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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Written by Margaret Etherton. Illustrated by Terry Allen. Published by Ready-Ed Publications (2007) © Ready-Ed Publications - 2007. P.O. Box 276 Greenwood Perth W.A. 6024 Email: info@readyed.com.au Website: www.readyed.com.au COPYRIGHT NOTICE Permission is granted for the purchaser to photocopy sufficient copies for non-commercial educational purposes. However, this permission is not transferable and applies only to the purchasing individual or institution.

ISBN 1 86397 709 0


Rationale The idiosyncrasies of animal behaviour, their habitats and characteristics are not always familiar to students. Many animals have endangered status and this situation may be directly or indirectly a result of human behaviour and practices. Their status may be extinct, endangered, critically endangered or at risk. Students are often unaware of what is being done and what can be done to help them. This book endeavours to educate students on some well-known, and less common animals, in a stimulating and quirky way. The plight of ten animals is told from the animal’s point of view and each story has a twist in the telling. The migratory journey of a short-tailed shearwater is told in the form of a flight schedule, the survival of an Emperor penguin chick is conveyed in a letter to its dad, and the activities of a lion king are explained in a job description.

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Each animal story is followed by a range of vocabulary, comprehension and writing activities. There is an emphasis on exploring the issues which threaten animal survival. The activities encourage students to think beyond application, knowledge and understanding to analysing, creating, synthesising and evaluating information. Animal-themed extension tasks are included which involve drawing or design tasks, posters and discovery activities. The writing tasks include creative, factual, discussion, persuasive, letter writing and report writing text types. This book has been designed for use in the upper primary school classroom, however, it could equally be used as a homeschooler resource.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Objectives f orunderstanding r evi ew pbehaviours, ur po seand ssurvival ontechniques: l y• To • foster greater of animal habitats To provide a range of written text types;

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To develop skills in critical thinking, analysis and comprehension;

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To expand environmental, biological and animal vocabulary;

To foster an understanding of the impact of human behaviour and development of the lives of native animals in different parts of the world.

. t e o Website References c . che e r o t r s super All websites listed in the Reading With Purpose series are linked from the Ready-Ed website listed below. This saves the teacher and/or student from typing in the addresses each time. External websites referred to in this book will be updated through the Ready-Ed site below should they disappear or modify their address after publication. Bookmark this site for ease of use:

www.readyed.com.au/urls/readers

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Contents Rationale .................................................................................................................. 2 Curriculum Links ..................................................................................................... 4 THEMES 1. If Only I Could Fly

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Reader ...................................................................................................................................... 6-7 Word Study .................................................................................................................................. 8 Comprehension ........................................................................................................................... 9 Reflection ................................................................................................................................... 10

2. Giraffe Birth Notice

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3. Gorilla Club Membership

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Reader ....................................................................................................................................... 11 Word Study ................................................................................................................................ 13 Comprehension ......................................................................................................................... 14 Reflection ................................................................................................................................... 15 Reader ....................................................................................................................................... 16 Word Study ................................................................................................................................ 18 Comprehension ......................................................................................................................... 19 Reflection ................................................................................................................................... 20

4. I am Not a Vampire!

Reader ....................................................................................................................................... 21 Word Study ................................................................................................................................ 23 Comprehension ......................................................................................................................... 24 Reflection ................................................................................................................................... 25

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

5. Dear Dad

Reader ....................................................................................................................................... 26 Word Study ................................................................................................................................ 28 Comprehension ......................................................................................................................... 29 Reflection ................................................................................................................................... 30

6. Job For Lion With Pride

7. Mr. Mutton’s Flight Schedule

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Reader ....................................................................................................................................... 31 Word Study ................................................................................................................................ 33 Comprehension ......................................................................................................................... 34 Reflection ................................................................................................................................... 35 Reader ....................................................................................................................................... 36 Word Study ................................................................................................................................ 38 Comprehension ......................................................................................................................... 39 Reflection ................................................................................................................................... 40

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8. Green Turtle’s SOS

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Reader ....................................................................................................................................... 41 Word Study ................................................................................................................................ 43 Comprehension ......................................................................................................................... 44 Reflection ................................................................................................................................... 45

9. I’m a Little Devil

Reader ....................................................................................................................................... 46 Word Study ................................................................................................................................ 48 Comprehension ......................................................................................................................... 49 Reflection ................................................................................................................................... 50

10. Baby Bottlenose Lesson

Reader ....................................................................................................................................... 51 Word Study ................................................................................................................................ 53 Comprehension ......................................................................................................................... 54 Reflection ................................................................................................................................... 55 Answers ........................................................................................................................................ 56

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Curriculum Links Subject Areas / Related Strands

Science (Science and Technology) Values and Attitudes • Appreciates contributions made by individuals, groups, cultures and communities to scientific and technological understandings.

Vic: Biological Science 3.1; Earth and Space Sciences Level 3 WA: Earth and Beyond Level 3; Life and Living Level 3; Investigating Scientifically Level 3

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Information and Communication • Creates and evaluates information about the interactions between living things and their effects on the environment. Living Things • Identifies, describes and evaluates the interactions between living things and their effects on the environment.

Using Technology • Develops and refines search skills using the Internet. Uses word processing software to write documents.

National: Earth and Beyond 3.1; Life and Living 3.7; Working Scientifically 3.17, 3.18 NSW: Values and Attitudes VA 7; Information and Communication IC S3.2; Living Things LT S3.3; Earth and its Surroundings ES S1.6; Understanding Technology UT S3.9; Investigations IS3.7

QLD: Science and Society 2.2, 2.3, D2.4, 3.1; Life and Living 3.1, 3.3

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Earth and Beyond • Identifies and describes ways in which people and other living things depend upon the earth and its environment.

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Relevant State Outcomes

SA SA: Earth and Space 2.1, 3.1; Life Systems 3.5

Investigating • Conducts investigations, plans, predicts and draws conclusions.

Society & Environment (SOSE / HSIE) Place and Space (Place and Environment)

Vic: Place and Space Level 2-3 outcomes; Time, Continuity and Change Level 2-3 outcomes; Natural and Social Systems Level 2-3 outcomes

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Time, Continuity and Change • Explains changes in the local community and global environments and their effect on individuals, groups and living things.

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Investigation, Communication and Participation • Presents information to explore a key idea.

Writing

• Produces a wide range of well-structured and wellpresented literary and factual texts for a wide variety of purposes and audiences, using increasingly challenging topics, ideas, issues and written language features. • Uses knowledge of sentence structure, grammar, and punctuation to edit own writing. • Produces texts in a fluent and legible style and uses computer technology to present these effectively in a variety of ways.

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National: Time, Continuity and Change 3.3; Place and Space 3.6; Resources 3.12; Natural and Social Systems 3.13; Investigation, Communication and Participation 3.16 NSW: Environments EN S3.5; Social Systems and Structures SS S3.7; Change and Continuity CC S2.2

QLD: Place and Space PS 3.1; Culture and Identity CI 3.1; Systems Resources and Power SRP 4.1; Time, Continuity and Change TCC 3.2, TCC 3.3

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• Frames questions and identifies sources of information.

English

WA WA: Investigation, Communication and Participation ICP3.2, ICP3.4; Place and Space PS3.1, 3.3. 4.3; Time, Continuity and Change TCC3.1; Natural and Social Systems NSS3.1

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• Demonstrates an understanding of the interconnectedness between Australia and global environments and how individuals and groups can act in an ecologically responsible manner. Natural and Social Systems (Systems, Resources and Power) • Describes how Australian people, systems and communities are globally connected and recognises global responsibilities (e.g. protecting endangered species).

SA: Time, Continuity and Change 3.1 Place, Space & Environment 2.6, 3.4

Vic: Reading: Texts 3.5(a), 3.5(b); Contextual Understanding 3.6(a) 3.6(b); Linguistic Structures and Features 3.7(a), 3.7(b); Strategies 3.8(a), 3.8(b); Writing: Texts 3.9, Contextual Understanding 3.10; Linguistic Structures and Features 3.11; Strategies 3.12

WA: Reading: Use of Texts R3.1; Contextual Understanding R3.2; Conventions R3.3; Processes and Strategies R3.4 Viewing: Use of Texts V3.1; Contextual Understanding V3.2; Conventions V3.3; Processes and Strategies V3.4 Writing: Use of Texts W3.1; Contextual Understanding W3.2; Conventions W3.3; Processes and Strategies W3.4


Curriculum Links Subject Areas / Related Strands

English cont.

National: Reading and Viewing: Texts 3.5; Contextual Understanding 3.6; Linguistic Structures and Features 3.7; Strategies 3.8(a), 3.8(b) Writing: Texts 3.9; Contextual Understanding 3.10; Linguistic Structures and Features 3.11; Strategies 3.12(a), 3.12(b)

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The Arts (Creative Arts) Visual Arts • Investigates subject matter in an attempt to represent likeness of things in the work. • Makes art works for different audiences and assembles materials in a variety of ways. • Acknowledges that audiences respond in different ways to artworks and that there can be different opinions. • Communicates about the ways in which subject matter is represented in artworks.

NSW: Writing WS3.9, WS3.10, WS3.12; Reading RS3.5, RS3.6, RS3.7, RS3.8 QLD: Reading and Viewing Cu3.2, Op3.2, Cr3.2; Writing and Shaping Cu3.3, Op3.3, Cr3.3 SA SA: Texts & Contexts 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4; Language 2.7, 2.8, 3.7, 3.8; Strategies 2.11, 2.12, 3.10, 3.11, 3.12

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Reading / Viewing • Reads independently an extensive range of texts with increasing content demands and responds to themes and issues. • Uses a comprehensive range of skills and strategies appropriate to the type of text being read. • Critically analyses techniques used by writers to create certain effects, to use language creatively, to position the reader in various ways and to consruct different interpretations of experience. • Identifies the text structure of a wider range of more complex text types and discusses how the characteristic grammatical features work to influence readers’ and viewers’ understanding of texts.

Relevant State Outcomes

Visual Arts: Arts Practice 3.1, Responding to the Arts 3.2; WA:

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Communicating Arts Ideas CAI 3; Using Arts Skills, Techniques, Technologies and Processes STP 3; Responding, Reflecting on and Evaluating the Arts RRE 3; Understanding the Role of Arts in Society AIS 3

National:

Visual Arts: Creating, Making and Presenting Band B; Arts Criticism and Aesthetics Band B; Past and Present Contexts Band B

NSW:

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Visual Arts 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 SA SA: Arts Practice 3.1, 3.2

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Visual Arts VAS3.2

QLD:

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Theme 1

If Only I Could Fly

I wish that I could fly. If I could fly I wouldn’t be in the trouble I am in today. You might suppose that it’s only a spot of bother, but actually for me it’s my whole survival that’s at stake; not only my survival but also that of my whole species. But perhaps I should start at the beginning ... *

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I am a Lord Howe Island phasmid, commonly called a flightless stick insect, and sometimes called the land lobster because of my size. My family have inhabited a quiet peaceful part of the planet Earth for millions of years. “Have we ever been able to fly?” you ask. And my answer has to be no. It’s true we have been a flightless species as long as that. Our resemblance to sticks has always protected us from predators and our enemies. That is, until the arrival of some new species, Homo sapiens, better known as humans, and their hungry friend, Rattus rattus – the rat!

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For eighty years everyone thought that we were extinct or “dead as a dodo” as some people say. They gave up hope of ever finding our species alive again. And we were unique. An insect that cannot fly is almost a contradiction in terms, wouldn’t you say? We are a pretty amazing species if I do say so myself! *

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another. And because we couldn’t fly we couldn’t escape.

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family hit rock bottom. Until one day, © ReadyEdMy P bl i ca t i onsscientists someu adventurous rock-climbing scaled our rock called Ball’s Pyramid. They •f orr evi ew pu r po se so nl yand • climbed in the middle of the night

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We lived in peace on the islands around Lord Howe where we hid in rocks and crevices. We only came out at night to feed and to mate. It was a happy existence for my ancestors for generations, until one fateful day in 1918 when a boat was shipwrecked off the coast and the dreaded rats escaped to one of our islands. The rest is history. We had no defences against these terrible predators. Gradually they ate us – one by one – on one island after 6

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found me perched on a tiny bush growing out of the rock face on the steep-sided pyramid.


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Theme 1

If Only I Could Fly

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More Facts About Phasmids

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That’s why I say “if only I could fly”. There are not many flightless insects in the world and our chances of survival are slim even though we try to keep pretty much to ourselves. On second thoughts, I am amazing the way I am: I am quite happy looking like a stick, living on my pyramid mountain and minding my own business. I just hope we stay this way forever!

The Lord Howe Island phasmid is 15 centimetres long, which is quite long for an insect. More samples of the Lord Howe Island phasmid have been found since it was rediscovered in 2001 and scientists are planning a breeding program.

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You have never heard such excitement when those men and women discovered two more specimens. Very carefully they placed us back on the cliff face. They knew that because they had found three of us, with at least one male and one female, that we would survive.

