shark, •spell-checker. Word Meanings •NOUGHT •NOTHING •ZILCH •NIL •ZIP

Word Study (Page 14) Definitions •Patron=person who supports an artist, financially and by helping him or her to become well known, •Perspective=the art technique used to give an illusion of a three dimensional object on paper, to give the illusion of depth, •Interior=insides of houses, •Prejudice=unfair, unjust or intolerant, •Anatomy=the science which deals with the structure and parts of the human body. Colours Red Blue Yellow Green vermillion cobalt ochre olive scarlet indigo gold lime ruby azure sienna jade crimson sapphire tawny emerald Adjectives to describe a painting •dramatic •realistic •strong •talented, etc. Jumbled Letters •ARTIST •PORTRAIT •PATRON •FAMOUS •ANATOMY •PAINT Contractions using apostrophes •couldn’t=could not, •wouldn’t=would not, •didn’t=did not, •I’d=I would, •she’ll=she will, •we’ll=we will, •haven’t=have not, •hadn’t=had not, •weren’t=were not, •I’m=I am, •they’re=they are, •he’s=he is.

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Word Study (Page 8) Spelling •astronomy, •mathematician, •useless, •twelfth, •solutions, •symbols. Crossword Across: 1. Very old=ancient; 3. A person who buys and sells goods=merchant; 5. To dream instead of working=daydream; 7. The study of the stars=astronomy; To minus or take away=subtract. Down: 2. Pet name given to a child=nickname; 4. A type of boat=galley; 6. An instrument used for adding and subtracting=abacus.

Problem Solving The answer to the problem of the total number of things going to Rome is: 19,607 which can be calculated by adding 7 + (7 x 7) + (7 x 7 x 7) …

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Extension Tasks (Page 11) Roman Numerals •XXXV–35 •CVIII–108 •XIV–14 •MMMX–3,010 •XLIII–43 •89–LXXXIX •25–XXV •58–LV111 •32–XXXII •160–CLX

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Comprehension (Page 15) Understanding the Text 1. How did Artemisia first start drawing? Artemisia first started drawing her muscles, flesh and bones using a mirror to see her own back. 2. Why did an artist need a patron? An artist needed a patron to support them financially. 3. What did Artemisia look like? Artemisia was very beautiful with full cheeks, a classical nose and a mouth like a bow. 4. What was so wonderful about Artemisia’s paintings? Her paintings showed strong women, in striking colours with a light coming from the side. The women had realistic expressions on their faces and the religious paintings were very dramatic. She showed skill in anatomy, colour, brushwork and how to structure a painting. 5. Why do you think Artemisia painted women who were strong characters? Artemisia may have painted women who were strong characters because she had to fight so hard to be accepted as a painter herself. 6. How do we know that Artemisia was accepted by the art world? Artemisia was allowed to join the Academy of Design in Naples. 7. What is Artemisia remembered for today? Artemisia is remembered for her paintings which have survived to this day and are on display in art galleries around the world. Her work is so dramatic and realistic. She is recognised as one of the greatest women artists in the world, equal to or better than many men.

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Comprehension (Page 9) Understanding the Text 1. What subjects did Leonardo study at school? Leonardo studied astronomy, geometry, numbers, public speaking, Latin, and music. 2. What things did Leonardo dream about throughout his life? Leonardo dreamed about travelling, about numbers and solving problems, becoming a mathematician and about Hindu-Arabic numbers. 3. How are Roman Numerals different from Hindu-Arabic Numbers? Which are easier to use? Why? Roman Numerals are based on 5 and have letters to represent numbers; Hindu-Arabic numbers are based on 10 and have symbols. Roman Numerals do not use place value, but HinduArabic do. Hindu Arabic numerals are easier to use because the place value makes it easier to add and subtract in columns. 4. Why did the merchants in Pisa not like the new numbers when Leonardo first showed them? Why do you think that they eventually accepted them? The merchants were worried that a 0 could be changed into a 6 or a 9. They accepted them when they realised that they were easier and that a written record could be kept. 5. Why did people call Leonardo “bigollo”? Why did Leonardo sign his name “Bigollo” in later life? “Bigollo” means “someone who studies something useless” and “traveller”. Leonardo was saying look at how clever this dreamer can be and that his numbers were not so useless after all. 6. Why is Leonardo Fibonacci famous today? Leonardo is famous for discovering the series of numbers 0, 1, 2, 3, 5 … which are named after him and for explaining the HinduArabic number system which is used to this day.


                          

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Answers

Famous Faces from History Francis Greenway

Famous Faces from History Ernest Shackleton

Word Study (Page 19) Word Search C O E Q P G J C A D

U O V T B L J M H E

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G D H S H E T N R U

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W W T Q K K W A E K

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Word Meanings •He refused to pay the builder. •She gained entry to the house through the window. •He was impressed by the new lighthouse. •She designed a magnificent house. •He was transported to Australia for theft. Alphabetical Order •architect, •coastline, •conservatorium, •convict, •criminal, •designed, •document, •draftsman, •façade, •financial, •forgery, •lighthouse, •miserable, •tradesmen •transportation. Misspelling •financial, •castle, •desperate, •settlement, •architect, •document. Suffixes •election, •correction, •contribution, •confusion, •rejection, •selection, •transportation, •injection.

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Word Study (Page 24) Word Search •a terrible storm=blizzard, •person who studies the weather=meteorologist, •male form of heroine=hero, •small, tiny pieces of wood=splinters, •to save someone=rescue, •very large=massive Jumbled Letters •RIGGER •SCHOONER •CANOE •HYDROFOIL •YACHT •CUTTER •BARGE •FERRY •DINGHY Comparatives and superlatives •cold, colder, coldest •deep, deeper, deepest •brave, braver, bravest •safe, safer, safest •rude, ruder, rudest •dark, darker, dark •icy, icier, iciest •crazy, crazier, craziest Suffixes •geologist=person who studies rocks, •microbiologist=person who studies small plants and organisms, •seismologist=earthquakes and magnetic observations, •dentist=teeth, •biologist=plants and animals, •botanist=plants, •glaciologist=glaciers and icebergs, •physicist=physics.

Comprehension (Page 25) Understanding the Text 1. When did Ernest decide to become an explorer? Ernest decided to become an explorer after he had a dream that he was at the bow of a ship looking towards the North Pole. 2. What was the aim of the Antarctic expedition? Did they succeed in what they planned to undertake? The aim of the Antarctic expedition was to cross Antarctica passing through the South Pole, taking measurements and making observations along the way. No, they did not succeed. 3. How thick was the hull of the Endurance? Why did it have to be so thick? The hull was over three feet thick, about one metre. It had to be thick to break through the ice. 4. What happened to the Endurance? The Endurance became stuck in the ice, was crushed and finally sank. 5. What did the crew eat while they were stranded on Elephant Island? The crew lived on seal, penguin, shellfish, seaweed and seal liver. 6. What heroic actions did Ernest take to save his men? He led his men to safety at Elephant Island. He sailed through a hurricane to reach St. Georgia Island, and crossed the difficult terrain in 36 hours. He made three attempts to rescue his men and returned to Elephant Island to save their lives. 7. Why is Ernest Shackleton remembered today? Ernest Shackleton is remembered for his extreme bravery and his great leadership skills. He did not give up the fight to save his men and he helped to keep their spirits up.

Comprehension (Page 20) Understanding the Text

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1. What sort of crimes did people commit in the 1800s that saw them sent to Australia? Crimes which resulted in transportation included stealing a loaf of bread, a watch or jewellery, a pair of boots or a piece of iron. 2. Why was Greenway transported to Australia? What was his crime? Francis Greenway was transported to Australia for 14 years for forging a document. 3. Why do you think Lachlan Macquarie gave Greenway a full pardon after only four years of his sentence? He gave Greenway a full pardon because he was impressed by the design of his lighthouse. Also the colony was probably short of experienced workmen and draftsmen. 4. What type of buildings did Greenway build in the new colony? Greenway built very elaborate buildings with a new style of truss in the roofs and generally made out of local materials such as sandstone and timber. 5. What difficulties did Greenway face as an architect? Greenway faced many difficulties such as: a shortage of skilled labour. Also the convicts had to work under harsh conditions and were underfed. He argued with other architects about different designs. He was badly treated because he was an ex-convict. 6. What prejudice did Greenway face because of his convict past? Greenway was not allowed to finish working on a local prison in Paddington. 7. Why is Greenway considered an important contributor to Australia’s heritage? Many of Greenway’s buildings are still standing today. He built many wonderful buildings which show a particular style of architecture, using local materials. He built the colony’s first hospital.