The Norfolk Island phasmid, like other phasmids, eats leaves. The scientific name for the Lord Howe Island phasmid is Dryococelus australis. The order from which they come, Phasmatodea, means “like a ghost”.

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Theme 1

If Only I Could Fly

Word Study

Expressions Write these expressions in your own words: As dead as a dodo

______________________________________________________

I hit rock bottom

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My chances of survival are slim

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On second thoughts

______________________________________________________

Minding my own business

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Find the words in the text which mean the same as:

Not able to fly

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Being the only one of its kind

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A long narrow opening or crack

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Opposition between two conflicting ideas

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An animal which eats another animal for food

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Find each of the following words. •f orr evi e w pur posesonl y• •Ancestors D S N S S E L T H G I L F •Crevices •Flightless

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•Protection •Predator •Pyramid •Species

•Survival

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•Shipwreck •Unique

A D O J F V H K E J X S

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S S R O T S E C N A J R

C T U P M P V T R R M V

O R F E A R Y Z O E F I

W A E P O O J R T M S V

T S W V P T R N A H L A

E E J D I E J A D M Y L

E Y C T R C T R E Y I M

U F M H B T E F R P F D

Q S P E C I E S P S H Y

N D D Z T O G W T B C T

S C T F U N I Q U E D B

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Phasmid Find-a-Word

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Spelling Some words end in –or and others end in –er. Circle the correct spelling for the following words: survivor/ surviver ancestor/ancester

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teachor/teacher developor/developer

exploror/explorer creator/creater


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Theme 1

If Only I Could Fly

Comprehension

Understanding the Text What caused the phasmid to die out? ____________________________________________________________________________________

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____________________________________________________________________________________ How do you think this creature managed to survive?

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Why was it so hard for the scientists to find the Lord Howe Island phasmid?

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Imagine you found a species of insect which scientists had thought to be extinct. How would you feel? What would you do?

____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________

Animal Fun

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Write down the advantages of being able to fly.

____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ A way of blending in with the surrounding environment is called CAMOUFLAGE. What other animals use camouflage?

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Draw an insect which you think will survive in the future. How many legs does it need?

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Can it fly?

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What special features help it to survive?

On a piece of paper or using a computer, write a story about another animal which is close to extinction. Pretend you are the animal at risk. E.g.

If Only I Could Run Faster… Asian Elephant, If Only I Wasn’t the Right Whale to Catch… Southern Right Whale.

What is something good about you? What are the dangers you have to face? What features make you vulnerable? What other animals threaten you? How?

HINT: For a list of endangered species see the Redlist at: www.redlist.org

Where do you live?

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Theme 1

If Only I Could Fly

Reflection

Reflection on Animal Survival Why do you think the word Phasmatodea means “like a ghost”? ____________________________________________________________________________________

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

The Lord Howe Island phasmid was close to extinction when the brave explorers found three living insects on Ball’s Pyramid. What does it mean to be extinct? Write the meaning of extinct in your own words:

____________________________________________________________________________________

Definitions

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

____________________________________________________________________________________

The World Conservation Union, which records the animals that are in danger, defines these words for us: Extinction :

An animal is extinct when “there is no reasonable doubt that the last individual has died”.

Critically Endangered: An animal is critically endangered when it is “facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild”.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Endangered:

An animal is endangered when it is “facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild”.

Vulnerable:

An animal is vulnerable it is “facing a high risk of extinction in the wild”.

Do you think the phasmid is critically endangered, endangered or only vulnerable?

____________________________________________________________________________________

m . u

A specimen is an individual animal of the species.

w ww

Why do you need at least two specimens to prove that a particular species is not extinct?

____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________

. te

Besides the dodo, what other animals, birds, or insects do you know of that are extinct?

o c . che e r o t Formal Writing r s super

____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________

On a piece of paper or using the computer, write a letter to a government department or company asking for help to protect an animal such as the Lord Howe Island phasmid. Include suggestions on ways to save it, such as starting a breeding program. You can begin your letter like this: Dear Sir/ Madam, I am writing to you in regards to the plight of one of Australia’s most wonderful animals, the flightless stick insect from Lord Howe Island. Only a few specimens of this species are known to exist in the whole world so it is in extreme danger of becoming extinct. Let me tell you about how terrific this animal is …

10


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Theme 2

Giraffe Birth Notice

Mr. Patrick and Mrs. Georgina Giraffe are delighted to announce the arrival of their newborn calf, Jonathan Adrian, on Saturday 20 September 2007. He weighs a healthy 95 kilograms and measures 1.8 metres in height. *

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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Teac he r

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Jonathan was born in a protected breeding ground not far from the Serengeti. (His parents don’t want mention the exact location, in case lions, hyenas, leopards and African wild dogs find the hidden site.) Five minutes later he stood on four wobbly legs.

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ew i ev Pr

After carrying him for 453 days his mother had a normal delivery. Jonathan dropped headfirst two metres into the world and made a safe crash landing. Mother and baby are doing well. *

His parents are pleased to note that Jonathan can already make a bleating noise. They eagerly await a moo, bellow and whistle. He can splay his fore legs and bend his knees to drink. His parents are hopeful that when he gets bigger he will learn to neck wrestle with the other baby giraffes. In a few more weeks he will join the calf nursery group, where he will be carefully watched over while his mother grazes further afield to make rich milk for him. *

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A new brother to Geraldine, aged 18 months, Jonathan Adrian is a welcome addition to the herd of Masai giraffes of the Serengeti. The herd is thrilled by the blessed arrival of baby Jonathan. May he be truly wise.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• *

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w ww

It is evident he has a strong powerful neck, 80 centimetres long, that he will use to reach the shoots of the whistling-thorn acacia tree. He has both his horns and a long tufty tail, which he uses to whisk away flies. His coat is very distinguished, with striking irregular star-shaped patches, ranging in colour from pale orange to russet brown, which will darken as he gets older. In between the patches are beautiful buff coloured lines and this unique pattern makes him distinct from the rest of his herd.

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o c . che e r o t r s super

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11


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Theme 2

Giraffe Birth Notice

More Facts About Giraffes Jonathon Adrian is a Masai giraffe.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

The giraffe was mistakenly named giraffa camelopardalis because people thought it was a cross between a camel and a leopard.

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

The giraffe’s long neck helps him to reach the branches of the tallest trees that other species cannot reach. Females choose the male partner with the longest and strongest necks to mate with. This way the genes for longer necks are passed on to the next generation.

Baby giraffes are very vulnerable to attacks by predators, especially lions, and over one half of all calves die within the first year of life.

The mother does not leave her calf for the first few days. After that she will wander a bit further afield, still keeping a close lookout for dangers with her excellent vision. In a few weeks she will leave her calf with a group of other giraffes at the nursery, sometimes called a crèche.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Giraffes are under threat in Africa for a number of reasons: they are attacked by tribesmen as food; because they are considered lucky their tail is used to weave bracelets; also their grassland habitat is taken up by expanding human populations.

m . u

w ww

Giraffes are herbivores. Using a prehensile (gripping) tongue, 45 centimetres long, they eat the tender shoots and leaves from overhead branches or shrubs, and sometimes flowers and vines.

Baby giraffes are weaned at any age from three to eighteen months.

. te

Giraffes like to browse all day, but only need to drink once every few days as they also are able to get moisture from leaves.

o c . che e r o t r s super

The brown and buff coloured patches over the body of a giraffe camouflage it against the dappled light of scrub and trees in the savannah bushland. To protect themselves and their young from attackers, giraffes can run very fast or they can fight using powerful kicks with their hooves. Giraffes have the same number of neck bones, called vertebrae, as humans – seven. However, unlike humans, each bone can be over 30 centimetres long. 12


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Theme 2

Giraffe Birth Notice

Word Study

Vocabulary Find the meaning of these words from the text: prehensile

_______________________________________________________________

vulnerable

_______________________________________________________________

camouflaged

_______________________________________________________________

vertebrae

_______________________________________________________________

herbivores

_______________________________________________________________

Teac he r

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u Describing Swords – Adjectives APPEARANCE distinguished

ew i ev Pr

Find the describing words – the adjectives – used in the text. Put them into categories: appearance, colour and size. Create a databank of adjectives which can be used to describe other animals. Try to think of unusual adjectives instead of ordinary ones like nice, good or big. Fill in the table below. COLOUR buff

SIZE elongated

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Unscramble the Letters

REAZG

LYWBOB

w ww

7

2

. te

5

FUBF

SYLPA

IRRLELTHD

3

4

10

11

RESNURY

m . u

Copy the letters from the numbered cells to find the mystery word.

12

o c . che e r o t r s super Comparatives

BEEDSLS

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MYSTERY WORD

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When we compare two things we add –er; when we compare three or more things we add –est. For example: tall, taller, and tallest. On another sheet of paper add –er and – est to these words to make them into comparatives and write sentences using three: light

brave

high

strong

loud

brown

sparse

13


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Theme 2

Giraffe Birth Notice

Comprehension

Understanding the Text Why don’t giraffes want others to know where their babies are born? ____________________________________________________________________________________

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

What animals threaten a baby giraffe?

____________________________________________________________________________________ What does a giraffe use its tail for?

____________________________________________________________________________________

Teac he r

What food does a giraffe eat? How does he eat it?

How are giraffe vertebrae different from human vertebrae?

ew i ev Pr

____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________

How did the giraffe develop such a long neck?

____________________________________________________________________________________

True or False True

False

A baby giraffe can splay its legs.

True

False

A giraffe is born tail first.

True

False

A crèche is a baby giraffe.

True

False

Giraffes have strong necks.

True

False

Animal Fun

w ww

Measure and compare your size with that of a baby giraffe. You will need scales and a tape measure for this activity.

. te

Neck Length Height

Weight

Creative Fun

GIRAFFE

YOU

o c . che e r o t r s super

On a piece of art paper draw a picture of another animal and give it a long neck. How would a long neck help your fantasy animal survive? Draw a distinctive pattern of irregular patches and buff coloured lines like the ones on the side of this giraffe: 14

m . u

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Giraffes are carnivores.


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Theme 2

Giraffe Birth Notice

Reflection

Reflection on Animal Survival What advantages does a long neck give a giraffe? _____________________________________________________________________________________

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

_____________________________________________________________________________________ How do you think that the pattern and colouring of a giraffe helps it to survive?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Teac he r

_____________________________________________________________________________________

ew i ev Pr

The giraffe’s scientific name is giraffe cameleopardis. It is also sometimes called the “animal built by committee”. Why do you think it is called this?

_____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________

List the reasons why the giraffe is under threat in Africa. What can be done to help protect it? THREAT

POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Imagine that the climate changes in the Serengeti. What will happen to the habitat of the giraffe if global warming results in warmer temperatures and less rainfall?

w ww

Writing Myths and Legends

Many stories exist to explain how animals get their special features such as “How the leopard got his spots” and “Why the lion is king of the jungle”.

. te

m . u

_____________________________________________________________________________________ HINT: Read one of the Just So Stories by Rudyard Kipling from your library or for free on this website: www.gutenberg.org/etext/2781

o c . che e r o t r s super Creative Writing

On a piece of paper or on the computer write a legend to explain why the giraffe’s neck is so long.

Write a birth notice for another species of animal. Where was it born? How big was the animal when it was born? Did it have a midwife or helper at the birth? How are its parents looking after it? What is special about this animal?

HINT: Use the Animal Diversity website: animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/ index.html or Taronga Zoo: www.zoo.nsw.gov.au or Serengeti website: www.serengeti.org

15


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Theme 3

Gorilla Club Membership Rules for Club Members You must be one of the smartest primates on the planet and have the ability to learn sign language.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Conditions of Entry Only rare mountain gorillas of the species with the official classification Gorilla gorilla beringei, can belong to this club.

Physical Requirements To get membership to this club you need to be big and heavy, with more muscles and more teeth than a chimpanzee. You must have broad shoulders and a muscular neck. Your hands and feet should be strong; your big toe spread far apart from your other toes.

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You must wear a black suit, with the exception of older males who will be allowed to wear a silvery white “saddle” across their backs. *

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ew i ev Pr

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You are cordially invited to join the Mountain Gorilla Club. This is an exclusive club for rare and refined gorillas in the Virunga mountain range of Central Africa. Please read the following list of conditions for entry to the club and the rules for club members:

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Methods of communication permitted are: grunts, roars, whines, chuckles, growls and pan-hoots. You need these sounds to teach your children the many skills of survival and to communicate with other gorillas about food, danger and socialising. In the middle of the day you should nap. During this time your children are allowed to play games such as King of the Castle and Follow the Leader.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• *

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You need to have a broad face and a thick ridge above your eyes. Your long arms must be attached to a short bulky body. If you are a male you will be twice the size of a female and the circumference of your chest will equal your height.

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In consideration of other members you should never eat all the vegetation from a single plant but leave some, so that the plant can regrow. Preference is for fruit and wild celery. If these are not available leaves, stems, herbs and vines are acceptable.

o c . che e r o t r s super *

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You have to walk on all fours and knuckle walk on your front limbs; the palms of the hands will not do, although you are permitted to walk upright on two legs, if necessary.