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Extension Tasks (Page 26) Big Decisions Here is a list of some of the actual items Shackleton took with them over the ice: •books, •compass, •journals and pencils, •knives, •matches, •medical supplies, •playing cards, •reindeer skin sleeping bags, •rope, •sails, •sextant, •stove, •tools, •rifles and •long woollen underwear.

They did not take a radio because it was too far away to work; fresh water was too heavy and they could always melt the ice; the cat could not go with them; an anchor and ship’s bell were no use; there would be no time to play soccer; they did not need canned meat as they took rifles to kill seals and penguins.

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Answers

Famous Faces from History Elizabeth Kenny

Word Study (Page 34) Apostrophes •the painting belonging to Kai=Kai’s painting •the drawing belonging to Jackie=Jackie’s drawing •the cartoon belonging to Harry=Harry’s cartoon •the sketch belonging to Linda=Linda’s sketch •the etching belonging to Mark=Mark’s etching Parts of Speech Maurits Escher wanted to get a certificate in architecture. He failed his exams at school. He continued to draw and to paint and made hundreds of woodcuts and lithographs. His drawings depict impossible buildings or objects, people or animals. One of his early lithographs shows a picture of his desk. Misspellings •graphic •decorative •passionate •practical •impossible Crossword Across 6. Transformation or change = metamorphosis 7. One off, unusual = unique 8. Immeasurably large, going on for ever = infinity 9. Symbols = motifs Down 1. Painted with water soluble paint = watercolours 2. Regular tiling pattern with no gaps or overlaps = tessellation 3. Strange or unreal = bizarre 4. Making smaller = shrinking 5. Over and over again, recurring = repetitive Prefixes •immobile, •invalid, •insoluble, •immortal, •inadequate, •improbable, •indecent, •impersonal.

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Comprehension (Page 30) Understanding the text 1. What events inspired Elizabeth to study muscles? Elizabeth broke her wrist and read books lent to her by her doctor on muscles and how they worked . 2. What jobs did Elizabeth Kenny have during her lifetime? Elizabeth Kenny had a job as a bush nurse, war nurse, healer and teacher. 3. How did she learn to become a nurse? Elizabeth Kenny learned how to be a nurse from reading textbooks and on the job. 4. What is another name for poliomyelitis? What is it? Poliomyelitis is also called polio. It is a disease which affects muscles, making them weaker. 5. What was the treatment that Elizabeth used on children who had polio? Elizabeth used hot compress to ease the pain, and a program of exercise and massage to get the muscles working again. 6. What reaction did Elizabeth get from the medical profession for her ideas for treating children with polio? Why do you think they reacted that way? The medical profession did not approve of her ideas and claimed that they were dangerous and cruel. They probably did not approve of her ideas because she was not a doctor and she did not have any recognised qualifications as a nurse. 7. What was Elizabeth Kenny’s achievement? Why is she remembered today? Elizabeth Kenny developed a treatment for poliomyelitis and opened clinics to treat patients in Australia, England and America. She introduced the field of physiotherapy and she invented a stretcher.