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At night you must make a nest for yourself and your offspring out of branches of trees and spongy leaves, so that you are not lying directly on the forest floor.


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Theme 3

Gorilla Club Membership

Acceptable Behaviours

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Facts About the Population of Mountain Gorillas:

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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If you are the leader of the band, named the silverback, you are required to protect all of its members, in which case you must be the most aggressive male and, if necessary, fight other bold males to the death.

The mountain gorilla is listed as endangered. Only about 600 survive in the remnants of mountain forest of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda and Uganda. Their forest home is being cleared as human population expands into their habitat.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Demonstrations of assertiveness, namely breast pounding, standing on two legs and screaming are allowed. Tucking in your lip, sticking out your tongue, running sideways, throwing objects and staring are all acceptable forms of communicating your superiority to other gorillas. Displays of aggression are not common.

Humans hunt them for food and sell their hands and heads as souvenirs. Mountain gorillas can grow to 180 centimetres tall.

© e EdPub l i cat i ons * *R * a *d *y A group of gorillas is called a band. On occasions the silverback will be •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• expected to baby-sit young gorillas in the Exceptions to Club Rules

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Usually only gorillas from the tropical forests in Central Africa will be considered but, because current assessment of your situation is endangered, exceptions will be made for mountain gorillas kept in recognised zoos.

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family group.

o c . che e r o t r s super

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Thank you for your application to the Mountain Gorilla Club. You will be notified of the result of your application shortly.

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Theme 3

Gorilla Club Membership

Word Study

Vocabulary Find the meaning of these words from the text: extinction endangered circumference aggressive souvenirs

______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

r o e t s Bo r e p ok Nouns and Verbs u S

Person who looks after animals in a zoo

________________________________________

A group of gorillas

________________________________________

Place where animals are kept and looked after

________________________________________

The oldest, strongest gorilla in the band

________________________________________

Take care of young while their mother is away

________________________________________

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Many nouns and verbs are used to describe the mountain gorilla and its behaviour. Nouns are naming words for objects, animals or people. Verbs are action words. In the passage below underline the verbs and circle the nouns:

A mountain gorilla stands up on two legs and pounds his chest. Sometimes he tucks in his lip and sticks out his tongue. He makes many noises such as grunts, roars, whines, chuckles and growls. His diet includes leaves, stems, herbs and vines. In the middle of the day the mountain gorilla takes a nap while the children play.

Too many words when one word will do!

Write one word to replace the phrases:

Alphabetical Order

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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A mountain gorilla makes many noises. Put these sound words into alphabetical order: chuckle tuck grunt

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pound run howl

stand throw roar

scream stare whine

o c . che e r o t r s super

Create a data bank of sound words made by other animals putting them into alphabetical order.

Say the word MUSCULAR. Hold your hand under your chin as you say the word again. How many times did your jaw move? Did you count 3? Mus-cu-lar has three syllables. Count the number of syllables (i.e. jaw drops) in these words: communication

ridge

primate

socialising

extinction

plant

souvenirs

survival

Suffixes To some words you can add an ending to create a new word. For example: comfort + able = comfortable. Add –able to the end of these words and put them into sentences:

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spread _______

prevent ________

change ________

reason _______

expand ________

suit ___________


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Theme 3

Gorilla Club Membership

Comprehension

Understanding the Text Where do mountain gorillas live? ____________________________________________________________________________________

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

____________________________________________________________________________________ What does the “silverback” do?

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What are the acceptable forms of behaviour for mountain gorillas?

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

____________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________

Why are gorillas dying out?

____________________________________________________________________________________

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Where do mountain gorillas sleep at night?

____________________________________________________________________________________

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Animal Fun

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Imagine you are the zookeeper for a gorilla family. Write a list of games which you think you could teach to an intelligent gorilla.

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o c . che e r o t r s super

_____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________

Gorillas, humans and monkeys are all primates. What do you think are the major differences between a gorilla and a human? _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________

Extra! Complete on another sheet of paper. • What would you look like if your chest circumference was the same as your height? Draw a picture of yourself.

• Draw a poster telling locals about the endangered status of gorillas, why they should be protected and giving a reward for catching poachers.

• Design a zoo enclosure which would entertain a mountain gorilla. Don’t forget to include water features, play equipment and provision for animal handlers to come and clean the area.

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Theme 3

Gorilla Club Membership

Reflection

Reflection on Animal Survival Make up four sentences about four different animals found in Africa. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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Height

MOUNTAIN GORILLA

YOU

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Compare the height and weight of a mountain gorilla with your height and weight.

Weight

Find out the daily diet for a mountain gorilla. Compare your diet with a mountain gorilla.

MOUNTAIN GORILLA

YOU

Meat Fish

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Vegetables

Carbs (bread, pasta, rice etc.) Fruit

Plants like leaves

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Sugar

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On a piece of paper, in your own words, describe the habitat of the mountain gorilla. How can a gorilla’s habitat be saved? Create a mind map using the keywords how, when, where, and why.

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Creative Writing

o c . che e r o t r s super

Write your own club membership application brochure. Choose an endangered animal which you like. Follow the model and set out the requirements like this: Physical Requirements Conditions of Entry Rules for Club Members Acceptable Behaviours Exceptions to Club Rules

HINT:

Use the Animal Diversity webpage to help you to write: animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/ index.html

Report Writing Write a report on the animal of your choice using the headings below as a guide. 1) General classification 2) Description 3) Behaviours 4) Habitat 5) Diet 6) Endangered status 20


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Theme 4

I Am Not a Vampire!

Why is everyone scared of me? I hear them squealing underneath my treetop home, “Yikes, it’s a bat!” “Watch out, he’ll build a nest in your hair!” “Be careful he’ll suck your blood!” I don’t know why they are frightened of me.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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Bats are kind. We look after our babies. For many months after a baby is born the mother nurses it under her armpit. Her wing is a comfortable blanket while they are hanging upside down. While Mum is searching for food, baby hangs on tight for the ride.

Have you heard people say: “He’s as blind as a bat?” Well, it’s not true that I am blind. I see quite well. In fact, I can even see colours.

* * * * * © ReadyEdPubl i c at i ons Bats like me are very chatty. People hear I am not scary. I don’t even make a nest, •f orr evi ew pusome r pofo se so nl y • the squeaky noises I make. so I won’t make one in your hair. I won’t

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Did you know that I am the only mammal that can fly? Perhaps you thought that possums and squirrels can fly, but they only glide. I have a membrane, like leather, which stretches from my shoulder to my “hand” and then to my ankle. Some people call me a flying fox, but I am not really a fox at all. I have a bit of reddish fur and my face looks similar to a fox. *

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However, most of my noises are supersonic sounds – beyond the range of the human ear. I have thirty different calls to “talk” to my family and friends. We fight about food, chat to find a mate or call out to our babies.

m . u

send you batty and I am certainly not a vampire! I am an innocent little fruit bat, called a grey-headed flying fox.

o c . che e r o t r s super

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Did you know I am nocturnal? This means that I only feed in the night. I roost upside down in a tree in the day folding my wings close against my body like a magician’s black cape. At dusk, I fly off searching for my dinner using my excellent sense of smell. *

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Theme 4

I Am Not a Vampire!

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More Facts About Bats The word for bat comes from the old Norse word Ledhrblaka meaning “leather flapper”. Over time blaka became bat. The Greek word for the order of bats is chiropta, which means “hand wing” because the wing of a bat is made from the bones that usually form the hand in other mammals.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S *

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I may look a bit creepy and have a reputation as a bloodsucker, but I actually do some good. I spread pollen, helping flowers, plants and trees to reproduce. I also aid in spreading small seeds. So I form part of the complicated web of life. You see, I am quite a helpful little creature. I am not a vampire at all!

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

I am a total vegetarian, so I feed on seeds, fruit, the nectar and pollen of flowers, and sometimes tasty leaves. I serve many useful functions in forests. When I feed from a flower, pollen grains stick to my fur. I carry the grains to the next flower and pollinate it, causing seeds to develop inside the flower. When I eat fruit, of course I swallow the seeds. Then I may carry the seeds many miles away in my stomach. When I drop the seeds, they can grow into a new flowering tree for everyone to share and enjoy – including me!

Flying foxes are found in forests and wetlands of Australia, Asia, and the islands in the Indian Ocean. Sometimes they even find homes in trees in the city.

© ReadyEdPu bl i ca t i ons Biodiversity is the number and variety of different organisms found in o a particular area. It isl important •f orr evi ew pur p s e s o n y• to have many different species in *

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w ww *

nature as they all interconnect and form part of the “web of life”. If one species dies out the others are affected too. Even though fruit bats are not blood suckers, it is not a good idea to handle one. They have sharp claws and, like any wild animal, they may have a virus.

o c . che e r o t r s super


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Theme 4

I Am Not a V ampire! Vampire!

Word Study

Vocabulary – Misprints The sentences below all have misprints in them. Find the words which have mistakes and write the sentences correctly again. I am not an umpire!

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

_____________________________________________________________________________________ My kings are made of a stretched membrane like weather.

_____________________________________________________________________________________ I take care of my rabies under my armpit. I live in a bark wave.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

_____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________

The bones of a batwing are similar to the moans of the land in other animals.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Baby Names

A baby flying fox is called a pup. Match the animal with its baby name: infant chick foal hatchling or juvenile joey calf kit

crow

dinosaur elephant

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

kangaroo

___________________

skunk

___________________

___________________

gorilla

___________________

___________________

horse

___________________

___________________

Similes

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“I fold my wings against my body like a magician’s black cape.” This is a simile – a way of comparing one thing to another. Similes are effective ways to create images in the reader’s mind. Write similes to complete the sentences:

o c . che e r o t r s super

The trees swayed like _____________________________________________________________________ The moon shone like _____________________________________________________________________ The little bat squeaked like ________________________________________________________________ He sucked the straw like __________________________________________________________________ The party food tasted like _________________________________________________________________

Synonyms Find the word or words from the text meaning: Sleeps during the day:

___________________________________________

A tree with flowers:

___________________________________________

Sounds beyond the range of the human ear:

___________________________________________

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Theme 4

I Am Not a V ampire! Vampire!

Comprehension

Understanding the Text How is the grey-headed flying fox different from a vampire? _____________________________________________________________________________________

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

What does a grey-headed flying fox eat?

_____________________________________________________________________________________ Where does the word “bat” come from?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Teac he r

How does a grey-headed flying fox look after its babies?

In your own words write the meaning of the word roost.

ew i ev Pr

_____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________

Why is it not a good idea to handle bats?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

True or False

True

False

A grey-headed flying fox eats fruit.

True

False

Bats are birds with leather instead of wings.

True

False

All bats are colour blind.

True

False

Nocturnal means stays awake at night.

True

False

w ww

Animal Fun

Which stories do you think of when you hear the word “vampire”?

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m . u

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

The web of life is a spider’s web.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

o c . che e r o t r s super

Draw a picture of a fruit bat. (Don’t forget to leave out the blood!)

On a large sheet of paper, draw a poster reminding people to wear gloves when they handle a bat.

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Theme 4

I Am Not a V ampire! Vampire!

Reflection

Reflection on Animal Survival What is special about the way bats talk to each other? How does this ability to talk help the fruit bat to survive?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________

Teac he r

What threats are there to the survival of bats in Australia?

____________________________________________________________________________________

ew i ev Pr

____________________________________________________________________________________

Write definitions for the following phrases: animal diversity:

__________________________________________________________________

web of life:

__________________________________________________________________

Draw a diagram showing the connection between the fruit bat and plants.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

m . u

w ww

What are the problems associated with bats living in city parks, like the Royal Botanical Gardens in Sydney? See www.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au ____________________________________________________________________________________

. te

____________________________________________________________________________________

o c . che e Creative Writing r o t r s super

____________________________________________________________________________________

Find another animal which has a bad name but is actually quite harmless. Using another piece of paper, write a letter using the model above showing the case for protecting the animal from the animal’s point of view. E.g. The grey nurse shark, the carpet snake, the “daddy longlegs” or common house spider, the antechinus, etc.

Design a Brochure Design a brochure describing a bat and where to find them. Don’t forget to include information about how to handle bats.

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Theme 5

Dear Dad

Dear Dad,

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r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S *

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Where I was born the summer is too short for a chick to hatch so, unlike other animals, I was incubated during the winter. After mum laid an egg on the ice shelf – with me inside – and scooted off to eat her dinner, you scooped me up with your beak onto your webbed feet and coddled me all winter long. Covered by your brood pouch I stayed cosy and warm while you trundled around in snowstorms, driving sleet and freezing temperatures, trying to keep me off the ice. If not for your sure-footedness and your dizzy spiraling in circles to stay warm, I am sure that I would have died. You lived in the huddle for 65 days, shuffling around with the other fathers, trying to stay snug in the middle while it was sub-zero on the outside.

*

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ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

I am sending this thank-you note to you on the anniversary of my birth. It is not the usual convention, I am well aware. Although I knew you for a short time – you left me with my mother at such an early age – I have only just realised the significance of all that you did for me when I was still inside my egg. It was a miracle that I survived – and thanks only to you!

gave me up reluctantly. At first you refused to deliver me at all! You knew there was no precedent – none of the other fathers were staying. All around you well-fed mothers were stealing back to the rookery for the first blissful moments of bonding with their babies. You had to leave because you were starving with hunger and you still had 80 kilometres to travel across the ice to the open sea to feed. *

*

You ate nothing the whole time that you nursed me on your feet. In that time you lost almost half of your weight. You finally left me with my mother and trekked off to fatten up on shellfish, fish and squid. Then you returned to help raise me until I was eight weeks old.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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o c . che e r o t r s super *

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When I was a little embryo, I was unrecognisable to you. Then it was time for me to hatch. You watched anxiously as I chipped out from my shell, gradually emerging from my egg. I was cold and hungry and you fed me penguin milk to keep me alive. When Mum returned from her hunting to take over the childcare, you 26

*

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I love your wedge-shaped tail, your tiny flipper-like wings, your webbed feet and I much admire your outfit – it reminds me of a shiny tuxedo! The layer of down under your feathers and the layer of blubber under that helped you to survive those terrible eight weeks. You are so tall – one metre – and since you have been better fed you are even catching up to Mum.


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Theme 5

Dear Dad

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I was born with downy feathers – not like your gleaming, scaly ones – so waterproof and so useful! Our wings are more like fins – unfit for flight but I like them well that way. I am glad we live in a flightless state, as I much prefer tobogganing to flying.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S *

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We have never set foot on dry land. The only scene we know is snow and ice. By the time the pack ice broke up, I was ready to swim off by myself – independent at last! *

In April, Emperor penguins march approximately 80 kilometres to their breeding ground where they choose a different mate every year.

*

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Now I am one year old, I am fully-grown and a handsome specimen – like you. I am so pleased to have a layer of down to catch the bubbles of air to keep me warm and the oil in my feathers keeps me dry when I dive. I have to wait until I am four years old before I can have a family of my own. How blissful! I can’t wait to be like you. I do hope that I can be a remarkable father too and suffer those eight weeks in stoic silence as well as you did. I will not forget you; I know you by your call and I will recognise you again another year.

The nesting ground, called a rookery, is safe because it is on the thickest ice so there is no risk that an egg or chick can fall into the water.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

*

More Facts About Emperor Penguins:

If the egg stays on the ice for more than a few minutes it will freeze and the chick inside dies.

Predators of the Emperor penguin include leopard seals, sharks and orca (killer whales) in the sea. At the breeding ground giant petrels will attack and kill tiny chicks.

w ww

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

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Dear Dad, thank you for all you have done for me. You are indeed an Emperor among Emperors. From your humble penguin son, Pinguino *

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*

27


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Theme 5

Dear Dad

Word Study

Vocabulary – Antarctica Word Search Antarctica I

M

W

R

P

G

W

W

M

Father

Mother

Penguin

Survival

Toboggan

U

G

N

E

P

S

S

R

G

T

G

F

W

H

Q

N

U

G

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M

O

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H

U

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A

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B

Q

Q

N

J

V

D

A

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T

Z

O

U

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I

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Q

F

L

O

N

G

A

A

V

F

Z

H

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M

E

G

D

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

D

X

L

N

A

J

U

A

J

Z

Q

B

W

A

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L

V

A

C

I

T

C

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A

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N

T

O

H

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H

E

D

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E

E

D

L

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E

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J

E

D

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X

O

F

X

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B

H

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C

M

B

Y

Dad

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

N

Emperor

D

A

D

O C J

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Unjumble the verbs (action words) from the text B

J

B

P

W

M

V

B

E

C

X

B

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S

H G

VEDI ____________________

LPRSIA _________________

LEAST ____________________

VEARTS _________________

IWSM __________________

w ww

BUTEACNI ________________

Missing Words

. te

m . u

BGNAGOOT ______________

Find suitable nouns, verbs or adjectives to complete these phrases from the text:

o c . che e r o t r s super

stayed __________ and ______________ in the brood pouch lived in a _____________ for 65 days

born with _________ feathers and __________ wings

is able to ______ in the ocean and ___________ across the ice

Suffixes You can add different endings to words to create new words. For example: care + ful = careful = full of care, care + less = careless = less care. Add -ful or -less to these words to make new words:

28

leg ______

child ________

fear _______

flight _____

stress _______

wire _____

use _________

bliss ______

cord ______

harm _______


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Theme 5

Dear Dad

Comprehension

Understanding the Text What is a brood pouch? _________________________________________________________________ How long does the father Emperor penguin nurse the egg before it hatches? _______________________

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

What are the difficulties faced by a penguin dad, a penguin mum and a penguin baby?

Penguin dad ___________________________________________________________________________ Penguin mum __________________________________________________________________________

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Penguin baby __________________________________________________________________________

Make up questions to go with these answers: Emperor penguins live only in Antarctica on the polar ice cap.

____________________________________________________________________________________

Father penguins have a brood pouch to keep the egg warm.

____________________________________________________________________________________

Penguins use their wings to swim in water, not to fly.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

____________________________________________________________________________________

The father penguin has to travel 80 kilometres to find food.

____________________________________________________________________________________

True or False Penguin chicks are eaten by petrels.

True

False

Blubber is a layer of fat under the skin to keep warm.

True

False

Emperor penguins are monotremes like platypus because they lay eggs.

True

False

. tFun Animal e

o c . che e r o t r s super

Penguin fathers feed their chicks penguin milk.

Draw a penguin dad looking after its egg.

False

m . u

True

w ww

Penguins live on land.

True

False

How is a penguin dad different from a human dad? How is he the same? ______________________________ ______________________________ What would you do if you had to look after an egg for a day? ______________________________ ______________________________

29


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Theme 5

Dear Dad

Reflection

Reflection on Animal Survival List three things you would do to make sure your egg does not break:

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

Make up three sentences about three different species of mammals, birds or fish found in Antarctica:

____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________

Write down a definition of “adaptation”:

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •these f or r evi e pur pos so y• Answer questions onw a separate piece ofe paper orn inl your book:

____________________________________________________________________________________

m . u

The Emperor penguin is the only large species which survives during the winter months in the hostile environment of Antarctica. What are some things about the Emperor penguin which help it to adapt to its environment? What make this species special or unique in the way it behaves and the way it looks?

w ww

Global warming is affecting the planet by increasing temperatures, erratic weather patterns and melting of the polar ice caps. What impact will global warming have on the life of a penguin? Think about things like temperature, food sources, breeding grounds, etc.

. te Creative Writing o c . che e r o t r s super

See website: www.aad.gov.au and follow the links to Experience Antarctica to see webcams of the landscape, diaries of the people living there, and read Frequently Asked Questions about life in Antarctica.

(on a separate piece of paper or in your book)

Write a Dear Dad or Dear Mum letter from another species of animal to its parents thanking them for all the things they have done to help it stay alive. You can choose any animal you like but you will have to research some of the animal’s behaviours. For example: the male of the seahorse has a brood pouch where it hatches and carries the eggs.

HINT:

See these webpages:

animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/ site/index.html www.zoo.nsw.gov.au

Letter Writing Write a letter or send an email to the Australian Antarctica Division asking about life in Antarctica. information@aad.gov.au (email). Australian Antarctic Division, 203 Channel Highway, Kingston, Tasmania 7050 30


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Theme 6

Job For Lion With Pride

Wanted: Lion King

Due to a current vacancy, an exciting opportunity exists for a powerful and muscular big cat to head a pride of lions in the Serengeti National Park. The role will have significant involvement in defence and border patrols.

Desirable: •Be able to produce strong cubs and so ensure the survival of superior genes. •Capable of eating up to 23 kilograms at a sitting, as kills may not occur every day. •Willingness to eat the cubs of other lions.

r o e t s Bo r e Further information: ok Job Description: p u S

Teac he r

•The successful applicant will be provided with a minimum of seven kilograms of meat a day. •You will need to have the skills to work cooperatively with other animals, to roar effectively and to take care of the pride. •The successful candidate shall have the first pick of all the females. •Since the females do most of the work, the successful applicant will have considerable spare time of up to twenty hours a day to lounge around and sleep. •As lion king you will have the first taste of any prey killed by other lions in the pride.

ew i ev Pr

As king of the pride, the primary role of this job will be to protect up to ten related females and their young, with the support of three unrelated adult males.

Statement of duties: •Communicate with other pridemates using effective grunts, groans and growls. •Control the behaviour of the other males in the pride. •Patrol the perimeter of the territory to keep out strangers who want to eat young cubs. •Urinate at the borders to mark the pride’s territory of up to 50 square kilometres. •Roar intermittently at night to reassure the This is an excellent opportunity to demonstrate your superior prowess and females of the pride. muscles. Previous fighting experience will Selection Criteria: be highly regarded. Applicants for the position will need to If you are adventurous, brave and bold, meet the following requirements: with a loud roar, send your details to the Serengeti National Park. Essential:

w ww

. te

m . u

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

•Previous experience in border protection and fighting off intruders. •Proven leadership skills and demonstrated ability in killing opponents. •Confidence, pride and strength with the loudest baritone roar. •The longest, thickest ruff in the pride, though the colour of the mane from light brown to black does not matter. •Length from whiskers to tail tip should be two metres. •Minimum height of 1.2 metres high. •Weight of 240 kilograms.

31


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Theme 6

Job For Lion With Pride

Facts About Lions: The males do little killing. Usually females chase and kill prey like zebras, gazelles, giraffes, antelope, wild hogs, the young of elephants and small rhinos. They also take smaller prey such as rodents, hares, birds and reptiles.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

Lions can run very fast but they cannot run for a long time. The female runs up to 80 kilometres an hour, killing the prey by outrunning, wounding or suffocating.

ew i ev Pr

To be more successful a group of females work together with one chasing the prey, and the others lying in wait. The female has to weigh up whether it is worth the effort to chase an animal. She has to use up a lot of energy to catch it and her chances are not always good.

The males are on standby and get to eat first pick of the prey. The young are last to get something to eat and, thus, there is a high death rate for cubs.

Lions can count. When two groups meet inside a territory, if they are outnumbered, the smaller group backs down.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Lions use their roar to communicate. To roar effectively they must purse their lips and thrust out their chin and grunt and groan. Lions listen to a roar and can tell if it comes from a male or a female.

w ww

m . u

Usually litters of three to six cubs are born and the other mothers all help out with feeding and babysitting duties. But they will always look after their own cubs best of all.

If a new lion successfully kills or maims the king of another pride he usually eats the cubs of the old king. While this seems a little ruthless, it means that the female becomes ready to breed more quickly and will have another litter of cubs sooner. The new king gets to pass on his superior genes to the next generation that he would rather look after anyway. Genes are the blueprint, or code of life, present in the cells of every living thing.

. te

32

o c . che e r o t r s super


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Theme 6

Job F or Lion W ith Pride For With

Word Study

Vocabulary – Collective Nouns When a group of animals get together they have a special name for them. So a group of lions is called a “pride”. But did you know that a group of owls is called a parliament, a group of rhinoceros is a crash, and a group of leopards is a leap? Match these animals with their collective name:

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

geese

monkeys

gorillas

crows

elephants

penguins

bees

swarm ___________________

herd ____________________

murder _________________

troop ____________________

gaggle ___________________

rookery _________________

Unjumble these words from the text

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

band ___________________

TAESNILSE ________________

LEDBEIRAS __________________

SIMRUEEQNTER ______________

TASNIICFNIG ______________

LIEVONMVETN ______________

DIPSNCERTIO ________________

CEENDEF _________________

Definitions

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Find the words in the text which mean the same as:

Decide which thing is the best to do =

____________________________________

The cubs of an animal born at the same time =

____________________________________

Cruelty or showing no pity =

____________________________________

Superior ability, strength and cunning =

____________________________________

Blueprint or code of life =

____________________________________

m . u

____________________________________

w ww

The outside boundary of the territory =

Adjectives

. te

An adjective is a describing word. Write a sentence using these adjectives and choose a noun to go with them first: (For example: desirable strategies.)

o c . che e r o t r s super

desirable ______________________________________________________________________________ effective _______________________________________________________________________________ baritone_______________________________________________________________________________ ruthless _______________________________________________________________________________ superior _______________________________________________________________________________

Verbs Change these verbs to the past tense by adding –ed or using the irregular form and put each word into a sentence on the back of this sheet: eat ______________

produce ____________

urinate _____________

demonstrate __________

send _____________

lounge ______________

communicate ________

keep ________________

33


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Theme 6

Job F or Lion W ith Pride For With

Comprehension

Understanding the Text How is the lion king different from the other male lions in the pride? _____________________________________________________________________________________ Which animals do lions prey on?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

_____________________________________________________________________________________ How does a lion kill its prey?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Teac he r

Why do females work together when killing?

ew i ev Pr

_____________________________________________________________________________________

How do we know that lions can count?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Why does a lion king kill the cubs of the king of another lion pride?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Why do lions roar?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Lions kill: •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Multiple Choice

a) every day

b) large elephants

c) every few days

d) alone

b) has the smallest ruff

c) is the oldest

d) is the wisest

a) has the thickest ruff

w ww

Lions communicate: a) with their whiskers

b) with grunts, groans and roars c) by counting

. te

Animal Fun

m . u

The lion king:

d) by fighting for their territory

o c . che e r o t r s super

What jobs does the lion king have to do? Write a list of jobs or timetable of work during the day and night for a lion king. DAY

NIGHT

Write a sentence on the difference between predator and prey. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________

34


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Theme 6

Job F or Lion W ith Pride For With

Reflection

Reflection on Animal Survival Write a short paragraph on what the difficulties would be for a lion king. _____________________________________________________________________________________

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

_____________________________________________________________________________________ What does “survival of the fittest” mean? Why does the king have to be the fittest? How does he prove that he is the fittest?