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Word Study (Page 29) Jumbled Letters (medical words) •CLINIC, •PARALYSIS, •DISEASE, •EPIDEMIC, •MUSCLES, •INJURIES Punctuation Elizabeth Kenny was born in New South Wales in 1880. Elizabeth made an important contribution to the treatment of polio. She developed some exercises which helped patients to strengthen their legs. Her method of using hot damp cloths reduced the pain. Elizabeth didn’t know it but she was doing exactly the opposite of what the doctors thought was right. The patients Elizabeth treated all recovered. Syllables •victory=3 •muscles=2 •triumphant=3 •collapse=2 •contraption=3 •wooden=2 •experience=4 •tent=1 •method=2 Plurals •nurses •horses •ashes •limbs •faxes •hatches •crashes •taxes Word Families •hatch •Dutch •thatch •match •pitcher •clutch •dispatch •stitch

Famous Faces from History Maurits Escher

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Comprehension (Page 35) Understanding the Text 1. Where was Escher born? Escher was born in Holland, now called the Netherlands. 2. What subjects did Escher like and not like at school? Escher liked drawing, carpentry and music but he did not like Mathematics. 3. Which symbols did Escher like to use a lot in his drawings and woodcuts? He used weightlifters, people, butterflies, insects, fish, birds, reptiles and other animals. 4. Where did Escher discover tessellated tiling patterns? He discovered them in a castle in Spain. 5. What was ridiculous about the buildings he drew? Could they exist? You could not tell the floor from the ceiling. They were impossible buildings which could not exist, with staircases going nowhere. 6. Why are Escher’s drawings considered so remarkable? They are remarkable because they are so striking and unusual. They are practical examples of things only theoretical mathematicians can imagine. 7. What contribution has Escher made to art and to mathematics? Escher has created unique drawings of the world which record three dimensions on the flat page. They are recognised and published around the world. They have influenced artists, film makers and writers, including the creator of The Simpsons, Matt Groening.

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Answers

Famous Faces from History Matthew Flinders

Word Study (Page 45) Punctuation Catherine was born in 1729 in Poland. She was the daughter of a minor German prince. Her parents expected great things of her. As a child her mother spanked her to try to stop her boldness. She was a bright child who read everything she could. When she grew up, she married Peter Petrovna, the heir to the throne of Russia. Her parents were very pleased. Misspellings •believe, •nephew, •knowledge, •sculptures, •ocean. Word Search

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S H W J D N G U O H Z I K O T B L Z A R L T R Y B M E D A H M Z O V A O O Y A N L G N A J S D I Y C N A H T S P L A R E M E P P A M B E R V

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Word Study (Page 40) Punctuation Matthew was born in 1774 and decided to be a sailor after reading “The Adventures of Robinson Crusoe” at school. When he grew up his ambition was to map the great Unknown Southern Land. He became a famous navigator. In one adventure he was stuck on an island for six and a half years. Jobs •cartographer •navigator •adventurer •mapmaker •cleaner •visitor •helper •collector. Word meanings from the text •Chronometer = a ship’s clock, •Sextant = an instrument for measuring angular distance from the horizon, •Cartographer = person who draws maps, •Satellite = space object orbiting Earth, •Circumnavigate = travel all the way around an island, •Tomcat = male cat. Compound Words •tomcat, •headland, •workman, •lighthouse, •sandstone, •copyright. Base Words •navigation, •navigator, •chronometer, •chronological, •graphical, •photograph, •graphics, •maximal, •maximum, •pedometer, •perimeter.

Famous Faces from History Catherine 11 of Russia

Dictionary •Peers=people of equal standing in a group •Peasant=a person who works the land usually for someone else •Provinces=the second level of government in many countries •Diplomat=a person who represents his or her country’s government in a foreign country •Coup=sudden change of government illegally or by force •Progressive=favouring or promoting reform.