Teac he r

_____________________________________________________________________________________

ew i ev Pr

_____________________________________________________________________________________

What are the advantages of sleeping during the day?

_____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________

Predict what might happen if the lion’s environment is changed. For example: land is fenced off for farming or other animals or plants become extinct.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

_____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________

Males and female lions are totally different in appearance. Why do you think they are different? Can you think of other species where this is the case?

w ww

Diary Writing

Write the diary of an animal you like. E.g. Panda, Mountain Gorilla, Indian Vulture, Koala.

m . u

_____________________________________________________________________________________

. te o Creative Writing c . che e r o t r s super

What do you do every day? What time do you eat? What dangers do you face each day? How hard is it to find lunch?

Write a job description for another animal which has to be the leader of a group of animals. For example: the matriarch of an elephant herd or the silverback of a gorilla band.

Report Writing Write a scientific report on the African lion. Don’t forget to include: Classification Parts Appearance Qualities Habitat Endangered Status

HINT: See these webpages: animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/ site/index.html www.zoo.nsw.gov.au

35


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Theme 7

Mr. Mutton’s Flight Schedule

Dear Mr. Maverick Mutton, This is the final confirmation of your first migratory flight to the Arctic. Here is the schedule for your trip due to leave Phillip Island on Saturday 1 May 2008. You will be flying to the Bering Sea, inside the Arctic Circle, via the East coast of Australia, Japan and the Aleutians Islands, and returning via Alaska and California. Your flight will leave approximately one month after the departure of your parents. Your flight schedule is as follows:

Teac he r

Phillip Island 0800 1 May 2008 Bering Sea 1800 14 June 2008 Bering Sea 0800 1 October 2008 Phillip Island 2100 14 November 2008

ew i ev Pr

Depart: Arrive: Departure: Arrive:

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Your journey will involve 15,000 kilometres of flying in each direction, however, your total journey may take up to 35,000 kilometres, depending on the prevailing winds. Please note that there will be no stopovers in your trip.

We recommend that you take-off from the headland but be careful of other travellers jostling for a position to depart. During your journey you will need to use strong flight action with several rapid, stiff-winged beats followed by a long glide. In stronger winds fly faster and glide closer to the surface of the ocean. Also try more dynamic banking.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

During your flight you will have to feed whenever food is available. Squid and fish can be obtained by diving into the water or seizing from the surface. By plunge-diving you will reach depths of 10 metres and can hook the prey with your beak. On arrival you will be able to skim the Arctic waters for krill which are abundant at that time of the year.

m . u

Your journey will take six weeks each way. Including the time you spend in the sub-arctic Bering Sea eating krill, your whole expedition will take six months.

w ww

The other adults from Phillip Island will leave early April so you will be completing the journey without any experienced flyers. You will have to wait until you have all the flight feathers necessary to make the journey. In the meantime it is suggested that you move closer to the shore and exercise your wings until time for take-off.

. te

o c . che e r o t r s super

Your journey will be full of hazards. Along the way, watch out for pollution, shooters, predators and storm weather. If you are swooping be on the lookout for submerged nets and fishing lines. Many mutton-birds become ill and lose condition as a result of eating plastic. So please be careful not to swallow any rubbish. As this is your first trip please ensure that you are well fed, fit and have exercised your wing muscles by practising hard prior to take-off. We hope that you have a happy and safe passage and enjoy your trip. Don’t forget you will be accompanied by tens of thousands of other migratory birds on your journey. Please take careful note of all the flight arrival and departure times. Once again have a pleasant journey and we hope that your flight will be an uneventful one. Yours sincerely,

Michael J. Mutton

Tasman Travel Bureau, Bass Strait 36


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Theme 7

Mr. Mutton’s Flight Schedule

Fact Box

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Mutton birds have a long beak with two distinct nostrils. Their underwings are dark and their wingspan is up to one metre. They can fly very fast because their wings are long and narrow. They are very heavy and clumsy on land because their legs are well to the back of their body. Their tail is short and rounded. They range in size from 41 to 43 centimetres and weigh about 500 grams.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Mutton birds are actually short-tailed shearwaters, one of many shearwaters that breed in Australia. They travel in a migratory loop north each summer to the krill rich areas of the Arctic Circle. They are called mutton birds because they are very meaty. Someone once described them as a “flying sheep”. In some parts of Australia they are still harvested for their feathers, meat and oil.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

Huge swarms of birds can contain up to thousands of individuals. Millions of birds do the actual journey every year.

. te

No one fully understands how migratory seabirds navigate their way each year. It could be by smell, magnetic sensors or totally instinctive behaviour.

m . u

The baby chick is fed and cared for by both parents in a nesting burrow in a colony for several months. By the time the parents leave on their journey the chick is larger than they are. Then the chick waits one month, strengthening its wings and living off deposits of fat before it leaves.

o c . che e r o t r s super

37


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Theme 7

Mr Mr.. Mutton’s Flight Schedule

Word Study

Vocabulary Write down five words (adjectives) to describe parts of a short-tailed shearwater: _________________________________

________________________________

_________________________________

________________________________

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u Compound Words and Hyphenation S

Teac he r

_________________________________

ew i ev Pr

Some words are joined together to form a new word without a hyphen. For example: lookout, without, meantime. Other words join together with a hyphen. For example: take-off, short-tailed. Join these words with a hyphen to a word from the list below to create a new word: seeking bomb headed suffering confident off

dive ______________________________

lift _________________________

hot _______________________________

self ________________________

thrill ______________________________

long _______________________

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Crossword – Mr Mutton

A plan for an event or an activity A baby bird To make something stronger In a circle

w ww

1. 2. 4. 6.

Down

. te

m . u

Across

o c . che e r o t r s super

1. Beneath the surface of the water 3. Microscopic shrimp like animals living in the ocean 4. To fly down to attack 5. Something dangerous

Adverbs Adverbs are words which add meaning to a verb and usually end in –ly. For example: The bird stretched his wings CAREFULLY before take-off. Add –ly to make these words into adverbs and write a sentence using each one: (Use the back of this sheet.) hazardous ____________________________

approximate _____________________________

important ____________________________

rigid ____________________________________

38


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Theme 7

Mr Mr.. Mutton’s Flight Schedule

Comprehension

Understanding the Text How long does the journey take from Phillip Island to the Bering Sea? _____________________________________________________________________________________

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

How far does the short-tailed shearwater fly from Phillip Island to the Bering Sea and back again? _____________________________________________________________________________________ What does the short-tailed shearwater eat when it arrives in the Bering Sea?

Teac he r

_____________________________________________________________________________________

ew i ev Pr

Where does the short-tailed shearwater lay its eggs?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

What theories are there about the way the short-tailed shearwater migrates?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

True or False

Short-tailed shearwaters are made of mutton.

True

False

True

False

Short-tailed shearwaters weigh half a kilogram.

True

False

The diet of the short-tailed shearwater is mostly sheep.

True

False

Short-tailed shearwater parents fly away on their annual migration before their children.

True

False

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

The journey taken by the short-tailed shearwater has several stopovers.

w ww

Abundant means: a) plentiful

b) not much

c) a bundle

m . u

Multiple Choice d) fish

Shearwaters prepare for their flight by: a) swooping down b) exercising their wing muscles c) waiting for their flight feathers d) facing into the wind

. te

o c . c e her r Animal Fun o t s super

When short-tailed shearwaters plunge-dive they can reach depths of: a) 1 metre b) 100 metres c) 10 metres

d)10 centimetres

Design a template for a short-tailed shearwater to create a mobile of birds to hang in the classroom. In your own words write the meaning of the word migration. In a short paragraph write what difficulties the young short-tailed shearwater experiences on its first migration. Draw the life cycle of a short-tailed shearwater showing the steps of growing up and growing old.

39


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Theme 7

Mr Mr.. Mutton’s Flight Schedule

Reflection

Reflection on Animal Survival Write a yearly planner for a short-tailed shearwater’s migration. January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

Why do animals migrate?

ew i ev Pr

______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________

No one is certain how birds navigate their way from one place to another. Decide which theory you think is right and say why it is the most likely explanation. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Why is survival of the young short-tailed shearwater so remarkable?

______________________________________________________________________________________ The scientific name for the short-tailed shearwater is Puffinus tenuirostrum (tenui = slender, rostrum = bill). It is called a shearwater because of the way its wings “shear” through the water. Why do you think it is sometimes called a “wanderer of the sea”?

w ww

m . u

______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ Search the library (or the Internet) to find information about other animals which migrate. Select one.

. te

Where do they migrate? Why? How far do they travel?

HINT:

o c . che e r o t r s s r u e p Letter Writing

________________________________________________________

See these webpages:

________________________________________________________

www.parks.tas.gov.au/ wildlife/birds/muttbird.html

________________________________________________________

Write a letter from an adult short-tailed shearwater to a young short-tailed shearwater saying farewell and giving advice about the first migration.

Creative Writing Write a travel schedule for another migrating animal using the text as a model. Include things like arrival and departure times, preparation for the journey, advice, travel warnings and so on. (E.g. whale, shark, turtle, albatross, etc.) 40


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Theme 8

Green Turtle’s SOS

SOS! HELP ME!

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S *

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ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

If you receive this message please do something! I am a little green turtle and my life is at risk. My family is dying out because … well, because of many things. Humans want to eat my eggs and me; the sea around here is starting to look very dirty and my home, the Great Barrier Reef, is being destroyed. Some humans leave their nets and craypots littering the ocean floor and I might get stuck. What is a green turtle to do? The worse thing of all is all those plastic bags. Don’t you know it is very hard for a green turtle to tell the difference between a plastic bag and a jellyfish? * * * * *

she crawled up onto the beach and dug a huge hole in the soft sand. Sliding over the top of the hole and concentrating hard she laid over one hundred eggs. Then very studiously she dragged flipperfuls of sand over the top to protect us from predators – like pesky dogs, swooping seabirds, crispy crabs and hungry humans. Some humans like to make us into a delicious pancake or scrambled eggs! Mum crawled back into the sea as she has done before and hopes to do again every few years for the next fifty years. *

*

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In my cosy egg I wriggled and grew. Two months later I was ready to crack my way out. It took a few days to clamber up to the surface. Then I faced the most dangerous journey of my life – the hundred-metre waddle down to the water’s edge. I knew which way to drag myself by the light reflecting off the water. Like a clockwork tortoise I scuttled towards the comparative safety of the sea. Only by a supreme effort and good fortune did I survive the hazardous journey, escaping past dogs, crabs and seabirds all looking for a crunchy snack of baby turtle. I was ready to begin my life as a marine reptile in the beautiful seas around the Great Barrier Reef.

*

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w ww

I was born, or should I say I was hatched, with a hundred of my brothers and sisters at the most beautiful nesting beach in the world (I think so anyway) at a place called Bountiful Island in the Great Barrier Reef.

. te *

*

m . u

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

I am one of only four marine reptiles including sea snakes, marine lizards and saltwater crocodiles. Just like you I breathe air. But I also need fresh food to eat and clean seas to swim in.

o c . che e r o t r s super

*

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*

It was a big event when my mother laid my egg – she cried saltwater tears that night. By the light of a silver-white moon

*

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When I reached the water I swam as hard and fast as I could towards the bottom of the ocean. It was lucky that I survived some crabs and a school of fish. And I skirted a menacing shark. But with all the problems caused by humans my life will not be easy. *

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* 41


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Theme 8

Green Turtle’s SOS

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Suggestions by little green turtle on how you can help him and his friends:

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S *

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*

One day, thirty to fifty years from now, I hope that I can return to the beach where I was born and lay my own eggs. I guess I will have to wait a while. In the meantime I will just continue breathing, snapping at delicious grass and swimming lazily around.

Please don’t let animals near my family nesting beaches. When you are at the beach don’t throw away old fishing lines, nets or plastic.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

I love my dinner of shellfish and jellyfish. Sometimes I graze on pastures of seagrass and coral reefs rich with seaweed. When I grow up to a fully-sized adult – that is, if I make it – I will become a vegetarian and only eat algae, seaweed and eelgrass. I have a serrated jaw that helps me to chew my food well. My shell is a beautiful pea green and my flippers are rounded and extremely useful for all sorts of things.

Please don’t make too much noise near my sandy beaches when I am nesting. Help my friends to escape from trawl nets if you find they are stuck.