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Comprehension (Page 46) Understanding the Text 1. What sort of child was Catherine? Catherine was intelligent, well-read and cheeky. 2. How were Catherine and Peter so different? Why were they called the “‘odd couple”? Catherine was interested in music, art, languages and reading but Peter was only interested in playing soldiers. They were called the “odd couple” because they seemed so different. 3. Why was Catherine popular at court while Peter was not? Catherine had a smile for everyone, shook their hand and was polite. Peter was unwashed, and childish. 4. How did Catherine come to be the empress of all of Russia? Catherine got in first when her husband tried to have her arrested; she had her husband put in jail and took the crown for herself. 5. Why did Catherine want to expand Russia? Russia had no access to the sea. 6. What progressive ideas did Catherine have in her time? Catherine believed in a fair trial, that laws apply equally to all citizens, and she was opposed to torture. She wanted health care for everyone and education for women. 7. Why was Catherine called Catherine the Great of Russia? Why is she considered famous? She was called Catherine the Great because she introduced many changes to the country. She introduced education for women and opened hospitals. Many of her ideas were modern for the time such as the idea of a fair trial, no torture, and equal laws for rich and poor. Catherine is famous because she was the Empress of Russia for over thirty years, expanding its territory and encouraging art, music and literature. She also built many buildings.

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Comprehension (Page 41) Understanding the Text 1. Why do think that maps had “Here be dragons” written on the edge? Maps had “Here be dragons” because people did not know what dangers there were so far from home and imagined terrifying monsters lived there. 2. What does Terra Australis Incognito mean? It means Unknown Southern Land. 3. Which countries sent explorers out to map Australia? Holland, Spain and England sent explorers to map Australia. 4. Where did Matthew’s ambition to become an explorer come from? His ambition came after reading “The Adventures of Robinson Crusoe”. 5. Why were Matthew Flinders’ maps so good? Matthew Flinder’s maps were so good because they showed great detail and they were very accurate. Also they showed the way through Bass Strait for the first time making the voyage out from England much shorter for other ships. 6. What instruments did cartographers use to make maps during the eighteenth century? Cartographers used sextants, chronometers and compass. 7. Why do you think Matthew Flinders and his friend called their boat the “Tom Thumb”? They thought it was so small like the character in the fairy tale Tom Thumb, who was no bigger than a thumb. 8. Why is Matthew Flinders remembered today? What did he achieve in his lifetime? Matthew Flinders is remembered today for his letters which are still able to be read, his wonderful maps and his adventure on the island of Mauritius. He achieved a great deal mapping the parts of Australia so accurately with such basic equipment. He was the first person to suggest the name “Australia”. His cat, Trim, is remembered for going on his journeys too.

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Answers

Famous Faces from History Ada Byron King

Word Study (Page 50) Plurals •Diaries, •injuries, •plays, •families, •canaries, •X-rays, •stories, •keys, •difficulties. Misprints Anne Bronte became a governor governess. She had to work heaven seven days a weak week, fifty weaks weeks a yearn year. Her lessons included musique music, singeing, singing darning dancing and fansy fancy sewing. The children bosted bossed her around. The hosue house she worked in was full of granite grand furniture and beauty beautiful paintings. She had to eat with the childrens children and do whatever they toiled told her to do. Word Meanings •A pretend name=pseudonym •Disease of the chest=tuberculosis •Embarrassment or disgrace=scandal •Writing document=manuscript •Teacher or tutor for young children taught at home=governess. Syllables •education=4 •fancy=2, •restless 2, •dove=1, •pity=2, •woman=2, •governess=3, •scandal=2, •impossible=4.

Word Study (Page 56) Job Names A person who works in a clinic = clinician, A person who does magic = magician, A person who does electrical work = electrician, A person who works in politics or government = politician, A person who plays music = musician, A person who is a doctor = physician. Crosswords To work something out = calculate A person who writes poems = poet Addicted = compulsive Game with pegs on a board = solitaire Person who studies mathematics = mathematician Place to study when you finish school = university Machine for calculating = computer Female of a count = countess Antonyms •Destroy–create, •dumb–brilliant, •disproportional–proportional •boring–fascinating, •health–sickness. Contractions using apostrophes •Could not=couldn’t, •had not=hadn’t, •is not=isn’t, •have not=haven’t, •I would= I’d, •he will=he’ll, •they would=they’d, •can not=can’t, •I have=I’ve. Compound Words •Evergreen, •sweetpea, •bluebell, •snowfields, •landlocked, •touchdown, •lighthouse.

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Comprehension (Page 51) Understanding the Text 1. What toys did Anne and her brother and sisters play with? Anne and her brother and sisters had 12 soldiers to play with. 2. Why was it difficult for a woman to become a writer in Anne’s lifetime? It was difficult for a woman to become a writer because women were not given much education. People thought they could not think as well as a man. Women generally had to stay at home. 3. What books did the Bronte family learn to read? The Bible, Greek stories and the poetry of Byron. 4. What was the job of a governess like? The job was hard because a governess had to teach many subjects, eat with the children, work seven days a week and only had a few weeks off a year. 5. Why did Anne’s first book shock readers? It shocked readers because the characters were so realistic. 6. How did Anne die? How old was she when she died? Anne died when she was only 29, from tuberculosis. 7. What is Anne Bronte remembered for today? Anne Bronte is remembered for her poems and her novels, including “Agnes Grey” and “The Tenant of Wildfell Hall”. She succeeded as a writer at a time when women were not generally accepted as writers. Her novels are popular for portraying such real characters.

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Famous Faces from History Anne Bronte

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Comprehension (Page 57) Understanding the Text 1. Why did Ada’s mother teach her mostly mathematics and scientific subjects? Her mother did not want Ada to grow up to be a poet like her father. 2. What pastimes did Ada enjoy? Ada enjoyed horse riding, dancing, maths, playing the harp and gymnastics. 3. How did Ada study to become a mathematician? She studied at home and attended public lectures, as she was not allowed to go to university. 4. What was the first computer program written by Ada Lovelace? Ada wrote the first computer program for the game Solitaire. 5. Why didn’t Babbage’s inventions get built during his lifetime? It did not get built because the technology was not advanced enough. 6. What remarkable things did Ada achieve during her short life? Ada wrote about Babbage’s inventions, she wrote the first computer program and she predicted that in the future machines would be made which could draw and make music. 7. How has Ada been remembered? Ada Byron King has been remembered by computer writers naming a program after her called “Ada”.

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References and Bibliography

1. The Dreamer – Leonardo Fibonacci

6. Escher Unzipped – Maurits Escher

Burton, David. Burton’s History of Mathematics: An Introduction. Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown Publishers, 1991

MC Escher, Poet of the Impossible, calendar published by Pomegranate calendars and Books, 1991

Fauve, John and Gray, Jeremy. The History of Mathematics - A Reader London: The Open University, 1987

Escher, MC, MC Escher: The Graphic Work, Taco Publishers, 1989

Gies, Joseph and Frances. Leonard of Pisa and the New Mathematics of the Middle Ages. New York: Thomas Y Crowell Company, 1969

Internet:

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Hogben, Lancelot. Mathematics for the Million. Suffolk: The Merlin Press, 1989.

www.nga.gov/collection/gallery/ggescher/ggeschermain1.html#overview www-gap.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Escher.html library.thinkquest.org/11750/escherlife.shtml

7. The Careful Cartographer – Matthew Flinders

2. The Art of Artemisia – Artemisia Gentileschi

Golds, Cassandra & Stephen, Alexsen, The Mostly True Story of Matthew and Trim, Sydney: Penguin Books, 2005

Christiansen, Keith. Orazio and Artemisia Gentileschi, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2001 Vreeland, Susan. The Passion of Artemisia, London: Headline Book Publishing, 2002 Internet: www.u.arizona.edu/ic/mcbride/ws200/gentil.htm gallery.euroweb.hu/bio/g/gentiles/artemisi/biograph.html data.club.cc.cmu.edu/~julie/text/ARTEMESIA.HTML en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artemisia_Gentileschi – Image

Estensen, Miriam, The Life of Matthew Flinders , Australia: Allen and Unwin, 2004

Internet:

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Internet: www.mcs.surrey.ac.uk/Personal/R.Knott/Fibonacci/fibBio.html www.andrews.edu/~calkins/math/biograph/199899/biofibo.htm

www.maritimeworld.net/sn.asp?PageNumber=32 www.enchantedlearning.com/explorers/page/f/flinders.shtml www.abc.net.au/navigators/captains/flinders.htm www.adb.online.anu.edu.au/biogs/A010364b.htm