Please protect our coral reefs, © ReadyEdPu bl i c aand t i o n s seagrass beds our nesting * * * * * beaches from destruction. or v i ew ur p ose s onl y• So please• helpf save mer –e you must. I wantp

. te

o c . che e r o t r s super

SOS – SAVE OUR SHELLS! Signed: a little green turtle. *

42

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When you are out boating look out for my friends and me and don’t crash into us!

m . u

w ww

to live to be one hundred at least. But if humans keep killing us off, polluting our water, littering our migration path with fishing nets and destroying our habitat, we’ll all die! I just hope you get this message in time before it is too late. Believe me my life is endangered and I am already listed as vulnerable. I would hate to lose all my relatives and then I would be extinct!

*

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Theme 8

Green T urtle’s S OS Turtle’s SOS

Word Study

Vocabulary

Many words have a similar base word and by adding a suffix they become a different part of speech. For example: with the verb to pollute, take away the “e”, and add –ion and you have pollution – the noun. Add –ion to these words to make them into nouns.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

prosecute ____________________________

regulate _________________________

populate _____________________________

nominate ________________________

create _______________________________

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

pollute __________________________

Abbreviations

SOS does not mean “Save Our Shells”. What are some other meanings it could have besides “Save Our Souls” or “Save Our Ship”? Many words are written as abbreviations using the first letter of each word as a capital letter. Useful for text messaging too! Write down the meaning of these abbreviations:

ASAP = _________________________________

LOL = ___________________________________

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Choose the word the •f o rcorrect r evi e wwhich pufits r p osentence: sesonl y•

DOB = ___________________________________

IMHO = ________________________________

FYI = ____________________________________

w ww

Baby turtles get attacked by dogs/hogs. Dogs and seagulls are predators/prey of the baby turtles. The mother turtle lays/lies her eggs in the hole she has digged/dug in the sand. Not many baby turtles survive/survivor the trip. A menacing shark staked/stalked the baby turtle. A turtle has a serrated/striated jaw. In his cosy egg the green turtle riggled/wriggled and grew.

. te

Antonyms

m . u

VIP = __________________________________

o c . che e r o t r s super

Find the word in the text which means the opposite to: creating = ________________________________

cleaning up = ______________________________

squared = ________________________________

freshwater = _______________________________

died = ___________________________________

safe = ____________________________________

Spelling Put a line through the word which is spelt wrongly and write the correct spelling. • Baby turtles can be attacked by sherks. ____________ • They cannot breath underwater. __________ • Their behavure is unusual for a reptile. _____________ • The turtle grazes on seeweed. ____________ • The mother turtle returns to the place where she was burn to lay her eggs. ______________________ 43


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Theme 8

Green T urtle’s S OS Turtle’s SOS

Comprehension

Understanding the Text Which predators prey on turtles? ____________________________________________________________________________________

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

What does a green turtle live on when it is young? When it is an adult?

____________________________________________________________________________________ When the green turtle hatched out of the egg, how did it know which way to crawl?

____________________________________________________________________________________

Teac he r

How old does a female turtle have to be before she starts laying her eggs?

ew i ev Pr

____________________________________________________________________________________

What type of pollution and garbage will affect or kill a turtle?

____________________________________________________________________________________

Name three other marine reptiles.

____________________________________________________________________________________

Multiple Choice

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Turtles lay their eggs: •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Green turtles are: a) reptiles

b) mammals

a) in a different place every year b) in the ocean

c) predators

d) invertebrates

c) on top of the sand d) in a hole in the sand

These things are not dangerous to turtles: b) dogs

c) nets

d) algae

m . u

a) plastic

w ww

Animal Fun

Describe the life cycle of a female green turtle.

. te

Draw a turtle laying her eggs in the sand.

________________________________________

o c . che e r o t r s super

________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________

Draw a diagram to show the year of an adult turtle.

Draw a food chain for a turtle

What are the advantages and disadvantages of laying eggs on the beach? ________________________________________

44

Design a poster warning fisherman to make sure they clean up their plastic bags, fishing lines and water bottles. Your poster can be suitable for placing at the end of a jetty where boats depart and fisherman may fish.


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Theme 8

Green T urtle’s S OS Turtle’s SOS

Reflection

Reflection on Animal Survival A green turtle’s life is affected by environmental damages such as pollution. Create a mind map on pollution. Start with four keywords: Types, Causes, Effects, and Solutions.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

POLLUTION

List other endangered species of reptiles.

____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________

What are the special features of this turtle in terms of behaviour?

____________________________________________________________________________________

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

____________________________________________________________________________________

Why is it important to protect the habitat of the nesting sites for green turtles?

____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________

m . u

Write a catch phrase or slogan to remind people to take care of the environment and not to throw away reusable containers. For example: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle.

w ww

____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________

. te

o c . che e r o t r s super

Creative Writing

Write an SOS or message in a bottle for another animal which is endangered or threatened. E.g. humpback whale, spectacle hare wallaby, etc. Include the dangers it is facing, why it is close to extinction, what is special about this species, etc.

Report Writing Create a campaign on how to save the green turtle and preserve its environment. Write a report of recommendations on what can be done.

HINT:

See these webpages: www.australianwildlife.org/ specieslists.asp

HINT: Find out more about green turtles on this webpage: www.deh.gov.au/cgi-bin/sprat/public/ publicspecies.pl?taxon_id=1765

45


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Theme 9

I’m a Little Devil

Marsupials, like me, are very unusual animals – we have babies but instead of carrying them around in our hands, or leaving them in the nest, we have a pouch to keep them safe for the first months. Our pouch faces backwards. Up to 40 babies are born and crawl to one of four teats in the pouch. Only the four strongest survive the journey. They stay in the pouch for 15 weeks but Mum feeds them for two months longer.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

* * * * *

I am unusual because my species is the largest surviving carnivorous marsupial in the world. Carnivorous means “flesh eating” – except we not only like flesh, we also eat bones, fur, feet and skin. We crunch moths, tadpoles, frogs, birds, reptiles, snakes, wallabies, wombats, platypuses and even echidnas – spines and all! We don’t mind rotting corpses, so we love road kill – animals which are killed on the road by cars speeding along. The pressure from our jaws is the strongest of any animal in the world and is four times stronger than a dog of the same size.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

I am as black as the night and I give an eerie growl. I have a very bad temper and I look like a cross between a wolf and a black cat. I live in only one place in the world – the island of Tasmania, off the coast of Australia. The early European settlers to Tasmania called me a “devil” because they heard my bloodcurdling screech in the night and they saw my wide mouth and sharp teeth. I am called a Tasmanian devil. But you’ll have to decide for yourself if I am really a devil.

* * * * *

We weigh up to 12 kilograms and stand about a foot high at the shoulder (30 centimetres). Usually we trot but, if we are in a hurry, we can travel faster at a gallop. Only our young can climb trees. (They like to escape from the “oldies”.)

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

We are black all over with some white striping on our back and chest, and a short, thick tail. We have a pointy snout like a dog’s, large ears and beady eyes. To make up for our poor eyesight, our sense of smell is fabulous – we can smell blood one kilometre away making it easy for us to find a dead or injured animal. Also we can hear the sound of another devil munching five kilometres away.

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* * * * *

o c . che e r o t r s super

* * * * *

* * * * * Our natural habitat is dry bush land, scrubland or rainforest from the coast to the mountains – anywhere we can hide. 46


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Theme 9

I’m a Little Devil More Facts About Tasmanian Devils

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

* * * * *

We travel alone but we are forced to share our food with other devils because we need help to tear the meat, bones and skin apart. When we find dinner on the road we share it according to a pecking order. If one devil is the strongest, he gets the best food; as you get lower in the order you are not as strong and not as well fed.

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Teac he r

We spend the day in a hollow log or a cave or the old burrows made by wombats lined with grass and leaves. (A wombat is another Australian marsupial rather like a small, muscular bear with very short legs.) At night we hunt. Sometimes we enjoy lying in the sun … but only if we feel safe.

The scientific name for the Tasmanian devil is Sarcophilus harrissi. Sarcophilus means “meat lover” and Harris is the name of the man who first described the devils.

© ReadyEdPub l i ca t i o nonsthe Tasmanian devils lived mainland of Australia at one time, •f orr evi ew pur po eso nl ythey • buts scientists believe that

You can come to visit us in wildlife reserves where scientists breed us to study our behaviour. Tourists love to see our super-wide mouth and hear our snarls, barks and screams. You’ll enjoy seeing a cute baby Tasmanian devil. But beware of its sharp teeth and its gleaming eye as it looks for its supper. Remember we are called little devils after all!

Tasmanian devils have no special status in regards to extinction because it is found widely throughout Tasmania. However, there is a new disease, something like a cancer, which is spreading through the population.

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were killed off by dingoes. Today Tasmanian devils are only found in Tasmania.

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* * * * *

o c . che e r o t r s super

* * * * *

47


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Theme 9

I’m a Little Devil

Word Study

Vocabulary Write definitions for these words: marsupial

_______________________________________________________________

r o e t s Bo r e p ok Match the word with its meaning u S

species

_______________________________________________________________

habitat

_______________________________________________________________

extinction

_______________________________________________________________

corpses

road kill

pecking order

bloodcurdling

reserve

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Teac he r

carnivorous

dead bodies

________________________________

scary

________________________________

safe sanctuary for wildlife

________________________________

order of importance

________________________________

flesh eating

________________________________

dead animals on the side of the road killed by cars

________________________________

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Words which appear to sound like the noise they are describing are called •f owords. rr e vi ew p ur p seso nl y•in onomatopoeic Onomatopoeic words areo sometimes called “sounds Onomatopoeic Words

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nature”. They may be nouns (objects, people or animals), or verbs (action words). For example buzz sounds like the sound of a saw; murmur sounds like a soft noise. Write sentences using these onomatopoeic words and an animal. E.g. The snake rattled away into the dense scrub. bark: ______________________________________________________________________________

screech: ____________________________________________________________________________

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bellow: ____________________________________________________________________________

o c . che e r o t r s super

clatter: _____________________________________________________________________________ clomp: _____________________________________________________________________________ gurgle: _____________________________________________________________________________ sizzle: _____________________________________________________________________________

Suffixes You can make new words when you add a suffix such as –ous or –tion to the end. For example: carnivore + ous = carnivorous (Note: you have to take off the –e before you add the ending.) Add the correct suffix to these words using – ous or -tion: herbivore _________________

danger _____________________

extinct __________________

populate __________________

moment____________________

pollute __________________

omnivore __________________

subtract ____________________

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Theme 9

I’m a Little Devil

Comprehension

Understanding the Text Where did the Tasmanian devil get its name from? ____________________________________________________________________________________ How strong is the jaw of a Tasmanian devil?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

____________________________________________________________________________________ Why do Tasmanian devils have to cooperate with each other?

____________________________________________________________________________________

Teac he r

What does a “pecking order” mean?

ew i ev Pr

____________________________________________________________________________________

Why do devil cubs climb trees?

____________________________________________________________________________________

Where are Tasmanian devils found?

____________________________________________________________________________________

How far away can Tasmanian devils hear? Smell?

____________________________________________________________________________________

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons How many baby Tasmanian devils survive the trip to the pouch? •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Multiple Choice

a) one

b) forty

c) four

d) none

Which animal does a Tasmanian devil’s snout look like? b) a dog’s

c) a kangaroo’s

What is the natural habitat for a Tasmanian devil?

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a) scrubland

b) desert

c) alpine

What type of animals are Tasmanian devils? a) monotremes

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Animal Fun

b) reptiles

c) dinosaurs

d) a platypus’

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a) a cat’s

d) the canopy of a rainforest d) marsupials

o c . che e r o t r s super

Create a healthy menu for a devil to eat in captivity. (Remember that the wildlife reserve has to be able to get the meat/food!)

Draw an animal with powerful jaws.

_________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________

How could powerful jaws help your fantasy animal to survive? _________________________________________ _________________________________________

49


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Theme 9

I’m a Little Devil

Reflection

Tasmanian devils are called scavengers because they eat dead animals. Design a poster asking drivers to look out for wildlife on the roadside, to drive safely and to remove dead animals from the road so that Tasmanian devils don’t get hit too.

Reflection on Animal Survival

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S STRATEGIES FOR PRESERVATION

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Teac he r

Besides the dangers of being run over by cars and destruction to its habitat, Tasmanian devils have diseases. What can be done to preserve the Tasmanian devil? Create a mind map of possible preservation strategies.

Animal Classification

Use these definitions to classify the animals below.

A mammal is an animal which has fur, a backbone and four limbs. It gives birth to fully-formed babies which feed on their mother’s milk. A marsupial is a type of mammal which has a pouch to carry its young in. A monotreme is a type of mammal which lays eggs instead of giving birth to fully-formed babies.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

wombat = ____________________________

human = ___________________________________

Tasmanian devil = ______________________

cat = ______________________________________

platypus = ____________________________

kangaroo = _________________________________

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Marsupials usually have pouches for their babies.

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echidna = _____________________________

What are the advantages and disadvantages of having a pouch?

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ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

o c . che e r o t r s super Letter Writing HINT:

Write away to someone to find out more information about Australian endangered species.

Report Writing Write a scientific formal report on the Tasmanian devil. Don’t forget to include: •Classification •Description •Habitat •Diet •Predators 50

See these webpages: www.wilderness.org.au HINT:

Find out more on this webpage: www.parks.tas.gov.au/wildlife/ mammals/devil.html


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Theme 10

Baby Bottlenose Lesson

Good morning, babies. Welcome to your first lesson on how to be a bottlenose dolphin. As you know, our home is the pleasant waters off the coast of Queensland, at Tangalooma, where you have your dolphin pod to love and support you.

breathe air. To keep our body warm we have to make our own body heat. So we are warm blooded, like other mammals such as humans. Being mammals also means we suck milk from our mothers.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

* * * * *

Bottlenose is a silly name to give dolphins like us. It is our mouth which is shaped like a bottle not our noses! Having a big mouth is a good thing because it looks like we are smiling. Another species you will learn about, the humans, gave us this name. Humans have not been on this earth as long as we have. You must learn to be patient with them even when they pet you. They like to swim with us and clap like crazy when we do our exercises.

We are lucky too that we don’t have the furry look like humans have. Though we are born with hair, we lose it shortly after birth. Besides, long hair would weigh us down in the water. Instead, we are smooth and sleek to help us glide through the water. A layer of blubber under our skin helps to keep us warm.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

* * * * *

© ReadyEdPubl i ca t i ons * * * * * •f orr evi ew puYou r p osesonl y• are already excellent swimmers. It

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For a long time humans thought that we were fish. Can you believe that? We are no more fish than the orca or the whale. We do not come from eggs, for we are born fully-formed. Nor do we have gills, we

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* * * * *

was lucky you could swim so fast the day you were born. Other dolphins helped you to the surface, where you took your first breath with a gulp and a gurgle. When you grow up you will be able to stay underwater for half an hour. Imagine that!

o c . che e r o t r s super * * * * *

51


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Theme 10

Baby Bottlenose Lesson That is the end of your first lesson in being a bottlenose dolphin. Look out for pollution, avoid rough waters, and stay close to your parents. * * * * * What would you like to practise today? How about dive bombing?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok More Facts About u Dolphins S

* * * * *

Dolphins are born with the ability to use sonar. We send out signals as a series of clicks from our blowholes or nasal passages. As the signals bounce off different objects, we hear them and then create a sound picture of our environment. At first you won’t know the difference between a rock and a shark but you will have to learn this quickly or you might be eaten for breakfast!

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Teac he r

Soon you will have lessons on how to leap, dive and catch waves. You will be able to fly through the air and paddle backwards on water just like your parents. Did you know our kick is so clever and so strong Olympic swimmers copy us in one of their races? Their arms may move like a butterfly but their feet are imitating our kicks which propel us so fast through the water. (Aren’t they silly to call it the butterfly stroke? They should call it the dolphin stroke.)

Dolphins are one of the most intelligent species on Earth, able to learn tricks, to communicate and to use tools. Dolphins sometimes beach themselves. Mass strandings of dolphins have happened in many places around the world but no one has yet discovered why this happens.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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The most important thing to learn is your name whistle. It is your signature to tell others where you are. If you ever get lost you only have to sing your whistle and other dolphins will swim to rescue you. You will also have to memorise many clicks and clacks in order to communicate with others.

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o c . che e r o t r s super

* * * * *

Lastly, you will have to learn to identify every dolphin in the pod and remember the proper way to behave with each one. You must learn how to show respect for older dolphins by an open mouth or clapping your jaws. * * * * * 52

Bottlenose dolphins are about one metre long when they are born and grow to be between two and four metres.

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* * * * *

Tangalooma is an Aboriginal word meaning “fish meeting place”.

Like humans when young, bottlenose dolphins have to learn how to behave from their elders. A calf will stay with its mother for up to six years.


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Theme 10

Baby Bottlenose Lesson

Word Study

Vocabulary Add –ing and –ed to the end of these verbs. Don’t forget the rule to take off the “e” before you add -ing and -ed. imitate help dive paddle love

____________________________

__________________________

____________________________

__________________________

____________________________

__________________________

____________________________

__________________________

____________________________

__________________________

____________________________

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Match these words with their meaning •blubber •species •mammal •sonar

______________ the use of sound waves to detect objects underwater ______________ a layer of fat underneath your skin to keep you warm.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

behave

__________________________

______________ a group of related organisms that share the same form and can breed with each other.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Collective Nouns • f o r r evi ew pur posesonl y• A group of dolphins is called a pod. It can also be called a herd or a school. Look

______________ a warm blooded animal with a backbone which grows hair on its skin and makes milk for its babies.

at these collective nouns for other sea creatures: school school school school

pod pod run shiver

herd herd shoal

m . u

w ww

. te

dolphins whales fish sharks

Write four sentences using one of the collective nouns with each of the species of marine animals above.

o c . che e r o t r s s r u e p Compound Words

_____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________

Some words are made up of two other words joined together. For example: butter + fly = butterfly. Match these words to create new words: line

water

bone

holes

wheel

blow ____________________________

hair __________________________________

under ____________________________

paddle ________________________________

back _____________________________

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Theme 10

Baby Bottlenose Lesson

Comprehension

Understanding the Text How do dolphins find their way around underwater? ____________________________________________________________________________________

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

What does a dolphin do when it is lost?

____________________________________________________________________________________ What noises do dolphins make? Why?

____________________________________________________________________________________

Teac he r

What is wrong with long hair for dolphins? How long can dolphins stay underwater?

ew i ev Pr

____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________

What’s special about the way a dolphin kicks?

____________________________________________________________________________________

In your own words, what is the difference between land mammals and sea mammals?

____________________________________________________________________________________

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f o rr evi ew pur posesonl y• Multiple Choice

What type of animals are orca and whales?

____________________________________________________________________________________

What type of animals are dolphins? b) fish

c) reptiles

d) jelly blubbers

c) to eat their food

d) to send out signals

c) music player

d) a spaceship

w ww

Why do dolphins clap their jaws? a) to talk

b) to show respect

What is a pod?

. te

a) a group of dolphins

b) seed holder

o c . che e r o t r s super

What do dolphins have under their skin? a) gills

b) long hair

Animal Fun

m . u

a) mammals

c) blubber

d) supersonic hearing

Mammals are born with the ability to suck milk. List some of the behaviours of the dolphin and divide them into those which have been learned and those which are inborn (i.e. they can do as soon as they are born). Do the same for human babies. (HINT: Think about yourself as a baby or a baby you know.) LEARNED Dolphins Humans

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INBORN


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Theme 10

Baby Bottlenose Lesson

Reflection

Draw a dolphin mother and baby flying out of the water.

Draw yourself doing dolphin stroke.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u ReflectionS on Animal Survival (1)

List about other mammals which have blubber.

______________________________________________

Teac he r

______________________________________________

ew i ev Pr

Cold blooded animals like fish stay at the temperature of their environment, whereas warm blooded animals like dolphins and humans are able to control their temperature to within a few degrees. Warm blooded animals pump blood around the body to stay warm. What are the advantages and the disadvantages of being warm blooded? ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f or evi e w pu posesonl y• Reflection onr Animal Survival (2)r

What are some of the things which dolphins can do? Which of these characteristics help it to be a great survivor?

w ww

Dolphin stroke

HOW IT HELPS DOLPHINS TO SURVIVE

m . u

CHARACTERISTIC

Helps to swim fast, change direction quickly and escape from predators

. teWriting o Creative c . che e r o t r s super

Write a lesson for another favourite animal. Try to include things in answer to the following questions: What does a young animal have to learn to protect itself? How does it communicate? What is the first thing it does when it is born? Who looks after it? How does it get food? How old is it before it can look after itself?

Diary Writing Write a diary from the point of view of a young dolphin. You can start something like this: Another boring day at school today. Mum rushed me there and I barely had time to drink my breakfast …

HINT: Find out more on this webpage: animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/ index.html www.zoo.nsw.gov.au/

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Answers

Theme 1

If Only I Could Fly

Word Study (Page 8) Synonyms Not able to fly = flightless Being the only one of its kind = unique A long narrow opening or crack = crevice Opposition between two conflicting ideas = contradiction An animal which eats another animal for food = prey Phasmid Find-a-Word N S S R O T S E C N A J R

S C T U P M P V T R R M V

S O R F E A R Y Z O E F I

E W A E P O O J R T M S V

L T S W V P T R N A H L A

Teac he r

S H I P W R E C K X M C U

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S T E E J D I E J A D M Y L

H E Y C T R C T R E Y I M

G U F M H B T E F R P F D

I Q S P E C I E S P S H Y

L N D D Z T O G W T B C T

F S C T F U N I Q U E D B

Spelling •Survivor, •teacher, •explorer, •ancestor, •developer, •creator. Comprehension (Page 9) Understanding the Text What caused the phasmid to die out? The Lord Howe Island phasmid did not have any predators until the arrival of rats on board a ship which wrecked close to the islands where they lived. Rats ate so many phasmids that they nearly died out. How do you think it managed to survive? The few specimens managed to survive because their island was shaped like a pyramid and they were hidden so well in the crevices of the rock face. Why was it so hard for the scientists to find the Lord Howe Island phasmid? It was hard to find the Lord Howe Island phasmid because the insects lived on the steep sided rock face of a rock pyramid and only came out of their hidden crevices at night.

Theme 3

ew i ev Pr

D A D O J F V H K E J X S

leaves into their mouths to chew. What does a giraffe use its tail for? A giraffe uses its tail to shoo away flies. How are giraffe vertebrae different from human vertebrae? Giraffe vertebrae are different from human vertebrae because they are 30 centimetres long. How did the giraffe develop such a long neck? Giraffes with long necks can reach the highest branches and so survive better than shorter necks. Females choose the male partner with the longest and strongest necks to mate with and then she produces offspring with longer necks. True or False Giraffes are carnivores. F A baby giraffe can splay its legs. T A giraffe is born tail first. F A crèche is a baby giraffe. F Giraffes have strong necks. T

Gorilla Club Membership

Word Study (Page 18) Nouns and verbs A Mountain Gorilla stands up on two legs and pounds his chest. Sometimes he tucks in his lip and sticks out his tongue. He makes many noises such as grunts, roars, whines, chuckles and growls. His diet includes leaves, stems, herbs and vines. In the middle of the day the Mountain Gorilla takes a nap while the children play. Too many words when one word will do Person who looks after animals in a zoo = zookeeper A group of gorillas = band Place where animals are kept and looked after = zoo The oldest, strongest gorilla in the band = silverback Take care of young while their mother is away = baby-sit Alphabetical Order •Chuckle, •grunt, •howl, •pound, •roar, •run, •scream, •stand, •stare, •throw, •tuck, •whine. Syllables communication 5 ridge 1 primate 2 socialising 4 extinction 3 plant 1 souvenirs 3 survival 3 Suffixes •spreadable, •preventable, •changeable, •reasonable, •expandable, •suitable.

w ww

Theme 2

Giraffe Birth Notice

. te

Word Study (Page 13) Unscramble the letters •Graze, •splay, •thrilled, •blessed, •wobbly, •buff, •nursery. MYSTERY WORD NEWBORN GIRAFFE Comparatives light lighter lightest brave braver bravest high higher highest strong strong strongest loud louder loudest brown brown brownest sparse sparser sparsest

Comprehension (Page 19) Understanding the Text Where do mountain gorillas live? Mountain gorillas live in the remnants of mountain forest of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda and Uganda in Central Africa. What does the “silverback” do? The silverback is the leader of the band. He has to protect the members of the band, fight if necessary to keep his dominant position, and occasionally to baby-sit young gorillas. What are the acceptable forms of behaviour for mountain gorillas? It is acceptable for mountain gorillas to show signs of aggression such as pounding their breasts, standing upright on two legs, screaming, tucking in the lip, sticking out the tongue, running sideways, throwing objects and staring. Why are gorillas dying out? The habitat of the mountain gorilla is encroached on by humans who need more land for farms or for housing. Poachers kill them for their body parts. Some parts are eaten, and their hands and heads are sold as souvenirs. Where do mountain Gorillas sleep at night? Mountain gorillas sleep in a nest made out of branches of trees and spongy leaves.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Comprehension (Page 14) Understanding the Text Why don’t giraffes want others to know where their babies are born? Giraffes don’t want others to know where their babies are born because giraffe calves are vulnerable to attack while they are small and helpless. What animals threaten a baby giraffe? The animals which threaten a baby giraffe include lions, hyenas, African wild dogs and leopards. What food does a giraffe eat? Giraffes eat leaves, shoots, stems branches, flowers and vines. How does he eat it? They eat using their long tongue to grasp the

56

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•


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Answers

Theme 4

I Am Not a Vampire!