8. Catherine was Great – Catherine II of Russia Troyat, Henri. Catherine the Great. Joan Pinkham, translator. NY: Meridan Printing, 1994.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Cameron, Roderick, Australia, History and Horizons, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1971 Internet:

www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/18catherine.html dimkin.df.ru/moscow/treasury_1.html info.goldavenue.com/Info_site/in_who/in_exhibitions/ in_who_catherine.html www.historyhouse.com/in_history/catherine_one/

www.adb.online.anu.edu.au/biogs/A010434b.htm www.nma.gov.au/advancedSearchResultsItemDetail.jsp?irn=243

9. Captive Dove – Anne Bronte

4. Ernest’s Great Adventure – Ernest Shackleton

Bronte, Anne, Agnes Grey, London: Penguin Classics, 1988 Miller, Lucasta, The Bronte Myth, London: Jonathon Cape, 2001

Shackleton, E. South: A Memoir of the Endurance Voyage. New York: Carroll and Graff Publishers, 1998

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3. The Talented Convict – Francis Greenway

Lansing, A. Endurance: Shackleton’s Incredible Voyage, New York: Carroll and Graff Publishers, 1999

digital.library.upenn.edu/women/writers.html womenshistory.about.com/library/bio/blbio_bronte_anne.htm

Internet:

10. The Countess of Lovelace – Ada Byron King

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www.south-pole.com/p0000097.htm www.antarcticconnection.com/antarctic/shackleton/shackleton.shtml www.amnh.org/exhibitions/shackleton/expedintro.html

5. Battle and Victory – Elizabeth Kenny

Kenny, Elizabeth, My Battle and Victory: History of The Discovery of Poliomyelitis as a Systemic Disease. London: Robert Hale, 1955. Craig, Jenny, Elizabeth Kenny: healing hands, fighting spirit, Movers and Shakers series, CIS Cardigan St Publishers, Carlton, Victoria, 1995 Internet:

Burton K and Le Rossignol K, Communicating in an IT Environment, Victoria, Australia: Tertiary Press, 2001 Toole, Betty A. Ada, the Enchantress of Numbers, Mill Valley, CA: Strawberry Press, 1992 Internet:

www.informatik.uni-stuttgart.de/ifi/ps/AdaBasis/pal_1195/ada/ajpo/ pol-hist/history/lady-lov.txt www.sdsc.edu/ScienceWomen/lovelace.html www.cs.yale.edu/homes/tap/Files/ada-bio.html

www.womenaustralia.info/biogs/AWE0056b.htm www.adb.online.anu.edu.au/biogs/A090570b.htm

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Photo Credits

Photo Acknowledgements While every attempt has been made to correctly acknowledge the ownership of photos and artwork used herein, in some instances this has not been possible. If you know of the photographers for any of these uncredited images, please contact the publisher so that proper acknowledgement can be given.

Image credits

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Leonardo Fibonacci - ©2006, Porlock Tourist Association, Source: www.mcs.surrey.ac.uk/Personal/R.Knott/ Fibonacci/fibBio.html

Francis Greenway - © Wikipedia, Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:GreenwayNote.JPG Ernest Shackleton - © South Pole.com, Source: www.south-pole.com/p0000097.htm

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Artemisia Gentileschi - Public Domain, Source: commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:ArtemisiaSelfP.jpg

Elizabeth Kenny - Photo courtesy of Margaret Opdahl Ernest, Source: news.minnesota.publicradio.org/features/ 200208/22_olsond_sisterkinney/index.shtml

Maurits Escher - © 2001 Cordon Art - Baarn - Holland, Source: www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/PictDisplay/ Escher.html

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Matthew Flinders - Public Domain, Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Flinders01.jpg

Catherine II of Russia - Public Domain, Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Katarina_den_stora.jpg Anne Bronte - Public Domain, Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Anne_Bronte.jpg

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Ada Byron King - Public Domain, Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Ada_Lovelace_1838.jpg

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Clipart images obtained from Microsoft Design Gallery Live and are used under the terms of the End User Licence Agreement for Microsoft Word 2000. Please refer to www.microsoft.com/permission.

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