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Comprehension (Page 24) Understanding the Text How is the grey-headed flying fox different from a vampire? A greyheaded flying fox does not drink, suck or eat blood. It is perfectly harmless. A vampire sucks blood and leaves its victim to die. What does a grey-headed flying fox eat? Grey-headed flying foxes eat seeds, fruit, the nectar and pollen of flowers, and sometimes leaves. Where does the word “bat” come from? The word for bat comes from the old Norse word Ledhrblaka meaning “leather flapper”. How does a grey-headed flying fox look after its babies? A grey-headed flying fox looks after its babies by keeping them under her armpit. In your own words write the meaning of the word roost. To “roost” means to settle down in a place to rest. Why is it not a good idea to handle bats? It is dangerous to handle bats because they may have a virus or other disease which is communicable to humans. True or False The web of life is a spider’s web. F A grey-headed flying fox eats fruit. T Bats are birds with leather instead of wings. F All bats are colour-blind. F Nocturnal means stays awake at night. T

Comprehension (Page 29) Understanding the Text What is a brood pouch? A brood pouch is a special fold of skin which keeps the egg warm. How long does the father Emperor penguin nurse the egg before it hatches? The father Emperor penguin nurses the egg for 65 days. Make up questions to go with these answers: •Emperor penguins live only in Antarctica on the polar ice cap. Where do Emperor penguins live? •Father penguins have a brood pouch to keep the egg warm. How does the father penguin keep the egg from dying? •Penguins use their wings to swim in water, not to fly. How are penguins different from other birds? •The father penguin has to travel 80 kilometres to find food. How far does the father penguin have to travel to find food? True or False Penguins live on land. F Penguin chicks are eaten by petrels. T Blubber is a layer of fat under the skin to keep warm. T Emperor penguins are monotremes like platypus because they lay eggs. F Penguin fathers feed their chicks penguin milk. T

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Word Study (Page 23) Vocabulary - Misprints I am not a vampire! My wings are made of a stretched membrane like leather. I take care of my babies under my armpit. I live in a dark cave. The bones of a batwing are similar to the bones of the hand in other animals. Baby Names •Crow = chick, •dinosaur = hatchling or juvenile, •elephant = calf, •kangaroo= joey, •skunk= kit, •gorilla = infant, •horse = foal. Synonyms •Sleeps during the day: nocturnal, •A tree with flowers: flowering tree, •Sounds beyond the range of the human ear: supersonic sounds, •Cause seeds to develop inside a flower: pollinate.

Unjumble the Words •Toboggan, •dive, •spiral, •incubate, •steal, •starve, •swim Find the Right Word Stayed cosy and warm in the brood pouch. Lived in a huddle for 65 days. Born with downy feathers and fin-like wings. Is able to swim in the ocean and toboggan across the ice. Suffixes •legless; •childless; •fearful ; •flightles; •stressful; •wireless; •useless; •blissful; •cordless; •harmful.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

. te

Dear Dad

I W P W M X N L O F T F J O

U F T Q S A A V H R H X B Q

G W H N G V J A G X E V P W

N H U J I F U C F V F P W F

E Q E V X Z A I Q Q Q B M H

P N R D Q H J T J J J H V E

S U V A F W Z C H E E J B V

Word Study (Page 33) Collective Nouns •Band of gorillas, •swarm of bees, •murder of crows, •band of monkeys, •herd of elephants, •gaggle of geese, •rookery of penguins. Unjumble the Letters •Essential, •desirable, •requirements, •significant, •involvement, •description, •defence. Definitions The outside boundary of the territory = border Decide which thing is the best to do = weigh up The cubs of an animal born at the same time = litter Cruelty or showing no pity = ruthless Superior ability, strength and cunning = prowess Blueprint or code of life = genes Verbs •eat/ate, •produce/produced, •urinate/urinated, •demonstrate/ demonstrated, •send/sent, •lounge/lounged, •communicate/ communicated, •keep/kept.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Word Study (Page 28) Vocabulary - Antarctica Word Search solution N M R G W D L R T S S O B V

Job For Lion With Pride

m . u

w ww

Theme 5

Theme 6

S G A W L G Q R E E D C E E

R E H T O M B A D D R M C G

G M U Z N E W T Q L Q B X T

T O B O G G A N X V X Y B S

G R Q U A D D A D O C J H G

Comprehension (Page 34) Understanding the Text How is the lion king different from the other male lions in the pride? The lion king is different from the other male lions because he is the largest, he has the longest, thickest ruff and he has the loudest baritone roar. Which animals do lions prey on? Lions prey on baby elephants, baby rhinos, zebras, gazelles, giraffes, antelope and wild hogs. How does a lion kill its prey? The females work together by one chasing the prey, and the others lying in wait. They outrun, wound or suffocate the animal.

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Theme 7

Theme 8

Green Turtle’s SOS

Word Study (Page 43) Vocabulary •pollution, •prosecution, •regulation, •population, •nomination, •creation. Abbreviations ASAP =as soon as possible, LOL laugh out loud, VIP = very important person, DOB = date of birth, IMHO = in my honest/ humble opinion, FYI = for your information. Choose the correct word which fits the sentence: Baby turtles get attacked by dogs. Dogs and seagulls are predators of the baby turtles. The mother turtle lays her eggs in the hole she has dug in the sand. Not many baby turtles survive the trip. A menacing shark stalked the turtle. A turtle has a serrated jaw. In his cosy egg the turtle wriggled and grew. Antonyms •Creating=destroying, •cleaning up=polluting, •squared=rounded, •freshwater=saltwater, •died=survived, •safe=hazardous. Spelling Baby turtles can be attacked by sherks. sharks They cannot breath underwater. breathe Their behavure is unusual for a reptile. behaviour The turtle grazes on seeweed. seaweed The mother turtle returns to the place where she was burn to lay her eggs. born

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Mr. Mutton’s Flight Schedule

Word Study (Page 38) Hyphenated words •Dive-bomb, •lift-off, •hot-headed, •self-confident, •thrillseeking, •long-suffering. Crossword Across: 1. a plan for an event or an activity= schedule. 2. a baby bird = chick. 4. to make something stronger = strengthen. 6. in a circle = loop. Down: 1. Beneath the surface of the water = submerged. 3. Microscopic shrimp like animals living in the ocean = krill. 4. To fly down to attack = swoop. 5. Something dangerous = hazard. Adverbs •Hazardously, •approximately, •importantly, •rigidly.

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Why do females work together when killing? They work together because it takes a lot of energy to catch an animal. How do we know that lions can count? When two groups meet inside a territory, if they are outnumbered, the smaller group backs down. Why does a lion king kill the cubs of the king of another lion pride? A lion king will kill the cubs of another lion so that the female becomes ready to breed more quickly and will have another litter of cubs sooner. The new king gets to pass on his superior genes to the next generation that he would rather look after anyway. Why do lions roar? Lions roar to reassure the females of the pride, to communicate with each other and to show that they are the most dominant lion around. Multiple Choice Lions kill: c. every few days. The lion king: a. has the thickest ruff . Lions communicate with: b. grunts, groans and roars.

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Understanding the Text How long does the journey take from Phillip Island to the Bering Sea? The journey takes six to seven weeks. How far does the short-tailed shearwater fly from Phillip Island to the Bering Sea and back again? The short-tailed sShearwater flies about 35,000 kilometres. What does the short-tailed shearwater eat when it arrives in the Bering Sea? When it arrives in the Bering Sea, it feeds on krill. Where does the short-tailed shearwater lay its eggs? The short-tailed shearwater lays its eggs in a nesting burrow in a colony. What theories are there about the way the short-tailed shearwater migrates? Different theories about the way the short-tailed shearwater migrates are: it could be by smell, magnetic sensors or totally instinctive (inborn) behaviour. True or False Short-tailed shearwaters are made of mutton. F The journey taken by the short-tailed sShearwater has several stopovers. F Short-tailed shearwaters weigh half a kilogram. T The diet of the short-tailed shearwater is mostly sheep. F Short-tailed shearwater parents fly away on their annual migration before their children. T

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Comprehension (Page 39) Multiple Choice Abundant means: a. plentiful. Shearwaters prepare for their flight by: b. exercising their wing muscles. When Short-tailed Shearwaters plunge-dive they can reach depths of: c.10m.

Comprehension (Page 44) Understanding the Text Which predators prey on turtles? Wild dogs, humans, crabs, sea birds, sea snakes, marine lizards and saltwater crocodiles all prey on turtles at different stages of their lives. What does a green turtle eat when it is young? When it is an adult? When a green turtle is young it lives on shellfish, jellyfish, seagrass and seaweed. When a green turtle is an adult it lives on algae, seaweed and eelgrass. When the green turtle hatched out of the egg, how did it know which way to crawl? The green turtle followed the reflecting light of the moon on the water. How old does a female turtle have to be before she starts laying her eggs? A female turtle has to be thirty to fifty years old before she starts laying eggs. What type of pollution and garbage will affect or kill a turtle? Plastic, old fishing lines, toxins, and poisons in the water will all affect the life of a turtle. Name three other marine reptiles. Marine reptiles fall into three major groups: crocodiles, marine turtles and sea snakes. Any member from these groups will be correct. Multiple Choice Green turtles are: a. reptiles. Turtles lay their eggs: d. in a hole in the sand. These things are not dangerous to turtles: d. algae. Match the animal with its classification: •Kangaroo=marsupial, •Wombat=marsupial, •Tasmanian Devil=marsupial, •Human=mammal, •Gorilla=mammal, •Cat=mammal,•Platypus=monotreme, •Echidna=monotreme.

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Answers

Theme 9

I’m a Little Devil

Word Study (Page 48) Vocabulary Marsupial = An animal in which the female has a pouch to hold the young until their development is complete. For example, kangaroo, opossums and sugar gliders. Species=a group of related living creatures or organisms with characteristics in common, which can interbreed. Habitat=the environment in which a particular species lives and survives. Extinction=the disappearance of a species from the earth forever.

Comprehension (Page 49) Understanding the Text Where did the Tasmanian devil get its name from? The Tasmanian devil was named by the early settlers in Tasmania because it made an eerie growl, it was black, and it had sharp teeth. How strong is the jaw of a Tasmanian devil? The jaw of a Tasmanian devil is the strongest of any animal in the world and four times stronger than a dog of the same size. Why do Tasmanian devils have to cooperate with each other? Tasmanian devils have to cooperate with each other because they need another animal to help them to tear the meat apart. What does a “pecking order” mean? A pecking order is the order of the animals from the strongest to the weakest. Why do devil cubs climb trees? Devil cubs climb trees to escape from the adult devils. Where are Tasmanian devils found? Tasmanian devils are found only in Tasmania. How far away can Tasmanian devils hear? Smell? Tasmanian devils can hear up to five kilometres away and smell blood about one kilometre away. Multiple Choice How many baby Tasmanian devils survive the trip to the pouch? c. four. Which animal does a Tasmanian devil’s snout look like? b. a dog’s.v What is the natural habitat for a Tasmanian devil? a. scrubland. What type of animals are Tasmanian devils? d. marsupials.

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Match the word with its meaning: •Carnivorous=flesh eating, •Corpses=dead bodies, •Pecking order=order of importance, •Bloodcurdling=scary, •Reserve=safe sanctuary for wildlife, •Road kill=dead animals on the side of the road killed by cars. Suffixes •herbivorous, •dangerous, •extinction, •population, •momentous, •pollution, •omnivorous, •subtraction.

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•Blowhole, •hairline, •underwater, •backbone, •paddlewheel. Comprehension (Page 54) Understanding the Text How do dolphins find their way around underwater? Dolphins use sonar to find their way around. They send out signals as a series of clicks from their blowholes or nasal passages. As the signals bounce off different objects, they “hear” them and then create a sound picture of the environment. What does a dolphin do when it is lost? If a dolphin is lost it makes a whistle which is its signature whistle meaning “come and find me”. What noises do dolphins make? Why? Dolphins make sounds like whistles, clicks and clacks to communicate with each other, and to give their signature whistle. What is wrong with long hair for dolphins? If dolphins had long hair it would slow them down when swimming through the water. How long can dolphins stay underwater? Adult dolphins can stay underwater for half an hour. What’s special about the way a dolphin kicks? Dolphin kicks are so powerful that they are the kicks imitated by humans in the butterfly stroke. In your own words, what is the difference between land mammals and sea mammals? Land mammals mostly survive living on the land. Although they may be able to swim they are not able to hold their breath under water for long periods of time. Sea mammals cannot survive on land for very long. They can hold their breath under water for long periods of time; they have fins instead of limbs and they cannot walk upright. What type of animals are orca and whales? Orca and whales are mammals.

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Theme 10

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Multiple Choice What type of animals are dolphins? a. mammals. Why do dolphins clap their jaws? b. to show respect. What is a pod? a. a group of dolphins. What do dolphins have under their skin? c. blubber.

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Baby Dolphin Lesson

Word Study (Page 53) Vocabulary Imitate imitating imitated Leap leaping leaped Dive diving dived Paddle paddling paddled Behave behaving behaved Love loving loved Matching words with their meaning: Blubber a layer of fat underneath your skin to keep you warm. Species a group of related organisms that share the same form and can breed with each other Mammal a warm blooded animal with a backbone which grows hair on its skin and makes milk for its babies Sonar the use of sound waves to detect objects underwater Compound Words

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Reading With Purpose: If Animals Could Talk